A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A process that changes the nucleotide sequence of mRNA from that of the DNA template encoding it. Some major classes of RNA editing are as follows: 1, the conversion of cytosine to uracil in mRNA; 2, the addition of variable number of guanines at pre-determined sites; and 3, the addition and deletion of uracils, templated by guide-RNAs (RNA, GUIDE).
The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.
The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.
RNA that has catalytic activity. The catalytic RNA sequence folds to form a complex surface that can function as an enzyme in reactions with itself and other molecules. It may function even in the absence of protein. There are numerous examples of RNA species that are acted upon by catalytic RNA, however the scope of this enzyme class is not limited to a particular type of substrate.
The processes of RNA tertiary structure formation.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.
Ribonucleic acid in fungi having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The extent to which an RNA molecule retains its structural integrity and resists degradation by RNASE, and base-catalyzed HYDROLYSIS, under changing in vivo or in vitro conditions.
A family of proteins that promote unwinding of RNA during splicing and translation.
RNA molecules which hybridize to complementary sequences in either RNA or DNA altering the function of the latter. Endogenous antisense RNAs function as regulators of gene expression by a variety of mechanisms. Synthetic antisense RNAs are used to effect the functioning of specific genes for investigative or therapeutic purposes.
Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.
The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.
Short chains of RNA (100-300 nucleotides long) that are abundant in the nucleus and usually complexed with proteins in snRNPs (RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL NUCLEAR). Many function in the processing of messenger RNA precursors. Others, the snoRNAs (RNA, SMALL NUCLEOLAR), are involved with the processing of ribosomal RNA precursors.
RNA transcripts of the DNA that are in some unfinished stage of post-transcriptional processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL) required for function. RNA precursors may undergo several steps of RNA SPLICING during which the phosphodiester bonds at exon-intron boundaries are cleaved and the introns are excised. Consequently a new bond is formed between the ends of the exons. Resulting mature RNAs can then be used; for example, mature mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER) is used as a template for protein production.
RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated RNAs they are not included in this scope.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Nucleic acid structures found on the 5' end of eukaryotic cellular and viral messenger RNA and some heterogeneous nuclear RNAs. These structures, which are positively charged, protect the above specified RNAs at their termini against attack by phosphatases and other nucleases and promote mRNA function at the level of initiation of translation. Analogs of the RNA caps (RNA CAP ANALOGS), which lack the positive charge, inhibit the initiation of protein synthesis.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Ribonucleic acid in protozoa having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
RNA present in neoplastic tissue.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of linear RNA to a circular form by the transfer of the 5'-phosphate to the 3'-hydroxyl terminus. It also catalyzes the covalent joining of two polyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage. EC 6.5.1.3.
A large family of RNA helicases that share a common protein motif with the single letter amino acid sequence D-E-A-D (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp). In addition to RNA helicase activity, members of the DEAD-box family participate in other aspects of RNA metabolism and regulation of RNA function.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure where it transcribes DNA into RNA. It has specific requirements for cations and salt and has shown an intermediate sensitivity to alpha-amanitin in comparison to RNA polymerase I and II. EC 2.7.7.6.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. The enzyme functions in the nucleolar structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salts than RNA polymerase II and III and is not inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.
RNA molecules found in the nucleus either associated with chromosomes or in the nucleoplasm.
Small kinetoplastid mitochondrial RNA that plays a major role in RNA EDITING. These molecules form perfect hybrids with edited mRNA sequences and possess nucleotide sequences at their 5'-ends that are complementary to the sequences of the mRNA's immediately downstream of the pre-edited regions.
Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 28S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
Constituent of 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 3200 nucleotides. 23S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
The process of moving specific RNA molecules from one cellular compartment or region to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms.
The small RNAs which provide spliced leader sequences, SL1, SL2, SL3, SL4 and SL5 (short sequences which are joined to the 5' ends of pre-mRNAs by TRANS-SPLICING). They are found primarily in primitive eukaryotes (protozoans and nematodes).
Small, linear single-stranded RNA molecules functionally acting as molecular parasites of certain RNA plant viruses. Satellite RNAs exhibit four characteristic traits: (1) they require helper viruses to replicate; (2) they are unnecessary for the replication of helper viruses; (3) they are encapsidated in the coat protein of the helper virus; (4) they have no extensive sequence homology to the helper virus. Thus they differ from SATELLITE VIRUSES which encode their own coat protein, and from the genomic RNA; (=RNA, VIRAL); of satellite viruses. (From Maramorosch, Viroids and Satellites, 1991, p143)
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Ribonucleic acid in archaea having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A reaction that severs one of the sugar-phosphate linkages of the phosphodiester backbone of RNA. It is catalyzed enzymatically, chemically, or by radiation. Cleavage may be exonucleolytic, or endonucleolytic.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A group of ribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
Nuclear nonribosomal RNA larger than about 1000 nucleotides, the mass of which is rapidly synthesized and degraded within the cell nucleus. Some heterogeneous nuclear RNA may be a precursor to mRNA. However, the great bulk of total hnRNA hybridizes with nuclear DNA rather than with mRNA.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Small RNAs found in the cytoplasm usually complexed with proteins in scRNPs (RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL CYTOPLASMIC).
The steps that generate the 3' ends of mature RNA molecules. For most mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), 3' end processing referred to as POLYADENYLATION includes the addition of POLY A.
Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.
Short RNA, about 200 base pairs in length or shorter, that does not code for protein.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.
A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 5.8S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A class of untranslated RNA molecules that are typically greater than 200 nucleotides in length and do not code for proteins. Members of this class have been found to play roles in transcriptional regulation, post-transcriptional processing, CHROMATIN REMODELING, and in the epigenetic control of chromatin.
Small nuclear RNAs that are involved in the processing of pre-ribosomal RNA in the nucleolus. Box C/D containing snoRNAs (U14, U15, U16, U20, U21 and U24-U63) direct site-specific methylation of various ribose moieties. Box H/ACA containing snoRNAs (E2, E3, U19, U23, and U64-U72) direct the conversion of specific uridines to pseudouridine. Site-specific cleavages resulting in the mature ribosomal RNAs are directed by snoRNAs U3, U8, U14, U22 and the snoRNA components of RNase MRP and RNase P.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Synthetic transcripts of a specific DNA molecule or fragment, made by an in vitro transcription system. This cRNA can be labeled with radioactive uracil and then used as a probe. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of RNA. It includes EC 3.1.26.-, EC 3.1.27.-, EC 3.1.30.-, and EC 3.1.31.-.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Ribonucleic acid in chloroplasts having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of single-stranded regions of DNA or RNA molecules while leaving the double-stranded regions intact. They are particularly useful in the laboratory for producing "blunt-ended" DNA molecules from DNA with single-stranded ends and for sensitive GENETIC TECHNIQUES such as NUCLEASE PROTECTION ASSAYS that involve the detection of single-stranded DNA and RNA.
Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.
Ribonucleic acid in helminths having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying phenylalanine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying lysine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying tyrosine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.
Cyclic peptides extracted from carpophores of various mushroom species. They are potent inhibitors of RNA polymerases in most eukaryotic species, blocking the production of mRNA and protein synthesis. These peptides are important in the study of transcription. Alpha-amanitin is the main toxin from the species Amanitia phalloides, poisonous if ingested by humans or animals.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
An enzyme catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of RNA at the 3'-position of a guanylate residue. EC 3.1.27.3.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Within most types of eukaryotic CELL NUCLEUS, a distinct region, not delimited by a membrane, in which some species of rRNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) are synthesized and assembled into ribonucleoprotein subunits of ribosomes. In the nucleolus rRNA is transcribed from a nucleolar organizer, i.e., a group of tandemly repeated chromosomal genes which encode rRNA and which are transcribed by RNA polymerase I. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology & Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
Intermediates in protein biosynthesis. The compounds are formed from amino acids, ATP and transfer RNA, a reaction catalyzed by aminoacyl tRNA synthetase. They are key compounds in the genetic translation process.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
Nucleotide sequences located at the ends of EXONS and recognized in pre-messenger RNA by SPLICEOSOMES. They are joined during the RNA SPLICING reaction, forming the junctions between exons.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying alanine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS which is the causal agent of POLIOMYELITIS in humans. Three serotypes (strains) exist. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route, pharyngeal secretions, or mechanical vector (flies). Vaccines with both inactivated and live attenuated virus have proven effective in immunizing against the infection.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
An RNA-containing enzyme that plays an essential role in tRNA processing by catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of TRANSFER RNA precursors. It removes the extra 5'-nucleotides from tRNA precursors to generate mature tRNA molecules.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC 2.7.7.49.
A compound composed of a two CYCLIC PEPTIDES attached to a phenoxazine that is derived from STREPTOMYCES parvullus. It binds to DNA and inhibits RNA synthesis (transcription), with chain elongation more sensitive than initiation, termination, or release. As a result of impaired mRNA production, protein synthesis also declines after dactinomycin therapy. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1993, p2015)
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying aspartic acid to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying methionine to sites on the ribosomes. During initiation of protein synthesis, tRNA(f)Met in prokaryotic cells and tRNA(i)Met in eukaryotic cells binds to the start codon (CODON, INITIATOR).
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A genus of tripartite plant viruses in the family BROMOVIRIDAE. Transmission is by beetles. Brome mosaic virus is the type species.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A ribonuclease that specifically cleaves the RNA moiety of RNA:DNA hybrids. It has been isolated from a wide variety of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms as well as RETROVIRUSES.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Sequences within RNA that regulate the processing, stability (RNA STABILITY) or translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of RNA.
A multiribosomal structure representing a linear array of RIBOSOMES held together by messenger RNA; (RNA, MESSENGER); They represent the active complexes in cellular protein synthesis and are able to incorporate amino acids into polypeptides both in vivo and in vitro. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the exonucleolytic cleavage of RNA. It includes EC 3.1.13.-, EC 3.1.14.-, EC 3.1.15.-, and EC 3.1.16.-. EC 3.1.-
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying glycine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying histidine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying valine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
A group of uridine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each uridine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
A family of RNA viruses infecting insects and fish. There are two genera: Alphanodavirus and Betanodavirus.
Use for nucleic acid precursors in general or for which there is no specific heading.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying arginine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
Ribonucleic acid in algae having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A family of ribonucleoproteins that were originally found as proteins bound to nascent RNA transcripts in the form of ribonucleoprotein particles. Although considered ribonucleoproteins they are primarily classified by their protein component. They are involved in a variety of processes such as packaging of RNA and RNA TRANSPORT within the nucleus. A subset of heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoproteins are involved in additional functions such as nucleocytoplasmic transport (ACTIVE TRANSPORT, CELL NUCLEUS) of RNA and mRNA stability in the CYTOPLASM.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Highly conserved nuclear RNA-protein complexes that function in RNA processing in the nucleus, including pre-mRNA splicing and pre-mRNA 3'-end processing in the nucleoplasm, and pre-rRNA processing in the nucleolus (see RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL NUCLEOLAR).
A defective virus, containing particles of RNA nucleoprotein in virion-like form, present in patients with acute hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis. It requires the presence of a hepadnavirus for full replication. This is the lone species in the genus Deltavirus.
Proteins found in ribosomes. They are believed to have a catalytic function in reconstituting biologically active ribosomal subunits.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying tryptophan to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
DNA sequences recognized as signals to end GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
A bacteriophage genus of the family LEVIVIRIDAE, whose viruses contain the short version of the genome and have a separate gene for cell lysis.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes nagana in domestic and game animals in Africa. It apparently does not infect humans. It is transmitted by bites of tsetse flies (Glossina).
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A genus of plant viruses that infects ANGIOSPERMS. Transmission occurs mechanically and through soil, with one species transmitted via a fungal vector. The type species is Tomato bushy stunt virus.
A purine nucleoside that has guanine linked by its N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is a component of ribonucleic acid and its nucleotides play important roles in metabolism. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The addition of a tail of polyadenylic acid (POLY A) to the 3' end of mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). Polyadenylation involves recognizing the processing site signal, (AAUAAA), and cleaving of the mRNA to create a 3' OH terminal end to which poly A polymerase (POLYNUCLEOTIDE ADENYLYLTRANSFERASE) adds 60-200 adenylate residues. The 3' end processing of some messenger RNAs, such as histone mRNA, is carried out by a different process that does not include the addition of poly A as described here.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying leucine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)

Association of snRNA genes with coiled bodies is mediated by nascent snRNA transcripts. (1/1744)

BACKGROUND: Coiled bodies are nuclear organelles that are highly enriched in small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs) and certain basal transcription factors. Surprisingly, coiled bodies not only contain mature U snRNPs but also associate with specific chromosomal loci, including gene clusters that encode U snRNAs and histone messenger RNAs. The mechanism(s) by which coiled bodies associate with these genes is completely unknown. RESULTS: Using stable cell lines, we show that artificial tandem arrays of human U1 and U2 snRNA genes colocalize with coiled bodies and that the frequency of the colocalization depends directly on the transcriptional activity of the array. Association of the genes with coiled bodies was abolished when the artificial U2 arrays contained promoter mutations that prevent transcription or when RNA polymerase II transcription was globally inhibited by alpha-amanitin. Remarkably, the association was also abolished when the U2 snRNA coding regions were replaced by heterologous sequences. CONCLUSIONS: The requirement for the U2 snRNA coding region indicates that association of snRNA genes with coiled bodies is mediated by the nascent U2 RNA itself, not by DNA or DNA-bound proteins. Our data provide the first evidence that association of genes with a nuclear organelle can be directed by an RNA and suggest an autogenous feedback regulation model.  (+info)

The general transcription factors IIA, IIB, IIF, and IIE are required for RNA polymerase II transcription from the human U1 small nuclear RNA promoter. (2/1744)

RNA polymerase II transcribes the mRNA-encoding genes and the majority of the small nuclear RNA (snRNA) genes. The formation of a minimal functional transcription initiation complex on a TATA-box-containing mRNA promoter has been well characterized and involves the ordered assembly of a number of general transcription factors (GTFs), all of which have been either cloned or purified to near homogeneity. In the human RNA polymerase II snRNA promoters, a single element, the proximal sequence element (PSE), is sufficient to direct basal levels of transcription in vitro. The PSE is recognized by the basal transcription complex SNAPc. SNAPc, which is not required for transcription from mRNA-type RNA polymerase II promoters such as the adenovirus type 2 major late (Ad2ML) promoter, is thought to recruit TATA binding protein (TBP) and nucleate the assembly of the snRNA transcription initiation complex, but little is known about which GTFs other than TBP are required. Here we show that the GTFs IIA, IIB, IIF, and IIE are required for efficient RNA polymerase II transcription from snRNA promoters. Thus, although the factors that recognize the core elements of RNA polymerase II mRNA and snRNA-type promoters differ, they mediate the recruitment of many common GTFs.  (+info)

Pseudouridine mapping in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae spliceosomal U small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) reveals that pseudouridine synthase pus1p exhibits a dual substrate specificity for U2 snRNA and tRNA. (3/1744)

Pseudouridine (Psi) residues were localized in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae spliceosomal U small nuclear RNAs (UsnRNAs) by using the chemical mapping method. In contrast to vertebrate UsnRNAs, S. cerevisiae UsnRNAs contain only a few Psi residues, which are located in segments involved in intermolecular RNA-RNA or RNA-protein interactions. At these positions, UsnRNAs are universally modified. When yeast mutants disrupted for one of the several pseudouridine synthase genes (PUS1, PUS2, PUS3, and PUS4) or depleted in rRNA-pseudouridine synthase Cbf5p were tested for UsnRNA Psi content, only the loss of the Pus1p activity was found to affect Psi formation in spliceosomal UsnRNAs. Indeed, Psi44 formation in U2 snRNA was abolished. By using purified Pus1p enzyme and in vitro-produced U2 snRNA, Pus1p is shown here to catalyze Psi44 formation in the S. cerevisiae U2 snRNA. Thus, Pus1p is the first UsnRNA pseudouridine synthase characterized so far which exhibits a dual substrate specificity, acting on both tRNAs and U2 snRNA. As depletion of rRNA-pseudouridine synthase Cbf5p had no effect on UsnRNA Psi content, formation of Psi residues in S. cerevisiae UsnRNAs is not dependent on the Cbf5p-snoRNA guided mechanism.  (+info)

Genome-wide bioinformatic and molecular analysis of introns in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (4/1744)

Introns have typically been discovered in an ad hoc fashion: introns are found as a gene is characterized for other reasons. As complete eukaryotic genome sequences become available, better methods for predicting RNA processing signals in raw sequence will be necessary in order to discover genes and predict their expression. Here we present a catalog of 228 yeast introns, arrived at through a combination of bioinformatic and molecular analysis. Introns annotated in the Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD) were evaluated, questionable introns were removed after failing a test for splicing in vivo, and known introns absent from the SGD annotation were added. A novel branchpoint sequence, AAUUAAC, was identified within an annotated intron that lacks a six-of-seven match to the highly conserved branchpoint consensus UACUAAC. Analysis of the database corroborates many conclusions about pre-mRNA substrate requirements for splicing derived from experimental studies, but indicates that splicing in yeast may not be as rigidly determined by splice-site conservation as had previously been thought. Using this database and a molecular technique that directly displays the lariat intron products of spliced transcripts (intron display), we suggest that the current set of 228 introns is still not complete, and that additional intron-containing genes remain to be discovered in yeast. The database can be accessed at http://www.cse.ucsc.edu/research/compbi o/yeast_introns.html.  (+info)

A computational screen for methylation guide snoRNAs in yeast. (5/1744)

Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) are required for ribose 2'-O-methylation of eukaryotic ribosomal RNA. Many of the genes for this snoRNA family have remained unidentified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, despite the availability of a complete genome sequence. Probabilistic modeling methods akin to those used in speech recognition and computational linguistics were used to computationally screen the yeast genome and identify 22 methylation guide snoRNAs, snR50 to snR71. Gene disruptions and other experimental characterization confirmed their methylation guide function. In total, 51 of the 55 ribose methylated sites in yeast ribosomal RNA were assigned to 41 different guide snoRNAs.  (+info)

An RNA switch at the 5' splice site requires ATP and the DEAD box protein Prp28p. (6/1744)

Pre-mRNA splicing requires dramatic RNA rearrangements hypothesized to be catalyzed by ATP-dependent RNA unwindases of the DExD/H box family. In a rearrangement critical for the fidelity of 5' splice site recognition, a base-pairing interaction between the 5' splice site and U1 snRNA must be switched for a mutually exclusive interaction between the 5' splice site and U6 snRNA. By lengthening the U1:5' splice site duplex, we impeded this switch in a temperature-dependent manner and prevented formation of the spliceosome's catalytic core. Using genetics, we identified the DExD/H box protein Prp28p as a potential mediator of the switch. In vitro, the switch requires both Prp28p and ATP. We propose that Prp28p directs isomerization of RNA at the 5' splice site and promotes fidelity in splicing.  (+info)

Splicing factor Prp8 governs U4/U6 RNA unwinding during activation of the spliceosome. (7/1744)

The pre-mRNA 5' splice site is recognized by the ACAGA box of U6 spliceosomal RNA prior to catalysis of splicing. We previously identified a mutant U4 spliceosomal RNA, U4-cs1, that masks the ACAGA box in the U4/U6 complex, thus conferring a cold-sensitive splicing phenotype in vivo. Here, we show that U4-cs1 blocks in vitro splicing in a temperature-dependent, reversible manner. Analysis of splicing complexes that accumulate at low temperature shows that U4-cs1 prevents U4/U6 unwinding, an essential step in spliceosome activation. A novel mutation in the evolutionarily conserved U5 snRNP protein Prp8 suppresses the U4-cs1 growth defect. We propose that wild-type Prp8 triggers unwinding of U4 and U6 RNAs only after structurally correct recognition of the 5' splice site by the U6 ACAGA box and that the mutation (prp8-201) relaxes control of unwinding.  (+info)

Crystal structures of two Sm protein complexes and their implications for the assembly of the spliceosomal snRNPs. (8/1744)

The U1, U2, U4/U6, and U5 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles (snRNPs) involved in pre-mRNA splicing contain seven Sm proteins (B/B', D1, D2, D3, E, F, and G) in common, which assemble around the Sm site present in four of the major spliceosomal small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs). These proteins share a common sequence motif in two segments, Sm1 and Sm2, separated by a short variable linker. Crystal structures of two Sm protein complexes, D3B and D1D2, show that these proteins have a common fold containing an N-terminal helix followed by a strongly bent five-stranded antiparallel beta sheet, and the D1D2 and D3B dimers superpose closely in their core regions, including the dimer interfaces. The crystal structures suggest that the seven Sm proteins could form a closed ring and the snRNAs may be bound in the positively charged central hole.  (+info)

Small nuclear RNA (snRNA) genes contain strong promoters capable of initiating transcription once every 4 s. Studies on the human U1 snRNA gene, carried out in other laboratories, showed that sequences within 400 bp of the 5 flanking region are sufficient for maximal levels of transcription both in vivo and in frog oocytes [reviewed in Dahlberg and Lund (1988)]. We studied the expression of a human U3 snRNA gene by injecting 5 deletion mutants into frog oocytes. The results show that sequences more than 500 bp upstream of the U3 snRNA gene have a 2-3-fold stimulatory effect on the U3 snRNA synthesis. These results indicate that the human U3 snRNA gene is different from human U1 snRNA gene in containing regulatory elements more than 500 bp upstream. The U3 snRNA gene upstream sequences contain an AluI homologous sequence in the -1200 region; these AluI sequences were transcribed in vitro and in frog oocytes but were not detectable in HeLa cells.
Basal transcription from the human RNA polymerase III U6 promoter depends on a TATA box that recruits the TATA box-binding protein (TBP) and a proximal sequence element that recruits the small nuclear RNA (snRNA)-activating protein complex (SNAPc). TBP consists of a conserved carboxyl-terminal domain that performs all known functions of the protein and a nonconserved amino-terminal region of unknown function. Here, the amino-terminal region is shown to down-regulate binding of TBP to the U6 TATA box, mediate cooperative binding with SNAPc to the U6 promoter, and enhance U6 transcription.. ...
Small nuclear ribonucleic acid (snRNA), also commonly referred to as U-RNA, is a class of small RNA molecules that are found within the splicing speckles and Cajal bodies of the cell nucleus in eukaryotic cells. The length of an average snRNA is approximately 150 nucleotides. They are transcribed by either RNA polymerase II or RNA polymerase III. Their primary function is in the processing of pre-messenger RNA (hnRNA) in the nucleus. They have also been shown to aid in the regulation of transcription factors (7SK RNA) or RNA polymerase II (B2 RNA), and maintaining the telomeres. snRNA are always associated with a set of specific proteins, and the complexes are referred to as small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNP, often pronounced snurps). Each snRNP particle is composed of a snRNA component and several snRNP-specific proteins (including Sm proteins, a family of nuclear proteins). The most common snRNA components of these complexes are known, respectively, as: U1 spliceosomal RNA, U2 ...
Dergai, O., Cousin, P., Gouge, J., Satia, K., Praz, V., Kuhlman, T., Lhote, P., Vannini, A., Hernandez, N. (May 2018) Mechanism of selective recruitment of RNA polymerases II and III to snRNA gene promoters. Genes Dev, 32 (9-10). pp. 711-722. ISSN 0890-9369 Denissov, S., Van Driel, M., Voit, R., Hekkelman, M., Hulsen, T., Hernandez, N., Grummt, I., Wehrens, R., Stunnenberg, H. (February 2007) Identification of novel functional TBP-binding sites and general factor repertoires. Embo Journal, 26 (4). pp. 944-954. ISSN 0261-4189 Emran, F., Florens, L., Ma, B., Swanson, S. K., Washburn, M. P., Hernandez, N. (August 2006) A role for Yin Yang-1 (YY1) in the assembly of snRNA transcription complexes. Gene, 377. pp. 96-108. ISSN 0378-1119 (Print) Kim, Y. S., Kim, J. M., Jung, D. L., Kang, J. E., Lee, S., Kim, J. S., Seol, W., Shin, H. C., Kwon, H. S., Van Lint, C., Hernandez, N., Hur, M. W. (June 2005) Artificial zinc finger fusions targeting Sp1-binding sites and the trans-activator-responsive element ...
Specific alterations of U1-C protein or U1 small nuclear RNA can eliminate the requirement of Prp28p, an essential DEAD-box splicing ...
The concept of the gene has been constantly challenged by new discoveries in the life sciences. Recent challenging observations include the high frequency of alternative splicing events and the common transcription of non-protein-coding-RNAs (ncRNAs) from the genome. The latter has long been considered noise in biological systems. Multiple lines of evidence from genomic studies indicate that alternative splicing and ncRNA play important roles in expanding proteome diversity in eukaryotes. Here, the aim is to find the link between alternative splicing and ncRNAs by studying the expression profile of the spliceosomal snRNAs (U snRNA).. Spliceosomal snRNAs are essential for pre-mRNA splicing in eukaryotes. They participate in splice site selection, recruitment of protein factors and catalyzing the splicing reaction. Because of this, both the abundance and diversity of U snRNAs were expected to be large. In our study we deeply analyzed the U snRNA population in primates using a combination of ...
This gene encodes a member of the LSm family of RNA-binding proteins. LSm proteins form stable heteromers that bind specifically to the 3-terminal oligo(U) tract of U6 snRNA and may play a role in pre-mRNA splicing by mediating U4/U6 snRNP formation. Pseudogenes of this gene are located on the short arm of chromosomes 6 and 19. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2011 ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
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Complete information for SNAPC2 gene (Protein Coding), Small Nuclear RNA Activating Complex Polypeptide 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Complete information for LSM5 gene (Protein Coding), LSM5 Homolog, U6 Small Nuclear RNA And MRNA Degradation Associated, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
LSM1 antibody (LSM1 homolog, U6 small nuclear RNA associated (S. cerevisiae)) for IP, WB. Anti-LSM1 pAb (GTX130104) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
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Princeton University was ranked 8th in the world, behind six other U.S. universities and Oxford in the U.K., out of nearly 1,500 institutions in the U.S. and 80 other countries, according to U.S. News and World Report. The university was named best in the U.S. last month. 6 N.J. Schools Named among Best in World […]. ...
Looking for online definition of LSM5 homolog, U6 small nuclear RNA associated in the Medical Dictionary? LSM5 homolog, U6 small nuclear RNA associated explanation free. What is LSM5 homolog, U6 small nuclear RNA associated? Meaning of LSM5 homolog, U6 small nuclear RNA associated medical term. What does LSM5 homolog, U6 small nuclear RNA associated mean?
Pol II (RNA polymerase II) transcribes the genes encoding proteins and non-coding snRNAs (small nuclear RNAs). The largest subunit of Pol II contains a distinctive CTD (C-terminal domain) comprising a repetitive heptad amino acid sequence, Tyr1-Ser2-Pro3-Thr4-Ser5-Pro6-Ser7. This domain is now known to play a major role in the processes of transcription and co-transcriptional RNA processing in expression of both snRNA and protein-coding genes. The heptapeptide repeat unit can be extensively modified in vivo and covalent modifications of the CTD during the transcription cycle result in the ordered recruitment of RNA-processing factors. The most studied modifications are the phosphorylation of the serine residues in position 2 and 5 (Ser2 and Ser5), which play an important role in the co-transcriptional processing of both mRNA and snRNA. An additional, recently identified CTD modification, phosphorylation of the serine residue in position 7 (Ser7) of the heptapeptide, is however specifically ...
Eukaryotic cells contain a set of low molecular weight nuclear RNAs. One of the more abundant of these is termed U2 RNA. The possibility that U2 RNA is hydrogen-bonded to complementary sequences in other nuclear RNAs was investigated. Cultured human (HeLa) cells were treated with a psoralen derivative that cross-links RNA chains that are base-paired with one another. High molecular weight heterogeneous nuclear RNA was isolated under denaturing conditions, and the psoralen cross-links were reversed. Electrophoresis of the released RNA and hybridization with a human cloned U2 DNA probe revealed that U2 is hydrogen-bonded to complementary sequences in heterogeneous nuclear RNA in vivo. In contrast, U2 RNA is not base-paired with nucleolar RNA, which contains the precursors of ribosomal RNA. The results suggest that U2 RNA participates in messenger RNA processing in the nucleus. ...
A phosphoprotein adapter involved in the XPO1-mediated U snRNA export from the nucleus. Bridge components required for U snRNA export, the cap binding complex (CBC)-bound snRNA on the one hand and the GTPase Ran in its active GTP-bound form together with the export receptor XPO1 on the other. Its phosphorylation in the nucleus is required for U snRNA export complex assembly and export, while its dephosphorylation in the cytoplasm causes export complex disassembly. It is recycled back to the nucleus via the importin alpha/beta heterodimeric import receptor. The directionality of nuclear export is thought to be conferred by an asymmetric distribution of the GTP- and GDP-bound forms of Ran between the cytoplasm and nucleus. Its compartmentalized phosphorylation cycle may also contribute to the directionality of export. Binds strongly to m7G-capped U1 and U5 small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) in a sequence-unspecific manner and phosphorylation-independent manner (By similarity). Plays also a role in the biogenesis
We develop a statistical mechanical model for RNA/RNA complexes with both intramolecular and intermolecular interactions. As an application of the model, we compute the free energy landscapes, which give the full distribution for all the possible conformations for spliceosomal snRNA complexes. Different snRNA experiments found contrasting structures, our free energy landscape theory shows why these structures emerge and how they compete with each other. In addition, the energy landscapes suggest possible mechanisms for the conformational switches in splicing. The change of the energy landscape shape gives information about the conformational changes. We find multiple (native-like and misfolded) intermediates formed through base-pairing rearrangements in snRNA complexes. Furthermore, the energy landscape gives the stabilities of all the possible (functional) intermediates and such information is directly related to splicing efficiency ...
Pseudouridine (Psi) residues were localized in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae spliceosomal U small nuclear RNAs (UsnRNAs) by using the chemical mapping method. In contrast to vertebrate UsnRNAs, S. cerevisiae UsnRNAs contain only a few Psi residues, which are located in segments involved in intermolecular RNA-RNA or RNA-protein interactions. At these positions, UsnRNAs are universally modified. When yeast mutants disrupted for one of the several pseudouridine synthase genes (PUS1, PUS2, PUS3, and PUS4) or depleted in rRNA-pseudouridine synthase Cbf5p were tested for UsnRNA Psi content, only the loss of the Pus1p activity was found to affect Psi formation in spliceosomal UsnRNAs. Indeed, Psi44 formation in U2 snRNA was abolished. By using purified Pus1p enzyme and in vitro-produced U2 snRNA, Pus1p is shown here to catalyze Psi44 formation in the S. cerevisiae U2 snRNA. Thus, Pus1p is the first UsnRNA pseudouridine synthase characterized so far which exhibits a dual substrate specificity, acting on ...
Nuclear pre-mRNA splicing takes places in a large RNP complex, the spliceosome, which is assembled in an ordered multistep process. It consists of five small nuclear RNAs (the U1, U2, U4, U5, and U6 snRNAs) and more than 100 proteins, as recent proteomic analyses have determined (15, 16, 39). The spliceosome shows characteristic dynamics during assembly and splicing catalysis. For example, only the U2, U5, and U6 snRNAs participate in the catalytic center of the spliceosome, whereas the U1 and U4 snRNAs play essential roles only during the early assembly stages. After completion of the two-step splicing reaction and the release of mRNA and lariat products, the spliceosome disassembles into its components. Before entering a new cycle, at least some the components presumably must be reactivated. However, very little is known about this recycling phase of the spliceosome cycle.. The U4, U5, and U6 snRNAs enter the prespliceosome in the form of the 25S U4/U6.U5 tri-snRNP but are released from the ...
U6 snRNA phosphodiesterase; Phosphodiesterase responsible for the U6 snRNA 3 end processing. Acts as an exoribonuclease (RNase) responsible for trimming the poly(U) tract of the last nucleotides in the pre-U6 snRNA molecule, leading to the formation of mature U6 snRNA (279 aa ...
The removal of introns from pre-mRNA transcripts is an essential step in the expression of almost all human genes. we are collaborating with several groups to d...
Five small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) (U1, U2, U4, U5, U6) found in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells mediate the excision of introns from pre-mRNAs. The structure and expression of the snRNA components have been well documented in animal and yeast systems but little information has existed on the structure and expression of the splicesomal snRNAs involved in plant intron excision. To further define the snRNA components involved in intron excision, a clone library has been constructed from anti-m$\sb3$G immunoprecipitated snRNAs expressed in pea seedlings. cDNA clones representing U1, U2, U4, and U5 snRNAs expressed in seedling tissue have been isolated and sequenced. Comparison of the pea snRNA variants with other organisms suggest that functionally important primary sequences are conserved phylogenetically even though the overall sequences have diverged substantially. Structural variations occur in regions required for U1-specific protein binding suggesting that alternate U1 snRNP particles may exist ...
The authors also were interested in using endogenous promoters to express gRNA and Cas9. They identified three U6 snRNA genes in the Tribolium genome, cloned two putative promoter fragments and placed them upstream of the eGFP1 gRNA, then injected them into Pig-19 embryos along with Cas9 mRNA. They found very similar results to injected in-vitro synthesized gRNA, suggesting endogenous promoters can be used effectively to drive in-vivo expression of gRNA and Cas9 in Tribolium.. The authors also used homology-dependent repair to generate knock-ins; specifically, they attempted to replace a green fluorescent transgene with a red transgene, with homology arms flanking the donor transgene of 0.7 kb and 1 kb (Figure 2). DsRed fluorescence was seen in 8-20% of G0 larvae, and 0-10% of second-generation larvae; they verified the conversion by sequencing.. Overall, the authors demonstrate that CRISPR / Cas9 can be used in Tribolium to make targeted knockouts and gene conversions, and that endogenous U6 ...
Ribonucleic Acid. A molecule essential in gene coding, decoding, regulation, and expression. Consists of sequences of the four nucleotide bases: Adenine, Uracil, Guanine, and Cytosine. Types of RNA include messenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA), small nuclear RNA (snRNA), and other non-coding RNAs. Some viruses including Influenza A and Sars-Cov-2 have RNA genomes.. ...
In eukaryotic DNA, methylation most commonly occurs as 5-methylcytosine. This is often in blocks of heterochromatin or in CpG islands surrounding genes (http://www.methdb.de) and is recognized as playing a fundamental role in regulating gene expression. In the case of mRNA, a number of modifications are possible, such as C-to-U editing in some chloroplast and mitochondrial transcripts (Shikanai, 2006) or A-to-I deamination, found in some animal RNAs (Zhang and Carmichael, 2001). Methylation of the N6 position of the adenosine base has been observed in many RNA species, including tRNA, rRNA, and small nuclear RNA (snRNA) (Bjork et al., 1987; Maden, 1990; Shimba et al., 1995; Gu et al., 1996; Agris et al., 2007; Piekna-Przybylska et al., 2008), but the functional importance of its occurrence in mRNA has remained unclear since its discovery ,30 years ago (Desrosiers et al., 1974; Perry and Kelley, 1974).. N6-Methyladenosine (m6A) is found in the mRNA of some viruses (Beemon and Keith, 1977; Aloni ...
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Nucleolar localization of U4 and U5 snRNAs does not depend on U6 snRNA. Fluorescein-labeled U4 or U5 snRNA were injected into the nuclei of Xenopus oocytes that
@U2 provides U2 news, lyrics, and other U2 information in a non-profit, educational setting for anyone interested in learning about the Irish rock band U2.
@U2 provides U2 news, U2 photographs, U2 lyrics, and other U2 information in a non-profit, educational setting for anyone interested in learning about the Irish rock band U2.
Placute de inlocuire pentru sistemul de pedale mtb Mavic Atac.. Unghi de desprindere la montare standard: 13 grade; la montare inversata: 17 grade.. Constructie compacta, ce permite un contact mai mare in timpul mersului.. ...
Preşedintele Senatului atacă din nou procurorii. Călin popescu Tăriceanu susţine că dosarul împotriva ministrului pentru relaţia cu parlamentul este unul fabricat.
Most mammalian snoRNAs are encoded within the introns of pre-mRNA genes. The majority of snoRNAs are released from the pre-mRNA via a splicing-dependent pathway, while some are processed via endonucleolytic cleavage of the pre-mRNA. The remaining mammalian snoRNAs, such as U3, U8 and U13, are expressed from independent genes and contain an m3G cap structure (9, 30, 43, 52). The biogenesis of box C/D snoRNAs takes place in the nucleoplasm, where the nascent transcribed RNAs are processed, assembled into RNPs, and transported to the nucleolus. The box C/D motif has been shown to be essential for each of these steps in snoRNP biogenesis. This RNA element is a protein binding site that has been proposed to participate in both the biogenesis and function of snoRNAs via the selective recruitment of specific box C/D binding factors (9, 41, 52).. Four common core proteins are associated with the mature snoRNP, namely, fibrillarin (Nop1p in yeast), NOP56, NOP58, and the 15.5K protein (Snu13p in yeast) ...
Component of the Integrator complex, a complex involved in the small nuclear RNAs (snRNA) U1 and U2 transcription and in their 3-box-dependent processing. The Integrator complex is associated with the C-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II largest subunit (POLR2A) and is recruited to the U1 and U2 snRNAs genes. Plays a role in DNA damage response (DDR) signaling during the S phase ...
Catalytic component of the Integrator (INT) complex, a complex involved in the small nuclear RNAs (snRNA) U1 and U2 transcription and in their 3-box-dependent processing. The Integrator complex is associated with the C-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II largest subunit (POLR2A) and is recruited to the U1 and U2 snRNAs genes. Mediates the snRNAs 3 cleavage. Mediates recruitment of cytoplasmic dynein to the nuclear envelope, probably as component of the INT complex (PubMed:23904267).
Two types of spliceosomes catalyze splicing of pre-mRNAs. The major U2-type spliceosome is found in all eukaryotes and removes U2-type introns, which represent more than 99% of pre-mRNA introns. The minor U12-type spliceosome is found in some eukaryotes and removes U12-type introns, which are rare and have distinct splice consensus signals. The U12-type spliceosome consists of several small nuclear RNAs and associated proteins. This gene encodes a 65K protein that is a component of the U12-type spliceosome. This protein contains two RNA recognition motifs (RRMs), suggesting that it may contact one of the small nuclear RNAs of the minor spliceosome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Small nucleolar RNA RZ107/R87 refers to a group of related non-coding RNA (ncRNA) molecules which function in the biogenesis of other small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs). These small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) are modifying RNAs and usually located in the nucleolus of the eukaryotic cell which is a major site of snRNA biogenesis. These two snoRNAs R87 and Z107 were identified in the plant Arabidopsis thaliana[1] and rice Oryza sativa[2] respectively. These related snoRNAs are predicted to belong to the C/D box class of snoRNAs which contain the conserved sequence motifs known as the C box (UGAUGA) and the D box (CUGA). Most of the members of the box C/D family function in directing site-specific 2-O-methylation of substrate RNAs.[3] ...
The formation of macromolecular complexes within the crowded environment of cells often requires aid from assembly chaperones. PRMT5 and SMN complexes mediate this task for the assembly of the common core of pre-mRNA processing small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles (snRNPs). Core formation is initiated by the PRMT5-complex subunit pICln, which pre-arranges the core proteins into spatial positions occupied in the assembled snRNP. The SMN complex then accepts these pICln-bound proteins and unites them with small nuclear RNA (snRNA). Here, we have analyzed how newly synthesized snRNP proteins are channeled into the assembly pathway to evade mis-assembly. We show that they initially remain bound to the ribosome near the polypeptide exit tunnel and dissociate upon association with pICln. Coincident with its release activity, pICln ensures the formation of cognate heterooligomers and their chaperoned guidance into the assembly pathway. Our study identifies the ribosomal quality control hub as a ...
C/D box snoRNAs contain two short sequence motifs, box C and box D, located only a few nucleotides away from the 5′ and 3′ ends, respectively, generally as part of a typical 5′-3′ terminal stem-box structure (for a review see Bachellerie and Cavaillé, 1998). Immediately upstream from box D or from an additional box (D′) in the 5′ half, C/D snoRNAs feature sequence tracts, 10-21 nt in length, that are complementary to rRNA spanning the sites of 2′‐O‐ribose methylation. In the corresponding RNA duplexes, the ribose‐methylated nucleotide is always at the same location, paired to the fifth snoRNA nucleotide upstream from box D or box D′ (Kiss‐Laszlo et al., 1996; Nicoloso et al., 1996). In rRNA of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cognate box C/D snoRNAs have been identified for 51 of the 55 ribose‐methylated sites (Lowe and Eddy, 1999). In mammals, however, a large fraction of the 105-107 expected rRNA 2′‐O‐ribose methylations (Maden, 1990) remained without a ...
Predicted to have O-methyltransferase activity; RNA 5-methyltransferase activity; and snRNA binding activity. Predicted to be involved in positive regulation of protein localization to Cajal body; positive regulation of snRNA transcription by RNA polymerase II; and snRNA modification. Predicted to localize to nucleus and ribonucleoprotein complex. Is expressed in blastoderm cell and brain. Orthologous to human MEPCE (methylphosphate capping enzyme ...
Abstract: The recessive disorder poikiloderma with neutropenia (PN) is caused by mutations in the C16orf57 gene that encodes the highly conserved USB1 protein. Here, we present the 1.1 Å resolution crystal structure of human USB1, defining it as a member of the LigT-like superfamily of 2H phosphoesterases. We show that human USB1 is a distributive 3′-5′ exoribonuclease that posttranscriptionally removes uridine and adenosine nucleosides from the 3′ end of spliceosomal U6 small nuclear RNA (snRNA), directly catalyzing terminal 2′, 3′ cyclic phosphate formation. USB1 measures the appropriate length of the U6 oligo(U) tail by reading the position of a key adenine nucleotide (A102) and pausing 5 uridine residues downstream. We show that the 3′ ends of U6 snRNA in PN patient lymphoblasts are elongated and unexpectedly carry nontemplated 3′ oligo(A) tails that are characteristic of nuclear RNA surveillancetargets. Thus, our study reveals a novel quality control pathway in which ...
Using an in vitro system we have recently shown that the 3 ends of human pre-snRNAs synthesized by RNA polymerase II are produced by RNA processing directed by the snRNA gene-specific 3 box. Towards a complete characterization of this processing reaction we have further investigated the in vitro requirements for proper 3 end formation of pre-U1 snRNA. Here we show that the 5 cap plays a stimulatory role and processing requires creatine phosphate. Our results also indicate that the pre-U1 processing activity is heat sensitive and that an RNA component is required. In addition, the exact sequence adjacent to the 3 box influences the position of the pre-U1 3 end produced in vitro. Interestingly, the processing extract active for 3-box-dependent processing also contains an activity that converts the 3 end of RNA containing the U1 Sm protein binding site and the 3 terminal stem-loop into the mature form.
University of Guelph food safety expert Prof. Keith Warriner is available to discuss the repeated salmonella outbreaks in Canada linked to frozen chicken products. Warriner can also discuss the new federal regulations that go into effect on April 1 intended to prevent further outbreaks. Warrin
You are mistaken. ROCA PSEA could not sinned by default or change of its own previous decisions. Constant practice of any ecclesiastical authority in time to vary between the extremes and acrivia economia on the same issue. After retiring in split MP Metropolitan Laurus Group, formed in 2007 ROCA PSEA (now - it ROCOR Synod chaired by th en. Agafangel: in While the fragments of the ROCA as RPATs ROCA (V), RTOC IRPTSZ, RosPTs, etc., etc., etc. are schisms and parasinagogi), before taking the sekachevtsev are inseparable canonical continuation of that same Supreme Church Authority ROCA authorization th Patriarch Tikhon and educated at Metropolitan. Antonia by Decree # 362. Consequently, since the ROCA PSEA was a same old laws supreme ecclesiastical authority ROCA, it was not obliged to comply strictly with first developed their own decisions, and if necessary they could alter, amend or repeal all. So if the ROCA PSEA decided to take sekachevtsev-general without any yakih, it would not be a ...
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
The move to group sow housing by Cargill and other U.S. pork firms reflects an important shift in thinking about animal welfare, from consumers to large food -corporations
It is the pol-icy of the Broome Ad-ver-tiser to cor-rect sig-nif-i-cant er-rors as quickly as pos-si-ble. Readers can con-tact the of-fice of the readers editor by mail at The Readers Editor, The West Aus-tralian, GPO Box D162, Perth WA 6840; by fax (08) 9482 3177; or email [email protected] (the head-line, page num-ber and date of pub-li-ca-tion of the re-port should be in-cluded in your cor-re-spon-dence). Please in-clude your tele-phone num-ber.. ...
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". "Homo sapiens RNA, 5.8S ribosomal N1 (RNA5-8SN1), ribosomal RNA". 3 July 2020. "Homo sapiens 28S ribosomal RNA (nuclear)". ... SSU rRNA: the small subunit ribosomal ribonucleic acid. "Escherichia coli 23S ribosomal RNA". "Halobacterium salinarum 23S ... Large subunit ribosomal ribonucleic acid (LSU rRNA) is the largest of the two major RNA components of the ribosome. Associated ...
"Entrez Gene: RNA, U12 small nuclear". Retrieved 2018-03-22. Madan V, Kanojia D, Li J, Okamoto R, Sato-Otsubo A, Kohlmann A, ... RNA, U12 small nuclear is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RNU12 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000276027 - ...
"Evolutionary conservation of the U7 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein in Drosophila melanogaster". RNA. 9 (12): 1532-41. doi: ... 10.1261/rna.5143303. PMC 1370506. PMID 14624008. Sjøholt G, Ebstein RP, Lie RT, et al. (2005). "Examination of IMPA1 and IMPA2 ...
They are nuclear RNAs which bind host proteins to form small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs). The RNAs are 114-143 ... The ever-growing world of small nuclear ribonucleoproteins. In The RNA world, 3rd edition (ed. R.F. Gesteland et al.), p. 327. ... Fan XC, Myer VE, Steitz JA (October 1997). "AU-rich elements target small nuclear RNAs as well as mRNAs for rapid degradation ... Cook HL, Mischo HE, Steitz JA (May 2004). "The Herpesvirus saimiri small nuclear RNAs recruit AU-rich element-binding proteins ...
RNA, U2 small nuclear, also known as RNU2, is a human gene. "Human PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology ... "Entrez Gene: RNU2 RNA, U2 small nuclear". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Hausner TP, Giglio LM, Weiner AM (1991). " ... Van Arsdell SW, Weiner AM (1984). "Human genes for U2 small nuclear RNA are tandemly repeated". Mol. Cell. Biol. 4 (3): 492-9. ... 1985). "Nuclease S1-sensitive sites in multigene families: human U2 small nuclear RNA genes". EMBO J. 4 (7): 1839-45. doi: ...
RNA, U4 small nuclear 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RNU4-1 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000200795 ... "Entrez Gene: RNA, U4 small nuclear 1". Retrieved 2018-09-03. Comolli LR, Ulyanov NB, Soto AM, Marky LA, James TL, Gmeiner WH ( ... Shukla GC, Padgett RA (January 2004). "U4 small nuclear RNA can function in both the major and minor spliceosomes". Proc. Natl ...
RNA, U2 small nuclear 2 is a protein in humans that is encoded by the RNU2-2 pseudogene. "Entrez Gene: RNA, U2 small nuclear 2 ...
U7 small nuclear RNA GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000181817 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ... "Entrez Gene: LSM10 LSM10, U7 small nuclear RNA associated". Lehner B, Sanderson CM (Jul 2004). "A protein interaction framework ... in histone RNA processing". Genes & Development. 17 (18): 2321-33. doi:10.1101/gad.274403. PMC 196468. PMID 12975319. Hassel S ...
RNA, U4atac small nuclear (U12-dependent splicing) is a small nuclear RNA that in humans is encoded by the RNU4ATAC gene. The ... "Entrez Gene: RNA, U4atac small nuclear (U12-dependent splicing)". Retrieved 2012-04-15. Edery P, Marcaillou C, Sahbatou M, ... Tarn WY, Steitz JA (Sep 1996). "Highly diverged U4 and U6 small nuclear RNAs required for splicing rare AT-AC introns". Science ... Shukla GC, Padgett RA (Jan 2004). "U4 small nuclear RNA can function in both the major and minor spliceosomes". Proceedings of ...
Nguyen VT, Kiss T, Michels AA, Bensaude O (2001). "7SK small nuclear RNA binds to and inhibits the activity of CDK9/cyclin T ... Michels AA, Nguyen VT, Fraldi A, Labas V, Edwards M, Bonnet F, Lania L, Bensaude O (2003). "MAQ1 and 7SK RNA interact with CDK9 ... Herrmann CH, Mancini MA (2001). "The Cdk9 and cyclin T subunits of TAK/P-TEFb localize to splicing factor-rich nuclear speckle ... "Analysis of the effect of natural sequence variation in Tat and in cyclin T on the formation and RNA binding properties of Tat- ...
The macronucleus provides the small nuclear RNA for vegetative growth. Division of the macronucleus occurs by amitosis, and the ... The process is guided by small RNAs and epigenetic chromatin marks. In spirotrich ciliates (such as Oxytricha), the process is ... Mochizuki, Kazufumi (2010). "DNA rearrangements directed by non-coding RNAs in ciliates". Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: RNA ... Ciliate species range in size from as little as 10 µm in some colpodeans to as much as 4 mm in length in some geleiids, and ...
"Entrez Gene: U2AF2 U2 small nuclear RNA auxiliary factor 2". Lin CL, Taggart AJ, Lim KH, Cygan KJ, Ferraris L, Creton R, Huang ... U2AF2 has been shown to interact with: PUF60, SF1, SFRS11, SFRS2IP, SRPK2, U2 small nuclear RNA auxiliary factor 1 and WT1. ... "Solution structures of the first and second RNA-binding domains of human U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle auxiliary ... "Cloning and intracellular localization of the U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein auxiliary factor small subunit". Proc. Natl. ...
"Escherichia coli 16S ribosomal RNA". "Halobacterium salinarum 16S ribosomal RNA". "Homo sapiens 18S ribosomal RNA (nuclear)". ... Small subunit ribosomal ribonucleic acid (SSU rRNA) is the smallest of the two major RNA components of the ribosome. Associated ... "Arabidopsis thaliana 16S ribosomal RNA (chloroplast)". Woese CR, Kandler O, Wheelis ML (June 1990). "Towards a natural system ... with a number of ribosomal proteins, the SSU rRNA forms the small subunit of the ribosome. It is encoded by the SSU-rDNA. SSU ...
Small nuclear RNAs (snRNA) join with proteins to form spliceosomes. The spliceosomes govern alternative splicing. Genes code ... Small interfering RNAs (sometimes called silencing RNAs) interfere with the expression of a specific gene. They are quite small ... RNA Interference *↑ Lee R.C. & Ambros V. 2001. An extensive class of small RNAs in Caenorhabditis elegans. Science 294, 862-864 ... They are transfer RNA (tRNA) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA). tRNA[change , change source]. Transfer RNA (tRNA) is a short molecule of ...
Tarn WY, Steitz JA (1996). "Highly diverged U4 and U6 small nuclear RNAs required for splicing rare AT-AC introns". Science. ... A search for small nuclear RNA sequences that are complementary to these splice sites suggested U12 snRNA (matches the 3' ... RNA splicing Spliceosome Review papers: Turunen, J. J., Niemelä, E. H., Verma, B., & Frilander, M. J (January-February 2013). " ... Hall SL, Padgett RA (1996). "Requirement of U12 snRNA for in vivo splicing of a minor class of eukaryotic nuclear pre-mRNA ...
... that are required for transcription of small nuclear RNA genes by RNA polymerases II and III and interact with the TATA-binding ... "The SNAP45 subunit of the small nuclear RNA (snRNA) activating protein complex is required for RNA polymerase II and III snRNA ... "Entrez Gene: SNAPC2 small nuclear RNA activating complex, polypeptide 2, 45kDa". Wong MW, Henry RW, Ma B, Kobayashi R, Klages N ... Hinkley CS, Hirsch HA, Gu L, LaMere B, Henry RW (May 2003). "The small nuclear RNA-activating protein 190 Myb DNA binding ...
Hinkley CS, Hirsch HA, Gu L, LaMere B, Henry RW (May 2003). "The small nuclear RNA-activating protein 190 Myb DNA binding ... "Entrez Gene: SNAPC4 small nuclear RNA activating complex, polypeptide 4, 190kDa". "Salmonella infection data for Snapc4". ... Ma B, Hernandez N (February 2001). "A map of protein-protein contacts within the small nuclear RNA-activating protein complex ... Ma B, Hernandez N (February 2001). "A map of protein-protein contacts within the small nuclear RNA-activating protein complex ...
... that are required for transcription of small nuclear RNA genes by RNA polymerases II and III and interact with the TATA-binding ... "Entrez Gene: SNAPC1 small nuclear RNA activating complex, polypeptide 1, 43kDa". Ma, B; Hernandez N (February 2001). "A map of ... 2003). "The small nuclear RNA-activating protein 190 Myb DNA binding domain stimulates TATA box-binding protein-TATA box ... Ma B; Hernandez N (2001). "A map of protein-protein contacts within the small nuclear RNA-activating protein complex SNAPc". J ...
"Entrez Gene: SNAPC5 small nuclear RNA activating complex, polypeptide 5, 19kDa". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Kimura ... Ma B, Hernandez N (2001). "A map of protein-protein contacts within the small nuclear RNA-activating protein complex SNAPc". J ... shared by RNA polymerases II and III". Genes Dev. 12 (17): 2664-72. doi:10.1101/gad.12.17.2664. PMC 317148. PMID 9732265. " ...
"Entrez Gene: SNAPC3 small nuclear RNA activating complex, polypeptide 3, 50kDa". Ma B, Hernandez N (February 2001). "A map of ... Hinkley CS, Hirsch HA, Gu L, LaMere B, Henry RW (May 2003). "The small nuclear RNA-activating protein 190 Myb DNA binding ... Ma B, Hernandez N (February 2001). "A map of protein-protein contacts within the small nuclear RNA-activating protein complex ... proximal sequence element-binding transcription factor and its involvement in transcription of small nuclear RNA genes by RNA ...
A set of uridine-rich small nuclear RNA (snRNA) molecules was part of this complex, and given the names U1, U2, U4, U5 and U6. ... the Lsm2-8 ring acts as an RNA chaperone instead of an RNA scaffold.) The Lsm2-8 ring also forms an snRNP with the U8 small ... which usually binds to a small RNA molecule to form a ribonucleoprotein complex. The LSm torus assists the RNA molecule to ... and association with bacterial small regulatory RNAs (such as DsrA RNA) that control translation by binding to certain mRNAs. A ...
"Entrez Gene: LSM4 LSM4 homolog, U6 small nuclear RNA associated (S. cerevisiae)". Singer J, Roberts-Ems J, Luthardt FW, Riggs ... RNA. 8 (12): 1489-501. doi:10.1017/S1355838202021726 (inactive 2021-01-11). PMC 1370355. PMID 12515382.CS1 maint: DOI inactive ...
"Entrez Gene: RNUXA RNA U, small nuclear RNA export adaptor (phosphorylation regulated)". Maruyama K, Sugano S (1994). "Oligo- ... Phosphorylated adapter RNA export protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PHAX gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... Ohno M, Segref A, Bachi A, Wilm M, Mattaj IW (May 2000). "PHAX, a mediator of U snRNA nuclear export whose activity is ... Segref A, Mattaj IW, Ohno M (2001). "The evolutionarily conserved region of the U snRNA export mediator PHAX is a novel RNA- ...
"Entrez Gene: LSM1 LSM1 homolog, U6 small nuclear RNA associated (S. cerevisiae)". Shimizu Y, Sugiyama H, Fujii Y, et al. (1997 ... RNA. 8 (12): 1489-501. doi:10.1017/S1355838202021726 (inactive 2021-01-14). PMC 1370355. PMID 12515382.CS1 maint: DOI inactive ...
"Entrez Gene: LSM3 LSM3 homolog, U6 small nuclear RNA associated (S. cerevisiae)". Lehner B, Sanderson CM (Jul 2004). "A protein ... RNA. 8 (4): 426-39. doi:10.1017/S1355838202021088. PMC 1370266. PMID 11991638. Ingelfinger D, Arndt-Jovin DJ, Lührmann R, ... RNA. 8 (12): 1489-501. doi:10.1017/S1355838202021726 (inactive 2021-01-13). PMC 1370355. PMID 12515382.CS1 maint: DOI inactive ...
"Entrez Gene: LSM2 LSM2 homolog, U6 small nuclear RNA associated (S. cerevisiae)". Charroux B, Pellizzoni L, Perkinson RA, ... RNA. 8 (4): 426-39. doi:10.1017/S1355838202021088. PMC 1370266. PMID 11991638. Ingelfinger D, Arndt-Jovin DJ, Lührmann R, ... RNA. 8 (12): 1489-501. doi:10.1017/S1355838202021726 (inactive 2021-01-13). PMC 1370355. PMID 12515382.CS1 maint: DOI inactive ...
"Entrez Gene: LSM6 LSM6 homolog, U6 small nuclear RNA associated (S. cerevisiae)". Friesen WJ, Dreyfuss G (2000). "Specific ... RNA. 8 (12): 1489-501. doi:10.1017/S1355838202021726 (inactive 2021-01-14). PMC 1370355. PMID 12515382.CS1 maint: DOI inactive ...
Studebaker AW, Lafuse WP, Kloesel R, Williams MV (Feb 2005). "Modulation of human dUTPase using small interfering RNA". ... "Phosphorylation adjacent to the nuclear localization signal of human dUTPase abolishes nuclear import: structural and ... Meanwhile, the monopartite NLS sequence is critical for the function and nuclear localization of DUT-N, which would otherwise ... Tinkelenberg BA, Fazzone W, Lynch FJ, Ladner RD (Jul 2003). "Identification of sequence determinants of human nuclear dUTPase ...
December 2009). "Analysis of small RNA in fission yeast; centromeric siRNAs are potentially generated through a structured RNA ... An inactivated X-chromosome (a.k.a. Barr body) migrates to the nuclear membrane alone, leaving the active X and other ... In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, two RNAi complexes, the RITS complex and the RNA-directed RNA polymerase ... Donze D, Kamakaka RT (February 2001). "RNA polymerase III and RNA polymerase II promoter complexes are heterochromatin barriers ...
SNAPC3‏ (Small nuclear RNA activating complex polypeptide 3) هوَ بروتين يُشَفر بواسطة جين SNAPC3 في الإنسان.[1][2] ... "Entrez Gene: SNAPC3 small nuclear RNA activating complex, polypeptide 3, 50kDa". مؤرشف من الأصل في 05 ديسمبر 2010. الوسيط ,مسار ... 2003). "The small nuclear RNA-activating protein 190 Myb DNA binding domain stimulates TATA box-binding protein-TATA box ... SNAPC3, PTFbeta, SNAP50, small nuclear RNA activating complex polypeptide 3. معرفات خارجية. الوراثة المندلية البشرية عبر ...
Chloroplasts also contain a mysterious second RNA polymerase that is encoded by the plant's nuclear genome. The two RNA ... Shaw J, Lickey EB, Schilling EE, Small RL (March 2007). "Comparison of whole chloroplast genome sequences to choose noncoding ... Hundreds of different PPR proteins from the nuclear genome are involved in the RNA editing process. These proteins consist of ... RNA editing in plastidsEdit. RNA editing is the insertion, deletion, and substitution of nucleotides in a mRNA transcript prior ...
RNA editing. Octopuses and other coleoid cephalopods are capable of greater RNA editing (which involves changes to the nucleic ... Small prey may be completely trapped by the webbed structure. Octopuses usually inject crustaceans like crabs with a paralysing ... inferred from three mitochondrial and six nuclear loci: a comparison of alignment, implied alignment and analysis methods". ... Coleoids rely mostly on ADAR enzymes for RNA editing, which requires large double-stranded RNA structures to flank to the ...
RNA polymerase II core promoter sequence-specific DNA binding. • RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, sequence- ... The PAX genes give instructions for making proteins that attach themselves to certain areas of DNA.[6] This nuclear protein is ... small in size, present in a solid/nested growth pattern and frequently involve vascular invasion. It has been observed that ... transcriptional activator activity, RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific binding. • RNA polymerase ...
1993). "On the evolution of RNA editing". Trends in Genetics. 9 (8): 265-268. doi:10.1016/0168-9525(93)90011-6.. ... The trend towards the creation of some organisms with higher complexity over time exists, but it involves increasingly small ... Daniel, Chammiran; Behm, Mikaela; Öhman, Marie (2015). "The role of Alu elements in the cis-regulation of RNA processing". ... RNA editing may have arisen in Trypanosoma brucei.[21][24][23][25][26] ...
RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • transcriptional activator activity, RNA ... The progesterone receptor (PR), also known as NR3C3 or nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 3, is a protein found ... mediating their own response genes and physiological effects with little overlap. Selective ablation of PR-A in a mouse model, ... RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific DNA binding. • steroid hormone receptor activity. • steroid ...
Single-molecule RNA FISH[edit]. Single-molecule RNA FISH, also known as Stellaris® RNA FISH,[11] is a method of detecting and ... However, it is possible to create a mixture of smaller probes that are specific to a particular region (locus) of DNA; these ... doi:10.1261/rna.2701111. PMC 3096040. PMID 21518807.. *^ a b c Bernasconi, B.; Karamitopolou-Diamantiis, E.; Tornillo, L.; ... RNA Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization for the Simultaneous Detection of Immature and Mature Long Noncoding RNAs in Adherent ...
nuclear chromosome, telomeric region. • nucleus. • nuclear chromatin. • lateral element. • cytosol. • condensed nuclear ... Non-small-cell lung cancer. Over-expression. 29%. Immunohistochemistry. [22]. Soft tissue sarcoma. Over-expression. 95%. ... messenger RNA. [13]. Breast cancer (progesteron receptor negative). Over-expression. -. messenger RNA. [16]. ... nuclear chromosome. • mitochondrial matrix. • nucleolus. • mitochondrion. • perinuclear region of cytoplasm. • chromatin. • ...
"New dawn for UK nuclear power". World Nuclear News. 24 September 2008. Archived from the original on 25 September 2008. ... It includes two entire national parks, Dartmoor and Exmoor (a small part of the New Forest is also within the region); and four ... Fourth Element (wet suits) are on the A3083 at Cury, south of RNAS Culdrose and Helston. A.P. Valves make diving equipment in ... have their nuclear energy engineering centre with Horizon Nuclear Power. Between the former C&G and EDF at Barnwood, Barclays' ...
SNORD71: encoding protein Small nucleolar RNA, C/D box 71. *SPSB3: encoding protein SplA/ryanodine receptor domain and SOCS box ... NUPR1: encoding protein Nuclear protein 1. *OGFOD1:. *PDF: encoding enzyme Peptide deformylase, mitochondrial ... LINC00273 encoding protein Long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 273. *LOC124220: encoding protein Zymogen granule protein 16 ... SNAI3-AS1: encoding protein SNAI3 antisense RNA 1. * ... Non-coding RNA genes. Pseudogenes. Source. Release date CCDS. ...
... nuclear RNA". Nucleic Acids Research. 9 (19): 5145-58. doi:10.1093/nar/9.19.5145. PMC 327505. PMID 6171774.. ... A deletion of the TATA box leads to a small decrease in enzymatic activity in the scutellum and roots, but a large decrease in ... the TATA box is found at RNA polymerase II promoter regions, although some in vitro studies have demonstrated that RNA ... "RNA polymerase III accurately initiates transcription from RNA polymerase II promoters in vitro". The Journal of Biological ...
Nuclear protein Ataxia-Telangiectasia (NPAT), also known as nuclear protein coactivator of histone transcription, is a ... where it is initiated by recruitment of the RNA-induced transcriptional silencing (RITS) complex to double stranded RNAs ... The addition of one, two, or many methyl groups to lysine has little effect on the chemistry of the histone; methylation leaves ... Clarke HJ (1992). "Nuclear and chromatin composition of mammalian gametes and early embryos". Biochemistry and Cell Biology. 70 ...
all preserve the associated metadata. The citation module code looks for multiple comma or semicolon separator characters. This means that there can be some false positives in this list, so this maintenance message and category are hidden for most editors and readers. Pages in this category should only be added by Module:Citation/CS1. ...
第四亚族NUR(英语:Nur (biology))(NGFIB、NOR1、NURR1) · 第五亚族LRH-1、SF1 · 第六亚族GCNF(英语:Germ cell nuclear factor) · 第零亚族DAX1、SHP(英语:Small ... sequence-specific enhancer binding RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity. · transcription factor binding. · zinc ion ... Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4)(α、γ)、PNR、RXR(α、β、γ)、Testicular receptor(2、4)、TLX). 第三亚族(甾类激素(
small ribosomal subunit. • nuclear speck. • macromolecular complex. • Ribonucleoprotein. Processo biológico. • centrosome cycle ... RNA binding. • protein heterodimerization activity. • nucleic acid binding. • protein kinase binding. • core promoter binding. ... ribosomal small subunit export from nucleus. • rRNA export from nucleus. • cell volume homeostasis. • nucleocytoplasmic ... ribosomal small subunit binding. • unfolded protein binding. • transcription coactivator activity. • protein kinase inhibitor ...
Fay Ajzenberg-Selove (1926-2012): American nuclear physicist who was known for her experimental work in nuclear spectroscopy of ... There is that little difference. We adhere to ours in practice, you don't." Whatever problems they may have had in their love ... an important milestone in understanding DNA and RNA.[272] ... Dalton discovered a little-known religious group called the ... Francis Perrin (1901-1992): French physicist, co-establisher of the possibility of nuclear chain reactions and nuclear energy ...
... but with transistors becoming smaller and smaller, this is becoming an increasing concern in ground-level electronics as well.[ ... European Organization for Nuclear Research. 2008. Retrieved 17 February 2013.. *^ Gaensler, Brian (November 2011). "Extreme ... The nuclear charge causes chemical bond breaking or ionization in the plastic. At the top of the plastic stack the ionization ... R.L. Fleischer; P.B. Price; R.M. Walker (1975). Nuclear tracks in solids: Principles and applications. University of California ...
... and RNA editing take place at sites determined by the base pairing between the target RNA and RNA constituents of small nuclear ... from small catalysts to long RNA based enzymes. Particular RNAs were amplified up to 10,000 times, a first RNA version of the ... Atkins JF, Gesteland RF, Cech T (2006). The RNA world: the nature of modern RNA suggests a prebiotic RNA world. Plainview, N.Y ... of RNAs with molecular properties predicted for RNAs of the RNA World constitutes an additional argument supporting the RNA ...
This also leads to decreased levels of RNA-binding protein in the nucleus, which may mean that their target RNA transcripts do ... Small-animal models include the fruit fly, the roundworm C. elegans, and the zebrafish. Of the three, the fruit fly is the most ... The first to be discovered was TDP-43 protein,[35] a nuclear protein that aggregates in the cytoplasm of motor neurons in ... Other RNA metabolism genes associated with ALS include ANG, SETX, and MATR3.[10] ...
RNA silencing mechanisms are also important in the plant systemic response, as they can block virus replication.[40] The ... One can see red blood cells, several knobby white blood cells including lymphocytes, a monocyte, a neutrophil, and many small ... Lotze MT, Tracey KJ (April 2005). "High-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1): nuclear weapon in the immune arsenal". Nature ... Baulcombe D (September 2004). "RNA silencing in plants". Nature. 431 (7006): 356-63. Bibcode:2004Natur.431..356B. doi:10.1038/ ...
Alternately, trans-splicing of two non-functional RNA molecules may produce a single, functional RNA. Similarly, at the protein ... This leads to negative epistasis whereby mutations that have little effect alone have a large, deleterious effect together.[27] ... Wade MJ, Goodnight CJ (April 2006). "Cyto-nuclear epistasis: two-locus random genetic drift in hermaphroditic and dioecious ... The opposite situation, when the fitness difference of the double mutant from the wild type is smaller than expected from the ...
In addition, precious sample can be saved by utilizing a micro-volume platform where as little as 1uL of sample is required for ... Spectrophotometry is an important technique used in many biochemical experiments that involve DNA, RNA, and protein isolation, ... If the compound is more concentrated more light will be absorbed by the sample; within small ranges, the Beer-Lambert law holds ... RNA, and proteins. Qualitative analysis can be used and spectrophotometers are used to record spectra of compounds by scanning ...
En xeral, o núcleo está situado en posición central e o nucléolo está a miúdo asociado coa membrana nuclear interna. Igual que ... Rowan R, Powers DA (1992) Ribosomal-RNA sequences and the diversity of symbiotic dinoflagellates (zooxanthellae). Proc Natl ... based on small subunit rDNA and multilocus DNA fingerprinting. Mar Biol 142:233-239 ... O alto nivel de concordancia que se atopa entre o ADN nuclear, mitocondrial e cloroplástico indica que un esquema filoxenético ...
TRAF-2 mediates CD30-induced nuclear factor kappa B activation". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United ... "Identification of Hodgkin and Sternberg-reed cells as a unique cell type derived from a newly-detected small-cell population". ... RNA expression pattern. More reference expression data. Gene ontology. Molecular function. • transmembrane signaling receptor ...
small GTPase binding. • Rac GTPase binding. Cellular component. • cytoplasm. • cell-cell junction. • vesicle membrane. • actin ... Activated WASP leads to nuclear localization of actin filaments and this can lead to premature apoptosis, aneuploidy and ... These proteins, directly or indirectly, associate with the small GTPase CDC42, known to regulate formation of actin filaments, ... and small-sized platelets) in these patients the protein is usually significantly reduced or absent. Other, less inactivating ...
1997). "The Physics and Chemistry of Small Translucent Molecular Clouds. VIII. HCN and HNC". Astrophysical Journal. 483 (1): ... as it provides data on the nuclear environment, star formation, and even black hole fueling. Furthermore, the HNC/HCN line ...
HDAC inhibitor (small molecule) benzamide M344 MC 19 fatty acid Sodium butyrate M (y) 5, 6, 7 ; H (ny) D (y) 11 M (y) 14; R (y ... Briefly, ncRNAs are involved in signaling cascades with epigenetic marking enzymes such as HMTs, and/or with RNA interference( ... "Ultrastructure of nuclear aggregates formed by expressing an expanded polyglutamine". primary. Biochemical and Biophysical ... C9orf72 likely functions as a guanine exchange factor for a small GTPase, but this is likely not related to the underlying ...
nuclear membrane. • intracellular membrane-bounded organelle. • postsynapse. Biological process. • negative regulation of ... PrP messenger RNA contains a pseudoknot structure (prion pseudoknot), which is thought to be involved in regulation of PrP ... Presence in the pituitary has been shown to affect neuroendrocrine function in amphibians, but little is known concerning ... These oligomers are composed smaller Aβ plaques, and are the most damaging to the integrity of a neuron.[54] The precise ...
The tiny eukaryote Ostreococcus provides genomic insights into the paradox of plankton speciation. Proceedings of the National ... You are what you eat: a gene transfer ratchet could account for bacterial genes in eukaryotic nuclear genomes. Trends in ... prepisuje do RNA, ktorá potom slúži buď na syntézu proteínov (mRNA), alebo má určitú katalytickú funkciu ako taká (rRNA, tRNA a ...
Small nuclear RNAs (snRNA) join with proteins to form spliceosomes. The spliceosomes govern alternative splicing. Genes code ... Small interfering RNAs (sometimes called silencing RNAs) interfere with the expression of a specific gene. They are quite small ... RNA Interference. [1]. *↑ Lee R.C. & Ambros V. 2001. An extensive class of small RNAs in Caenorhabditis elegans. Science 294, ... They are transfer RNA (tRNA) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA).. tRNA[change , change source]. Transfer RNA (tRNA) is a short molecule ...
Small nuclear ribonucleic acid (snRNA), also commonly referred to as U-RNA, is a class of small RNA molecules that are found ... Small Nuclear RNA at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Small Nucleolar RNA at the US National ... The spliceosome is a large, protein-RNA complex that consists of five small nuclear RNAs (U1, U2, U4, U5, and U6) and over 150 ... U1 spliceosomal RNA, U2 spliceosomal RNA, U4 spliceosomal RNA, U5 spliceosomal RNA, and U6 spliceosomal RNA. Their nomenclature ...
Small nuclear RNA activating complex (SNAPc), subunit SNAP43 (IPR019188). Short name: SNAPc_SNAP43 ... of this family are part of the SNAPc complex required for the transcription of both RNA polymerase II and III small-nuclear RNA ... None of the three small subunits can bind to the PSE on their own [PMID: 9418884]. ...
RNU6-637P RNA, U6 small nuclear 637, pseudogene [Homo sapiens] RNU6-637P RNA, U6 small nuclear 637, pseudogene [Homo sapiens]. ... RNA, U6 small nuclear 637, pseudogeneprovided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:47600 See related. Ensembl:ENSG00000206777 ... RNU6-637P RNA, U6 small nuclear 637, pseudogene [ Homo sapiens (human) ] Gene ID: 106479848, updated on 18-Aug-2020 ... Model RNAs and proteins are also reported here.. Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly. Genomic * NC_000003.12 Reference GRCh38 ...
RNU6-1152P RNA, U6 small nuclear 1152, pseudogene [Homo sapiens] RNU6-1152P RNA, U6 small nuclear 1152, pseudogene [Homo ... RNA, U6 small nuclear 1152, pseudogeneprovided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:48115 See related. Ensembl:ENSG00000207306 ... RNU6-1152P RNA, U6 small nuclear 1152, pseudogene [ Homo sapiens (human) ] Gene ID: 106480073, updated on 18-Aug-2020 ... Model RNAs and proteins are also reported here.. Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly. Genomic * NC_000017.11 Reference GRCh38 ...
U7 small nuclear RNA associated Biomolecules from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, ... Your search returned 13 LSM10, U7 small nuclear RNA associated Biomolecules across 9 suppliers. ... DNase Treatment for High Quality RNA Sample Preparation We used this kit for efficient DNA digestion to inorder to obtain pure ...
Small nuclear RNA U2 is base-paired to heterogeneous nuclear RNA Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... U2 RNA is not base-paired with nucleolar RNA, which contains the precursors of ribosomal RNA. The results suggest that U2 RNA ... Eukaryotic cells contain a set of low molecular weight nuclear RNAs. One of the more abundant of these is termed U2 RNA. The ... High molecular weight heterogeneous nuclear RNA was isolated under denaturing conditions, and the psoralen cross-links were ...
The U7 small nuclear RNA (U7 snRNA) is an RNA molecule and a component of the small nuclear ribonucleoprotein complex (U7 snRNP ... sequences of the sea urchin U7 small nuclear RNA suggest specific contacts between histone mRNA precursor and U7 RNA during RNA ... "Analysis of a sea urchin gene cluster coding for the small nuclear U7 RNA, a rare RNA species implicated in the 3 editing of ... processing defects of insertion mutant premessenger RNAs can be compensated by insertions into the U7 small nuclear RNA". Proc ...
... small nuclear RNA activating complex polypeptide 1), Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. ... protein complex snRNA transcription by RNA polymerase II snRNA transcription by RNA polymerase II snRNA transcription by RNA ... protein complex snRNA transcription by RNA polymerase II snRNA transcription by RNA polymerase II snRNA transcription by RNA ... small nuclear RNA activating complex, polypeptide 1, 43kD. small nuclear RNA activating complex, polypeptide 1, 43kDa. ...
Anti-A2/RA33 autoantibodies are directed to the RNA binding region of the A2 protein of the heterogeneous nuclear ... All nuclear transport factors can bidirectionally traverse the nuclear pore complex through specific interactions with ... complex for assembly into small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) core particles [20].. *Antibodies raised against regions of ... Cloning of an Apobec-1-binding protein that also interacts with apolipoprotein B mRNA and evidence for its involvement in RNA ...
A subset of these genes, including a human U2 small nuclear RNA (snRNA) gene promoter, a mouse immunoglobulin heavy chain ... and U2 small nuclear RNA (snRNA) genes. H L Sive and R G Roeder. ... and U2 small nuclear RNA (snRNA) genes Message Subject (Your ... and U2 small nuclear RNA (snRNA) genes ... and U2 small nuclear RNA (snRNA) genes ... Journal Club: Small, sharp blades mark shift from Middle to Later Stone Age in coastal Kenya ...
The U7 small nuclear RNA genes of Xenopus borèalis. NICHOLAS J. WATKINS; NICHOLAS J. WATKINS ... NICHOLAS J. WATKINS, STEPHEN C. PHILLIPS, PHILIP C. TURNER; The U7 small nuclear RNA genes of Xenopus borèalis.. Biochem Soc ... 28S Ribosomal RNA in Xenopus borealis : gene sequence and differences from Xenopus laevis sequence Biochem Soc Trans (August, ... Human 18 S ribosomal RNA sequence inferred from DNA sequence. Variations in 18 S sequences and secondary modification patterns ...
Nuclear Retention Elements of U3 Small Nucleolar RNA. Wayne Speckmann, Aarthi Narayanan, Rebecca Terns, Michael P. Terns ... Nuclear Retention Elements of U3 Small Nucleolar RNA Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Molecular and ... Instead, these RNAs are actively retained in the nucleus where they assemble with proteins into mature small nucleolar ... The processing and methylation of precursor rRNA is mediated by the box C/D small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs). These snoRNAs ...
Crystal structure of a RNA binding domain of a U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein auxiliary factor 2 (U2AF) from mouse at 2.15 ... Crystal structure of a RNA binding domain of a U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein auxiliary factor 2 (U2AF) from mouse at 2.15 ...
U6 small nuclear RNA associated; zgc:101136; LSM1 homolog, U6 small nuclear RNA associated ... LSM1; LSM1 homolog, U6 small nuclear RNA associated (S. cerevisiae); U6 snRNA-associated Sm-like protein LSm1; anti-LSM1; ... Small nuclear ribonuclear CaSm; U6 snRNA associated Sm-like protein LSm1; YJL124C; cancer-associated Sm-like protein; CASM, ... This gene encodes a member of the LSm family of RNA-binding proteins. LSm proteins form stable heteromers that bind ...
What is LSM1 homolog, U6 small nuclear RNA associated? Meaning of LSM1 homolog, U6 small nuclear RNA associated medical term. ... What does LSM1 homolog, U6 small nuclear RNA associated mean? ... U6 small nuclear RNA associated in the Medical Dictionary? LSM1 ... homolog, U6 small nuclear RNA associated explanation free. ... U7 small nuclear RNA associated. *LSM11, U7 small nuclear RNA ... LSM1 homolog, U6 small nuclear RNA associated , definition of LSM1 homolog, U6 small nuclear RNA associated by Medical ...
The U6 small nuclear RNA (snRNA), U-snRNA B (the U3 snRNA homolog), and 7SL RNA genes are closely linked with different, ... Upstream tRNA genes are essential for expression of small nuclear and cytoplasmic RNA genes in trypanosomes.. V Nakaar, A O ... Upstream tRNA genes are essential for expression of small nuclear and cytoplasmic RNA genes in trypanosomes. ... Upstream tRNA genes are essential for expression of small nuclear and cytoplasmic RNA genes in trypanosomes. ...
RNA UK 2008. Role of the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II in expression of small nuclear RNA genes. Sylvain Egloff, Shona ... Pol II (RNA polymerase II) transcribes the genes encoding proteins and non-coding snRNAs (small nuclear RNAs). The largest ... Role of the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II in expression of small nuclear RNA genes ... Role of the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II in expression of small nuclear RNA genes ...
Myc-DDK-tagged ORF clone of Homo sapiens small nuclear RNA activating complex, polypeptide 5, 19kDa (SNAPC5) as transfection- ... home , products , origene , myc-ddk-tagged orf clone of homo sapiens small nuclear rna activating complex, polypeptide 5, 19kda ... Myc-DDK-tagged ORF clone of Homo sapiens small nuclear RNA activating complex, polypeptide 5, 19kDa (SNAPC5) as transfection- ... Myc-DDK-tagged ORF clone of Homo sapiens small nuclear RNA activating complex, polypeptide 5, 19kDa (SNAPC5) as transfection- ...
U6 small nuclear RNA associated (S. cerevisiae), Real Time PCR Primer Set, item number: VMPS-3587 from RealTimePrimers at ... Lsm4, Mouse LSM4 homolog, U6 small nuclear RNA associated (S. cerevisiae), Real Time PCR Primer Set ... Customer review for "Lsm4, Mouse LSM4 homolog, U6 small nuclear RNA associated (S. cerevisiae), Real Time PCR Primer Set" ... Product information "Lsm4, Mouse LSM4 homolog, U6 small nuclear RNA associated (S. cerevisiae), Real Time PCR Primer Set" ...
U7 small nuclear RNA associated (LSM10) , 200 uL, ,10^7 TU/mL, 200 µl. ... Home » ORF » Human Lenti ORF Particles » Lenti ORF particles, LSM10 (Myc-DDK tagged) - Human LSM10, U7 small nuclear RNA ... RC203562L1V Lenti ORF particles, LSM10 (Myc-DDK tagged) - Human LSM10, U7 small nuclear RNA associated (LSM10) , 200 uL, ,10^7 ... Properties for Lenti ORF particles, LSM10 (Myc-DDK tagged) - Human LSM10, U7 small nuclear RNA associated (LSM10) , 200 uL, ,10 ...
RNA, Small Nuclear/*metabolism; Methyltransferases/*chemistry/metabolism; Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear/metabolism; RNA ... Interaction between the small-nuclear-RNA cap hypermethylase and the spinal muscular atrophy protein, survival of motor neuron ... Interaction between the small-nuclear-RNA cap hypermethylase and the spinal muscular atrophy protein, survival of motor neuron ... followed by the hypermethylation of the small nuclear RNA (snRNA) 5′ cap. Both the Sm-core complex and the snRNA ...
Box C/D small nucleolar RNA trafficking involves small nucleolar RNP proteins, nucleolar factors and a novel nuclear domain. ... Box C/D small nucleolar RNA trafficking involves small nucleolar RNP proteins, nucleolar factors and a novel nuclear domain. ... RNA-Binding Proteins; *Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins; Coiled Bodies/metabolism; Fungal Proteins/metabolism; RNA, Small ... Nucleolar localization of box C/D small nucleolar (sno) RNAs requires the box C/D motif and, in vertebrates, involves transit ...
... end of the nuclear small subunit rRNA genes in 61 out of 70 isolates of the deuteromycete mycorrhizal fungus Cenococcum ... Group-I intron family in the nuclear ribosomal RNA small subunit genes ofCenococcum geophilum isolates. ... Rogers SO, Yan ZH, Shinohara M, LoBuglio KF, Wang CJK (1993) Messenger RNA intron in the nuclear 18s ribosomal RNA gene of ... A family of optional group-I introns was found near the 3′ end of the nuclear small subunit rRNA genes in 61 out of 70 isolates ...
U7 small nuclear RNA associated explanation free. What is LSM10, U7 small nuclear RNA associated? Meaning of LSM10, U7 small ... nuclear RNA associated medical term. What does LSM10, U7 small nuclear RNA associated mean? ... U7 small nuclear RNA associated in the Medical Dictionary? LSM10, ... LSM10, U7 small nuclear RNA associated , definition of LSM10, U7 small nuclear RNA associated by Medical dictionary https:// ...
title = "T cell immunity in connective tissue disease patients targets the RNA binding domain of the U1-70kDa small nuclear ... T1 - T cell immunity in connective tissue disease patients targets the RNA binding domain of the U1-70kDa small nuclear ... T cell immunity in connective tissue disease patients targets the RNA binding domain of the U1-70kDa small nuclear ... T cell immunity in connective tissue disease patients targets the RNA binding domain of the U1-70kDa small nuclear ...
They stain intensely with antibodies against trimethylguanosine and the small nuclear ribonucleoprotein-specific Sm antigen but ... In the amphibian germinal vesicle small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) occur in morphologically distinct structures called snurposomes. ... U7 small nuclear RNA in C snurposomes of the Xenopus germinal vesicle.. @article{Wu1993U7SN, title={U7 small nuclear RNA in C ... In the amphibian germinal vesicle small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) occur in morphologically distinct structures called snurposomes. ...
Eukaryotic cells contain small, highly abundant, nuclear-localized non-coding RNAs [snRNAs (small nuclear RNAs)] which play ... Role of small nuclear RNAs in eukaryotic gene expression Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Essays in ... Role of small nuclear RNAs in eukaryotic gene expression. Saba Valadkhan, Lalith S. Gunawardane ... Introduction: the challenge of splicing and evolution of eukaryotic snRNAs (small nuclear RNAs) ...
... Academic Article * Authors Version ... It was reported earlier that the biosynthesis of small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) (U1, U2, U3, U4, and U5) shows an unexpected great ... There is a small fraction of snRNA synthesis that is resistant to high UV light doses (greater than or equal to 870 J/m2) right ... gel electrophoretic analysis of radiolabeled RNA that had been hybrid selected with cloned snRNA genes showed no accumulation ...
Actin and nuclear myosin 1c (NM1) cooperate in RNA polymerase We. Actin and nuclear myosin 1c (NM1) cooperate in RNA polymerase ... There can be proof that actin interacts with the largest subunit of RNA polymerase I (pol I) and that nuclear myosin 1c (NM1) ... In rRNA biogenesis, actin in complicated with nuclear myosin 1c (NM1) can be included in many stages of rDNA transcription. ... Launch Actin and myosin are included in many nuclear features in eukaryotic cells, including chromatin redesigning, ...
  • They are transcribed by either RNA polymerase II or RNA polymerase III. (wikipedia.org)
  • They have also been shown to aid in the regulation of transcription factors (7SK RNA) or RNA polymerase II (B2 RNA), and maintaining the telomeres. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sm-class snRNA are transcribed by RNA polymerase II. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lsm-class snRNAs are transcribed by RNA polymerase III and never leave the nucleus, in contrast to Sm-class snRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Members of this family are part of the SNAPc complex required for the transcription of both RNA polymerase II and III small-nuclear RNA genes. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • An interesting feature of trypanosome genome organization involves genes transcribed by RNA polymerase III. (asm.org)
  • Pol II (RNA polymerase II) transcribes the genes encoding proteins and non-coding snRNAs (small nuclear RNAs). (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • There can be proof that actin interacts with the largest subunit of RNA polymerase I (pol I) and that nuclear myosin 1c (NM1) interacts with the pol I-specific transcription initiation aspect TIF1a, in its phosphorylated type. (leafbioscience.com)
  • Expression of svRNA correlates with the accumulation of vRNA and a bias in RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) activity from transcription toward genome replication. (pnas.org)
  • Each of the eight RNA segments is encapsidated by the nucleoprotein (NP) and associates with the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp, composed of polymerase subunits PA, PB1, and PB2) to form a viral ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex, the machinery responsible for both transcription and replication ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • Small nuclear and nucleolar RNAs are transcribed by RNA polymerase II as precursors, whose 5' ends either undergo combined endo- and exonucleolytic processing by Rnt1 and Rat1, respectively, or remain unchanged. (ceon.pl)
  • After transcription by RNA polymerase (pol) III, nascent Pol III transcripts pass through RNA processing, modification, and transport machineries as part of their posttranscriptional maturation process. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • We propose a model in which the assembly of the spliceosome or a sub-spliceosome complex on the intron-containing centromeric noncoding RNAs facilitates the RNAi-directed formation of heterochromatin at centromeres, through interaction with the RNA-directed RNA polymerase complex. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • The human snRNA genes transcribed by RNA polymerase II (pol II) and III (pol III) have different core promoter elements. (ox.ac.uk)
  • For example, O -GlcNAc is reciprocal to O -phosphorylation on the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II ( 13 ), Thr-58 of c-Myc ( 14 ), Ser-16 of murine estrogen receptor-β ( 15 ), endothelial nitric-oxide synthase ( 16 ), and SV40 large T antigen ( 17 ). (mcponline.org)
  • [4] [5] Eukaryotic 5S rRNA is synthesized by RNA polymerase III , whereas other eukaryotic rRNAs are cleaved from a 45S precursor transcribed by RNA polymerase I . In Xenopus oocytes , it has been shown that fingers 4-7 of the nine- zinc finger transcription factor TFIIIA can bind to the central region of 5S RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The repressor protein blocks the operon, so that RNA polymerase cannot transcribe the mRNA. (brainscape.com)
  • RNA polymerase locates certain genes by identifying promoter regions of DNA. (brainscape.com)
  • Strikingly, RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) is itself a substrate for two protein kinases-the cyclin-dependent kinases Cdk7 and Cdk9-that are activated by hypertrophic cues. (ahajournals.org)
  • Collectively, the many transcription factors, coactivators, and corepressors that are complexed to a gene and the many processes that modify them serve but one elementary purpose: to permit transcription initiation through the physical recruitment of a DNA-directed RNA polymerase. (ahajournals.org)
  • Each snRNP particle is composed of a snRNA component and several snRNP-specific proteins (including Sm proteins, a family of nuclear proteins). (wikipedia.org)
  • snRNA are often divided into two classes based upon both common sequence features as well as associated protein factors such as the RNA-binding LSm proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The spliceosome is a large, protein-RNA complex that consists of five small nuclear RNAs (U1, U2, U4, U5, and U6) and over 150 proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Model RNAs and proteins are also reported here. (nih.gov)
  • Instead, these RNAs are actively retained in the nucleus where they assemble with proteins into mature small nucleolar ribonucleoprotein particles and are targeted to their intranuclear site of action, the nucleolus. (asm.org)
  • This gene encodes a member of the LSm family of RNA-binding proteins. (creative-biogene.com)
  • Both proteins are similarly distributed, localizing in the cytoplasm and in nuclear Cajal bodies. (cnrs.fr)
  • A complex remodelling of RNA-RNA and protein-based interactions follows, resulting in the assembly of catalytically competent spliceosomes, in which the snRNAs and their bound proteins play central roles. (biochemistry.org)
  • Such effects were mediated by two short heat shock proteins HSPA6 and α-β-crystallin (CRYAB), whose expression was regulated by lnc-TSSK2-8 through a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) mechanism. (frontiersin.org)
  • Efforts to understand nuclear organization in plant cells have received little assistance from the better-studied animal nuclei, because plant proteomes do not contain recognizable counterparts to the key animal proteins involved in nuclear organization, such as lamin nuclear intermediate filament proteins. (plantcell.org)
  • Here, we describe a genetic characterization of two NMCP1-related nuclear proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana , LITTLE NUCLEI1 (LINC1) and LINC2. (plantcell.org)
  • Our results indicate that the LINC coiled-coil proteins are important determinants of plant nuclear structure. (plantcell.org)
  • Very little is known about the proteins or pathways that lead to the observed diversity in nuclear morphology or about the mechanisms that link the differentiated state of a cell to changes in nuclear morphology. (plantcell.org)
  • Although a unique RNA structure has been proposed for the Rev-response element (RRE) responsible for viral mRNA export, how it recruits multiple HIV Rev proteins to form an export complex has been unclear. (elifesciences.org)
  • This step induces long-range remodeling of the RNA to expose a cryptic Rev binding site, enabling rapid assembly of additional Rev proteins into the RNA export complex. (elifesciences.org)
  • The virus consists of an RNA molecule-which encodes its genetic information-surrounded by coats of proteins. (elifesciences.org)
  • This is made up of: a HIV RNA molecule, a HIV protein called Rev, and two host proteins. (elifesciences.org)
  • Formation of the nuclear-export complex begins with multiple copies of the Rev protein attaching to specific stretches of the viral RNA, but how the Rev proteins assemble on the RNA molecule was previously unclear. (elifesciences.org)
  • First, Rev proteins rapidly bind to a pre-formed region of the RNA molecule where multiple binding sites are compactly organized. (elifesciences.org)
  • This causes the overall shape of the RNA to change, and exposes a previously hidden extra binding site for Rev proteins. (elifesciences.org)
  • propose that checkpoints during this two-step assembly process are required to ensure that Rev proteins specifically bind to viral RNAs, and that such checkpoints may be important for controlling viral replication. (elifesciences.org)
  • In contrast, during the late stage of HIV infection, unspliced viral transcripts must be exported to the cytoplasm either to be translated into structural proteins or to serve as genomic RNA packaged into new virions ( Cullen, 2003 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • This gene encodes the small subunit which plays a critical role in both constitutive and enhancer-dependent RNA splicing by directly mediating interactions between the large subunit and proteins bound to the enhancers. (gen-script.com)
  • The site of interaction between human U1 RNA and one of its uniquely associated proteins, A, was examined with in vitro binding assays. (duke.edu)
  • Spliceosomes process RNA molecules called messenger RNAs (mRNAs) by recognizing and removing regions known as introns and splicing the mRNA molecules back together to provide the blueprint for making proteins. (medlineplus.gov)
  • O -GlcNAcylation on serine and threonine side chains of nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins is dynamically regulated in response to various environmental and biological stimuli. (mcponline.org)
  • O -GlcNAc is ubiquitous on nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins in all multicellular eukaryotes ( 3 ). (mcponline.org)
  • In bacteria and archaea , the large ribosomal subunit (LSU) itself is composed of two RNA moieties, the 5S rRNA and another larger RNA known as 23S rRNA , along with numerous associated proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • SHP modulation of gene expression is due to its ability to associate with other proteins and it has been found to heterodimerize with a large number of nuclear receptors, including the thyroid hormone receptor, retinoic acid receptor, retinoid X receptor, estrogen receptor, glucocorticoid receptor, and hepatocyte nuclear factor-4 ( 13 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Genes  Are carried on a chromosome  The basic unit of heredity  Encode how to make a protein  DNARNA proteins  Proteins carry out most of life's function. (issuu.com)
  • The nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB/Rel) proteins, a family of nuclear transcription factors and their Inhibitors-κB (IκB), are normally involved in regulating a wide range of intracellular processes, including response to oxidative stress, inflammation, growth factors, injury, and programmed cell death ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Using strands of RNA that they manufactured in the lab, the researchers showed that the strands regulate gene expression by somehow perturbing a delicate mixture of proteins that surround DNA and control whether or not genes are activated. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Until now, however, it was not clear exactly how the synthetic RNA strands affected that mix of regulating proteins. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The researchers found that their man-made RNA strand bound to the RNA transcript, which then recruited certain proteins to form an RNA-protein complex. (bio-medicine.org)
  • By demonstrating how small RNAs can be used to recruit proteins to gene promoters, we have provided further evidence that this phenomenon should be in the mainstream of science," Dr. Corey said. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Cdk9 interacts adversely with Gq-dependent pathways for hypertrophy, impairing the expression of numerous genes for mitochondrial proteins, and, in particular, suppressing master regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis and function, perioxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1 (PGC-1), and nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1). (ahajournals.org)
  • Gene activation or repression by DNA-binding factors also can depend on specific partners (coactivators or corepressors, including chromatin remodeling proteins) that are tethered to DNA indirectly, and the trafficking between the nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments of the cell likewise determines transcription factor activity. (ahajournals.org)
  • The U7 small nuclear RNA (U7 snRNA) is an RNA molecule and a component of the small nuclear ribonucleoprotein complex (U7 snRNP). (wikipedia.org)
  • To characterize the T cell response to a connective tissue disease-associated autoantigen, this study generated T cell clones from patients using a set of peptides encompassing the entire linear sequence of the 70-kDa subunit of U1 snRNP (U1-70kDa) small nuclear ribonucleoprotein. (elsevier.com)
  • Launch Actin and myosin are included in many nuclear features in eukaryotic cells, including chromatin redesigning, transcription by all three RNA polymerases, biogenesis of ribonucleoprotein processes and the repositioning of energetic gene loci [1]C[4]. (leafbioscience.com)
  • Mechanistically, the protein heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein C (C1/C2) (HNRNPC) was identified to interact with KHSRP using Co-IP experiments. (springer.com)
  • Your search returned 3 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein 70kDa (U1) Biomolecules across 2 suppliers. (biocompare.com)
  • U6 small nuclear RNA (snRNA) is a key component of the active site of the spliceosome, a large ribonucleoprotein complex that catalyzes the splicing of precursor messenger RNA. (rcsb.org)
  • A previously reported crystal structure of the `core' of the U6 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) contained an ISL-stabilized A62G mutant of U6 bound to all four RNA-recognition motif (RRM) domains of Prp24 [Montemayor et al. (rcsb.org)
  • The U1 RNA-binding site of the U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP)-associated A protein suggests a similarity with U2 snRNPs. (duke.edu)
  • The possible role of tRNA genes in regulating small RNA gene transcription is discussed. (asm.org)
  • This domain is now known to play a major role in the processes of transcription and co-transcriptional RNA processing in expression of both snRNA and protein-coding genes. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • The heptapeptide repeat unit can be extensively modified in vivo and covalent modifications of the CTD during the transcription cycle result in the ordered recruitment of RNA-processing factors. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • Furthermore, emerging evidence suggests additional roles for snRNAs in regulation of various aspects of RNA biogenesis, from transcription to polyadenylation and RNA stability. (biochemistry.org)
  • In rRNA biogenesis, actin in complicated with nuclear myosin 1c (NM1) can be included in many stages of rDNA transcription. (leafbioscience.com)
  • This triggered the nuclear translocation of transcription factor EB, a known activator of lysosomal gene transcription. (jimmunol.org)
  • I demonstrated that CBC binds to the m7G cap at the early step of transcription but remains associated with snoRNAs and snRNA genes, also for snoRNAs processed by Rnt1, until the termination and is dependent on RNA. (ceon.pl)
  • OBJECTIVE- The transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) c-Jun NH 2 -terminal kinase (JNK) 1/2 are known to play decisive roles in cytokine-induced damage of rodent β-cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In addition to the MAPKs, IL-1β-and TNF-α-induced signaling results in activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) ( 9 , 10 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Small nuclear RNA (snRNA) genes contain strong promoters capable of initiating transcription once every 4 s. (semanticscholar.org)
  • [6] [7] Binding between 5S rRNA and TFIIIA serves to both repress further transcription of the 5S RNA gene and stabilize the 5S RNA transcript until it is required for ribosome assembly. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inhibition of CDKs, which are the key regulators of the cell-cycle progression and RNA transcription, represents a good strategy for cancer drug discovery and development as well as therapy. (omicsonline.org)
  • These are often targeted to specific DNA sequences by the binding of nuclear transcription factors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In addition, Sin3A and Sin3B contain four highly conserved paired amphipathic helix domains through which the Sin3 complexes bind specific nuclear transcription factors ( 2 , 5 - 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The event(s) that triggers the binding of these nuclear transcription factors to the Sin3A complex and targets the repressor complex to the transcription factor consensus sequences, resulting in subsequent repression of gene transcription rather than its induction, has not been delineated. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The transcription factors regulatory factor X (RFX), cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), and nuclear factor-Y (NF-Y) bind to proximal promoter conserved upstream sequences (termed X1, X2, and Y boxes, respectively) of all MHC-II genes (for review see references 3 - 5 ), and are required and constitutively expressed, but are not sufficient, to initiate transcription of MHC-II. (rupress.org)
  • We showed previously that the signal transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) is aberrantly activated and that inhibition of NF-κB induces cell death and inhibits tumorigenesis in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). (aacrjournals.org)
  • A nuclear run-on study revealed that pitavastatin accelerates TM transcription rate. (ahajournals.org)
  • Previous Cold Spring Harbor Symposia have addressed many different aspects of RNA biology such as Mechanisms of Transcription (1998), The Ribosome (2001), Epigenetics (2004) and Regulatory RNAs (2006). (cshlpress.com)
  • A large group of snRNAs are known as small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs). (wikipedia.org)
  • snRNAs and small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) are not the same and is not a type of one another. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, U2 RNA is not base-paired with nucleolar RNA, which contains the precursors of ribosomal RNA. (sciencemag.org)
  • The processing and methylation of precursor rRNA is mediated by the box C/D small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs). (asm.org)
  • Furthermore, our results indicate that nuclear retention of U3 RNA does not simply reflect its nucleolar localization. (asm.org)
  • Thus, nuclear retention and nucleolar localization are distinct processes with differing sequence requirements. (asm.org)
  • Nucleolar localization of box C/D small nucleolar (sno) RNAs requires the box C/D motif and, in vertebrates, involves transit through Cajal bodies (CB). (cnrs.fr)
  • La Protein and its Associated Small Nuclear and Nucleolar Precurs. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Maxwell,E.S. and Fournier,M.J. The small nucleolar RNAs. (gsf.de)
  • Antisense snoRNAs: a family of nucleolar RNAs with long complementaries to rRNA. (gsf.de)
  • Site-specific pseudouridine formation in preribosomal RNA is guided by small nucleolar RNAs. (gsf.de)
  • Small nucleolar RNAs direct site-specific synthesis of pseudouridine in ribosomal RNA. (gsf.de)
  • A family of optional group-I introns was found near the 3′ end of the nuclear small subunit rRNA genes in 61 out of 70 isolates of the deuteromycete mycorrhizal fungus Cenococcum geophilum . (springer.com)
  • De Wachter R, Neefs J, Goris A, Van de Peer Y (1992) The gene coding for small ribosomal subunit RNA in the basidiomycete Ustilago maydis contains a group-I intron. (springer.com)
  • U2 auxiliary factor, comprising a large and a small subunit, is a non-snRNP protein required for the binding of U2 snRNP to the pre-mRNA branch site. (gen-script.com)
  • In prokaryotes, the 5S rRNA gene is typically located in the rRNA operons downstream of the small and the large subunit rRNA, and co-transcribed into a polycistronic precursor . (wikipedia.org)
  • Small rRNA subunit binds to the front of mRNA. (brainscape.com)
  • NF-κB activation was specifically inhibited by kinase-dead mutants of the IKK1 and IKK2 subunits or small interfering RNA targeting the β subunit of CK2. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Burke JM (1988) Molecular genetics of group-I introns: RNA structures and protein factors required for splicing - a review. (springer.com)
  • All tested T cell clones generated against U1-70kDa were specific for epitopes within the RNA binding domain (RBD) of the protein. (elsevier.com)
  • Through a combination of RNA-RNA and RNA-protein interactions, two of the snRNPs, U1 and U2, recognize the splice sites and the branch site of introns. (biochemistry.org)
  • Previous studies identified a plant-specific insoluble nuclear protein in carrot ( Daucus carota ), called Nuclear Matrix Constituent Protein1 (NMCP1), which contains extensive coiled-coil domains and localizes to the nuclear periphery. (plantcell.org)
  • Synthesis of svRNA requires the RdRp, nucleoprotein and the nuclear export protein NS2. (pnas.org)
  • Although the spliced dUHG RNAs are relatively stable, they exhibit little potential for protein coding. (nih.gov)
  • We have purified and cloned the human passenger protein TD-60, and we here report that it is a member of the RCC1 family and that it binds preferentially the nucleotide-free form of the small G protein Rac1. (nih.gov)
  • The structure revealed a novel topology containing interlocked rings of protein and RNA that was not predicted by prior biochemical and genetic data. (rcsb.org)
  • The structure exhibits the same protein-RNA interface and maintains the unique interlocked topology. (rcsb.org)
  • The A protein bound directly to stem-loop II of U1 RNA in a region which exhibits sequence similarity to U2 RNA. (duke.edu)
  • The similarity with U2 RNA was in a region that has been shown to interact with a U2 RNA-associated protein. (duke.edu)
  • The A protein-binding site on U1 RNA overlapped a previously described epitope for an RNA-specific human autoantibody (S. L. Deutscher and J. D. Keene, Proc. (duke.edu)
  • USA 85:3299-3303, 1988), supporting the hypothesis that the anti-RNA antibody originated as an anti-idiotypic response to A protein-specific autoantibodies. (duke.edu)
  • In the present study, we showed that natural halloysite nanotube (HNT)-assisted delivery of an active small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting receptor-interacting protein kinase 4 ( RIPK4 ) efficiently silenced its expression to treat bladder cancer. (sciencemag.org)
  • Furthermore, RNA editing is potentially implicated in new start or stop codon generation, and may affect alternative splicing of certain protein-coding transcripts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, a global vision of RNA editing in plant nuclear protein-coding transcripts has not been realized. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study we describe the spatial regulation of RNA interference (RNAi) using an RNA-carrier protein labeled with a fluorescent dye and a light source to trigger the RNAi. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Specifically, the USB1 enzyme protects a small RNA molecule called U6, which helps in the assembly of the blueprints for protein production. (medlineplus.gov)
  • These are small RNA molecules that play an essential role in RNA biogenesis and guide chemical modifications of ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and other RNA genes (tRNA and snRNAs). (wikipedia.org)
  • In the amphibian germinal vesicle small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) occur in morphologically distinct structures called snurposomes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Eukaryotic cells contain small, highly abundant, nuclear-localized non-coding RNAs [snRNAs (small nuclear RNAs)] which play important roles in splicing of introns from primary genomic transcripts. (biochemistry.org)
  • These snRNP-mediated regulatory roles probably serve to ensure the co-ordination of the different processes involved in biogenesis of RNAs and point to the central importance of snRNAs in eukaryotic gene expression. (biochemistry.org)
  • It was reported earlier that the biosynthesis of small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) (U1, U2, U3, U4, and U5) shows an unexpected great sensitivity to ultraviolet (UV) radiation (254 nm). (edu.au)
  • the RNAs in this subset contain binding sites for the Sm antigen, a hallmark of metazoan snRNAs involved in mRNA processing. (colorado.edu)
  • This widespread dispensability of snRNAs was completely unexpected and forces us to reconsider the possible roles of these ubiquitous RNAs. (colorado.edu)
  • Both issues were addressed by utilizing a dual-purpose therapy/imaging small interfering RNA (siRNA)-nanoparticle probe targeting apoptotic-related gene caspase-3. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Small interfering RNA (siRNA) has shown potential as a molecular approach to down-regulate specific gene expression in cancer cells ( 1 , 2 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • 1144-1145, 2003), a specific inhibitor of Akt, or transfection with small inhibitory RNA (siRNA)-Akt not only inhibited p -Akt but also abrogated the expression and transcriptional activity of NF-κB. (aspetjournals.org)
  • LSM4 homolog, U6 small nuclear RNA. (wikigenes.org)
  • The U6 small nuclear RNA (snRNA), U-snRNA B (the U3 snRNA homolog), and 7SL RNA genes are closely linked with different, divergently oriented tRNA genes. (asm.org)
  • Auf www.antikoerper-online.de finden Sie aktuell 0 LSM2 Homolog, U6 Small Nuclear RNA Associated (S. Cerevisiae) (LSM2) ELISA Kits von unterschiedlichen Herstellern. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • The biogenesis of spliceosomal small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs) requires the cytoplasmic assembly of the Sm-core complex, followed by the hypermethylation of the small nuclear RNA (snRNA) 5′ cap. (cnrs.fr)
  • Mroczek S, Dziembowski A. U6 RNA biogenesis and disease association. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Small nuclear ribonucleic acid (snRNA), also commonly referred to as U-RNA, is a class of small RNA molecules that are found within the splicing speckles and Cajal bodies of the cell nucleus in eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Small nuclear RNA (snRNA) is a class of small RNA molecules that are found within the splicing speckles and Cajal bodies of the cell nucleus in eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNA exonucleases cut off (cleave) building blocks called nucleotides one at a time from molecules of RNA (a chemical cousin of DNA). (medlineplus.gov)
  • The family of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) molecules targets Janus kinases (JAKs) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathways involved in transmitting signals from cytokine receptors and TLRs to the nucleus to control genes encoding mediators of inflammation (see Figure 1 ). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We previously found that the adamantyl-substituted retinoid-related molecules bind to the small heterodimer partner (SHP) as well as the Sin3A complex. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Although using synthetic RNA to regulate gene expression and possibly treat disease in humans is still in the future, Dr. Corey noted that the type of man-made RNA molecules employed by the UT Southwestern team are already being used in human clinical trials, so progress toward the development of gene-regulating drugs could move quickly. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Davila-Aponte JA, Huss VAR, Sogin ML, Cech TR (1991) A selfsplicing group-I intron in the nuclear pre-rRNA of the green alga, Ankistrodesmus stipitatus . (springer.com)
  • The 5S ribosomal RNA ( 5S rRNA ) is an approximately 120 nucleotide-long ribosomal RNA molecule with a mass of 40 kDa . (wikipedia.org)
  • [3] A particularity of eukaryotic nuclear genomes is the occurrence of multiple 5S rRNA gene copies (5S rDNA) clustered in tandem repeats, with copy number varying from species to species. (wikipedia.org)
  • We cloned the prp13 + gene and found that it encodes U4 small nuclear RNA (snRNA) involved in the assembly of the spliceosome. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • Specifically, the USB1 enzyme protects a small RNA molecule called U6, which is an essential component of a complex called a spliceosome. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The most common snRNA components of these complexes are known, respectively, as: U1 spliceosomal RNA, U2 spliceosomal RNA, U4 spliceosomal RNA, U5 spliceosomal RNA, and U6 spliceosomal RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • In relation to the linkage between the spliceosomal U4 snRNA and the RNAi-directed formation of heterochromatin, we identified a mRNA-type intron in the centromeric noncoding RNAs. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • Aberrant 3' oligoadenylation of spliceosomal U6 small nuclear RNA in poikiloderma with neutropenia. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cech TR (1986) The generality of self-splicing RNA: relationship to nuclear mRNA splicing. (springer.com)
  • This mutation seems to make the interaction between the 5'-splice site of intron 7 of pre-mRNA and U1 small nuclear RNA (U1 snRNA) much weaker. (tokushima-u.ac.jp)
  • Here, we carried out an extensive search for potential editing sites in nuclear transcripts utilizing mRNA MPSS and PARE data. (biomedcentral.com)
  • They are located in the nucleolus and the Cajal bodies of eukaryotic cells (the major sites of RNA synthesis), where they are called scaRNAs (small Cajal body-specific RNAs). (wikipedia.org)
  • There is a small fraction of snRNA synthesis that is resistant to high UV light doses (greater than or equal to 870 J/m2) right after irradiation, but is sensitive to lower doses (less than or equal to 36 J/m2) when the cells are incubated for 2 h after irradiation. (edu.au)
  • Although extensive functional analyses have elucidated many aspects of the overall RdRp structure, little is known regarding control of RNA synthesis ( 3 - 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • Sequences more than 500 base pairs upstream of the human U3 small nuclear RNA gene stimulate the synthesis of U3 RNA in frog oocytes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The 84th Cold Spring Harbor Symposium focused on RNA Control & Regulation and provided a current synthesis of the enormous progress in our understanding of RNA's influence on cells and organisms and how, when aberrant, its effects may contribute to the progression of disease. (cshlpress.com)
  • MicroRNAs (miRNAs), ∼22-nt-long noncoding RNAs, have recently emerged as key posttranscriptional regulators, controlling diverse biological processes, including responses to non-self. (rupress.org)
  • Once HIV enters a host cell, its RNA genome is converted into a DNA molecule, which travels to the nucleus and becomes part of the host's genome. (elifesciences.org)
  • We have identified the small molecule Hesperadin as an inhibitor of chromosome alignment and segregation. (rupress.org)
  • Upstream tRNA genes are essential for expression of small nuclear and cytoplasmic RNA genes in trypanosomes. (asm.org)
  • This association between tRNA and small RNA genes appears to be a general phenomenon in the family Trypanosomatidae, since it is also observed at the U6 snRNA loci in Leishmania pifanoi and Crithidia fasciculata and at the 7SL RNA locus in L. pifanoi. (asm.org)
  • We propose that the A- and B-box elements of small RNA-associated tRNA genes serve a dual role as intragenic promoter elements for the respective tRNA genes and as extragenic regulatory elements for the linked small RNA genes. (asm.org)
  • RNU6-583P (RNA, U6 Small Nuclear 583, Pseudogene) is a Pseudogene. (genecards.org)
  • RN7SKP103 (RNA, 7SK Small Nuclear Pseudogene 103) is a Pseudogene, and is affiliated with the 7SK RNA class. (genecards.org)
  • RNU5F-5P (RNA, U5F Small Nuclear 5, Pseudogene) is a Pseudogene. (genecards.org)
  • Previously, we elucidated the molecular mechanism of sex determination in diploid persimmon and demonstrated the action of a Y-encoded sex determinant pseudogene called OGI , which produces small RNAs targeting the autosomal gene MeGI , resulting in separate male and female individuals (dioecy). (plantcell.org)
  • High molecular weight heterogeneous nuclear RNA was isolated under denaturing conditions, and the psoralen cross-links were reversed. (sciencemag.org)
  • Electrophoresis of the released RNA and hybridization with a human cloned U2 DNA probe revealed that U2 is hydrogen-bonded to complementary sequences in heterogeneous nuclear RNA in vivo. (sciencemag.org)
  • The formation of centromeric heterochromatin is induced by the RNA interference (RNAi) system in S. pombe. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • RNA interference (RNAi) technology can specifically silence the expression of a target gene and has emerged as a promising therapeutic method to treat cancer. (sciencemag.org)
  • The nuclear and cytoplasmic fluorescence patterns suggest certain types of autoimmune disease. (questdiagnostics.com)
  • HIV replication requires nuclear export of unspliced and singly spliced viral transcripts. (elifesciences.org)
  • Also the (32)P-labeled pCMV/T7-NCRC luc (containing the gene sequence of the whole 5'-NCR and part core of HCV RNA ) transcripts as target-RNAs were transcribed in vitro . (bvsalud.org)
  • Here, a transcriptome-wide search for editing sites in nuclear transcripts of Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) was performed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Besides cytidine (C)-to-uridine (U) editing in mitochondrial transcripts, many nuclear transcripts were found to be diversely edited. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The editing events of some nuclear transcripts are highly enriched surrounding the borders between coding sequences (CDSs) and 3′ untranslated regions (UTRs), suggesting site-specific editing. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To our knowledge, the results provide the first global view of RNA editing in plant nuclear transcripts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The data presented could serve as a repository for further analyses, and it will lead to a shift of RNA editing research from well-characterized mitochondrial and plastid transcripts to nuclear transcripts in plants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The high avidity interaction between the U1-RBD on the polypeptide and U1-RNA may be critical in immune targeting of this region in autoimmunity. (elsevier.com)
  • The possibility that U2 RNA is hydrogen-bonded to complementary sequences in other nuclear RNA's was investigated. (sciencemag.org)
  • In this study, we have identified the cis -acting sequences responsible for the nuclear retention of U3 box C/D snoRNA by analyzing the nucleocytoplasmic distributions of an extensive panel of U3 RNA variants after injection of the RNAs into Xenopus oocyte nuclei. (asm.org)
  • The second motif contains conserved box sequences B and C. Either motif is sufficient for nuclear retention, but disruption of both motifs leads to mislocalization of the RNAs to the cytoplasm. (asm.org)
  • Cech TR (1988) Conserved sequences and structures of group-I introns: building an active site for RNA catalysis - a review. (springer.com)
  • Is the Subject Area "Non-coding RNA sequences" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
  • Lantham JA, Zang AJ, Cech TR (1990) Self-splicing and enzymatic cleavage of RNA by a group-I intron intervening sequence. (springer.com)
  • Genetic analysis of small nuclear RNAs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: viable sextuple mutant. (colorado.edu)
  • A number of cellular epigenetic mechanisms have shown to be determining factors for phenotypic variations-such as covalent histone modifications, DNA methylation, and genetic alteration by non-coding RNAs. (mdpi.com)
  • Adeno-associated Virus- small, single stranded DNA that insert genetic material at a specific point on chromosome 19 From parvovirus family- causes no known disease and doesn't trigger patient immune response. (issuu.com)
  • DALLAS July 6 2008 Tiny strands of genetic material called RNA a c. (bio-medicine.org)
  • DALLAS July 6, 2008 Tiny strands of genetic material called RNA a chemical cousin of DNA are emerging as major players in gene regulation, the process inside cells that drives all biology and that scientists seek to control in order to fight disease. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Spliceosomes are a major component of an integral step in eukaryotic precursor messenger RNA maturation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spliceosomes catalyse splicing, an integral step in eukaryotic precursor messenger RNA maturation. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNA editing in the precursor microRNAs (pre-miRNAs) of ath-miR854 family, resulting in secondary structure transformation, implies its potential role in microRNA (miRNA) maturation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These snoRNAs differ from most cellular RNAs in that they are not exported to the cytoplasm. (asm.org)
  • A subset of these genes, including a human U2 small nuclear RNA (snRNA) gene promoter, a mouse immunoglobulin heavy chain enhancer, and a mouse light chain promoter, were shown to interact with the H2B consensus sequence-binding factor(s). (pnas.org)
  • Human 18 S ribosomal RNA sequence inferred from DNA sequence. (portlandpress.com)
  • Our data indicate the importance of two conserved sequence motifs in retaining U3 RNA in the nucleus. (asm.org)
  • This review includes a sequence Logo of the most conserved region of La and its refined modeling as an RNA recognition motif (RRM). (ingentaconnect.com)
  • It also contains a nuclear export sequence (NES) that can be recognized by Crm1. (elifesciences.org)
  • The third stem-loop sequence of human U1 snRNA (position 95-116) within pBSIISK+ U1 was substituted by hammerhead ribozyme against HCV RNA by PCR and cloning methods , and the constructed plasmid was named pBSIISK+ (U1-Rz). (bvsalud.org)
  • In a new study available online today and in a future issue of Nature Structural and Molecular Biology , RNA experts at UT Southwestern Medical Center found that, contrary to established theories, RNA can interact with a non-gene region of DNA called a promoter region, a sequence of DNA occurring spatially in front of an actual gene. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Both the Sm-core complex and the snRNA trimethylguanosine cap are required for the efficient nuclear import of snRNPs. (cnrs.fr)
  • We show here that initial binding of Rev to the RRE triggers RNA tertiary structural changes, enabling further Rev binding and the rapid formation of a viral export complex. (elifesciences.org)
  • Analysis of the Rev-RRE assembly pathway using SHAPE-Seq and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) reveals two major steps of Rev-RRE complex formation, beginning with rapid Rev binding to a pre-organized region presenting multiple Rev binding sites. (elifesciences.org)
  • They are then exported to the cytoplasm through nuclear pores for further processing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Venema,J. and Tollervey,D. Processing of pre-ribosomal RNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (gsf.de)
  • We examined the effect of loss of SHP and Sin3A expression in a number of cell types on 3-Cl-AHPC-mediated growth inhibition and apoptosis induction, 3-Cl-AHPC-mediated nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation, and 3-Cl-AHPC-mediated increase in c-Fos and c-Jun expression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We found that loss of SHP or Sin3A expression, while blocking 3-Cl-AHPC-mediated apoptosis, had little effect on 3-Cl-AHPC inhibition of cellular proliferation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Eukaryotic cells contain a set of low molecular weight nuclear RNA's. (sciencemag.org)
  • In the present study, we investigated the function and potential molecular mechanism of KHSRP in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) metastasis and elucidated its clinical significance. (springer.com)
  • The discovery of regulatory small RNAs continues to reshape paradigms in both molecular biology and virology. (pnas.org)
  • The Bacillariophytina is a subphylum (subdivision) of diatoms distinguished by Medlin & Kaczmarska (2004) on the basis of (1) molecular phylogenies derived from nuclear and plastid SSU rDNA and (2) aspects of cell shape, reflecting how the auxospore develops. (tolweb.org)
  • Małe jądrowe i jąderkowe RNA (sn/snoRNA) są transkrybowane przez polimerazę RNA II (Pol II) jako prekursory, których końce 5' ulegają obróbce endo- i egzonukleolitycznej z udziałem nukleaz Rnt1 i Rat1, lub pozostają niezmienione. (ceon.pl)
  • Our previous studies have shown that gene silencing of IDO, through RNA interference, can stimulate anti-tumor immunity and inhibit tumor angiogenesis, thereby resulting in the killing of tumor cells and suppressing tumor invasion, metastasis, and growth ( 8 , 9 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • HIV replication begins with the production of RNA copies of the viral genome. (elifesciences.org)
  • MicroRNAs (miRNAs), which are endogenous small noncoding RNAs consisting of 20-25 nucleotides, may regulate as much as 60% of the human genome [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Analysis of the yeast genome: identification of new non-coding and small ORF-containing RNAs. (gsf.de)
  • Later analysis has shown that these RNA were high in uridylate and were established in the nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The idea that RNA (ribonucleic acid) is involved in activating and inh. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The idea that RNA (ribonucleic acid) is involved in activating and inhibiting genes is relatively new, and it has been unclear how RNA strands might regulate the process. (bio-medicine.org)
  • None of the three small subunits can bind to the PSE on their own [ PMID: 9418884 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The variety of modifications found on La-associated RNAs is reviewed in detail and considered in the contexts of how La may bind the termini of structured RNAs without interfering with recognition by modification enzymes, and its ability to chaperone RNAs through multiple parts of their maturation pathways. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Rev can bind RNA as well as self-associate to form dimers and higher-order oligomers. (elifesciences.org)
  • RNA editing is a transcript-based layer of gene regulation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The RNA did not home in on the gene itself, but rather on another type of RNA produced by the cell, a so-called noncoding RNA transcript. (bio-medicine.org)
  • MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of small RNAs with a fundamental role in the regulation of gene expression. (hindawi.com)
  • svRNAs are 22-27 nt in length and correspond to the 5′ end of each of the viral genomic RNA (vRNA) segments. (pnas.org)
  • We have examined the interaction of factors in HeLa cell nuclear extracts with a human histone H2B gene (H2B) promoter. (pnas.org)
  • The RNA promoter for the influenza virus RdRp consists of 13 and 12 conserved nucleotides at the 5′ and 3′ ends of the vRNA, respectively ( 10 , 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • This type of RNA is found in association with the promoter regions that occur in front of the gene. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Involvement of RNA at a gene promoter is a new concept, potentially a big new concept," Dr. Janowski said. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Concurrently, in Y-chromosome-carrying trees, the expression of OGI is silenced by the presence of a SINE (short interspersed nuclear element)-like insertion in the OGI promoter. (plantcell.org)
  • Their primary function is in the processing of pre-messenger RNA (hnRNA) in the nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The results suggest that U2 RNA participates in messenger RNA processing in the nucleus. (sciencemag.org)
  • The virus is encoded by eight individual single-stranded segments of RNA with negative polarity that localize to the nucleus upon viral entry ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Shchepachev V, Azzalin CM. The Mpn1 RNA exonuclease: cellular functions and implication in disease. (medlineplus.gov)
  • These RNAs have been shown to participate in various cellular and physiological processes, including cellular development, apoptosis, proliferation, and differentiation. (hindawi.com)
  • Variant RNAs that are not retained also lack 5′ cap hypermethylation and fail to associate with fibrillarin. (asm.org)
  • Almost all of the noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) known are shared between the two species. (plos.org)
  • Here we describe examples of influenza A virus-derived small viral RNAs (svRNAs). (pnas.org)
  • The enzymes were incubated with the target RNAs under different conditions and autoradiographed after denaturing gel- electrophoresis . (bvsalud.org)
  • and (b) gel electrophoretic analysis of radiolabeled RNA that had been hybrid selected with cloned snRNA genes showed no accumulation of putative snRNA precursors, suggesting that UV radiation did not block snRNA processing. (edu.au)
  • The results indicate that RNA editing is an essential RNA-based regulatory layer not only for mitochondrial and chloroplast genes but also for nuclear genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Knocking down of UBE2T expression with small interfering RNA drastically suppressed the growth of breast cancer cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS- To establish a functional role of MEKK-1, the effects of transient MEKK-1 overexpression in βTC-6 cells, achieved by lipofection and cell sorting, and MEKK-1 downregulation in βTC-6 cells and human islet cells, achieved by diced-small interfering RNA treatment, were studied. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Is the Subject Area "Small interfering RNAs" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
  • In vivo studies included serial MRI of NOD-SCID mice transplanted with MN-small interfering (si)Caspase-3-labeled human islets under the left kidney capsule and MN-treated islets under the right kidney capsule. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • One interesting difference is the inability of C. briggsae to take up and distribute interfering RNAs (M. Montgomery, personal communication). (plos.org)
  • Michel F, Jacquier A, Dujon B (1982) Comparison of fungal mitochondrial introns reveals extensive homologies in RNA secondary structure. (springer.com)
  • Your search returned 13 LSM10, U7 small nuclear RNA associated Biomolecules across 9 suppliers. (biocompare.com)