Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A process that changes the nucleotide sequence of mRNA from that of the DNA template encoding it. Some major classes of RNA editing are as follows: 1, the conversion of cytosine to uracil in mRNA; 2, the addition of variable number of guanines at pre-determined sites; and 3, the addition and deletion of uracils, templated by guide-RNAs (RNA, GUIDE).
The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.
The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).
The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.
RNA that has catalytic activity. The catalytic RNA sequence folds to form a complex surface that can function as an enzyme in reactions with itself and other molecules. It may function even in the absence of protein. There are numerous examples of RNA species that are acted upon by catalytic RNA, however the scope of this enzyme class is not limited to a particular type of substrate.
The processes of RNA tertiary structure formation.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.
Ribonucleic acid in fungi having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The extent to which an RNA molecule retains its structural integrity and resists degradation by RNASE, and base-catalyzed HYDROLYSIS, under changing in vivo or in vitro conditions.
RNA molecules which hybridize to complementary sequences in either RNA or DNA altering the function of the latter. Endogenous antisense RNAs function as regulators of gene expression by a variety of mechanisms. Synthetic antisense RNAs are used to effect the functioning of specific genes for investigative or therapeutic purposes.
A family of proteins that promote unwinding of RNA during splicing and translation.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Change in learning in one situation due to prior learning in another situation. The transfer can be positive (with second learning improved by first) or negative (where the reverse holds).
Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
RNA transcripts of the DNA that are in some unfinished stage of post-transcriptional processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL) required for function. RNA precursors may undergo several steps of RNA SPLICING during which the phosphodiester bonds at exon-intron boundaries are cleaved and the introns are excised. Consequently a new bond is formed between the ends of the exons. Resulting mature RNAs can then be used; for example, mature mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER) is used as a template for protein production.
Short chains of RNA (100-300 nucleotides long) that are abundant in the nucleus and usually complexed with proteins in snRNPs (RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL NUCLEAR). Many function in the processing of messenger RNA precursors. Others, the snoRNAs (RNA, SMALL NUCLEOLAR), are involved with the processing of ribosomal RNA precursors.
A type of FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY using two FLUORESCENT DYES with overlapping emission and absorption spectra, which is used to indicate proximity of labeled molecules. This technique is useful for studying interactions of molecules and PROTEIN FOLDING.
RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated RNAs they are not included in this scope.
Nucleic acid structures found on the 5' end of eukaryotic cellular and viral messenger RNA and some heterogeneous nuclear RNAs. These structures, which are positively charged, protect the above specified RNAs at their termini against attack by phosphatases and other nucleases and promote mRNA function at the level of initiation of translation. Analogs of the RNA caps (RNA CAP ANALOGS), which lack the positive charge, inhibit the initiation of protein synthesis.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Ribonucleic acid in protozoa having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Interfacility or intrahospital transfer of patients. Intrahospital transfer is usually to obtain a specific kind of care and interfacility transfer is usually for economic reasons as well as for the type of care provided.
A ubiquitous family of proteins that transport PHOSPHOLIPIDS such as PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL and PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE between membranes. They play an important role in phospholipid metabolism during vesicular transport and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
RNA present in neoplastic tissue.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of linear RNA to a circular form by the transfer of the 5'-phosphate to the 3'-hydroxyl terminus. It also catalyzes the covalent joining of two polyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage. EC 6.5.1.3.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Factor derived from leukocyte lysates of immune donors which can transfer both local and systemic cellular immunity to nonimmune recipients.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A large family of RNA helicases that share a common protein motif with the single letter amino acid sequence D-E-A-D (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp). In addition to RNA helicase activity, members of the DEAD-box family participate in other aspects of RNA metabolism and regulation of RNA function.
A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure where it transcribes DNA into RNA. It has specific requirements for cations and salt and has shown an intermediate sensitivity to alpha-amanitin in comparison to RNA polymerase I and II. EC 2.7.7.6.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Proteins that bind to and transfer CHOLESTEROL ESTERS between LIPOPROTEINS such as LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.
Methods of implanting a CELL NUCLEUS from a donor cell into an enucleated acceptor cell.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. The enzyme functions in the nucleolar structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salts than RNA polymerase II and III and is not inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.
RNA molecules found in the nucleus either associated with chromosomes or in the nucleoplasm.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Small kinetoplastid mitochondrial RNA that plays a major role in RNA EDITING. These molecules form perfect hybrids with edited mRNA sequences and possess nucleotide sequences at their 5'-ends that are complementary to the sequences of the mRNA's immediately downstream of the pre-edited regions.
Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 28S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Surgical procedure by which a tendon is incised at its insertion and placed at an anatomical site distant from the original insertion. The tendon remains attached at the point of origin and takes over the function of a muscle inactivated by trauma or disease.
Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
Constituent of 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 3200 nucleotides. 23S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.
The process of moving specific RNA molecules from one cellular compartment or region to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
The small RNAs which provide spliced leader sequences, SL1, SL2, SL3, SL4 and SL5 (short sequences which are joined to the 5' ends of pre-mRNAs by TRANS-SPLICING). They are found primarily in primitive eukaryotes (protozoans and nematodes).
Small, linear single-stranded RNA molecules functionally acting as molecular parasites of certain RNA plant viruses. Satellite RNAs exhibit four characteristic traits: (1) they require helper viruses to replicate; (2) they are unnecessary for the replication of helper viruses; (3) they are encapsidated in the coat protein of the helper virus; (4) they have no extensive sequence homology to the helper virus. Thus they differ from SATELLITE VIRUSES which encode their own coat protein, and from the genomic RNA; (=RNA, VIRAL); of satellite viruses. (From Maramorosch, Viroids and Satellites, 1991, p143)
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Ribonucleic acid in archaea having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A group of ribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A reaction that severs one of the sugar-phosphate linkages of the phosphodiester backbone of RNA. It is catalyzed enzymatically, chemically, or by radiation. Cleavage may be exonucleolytic, or endonucleolytic.
Intermediates in protein biosynthesis. The compounds are formed from amino acids, ATP and transfer RNA, a reaction catalyzed by aminoacyl tRNA synthetase. They are key compounds in the genetic translation process.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Nuclear nonribosomal RNA larger than about 1000 nucleotides, the mass of which is rapidly synthesized and degraded within the cell nucleus. Some heterogeneous nuclear RNA may be a precursor to mRNA. However, the great bulk of total hnRNA hybridizes with nuclear DNA rather than with mRNA.
Surgical reinnervation of a denervated peripheral target using a healthy donor nerve and/or its proximal stump. The direct connection is usually made to a healthy postlesional distal portion of a non-functioning nerve or implanted directly into denervated muscle or insensitive skin. Nerve sprouts will grow from the transferred nerve into the denervated elements and establish contact between them and the neurons that formerly controlled another area.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).
Short RNA, about 200 base pairs in length or shorter, that does not code for protein.
Small RNAs found in the cytoplasm usually complexed with proteins in scRNPs (RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL CYTOPLASMIC).
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Spread and adoption of inventions and techniques from one geographic area to another, from one discipline to another, or from one sector of the economy to another. For example, improvements in medical equipment may be transferred from industrial countries to developing countries, advances arising from aerospace engineering may be applied to equipment for persons with disabilities, and innovations in science arising from government research are made available to private enterprise.
The steps that generate the 3' ends of mature RNA molecules. For most mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), 3' end processing referred to as POLYADENYLATION includes the addition of POLY A.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying phenylalanine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying lysine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 5.8S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A class of untranslated RNA molecules that are typically greater than 200 nucleotides in length and do not code for proteins. Members of this class have been found to play roles in transcriptional regulation, post-transcriptional processing, CHROMATIN REMODELING, and in the epigenetic control of chromatin.
The techniques used to select and/or place only one embryo from FERTILIZATION IN VITRO into the uterine cavity to establish a singleton pregnancy.
Small nuclear RNAs that are involved in the processing of pre-ribosomal RNA in the nucleolus. Box C/D containing snoRNAs (U14, U15, U16, U20, U21 and U24-U63) direct site-specific methylation of various ribose moieties. Box H/ACA containing snoRNAs (E2, E3, U19, U23, and U64-U72) direct the conversion of specific uridines to pseudouridine. Site-specific cleavages resulting in the mature ribosomal RNAs are directed by snoRNAs U3, U8, U14, U22 and the snoRNA components of RNase MRP and RNase P.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
Synthetic transcripts of a specific DNA molecule or fragment, made by an in vitro transcription system. This cRNA can be labeled with radioactive uracil and then used as a probe. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A family of enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of RNA. It includes EC 3.1.26.-, EC 3.1.27.-, EC 3.1.30.-, and EC 3.1.31.-.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying tyrosine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
The formation of one or more genetically identical organisms derived by vegetative reproduction from a single cell. The source nuclear material can be embryo-derived, fetus-derived, or taken from an adult somatic cell.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Ribonucleic acid in chloroplasts having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying alanine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of single-stranded regions of DNA or RNA molecules while leaving the double-stranded regions intact. They are particularly useful in the laboratory for producing "blunt-ended" DNA molecules from DNA with single-stranded ends and for sensitive GENETIC TECHNIQUES such as NUCLEASE PROTECTION ASSAYS that involve the detection of single-stranded DNA and RNA.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying histidine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Ribonucleic acid in helminths having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying valine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying glycine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, which are dependent on a coinfection with helper adenoviruses or herpesviruses for their efficient replication. The type species is Adeno-associated virus 2.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying methionine to sites on the ribosomes. During initiation of protein synthesis, tRNA(f)Met in prokaryotic cells and tRNA(i)Met in eukaryotic cells binds to the start codon (CODON, INITIATOR).
The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
An enzyme catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of RNA at the 3'-position of a guanylate residue. EC 3.1.27.3.
Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.
The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.

Pseudouridine mapping in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae spliceosomal U small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) reveals that pseudouridine synthase pus1p exhibits a dual substrate specificity for U2 snRNA and tRNA. (1/5305)

Pseudouridine (Psi) residues were localized in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae spliceosomal U small nuclear RNAs (UsnRNAs) by using the chemical mapping method. In contrast to vertebrate UsnRNAs, S. cerevisiae UsnRNAs contain only a few Psi residues, which are located in segments involved in intermolecular RNA-RNA or RNA-protein interactions. At these positions, UsnRNAs are universally modified. When yeast mutants disrupted for one of the several pseudouridine synthase genes (PUS1, PUS2, PUS3, and PUS4) or depleted in rRNA-pseudouridine synthase Cbf5p were tested for UsnRNA Psi content, only the loss of the Pus1p activity was found to affect Psi formation in spliceosomal UsnRNAs. Indeed, Psi44 formation in U2 snRNA was abolished. By using purified Pus1p enzyme and in vitro-produced U2 snRNA, Pus1p is shown here to catalyze Psi44 formation in the S. cerevisiae U2 snRNA. Thus, Pus1p is the first UsnRNA pseudouridine synthase characterized so far which exhibits a dual substrate specificity, acting on both tRNAs and U2 snRNA. As depletion of rRNA-pseudouridine synthase Cbf5p had no effect on UsnRNA Psi content, formation of Psi residues in S. cerevisiae UsnRNAs is not dependent on the Cbf5p-snoRNA guided mechanism.  (+info)

A novel nucleotide incorporation activity implicated in the editing of mitochondrial transfer RNAs in Acanthamoeba castellanii. (2/5305)

In Acanthamoeba castellanii, most of the mtDNA-encoded tRNAs are edited by a process that replaces one or more of the first three nucleotides at their 5' ends. As a result, base pairing potential is restored at acceptor stem positions (1:72, 2:71, and/or 3:70, in standard tRNA nomenclature) that are mismatched according to the corresponding tRNA gene sequence. Here we describe a novel nucleotide incorporation activity, partially purified from A. castellanii mitochondria, that has properties implicating it in mitochondrial tRNA editing in this organism. This activity is able to replace nucleotides at the first three positions of a tRNA (positions 1, 2, and 3), matching the newly incorporated residues through canonical base pairing to the respective partner nucleotide in the 3' half of the acceptor stem. Labeling experiments with natural (Escherichia coli tRNATyr) and synthetic (run-off transcripts corresponding to A. castellanii mitochondrial tRNALeu1) substrates suggest that the nucleotide incorporation activity consists of at least two components, a 5' exonuclease or endonuclease and a template-directed 3'-to-5' nucleotidyltransferase. The nucleotidyltransferase component displays an ATP requirement and generates 5' pppN... termini in vitro. The development of an accurate and efficient in vitro system opens the way for detailed studies of the biochemical properties of this novel activity and its relationship to mitochondrial tRNA editing in A. castellanii. In addition, the system will allow delineation of the structural features in a tRNA that identify it as a substrate for the labeling activity.  (+info)

The biosynthesis of transfer RNA in insects. II. Isolation of transfer RNA precursors from the posterior silk gland of Bombyx mori. (3/5305)

The occurrence of precursors to tRNA in the post-polysomal fraction of the posterior silk gland of Bombyx mori was demonstrated by pulse-chase labeling and DNA-RNA hybridization competition experiments. These precursors had molecular sizes ranging from 4S to 5S on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Analysis of the incorporation of the methyl group from [methyl-14C]methionine revealed that a radioactive peak on polyacrylamide gel appeared in the 4.5S region during brief labeling. This suggested that some methylation occurred at the 4.5S precursor step.  (+info)

Purification and characterization of initiation factor IF-E2 from rabbit reticulocytes. (4/5305)

Initiation factor IF-E2 was isolated from rabbit reticulocytes and purified 120-fold to near homogeneity by ammonium sulfate fractionation, column chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and phosphocellulose, and, when suitable, by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. The factor is a complex protein containing three nonidentical polypeptides of molecular weight 57,000, 52,000, and 36,000. It behaves as a complex throughout its purification and during polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in nondenaturing buffer but its thress components are readily separated by electrophoresis in denaturing buffers. None of its components corresponds to any of the polypeptides of the other initiation factors or to any proteins of ribosomes washed in buffers containing a high salf concentration. A stoichiometric ratio of 1:1:1 was determined for the three polypeptides; based on the assumption of one copy each per complex, the calculated factor molecular weight is 145,000, a value in agreement with the measured value of 160,000. Initiation factor IF-E2 was radioactively labeled in vitro by reductive alkylation or by phosphorylation with a protein kinase also isolated from rabbit reticulocytes. Neither procedure causes a measurable change in the ability of the factor to form a ternary complex with GTP and the initiator methionyl-tRNA. 5'-Guanylyl-methylenediphosphonate may substitute for GTP, but only at relatively high concentrations. The binding of labeled initiation factor IF-E2 and methionyl-tRNA to the 40 S ribosomal subunit was studied by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Appreciable binding of the factor is seen only when all three components of the ternary complex are included in the reaction mixture. The binding of either the factor or methionyl-tRNA was not stimulated by the addition of globin messenger RNA and initiation factor IF-E3. It was shown that all three polypeptide components of initiation factor IF-E2 are bound to these nascent initiation complexes.  (+info)

Evolutionary dynamics of a mitochondrial rearrangement "hot spot" in the Hymenoptera. (5/5305)

The arrangement of tRNA genes at the junction of the cytochrome oxidase II and ATPase 8 genes was examined across a broad range of Hymenoptera. Seven distinct arrangements of tRNA genes were identified among a group of wasps that have diverged over the last 180 Myr (suborder Apocrita); many of the rearrangements represent evolutionarily independent events. Approximately equal proportions of local rearrangements, inversions, and translocations were observed, in contrast to vertebrate mitochondria, in which local rearrangements predominate. Surprisingly, homoplasy was evident among certain types of rearrangement; a reversal of the plesiomorphic gene order has arisen on three separate occasions in the Insecta, while the tRNA(H) gene has been translocated to this locus on two separate occasions. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that this gene translocation is real and is not an artifactual translocation resulting from the duplication of a resident tRNA gene followed by mutation of the anticodon. The nature of the intergenic sequences surrounding this region does not indicate that it should be especially prone to rearrangement; it does not generally have the tandem or inverted repeats that might facilitate this plasticity. Intriguingly, these findings are consistent with the view that during the evolution of the Hymenoptera, rearrangements increased at the same time that the rate of point mutations and compositional bias also increased. This association may direct investigations into mitochondrial genome plasticity in other invertebrate lineages.  (+info)

Concatemerization of tRNA molecules in the presence of trivaline derivative. (6/5305)

The interaction of tRNA with trivaline dansyl hydrazide trifluoroacetate (DHTV) has been studied. The shape of curves of fluorimetric titration of tRNA with DHTV and vice versa can be explained only by formation of DHTV dimers on tRNA molecules, and subsequent association of DHTV-saturated tRNA molecules with each other. The ability of tRNA molecules to form concatemers in solution in the presence of DHTV has been demonstrated by electron microscopy. Electron microscopy of the tRNA-DHTV complexes stained with uranyl acetate revealed flexible rods 6-7 nm thick and up to several micrometers long.  (+info)

Sequence of Shiga toxin 2 phage 933W from Escherichia coli O157:H7: Shiga toxin as a phage late-gene product. (7/5305)

Lysogenic bacteriophages are major vehicles for the transfer of genetic information between bacteria, including pathogenicity and/or virulence determinants. In the enteric pathogen Escherichia coli O157:H7, which causes hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome, Shiga toxins 1 and 2 (Stx1 and Stx2) are phage encoded. The sequence and analysis of the Stx2 phage 933W is presented here. We find evidence that the toxin genes are part of a late-phage transcript, suggesting that toxin production may be coupled with, if not dependent upon, phage release during lytic growth. Another phage gene, stk, encodes a product resembling eukaryotic serine/threonine protein kinases. Based on its position in the sequence, Stk may be produced by the prophage in the lysogenic state, and, like the YpkA protein of Yersinia species, it may interfere with the signal transduction pathway of the mammalian host. Three novel tRNA genes present in the phage genome may serve to increase the availability of rare tRNA species associated with efficient expression of pathogenicity determinants: both the Shiga toxin and serine/threonine kinase genes contain rare isoleucine and arginine codons. 933W also has homology to lom, encoding a member of a family of outer membrane proteins associated with virulence by conferring the ability to survive in macrophages, and bor, implicated in serum resistance.  (+info)

How translational accuracy influences reading frame maintenance. (8/5305)

Most missense errors have little effect on protein function, since they only exchange one amino acid for another. However, processivity errors, frameshifting or premature termination result in a synthesis of an incomplete peptide. There may be a connection between missense and processivity errors, since processivity errors now appear to result from a second error occurring after recruitment of an errant aminoacyl-tRNA, either spontaneous dissociation causing premature termination or translational frameshifting. This is clearest in programmed translational frameshifting where the mRNA programs errant reading by a near-cognate tRNA; this error promotes a second frameshifting error (a dual-error model of frameshifting). The same mechanism can explain frameshifting by suppressor tRNAs, even those with expanded anticodon loops. The previous model that suppressor tRNAs induce quadruplet translocation now appears incorrect for most, and perhaps for all of them. We suggest that the 'spontaneous' tRNA-induced frameshifting and 'programmed' mRNA-induced frameshifting use the same mechanism, although the frequency of frameshifting is very different. This new model of frameshifting suggests that the tRNA is not acting as the yardstick to measure out the length of the translocation step. Rather, the translocation of 3 nucleotides may be an inherent feature of the ribosome.  (+info)

Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) are a major class of noncoding RNA. Stress-induced cleavage of tRNA is highly conserved and results in tRNA fragments. Here, we found that specific tRNA fragments in plasma are associated with epilepsy. Small RNA-Seq of plasma samples collected during video EEG monitoring of patients with focal epilepsy identified significant differences in 3 tRNA fragments (5′GlyGCC, 5′AlaTGC, and 5′GluCTC) compared with samples from healthy controls. The levels of these tRNA fragments were higher in pre-seizure than in post-seizure samples, suggesting that they may serve as biomarkers of seizure risk in patients with epilepsy. In vitro studies confirmed that production and extracellular release of tRNA fragments were lower after epileptiform-like activity in hippocampal neurons. We designed PCR-based assays to quantify tRNA fragments in a cohort of pre- and post-seizure plasma samples from patients with focal epilepsy and from healthy controls. Receiver operating characteristic ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - An orthogonal amber initiator tRNA functions similarly across diverse Escherichia coli laboratory strains. AU - Vincent, Russel. AU - Yiasemides, Pandelitsa. AU - Jaschke, Paul. N1 - Version archived for private and non-commercial use with the permission of the author/s and according to publisher conditions. For further rights please contact the publisher.. PY - 2019/5/1. Y1 - 2019/5/1. N2 - Translation initiation is a sequential process involving interactions between the 30S small ribosomal subunit, initiation factors and initiator tRNA. The Escherichia coli K-12 strain is unique in the Escherichia because it has two different initiator tRNA sequences, tRNAfMet1 encoded by the metZWV genes and tRNAfMet2 encoded by the metY gene. A mutant of the metY gene was previously made where the anticodon sequence, responsible for specifying the start codon where translation initiation begins, was changed so that it bound to the amber stop codon UAG instead of the usual AUG start codon[1]. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhibitory Effect of Complex Formation with Oligodeoxyribonucleotide ethyl Phosphotriesters on Transfer Ribonucleic Acid Aminoacylation. AU - Barrett, J. C.. AU - Miller, Paul S.. AU - Tso, Paul O.P.. PY - 1974/11/1. Y1 - 1974/11/1. N2 - The oligodeoxyribonucleotide ethyl phosphotriesters d-Tp(Et)Gp(Et)G and d-Tp(Et)Tp(Et)Cp(Et)A, which are complementary to the 3′-CpCpA terminus and -UpGpApA- anticodon region, respectively, of tRNAphe coli have been used as in vitro probes of the structure and function of tRNA. The effect of these triesters on the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase catalyzed aminoacylation of tRNA was examined. At 0° both triesters inhibit the formation of phenylalanyl-tRNAphe by approximately 50-60%. The inhibition decreases with increasing temperature. A Lineweaver-Burk analysis at 0° shows that the inhibition by both triesters is competitive in nature. The results suggest that the inhibition is a consequence of the formation of complexes between the triesters and ...
Ribonuclease bound to transfer RNA. Computer model showing the molecular structure of a ribonuclease Z (RNase Z, blue) enzyme bound to a transfer RNA (tRNA) molecule (red). RNase is a type of nuclease that catalyses the degradation of RNA (ribonucleic acid) into smaller components in preparation for other genetic processes. tRNA is RNA that transfers a specific active amino acid to a growing polypeptide chain at the site of protein synthesis during gene translation. RNase Z causes conformational changes in both molecules to promote reorganization of the catalytic site and tRNA cleavage. - Stock Image C008/8444
Ribonuclease bound to transfer RNA, molecular model. This complex consists of the ribonuclease Z (RNase Z, green and pink) enzyme bound to a transfer RNA (tRNA) molecule (orange and blue). RNase is a type of nuclease that catalyses the degradation of RNA (ribonucleic acid) into smaller components in preparation for other genetic processes. tRNA is RNA that transfers a specific active amino acid to a growing polypeptide chain at the site of protein synthesis during gene translation. RNase Z causes conformational changes to promote reorganization of the catalytic site and tRNA cleavage. - Stock Image C025/1923
In the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, actively transcribed tRNA genes can negatively regulate adjacent RNA polymerase II (pol II)-transcribed promoters. This tRNA gene-mediated silencing is independent of the orientation of the tRNA gene and does not require direct, steric interference with the binding of either upstream pol II factors or the pol II holoenzyme. A mutant was isolated in which this form of silencing is suppressed. The responsible point mutation affects expression of the Cbf5 protein, a small nucleolar ribonucleoprotein protein required for correct processing of rRNA. Because some early steps in the S. cerevisiae pre-tRNA biosynthetic pathway are nucleolar, we examined whether the CBF5 mutation might affect this localization. Nucleoli were slightly fragmented, and the pre-tRNAs went from their normal, mostly nucleolar location to being dispersed in the nucleoplasm. A possible mechanism for tRNA gene-mediated silencing is suggested in which subnuclear localization of tRNA ...
Plays a central role in 2-thiolation of mcm(5)S(2)U at tRNA wobble positions of tRNA(Lys), tRNA(Glu) and tRNA(Gln). May act by forming a heterodimer with CTU1/ATPBD3 that ligates sulfur from thiocarboxylated URM1 onto the uridine of tRNAs at wobble position.
Byrne R.T., Jenkins H.T., Peters D.T., Whelan F., Stowell J., Aziz N., Kasatsky P., Rodnina M.V., Koonin E.V., Konevega A.L., Antson A.A.. The reduction of specific uridines to dihydrouridine is one of the most common modifications in tRNA. Increased levels of the dihydrouridine modification are associated with cancer. Dihydrouridine synthases (Dus) from different subfamilies selectively reduce distinct uridines, located at spatially unique positions of folded tRNA, into dihydrouridine. Because the catalytic center of all Dus enzymes is conserved, it is unclear how the same protein fold can be reprogrammed to ensure that nucleotides exposed at spatially distinct faces of tRNA can be accommodated in the same active site. We show that the Escherichia coli DusC is specific toward U16 of tRNA. Unexpectedly, crystal structures of DusC complexes with tRNA(Phe) and tRNA(Trp) show that Dus subfamilies that selectively modify U16 or U20 in tRNA adopt identical folds but bind their respective tRNA ...
Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) function in translational machinery and further serves as a source of short non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). tRNA-derived ncRNAs show differential expression profiles and play roles in many biological processes beyond translation. Molecular mechanisms that shape and regulate their expression profiles are largely unknown. Here, we report the mechanism of biogenesis for tRNA-derived Piwi-interacting RNAs (td-piRNAs) expressed in Bombyx BmN4 cells. In the cells, two cytoplasmic tRNA species, tRNAAspGUC and tRNAHisGUG, served as major sources for td-piRNAs, which were derived from the 5-part of the respective tRNAs. cP-RNA-seq identified the two tRNAs as major substrates for the 5-tRNA halves as well, suggesting a previously uncharacterized link between 5-tRNA halves and td-piRNAs. An increase in levels of the 5-tRNA halves, induced by BmNSun2 knockdown, enhanced the td-piRNA expression levels without quantitative change in mature tRNAs, indicating that 5-tRNA halves, not mature tRNAs,
Data and research on transfer pricing e.g. Transfer Pricing Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises and Tax Administrations, transfer pricing country profiles, business profit taxation, intangibles, This paper sets out four possible approaches to addressing the concerns over the lack of data on transfer pricing comparables expressed by developing countries.
The rapid progress of research in the tRNA field and recent advances in the understanding of the molecular basis of specificity in tRNA: protein interactions make it necessary to have all of the accumulated information in an easily accessible form. The purpose of this book is to fulfill that need by providing an up-to-date account of all aspects of research on transfer RNA, including its structure, biosynthesis, and interactions with the many proteins involved in protein biosynthesis. Beginning with an historical account, the book covers a broad area of research on tRNA biosynthesis, the different functions of tRNA in the genetic decoding process, its association with many different proteins, and the emerging rules governing the specificity of their interactions. In view of the impressive progress made in the last few years, several of the chapters are devoted to discussion of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase tRNA interactions. An appendix containing the structural formulae of all modified nucleosides found in
R-loops at tRNA genes affect pre-tRNA synthesis in strains lacking topoisomerase and RNase H activities.A-E: Wild-type strain BY4741 (WT) and isogenic mutant
Post-transcriptional tRNA modifications play a primordial role in the translation process as they influence tRNA stability and folding, cognate codon recognition, stabilization of the codon-anticodon wobble base pairing and correct aminoacylation. In the last years, the awareness is growing that post-transcriptional tRNA modifications, especially at the wobble position, might regulate important cellular processes at the level of protein translation. One of our goals is to decipher the structure, function and regulation of these enzyme complexes in order to contribute to our understanding of their cellular roles and the way they are incorporated in signalling networks. In collaboration with the group of L. Droogmans (ULB, Belgium) we are also investigating the structure and function of a variety of methyltransferases in order to get a better understanding of their tRNA specificity and the contribution of their catalytic and RNA-binding domains to catalysis and substrate binding.. ...
Contributors : Y Perkarsky ; C M CroceSeries Type : Non-coding RNA profiling by high throughput sequencingOrganism : Homo sapiensWe analyzed small RNA sequencing data from CD5+/CD19+ B cells of a cohort of indolent and aggressive CLL patients compared with CD19+ B-cells of healthy donors.We identified tsRNA signatures in indolent and aggressive CLL vs. normal B-cells; we also found a drastic dysre...
Amino Acyl Transfer RNA: Intermediates in protein biosynthesis. The compounds are formed from amino acids, ATP and transfer RNA, a reaction catalyzed by aminoacyl tRNA synthetase. They are key compounds in the genetic translation process.
The site on the tRNA molecule that is bound to the aminoacetyl synthetase. In the case of yeast phenylalanine tRNA, this region is located adjacent to the dihydrouridine loop and consists of the four nucleotide pairs bracketed by arrows on the tRNA on page 397. See Chronology, 1971, Dudock et al.; amino acid activation, transfer RNA. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Trna genes rapidly change in evolution to meet novel translational demands. AU - Yona, Avihu H.. AU - Bloom-Ackermann, Zohar. AU - Frumkin, Idan. AU - Hanson-Smith, Victor. AU - Charpak-Amikam, Yoav. AU - Feng, Qinghua. AU - Boeke, Jef D.. AU - Dahan, Orna. AU - Pilpel, Yitzhak. PY - 2013/12/20. Y1 - 2013/12/20. N2 - Changes in expression patterns may occur when organisms are presented with new environmental challenges, for example following migration or genetic changes. To elucidate the mechanisms by which the translational machinery adapts to such changes, we perturbed the tRNA pool of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by tRNA gene deletion. We then evolved the deletion strain and observed that the genetic adaptation was recurrently based on a strategic mutation that changed the anticodon of other tRNA genes to match that of the deleted one. Strikingly, a systematic search in hundreds of genomes revealed that anticodon mutations occur throughout the tree of life. We further show that ...
Students who plan to transfer to a four year college or university and earn a bachelors degree in this discipline should consult with a counselor or visit the Transfer/Career Center to determine the appropriate major preparation courses for their specific transfer institution and major. Transfer students may also earn an Associate of Arts degree in Liberal Arts and Sciences with an emphasis. This degree may be individually tailored to each students specific transfer requirements in order to provide the most efficient path to transfer. More information on transfer programs and procedures is available in the Transfer Programs section of the catalog. ...
Author: Labuda, D. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 1984; Title: Mechanism of codon recognition by transfer RNA and codon-induced tRNA association.
refers to tRNA(Arg-Asp) dimeric genes. **, Suppressors, as defined in MIPS annotations, supplemented by items from tables 8 and 10 in Hinnebusch and Liebmann, 1982. Note: Nomenclature of tRNA species generally follows earlier conventions; in some cases, new indices were assigned to those tRNA subspecies that had not unequivocally been numbered thus far or that were detected by sequencing. ...
Transfer RNA, or tRNA, is responsible for decoding another type of RNA, messenger RNA or mRNA, in order to carry out the process of protein synthesis. Different types of tRNA exist, each of which...
We have obtained functional data for every possible single mutation, for about 14,000 double mutations, and for about 30,000 more highly mutated variants. Surprisingly, 37% of the single mutants retained at least some function. In addition, around 10% of double mutants showed near wild type levels of fluorescence, indicating that despite all of the modifications and structure constraints, tRNA function is relatively robust to mutation. We have also examined mutant performance in a yeast strain with a mutated Rapid tRNA Decay (RTD) quality control pathway, which degrades misfolded or unmodified tRNA. By comparing the performance of tRNA variants in the wild type strain and the decay pathway mutant, we have identified many new targets of this pathway. The majority of these new decay pathway targets are located in parts of the tRNA not previously known to be monitored by the RTD system, such as the anticodon and D stems. By examining the double mutants in relation to their constituent singles, we ...
Transfer RNA definition, a small RNA molecule, consisting of a strand of nucleotides folded into a clover-leaf shape, that picks up an unattached amino acid within the cell cytoplasm and conveys it to the ribosome for protein synthesis. See more.
In the present work, we compared the initiation mechanism of the hisR promoter to that of mutant derivatives carrying sequence changes in the discriminator region. The main characteristic of the wild‐type promoter is its resistance to melting: the promoter cannot be trapped in open configuration in vivo and does not form heparin‐resistant transcription complexes in vitro unless the initiating nucleotides are supplied to allow formation of the first dinucleotide bond. Both of these features, which are atypical for eubacterial sigma 70 promoters, can be relieved or suppressed by discriminator changes. In particular, the PhisRhpa variant, where the C-G‐rich stretch between −5 and +1 is replaced with an A-T‐rich sequence, is readily found open in rifampicin‐treated cells and shows no nucleotide requirements for formation of stable initiation complexes in vitro. These data suggest that the discriminator sequence can direct the initiation programme, most likely by setting the energy ...
A tRNA with double identity was created, and this tRNA was demonstrated in vitro to aminoacylate quantitatively with either of two amino acids. In contrast, acceptance of only one of these amino acids was observed in vivo, and a simple manipulation determined which one was accepted. Kinetic parameters were obtained for aminoacylation with each amino acid of the tRNA with double identity and of related tRNAs. Modeling with these parameters largely explains which amino acid specificity is observed in vivo. The results delineate some of the kinetic boundaries for the design and accommodation of tRNA sequence variations in the elaboration of identity in vivo ...
During transfer ribonucleic acid (tRNA) biogenesis, tRNA molecules undergo extensive processing before they can fulfill their essential role as the adapter molecule in translation, bringing amino acids into the ribosome for protein synthesis
Experimental evolution and systematic sequence analysis of transfer RNA genes reveal that anticodon mutations provide adaptive plasticity to the translation machinery.
Cape Town City chairman John Comitis says Ayanda Patosi needs to lose weight, and revealed the clubs interest in Bafana midfielder Mandla Masango.
Catalyzes the specific attachment of an amino acid to its cognate tRNA in a two step reaction: the amino acid, AA is first activated by ATP to form AA-AMP and then transferred to the acceptor end of the tRNA. Exhibits a post-transfer editing activity to hydrolyze mischarged tRNAs. {ECO:0000269,PubMed:19426743 ...
转运核糖核酸(Transfer RNA),又称传送核糖核酸、转移核糖核酸,通常简称为tRNA,是一种由76-90个核苷酸所组成的RNA[1],其3端可以在氨酰-tRNA合成酶催化之下,接附特定种类的氨基酸。转译的过程中,tRNA可借由自身的反密码子识别mRNA上的密码子,将该密码子对应的氨基酸转运至核糖体合成中的多肽链上。每个tRNA分子理论上只能与一种氨基酸接附,但是遗传密码有简并性(degeneracy),使得有多于一个以上的tRNA可以跟一种氨基酸接附。
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mRNA and tRNA are both nucleic acids involved in the production of proteins. The body uses mRNA to make enzymes, while tRNA acts...
Consistent with other studies, we found that successful consolidations focused on reducing social transfers, which in the American context means entitlements, and also on cuts to the size and pay of the government work force. A 1996 International Monetary Fund study concluded that fiscal consolidation that concentrates on the expenditure side, and especially on transfers and government wages, is more likely to succeed in reducing the public debt ratio than tax-based consolidation. For example, in the U.Ks 1997 consolidation, cuts to transfers made up 32% of expenditure cuts, and cuts to government wages made up 21%. ...
Yep, 16 mg. Apparently, the 8 mg tabs are hard to come by so most pharmacies either give you 4 mg or 16mg. So I have to cut the pill in half and take half in the AM and half in the PM. Thank you Mary for pointing that out to me!!! I only take these this week Monday-Friday and stop on transfer day. This pill has a gross taste to it, probably because I have to cut it in half ...
Protein involved in threonylcarbamoyl adenosine biosynthesis; Sua5p and Qri7p are necessary and sufficient for RNA t6A modification in vitro; highly conserved mitochondrial protein; essential for t6A modification of mitochondrial tRNAs that decode ANN codons; similar to Kae1p and E. coli YgjD, both of which are also required for tRNA t6A modification; when directed to the cytoplasm, complements the essential function of Kae1p in the KEOPS ...
Recent studies have established that glucose deprivation causes inhibition of the nuclear tRNA export process in S. cerevisiae (30, 46). While the mechanism responsible for regulating nuclear tRNA export in response to the glucose level is not understood, findings from this study strongly suggest that it is most likely due to the function of the nuclear tRNA export receptors and the intranuclear tRNA chaperone Utp8p being controlled by glucose availability (Fig. 4). How the glucose level influences Utp8p function in nuclear tRNA export is not known, but evidence obtained suggests that the ability of the tRNA export receptors to function in nuclear tRNA export in response to glucose availability is most likely related to regulation of nuclear reimport of the tRNA export receptors after a round of tRNA export to the cytoplasm (Fig. 3). This conclusion is in accordance with previous studies showing cytoplasmic accumulation of several nuclear export receptors, including the nuclear tRNA export ...
Shared traits between prokaryotes and eukaryotes are helpful in the understanding of the tree of life evolution. tRNA gene cluster, a particular feature in RNA gene organisation, has been demonstrated to be prevalent in bacteria and eukaryotes, but there is a gap concerning its occurrence in archaea. Despite the significant presence in the Bacteria and Eukarya domains, the role of the tRNA gene cluster is under debate. In Bacteria, it has been implicated with a faster cell growing and in the modulation of the tRNA transcription and translation process.(20) In contrast, some studies have not observed any improvement in the fitness of the organism by tRNA gene clusters. In addition, some of the genes from these clusters would be inactivated.(21) In eukaryotes, there is a negative correlation between clusters of tRNA genes and chromosomal stability, since they can act as barriers to DNA replication and the consequent formation of genomic fragile sites.(5) Besides that, the tRNA-derived fragments ...
K14218 tRNA-Ala; tRNA Ala K14218 tRNA-Ala; tRNA Ala K14218 tRNA-Ala; tRNA Ala K14219 tRNA-Arg; tRNA Arg K14219 tRNA-Arg; tRNA Arg K14219 tRNA-Arg; tRNA Arg K14219 tRNA-Arg; tRNA Arg K14220 tRNA-Asn; tRNA Asn K14220 tRNA-Asn; tRNA Asn K14220 tRNA-Asn; tRNA Asn K14221 tRNA-Asp; tRNA Asp K14221 tRNA-Asp; tRNA Asp K14221 tRNA-Asp; tRNA Asp K14222 tRNA-Cys; tRNA Cys K14223 tRNA-Gln; tRNA Gln K14224 tRNA-Glu; tRNA Glu K14224 tRNA-Glu; tRNA Glu K14224 tRNA-Glu; tRNA Glu K14224 tRNA-Glu; tRNA Glu K14225 tRNA-Gly; tRNA Gly K14225 tRNA-Gly; tRNA Gly K14225 tRNA-Gly; tRNA Gly K14225 tRNA-Gly; tRNA Gly K14225 tRNA-Gly; tRNA Gly K14225 tRNA-Gly; tRNA Gly K14225 tRNA-Gly; tRNA Gly K14226 tRNA-His; tRNA His K14226 tRNA-His; tRNA His K14227 tRNA-Ile; tRNA Ile K14228 tRNA-Leu; tRNA Leu K14228 tRNA-Leu; tRNA Leu K14228 tRNA-Leu; tRNA Leu K14228 tRNA-Leu; tRNA Leu K14228 tRNA-Leu; tRNA Leu K14228 tRNA-Leu; tRNA Leu K14228 tRNA-Leu; tRNA Leu K14229 tRNA-Lys; tRNA Lys K14229 tRNA-Lys; tRNA Lys K14230 tRNA-Met; tRNA ...
A computer program, ARAGORN, identifies tRNA and tmRNA genes. The program employs heuristic algorithms to predict tRNA secondary structure, based on homology with recognized tRNA consensus sequences and ability to form a base-paired cloverleaf. tmRNA genes are identified using a modified version of the BRUCE program. ARAGORN achieves a detection sensitivity of 99% from a set of 1290 eubacterial, eukaryotic and archaeal tRNA genes and detects all complete tmRNA sequences in the tmRNA database, improving on the performance of the BRUCE program. Recently discovered tmRNA genes in the chloroplasts of two species from the green algae lineage are detected. The output of the program reports the proposed tRNA secondary structure and, for tmRNA genes, the secondary structure of the tRNA domain, the tmRNA gene sequence, the tag peptide and a list of organisms with matching tmRNA peptide tags.. ...
We have constructed a conditional rRNA gene expression system by fusing a plasmid-encoded rrnB operon to the lambda PL promoter/operator. It was thereby possible to study the events that lead to the regulation of chromosomal rRNA and tRNA synthesis after overproduction of rRNA. rRNA induction resulted in a 2-fold increase in 30S and 50S free ribosomal subunits, whereas the polysome fraction was unaffected. Overproduction of rRNA and free ribosomes produced a large repression of rRNA and tRNA synthesis from chromosomal genes and a smaller increase in the concentration of guanosine tetraphosphate. These results lend support to the ribosome feedback regulation model: rRNA and tRNA operons are negatively regulated, either directly or through some intermediate, by free, nontranslating ribosomes.. ...
Transfer ribonucleic acid1 is methylated after the molecule is synthesized; at least eight enzymes are involved in the transfer of methyl groups (derived from methionine). The time courses of methylation and synthesis of tRNA during rat liver regeneration have been compared in an in vivo radioisotopic study, using 6-orotic acid-14C and 3H-methyl-L-methionine as precursors in double label pulses. Liver regeneration is a synchronized system in which biochemical events of the cell cycle are separable. Transfer RNA methylation increase precedes by several hours tRNA synthesis during regeneration, although the curves overlap. A ratio of the relative rate of methylation to the relative rate of synthesis has been made; that curve positively correlates with the rise and fall of protein synthesis during regeneration. It is clear that methylation and synthesis of tRNA are only weakly coupled; changing methyl content of the tRNA pool resulting from differential tRNA methylase and polymerase activities ...
tRNAs are heavily decorated posttranscriptionally with numerous chemical modifications, which are essential for shaping up, fine tuning, and regulating all aspects of tRNA functioning. These chemical modifications are dynamically regulated and catalyzed by tRNA modification enzymes[1]. Mutations or dysregulation of tRNA modifiers have been associated with diseases. The emerging importance of tRNA modifications in diseases calls for additional work[2, 3]. How tRNA modifications are regulated by tRNA modification enzymes is in need to be studied ...
We have previously reported the isolation an characterization of a functional initiator tRNA gene, metA, and a second initiator tRNA-like sequence, metB, from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Here we describe the fine mapping of the initiator tRNA gene locus of the avirulent (H37Ra) and virulent (H37Rv) strains of M. tuberculosis. The genomic blot analyses show that the 1.7 kb (harbouring metB) and the 6.0 kb BamHI (harbouring metA) fragments are linked. Further, sequencing of a portion of the 6.0 kb fragment, in conjunction with the sequence of the 1.7 kb fragment confirmed the presence of an IS6110 element in the vicinity of metB. The IS element is flanked by inverted (28 bp, with 3 contiguous mismatches in the middle) and direct (3 bp) repeats considered to be the hallmarks of IS6110 integration sites. The organization of the initiator tRNA gene locus is identical in both the H37Ra and H37Rv strains and they carry a single copy of the functional initiator tRNA gene. Interestingly, the fast growing ...
Sulfur-containing transfer ribonucleic acids (tRNAs) are ubiquitous biomolecules found in all organisms that possess a variety of functions. For decades, their roles in processes such as translation, structural stability, and cellular protection have been elucidated and appreciated. These thionucleosides are found in all types of bacteria; however, their biosynthetic pathways are distinct among different groups of bacteria. Considering that many of the thio-tRNA biosynthetic enzymes are absent in Gram-positive bacteria, recent studies have addressed how sulfur trafficking is regulated in these prokaryotic species. Interestingly, a novel proposal has been given for interplay among thionucleosides and the biosynthesis of other thiocofactors, through participation of shared-enzyme intermediates, the functions of which are impacted by the availability of substrate as well as metabolic demand of thiocofactors. This review describes the occurrence of thio-modifications in bacterial tRNA and current methods
One unique example of RNA processing is non-conventional splicing of RNAs, which is an essential step during transfer RNA (tRNA) maturation. tRNAs are transcribed as precursor transcripts (pre-tRNA) and are subjected to multiple posttranscriptional processing events before they can fulfil their function. Intron-containing pre-tRNAs undergo non-conventional splicing-a cytosolic, enzyme-catalysed processing reaction. The splicing of pre-tRNAs occurs in two steps: The intron is first excised by a splicing endonuclease and the resulting tRNA exon halves are ligated by tRNA ligase to form a fully matured functional tRNA. Because eukaryotic tRNA introns disrupt the anticodon stem-loop structure, the removal of these introns is an essential process ...
We describe the crystal structure of the complete Thermus thermophilus 70S ribosome containing bound messenger RNA and transfer RNAs (tRNAs) at 5.5 angstrom resolution. All of the 16S, 23S, and 5S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) chains, the A-, P-, and E-site tRNAs, and most of the ribosomal proteins can be fitted to the electron density map. The core of the interface between the 30S small subunit and the 50S large subunit, where the tRNA substrates are bound, is dominated by RNA, with proteins located mainly at the periphery, consistent with ribosomal function being based on rRNA. In each of the three tRNA binding sites, the ribosome contacts all of the major elements of tRNA, providing an explanation for the conservation of tRNA structure. The tRNAs are closely juxtaposed with the intersubunit bridges, in a way that suggests coupling of the 20 to 50 angstrom movements associated with tRNA translocation with intersubunit movement. ...
The modified nucleoside 1-methyladenosine (m(1)A) is found at position 58 in the TPsiC loop of many eukaryotic tRNAs. The absence of m(1)A from all tRNAs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants lacking Gcd10p elicits severe defects in processing and stability of initiator methionine tRNA (tRNA(i)(Met)). Gcd10p is found in a complex with Gcd14p, which contains conserved motifs for binding S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet). These facts, plus our demonstration that gcd14Delta cells lacked m(1)A, strongly suggested that Gcd10p/Gcd14p complex is the yeast tRNA(m(1)A)methyltransferase [(m(1)A)MTase]. Supporting this prediction, affinity-purified Gcd10p/Gcd14p complexes used AdoMet as a methyl donor to synthesize m(1)A in either total tRNA or purified tRNA(i)(Met) lacking only this modification. Kinetic analysis of the purified complex revealed K(M) values for AdoMet or tRNA(i)(Met) of 5.0 microM and 2.5 nM, respectively. Mutations in the predicted AdoMet-binding domain destroyed GCD14 function in vivo and ...
Figure 2. tRNA pools are coordinated with the alterations in the mRNA transcriptomes with different codon usage under differentiation or proliferation conditions. The repertoire has the effects on the cell fate determination.. tRNA repertoire and disease. tRNA repertoire has fundamental impact in human diseases. Many diseases are associated with the disrupted tRNAs levels. Dysregulation of certain tRNAs can induce tumorigenesis and cancer progression.. Cancer. After cataloging the tRNA repertoire, Gingold et al demonstrated the tRNA pools are different between cancer and differentiated non-cancer cells[4]. tRNAs that are upregulated in differentiated/arrested cells are repressed in proliferating cells. Conversely, tRNAs whose levels are high in proliferating cells become low in differentiated/arrested cells. Cancer cells adjust their tRNA pools to selectively bolster translation of the mRNAs that are required for tumor progression. By comparing tRNA expression in tumor versus normal breast ...
Among components of the translational machinery, ribonucleoside modifications on tRNAs are emerging as critical regulators of cell physiology and stress response. Here, we demonstrate highly coordinated behavior of the repertoire of tRNA modifications of Plasmodium falciparum throughout the intra-erythrocytic developmental cycle (IDC). We observed both a synchronized increase in 22 of 28 modifications from ring to trophozoite stage, consistent with tRNA maturation during translational up-regulation, and asynchronous changes in six modifications. Quantitative analysis of ~2,100 proteins across the IDC revealed that up- and down-regulated proteins in late but not early stages have a marked codon bias that directly correlates with parallel changes in tRNA modifications and enhanced translational efficiency. We thus propose a model in which tRNA modifications modulate the abundance of stage-specific proteins by enhancing translation efficiency of codon-biased transcripts for critical genes. These ...
In all organisms, precursor tRNAs are processed into mature functional units by post-transcriptional changes. These involve 5 and 3 end trimming as well as the addition of a significant number of chemical modifications, including RNA editing. The only known example of non-organellar C to U editing of tRNAs occurs in trypanosomatids. In this system, editing at position 32 of the anticodon loop of tRNA(Thr)(AGU) stimulates, but is not required for, the subsequent formation of inosine at position 34. In the present work, we expand the number of C to U edited tRNAs to include all the threonyl tRNA isoacceptors. Notably, the absence of a naturally encoded adenosine, at position 34, in two of these isoacceptors demonstrates that A to I is not required for C to U editing. We also show that C to U editing is a nuclear event while A to I is cytoplasmic, where C to U editing at position 32 occurs in the precursor tRNA prior to 5 leader removal. Our data supports the view that C to U editing is more widespread
Shop tRNA-modifying protein ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and tRNA-modifying protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
It is widely believed that if a high number of genes are found for any tRNA in a rapidly replicating bacteria, then the cytoplasmic levels of that tRNA will be high and an open reading frame containing a higher frequency of the complementary codon will be translated faster. This idea is based on correlations between the number of tRNA genes, tRNA concentration and the frequency of codon usage observed in a limited number of strains as well as from the fact that artificially changing the number of tRNA genes alters translation efficiency and consequently the amount of properly folded protein synthesized. tRNA gene number may greatly vary in a genome due to duplications, deletions and lateral transfer which in turn would alter the levels and functionality of many proteins. Such changes are potentially deleterious for fitness and as a result it is expected that changes in tRNA gene numbers should be accompanied by a modification of the frequency of codon usage. In contrast to this model, when comparing the
The 274 (active) tRNA genes in strain S288C can be grouped into 42 families of distinct codon specificity. The two methionine-specific tRNAs are counted as separate families, as initiator and elongator tRNAs are clearly distinguished both by primary structure and function. No tRNA(Sec) gene has been identified in yeast. No suppressor tRNA genes are found in this strain; Tables 1 and 1a list suppressors that have been identi fied as particular variants in other yeast strains . Table 4a presents a more detailed version of Table 4 by including cross-references to the tRNAs and tRNA genes the sequences of which had been determined prior to the yeast genome project. Figure 2. Codon usage in highly and lowly expressed yeast genes ...
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Author Summary Transfer RNAs are an important component of the translation machinery. Despite extensive biochemical investigations, a systems-level investigation of tRNAs functional roles in physiology, and genetic interactions among them, is lacking. We created a comprehensive tRNA deletion library in yeast and assessed the essentiality of each tRNA in multiple conditions. The majority of tRNA deletions showed no appreciable fitness defect when such strains were grown on rich medium. More challenging environmental conditions, however, revealed a richer set of specific-tRNA phenotypic defects. Co-deletion of tRNA combinations revealed that tRNAs with essential function can be compensated by members of the same or different anti-codon families. We often saw that identical tRNA gene copies contribute deferentially to fitness, suggesting that the genomic context of each gene can affect functionality. Genome-wide expression changes in response to tRNA deletions revealed two different responses. When a
Locate a variety involving Excellent Term paper on transfer pricing for Student. With regard to you actually towards launch Words pieces of paper concerning shift costing : Just what exactly is certainly it all Essay or dissertation, with regard to College. Issues want the following create the software a lot of much easier for the purpose of an important scholar student that will try to make some sort of thesis declaration
A large number of post-transcriptional base modifications in transfer RNAs have been described (Sprinzl, M., Horn, C., Brown, M., Ioudovitch, A., and Steinberg, S. (1998) Nucleic Acids Res. 26, 148-153). These modifications enhance and expand tRNA function to increase cell viability. The intermediates and genes essential for base modifications in many instances remain unclear. An example is wyebutosine (yW), a fluorescent tricyclic modification of an invariant guanosine situated on the 3-side of the tRNA(Phe) anticodon. Although biosynthesis of yW involves several reaction steps, only a single pathway-specific enzyme has been identified (Kalhor, H. R., Penjwini, M., and Clarke, S. (2005) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 334, 433-440). We used comparative genomics analysis to identify a cluster of orthologous groups (COG0731) of wyosine family biosynthetic proteins. Gene knock-out and complementation studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae established a role for YPL207w, a COG0731 ortholog that ...
In Nature this week: genome-wide association study of 42 diseases among Japanese population, transfer RNA modifications, and more.
With the advent of new and improved high-throughput sequencing technologies in the last few years, a growing number of novel classes of small RNA, other than miRNAs or siRNA, has emerged, which appear as new actors in gene expression regulation. tRNA-derived small RNAs represent one of these novel members that are, surprisingly, among the most conserved class of small RNAs throughout evolution. They could represent the most primitive small RNA pathways from which the well-known canonical RNA silencing pathways reported in higher eukaryotes evolved. This review aims to make a compilation of the most relevant research literature in this field with the purpose of shedding light on the relation of these primitive tRNA-derived molecules with the gene silencing machinery.
High-throughput genome sequencing continues to grow the need for rapid, accurate genome annotation and tRNA genes constitute the largest family of essential, ever-present non-coding RNA genes. Newly developed tRNAscan-SE 2.0 has advanced the state-of-the-art methodology in tRNA gene detection and fu …
This chapter reviews what is known about the mechanism of precursor tRNA splicing: (i) the tRNA substrates for the splicing reaction, (ii) the enzymes involved in removing the introns to form the mature tRNA, (iii) interactions between these enzymes and their tRNA substrates and cofactors, (iv) the organization of tRNA splicing in the nucleus, (v) the identity of splicing mutants that affect the enzymatic machinery, (vi) current knowledge about the differences and similarities of tRNA splicing in systems of various organisms, and (vii) the possible function of tRNA introns.
Elongation requires the elongation factors,ref,Stryer, Biochemistry, Seventh edition, 2007: 936,/ref, EF-Tu, EF-Ts and EF-G as well as GTP to supply the energy. Elongation describes the process of aminoacyl tRNA molecules binding to the codon. A [[Peptide bond,peptide bond]] is formed between the amino acid of the tRNA in the P site and the amino acid in the tRNA molecule that has just arrived at the A site; the formation of this peptide bond is catalysed by the 23S subunit. The amino acid in the P site is released from its tRNA molecule and the ribosome moves along so as to transfer the tRNA currently in the A site into the P site. This step is known as transloaction. The uncharged tRNA i.e. tRNA without an amino acid, moves into the E (empty) site. ,ref,http://rpi.edu/dept/bcbp/molbiochem/MBWeb/mb2/part1/translate.htm,/ref,,br ...
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By the time Hoagland had joined Huntington Laboratories, his colleagues there were well known for their work in protein synthesis.[4] In the early 1950s Hoagland and his associates were able to show that polypeptide synthesis occurs on ribosomes. They did this by giving a rat injections of radioactive amino acids, waiting for a defined period of time, extracting the liver, and examining sub-cellular fractions for radioactivity. He found that after longer periods of times (hours, days) radioactively labeled proteins were present in all subcellular fractions. However, if they allowed less time to pass, radioactivity was found in only certain particles, which they deemed the sites of proteins synthesis. These particles were named ribosomes. During their experiments with rat liver cells, Hoagland and Zamecnik noticed that in the presence of ATP, amino acids associate with heat soluble RNA, which was later named transfer RNA (tRNA).[4] This amino acid and tRNA complex was later called aminoacyl-tRNA. ...
The tRNA substrates of TrmJ in Escherichia coli. (A) The cloverleaf structures of six E. coli tRNAs with a 2′-O-methylated ribose in position 32 from the MODO
摘 要:转移核糖核酸(tRNA) 的转录后修饰对tRNA 正常行使生物学功能具有重要意义,这些功能包括tRNA 的正确折叠和维持其稳定性、在核糖体上正确解码。虽然tRNA 转录后大部分核苷酸修饰形式在20世纪70 年代已被鉴定出,但最近才在大肠杆菌及酵母中鉴定出催化这些tRNA 核苷酸修饰的酶的绝大部分基因。这些修饰酶基因的鉴定为研究tRNA 转录后修饰的生物功能开启了新的大门。人胞质tRNA 和线粒体tRNA(mt tRNA) 都存在大量核苷酸修饰,这些修饰的缺陷常常与多种人类疾病相关。因此,研究tRNA核苷酸修饰有助于我们了解相关疾病的发病机理 ...
As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
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Zinc phosphodiesterase ELAC protein 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ELAC2 gene. on chromosome 17. It is an endonuclease thought to be involved in mitochondrial tRNA maturation, The ELAC2 gene encodes a protein that is 92 kDa in size and is localized to the mitochondrion and the nucleus. The ELAC2 protein is a zinc phosphodiesterase, which is known to show tRNA 3-processing endonuclease activity inside the mitochondria. Mitochondria contain their own pool of tRNAs that are involved in the protein translation of 13 subunits of the respiratory chain that are encoded by the mitochondrial genome. ELAC2 functions in the maturation of tRNA by removing a 3-trailer (extra 3 nucleotides) from tRNA precursors, generating 3 termini of tRNAs. The reaction leaves a 3-hydroxy group is left at the tRNA end, and a 5-phosphoryl group at the cleaved, trailing end. The reaction requires zinc ions as co-factors. Variants of the ELAC2 gene are associated with prostate cancer, hereditary 2 ...
The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.
Codon tables describe how the triplet codon of RNA (or DNA) is read by specific tRNAs to map to a particular amino acid. Many organisms use the Standard Codon Table, shown below. ...
Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (EC 6.1.1.-) are a group of enzymes which activate amino acids and transfer them to specific tRNA molecules as the first step in protein biosynthesis. In prokaryotic organisms there are at least twenty different types of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, one for each different amino acid. In eukaryotes there are generally two aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases for each different amino acid: one cytosolic form and a mitochondrial form. While all these enzymes have a common function, they are widely diverse in terms of subunit size and of quaternary structure ...
Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are a group of enzymes which activate amino acids and transfer them to specific tRNA molecules as the first step in protein biosynthesis. In prokaryotic organisms there are at least twenty different types of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, one for each different amino acid. In eukaryotes there are generally two aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases for each different amino acid: one cytosolic form and a mitochondrial form ...
After the initial technical difficulties in handling bacterial extracts had been mastered, these systems proved less complex, easier to take apart and simpler to entertain. The relation between eukaryotic and procaryotic systems was reversed. At the end of the decade, it was self-evident that a volume on The Mechanism of Protein Synthesis would deal primarily with bacteria, devoting just one special section of 116 pages out of a total of 855 to Mammalian Systems [19]. 3 The Functional Dissection of Translation With the isolation of ribosomes, the purification of specific transfer RNAs and their corresponding synthetases, and the beginning of a deliberate manipulation of viral and synthetic messengers, the stage was set for the dissection of ribosomal function [169, 170]. I. On the synthesis of labeled cystine (35S) and its attempted use as a tool in the study of protein synthesis; II. On the uptake of labeled sulfur by the proteins of liver slices incubated with labeled methionine (35S), Arch. ...
Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology. MOLECULAR EVOLUTION. ...
Most cellular RNAs undergo a number of post-transcriptional nucleoside modifications. While the biological role of many of these modifications is unknown, some have been shown to be necessary for cell growth or for resistance to antibiotics [PUBMED:8266080, PUBMED:9187657]. One of the most common modifications is 2O-ribose methylation catalysed by the RNA 2O-ribose methyltransferases, a large enzyme family that transfer a methyl group from S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet) to the 2-OH group of the backbone ribose [PUBMED:9917067].. ...
The intricate series of events which produce protein from nucleic acid structural information is called translation. The simplicity of this term largely misrepresents the complexity of the underlying...
Complete information for TRMT44 gene (Protein Coding), TRNA Methyltransferase 44 Homolog, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Complete information for TRMT6 gene (Protein Coding), TRNA Methyltransferase 6, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
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TRMT12 antibody (tRNA methyltransferase 12 homolog (S. cerevisiae)) for ELISA, ICC/IF, WB. Anti-TRMT12 pAb (GTX32015) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Data and research on transfer pricing e.g. Transfer Pricing Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises and Tax Administrations, transfer pricing country profiles, business profit taxation, intangibles, Transfer Pricing - Publications
"tRNA / transfer RNA". Learn Science at Scitable.. *^ "Myoclonic epilepsy with ragged-red fibers". Genetics Home Reference. U.S ... Mitochondrially encoded tRNA isoleucine also known as MT-TI is a transfer RNA which in humans is encoded by the mitochondrial ... MT-TI is a small 69 nucleotide RNA (human mitochondrial map position 4263-4331) that transfers the amino acid isoleucine to a ... May 2003). "A homoplasmic mitochondrial transfer ribonucleic acid mutation as a cause of maternally inherited hypertrophic ...
"As a graduate student at Duke… he used x-ray crystallography to study the three-dimensional structure of "transfer" RNA, which ... "Crystal structure of yeast phenylalanine transfer RNA. I. Crystallographic refinement". Journal of Molecular Biology. 123 (4): ... "Tech Transfer, Advisory Roles, and Funding Sources".. *^ Kosuri, Sriram; Church, George M. (2014). "Large-scale de novo DNA ... Technology transfer and translational impact[edit]. Church has co-founded 22[84] companies, including Veritas Genetics (human ...
Instead, the energy released by the reaction involving RLuc is passed via resonance energy transfer to the fluorophore of RrGFP ... RNA. 16 (3): 585-97. doi:10.1111/j.1751-1097.1978.tb07621.x. PMC 2822923. PMID 20075165. Ward WW, Cormier MJ (September 1976 ... This process relies on a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) mechanism, increasing the emitted photon number approximately ... Ward WW, Cormier MJ (February 1979). "An energy transfer protein in coelenterate bioluminescence. Characterization of the ...
Jukes, T. H.; Holmquist, R. (1972). "Evolution of transfer RNA molecules as a repetitive process". Biochemical and Biophysical ... An important step was later realization (in 1960) that the messenger RNA was not the same as the ribosomal RNA. None of this, ... DNA → RNA → Protein. Some critics thought that by using the word "dogma", Crick was implying that this was a rule that could ... When he was eight or nine he transferred to the most junior form of the Northampton Grammar School, on the Billing Road. This ...
A transfer RNA (abbreviated tRNA and formerly referred to as sRNA, for soluble RNA[1]) is an adaptor molecule composed of RNA, ... doi:10.4161/rna.27177. PMC 3917982 . PMID 24351723.. *^ a b Shigematsu Megumi; et al. (2014). "Transfer RNA as a source of ... "Characterization of circulating transfer RNA-derived RNA fragments in cattle". Front Genet. 6: 271. doi:10.3389/fgene. ... 2011). "Transfer RNA-derived fragments: origins, processing, and functions". Wiley interdisciplinary reviews. 2: 853-862. doi: ...
"RNA methylation by Dnmt2 protects transfer RNAs against stress-induced cleavage". Genes & Development. 24 (15): 1590-5. doi: ... RNA. 14 (8): 1663-70. doi:10.1261/rna.970408. PMC 2491481. PMID 18567810. Schaefer M, Pollex T, Hanna K, Tuorto F, Meusburger M ...
... (plasmid transferred antisense RNA) is a family of non-coding RNAs.Homologs of PtaRNA1 can be found in the ... "A novel family of plasmid-transferred anti-sense ncRNAs". RNA Biol. 7 (2): 120-124. doi:10.4161/rna.7.2.11184. PMID 20220307. ... "FinO is an RNA chaperone that facilitates sense-antisense RNA interactions". EMBO J. 22 (23): 6346-6355. doi:10.1093/emboj/ ... In type I toxin-antitoxin systems, the gene expression of a toxic protein is regulated by a small non-coding RNA. Type I toxin- ...
Kawahara A, Stainier DY (August 2009). "Noncanonical activity of seryl-transfer RNA synthetase and vascular development". ... Once the tRNA is charged, a ribosome can transfer the amino acid from the tRNA onto a growing peptide, according to the genetic ... These are clear indications that horizontal transfer has occurred several times during the evolutionary history of aaRSs.[10][ ... Aminoacyl tRNA therefore plays an important role in RNA translation, the expression of genes to create proteins. ...
Smith AE, Marcker KA (December 1968). "N-formylmethionyl transfer RNA in mitochondria from yeast and rat liver". Journal of ... Like other genes encoding RNAs, trnE cannot be transferred to the nucleus. In addition, it is unlikely trnE could be replaced ... The code disparity hypothesis states that the limit on transfer is due to differing genetic codes and RNA editing between the ... The second fate involves the transfer of genes to the nucleus.[22][26][27][28][29] The loss of autonomy and integration of the ...
Smith, A. E.; Marcker, K. A. (1968). "N-formylmethionyl transfer RNA in mitochondria from yeast and rat liver". J Mol Biol. 38 ... Like other genes encoding RNAs, trnE cannot be transferred to the nucleus. In addition, it is unlikely trnE could be replaced ... The code disparity hypothesis states that the limit on transfer is due to differing genetic codes and RNA editing between the ... The second fate involves the transfer of genes to the nucleus.[21][25][26][27][28] The loss of autonomy and integration of the ...
"Structure of transfer RNA. Evidence for interaction between two non-adjacent nucleotide residues in tRNA from Escherichia coli ... of nucleosomes in a fraction of SV40 chromatin between the origin of replication and the region coding for the late leader RNA ...
... transfer ribonucleate guanine N2-methyltransferase, transfer RNA guanine 2-methyltransferase, guanine-N2-methylase, and S- ... Krauss J, Stahelin M (1974). "N2-Guanine specific transfer RNA methyltransferase I from rat liver and leukemic rat spleen*". ... Krauss J, Stahelin M (1974). "N2-Guanine specific transfer RNA methyltransferase II from rat liver". Nucleic Acids Res. 1 (11 ... Bjork GR, Svensson I (1969). "Studies on microbial RNA. Fractionation of tRNA methylases from Saccharomyces cerevisiae". Eur. J ...
... to cleavage of transfer RNA; and to interference with the NF-κB pathway. Currently (as of March 2020) Ranpirnase is in clinical ... The mechanism of action of ranpirnase has been attributed to the RNA interference pathway, potentially through cleaving siRNA ... Zhao H, Ardelt B, Ardelt W, Shogen K, Darzynkiewicz Z (October 2008). "The cytotoxic ribonuclease onconase targets RNA ... protein superfamily and degrades RNA substrates with a sequence preference for uracil and guanine nucleotides. Along with ...
American biochemist who discovered transfer RNA (tRNA) (b. 1921). 6 October - Ruth L. Kirschstein, American pathologist and ...
Holley's research on RNA focused first on isolating transfer RNA (tRNA), and later on determining the sequence and structure of ... The group of researchers include Elizabeth Beach Keller, who developed the cloverleaf model that describes transfer RNA, during ... History of RNA biology List of RNA biologists USDA Agricultural Research Service. "Probing the Mystery of Life". Nobelprize.org ... for describing the structure of alanine transfer RNA, linking DNA and protein synthesis. Holley was born in Urbana, Illinois, ...
The D arm is a feature in the tertiary structure of transfer RNA (tRNA). It is composed of the two D stems and the D loop. The ... Smith, Drew; Yarus, Michael (April 1989). "Transfer RNA structure and coding specificity". Journal of Molecular Biology. 206 (3 ...
ISBN 978-0-8493-8217-8.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link) Venkstern, T.V. (1995). The Primary Structure of Transfer RNA ...
In this process RNA is separated based on size and is then transferred to a membrane that is then probed with a labeled ... "Hybridization of denatured RNA and small DNA fragments transferred to nitrocellulose". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... Patricia Thomas, developer of the RNA blot which then became known as the northern blot, actually didn't use the term.[19] ... Josefsen K, Nielsen H (2011). Nielsen H (ed.). RNA methods and protocols. Methods in Molecular Biology. 703. New York: Humana ...
TRE-CTC1-5: Transfer RNA-Glu (CTC) 1-5. *TRP (1q31). *UAP1: UDP-N-acetylhexosamine pyrophosphorylase ...
Madison JT, Everett GA, Kung H (1966). "Nucleotide sequence of a yeast tyrosine transfer RNA". Science 153 (3735): 531-4. ... "Sequence analysis of RNase MRP RNA reveals its origination from eukaryotic RNase P RNA". RNA 12 (5): 699-706. PMC 1440897. PMID ... Eddy SR (2001). "Non-coding RNA genes and the modern RNA world". Nat. Rev. Genet. 2 (12): 919-29. PMID 11733745. doi:10.1038/ ... 1973). "Three-dimensional structure of yeast phenylalanine transfer RNA: folding of the polynucleotide chain". Science 179 ( ...
... "transfer" RNA, which decodes DNA and carries instructions to other parts of the cell. It was groundbreaking research, but ... "Crystal structure of yeast phenylalanine transfer RNA. I. Crystallographic refinement". Journal of Molecular Biology. 123 (4): ... "Tech transfer - Church Lab". arep.med.harvard.edu/gmc/. Retrieved 2 May 2020. BEGLEY, SHARON. "Citing 'nerd tunnel vision,' ... Mali, P.; Yang, L.; Esvelt, K. M.; Aach, J.; Guell, M.; Dicarlo, J. E.; Norville, J. E.; Church, G. M. (2013). "RNA-Guided ...
He firstly synthesized yeast alanine transfer RNA. Gilbert N. Ling, cell physiologist, biochemist. His achievements include ...
"Transfer RNA modifications: nature's combinatorial chemistry playground". Wiley Interdiscip Rev RNA. 4 (1): 35-48. doi:10.1002/ ... In biochemistry, wybutosine (yW) is a heavily modified nucleoside of phenylalanine transfer RNA that stabilizes interactions ... RNA Biol. 2014;11(12):1508-18. doi:10.4161/15476286.2014.992271 PMID 25629788 Suzuki, Y; Noma, A; Suzuki, T; et al. (2007). " ... The enzyme TYW2 then transfers the α-amino-α-carboxypropyl group from Ado-Met, a common substrate involved in methyl group ...
They are transfer RNA (tRNA) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA). tRNA[change , change source]. Transfer RNA (tRNA) is a short molecule of ... RNA is physically different from DNA: DNA contains two intercoiled strands, but RNA only contains one single strand. RNA also ... Protein synthesis RNAs[change , change source]. Messenger RNA[change , change source]. The structure of a mature eukaryotic ... This is called RNA interference.[5][6][7] siRNA[change , change source]. Small interfering RNAs (sometimes called silencing ...
Smolar N, Hellman U, Svensson I (1975). "Two transfer RNA (1-methylguanine) methylases from yeast". Nucleic Acids Res. 2 (6): ... Bjork GR, Svensson I (1969). "Studies on microbial RNA. Fractionation of tRNA methylases from Saccharomyces cerevisiae". Eur. J ... This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring one-carbon group methyltransferases. The ... Other names in common use include transfer ribonucleate guanine 1-methyltransferase, tRNA guanine 1-methyltransferase, and S- ...
"Nucleotide synthetase ribozymes may have emerged first in the RNA world". RNA. 13 (11): 2012-19. doi:10.1261/rna.658507. PMC ... A similar transfer of content across protocells and with the surrounding solution can be caused by freezing and subsequent ... A protocell that was haploid (one copy of each RNA gene) would be vulnerable to damage, since a single lesion in any RNA ... viable daughter cells to be produced would require an extra replication of the intact RNA gene homologous to any RNA gene that ...
Thompson LD, Brandon LD, Nieuwlandt DT, Daniels CJ (January 1989). "Transfer RNA intron processing in the halophilic ... tRNA-intron lyase (EC 4.6.1.16, tRNA intron endonuclease, transfer ribonucleate intron endoribonuclease, tRNA splicing ... endonuclease, splicing endonuclease, tRNATRPintron endonuclease, transfer splicing endonuclease) is an enzyme. This enzyme ...
"tRNA / transfer RNA". Learn Science at Scitable. Fu K, Hartlen R, Johns T, Genge A, Karpati G, Shoubridge EA (November 1996). " ... Mitochondrially encoded tRNA leucine 2 (CUN) also known as MT-TL2 is a transfer RNA which in humans is encoded by the ... MT-TL2 is a small 71 nucleotide RNA (human mitochondrial map position 12266-12336) that transfers the amino acid leucine to a ...
"tRNA / transfer RNA". Learn Science at Scitable. Shoffner JM, Lott MT, Lezza AM, Seibel P, Ballinger SW, Wallace DC (June 1990 ... Mitochondrially encoded tRNA lysine also known as MT-TK is a transfer RNA which in humans is encoded by the mitochondrial MT-TK ... MT-TK is a small 70 nucleotide RNA (human mitochondrial map position 8295-8364) that transfers the amino acid lysine to a ... Yoneda M, Tanno Y, Horai S, Ozawa T, Miyatake T, Tsuji S (August 1990). "A common mitochondrial DNA mutation in the t-RNA(Lys) ...
Mitochondrially encoded tRNA tyrosine also known as MT-TY is a transfer RNA which in humans is encoded by the mitochondrial MT- ... MT-TY is a small 66 nucleotide RNA (human mitochondrial map position 5826-5891) that transfers the amino acid tyrosine to a ... "tRNA / transfer RNA". Learn Science at Scitable. Reference, Genetics Home. "Mitochondrial complex III deficiency". Genetics ...
Finding the virus, viral RNA, or antibodies in blood[1]. Differential diagnosis. Malaria, cholera, typhoid fever, meningitis, ... "Ebola nurse Pauline Cafferkey transferred to London unit". BBC News Online. 30 December 2014. Archived from the original on 30 ... Ebolaviruses contain single-stranded, non-infectious RNA genomes.[46] Ebolavirus genomes contain seven genes including 3'-UTR- ... The specific diagnosis of EVD is confirmed by isolating the virus, detecting its RNA or proteins, or detecting antibodies ...
RNA editing in plastidsEdit. RNA editing is the insertion, deletion, and substitution of nucleotides in a mRNA transcript prior ... Chloroplast genome reduction and gene transferEdit. Over time, many parts of the chloroplast genome were transferred to the ... Chloroplasts also contain a mysterious second RNA polymerase that is encoded by the plant's nuclear genome. The two RNA ... "Endosymbiotic gene transfer and transcriptional regulation of transferred genes in Paulinella chromatophora". Molecular Biology ...
In late 1983, Prince Andrew transferred to RNAS Portland, was trained to fly the Lynx helicopter, and was promoted to the rank ... On 23 October 1986, the Duke of York (as he was by then) transferred to the General List, enrolled in a four-month helicopter ... 1984-1992: Lieutenant, Pilot, 815 NAS on HMS Brazen; Helicopter Warfare Instructor, 702 NAS at RNAS Culdrose; Flight Commander ... 1992-1999: Lieutenant Commander, Captain, HMS Cottesmore; Senior Pilot, 815 NAS at RNAS Portland; Directorate of Naval ...
RNA editing. Octopuses and other coleoid cephalopods are capable of greater RNA editing (which involves changes to the nucleic ... Mann, T. (2012). Spermatophores: Development, Structure, Biochemical Attributes and Role in the Transfer of Spermatozoa. ... Coleoids rely mostly on ADAR enzymes for RNA editing, which requires large double-stranded RNA structures to flank to the ... High levels of RNA editing do not appear to be present in more basal cephalopods or other molluscs.[118][119] ...
On 18 May 2012 it flew the Olympic flame from Athens International Airport to RNAS Culdrose while carrying various dignitaries ... Passengers wishing to travel internationally with BA either to or from regional UK destinations must now transfer in London.[60 ...
"An RNA Pseudoknot Is Required for Production of Yellow Fever Virus Subgenomic RNA by the Host Nuclease XRN1". Journal of ... were probably transferred to North and South America with the importation of slaves from Africa, part of the Columbian Exchange ... Yellow fever is caused by yellow fever virus, a 40- to 50-nm-wide enveloped RNA virus, the type species and namesake of the ... The virus is an RNA virus of the genus Flavivirus.[7] The disease may be difficult to tell apart from other illnesses, ...
The most important RNA genes are transfer RNA (tRNA) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA), both of which are involved in the process of ... and thus RNA genes may play a much more significant role than previously thought. *Transfer RNA (tRNA)-transfers specific amino ... Non-coding RNA or "RNA genes". These are a broad class of genes that encode RNA which is not translated into protein. ... RNA polymerase IV synthesizes siRNA in plants.[5]. *RNA polymerase V synthesizes RNAs involved in siRNA-directed ...
negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • proteolysis. • regulation of synaptic plasticity. • ...
... catalyses strand transfer between a broken sequence and its undamaged homologue to allow re-synthesis of the damaged ... messenger RNA. [13]. Breast cancer (progesteron receptor negative). Over-expression. -. messenger RNA. [16]. ...
The VPgpUpUOH primer is transferred to the 3' end of the RNA template for elongation, which can continue by addition of ... strand RNA genome is replicated through a double-stranded RNA intermediate that is formed using viral RDRP (RNA-Dependent RNA ... The mRNA encodes RNA dependent RNA polymerase. This polymerase makes complementary minus strands of RNA, then uses them as ... Genomic RNAs of picornaviruses possess multiple RNA elements and they are required for both negative and plus strand RNA ...
"Evidence for a Novel Marine Harmful Algal Bloom: Cyanotoxin (Microcystin) Transfer from Land to Sea Otters". PLoS ONE. 5 (9): ... is toxic to liver and kidney tissue and is thought to inhibit protein synthesis and to covalently modify DNA and/or RNA. There ...
... although there are many introns in their transfer RNA and ribosomal RNA genes,[146] and introns may occur in a few protein- ... Archaea were split off as a third domain because of the large differences in their ribosomal RNA structure. The particular RNA ... Asexual reproduction, horizontal gene transfer. Asexual reproduction, horizontal gene transfer. Sexual and asexual reproduction ... Plasmids may be transferred between cells by physical contact, in a process that may be similar to bacterial conjugation.[132][ ...
... the TATA box is found at RNA polymerase II promoter regions, although some in vitro studies have demonstrated that RNA ... "Single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer shows uniformity in TATA binding protein-induced DNA bending and ... "RNA polymerase III accurately initiates transcription from RNA polymerase II promoters in vitro". The Journal of Biological ... TATA-binding protein (TBP) can be recruited in two ways, by SAGA, a cofactor for RNA polymerase II, or by TFIID.[11] When ...
The combined effects of the imaging conditions are known as the contrast transfer function (CTF), and can be approximated ... Important information on protein synthesis, ligand binding and RNA interaction can be obtained using this novel technique at ...
... such as DNA or RNA. It is useful for molecules of up to 100 nucleotides, and as of 2003, nearly half of all known RNA ... These include correlation spectroscopy (COSY) and total coherence transfer spectroscopy (TOCSY) to detect through-bond nuclear ... Interactions between RNA and metal ions can be probed by a number of methods, including observing changes in chemical shift ... For RNA, the differences in chemical structure and helix geometry make this assignment more technically difficult, but still ...
The first life forms and self-replicating RNA molecules evolve around 4,000 Ma, after the Late Heavy Bombardment ends on Earth ... compatible with geospatial information transfer standards". Geosphere. 1 (3): 119-137. Bibcode:2005Geosp...1..119C. doi:10.1130 ...
Transfer RNA (tRNA). *Ribosome-nascent chain complex (RNC). *Post-translational modification (functional groups · peptides · ... A fundamental building block of RNA structure crucial to RNA function in diverse biological systems". EMBO Rep. 1 (1): 18-23. ...
transferase activity, transferring acyl groups. • 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity. • RNA binding. • acetyl-CoA C- ... transferase activity, transferring acyl groups other than amino-acyl groups. • enoyl-CoA hydratase activity. • long-chain-3- ... The encoded protein can also bind RNA and decreases the stability of some mRNAs. The genes of the alpha and beta subunits of ...
"for their discovery of catalytic properties of RNA"[۳۳] ۱۹۹۲ رادولف مارکوس[۱] United States "for his contributions to the ... theory of electron transfer reactions in chemical systems"[۳۴] ۱۹۹۸ والتر کوهن[۱] United States "for his development of the ... "for his discovery of آران‌ای سرکوبگر - gene silencing by double-stranded RNA"[۷۹] ...
Reproduction and gene transfer[change , change source]. A bacterium reproduces (creates more bacteria) by dividing in half and ... All modern ideas start with the sequence analysis of DNA and RNA. In 1987, Carl Woese, the forerunner of the molecular ... Bacteria do not have sexes, but they do transmit DNA by several kinds of horizontal gene transfer. This is how they share ... phylogeny revolution, divided bacteria into 11 divisions based on 16S ribosomal RNA (SSU) sequences:[5][6] ...
... coli ribonuclease which removes an extra nucleotide from a biosynthetic intermediate of bacteriophage T4 proline transfer RNA ...
Aviation Reconnaissance Force (RNAS Yeovilton / 38 Brigade Flying Station Aldergrove) *1 Regiment *No. 652 Squadron - Wildcat ... The MOD's intention was to provide a single focus for the transfer of best practice from service to service and for removing, ... Four options for the location of JHC Headquarters were also examined, with RNAS Yeovilton in Somerset, AAC Netheravon in ... Commando Helicopter Force (RNAS Yeovilton) *845 Naval Air Squadron - Merlin HC4/3A ...
Studies of retroviruses led to the first demonstrated synthesis of DNA from RNA templates, a fundamental mode for transferring ... RNA: consists of a dimer RNA. It has a cap at the 5' end and a poly(A) tail at the 3' end. The RNA genome also has terminal ... These inserts are transcribed by enzymes of the host into new RNA molecules that enter the cytosol. Next, some of these RNA ... In most viruses, DNA is transcribed into RNA, and then RNA is translated into protein. However, retroviruses function ...
Werner F (2007). "Structure and function of archaeal RNA polymerases". Mol. Microbiol. 65 (6): 1395-404. PMID 17697097. doi: ... Davies PC (1996). "The transfer of viable microorganisms between planets". Ciba Found. Symp. 202: 304-14; discussion 314-7. ... Rosenshine I, Tchelet R, Mevarech M. (1989). "The mechanism of DNA transfer in the mating system of an archaebacterium". ... "Evidence for lateral gene transfer between Archaea and bacteria from genome sequence of Thermotoga maritima". Nature 399 (6734 ...
... and destroys any residual RNA that may still be present in the DNA. The choice of alkaline over neutral transfer methods, ... If transferring by suction, 20X SSC buffer is used to ensure a seal and prevent drying of the gel. Buffer transfer by capillary ... Southern blotting transfer may be used for homology-based cloning on the basis of amino acid sequence of the protein product of ... The transfer step of the DNA from the electrophoresis gel to a membrane permits easy binding of the labeled hybridization probe ...
೪೧.೦ ೪೧.೧ Eddy SR (December 2001). "Non-coding RNA genes and the modern RNA world". Nat. Rev. Genet. 2 (12): 919-29. doi: ... ೨೮.೦ ೨೮.೧ Bennett, PM (March 2008). "Plasmid encoded antibiotic resistance: acquisition and transfer of antibiotic resistance ... ೯೦.೦ ೯೦.೧ Claverie JM (September 2005). "Fewer genes, more noncoding RNA". Science 309 (5740): 1529-30. Bibcode:2005Sci... ... Domingo, E; Escarmís, C; Sevilla, N; Moya, A; Elena, SF; Quer, J; Novella, IS; Holland, JJ (June 1996). "Basic concepts in RNA ...
Ernest Rutherford stated in 1931 that "thanks to the fine experiments of Professor Millikan and the even more far-reaching experiments of Professor Regener, we have now got for the first time, a curve of absorption of these radiations in water which we may safely rely upon".[27] In the 1920s, the term cosmic rays was coined by Robert Millikan who made measurements of ionization due to cosmic rays from deep under water to high altitudes and around the globe. Millikan believed that his measurements proved that the primary cosmic rays were gamma rays; i.e., energetic photons. And he proposed a theory that they were produced in interstellar space as by-products of the fusion of hydrogen atoms into the heavier elements, and that secondary electrons were produced in the atmosphere by Compton scattering of gamma rays. But then, sailing from Java to the Netherlands in 1927, Jacob Clay found evidence,[28] later confirmed in many experiments, that cosmic ray intensity increases from the tropics to ...
Similarly, tRNA is suggested to have evolved from RNA molecules that began to catalyze amino acid transfer.[37]. RNA in ... Atkins JF, Gesteland RF, Cech T (2006). The RNA world: the nature of modern RNA suggests a prebiotic RNA world. Plainview, N.Y ... of RNAs with molecular properties predicted for RNAs of the RNA World constitutes an additional argument supporting the RNA ... Properties of RNA[edit]. The properties of RNA make the idea of the RNA world hypothesis conceptually plausible, though its ...
doi:10.4161/rna.27177. PMC 3917982. PMID 24351723.. *^ a b Shigematsu M, Honda S, Kirino Y (2014). "Transfer RNA as a source of ... "Transfer RNA (tRNA)". Proteopedia.org. Retrieved 7 November 2018.. *^ a b c d e f Itoh Y, Sekine S, Suetsugu S, Yokoyama S ( ... A transfer RNA molecule is used in translation and consists of a single RNA strand that is only about 80 nucleotides long, ... "Transfer RNA-derived fragments: origins, processing, and functions" (PDF). Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: RNA. 2 (6): 853-62 ...
In addition to tRNA there are two other major types of RNA: messenger RNA (mRNA) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA). By 1960 the ... Transfer RNA (tRNA), small molecule in cells that carries amino acids to organelles called ribosomes, where they are linked ... and RNA polymerase III synthesizes transfer RNA (tRNA) and other small RNAs. The types of RNA transcribed by these two ... nucleic acid: Transfer RNA (tRNA). Transfer RNA (tRNA) carries individual amino acids into the ribosome for assembly into the ...
... a small RNA molecule, consisting of a strand of nucleotides folded into a clover-leaf shape, that picks up an unattached amino ... transfer RNA. noun 1. (biochem) any of several soluble forms of RNA of low molecular weight, each of which transports a ... amino acid to a ribosome during protein synthesis Sometimes shortened to t-RNA Also called soluble RNA See also messenger RNA, ... a small RNA molecule, consisting of a strand of nucleotides folded into a clover-leaf shape, that picks up an unattached amino ...
Intracellular condition of Escherichia coli transfer RNA. C D Yegian, G S Stent, and E M Martin ...
A summary of Transfer RNA in s Molecular Biology: Translation. Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section ... That component is transfer RNA (tRNA), which acts as a kind of link between the information encoded in the mRNA and the amino ... Transfer RNA molecules vary in length between 60 and 95 nucleotides, with the majority measuring about 75 nucleotides (much ... Previous section Introduction TO DNA Translation Next page Transfer RNA page 2 ...
Transfer RNA genes experience exceptionally elevated mutation rates. Bryan P. Thornlow, Josh Hough, Jacquelyn M. Roger, Henry ... Transfer RNA genes experience exceptionally elevated mutation rates. Bryan P. Thornlow, Josh Hough, Jacquelyn M. Roger, Henry ... Transfer RNA genes experience exceptionally elevated mutation rates. Bryan P. Thornlow, Josh Hough, Jacquelyn M. Roger, Henry ... Transfer RNA genes experience exceptionally elevated mutation rates Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ...
A transfer RNA (abbreviated tRNA and formerly referred to as sRNA, for soluble RNA[1]) is an adaptor molecule composed of RNA, ... doi:10.4161/rna.27177. PMC 3917982 . PMID 24351723.. *^ a b Shigematsu Megumi; et al. (2014). "Transfer RNA as a source of ... "Characterization of circulating transfer RNA-derived RNA fragments in cattle". Front Genet. 6: 271. doi:10.3389/fgene. ... 2011). "Transfer RNA-derived fragments: origins, processing, and functions". Wiley interdisciplinary reviews. 2: 853-862. doi: ...
The RNA origin of transfer RNA aminoacylation and beyond. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2011 Oct 27;366(1580):2959-2964. ... The RNA origin of transfer RNA aminoacylation and beyond. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2011 Oct 27;366(1580):2959-2964. ... The RNA origin of transfer RNA aminoacylation and beyond. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2011 Oct 27;366(1580):2959-2964. ... The RNA origin of transfer RNA aminoacylation and beyond. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2011 Oct 27;366(1580):2959-2964. ...
... is responsible for decoding another type of RNA, messenger RNA or mRNA, in order to carry out the process of protein synthesis ... Transfer RNA, or tRNA, is responsible for decoding another type of RNA, messenger RNA or mRNA, in order to carry out the ... There are three types of RNA, or ribonucleic acid, which carry out this function: messenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA) and ... A: RNA synthesis is performed by an enzyme called RNA polymerase. Synthesis begins when the RNA polymerase approaches the ...
... the methyl groups of the methylated bases are detected in the spectra of unfractionated transfer RNA and alanine transfer RNA. ... The temperature dependence of the areas under the proton magnetic resonance spectra of unfractionated yeast transfer RNA in 1.0 ...
Raman spectrum of purified formylmethionine transfer RNA from Escherichia coli has been observed in its aqueous solution. In ...
transfer RNA glycine (anticodon UCC). Gene type. tRNA. RefSeq status. MODEL. Organism. Phascolarctos cinereus Lineage. ... TRNAG-UCC transfer RNA glycine (anticodon UCC) [ Phascolarctos cinereus (koala) ] Gene ID: 110210044, updated on 12-May-2017 ... Model RNAs and proteins are also reported here.. Reference phaCin_unsw_v4.1 Primary Assembly. Genomic * NW_018343984.1 ...
However, an experimentally determined mechanism of methyl-transfer remains to be ascertained. The physiological functions of ... Tomikawa, C. 7-Methylguanosine Modifications in Transfer RNA (tRNA). Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 4080. ... Tomikawa C. 7-Methylguanosine Modifications in Transfer RNA (tRNA). International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2018; 19(12): ... Keywords: RNA modification; tRNA methyltransferase; tRNA modification; methylase RNA modification; tRNA methyltransferase; tRNA ...
Transfer-messenger RNA (abbreviated tmRNA, also known as 10Sa RNA and by its genetic name SsrA) is a bacterial RNA molecule ... "Transfer-messenger RNA unfolds as it transits the ribosome". RNA. 11 (5): 668-73. doi:10.1261/rna.7269305. PMC 1370753. PMID ... "Semiautomated improvement of RNA alignments". RNA. 13 (11): 1850-9. doi:10.1261/rna.215407. PMC 2040093. PMID 17804647. Gur E, ... tmRNA was first designated 10Sa RNA after a mixed "10S" electrophoretic fraction of Escherichia coli RNA was further resolved ...
RNA interference (RNAi) is widely used as a reverse genetic approach for functional analysis of plant genes. Constitutive or ... Jung H., Zhai Z., Vatamaniuk O.K. (2011) Direct Transfer of Synthetic Double-Stranded RNA into Protoplasts of Arabidopsis ... Direct Transfer of Synthetic Double-Stranded RNA into Protoplasts of Arabidopsis thaliana. ... Baulcombe, D. (2004) RNA silencing in plants. Nature 431, 356-363.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
II: Transfer RNA. Transfer RNA is a fairly small molecule, consisting of 75-90 nucleotides, which folds over itself (via ... Transfer RNA III. Seryl-tRNA Synthetase IV. tRNA-Synthetase Interactions V. ATP Binding VI. References I: Introduction. One of ... Transfer RNA and its Interactions with Seryl-tRNA Synthetase Michael W. Hapiak, 99. Table of Contents:. I. Introduction II. ... Here we will examine the structures of transfer RNA and seryl-tRNA synthetase, as well as the interactive complex they form ...
... transfer RNA explanation free. What is transfer RNA? Meaning of transfer RNA medical term. What does transfer RNA mean? ... Looking for online definition of transfer RNA in the Medical Dictionary? ... ribosomal RNA (rRNA), small Interfering RNA (siRNA), small nuclear RNA (snRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA) or other.. DNA and RNA ... Synonym(s): acceptor RNA, soluble RNA. transfer RNA. n. Abbr. tRNA. One of a class of RNA molecules that transport amino acids ...
High-resolution X-ray diffraction studies on a pure species of transfer RNA. Ladner, J.E., Finch, J.T., Klug, A.,& ... Structure of yeast phenylalanine transfer RNA at 2.5 A resolution. Ladner, J.E., Jack, A., Robertus, J.D., Brown, R ... CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF YEAST PHENYLALANINE TRANSFER RNA AT 2.0 A RESOLUTION. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb1EVV/pdb ... Restrained refinement of two crystalline forms of yeast aspartic acid and phenylalanine transfer RNA crystals. Westhof, E.,& ...
Home » The Scan » Nature Papers Uncover Disease Susceptibility Loci in Japanese Population, Transfer RNA Modification Profiling ... Nature Papers Uncover Disease Susceptibility Loci in Japanese Population, Transfer RNA Modification Profiling. Jun 11, 2020 ... In Nature this week: spatiotemporally resolved map of the human cell cycle, folding single-cell RNA sequencing into cancer drug ...
Maréchal-Drouard, L., P. Guillemaut, A. Cosset, M. Arbogast, F. Weber et al., 1990 Transfer RNAs of potato (Solanum tuberosum) ... Transfer RNAs purified on a 15% denaturing polyacrylamide gel (Maréchal-Drouard et al. 1995) were used as a substrate for RT- ... Maréchal-Drouard, L., I. Small, J.-H. Weil and A. Dietrich, 1995 Transfer RNA import into plant mitochondria, pp. 310-327 in ... On the Evolution and Expression of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Nucleus-Encoded Transfer RNA Genes. Valérie Cognat, Jean-Marc ...
8.19: Transfer RNA Sentezi tRNAnın benzersiz özelliklerinden biri, modifiye edilmiş bazların varlığıdır. Bazı tRNAlarda, ... Modified bases in transfer RNA. Journal of Biosciences 6, no. 5 (1984): 757-770. ... Bir tRNA geni, RNA polimeraz III tarafından uzun öncü tRNA veya pre-RNA olarak transkribe edilir. ... Transfer RNAlar veya tRNAlar, protein sentezinde önemli bir rol oynayan kodlamayan RNAlardır. Ökaryotik hücreler, her biri ...
RNA, Transfer, His: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying histidine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for ...
RNA; Bacterial/*metabolism, RNA; Transfer/*metabolism, Salmonella typhimurium/*genetics/growth & development, Sulfhydryl ... RNA; Bacterial/*metabolism, RNA; Transfer/*metabolism, Salmonella typhimurium/*chemistry/genetics, Sulfhydryl Compounds/* ... Frameshifting as a tool in analysis of transfer RNA modification and translation. Leipuviene, Ramune Umeå University, Faculty ... Based on our results, we suggest two principal distinct routes for thiolation of tRNA: (i) a direct sulfur transfer from IscS ...
Transfer RNA and Transfer RNA Modification in Differentiation and Neoplasia. *. Introduction to the Second Part of the ... Transfer RNA and Transfer RNA Methylation in Growing and "Resting" Adult and Embryonic Tissues and in Various Oncogenic Systems ... Transfer RNA and Transfer RNA Methylation in Growing and "Resting" Adult and Embryonic Tissues and in Various Oncogenic Systems ... Studies on Synthesis and Modification of Transfer RNA Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Cancer ...
Transfer RNA carries amino acid groups to ribosomes for protein synthesis. Protein synthesis is controlled by DNA ( ... Computer artwork of the double helix of tRNA (transfer ribonucleic acid), formed by spiralling paired strands of sugar ... Caption: Transfer RNA molecule. Computer artwork of the double helix of tRNA (transfer ribonucleic acid), formed by spiralling ... Transfer RNA carries amino acid groups to ribosomes for protein synthesis. Protein synthesis is controlled by DNA ( ...
Structural Biochemistry/Nucleic Acid/RNA/mRNA processing and transfer. From Wikibooks, open books for an open world ... mRNA processing and transfer surrounds the movement of mRNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. After transcription, a process ... This occurs because Gle1 enhances the ATPase efficiency of Dbp5 as well as its affinity for RNA. IP6 enhances the attraction ... Structural Biochemistry‎ , Nucleic Acid‎ , RNA. This page may need to be reviewed for quality. ...
RNA transfer between Dhh1 and Ded1 droplets. c, Forward reaction: Dhh1-mCherry droplets were assembled with Cy5-labelled RNA ... 10: DDX ATPase activity regulates transfer of RNA molecules between phase-separated compartments in vivo and in vitro.. From: ... 10: DDX ATPase activity regulates transfer of RNA molecules between phase-separated compartments in vivo and in vitro. , Nature ... At t = 180 s, 16.7 ± 2.7% of the Cy5-RNA is enriched in Ded1-GFP droplets that occupy 5-7% of the surface area (n = 3 movies). ...
RNA transfer to nitrocellulose membrane (Northern blot) - (Mar/08/2012 ). Good morning everybody,. I have some problems with ... It means that the transfer of RNA samples loaded to the central gel pockets is not so effective as for "side" samples (it was ... After overnight transfer of RNA from formaldehyde-containing agarose gel to the nitrocellulose membrane I always observe a " ... I use upward capillary transfer with NaCl/NaOH-containing transfer buffer, stack of paper towels and 400g weight above it.. Can ...
  • the anticodon base-pairs with a complementary codon on mRNA and (abbreviated tRNA and formerly referred to as sRNA , for soluble RNA [1] ) is an adaptor molecule composed of RNA , typically 76 to 90 nucleotides in length, [2] that serves as the physical link between the mRNA and the amino acid sequence of proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • tRNA does this by carrying an amino acid to the protein synthetic machinery of a cell ( ribosome ) as directed by a 3-nucleotide sequence ( codon ) in a messenger RNA (mRNA). (wikipedia.org)
  • If the tRNA's anticodon matches the mRNA, another tRNA already bound to the ribosome transfers the growing polypeptide chain from its 3' end to the amino acid attached to the 3' end of the newly delivered tRNA, a reaction catalyzed by the ribosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transfer RNA (tRNA) , small molecule in cells that carries amino acids to organelles called ribosomes , where they are linked into proteins . (britannica.com)
  • By 1960 the involvement of tRNAs in the assembly of proteins was demonstrated by several scientists, including American biochemist Robert William Holley , who also developed techniques to separate different transfer RNAs from cells and determined the composition of the tRNA that incorporates the amino acid alanine into protein molecules. (britannica.com)
  • Transfer RNA (tRNA) carries individual amino acids into the ribosome for assembly into the growing polypeptide chain. (britannica.com)
  • That component is transfer RNA (tRNA), which acts as a kind of link between the information encoded in the mRNA and the amino acids. (sparknotes.com)
  • While transcription-associated mutagenesis (TAM) has been demonstrated for protein-coding genes, its implications in shaping genome structure at transfer RNA (tRNA) loci in metazoans have not been fully appreciated. (pnas.org)
  • Although in the modern system protein enzymes play the sole role in tRNA aminoacylation, in the primitive translation system RNA molecules could have catalysed aminoacylation onto tRNA or tRNA-like molecules. (nih.gov)
  • Transfer RNA, or tRNA, is responsible for decoding another type of RNA, messenger RNA or mRNA, in order to carry out the process of protein synthesis. (reference.com)
  • There are three types of RNA, or ribonucleic acid, which carry out this function: messenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA). (reference.com)
  • An anticodon is part of a transfer RNA molecule abbreviated tRNA for short. (reference.com)
  • Here we will examine the structures of transfer RNA and seryl-tRNA synthetase, as well as the interactive complex they form with eachother during translation. (kenyon.edu)
  • short-chain RNA molecules present in cells in at least 20 varieties, each variety is capable of combining with a specific amino acid (see aminoacyl-tRNA). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • When a molecule of transfer RNA is linked to the amino acid corresponding to its anticodon it becomes aminoacyl-tRNA. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Phylogenetic analysis strongly suggests that tRNA Asp -related SINEs originate from a prokaryotic-type tRNA either horizontally transferred from a bacterium or originally present in mitochondria or chloroplasts. (genetics.org)
  • Gli RNA di trasferimento o i tRNA non codificanti, giocano un ruolo importante nella sintesi proteica. (jove.com)
  • Un gene tRNA è trascritto da RNA polimerasi III come un lungo precursore tRNA o pre-RNA. (jove.com)
  • La prima fase del trattamento del tRNA comporta la rimozione della sequenza dei cinque primi leader ed è catalizzata da un enzima RNA chiamato ribonucleasi P o RNasi P.Questo enzima contiene 00 01 29.920 00:01:33.730 RNA cataliticamente attivo che rimuove la sequenza dei cinque primi leader. (jove.com)
  • Complementation of a 3-nucleotide codon in a messenger RNA (mRNA) by a 3-nucleotide anticodon of the tRNA results in protein synthesis based on the mRNA code. (wikipedia.org)
  • Computer artwork of the double helix of tRNA (transfer ribonucleic acid), formed by spiralling paired strands of sugar phosphates, linked by nucleotide base pairs. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Transfer-messenger RNA (abbreviated tmRNA, also known as 10Sa RNA and by its genetic name SsrA) is a bacterial RNA molecule with dual tRNA-like and messenger RNA-like properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • The presence of pseudouridine in the mixed 10S RNA hinted that tmRNA has modified bases found also in tRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • High-throughput genome sequencing continues to grow the need for rapid, accurate genome annotation and tRNA genes constitute the largest family of essential, ever-present non-coding RNA genes. (nih.gov)
  • The compounds are formed from amino acids, ATP and transfer RNA, a reaction catalyzed by aminoacyl tRNA synthetase. (curehunter.com)
  • The RNAs involved began to be known as transfer RNAs (tRNAs), and the activating enzymes came to be known as aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. (asmscience.org)
  • This approach, together with RNA synthesis, for investigation of the sequence-dependent aminoacylation of RNA oligonucleotides in vitro has proved most useful for studying aminoacyl tRNA synthetases-tRNA recognitions in vivo. (asmscience.org)
  • tRNA-ALA is a mitochondrial noncoding gene that produces the nucleic acid adaptor molecule transfer RNA (tRNA). (cags.org.ae)
  • Of the thousands of RNAs so far identified, transfer RNA (tRNA) is the most direct intermediary between genes and proteins. (phys.org)
  • Like many other RNAs (ribonucleic acids), tRNA aids in translating genes into the chains of amino acids that make up proteins. (phys.org)
  • In order to successfully add its amino acid to the end of a growing protein, tRNA must also accurately read a coded segment of messenger RNA, which gives instructions for the exact sequence of amino acids in the protein. (phys.org)
  • Specifically, this tRNA is responsible for the transfer of the amino acid leucine to its correct position during mitochondrial protein translation. (cags.org.ae)
  • In large model axons, such as the goldfish Mauthner axon and the squid giant axon, axoplasmic RNA includes the main cytoplasmic species, that is, tRNA, rRNA, and mRNA. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Among these mutations, mitochondrial transfer RNA (mt-tRNA) is the hot spot. (alliedacademies.org)
  • We analyzed the immunostimulatory potential of transfer RNA (tRNA) from different bacteria. (rupress.org)
  • However, the role of RNA methylation in natural occurring RNA such as bacterial tRNA has not been analyzed. (rupress.org)
  • T4 RNA ligase can also be used to synthesize the fifteen nucleotide long anticodon arm region of yeast tRNA('phe) complete with modified nucleotides and a four base pair helical stem. (illinois.edu)
  • Almost simultaneously, analysis of an E. coli spoU gene deletion strain revealed that spoU encodes a tRNA (Gm18) methyltransferase [ 7 ], which catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S -adenosyl- l -methionine (AdoMet) to the 2'-OH of ribose of G18 in tRNA to produce Gm18 modification ( Figure 1 and Figure 2 ) [ 8 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The genomic RNA is 6.3 kb long, with a 5′ m7 GpppG cap and a 3′ untranslated region ending in a tRNA-like structure to which valine can be covalently added. (bspp.org.uk)
  • These results suggest that recognition of tRNAs for import is idiosyncratic and likely to depend on protein/RNA interactions that are specific to each tRNA or each isoacceptor group. (deepdyve.com)
  • Over 450 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes have been annotated in the human genome. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Transfer RNA determinants for translational editing by Escherichia coli valyl-tRNA synthetase. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Thus, study of the evolution of tRNA molecules may reveal the processes that led to the establishment of the central dogma: genetic information flows from DNA to RNA to protein. (nih.gov)
  • These fragmented small RNAs are known as tRNA-derived fragments (tRFs). (nih.gov)
  • The eukaryotic pre-mRNA intron is recognized by base pairing to short RNA molecules such as U1, U2, U4, U5, and U6, whereas the pre-tRNA intron is recognized by a specific enzyme (complex), the tRNA splicing endonuclease [9,10]. (nih.gov)
  • The tRNA intron forms a specific RNA secondary structure, the bulge-helix-bulge (BHB), with parts of the exon sequences [11], and this structure is the target of the tRNA splicing endonuclease (shown by arrowheads in Figure 1A) [12]. (nih.gov)
  • Schematic diagram of features common to transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules, depicting the anticodon and amino acid attachment regions. (en-academic.com)
  • Transfer RNA - tRNA ist die Kurzform für transfer RNA. (en-academic.com)
  • Der Anteil der tRNA an der Gesamt-RNA der Zelle liegt bei 10-15%, die Sedimentationskonstante beträgt etwa 4S. (deacademic.com)
  • Transfer RNA-guanine ribosyltransferase (TGRase) irreversibly incorporates queuine into the first position in the anticodon of four tRNA isoacceptors. (elsevier.com)
  • Of all the RNAs, tRNA exhibits the largest number and most diverse modifications with cells from all kingdoms of life allocating a large portion of their genome to encoding enzymes involved in the post-transcriptional modification of nucleosides in tRNA [1]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • So far, at least 20 types of mitochondrial mutations and 5 types of rearrangements have been detected to be relative with diabetes2, among which the A-to-G transfer in 3243 site of mitochondrial tRNA leucine gene is the most common. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • transfer RNA: Anthropology dictionary [home, info] Transfer_RNA (tRNA): AGRICULTURAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHNOLOGY [home, info] (Note: See transfer_rnas for more definitions. (randallsengraving.com)
  • Transfer-messenger RNA (abbreviated tmRNA, also known as 10Sa RNA and by its genetic name SsrA) is a bacterial RNA molecule with dual tRNA-like and messenger RNA-like properties.The tmRNA forms a ribonucleoprotein complex (tmRNP) together with Small Protein B (), Elongation Factor Tu (), and ribosomal protein S1. (joasiaimaciek.eu)
  • transfers the DNA… This distribution of cytokinin activity in tRNA species of Escherichia coli has been determined. (joasiaimaciek.eu)
  • In the present study, we sequenced the entire mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Ectropis oblique using PCR amplification and sequencing methods The entire mitogenome is 15,356bp long, including 13 protein coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, two ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and A+T rich element. (usda.gov)
  • Ribosomes facilitate translation in the cytoplasm, by inducing the binding of complimentary transfer RNA (tRNA) anticodon sequences to the mRNA. (news-medical.net)
  • mRNA must interact with ribosomal RNA (rRNA), the central component of ribosomal machinery that recognizes the start and stop codons of mRNA, and tRNA, which provides the amino acid once bound with a complimentary mRNA codon. (news-medical.net)
  • During this process, the amino acid is first activated by the addition of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and then transferred to the tRNA, making it a charged tRNA, and AMP is released. (chromoscience.com)
  • Transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA) acts first as a tRNA and then as an mRNA template to rescue stalled ribosomes in eubacteria. (elsevier.com)
  • We analyzed the codon and amino acid usages in mimiviruses, as well as both the transfer RNA (tRNA) and amino acyl-tRNA synthetases. (ird.fr)
  • The set of 260 input genes encodes proteins involved in ribosome biogenesis, tRNA maturation and aminoacylation, as well as proteins cofactors required for mRNA translation and RNA decay. (plos.org)
  • Enzymes introducing nucleotides modifications in the anticodon loop of tRNA, in helix 44 of 16S rRNA and in helices 69 and 80 of 23S rRNA, all essential for decoding and facilitating peptidyl transfer, are maintained in all species. (plos.org)
  • One of the first ribozymes to be discovered was RNase P, a ribonuclease that is involved in generating tRNA molecules from larger, precursor RNAs. (news-medical.net)
  • The regulation of eukaryotic transfer RNA gene expression serves largely to adapt the abundance of each isoacceptor tRNA species to the codon frequencies and amino acid usages particular to different cell types. (mcmaster.ca)
  • To overcome this, a nonsense suppressor transfer RNA gene has been utilized to study the regulation of tRNA gene expression in mammalian cells. (mcmaster.ca)
  • As an alternative approach to examining this possibility, an oligonucleotide containing the recognition site for the Escherichia coli lac repressor was inserted at various positions in the 5' flanking region of the human serine tRNA gene and the consequences of binding lac repressor on in vitro transcription by RNA polymerase III was investigated. (mcmaster.ca)
  • These results show that the functional human RNA polymerase III transcription complex extends at least 35 nucleotides upstream of the tRNA gene coding region and that the sequences surrounding the transcription start site remain accessible to DNA-binding proteins throughout multiple rounds of transcription. (mcmaster.ca)
  • RNA synthesis is performed by an enzyme called RNA polymerase. (reference.com)
  • Synthesis begins when the RNA polymerase approaches the promoter gene, produces a single-str. (reference.com)
  • Sastry, S. S. and Ross, B. M. (1997) Nuclease activity of T7 RNA polymerase and the heterogeneity of transcription elongation complexes. (springer.com)
  • PhysOrg.com) -- A pair of University of Massachusetts Amherst chemists believe they have for the first time explained how the main players in transcription -- RNA polymerase, RNA (red in illustration) and the DNA template (blue) -- come together and link tightly enough to create a stable complex while DNA unwinds to pass crucial genetic information to RNA, but not so tightly that they can't come apart easily once transcription is complete. (phys.org)
  • In it, a flexible thread of RNA winds around the ladder-like DNA strand , creating a loop that locks them together as RNA polymerase makes RNA from the DNA template. (phys.org)
  • Elongation involves RNA polymerase, an enzyme that makes RNA by first positioning itself next to DNA genes, then the DNA template it uses to form RNA, from which proteins are synthesized. (phys.org)
  • However, with this new understanding of the topological lock, in which RNA polymerase loops around and through the DNA template, it seems more clear why eight base pairs is optimal, Martin notes. (phys.org)
  • Investigation will continue in Martin's laboratory on transcription in general and on the role of RNA polymerase in the proper regulation of RNA synthesis, including the starting or promoter sequences and termination message that ends it. (phys.org)
  • First, functional ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNPs) were recovered from SeV cloned cDNA defective in the F (envelope fusion protein) gene, in the presence of plasmids expressing nucleocapsid protein and viral RNA polymerase. (asm.org)
  • the catalytic subunit of the polymerase) form a ribonucleoprotein complex (RNP) with the SeV genomic RNA, and the RNP acts as a template for transcription and replication. (asm.org)
  • p206, which contains sequences indicative of RNA capping, NTPase/helicase and polymerase activities, is the only viral protein that is necessary for genome replication in single cells. (bspp.org.uk)
  • Initial recognition of promoter DNA by RNA polymerase (RNAP) is proposed to trigger a series of conformational changes beginning with bending and wrapping of the 40-50 bp of DNA immediately upstream of the −35 region. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Efficient conversion of closed promoter complexes (generically called CC) to open complexes (generically OC) requires interactions of RNA polymerase (RNAP) with upstream and downstream DNA as well as with the central recognition region from the −35 element to the transcription start site (+1). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • To overcome the transient inhibitory effects of transfected RNA molecule synthesis in vitro, expression plasmids, mostly based on RNA polymerase III promoters, have been designed to achieve long-term or stable inhibition of the target genes. (eurekaselect.com)
  • These processes, both potentially leading to protein production, were initially described only in viral systems, and although RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity was shown to be present, and RNA-dependent RNA synthesis found to occur, in most, if not all, mammalian cells, its function was presumed to be restricted to regulatory. (preprints.org)
  • The RNA to which the information is transcribed is messenger RNA ().The process associated with RNA polymerase is to unwind the DNA … DNA Quizlet. (randallsengraving.com)
  • Color enhanced platinum-shadowed electron micrograph (freeze-fracture TEM) showing characteristic attachment of RNA polymerase molecules to DNA strands. (gettyimages.com)
  • Also unanticipated, said Meers, was that the process of transferring information depended on the presence of an unexpected enzyme, DNA polymerase Zeta. (gatech.edu)
  • Exploiting such an assay, along with the discovery of a new role for DNA polymerase Zeta in RNA-templated DNA repair and modification, the study contains a series of new findings that helped the team better understand the genetic and molecular mechanisms by which RNA can change DNA sequences in cells. (gatech.edu)
  • a small RNA molecule, consisting of a strand of nucleotides folded into a clover-leaf shape, that picks up an unattached amino acid within the cell cytoplasm and conveys it to the ribosome for protein synthesis. (dictionary.com)
  • Transfer RNA is a fairly small molecule, consisting of 75-90 nucleotides, which folds over itself (via hydrogen bonding between base pairs at four different sites), forming a three-dimensional L-shaped structure. (kenyon.edu)
  • By joining (through their anticodons) with particular spots (codons) along the messenger RNA molecule and carrying their amino acyl residues along, they lead to the formation of protein molecules with a specific amino acid arrangement-the one ultimately dictated by a segment of DNA in the chromosomes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • By joining (through their anticodons) with particular spots (codons) along the messenger RNA molecule and carrying their amino acyl residues along, they lead to the formation of protein molecules with a specific amino acid arrangement. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • a form of RNA molecule with about 80 NUCLEOTIDES and a secondary 'cloverleaf structure, whose function is to carry specific AMINO ACIDS to the ribosomes during TRANSLATION . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It is a non-coding gene that transcribes into an alanine transporting RNA molecule. (cags.org.ae)
  • Transfer RNA is an ancient molecule, central to every task a cell performs and thus essential to all life. (phys.org)
  • MTTL1 is a mitochondrial gene that encodes a transfer-RNA molecule. (cags.org.ae)
  • Replacement nucleotides were added to the 5' half-molecule 1-32 as nucleoside 3',5'-bisphosphates with RNA ligase. (illinois.edu)
  • During translation, the amino acid detaches from the transfer RNA molecule and attaches to the end of a growing protein chain when a. the ribosomal RNA anticodon binds to the messenger RNA codon. (jiskha.com)
  • Solution for Transfer RNA is the molecule thata. (randallsengraving.com)
  • Mature tRNAs take on a three-dimensional structure when complementary bases exposed in the single-stranded RNA molecule hydrogen bond with each other. (chromoscience.com)
  • RNA is usually single stranded, while DNA naturally seeks its stable form as a double stranded molecule. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • RNA molecules may comprise as few as 75 nucleotides or more than 5,000 nucleotides, while a DNA molecule may comprise more than 1,000,000 nucleotide units. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Transfer RNA molecules vary in length between 60 and 95 nucleotides, with the majority measuring about 75 nucleotides (much smaller than the normal mRNA strand). (sparknotes.com)
  • DNA and RNA are somewhat similar organic molecules, both involved in the storage and transfer of genetic information. (reference.com)
  • One of a class of RNA molecules that transport amino acids to ribosomes for incorporation into a polypeptide undergoing synthesis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Extended Data Fig. 10: DDX ATPase activity regulates transfer of RNA molecules between phase-separated compartments in vivo and in vitro. (nature.com)
  • In this sense, tRNAs are key molecules that connect the RNA world and the protein world. (nih.gov)
  • Intercellular transfer of functionally active RNA molecules by extracellular vesicles provides a mechanism that enables cells to exert genetic influences on other cells within the microenvironment. (elsevier.com)
  • RNA and DNA molecules are capable of diverse functions ranging from molecular recognition to catalysis.Such functions require a precise three-dimensional tertiary structure.While such structures are diverse and seemingly complex, they … Powered by Create your own unique website with customizable templates. (randallsengraving.com)
  • Quick definitions from WordNet (transfer rna) noun: short-chain RNA molecules present in the cell (in at least 20 varieties, each … Transfer RNA does this by carrying an amino acid to the … By 1960 the involvement of tRNAs in the assembly of Biomolecules Prokaryotic Eukaryotic Organelles Cell Transport … amoeba sisters. (randallsengraving.com)
  • The DNA contains the master plan for the creation of the proteins and other molecules and systems of the cell, but the carrying out of the plan involves transfer of the relevant information to RNA in a process called transcription. (joasiaimaciek.eu)
  • Ribosomal RNA molecules from human cells. (gettyimages.com)
  • Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) are structural RNA molecules and, depending on the species, many different types of tRNAs exist in the cytoplasm. (chromoscience.com)
  • Therefore, tRNAs are the molecules that actually "translate" the language of RNA into the language of proteins. (chromoscience.com)
  • Meers explained that RNA molecules can be thought of as the cache on a computer - or a short-term memory that is not stably maintained. (gatech.edu)
  • RNA also serves as a genetic blueprint for certain viruses , and some RNA molecules (called ribozymes) are also involved in the catalysis of biochemical reactions. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) are a central component for the biological synthesis of proteins, and they are among the most highly conserved and frequently transcribed genes in all living things. (pnas.org)
  • Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) are essential to protein synthesis across all of life. (pnas.org)
  • Among them, a set of RNA sequences, referred to as flexizymes (Fxs), discovered in our laboratory are able to charge amino acids onto tRNAs. (nih.gov)
  • a ) RNA pool for in vitro selection of catalytic precursor tRNAs. (nih.gov)
  • The tRNAs (with their amino acids attached) translate the sequence of codons in messenger RNA into a sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • However, the origin of noncoding RNAs such as tRNAs has not been studied yet. (genetics.org)
  • We also performed RNA Fold Web Server to predict the Minimum Free Energy (MFE) of these tRNAs with and without these mutations. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Intron-containing transfer RNAs (tRNAs). (nih.gov)
  • Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs with lengths of approximately 70-100 nt. (nih.gov)
  • The anticodon region is where the anticodon triplet base-pairs with the codon triplet of the messenger RNA. (kenyon.edu)
  • a kind of RNA that carries an anticodon (three nucleotide bases) and a specific amino acid. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Each anticodon is complementary to a specific codon in the messenger RNA. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • At the end of one arm is an ANTICODON , complementary to the codon for an amino acid in MESSENGER RNA . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • One of the arms of the cloverleaf, the 'anticodon arm', contains the anticodon with three bases complementary to the codon on MESSENGER RNA . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Here we use X-ray crystallography to define the impact of streptomycin on the decoding site of the Thermus thermophilus 30S ribosomal subunit in complexes with cognate or near-cognate anticodon stem-loop analogues and messenger RNA. (rcsb.org)
  • each variety carries a specific amino acid to a site specified by an RNA codon, binding to amino acid and ribosome, and to the codon via an anticodon region. (en-academic.com)
  • TRNAA22 Gene transfer RNA alanine 22 (anticodon AGC) antibody storage GENTAUR recommends for long therm storage to freeze at -24 C. For short time storage up to 30 days we suggest fridge storage at 1 to 10 C. Prevent multiple freeze taw cycles of TRNAA22 Gene transfer RNA alanine 22 (anticodon AGC). (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • TRNAA22 Gene transfer RNA alanine 22 (anticodon AGC) rna research rna is not so stable and very sticky. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • In The Genetic Code , we explained how each codon in messenger RNA (mRNA) codes for a specific amino acid, and that in the process of translation the mRNA brings the amino acids together to form proteins. (sparknotes.com)
  • Model RNAs and proteins are also reported here. (nih.gov)
  • In trans-translation, tmRNA and its associated proteins bind to bacterial ribosomes which have stalled in the middle of protein biosynthesis, for example when reaching the end of a messenger RNA which has lost its stop codon. (wikipedia.org)
  • We hypothesized that, beside putative effector proteins, small RNAs (sRNA) are delivered by B. tabaci into the phloem, where they may play a role in manipulating host plant defenses. (frontiersin.org)
  • The vectors prepared by this method have shown a high efficiency of gene transfer and expression of foreign proteins in vitro ( 3 , 12 , 18 , 21 , 28 , 32 , 36 ). (asm.org)
  • Two proteins, whose open reading frames extensively overlap, are translated from the genomic RNA. (bspp.org.uk)
  • in evolutionary terms, RNA is thought to have preceded proteins and DNA. (jiskha.com)
  • Extracellular vesicles, such as exosomes and microvesicles, are released from tumor cells and can transfer biologically active proteins and RNA across cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Genes encoding proteins involved in post-translational modifications of ribosomal proteins and translation cofactors, post-transcriptional modifications of t+rRNA, in ribosome assembly and RNA degradation are the most frequently lost. (plos.org)
  • In all cells, proteins are synthesized from the message encoded by mRNA using complex machineries involving many proteins and RNAs. (plos.org)
  • In living cells, RNA in different configurations fulfills several important roles in the process of translating genetic information from deoxyribonucleic acid ( DNA ) into proteins . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • RNA thermometers (RNATs) present in non-coding regions of certain mRNAs of pathogenic bacteria enable rapid upregulation of translation of virulence proteins when the temperature of the bacterium rises after entering a mammalian host. (biologists.org)
  • In animals, these responses might include regulation of translation of stress-induced proteins, alternative splicing of messenger RNA precursors, differential expression of allelic proteins, modulation of activities of small non-coding RNAs, regulation of mRNA turnover and control of RNA editing. (biologists.org)
  • The higher-order structures of proteins and RNA are readily perturbed by changes in temperature, threatening the 'balancing act' so critical for function. (biologists.org)
  • Double-stranded (ds) RNA interference (RNAi) is widely used as a reverse genetic approach for functional analysis of plant genes. (springer.com)
  • BRUCE: a program for the detection of transfer-messenger RNA genes in nucleotide sequences. (diva-portal.org)
  • The SeV genome contains six major genes, which are lined up in tandem on a single negative-strand RNA. (asm.org)
  • Such reverse genetics technology has enabled the construction of genetically engineered viruses which carry additional foreign genes and opened the way for the development of gene transfer vectors from RNA viruses of this type ( 24 ). (asm.org)
  • Though this phenomenon has been described in mammalian cells only a few years ago, there has been an explosion of interest in using small interfering RNAs to efficiently knockdown genes. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Lorena Zentilin and Mauro Giacca, " In Vivo Transfer and Expression of Genes Coding for Short Interfering RNAs", Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology (2004) 5: 341. (eurekaselect.com)
  • These are encoded by RNA genes and also derived from mRNA introns. (news-medical.net)
  • In this regard, it is well documented that expression of transfer RNA genes can be dramatically influenced in a wide variety of species by 5' flanking sequences. (mcmaster.ca)
  • During protein synthesis, the ribosome selects aminoacyl-transfer RNAs with anticodons matching the messenger RNA codon present in the A site of the small ribosomal subunit. (rcsb.org)
  • Our crystal structures display a significant local distortion of 16S ribosomal RNA induced by streptomycin, including the crucial bases A1492 and A1493 that participate directly in codon recognition. (rcsb.org)
  • Coevolution of codon usage and transfer RNA abundance. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Ribonucleic acid or RNA is a polymer or chain of nucleotide units, each comprising a nitrogenous base ( adenine , cytosine , guanine , or uracil ), a five-carbon sugar ( ribose ), and a phosphate group. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Transfer RNA does this by carrying an amino acid to the protein synthetic machinery of a cell called the ribosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The tmRNA is remarkably versatile: it recycles the stalled ribosome, adds a proteolysis-inducing tag to the unfinished polypeptide, and facilitates the degradation of the aberrant messenger RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • T4 RNA ligase can be used to alter the sequence of E. coli ribosomal RNAs in the intact polyribosome, ribosome and subunits. (illinois.edu)
  • The RNA ligase catalyzed addition of radioactively labeled cytidine 3',5'-bisphosphate has been used to probe the availability of the 3' ends of rRNAs in the ribosome under varying conditions. (illinois.edu)
  • Moazed, D. and Noller, H.F. , Intermediate states in the movement of transfer RNA in the ribosome. (jbsdonline.com)
  • a type of RNA whose function is to attach the correct amino acid to the protein chain being synthesized at a ribosome . (en-academic.com)
  • Transfer RNA does this by carrying an amino acid to the … Unit 4B: Cellular Respiration and Fermentation(2018-2019) Unit 4A: Photosynthesis (2018-2019) Unit 3B Transport (2018-2019) Ribosome.The t-RNA first decodes the information or the nucleotide sequences carried by the m-RNA. (joasiaimaciek.eu)
  • For example, the messenger RNA (mRNA) carries the information from the DNA to the ribosome in the cytoplasm where the actual protein synthesis (translation) takes place. (news-medical.net)
  • Which enzyme is responsible for RNA synthesis? (reference.com)
  • A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying histidine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis. (jove.com)
  • Transfer RNA carries amino acid groups to ribosomes for protein synthesis. (sciencephoto.com)
  • The fundamental concept arose that the specificity in protein synthesis was primarily governed by the loading of every amino acid onto a "cognate" soluble RNA by an enzyme specific for that amino acid. (asmscience.org)
  • These results suggested that the increased rate of synthesis, delivery, or both, of [[H.sup.3]]RNA to the axon perfusate was mediated by the release of one or more neurotransmitters from the depolarized axon that activated receptors in the glial plasma membrane. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • transfer RNA - n. gen any of a class of small, cloverleaf forms of RNA that transfer unattached amino acids in the cell cytoplasm to the ribosomes for protein synthesis Abbr. (en-academic.com)
  • It was amended to account for the information flow from RNA to DNA, the reverse transcription, and for the information transfer from RNA to RNA, the RNA-dependent RNA synthesis. (preprints.org)
  • The connectedness of living organisms can be seen in the ubiquitousness of RNA in living cells and in viruses throughout nature, and in the universal role of RNA in protein synthesis. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • abstract = "Although the expression of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) is altered in hepatocellular cancer (HCC), their biological effects are poorly defined. (elsevier.com)
  • messenger RNA (mRNA) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA). (britannica.com)
  • In 1993, Koonin and Rudd predicted the spoU gene product to be an RNA methyltransferase based on the similarity of its deduced amino acid sequence to that of Streptomyces azureus Tsr [ 1 ], which catalyzes methylation of the ribose of adenosine (A) at position 1067 in 23S rRNA to form 2'- O -methyladenosine (Am1067) [ 4 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Together with its protein partner, SmpB (small protein B), tmRNA enters stalled ribosomes and transfers an Ala residue to the growing polypeptide chain. (elsevier.com)
  • The mRNA carries the genetic code from the DNA into the cytoplasm to the ribosomes for translation of the RNA into a protein or polypeptide strand. (news-medical.net)
  • This helps the mRNA and the transfer RNA to come together to form the polypeptide chain. (news-medical.net)
  • Sendai virus (SeV) is an enveloped virus with a nonsegmented negative-strand RNA genome of 15,384 nucleotides and is a member of the family Paramyxoviridae . (asm.org)
  • RNA nucleotides contain ribose while DNA nucleotides contain the closely related sugar deoxyribose . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Even though such RNA enzymes so far are not identified from known organisms, in vitro selection has generated such RNA catalysts from a pool of random RNA sequences. (nih.gov)
  • Restrained refinement of the monoclinic form of yeast phenylalanine transfer RNA. (rcsb.org)
  • Three-dimensional tertiary structure of yeast phenylalanine transfer RNA. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The cloverleaf structure becomes the 3D L-shaped structure through coaxial stacking of the helices, which is a common RNA tertiary structure motif. (wikipedia.org)
  • I hope that this Commentary inspires exciting new questions that can be tested in the near future as new ways of studying RNA secondary and tertiary structure are developed (for a review of methods, see Ignatova and Narberhaus, 2017 ). (biologists.org)
  • Indeed, our primary focus here is on the beneficial effects that follow from the high sensitivities of RNA secondary and tertiary structure to changes in temperature. (biologists.org)
  • Subsequently, in a poorly understood process, the viral RNA genome is transferred directly across an endosomal membrane, and into the host cell cytoplasm, to initiate infection. (asm.org)
  • Bacterial and viral RNA are potent stimulators of the innate immune system, leading to immune cell activation and type I IFN production ( Takeuchi and Akira, 2010 ). (rupress.org)
  • Because these modifications are found at higher frequency in eukaryotic versus prokaryotic/viral RNA, this difference could facilitate the discrimination of foreign RNA from self-RNA. (rupress.org)
  • Short range exosomal transfer of viral RNA to. (csic.es)
  • 20-25 nt) are often produced by breakdown of viral RNA, there are also endogenous sources of siRNAs. (news-medical.net)
  • and other types of RNA, microRNAs (miRNAs) play a role in regulating gene expression, while small nuclear(sn) RNA helps with assuring that mRNA contains no nucleotide units that would lead to formation of a faulty protein. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Furthermore, RNA uses the nucleotide uracil in its composition, instead of the thymine that is present in DNA. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • RNA is a nucleic acid , a complex, high-molecular-weight macromolecule composed of nucleotide chains whose sequence of bases conveys genetic information . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The most common nucleotide bases are the purines adenine and guanine and the pyrimidines cytosine and thymine (or uracil in RNA). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The RNA polymer features a ribose and phosphate backbone with one of four different nucleotide bases- adenine , guanine , cytosine , and uracil -attached to each ribose-phosphate unit. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • 1998) Potent and specific genetic interference by double-stranded RNA in Caenorhabditis elegans . (springer.com)
  • Zamore, P. D. (2001) RNA interference: listening to the sound of silence. (springer.com)
  • Zhai, Z., Sooksa-nguan, T., and Vatamaniuk, O. K. (2009) Establishing RNA interference as a reverse-genetic approach for gene functional analysis in protoplasts. (springer.com)
  • RNA interference (RNAi) is a naturally occurring cellular post-transcriptional gene regulation process that utilizes small double-stranded RNAs to trigger and guide gene silencing. (nih.gov)
  • Downregulation of factors that mediate immune rejection using RNA interference holds promise for improving islet graft resistance to damaging factors after transplantation. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Reduction or downregulation of MHC class I protein expression using RNA interference (RNAi) ( 19 ) has shown some success in overcoming the limitations of immune rejection in cell-based therapies. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • RNA interference can induce potent gene silencing through degradation of complementary mRNA. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The rapid progression in the field of RNA interference has revolutionized the manner in which gene function is studied and, notably, pharmaceutical companies are already validating this technology for medical applications in the near future. (eurekaselect.com)
  • 21-22 nt) for example are found in eukaryotes and act through RNA interference (RNAi). (news-medical.net)
  • The broader connector has a footprint near the quasi-3-fold hole that opens upon virus expansion and is hypothesized to include RNA, shielded from enzymatic degradation by polypeptides that include the N-terminal extension of VP1 and capsid protein VP4. (asm.org)
  • Short double-stranded interfering RNAs are incorporated into an RNA-induced silencing complex that mediates the recognition and degradation of messenger RNAs in a very targeted manner. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Virion-like particles thus obtained had a titer of 0.5 × 10 8 to 1.0 × 10 8 cell infectious units/ml and contained F-defective RNA genome. (asm.org)
  • Reconstruction of genome evolution in Mollicutes revealed that, beside many gene losses, occasional gains by horizontal gene transfer also occurred. (plos.org)
  • Recent advances have provided a variety of new strategies for delivering DNA and RNA into cells and probing their expression, as well as new clinical applications that rely upon the introduction of genetic material. (cshlpress.com)
  • The transfer of protein-encoding genetic information from DNA to RNA to protein, a process formalized as the "Central Dogma of Molecular Biology", has undergone a significant evolution since its inception. (preprints.org)
  • The genetic information in DNA is used as a basis to create messenger RNA (mRNA) by transcription. (news-medical.net)
  • Like DNA, RNA can carry genetic information. (news-medical.net)
  • Some viruses like HIV have RNA as their genetic material that copies into DNA in a reverse transcription manner. (news-medical.net)
  • dsRNA forms the genetic material of some viruses (double-stranded RNA viruses). (news-medical.net)
  • Raman spectrum of purified formylmethionine transfer RNA from Escherichia coli has been observed in its aqueous solution. (sciencemag.org)
  • tmRNA was first designated 10Sa RNA after a mixed "10S" electrophoretic fraction of Escherichia coli RNA was further resolved into tmRNA and the similarly-sized RNase P RNA (10Sb). (wikipedia.org)
  • Recognition of Escherichia coli valine transfer RNA by its cognate synthetase: a fluorine-19 NMR study. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Li, W., Sengupta, J., Rath, B. and Frank, J. . Functional conformations of the L11-ribosomal RNA complex revealed by correlative analysis of cryo-EM and molecular dynamics simulations. (jbsdonline.com)
  • 2000) Gene expression: total silencing by intron-spliced hairpin RNAs. (springer.com)
  • Gene expression in the squid giant axon: neurotransmitter modulation of RNA transfer from periaxonal glia to the axon. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • These RNAs serve to regulate the process of gene expression. (news-medical.net)
  • Small RNAs (sRNAs) are essential regulators of eukaryotic gene expression and function. (frontiersin.org)
  • The secondary and tertiary orders of RNA structure are crucial for a suite of RNA-related functions, including regulation of translation, gene expression and RNA turnover. (biologists.org)
  • In other bacterial species, a permuted ssrA gene produces a two-piece tmRNA in which two separate RNA chains are joined by base-pairing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Indeed, when the giant axon was incubated with [[H.sup.3]]uridine, all axoplasmic RNA species were labeled (6). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • However, the role of single bacterial RNA species in immune activation has not been characterized in detail. (rupress.org)
  • These results reveal exosomes as another mechanism by which helminths manipulate their hosts and provide a mechanistic framework for RNA transfer between animal species. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Anthropology 1026F/G Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Macromolecule, Transfer Rna, Species Problem. (randallsengraving.com)
  • However, recent results, obtained in several systems, strongly indicate the occurrence of protein-encoding RNA to RNA information transfer in mammalian cells. (preprints.org)
  • The nanocubes can induce the reassociation of the RNA duplexes, which can then be processed by the human recombinant DICER enzyme, thus activating RNAi. (nih.gov)
  • Such RNA enzymes are known as ribozymes, and they exhibit many of the features of a classical enzyme, such as an active site, a binding site for a substrate and a binding site for a cofactor, such as a metal ion. (news-medical.net)
  • d ) Doped RNA pool for in vitro selection of the second generation of prototype flexizyme. (nih.gov)
  • f ) Doped RNA pool for in vitro selection of dFx, eFx and aFx that recognize aromatic leaving groups. (nih.gov)
  • Methods to rescue infectious viruses entirely from cloned cDNA have been established for segmented and nonsegmented negative-strand RNA viruses ( 6 , 22 , 23 , 26 ). (asm.org)
  • TYMV is a positive strand RNA virus of the alphavirus-like supergroup. (bspp.org.uk)
  • This is a single strand of RNA composed of approximately 80 ribonucleotides. (news-medical.net)
  • The DNA strand acts as a template in formation of this RNA strand. (news-medical.net)
  • Researchers have found that not only can RNA serve as a template for the repair of double-strand breaks, but that it was modifying genomic information in the absence of double-strand breaks. (gatech.edu)
  • In a 2014 article published in Nature , her team explained how transcript-RNA could serve as a template for the repair of a DNA double-strand break. (gatech.edu)
  • In this new study, according to lead author Meers, "we found that not only can RNA serve as a template for the repair of double-strand breaks, but that it was modifying genomic information in the absence of double-strand breaks. (gatech.edu)
  • By introducing synthetic RNA duplexes called small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs), we can harness the RNAi machinery for therapeutic gene control and the treatment of various diseases. (nih.gov)
  • We have conducted the research on CT in RNA duplexes consisting of a pendant donor (pyrene) and acceptor (5-bromouracil or nitrobenzene) pair. (jbsdonline.com)
  • By contrast, the pyrene-donor and 5-bromouracil-acceptor system indicates that DNA may not act as an efficint medium for the excess electron transfer. (jbsdonline.com)
  • Transmission electron micrograph stained with uranyl acetate showing the positive stainong messenger RNA connecting the ribosomes. (gettyimages.com)
  • New methods for predicting, detecting and experimentally modifying RNA secondary structure offer promising windows into these fascinating aspects of RNA biochemistry. (biologists.org)
  • Here, we used a dual-purpose therapy/imaging small interfering (si)RNA magnetic nanoparticle (MN) probe that targets β 2 microglobulin (B2M), a key component of the major histocompatibility class I complex (MHC I). In addition to serving as a siRNA carrier, this MN-siB2M probe enables monitoring of graft persistence noninvasively using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Base-pairing in a siRNA (small interfering RNA) segment, a double-stranded type of RNA. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Gene Transfer: Delivery and Expression of DNA and RNA provides the first comprehensive guide to technical approaches for delivering nucleic acids into cells and organisms and of ensuring (even manipulating) appropriate expression. (cshlpress.com)
  • Furthermore, animals transplanted with MN-siB2M-labeled islets demonstrated a significant delay of up to 23.8 ± 4.8 days in diabetes onset after the adoptive transfer of T cells relative to 6.5 ± 4.5 days in controls. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The delivery of short hairpin RNA to HeLa cells resulted in a selective and permanent silencing of MHC class I by up to 90%, even under inflammatory conditions ( 20 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In mammalian systems RNA can move between cells via vesicles. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Thus, intercellular transfer of TUC339 represents a unique signaling mechanism by which tumor cells can promote HCC growth and spread. (elsevier.com)
  • These findings expand the potential roles of ucRNA in HCC, support the existence of selective mechanisms for lncRNA export from cells, and implicate extracellular vesicle-mediated transfer of lncRNA as a mechanism by which tumor cells can modulate their local cellular environment. (elsevier.com)
  • Most abundant RNA found in cells. (ramneetkaur.com)
  • Ribosomes are complexes of RNA and protein that are found in all cells. (gettyimages.com)
  • These are called dsRNA where the RNA has two complementary strands, similar to the DNA found in all cells. (news-medical.net)
  • These CAL-101 T cells also persisted longer after transfer into tumor bearing mice in both the murine syngeneic and human xenograft mouse models. (frontiersin.org)
  • Adoptive T cell transfer (ACT) therapy for cancer enriches and expands autologous tumor-reactive T cells before returning them to the patient. (frontiersin.org)
  • The aim of this Commentary is to help acquaint readers with a topic that might be largely unfamiliar - the vast potential of temperature-dependent changes in RNA secondary and tertiary structures (see Glossary) to adaptively modulate the responses of cells to changes in temperature. (biologists.org)
  • DNA is double stranded, RNA contains uracil in the place of thymine. (joasiaimaciek.eu)
  • This research essentially lays the groundwork for exploring the role that RNA can play in modifying genomic sequence and should allow future studies to more directly explore the role of RNA in genomic instability and, in particular, in other organisms, like humans. (gatech.edu)
  • Single-stranded RNA is similar to the protein polymer in its natural propensity to fold back and double up with itself in complex ways assuming a variety of biologically useful configurations. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • But I think it is a reminder that we need to be thinking in three dimensions when modeling RNA-DNA interactions. (phys.org)
  • The HCV RNA Provider Card is a small pocket tool to guide medical and behavioral health professionals when discussing HCV RNA test results with patients. (attcnetwork.org)
  • For example, introns are spliced out of pre-mRNA by spliceosomes, which contain several small nuclear RNAs (snRNA). (news-medical.net)
  • Non-coding small RNAs (sRNAs) in plants have important roles in regulating biological processes, including development, reproduction, and stress responses. (frontiersin.org)
  • Activation of transfer RNA-guanine ribosyltransferase by protein kinase C . Nucleic acids research , 23 (13), 2492-2498. (elsevier.com)
  • Elucidating whether animals too have exploited the types of RNA thermosensing tools that are used so effectively by bacteria seems likely to provide exciting new insights into the mechanisms of evolutionary adaptation and acclimatization to temperature. (biologists.org)
  • The temperature dependence of the areas under the proton magnetic resonance spectra of unfractionated yeast transfer RNA in 1.0 molar NaCl is a consequence of salt-induced aggregation and does not constitute a monitor of the melting of secondary molecular structure. (sciencemag.org)
  • One of the most fundamental processes of molecular biology, crucial to the propagation of life, is that of RNA translation into protein. (kenyon.edu)
  • Foreign RNA serves as pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) and is a potent immune stimulator for innate immune receptors. (rupress.org)
  • Researchers in the Storici lab previously showed that a homologous RNA sequence could also mediate this break repair, and sought to understand the molecular mechanisms that control this process. (gatech.edu)
  • NCI researchers created RNA, RNA-DNA, or DNA-RNA hybrid nanocubes consisting of a DNA or RNA core (composed of six strands) with attached RNA or DNA hybrid duplexes. (nih.gov)
  • Some RNAs are enzymes. (news-medical.net)
  • RNA is transcribed from DNA by enzymes called RNA polymerases and is generally further processed by other enzymes, some of them guided by non-coding RNAs. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Transfer RNA gene redundancy and translational selection in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (semanticscholar.org)