Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
A process that changes the nucleotide sequence of mRNA from that of the DNA template encoding it. Some major classes of RNA editing are as follows: 1, the conversion of cytosine to uracil in mRNA; 2, the addition of variable number of guanines at pre-determined sites; and 3, the addition and deletion of uracils, templated by guide-RNAs (RNA, GUIDE).
Ribonucleic acid in protozoa having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.
A phylum of EUKARYOTES characterized by the presence of cilia at some time during the life cycle. It comprises three classes: KINETOFRAGMINOPHOREA; OLIGOHYMENOPHOREA; and POLYMENOPHOREA.
The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The functional hereditary units of protozoa.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The complete genetic complement contained in a set of CHROMOSOMES in a protozoan.
Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa. The infections may be experimental or veterinary.
RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.
RNA that has catalytic activity. The catalytic RNA sequence folds to form a complex surface that can function as an enzyme in reactions with itself and other molecules. It may function even in the absence of protein. There are numerous examples of RNA species that are acted upon by catalytic RNA, however the scope of this enzyme class is not limited to a particular type of substrate.
The processes of RNA tertiary structure formation.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A species of parasitic protozoa causing ENTAMOEBIASIS and amebic dysentery (DYSENTERY, AMEBIC). Characteristics include a single nucleus containing a small central karyosome and peripheral chromatin that is finely and regularly beaded.
A species of parasitic EUKARYOTES that attaches itself to the intestinal mucosa and feeds on mucous secretions. The organism is roughly pear-shaped and motility is somewhat erratic, with a slow oscillation about the long axis.
Ribonucleic acid in fungi having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
RNA molecules which hybridize to complementary sequences in either RNA or DNA altering the function of the latter. Endogenous antisense RNAs function as regulators of gene expression by a variety of mechanisms. Synthetic antisense RNAs are used to effect the functioning of specific genes for investigative or therapeutic purposes.
Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.
The agent of South American trypanosomiasis or CHAGAS DISEASE. Its vertebrate hosts are man and various domestic and wild animals. Insects of several species are vectors.
The extent to which an RNA molecule retains its structural integrity and resists degradation by RNASE, and base-catalyzed HYDROLYSIS, under changing in vivo or in vitro conditions.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A family of proteins that promote unwinding of RNA during splicing and translation.
A genus of flagellate protozoa comprising several species that are pathogenic for humans. Organisms of this genus have an amastigote and a promastigote stage in their life cycles. As a result of enzymatic studies this single genus has been divided into two subgenera: Leishmania leishmania and Leishmania viannia. Species within the Leishmania leishmania subgenus include: L. aethiopica, L. arabica, L. donovani, L. enrietti, L. gerbilli, L. hertigi, L. infantum, L. major, L. mexicana, and L. tropica. The following species are those that compose the Leishmania viannia subgenus: L. braziliensis, L. guyanensis, L. lainsoni, L. naiffi, and L. shawi.
The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.
A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes nagana in domestic and game animals in Africa. It apparently does not infect humans. It is transmitted by bites of tsetse flies (Glossina).
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Short chains of RNA (100-300 nucleotides long) that are abundant in the nucleus and usually complexed with proteins in snRNPs (RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL NUCLEAR). Many function in the processing of messenger RNA precursors. Others, the snoRNAs (RNA, SMALL NUCLEOLAR), are involved with the processing of ribosomal RNA precursors.
A species of ciliate protozoa used extensively in genetic research.
A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.
Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
A group of three related eukaryotic phyla whose members possess an alveolar membrane system, consisting of flattened membrane-bound sacs lying beneath the outer cell membrane.
A genus of flagellate protozoans found in the blood and lymph of vertebrates and invertebrates, both hosts being required to complete the life cycle.
An order of flagellate protozoa. Characteristics include the presence of one or two flagella arising from a depression in the cell body and a single mitochondrion that extends the length of the body.
RNA transcripts of the DNA that are in some unfinished stage of post-transcriptional processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL) required for function. RNA precursors may undergo several steps of RNA SPLICING during which the phosphodiester bonds at exon-intron boundaries are cleaved and the introns are excised. Consequently a new bond is formed between the ends of the exons. Resulting mature RNAs can then be used; for example, mature mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER) is used as a template for protein production.
Substances that are destructive to protozoans.
RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated RNAs they are not included in this scope.
Nucleic acid structures found on the 5' end of eukaryotic cellular and viral messenger RNA and some heterogeneous nuclear RNAs. These structures, which are positively charged, protect the above specified RNAs at their termini against attack by phosphatases and other nucleases and promote mRNA function at the level of initiation of translation. Analogs of the RNA caps (RNA CAP ANALOGS), which lack the positive charge, inhibit the initiation of protein synthesis.
A phylum of unicellular parasitic EUKARYOTES characterized by the presence of complex apical organelles generally consisting of a conoid that aids in penetrating host cells, rhoptries that possibly secrete a proteolytic enzyme, and subpellicular microtubules that may be related to motility.
Infections of the INTESTINES with PARASITES, commonly involving PARASITIC WORMS. Infections with roundworms (NEMATODE INFECTIONS) and tapeworms (CESTODE INFECTIONS) are also known as HELMINTHIASIS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.
A suborder of monoflagellate parasitic protozoa that lives in the blood and tissues of man and animals. Representative genera include: Blastocrithidia, Leptomonas, CRITHIDIA, Herpetomonas, LEISHMANIA, Phytomonas, and TRYPANOSOMA. Species of this suborder may exist in two or more morphologic stages formerly named after genera exemplifying these forms - amastigote (LEISHMANIA), choanomastigote (CRITHIDIA), promastigote (Leptomonas), opisthomastigote (Herpetomonas), epimastigote (Blastocrithidia), and trypomastigote (TRYPANOSOMA).
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
A genus of parasitic flagellate EUKARYOTES distinguished by the presence of four anterior flagella, an undulating membrane, and a trailing flagellum.
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A genus of free-living amoebae found in fresh water. The cysts usually pass harmlessly through the intestinal tract of man and may thus be found in feces. Occasionally, these organisms cause respiratory tract infections or generalized fatal meningoencephalitis.
A genus of parasitic protozoans found in the digestive tract of invertebrates, especially insects. Organisms of this genus have an amastigote and choanomastigote stage in their life cycle.
Invertebrate organisms that live on or in another organism (the host), and benefit at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) of the Old World. Transmission is by Phlebotomus sandflies.
The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
RNA present in neoplastic tissue.
Small kinetoplastid mitochondrial RNA that plays a major role in RNA EDITING. These molecules form perfect hybrids with edited mRNA sequences and possess nucleotide sequences at their 5'-ends that are complementary to the sequences of the mRNA's immediately downstream of the pre-edited regions.
A species of TRICHOMONAS that produces a refractory vaginal discharge in females, as well as bladder and urethral infections in males.
A genus of ameboid protozoa characterized by the presence of beaded chromatin on the inner surface of the nuclear membrane. Its organisms are parasitic in invertebrates and vertebrates, including humans.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed protozoa administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious protozoan disease.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of linear RNA to a circular form by the transfer of the 5'-phosphate to the 3'-hydroxyl terminus. It also catalyzes the covalent joining of two polyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage. EC
A large family of RNA helicases that share a common protein motif with the single letter amino acid sequence D-E-A-D (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp). In addition to RNA helicase activity, members of the DEAD-box family participate in other aspects of RNA metabolism and regulation of RNA function.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure where it transcribes DNA into RNA. It has specific requirements for cations and salt and has shown an intermediate sensitivity to alpha-amanitin in comparison to RNA polymerase I and II. EC
An infection of the SMALL INTESTINE caused by the flagellated protozoan GIARDIA LAMBLIA. It is spread via contaminated food and water and by direct person-to-person contact.
A genus of free-living soil amoebae that produces no flagellate stage. Its organisms are pathogens for several infections in humans and have been found in the eye, bone, brain, and respiratory tract.
A genus of ciliate protozoa commonly used in genetic, cytological, and other research.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). The sandfly genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia are the vectors.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. The enzyme functions in the nucleolar structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salts than RNA polymerase II and III and is not inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC
Protozoan infection found in animals and man. It is caused by several different genera of COCCIDIA.
RNA molecules found in the nucleus either associated with chromosomes or in the nucleoplasm.
A supergroup (some say phylum) of ameboid EUKARYOTES, comprising ARCHAMOEBAE; LOBOSEA; and MYCETOZOA.
A genus of coccidian parasites of the family CRYPTOSPORIDIIDAE, found in the intestinal epithelium of many vertebrates including humans.
The small RNAs which provide spliced leader sequences, SL1, SL2, SL3, SL4 and SL5 (short sequences which are joined to the 5' ends of pre-mRNAs by TRANS-SPLICING). They are found primarily in primitive eukaryotes (protozoans and nematodes).
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 28S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
A species of parasitic protozoa that infects humans and most domestic mammals. Its oocysts measure five microns in diameter. These organisms exhibit alternating cycles of sexual and asexual reproduction.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
A species of parasitic protozoa found in the intestines of humans and other primates. It was classified as a yeast in 1912. Over the years, questions arose about this designation. In 1967, many physiological and morphological B. hominis characteristics were reported that fit a protozoan classification. Since that time, other papers have corroborated this work and the organism is now recognized as a protozoan parasite of humans causing intestinal disease with potentially disabling symptoms.
A vegetative stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. It is characteristic of members of the phyla APICOMPLEXA and MICROSPORIDIA.
Infection of the striated muscle of mammals by parasites of the genus SARCOCYSTIS. Disease symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhea, muscle weakness, and paralysis are produced by sarcocystin, a toxin produced by the organism.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals including rodents. The Leishmania mexicana complex causes both cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) and diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS) and includes the subspecies amazonensis, garnhami, mexicana, pifanoi, and venezuelensis. L. m. mexicana causes chiclero ulcer, a form of cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) in the New World. The sandfly, Lutzomyia, appears to be the vector.
A species of ciliate protozoa used in genetic and cytological research.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE. It has been isolated from numerous environmental sites as well as from human lung tissue, respiratory secretions, and blood.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A protozoan parasite that is the etiologic agent of East Coast fever (THEILERIASIS). Transmission is by ticks of the Physicephalus and Hyalomma genera.
Constituent of 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 3200 nucleotides. 23S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Intestinal infection with organisms of the genus CRYPTOSPORIDIUM. It occurs in both animals and humans. Symptoms include severe DIARRHEA.
A species of free-living soil amoebae in the family Acanthamoebidae. It can cause ENCEPHALITIS and KERATITIS in humans.
Commonly known as parasitic worms, this group includes the ACANTHOCEPHALA; NEMATODA; and PLATYHELMINTHS. Some authors consider certain species of LEECHES that can become temporarily parasitic as helminths.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A genus of flagellate EUKARYOTES possessing three long anterior flagella.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The process of moving specific RNA molecules from one cellular compartment or region to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms.
A genus of protozoan parasites of the subclass COCCIDIA. Various species are parasitic in the epithelial cells of the liver and intestines of man and other animals.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Small, linear single-stranded RNA molecules functionally acting as molecular parasites of certain RNA plant viruses. Satellite RNAs exhibit four characteristic traits: (1) they require helper viruses to replicate; (2) they are unnecessary for the replication of helper viruses; (3) they are encapsidated in the coat protein of the helper virus; (4) they have no extensive sequence homology to the helper virus. Thus they differ from SATELLITE VIRUSES which encode their own coat protein, and from the genomic RNA; (=RNA, VIRAL); of satellite viruses. (From Maramorosch, Viroids and Satellites, 1991, p143)
Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. They are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure.
Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 5.8S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
A genus of protozoa found in reptiles, birds, and mammals, including humans. This heteroxenous parasite produces muscle cysts in intermediate hosts such as domestic herbivores (cattle, sheep, pigs) and rodents. Final hosts are predators such as dogs, cats, and man.
The acquired form of infection by Toxoplasma gondii in animals and man.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
A species of monogenetic, parasitic protozoa usually found in insects.
Infection with amoebae of the genus ENTAMOEBA. Infection with E. histolytica causes DYSENTERY, AMEBIC and LIVER ABSCESS, AMEBIC.
Infection with the protozoan parasite TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, a form of TRYPANOSOMIASIS endemic in Central and South America. It is named after the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas, who discovered the parasite. Infection by the parasite (positive serologic result only) is distinguished from the clinical manifestations that develop years later, such as destruction of PARASYMPATHETIC GANGLIA; CHAGAS CARDIOMYOPATHY; and dysfunction of the ESOPHAGUS or COLON.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and rodents. This taxonomic complex includes species which cause a disease called Oriental sore which is a form of cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) of the Old World.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Ribonucleic acid in archaea having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Infections with protozoa of the phylum CILIOPHORA.
A genus of ciliate protozoa that is often large enough to be seen by the naked eye. Paramecia are commonly used in genetic, cytological, and other research.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Infection of cattle, sheep, or goats with protozoa of the genus THEILERIA. This infection results in an acute or chronic febrile condition.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). Human infections are confined almost entirely to children. This parasite is commonly seen in dogs, other Canidae, and porcupines with humans considered only an accidental host. Transmission is by Phlebotomus sandflies.
A genus of minute EUKARYOTES that are characterized by the preponderance of binucleate over uninucleate forms, the presence of several distinct granules in the karyosome, and the lack of a cystic stage. It is parasitic in the large intestine of humans and certain monkeys.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
A genus of ciliate protozoa having a dorsoventrally flattened body with widely spaced rows of short bristle-like cilia on the dorsal surface.
A disease caused by any of a number of species of protozoa in the genus LEISHMANIA. There are four major clinical types of this infection: cutaneous (Old and New World) (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS), diffuse cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS), mucocutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, MUCOCUTANEOUS), and visceral (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL).
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
An order of parasitic EUKARYOTES typically having four to six flagella. True cysts are known in very few species. Trichomonadida were formerly members of the class Zoomastigophora in the old five kingdom paradigm.
Agents destructive to the protozoal organisms belonging to the suborder TRYPANOSOMATINA.
Infestation with parasitic worms of the helminth class.
A reaction that severs one of the sugar-phosphate linkages of the phosphodiester backbone of RNA. It is catalyzed enzymatically, chemically, or by radiation. Cleavage may be exonucleolytic, or endonucleolytic.
A group of ribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Small nuclear RNAs that are involved in the processing of pre-ribosomal RNA in the nucleolus. Box C/D containing snoRNAs (U14, U15, U16, U20, U21 and U24-U63) direct site-specific methylation of various ribose moieties. Box H/ACA containing snoRNAs (E2, E3, U19, U23, and U64-U72) direct the conversion of specific uridines to pseudouridine. Site-specific cleavages resulting in the mature ribosomal RNAs are directed by snoRNAs U3, U8, U14, U22 and the snoRNA components of RNase MRP and RNase P.
Nuclear nonribosomal RNA larger than about 1000 nucleotides, the mass of which is rapidly synthesized and degraded within the cell nucleus. Some heterogeneous nuclear RNA may be a precursor to mRNA. However, the great bulk of total hnRNA hybridizes with nuclear DNA rather than with mRNA.
A genus of coccidian parasites in the family EIMERIIDAE. Cyclospora cayetanensis is pathogenic in humans, probably transmitted via the fecal-oral route, and causes nausea and diarrhea.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
Acquired infection of non-human animals by organisms of the genus TOXOPLASMA.
A genus of protozoa that comprise the malaria parasites of mammals. Four species infect humans (although occasional infections with primate malarias may occur). These are PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; PLASMODIUM OVALE, and PLASMODIUM VIVAX. Species causing infection in vertebrates other than man include: PLASMODIUM BERGHEI; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; P. vinckei, and PLASMODIUM YOELII in rodents; P. brasilianum, PLASMODIUM CYNOMOLGI; and PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI in monkeys; and PLASMODIUM GALLINACEUM in chickens.
The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.
Small RNAs found in the cytoplasm usually complexed with proteins in scRNPs (RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL CYTOPLASMIC).
The steps that generate the 3' ends of mature RNA molecules. For most mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), 3' end processing referred to as POLYADENYLATION includes the addition of POLY A.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A protozoan parasite causing tropical theileriasis in cattle. It is transmitted by ticks of the Hyalomma genus.
Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.
Short RNA, about 200 base pairs in length or shorter, that does not code for protein.
Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A class of ciliate protozoa. Characteristics include the presence of a well developed oral apparatus and oral cilia being clearly distinct from somatic cilia.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A genus of protozoan parasites of the subclass COCCIDIA. Its species are parasitic in dogs, cattle, goats, and sheep, among others. N. caninum, a species that mainly infects dogs, is intracellular in neural and other cells of the body, multiplies by endodyogeny, has no parasitophorous vacuole, and has numerous rhoptries. It is known to cause lesions in many tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord as well as abortion in the expectant mother.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Drugs used to treat or prevent parasitic infections.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of RNA. It includes EC 3.1.26.-, EC 3.1.27.-, EC 3.1.30.-, and EC 3.1.31.-.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A class of untranslated RNA molecules that are typically greater than 200 nucleotides in length and do not code for proteins. Members of this class have been found to play roles in transcriptional regulation, post-transcriptional processing, CHROMATIN REMODELING, and in the epigenetic control of chromatin.
Infection with protozoa of the genus TRYPANOSOMA.
A genus of ameboid protozoa. Characteristics include a vesicular nucleus and the formation of several lodopodia, one of which is dominant at a given time. Reproduction occurs asexually by binary fission.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Zygote-containing cysts of sporozoan protozoa. Further development in an oocyst produces small individual infective organisms called SPOROZOITES. Then, depending on the genus, the entire oocyst is called a sporocyst or the oocyst contains multiple sporocysts encapsulating the sporozoites.
Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
A disease endemic among people and animals in Central Africa. It is caused by various species of trypanosomes, particularly T. gambiense and T. rhodesiense. Its second host is the TSETSE FLY. Involvement of the central nervous system produces "African sleeping sickness." Nagana is a rapidly fatal trypanosomiasis of horses and other animals.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
DNA of kinetoplasts which are specialized MITOCHONDRIA of trypanosomes and related parasitic protozoa within the order KINETOPLASTIDA. Kinetoplast DNA consists of a complex network of numerous catenated rings of two classes; the first being a large number of small DNA duplex rings, called minicircles, approximately 2000 base pairs in length, and the second being several dozen much larger rings, called maxicircles, approximately 37 kb in length.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Synthetic transcripts of a specific DNA molecule or fragment, made by an in vitro transcription system. This cRNA can be labeled with radioactive uracil and then used as a probe. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Cells or feeding stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. In the malarial parasite, the trophozoite develops from the MEROZOITE and then splits into the SCHIZONT. Trophozoites that are left over from cell division can go on to form gametocytes.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A species of flagellate parasitic EUKARYOTE. It possesses a long undulating membrane that is bordered on its outer margin by a flagellum that becomes free posteriorly. This organism causes infections in cows that could lead to temporary infertility or abortion.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.
A subclass of protozoans commonly parasitic in the epithelial cells of the intestinal tract but also found in the liver and other organs. Its organisms are found in both vertebrates and higher invertebrates and comprise two orders: EIMERIIDA and EUCOCCIDIIDA.
Ribonucleic acid in chloroplasts having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying tyrosine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
Infections with organisms of the genus BLASTOCYSTIS. The species B. hominis is responsible for most infections. Parasitologic surveys have generally found small numbers of this species in human stools, but higher positivity rates and organism numbers in AIDS patients and other immunosuppressed patients (IMMUNOCOMPROMISED HOST). Symptoms include ABDOMINAL PAIN; DIARRHEA; CONSTIPATION; VOMITING; and FATIGUE.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A group of amoeboid and flagellate EUKARYOTES in the supergroup RHIZARIA. They feed by means of threadlike pseudopods.

A cis-acting A-U sequence element induces kinetoplastid U-insertions. (1/1148)

A 34-nucleotide A-U sequence located immediately upstream of the editing sites of the Leishmania tarentolae cytochrome b mRNA induces a mitochondrial extract to insert U nucleotides independent of guide RNA. Insertions are localized to positions immediately 5' and 3' of the A-U sequence. When placed within an unedited mammalian transcript, the A-U sequence is sufficient to induce U-insertions. The sequence has a high degree of similarity with the templating nucleotides of a cytochrome b guide RNA and with a sequence adjacent to the editing sites in ND7 mRNA, the other characterized kinetoplastid mRNA supporting guide RNA-independent U-insertions. At least one protein specifically interacts with the A-U sequence. The reaction is consistent with a mechanism proposed for guide RNA-directed editing.  (+info)

Comparison of base specificity and other enzymatic properties of two protozoan ribonucleases from Physarum polycephalum and Dictyostelium discoideum. (2/1148)

Base specificity and other enzymatic properties of two protozoan RNases, RNase Phyb from a true slime mold (Physarum polycephalum) and RNase DdI from a cellular slime mold (Dictyostelium discoideum), were compared. These two RNases have high amino acid sequence similarity (83 amino acid residues, 46%). The base specificities of two base recognition sites, The B1 site (base recognition site for the base at 5'-side of scissile phosphodiester bond) and the B2 site (base recognition site for the base at 3'-side of the scissile bond) of the both enzymes were estimated by the rates of hydrolysis of 16 dinucleoside phosphates. The base specificities estimated of B1 and B2 sites of RNase Phyb and RNase DdI were A, G, U > C and A > or = G > C > U, and A > or = G, U > C and G > U > A, C, respectively. The base specificities estimated from the depolymerization of homopolynucleotides and those from the releases of four mononucleotides upon digestion of RNA coincided well with those of the B2 sites of both enzymes. Thus, in these enzymes, the contribution of the B2 site to base specificity seems to be larger than that of the B1 site. pH-stability, optimum temperature, and temperature stability, of both enzymes are discussed considering that RNase Phyb has one disulfide bridge deleted, compared to the RNase DdI with four disulfide bridges.  (+info)

Characterization of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii zygote-specific cDNAs that encode novel proteins containing ankyrin repeats and WW domains. (3/1148)

Genes that are expressed only in the young zygote are considered to be of great importance in the development of an isogamous green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Clones representing the Zys3 gene were isolated from a cDNA library prepared using zygotes at 10 min after fertilization. Sequencing of Zys3 cDNA clones resulted in the isolation of two related molecular species. One of them encoded a protein that contained two kinds of protein-to-protein interaction motifs known as ankyrin repeats and WW domains. The other clone lacked the ankyrin repeats but was otherwise identical. These mRNA species began to accumulate simultaneously in cells beginning 10 min after fertilization, and reached maximum levels at about 4 h, after which time levels decreased markedly. Genomic DNA gel-blot analysis indicated that Zys3 was a single-copy gene. The Zys3 proteins exhibited parallel expression to the Zys3 mRNAs at first, appearing 2 h after mating, and reached maximum levels at more than 6 h, but persisted to at least 1 d. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed their localization in the endoplasmic reticulum, which suggests a role in the morphological changes of the endoplasmic reticulum or in the synthesis and transport of proteins to the Golgi apparatus or related vesicles.  (+info)

Antisense oligonucleotides containing modified bases inhibit in vitro translation of Leishmania amazonensis mRNAs by invading the mini-exon hairpin. (4/1148)

Complementary oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) that contain 2-aminoadenine and 2-thiothymine interact weakly with each other but form stable hybrids with unmodified complements. These selectively binding complementary (SBC) agents can invade duplex DNA and hybridize to each strand (Kutyavin, I. V., Rhinehart, R. L., Lukhtanov, E. A., Gorn, V. V., Meyer, R. B., and Gamper, H. B. (1996) Biochemistry 35, 11170-11176). Antisense ODNs with similar properties should be less encumbered by RNA secondary structure. Here we show that SBC ODNs strand invade a hairpin in the mini-exon RNA of Leishmania amazonensis and that the resulting heteroduplexes are substrates for Escherichia coli RNase H. SBC ODNs either with phosphodiester or phosphorothioate backbones form more stable hybrids with RNA than normal base (NB) ODNs. Optimal binding was observed when the entire hairpin sequence was targeted. Translation of L. amazonensis mRNA in a cell-free extract was more efficiently inhibited by SBC ODNs complementary to the mini-exon hairpin than by the corresponding NB ODNs. Nonspecific protein binding in the cell-free extract by phosphorothioate SBC ODNs rendered them ineffective as antisense agents in vitro. SBC phosphorothioate ODNs displayed a modest but significant improvement of leishmanicidal properties compared with NB phosphorothioate ODNs.  (+info)

Trans-activation of the Tetrahymena group I intron ribozyme via a non-native RNA-RNA interaction. (5/1148)

The peripheral P2.1 domain of the Tetrahymena group I intron ribozyme has been shown to be non-essential for splicing. We found, however, that separately prepared P2.1 RNA efficiently accelerates the 3' splice-site-specific hydrolysis reaction of a mutant ribozyme lacking both P2.1 and its upstream region in trans. We report here the unusual properties of this trans-activation. Compensatory mutational analysis revealed that non-native long-range base-pairings between the loop region of P2.1 RNA and L5c region of the mutant ribozyme are needed for the activation in spite of the fact that P2.1 forms base-pairings with P9.1 in the Tetrahymena ribozyme. The trans -activation depends on the non-native RNA-RNA interaction together with the higher order structure of P2.1 RNA. This activation is unique among the known trans-activations that utilize native tertiary interactions or RNA chaperons.  (+info)

Expression of mutated Paramecium telomerase RNAs in vivo leads to templating errors that resemble those made by retroviral reverse transcriptase. (6/1148)

Telomeric DNA consists of short, tandemly repeated sequences at the ends of chromosomes. Telomeric DNA in the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia is synthesized by an error-prone telomerase with an RNA template specific for GGGGTT repeats. We have previously shown that misincorporation of TTP residues at the telomerase RNA templating nucleotide C52 accounts for the 30% GGGTTT repeats randomly distributed in wild-type telomeres. To more completely characterize variable repeat synthesis in P. tetraurelia, telomerase RNA genes mutated at C52 (A, U, and G) were expressed in vivo. De novo telomeric repeats from transformants indicate that the predominant TTP misincorporation error seen in the wild-type telomerase is dependent on the presence of a C residue at template position 52. Paradoxically, the effects of various other telomerase RNA template and alignment region mutations on de novo telomeres include significant changes in fidelity, as well as the synthesis of aberrant, 5-nucleotide telomeric repeats. The occurrence of deletion errors and the altered fidelity of mutated P. tetraurelia telomerase, in conjunction with misincorporation by the wild-type enzyme, suggest that the telomerase RNA template domain may be analogous to homopolymeric mutational hot spots that lead to similar errors by the human immunodeficiency virus proofreading-deficient reverse transcriptase.  (+info)

Identification of Cryptosporidium felis in a cow by morphologic and molecular methods. (7/1148)

Apicomplexan Cryptosporidium parasites infect a wide range of vertebrate hosts. While some species are limited to a single host group, such as Cryptosporidium baileyi, which infects chickens, other species of this genus, such as C. parvum, infect a wide range of mammalian species from mice to humans. During an investigation of Cryptosporidium infection in cattle on a farm in northern Poland, we identified an infection caused by C. felis, in addition to known infections with C. muris and C. parvum. This new infection was identified based on the size of the oocysts (mean size, 4.3 +/- 0.4 micrometer; range, 3.5 to 5.0 micrometer), as well as by analysis of the molecular sequence of the variable region of the small-subunit rRNA. This finding demonstrates the complex host specificity and circulation in the environment of Cryptosporidium species.  (+info)

Phylogenetic analysis of Cryptosporidium parasites based on the small-subunit rRNA gene locus. (8/1148)

Biological data support the hypothesis that there are multiple species in the genus Cryptosporidium, but a recent analysis of the available genetic data suggested that there is insufficient evidence for species differentiation. In order to resolve the controversy in the taxonomy of this parasite genus, we characterized the small-subunit rRNA genes of Cryptosporidium parvum, Cryptosporidium baileyi, Cryptosporidium muris, and Cryptosporidium serpentis and performed a phylogenetic analysis of the genus Cryptosporidium. Our study revealed that the genus Cryptosporidium contains the phylogenetically distinct species C. parvum, C. muris, C. baileyi, and C. serpentis, which is consistent with the biological characteristics and host specificity data. The Cryptosporidium species formed two clades, with C. parvum and C. baileyi belonging to one clade and C. muris and C. serpentis belonging to the other clade. Within C. parvum, human genotype isolates and guinea pig isolates (known as Cryptosporidium wrairi) each differed from bovine genotype isolates by the nucleotide sequence in four regions. A C. muris isolate from cattle was also different from parasites isolated from a rock hyrax and a Bactrian camel. Minor differences were also detected between C. serpentis isolates from snakes and lizards. Based on the genetic information, a species- and strain-specific PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism diagnostic tool was developed.  (+info)

siRNA*1 OR (short ADJ1 interfering ADJ1 RNA*1) OR (short ADJ1 interfering ADJ1 nucleic ADJ1 acid*1) OR (short ADJ1 interfering ADJ1 NA*1) OR siNA OR siNAs OR (si ADJ1 RNA*1) OR (Small adj1 interfering adj1 RNA*)OR miRNA or (microRNA* or micro adj1 RNA*)OR shRNA or (small adj1 hairpin adj1 RNA*)OR piRNA or (Piwi adj1 interacting adj1 RNA*)OR tasiRNAs or (trans adj1 activating adj1 siRNA*) OR ScnRNAs or (small adj1 scan adj1 RNA*)OR RNAi or(RNA adj1 interference ...
Researchers at the Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering explain how you can use truncated gRNAs to regulate gene expression.
Major Indian pharma firm Cipla has notified that it has secured tentative approval from the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) for its tenofovir disoproxil fumarate tablets.
Our lab is interested in telomere function, the regulation of telomere length and the biochemistry of telomerase. Telomeres are essential for both chromosome stability and for length maintenance. Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein reverse transcriptase that synthesizes telomere repeats onto chromosome ends. Telomerase is required for telomerase length maintenance: in the absence of telomerase, telomeres shorten progressively. To understand the telomerase, we initially focused on the well characterized Tetrahymena enzyme. We extensively characterized the functional regions of the Tetrahymena telomerase RNA. Using a reconstitution system, we mapped the essential RNA functional region. To extend this analysis to mammalian telomerase we established the secondary structure of the vertebrate telomerase RNA. We cloned and sequenced telomerase RNA genes from 35 vertebrate species and determined the secondary structure using phylogenetic comparative analysis. We identified four highly conserved domains in ... is the marketplace for research antibodies. Find the right antibody for your research needs. Mechanism of U insertion RNA editing in trypanosome mitochondria: the bimodal TUTase activity of the core complex.
Written by authors active in the field of Leishmania and Trypanosoma research, this volume reviews the current research in kinetoplastid parasites with an emphasis on cellular and molecular biology. Includes epigenetic regulation, cellular defence, manipulation of host macrophages, B lymphocyte response, adhesion and invasion of host tissues, immune evasion, immunotherapy, hemeproteins, phospholipids biosynthesis and DNA topoisomerases.
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Zhenqiu Huang, Drahomíra Faktorová, Adéla Křížová, Lucie Kafková, Laurie K Read, Julius Lukeš, Hassan Hashimi].
Our research is aimed at understanding the molecular mechanisms of RNA editing in kinetoplastid parasites, which cause African sleeping sickness, Chagasdisease...
Reads research may facilitate drug development and further treatment of diseases caused by kinetoplastid parasites, including African sleeping sickness, an illness endemic to sub-Saharan Africa that is fatal if left untreated.. Existing treatments are antiquated, expensive, difficult to administer and, often, highly toxic, Read says. Whats more, the parasite is developing resistance to the drugs, she adds.. Andrew Bruno and Zihua Hu, PhD, both with UBs Center for Computational Research are collaborating on the project ...
Plasmid pSpCas9_BB_2A-GFP_MAPRE1-gRNA#2 from Dr. Torsten Wittmanns lab contains the insert MAPRE1 gRNA #1 (targets Exon 1) and is published in Nat Cell Biol. 2018 Jan 29. pii: 10.1038/s41556-017-0028-5. doi: 10.1038/s41556-017-0028-5. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
Plasmid CEP55 B12.2 gRNA from Dr. Iain Cheesemans lab contains the insert CEP55 (Guide Designation B12.2) and is published in Dev Cell. 2017 Feb 27;40(4):405-420.e2. doi: 10.1016/j.devcel.2017.01.012. Epub 2017 Feb 16. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
The studies reported in this paper address the functional roles of the two distinct RNA ligases, band IV and band V, present in the seven polypeptide RNA editing complex from T.brucei (Rusché et al., 1997). Because a double gene knock‐out is inviable, the band IV RNA ligase protein appeared essential in procyclic (Rusché et al., 2001) and bloodstream (Schnaufer et al., 2001) trypanosomes, but it remained unclear what its specific role might be. Using extracts prepared from single allele band IV knock‐out cell lines, we now find that editing complexes depleted for band IV protein tend to disassociate (Figure 2B). Since enzymes of the editing complex normally appear to act in concert, deficient editing in band IV knock‐out cells could be due to loss of the ligation activity, to the destabilized complex causing altered effectiveness of other components, or to both effects. To address the catalytic role of the band IV ligase independently of any structural role the protein may serve, we ...
Abstract: Mitochondrial mRNAs in kinetoplastids require extensive U-insertion/deletion editing that progresses 3-to-5 in small blocks, each directed by a guide RNA (gRNA), and exhibits substrate and developmental stage-specificity by unsolved mechanisms. Here, we address compositionally related factors, collectively known as the mitochondrial RNA-binding complex 1 (MRB1) or gRNA-binding complex (GRBC), that contain gRNA, have a dynamic protein composition, and transiently associate with several mitochondrial factors including RNA editing core complexes (RECC) and ribosomes. MRB1 controls editing by still unknown mechanisms. We performed the first next-generation sequencing study of native subcomplexes of MRB1, immunoselected via either RNA helicase 2 (REH2), that binds RNA and associates with unwinding activity, or MRB3010, that affects an early editing step. The particles contain either REH2 or MRB3010 but share the core GAP1 and other proteins detected by RNA photo-crosslinking. Analyses of ...
Nachhaltige Forschung in Wachstumsbereichen Band IV Ergebnisse des Projektes Forschungsassistenz an der PMA diffundiert nicht in lebende Zellen DNA der toten Zellen ist PMA-verlinkt und wird in der PCR
Cardoso, D., Pennington, R.T., de Queiroz, L.P., Boatwright, J.S., Van Wyk, B.E.,Wojciechowski, M.F. & Lavin, M. 2013. Reconstructing the deep-branching relationships of the papilionoid legumes. South African Journal of Botany, 89: 58-75. doi: 10.1016/j.sajb.2013.05.001 Full text PDF from ResearchGate Reference page ...
Methods for generating large-scale gRNA libraries should be simple, efficient and cost-effective. We describe a protocol for the...
Kit Component:- KN305124G1, Eif4e2 gRNA vector 1 in pCas-Guide vector- KN305124G2, Eif4e2 gRNA vector 2 in pCas-Guide vector- KN305124D, donor vector…
Kit Component:- KN305124G1, Eif4e2 gRNA vector 1 in pCas-Guide vector- KN305124G2, Eif4e2 gRNA vector 2 in pCas-Guide vector- KN305124D, donor vector…
Large complex RNAs, like the Tetrahymena ribozyme, tend to have complex kinetic folding pathways with multiple intermediates. Are these intermediates required for folding, or are they the result of kinetic traps? One way to discriminate between these possibilities is to vary folding conditions such as temperature or ion concentration or to make mutations that may destabilize the folding intermediates and to see how these changes affect folding rates. In the present study, the effects of [Mg2+] and temperature on the rates of P3-P7 formation (kP3-P7) and folding to the catalytically active structure (koverall) were compared for the wild-type Tetrahymena ribozyme and the A183U mutant ribozyme. Reducing the [Mg2+] leads to an increase in the value of koverall and reveals the presence of an additional kinetic trap on the folding pathway of both ribozymes. Interestingly, this trap is stabilized by high [Mg2+]. Recent studies with the self-splicing Tetrahymena group I intron pre-RNA, from which the ...
Plasmodium falciparum expresses on the host erythrocyte surface clonally variant antigens and ligands that mediate adherence to endothelial receptors. Both are central to pathogenesis, since they allow chronicity of infection and lead to concentration of infected erythrocytes in cerebral vessels. Here we show that expression of variant antigenic determinants is correlated with expression of individual members of a large, multigene family named var. Each var gene contains copies of a motif that has been previously shown to bind diverse host receptors; expression of a specific var gene correlated with binding to ICAM-1. Thus, our findings are consistent with the involvement of var genes in antigenic variation and binding to endothelium.
As with other infectious diseases, much discussion has been generated in the past about whether the malaria parasite population is structured into strains that have variable virulence (27). PfEMP1 presents us with a scenario in which a repertoire of molecules that play a central role in the host-parasite interaction, both through cytoadherence and immunogenicity, appear to be functionally and genetically differentiated within every parasite genome (13, 28), potentially giving each parasite line the ability to alter its pathogenicity depending on the combination of selection pressures experienced within the host (29). However, there is no direct evidence for links between the structure of the PfEMP1 antigen repertoire and a role for PfEMP1 in parasite immune evasion and pathogenicity.. A frequently cited study supporting a link between group A var expression and parasite virulence is based on the in vitro selection of a lab-adapted parasite isolate using pooled serum from semi-immune children ...
Trypanosoma brucei possesses five metacaspase genes. Of these, MCA2 and MCA3 are expressed only in the mammalian bloodstream form of the parasite, whereas MCA5 is expressed also in the insect procyclic form. Triple RNAi analysis showed MCA2, MCA3 and MCA5 to be essential in the bloodstream form, with parasites accumulating pre-cytokinesis. Nevertheless, triple null mutants (Δmca2/3Δmca5) could be isolated after sequential gene deletion. Thereafter, Δmca2/3Δmca5 mutants were found to grow well both in vitro in culture and in vivo in mice. We hypothesise that metacaspases are essential for bloodstream form parasites, but they have overlapping functions and their progressive loss can be compensated for by activation of alternative biochemical pathways. Analysis of Δmca2/3Δmca5 revealed no greater or lesser susceptibility to stresses reported to initiate programmed cell death, such as treatment with prostaglandin D2. The metacaspases were found to colocalise with RAB11, a marker for recycling ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Global phylogenomic analysis of nonencapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae reveals a deep-branching classic lineage that is distinct from multiple sporadic lineages. AU - Hilty, Markus. AU - Wüthrich, Daniel. AU - Salter, Susannah J.. AU - Engel, Hansjürg. AU - Campbell, Samuel. AU - Sá-Leão, Raquel. AU - De Lencastre, Hermínia. AU - Hermans, Peter. AU - Sadowy, Ewa. AU - Turner, Paul. AU - Chewapreecha, Claire. AU - Diggle, Mathew. AU - Pluschke, Gerd. AU - McGee, Lesley. AU - Eser, Özgen Köseoʇlu. AU - Low, Donald E.. AU - Smith-Vaughan, Heidi. AU - Endimiani, Andrea. AU - Ffer, Marianne Kü. AU - Dupasquier, Mélanie. AU - Beaudoing, Emmanuel. AU - Weber, Johann. AU - Bruggmann, Rémy. AU - Hanage, William P.. AU - Parkhill, Julian. AU - Hathaway, Lucy J.. AU - Hlemann, Kathrin Mü. AU - Bentley, Stephen D.. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - The surrounding capsule of Streptococcus pneumoniae has been identified as a major virulence factor and is targeted by pneumococcal ...
Identification of nuclear proteins that interact differentially with Plasmodium falciparum var gene promoters.: The Plasmodium falciparum virulence factor PfEMP
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Read the benefits of using synthetic single guide RNAs versus expressed guides, to avoid unwanted cellular responses following cellular delivery
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Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of African sleeping sickness, evades the immune response by expressing a coat of variant surface glycoprotein (VSG). VSG is expressed from a single telomeric expression site (ES), along with a number of expression site associated genes (ESAGs). Thus far, the function of most ESAGs is unknown. One ES contains the serum resistance associated gene (SRA), which confers resistance to trypanosome lytic factor in T. b. rhodesiense. Only three other ESAGs -5, 6 and 7 - are present in this ES. ESAGs 6 and 7 encode a heterodimeric transferrin receptor, but the function of ESAG5 has not been identified. We present here a bioinformatic analysis of ESAG5 and distinguish between T. brucei-specific ESAGs and Genes Related to ESAG5 (GRESAGs), which occur outside of ESs in chromosomal-internal contexts. Further, a genome-wide survey of these genes across kinetoplastids identifies a family of GRESAG5s in a number of species. Analysis of phylogenetic relationships indicates that
Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of African sleeping sickness, evades the immune response by expressing a coat of variant surface glycoprotein (VSG). VSG is expressed from a single telomeric expression site (ES), along with a number of expression site associated genes (ESAGs). Thus far, the function of most ESAGs is unknown. One ES contains the serum resistance associated gene (SRA), which confers resistance to trypanosome lytic factor in T. b. rhodesiense. Only three other ESAGs -5, 6 and 7 - are present in this ES. ESAGs 6 and 7 encode a heterodimeric transferrin receptor, but the function of ESAG5 has not been identified. We present here a bioinformatic analysis of ESAG5 and distinguish between T. brucei-specific ESAGs and Genes Related to ESAG5 (GRESAGs), which occur outside of ESs in chromosomal-internal contexts. Further, a genome-wide survey of these genes across kinetoplastids identifies a family of GRESAG5s in a number of species. Analysis of phylogenetic relationships indicates that
We have shown that two trypanosome-specific RNA binding proteins, P34 and P37, play an essential role in the ribosomal biogenesis pathway in T. brucei. This rep...
Tetrahymena thermophila ATCC ® 30383™ Designation: B-18686 Isolation: derived from WH-6 X WH-14, Urbana, IL, early 1950s
This project will elucidate critical processes that precisely edit mt-mRNAs in Trypanosoma brucei and its regulation and differential editing between life cycle stages. It examines the editosome endonuclease subcomplex which discriminates among thousands of editing sites (ESs), initiates editing and is a likely point of regulation. It uses novel cell lines and methods to examine three editosome endonucleases and their associated proteins and the roles of their domains, interactions and posttranslational protein modifications. Overall, the project will expand the understanding of a process that is essential for the parasite and may provide drug targets.. ...
mouse Tep1 protein: homologous to Tetrahymena telomerase p80 protein; component of vault ribonucleoprotein particles; associates with telomerase; RefSeq NM_009351
The cloning site of plasmids pCFD1-3 can be digested with BbsI to create seamless sticky-ends, which will accept two annealed oligos containing the gRNA target site. Note that the exact oligo design is slightly different for each of the three vectors (consult the individual cloning protocols). ...
Tetrahymena hyperangularis ATCC ® 30351™ Designation: UI-7148c (10/IV) Isolation: freshwater Colorado, United States Isolation date: 1971
These three Gretsch sisters, Emilie, Wilhelmina and Dora had the same father, Jacob Gretsch. Jacob Gretsch was the son of Maria Dorothea Wild and Casimir Gretsch. Jacob was the third son of the couples six children. Jacob came to America in 1852. After the death of each of his wives, Jacob married again. Hence, each…
Kit Component:- KN317675G1, Tmco6 gRNA vector 1 in pCas-Guide vector- KN317675G2, Tmco6 gRNA vector 2 in pCas-Guide vector- KN317675D, donor vector…
Kit Component:- KN317682G1, Tmed5 gRNA vector 1 in pCas-Guide vector- KN317682G2, Tmed5 gRNA vector 2 in pCas-Guide vector- KN317682D, donor vector…
Treat your skin to the aromatic delights of the June Jacobs Spa skincare collection, now available to buy online at SkinStore with free delivery over $49.
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DExD/H-box proteins are a diverse class of proteins that are implicated in RNA and RNP remodeling. They have sequence homology to DNA helicases and share conserved ATPase domains, suggesting that they use the energy of ATP binding and hydrolysis to mediate conformational rearrangements in RNAs. In the past, the action of DExD/H-box proteins has been characterized primarily on simple model substrates such as small RNA duplexes. It is not known how DExD/H-box proteins manipulate structured RNA, what determines target specificity and what molecular events follow their action. Here, using the well-characterized Tetrahymena group I intron ribozyme, I performed kinetic and thermodynamic studies to understand the mechanism of CYT-19 and related DExD/Hbox proteins. CYT-19 has been shown previously to facilitate the folding of several group I and group II introns. I demonstrated that CYT-19 acts as a chaperone, accelerating the re-folding of a long-lived misfolded species of the Tetrahymena group I ...
Two modular elements (P5abc and ΔP5) in the Tetrahymena group I ribozyme can be separated physically to generate a two-piece ribozyme derivative consisting of a separately prepared P5abc (P5 RNA) and the rest of the intron (ΔP5 RNA). Molecular recognition in the interface assembling P5 RNA and ΔP5 R …
6-Methylisoxanthopterin (6MI) is a base analog for the nucleotide guanine. It is useful as a fluorescent indicator because unlike most other base analogs, quenching does not occur when it is incorporated into a double helix. In fact, it exhibits a 3 to 4-fold increase in quantum yield when it is incorporated into a duplex formation. This allows 6MI to be used to probe the dynamics of DNA or RNA helices using a technique such as fluorescence polarization anisotropy. 5-Bromouracil Moreno, Andrew. Photophysical Characterization of Enhanced 6-Methylisoxanthopterin Fluorescence in Duplex DNA. doi:10.1021/acs.jpcb.6b07369. Shi, Xuesong. Probing the Dynamics of the P1 Helix within the Tetrahymena Group I Intron. doi:10.1021/ja902797j ...
It was thought that polycistronic transcription is a characteristic of bacteria and archaea, where many of the genes are clustered in operons composed of two to more than ten genes. By contrast, the genes of eukaryotes are generally considered to be monocistronic, each with its own promoter at the 5 …
Senator Chris Jacobs will partner with the Better Business Bureau and AT&T to inform seniors about the alarming trend in senior targeted scams. Seniors will learn important tips on how to protect their identity, and what to do if they fall victim to a scam. This seminar is FREE and open to the public.  Please register by calling Senator Chris Jacobs District Office at (716) 854-8705 or emailing [email protected]
Tubulin heterogeneity in the trypanosome Crithidia fasciculata.: The interphase cell of Crithidia fasciculata has three discrete tubulin populations: the subpel
TY - JOUR. T1 - Lectins and tetrahymena - A review. AU - Csaba, G.. PY - 2016/9/1. Y1 - 2016/9/1. N2 - The unicellular ciliate Tetrahymena is a complete organism, one of the most highly developed protozoans, which has specialized organelles performing each of the functions characteristic to the cells of higher ranked animals. It is also able to produce, store, and secrete hormones of higher ranked animals and also react to them. It produces lectins that can bind them and has functions, which are influenced by exogenous lectins. The review lists the observations on the relationship between lectins and Tetrahymena and try to construe them on the basis of the data, which are at our disposal. Considering the data, lectins can be used by Tetrahymena as materials for influencing conjugation, for stimulating hormone receptors, and by this, mimic the hormonal functions. Lectins can influence phagocytosis and movement of the cells as well as the cell division. As Tetrahymena can recognize both related ...
Nana asked me how I was feeling. I said I didnt know. I dont think I will know exactly until Wednesday. I do know that every morning after I drop Matthew off at school, I am overcome for a moment with a mix of emotions. Many times I am overcome when I think about all of the friends, family, and strangers to me who are thinking about Jacob, who are praying for Jacob. I think about God all of the time. I believe that his plan for Jacob is to be my teacher, to show me what is possible, to show me what is important, and to show me who I am. Sometimes I am overcome by the thought of what I will never know. But only for a moment. I have to drive. On Wednesday I can be overcome but for now we have to attend to life. By the way, I told Matthew that Jacob will be in the hospital next week and he said, but then I wont have a brother. Then he wanted to know who he would be staying with and what Jacob was going to the hospital for. I said that Jacob had a boo-boo inside his head. Matthew asked if they ...
Biology Assignment Help, Heliozoans - protozoan, Heliozoans - Protozoan Heliozoans are spherical protozoan that occur in the sea or in still bodies of fresh water. They are mainly located in the bottom debris. Fine needle like pseudopodia radiate from the surface of the body. These are known a
Microfluidic trapping technology has been widely applied for single-cell observation in order to reveal characteristic cell behaviors. However, this strategy has yet to be tested for monitoring highly motile cells, which are often biologically important. In this paper, we seek the conditions that enable effe
Cui B, Liu Y, Gorovsky MA. 2006. Deposition and function of histone H3 variants in tetrahymena thermophila. Mol Cell Biol 26(20):7719-30 ...
Cui B, Liu Y, Gorovsky MA. 2006. Deposition and function of histone H3 variants in tetrahymena thermophila. Mol Cell Biol 26(20):7719-30 ...
JACOB is a tutor in Chicago, IL (60608) : Hello, my name is Jacob and I am so glad you are here to get to know about me. Thank you. I have a multiple, all-rounded education and experiences....
Jane Jacobs latest offering goes beyond the use of metaphors as heuristic devices and is better understood as a search for universal principles that characterize complex systems, both natural and human made .
McCudden, C.; Axel, A.E.; Slaets, D.; Dejoie, T.; Clemens, P.L.; Frans, S.; Bald, J.; Plesner, T.; Jacobs, J.F.M. ; Donk, N.W. van de; Moreau, P.; Schecter, J.M.; Ahmadi, T.; Sasser, A.K. et al ...
Daryl L Jacobs MD is a Cardiovascular Disease who practices in Chesterfield, MO. Get a full report about this doctors background by clicking here.
Sánchez PL, Fernández-Santos ME, Costanza S, Climent AM, Moscoso I, Gonzalez-Nicolas MA, Sanz-Ruiz R, Rodríguez H, Kren SM, Garrido G, Escalante JL, Bermejo J, Elizaga J, Menarguez J, Yotti R, Pérez del Villar C, Espinosa MA, Guillem MS, Willerson JT, Bernad A, Matesanz R, Taylor DA, Fernández-Avilés F ...
Double-stranded RNA virus transcription is the method of transcription. Protozoan parasite trichomonas vaginalis serve as the ... The protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis serves as the natural host. There are currently four species in this genus, ... Replication follows the double-stranded RNA virus replication model. ...
Replication follows the positive stranded RNA virus replication model. Positive stranded RNA virus transcription is the method ... The virus is transmitted via a vector (protozoan). Transmission routes are vector. "Virus Taxonomy: 2018b Release". ...
The L segment encodes the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, necessary for viral RNA replication and mRNA synthesis. The M segment ... Member viruses infect arthropods, plants, protozoans, and vertebrates. It is the only order in the class Ellioviricetes. The ... "Bunyaviridae - Negative Sense RNA Viruses - Negative Sense RNA Viruses (2011)". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses ... RNA segment. These RNA segments are single-stranded, and exist in a helical formation within the virion. Besides, they exhibit ...
Tetrahydrofolic acid is essential for DNA and RNA synthesis in many species, including protozoa. It has also been found to ...
Mold, protozoan, and coelenterate mitochondrial + Mycoplasma / Spiroplasma 4 TGA UGA Trp (W) Stop * Includes the translation ... In RNA, it is replaced with uracil (U).[16] This is the only difference between the standard RNA codon table and the standard ... Standard RNA codon table[edit]. Amino-acid biochemical properties Nonpolar Polar Basic Acidic ↓ Termination: stop codon * ... RNA codon involved Translation with this code Standard translation Notes Standard 1 Includes translation table 8 (plant ...
Based on the RNA polymerase gene this group can be divided into four clades (I-IV). Four isolates from animals and protozoans ... The larger segment codes for the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and the smaller codes for the coat protein. Genomes are ... Replication follows the double-stranded RNA virus replication model. Double-stranded RNA virus transcription is the method of ... Cryspoviruses infect apicomplexian protozoa of the genus Cryptosporidium, while viruses of the other genera infect plants and ...
The dark bands contain more DNA and less RNA. The interbands contain more RNA and less DNA. The amount of DNA in interbands ... In protozoans, there is no transcription, since the puff consists only of DNA. Polytene chromosomes were originally observed in ... They are formed of DNA, RNA and a few proteins. As they are the site of transcription, transcription mechanisms such as RNA ... Their primary functions are: to act as binding sites for RNA pol II, to initiate replication and, to start nucleosome ...
... is a genus of double-stranded RNA virus, in the family Totiviridae. Protozoa serve as natural hosts, and Leishmaniaviruses are ... Replication follows the double-stranded RNA virus replication model. Double-stranded RNA virus transcription is the method of ... Group: dsRNA Order: Ghabrivirales Family: Totiviridae Genus: Leishmaniavirus Leishmania RNA virus 1 Leishmania RNA virus 2 ... Protozoa serve as the natural host. Adams, M.J., E.J. Lefkowitz, A.M. King, and E.B. Carstens. 2014. Ratification vote on ...
Giardia lamblia protozoa, leishmania protozoa, protozoan trichomonas vaginalis, and fungi serve as the natural host. The family ... Replication follows the double-stranded RNA virus replication model. Double-stranded RNA virus transcription is the method of ... which respectively encode the capsid protein and the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Some totiviruses contain a third small ... The genome is composed of a monopartite, linear double-stranded RNA molecule of 4.6-6.7 kilobases. It contains two overlapping ...
Her doctoral dissertation was "RNA editing and the evolution of mitochondrial DNA in kinetoplastid protozoa." In 1994, ... She specializes in RNA-mediated epigenetic inheritance and molecular evolution. Landweber received her AB in molecular biology ... Nowacki, M; Vijayan, V; Zhou, Y; Schotanus, K; Doak, TG; Landweber, LF (January 10, 2008). "RNA-mediated epigenetic programming ... using a test tube of RNA, a breakthrough in DNA computing. Laura Landweber has also studied the evolution of the genetic code ...
RNA. 1 (3): 376-387. doi:10.1002/wrna.34. PMC 3746294. PMID 21956937. Li, C.-W.; et al. (2007). "Ciliated protozoans from the ... OCLC 34782787.CS1 maint: others (link) An illustrated guide to the protozoa : organisms traditionally referred to as protozoa, ... The ciliates are a group of protozoans characterized by the presence of hair-like organelles called cilia, which are identical ... Some ciliates are mouthless and feed by absorption (osmotrophy), while others are predatory and feed on other protozoa and in ...
Walker, D. "Protozoa - The Stentor". Micscape. "Stentor: The trumpet animalcule (3D image)". ISSN 1365-070X. Cite journal ... based on small subunit ribosomal RNA sequences". J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 54 (1): 45-8. doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.2006.00147.x. ... As in many freshwater protozoans, Stentor has a contractile vacuole. Because the concentration of salt inside the cell and in ... Kumazawa, H. (2002). "Notes on the taxonomy of Stentor Oken (Protozoa, Ciliophora) and a description of a new species". J. ...
Patterson, D.J. Free-Living Freshwater Protozoa: A Colour Guide. Manson, 1992,1996. p. 133. ISBN 1-874545-40-5 Carey, Philip G ... Inferred from the Small Subunit Ribosomal RNA Gene Sequences. Acta Protozool. 47:47-54.. ... 2005). Frontonia lynni Archived 2012-04-25 at the Wayback Machine n. sp., a new marine ciliate (Protozoa, Ciliophora, ... 2008). Reconsideration of the Phylogenetic Position of Frontonia-related Peniculia (Ciliophora, Protozoa) ...
... no similarity to the proposed mechanism of RNA editing in kinetoplastid protozoa". Nucleic Acids Res. 19 (13): 3569-3576. doi: ... "Novel role for RNA-binding protein CUGBP2 in mammalian RNA editing. CUGBP2 modulates C to U editing of apolipoprotein B mRNA by ... "Escherichia coli cytidine deaminase provides a molecular model for ApoB RNA editing and a mechanism for RNA substrate ... mRNA editing of ApoB mRNA is the best defined example of this type of C to U RNA editing in humans. Despite being a 14,000 ...
... s act specifically during DNA and RNA synthesis, and thus are cytotoxic during the S-phase of the cell cycle. Thus, ... protozoa and fungi. The majority of antifolates work by inhibiting dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). Many are primarily DHFR ... "NCI: antifolate". Ivan M. Kompis, Khalid Islam, Rudolf L. Then (2005). "DNA and RNA Synthesis: Antifolates". Chem. Rev. 105: ... Consequently, antifolates inhibit cell division, DNA/RNA synthesis and repair and protein synthesis. Some such as proguanil, ...
The mechanism is not well understood; it probably inhibits DNA replication, but also has affinity to RNA. Acute side effects ... It is effective against certain protozoa such as Babesia, Trypanosoma, and Cytauxzoon. The drug may also be effective against ...
Wylezich C, Meisterfeld R, Meisterfeld S, Schlegel M (2002). "Phylogenetic analyses of small subunit ribosomal RNA coding ... Protozoa)". Protist. 154 (3-4): 341-58. doi:10.1078/143446103322454112. PMID 14658494. ...
An Illustrated guide to the Protozoa: organisms traditionally referred to as protozoa, or newly discovered groups. 1 (2nd ed ... than to coccidia as shown by phylogenetic analysis of apicomplexan parasites inferred using small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene ... Koelliker recognised them as protozoa in 1848. Carreno RA, Martin DS, Barta JR (November 1999). "Cryptosporidium is more ...
... and Protozoa. Virus-related cutaneous conditions caused by these obligate intracellular agents derive from both DNA and RNA ...
RNA, genes and chromosomes; purified nucleic acids; or deposits of materials not readily classifiable as microorganisms, such ... protozoa, eukaryotic cells, cell lines, hybridomas, viruses, plant tissue cells, spores, and hosts containing materials such as ... as "naked" DNA, RNA, or plasmids List of parties to the Budapest Treaty American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) Centraalbureau ...
micro-RNA - a cellular RNA fragment that prevents the production of a particular protein by binding to and destroying the ... Plasmodium - the general type (genus) of the protozoan microorganisms that cause malaria, though only a few of them do ... RNA - ribonucleic acid, a nucleic acid present in all living cells. Its principal role is to act as a messenger carrying ... Microscopic parasites, like viruses, protozoans that cause malaria, and others, cannot replicate on their own and rely on a ...
Her findings were contested by contemporaries such as Donald D. Jensen, who criticized the use of protozoans in comparative ... that these behavior modifications could be produced through modification of biological macromolecules such as protein or RNA- ... Beatrice Gelber is an American psychologist best known for her work on associative learning in protozoa, suggesting that ...
In viral myocarditis, the Coxsackie B family of the single-stranded RNA viruses, in particular the plus-strand RNA virus ... Many of the causes listed below, particularly those involving protozoa, fungi, parasites, allergy, autoimmune disorders, and ... protozoa, viruses, bacteria, rickettsia, and fungi. If one tests positive for an acute viral infection, clinical developments ... an illness endemic to Central and South America that is due to infection by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. ...
The binding of tetracyclines to cellular dsRNA (double stranded RNA) may be an explanation for their wide range of effect. It ... and protozoan parasites. Tetracycline itself was discovered later than chlortetracycline and oxytetracycline but is still ... Like minocycline, tigecycline binds to the bacterial 30S ribosome, blocking the entry of transfer RNA. This ultimately prevents ... blocking tetracyclines from binding to the ribosome binding to the ribosome and distorting the structure to still allow t-RNA ...
Most plant viruses have small, single-stranded RNA genomes. However some plant viruses also have double stranded RNA or single ... Vector transmission is often by an insect (for example, aphids), but some fungi, nematodes, and protozoa have been shown to be ... There are a few examples of plant diseases caused by protozoa (e.g., Phytomonas, a kinetoplastid). They are transmitted as ... protozoa, nematodes and parasitic plants. Not included are ectoparasites like insects, mites, vertebrate, or other pests that ...
Negative-sense viral RNA is complementary to mRNA and thus must be converted to positive-sense RNA by an RNA-dependent RNA ... which infects the protozoan Acanthamoeba castellanii.[57] These viruses, which are dependent on the presence of other virus ... a b Temin HM, Baltimore D. RNA-directed DNA synthesis and RNA tumor viruses. Advances in Virus Research. 1972;17:129-86. doi: ... A virus has either a DNA or an RNA genome and is called a DNA virus or an RNA virus, respectively. The vast majority of viruses ...
Its Protozoa, and the Symbiosis between Protozoa and Roach". Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 28 (2): 216. 1935- ... Similar to other oxymonads, Saccinobaculus has a small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) sequence that is longer than the ...
The protozoan is in the smaller of its two forms, called an amastigote, which is round, non-motile, and only 3-7 micrometers in ... further contained a RNA virus known as Leptomonas seymouri narna-like virus 1 (Lepsey NLV1). So, it appears that a great ... This disease is not the same as cutaneous leishmaniasis, a milder disease caused by another protozoan of the Leishmania genus ... Visceral Leishmaniasis/kala-azar samples from India revealed the presence of not only the primary causative protozoan parasite ...
DNA and RNA), which disrupts the organism's ability to replicate. Main advantages of UV disinfection are such as short contact ... times for pathogens to be inactivated and effectiveness on protozoa cysts and other chlorine resistant organisms. UV has ...
Her lab found the existence of ribosomal RNA genes on round DNA, and located families of retrotransposons inside the parasite ... She is recognized primarily for her in-depth study of Entamoeba histolytica, a parasitic protozoan that causes amoebiasis: Dr. ... D. for research on regulation of RNA synthesis in Escherichia coli. She has conducted post-doctoral research on bacteriophage ... Bhattacharya's laboratory first detected Ribosomal RNA genes on Circular DNA, while studying the parasite, and also discovered ...
The genome of an organism is the whole of its hereditary information encoded in its DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). This ... "The measurement for Amoeba dubia and other protozoa, which were reported to have very large genomes, were made in the 1960s ... 1976). "Complete nucleotide-sequence of bacteriophage MS2-RNA - primary and secondary structure of replicase gene". Nature. 260 ...
In 1957, Deamer submitted his research on self-organizing protozoa to the Westinghouse Science Talent Search and was among the ... and polyuridylic acid as homopolymers or as segments within single RNA molecules". Biophysical Journal. 77 (6): 3227-3233. doi: ... could distinguish between purine and pyrimidine bases in single RNA molecules. In 2007, Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT) ...
In anaerobic protozoa, such as Plagiopyla frontata, archaea reside inside the protozoa and consume hydrogen produced in their ... Archaea were split off as a third domain because of the large differences in their ribosomal RNA structure. The particular RNA ... although there are many introns in their transfer RNA and ribosomal RNA genes,[146] and introns may occur in a few protein- ... Lange, M; Westermann, P; Ahring, BK (2005). "Archaea in protozoa and metazoa". Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 66 (5): ...
RNA) - ribosome - RNA - route of administration - RT-PCR - RTI - Ryan White C.A.R.E. act ... protozoa - provirus - pruritus - pseudo-Cushing's syndrome - pseudovirion - PUBMED - pulmonary - purified protein derivative ( ... messenger RNA - metabolism - metastasis - MHC - microbes - microbicide - Microsporidiosis - mitochondria - mitochondrial ...
Research on psoralen has historically focused on interactions with DNA and RNA (in particular, ICL formation). Psoralen, ... protozoa) in platelet and plasma blood components prepared for transfusion support of patients. Prior to clinical use, ... and therefore have been used extensively for the analysis of interactions and structures for both DNA and RNA.[26][27] ... "RNA Duplex Map in Living Cells Reveals Higher-Order Transcriptome Structure". Cell. 165 (5): 1267-1279. doi:10.1016/j.cell. ...
Werner F (2007). "Structure and function of archaeal RNA polymerases". Mol. Microbiol. 65 (6): 1395-404. PMID 17697097. doi: ... Lange M; Westermann P; Ahring BK; Lange, M; Westermann, P; Ahring B.K. (2005). "Archaea in protozoa and metazoa". Applied ... "A putative RNA-interference-based immune system in prokaryotes: computational analysis of the predicted enzymatic machinery, ...
RNA silencing mechanisms are also important in the plant systemic response, as they can block virus replication.[40] The ... Intracellular protozoa. *Plasmodium malariae. *Leishmania donovani. no. no. no Extracellular protozoa. *Entamoeba histolytica ... Baulcombe D (September 2004). "RNA silencing in plants". Nature. 431 (7006): 356-63. Bibcode:2004Natur.431..356B. doi:10.1038/ ... For example, the Influenza A virus produces NS1 protein, which can bind to host and viral RNA, interact with immune signaling ...
... in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA by the enzyme RNA polymerase. Both RNA and DNA are nucleic acids, which ... The study of microscopic organisms, such as bacteria, viruses, archaea, fungi and protozoa. This discipline includes ... RNA. See ribonucleic acid.. RNA polymerase. A member of a family of enzymes that are essential to life: they are found in all ... One of the four main nitrogenous bases found in both DNA and RNA, along with adenine, guanine, thymine, and uracil (in RNA); it ...
Instead, the naked viral RNA may alter the function of the cells through a mechanism similar to RNA interference, in which the ... These protozoa are not phytopathogenic themselves, but parasitic. Transmission of the virus takes place when they become ... The RNA carries genetic information to code for the production of new infectious particles. More recently virus research has ... Some viruses (e.g. tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)) have RNA sequences that contain a "leaky" stop codon. In TMV 95% of the time the ...
Zatiaľ čo niektoré systémy sa stále držia taxónov prvoky (Protozoa), Protista či Chromista[53], iné systémy s týmito termínmi ... prepisuje do RNA, ktorá potom slúži buď na syntézu proteínov (mRNA), alebo má určitú katalytickú funkciu ako taká (rRNA, tRNA a ... Cavalier-Smith ďalej rozdelil ríšu protista na dve menšie, a to protozoa a chromista.[47] Dnes sa však presadzujú úplne odlišné ... CAVALIER-SMITH, T.. The phagotrophic origin of eukaryotes and phylogenetic classification of Protozoa. International Journal of ...
RNA may spread directly to other cells or nuclei by diffusion. A large amount of RNA and protein is contributed to the zygote ... The leverage of ciliate protozoa". Dev. Biol. (NY). 7: 229-58. PMID 1804215. doi:10.1007/978-1-4615-6823-0_11.. ... Morris KL (2008). "Epigenetic Regulation of Gene Expression". RNA and the Regulation of Gene Expression: A Hidden Layer of ... RNA transcripts[edit]. Sometimes a gene, after being turned on, transcribes a product that (directly or indirectly) maintains ...
Nekoliko antibiotika je isto tako efektivno protiv gljivica i protozoa, a neki su toksični za ljude i životinje, čak i kad se ... "New target for inhibition of bacterial RNA polymerase: 'switch region'". Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 14 (5): 532-43. PMC 3196380 ...
... residual ribosomal RNA allows further synthesis of Hb until the reticulocyte loses its RNA soon after entering the vasculature ... Primitive species such as bacteria, protozoa, algae, and plants often have single-globin hemoglobins. Many nematode worms, ... Organisms including bacteria, protozoans, and fungi all have hemoglobin-like proteins whose known and predicted roles include ... this hemoglobin-synthetic RNA in fact gives the reticulocyte its reticulated appearance and name).[33] ...
... and endocytosed nucleic acids such as double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), and unmethylated CpG ...
Raikov, IB (1994). "The diversity of forms of mitosis in protozoa: A comparative review". European Journal of Protistology. 30 ... Prescott DM, Bender MA (March 1962). "Synthesis of RNA and protein during mitosis in mammalian tissue culture cells". ...
These compounds are often bitter and can inhibit DNA or RNA synthesis or block nervous system signal transmission. Cyanogens ... This flora is made up of cellulose-digesting protozoans or bacteria.[2] ...
Protozoa." (First class. Primordial animals. Protozoa.) [Note: each column of each page of this journal is numbered; there are ... "Loss of the flagellum happened only once in the fungal lineage: phylogenetic structure of kingdom Fungi inferred from RNA ... Cox, F.E.G. (1991). "Systematics of parasitic protozoa". In: Kreier, J.P. & J. R. Baker (ed.). Parasitic Protozoa, 2nd ed., vol ... Protozoa. Thiere, in welchen die verschiedenen Systeme der Organe nicht scharf ausgeschieden sind, und deren unregelmässige ...
Template:Protozoan infection navs(edit talk links history). *Template:Psych navs(edit talk links history) ({{Psychology navs ...
For example, humans can make neither RNA replicases nor reverse transcriptase, and the presence of these enzymes are ... Several human activities have led to the emergence of zoonotic human pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, protozoa, and ... An interesting fact that gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, 16S ribosomal RNA analysis, omics, and other advanced ...
... non-photosynthetic plastids of pathogenic protozoa such as Toxoplasma gondii and Eimeria tenella). ... The 5S ribosomal RNA (5S rRNA) is an approximately 120 nucleotide-long ribosomal RNA molecule with a mass of 40 kDa. It is a ... "A specific transcription factor that can bind either the 5S RNA gene or 5S RNA". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 77 (7): 4170-, ... doi:10.1261/rna.2170803. PMC 1370395. PMID 12592002.. *^ Bullerwell, CE; Burger, G; Gott, JM; Kourennaia, O; Schnare, MN; Gray ...
Some eukaryotic protozoa such as Leishmania major and Trypanosoma cruzi lack the RNAi pathway entirely.[70][71] Most or all of ... RNAs are the direct products of genes, and these small RNAs can direct enzyme complexes to degrade messenger RNA (mRNA) ... These processed RNAs are incorporated into the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which targets messenger RNA to prevent ... Two types of small ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules - microRNA (miRNA) and small interfering RNA (siRNA) - are central to RNA ...
2006 - Andrew Fire and Craig Mello, United States, for finding how RNA interference can switch genes on or off.[97] ... 1907 - Alphonse Laveran, France, for his work on the way protozoa can cause disease[7] ... 1959 - Arthur Kornberg and Severo Ochoa, United States, for their discovery of how living things make ribonucleic acid (RNA) ...
Ahlquist P (2002). "RNA-dependent RNA polymerases, viruses, and RNA silencing". Science 296 (5571): 1270-3. PMID 12016304. doi: ... approaches in the protozoan parasite Leishmania". Mol Biochem Parasitol 128 (2): 217-28. PMID 12742588. doi:10.1016/S0166-6851( ... "Double-stranded RNA binding may be a general plant RNA viral strategy to suppress RNA silencing". J Virol 80 (12): 5747-56. PMC ... doi:10.1261/rna.2340906.. *↑ Stein P, Zeng F, Pan H, Schultz R (2005). "Absence of non-specific effects of RNA interference ...
The term micronucleus may also refer to the smaller nucleus in ciliate protozoans, such as the Paramecium. In fission it ...
ಪ್ರತಿರಕ್ಷಣೆ ಅಥವಾ ಇಮ್ಯೂನೈಸೇಷನ್ ಎನ್ನುವುದು ಒಂದು ಪ್ರಕ್ರಿಯೆಯಾಗಿದ್ದು, ಅದರಲ್ಲಿ ವ್ಯಕ್ತಿಗಳ ಪ್ರತಿರೋಧಕ ವ್ಯವಸ್ಥೆಯು ರೋಗಕಾರಕ ಪದಾರ್ಥದ ವಿರುದ್ದ (ಇಮ್ಯುನೋಜೆನ್ ಎಂದು ಕರೆಯಲಾಗುತ್ತದೆ) ಬಲಗೊಳ್ಳುತ್ತದೆ.. ಪ್ರತಿರೋಧಕ ವ್ಯವಸ್ಥೆಯು ದೇಹಕ್ಕೆ ಬಾಹ್ಯವಾಗಿರುವ ಕಣಗಳಿಗೆ (ಸ್ವಂತದಲ್ಲದ ) ಒಡ್ಡಲ್ಪಟ್ಟಾಗ, ಅದು ಪ್ರತಿರೋಧಕ ಪ್ರತಿಕ್ರಿಯೆಯೊಂದನ್ನು ಸಂಯೋಜಿಸುತ್ತದೆ, ಆದರೆ ಅದು ಅನಂತರದ ಸಂಘರ್ಷಗಳಿಗೆ (ಪ್ರತಿರಕ್ಷಾ ಸ್ಮರಣೆಯ ಮೂಲಕ) ತ್ವರಿತವಾಗಿ ...
The coding differences are thought to be a result of chemical modifications in the transfer RNAs that interact with the ... Extrachromosomal DNA is found in Apicomplexa, which is a group of protozoa. The malaria parasite (genus Plasmodium), the AIDS- ... ISBN 978-0-7167-7108-1. Watson, James (2007). Recombinant RNA: Genes and Genomes- A Short Course. New York: W. H. Freeman and ... RNA polymerase subunits, and ribosomal protein subunits. Like mtDNA, cpDNA is not fully autonomous and relies upon nuclear gene ...
In 1987 Carl Woese divided the Eubacteria into 11 divisions based on 16S ribosomal RNA (SSU) sequences, which with several ... with a 5th group being 4 genera considered intermediate between bacteria and protozoans: Spirocheta, Cristospira, Saprospira, ... Hori, H.; Osawa, S. (1987). "Origin and evolution of organisms as deduced from 5S ribosomal RNA sequences". Molecular Biology ... "The ribosomal RNA database project". Nucleic Acids Research. 19 Suppl: 2017-2021. doi:10.1093/nar/19.suppl.2017. PMC 331344 ...
Examples of eukaryotic pathogens capable of sex include the protozoan parasites Plasmodium falciparum, Toxoplasma gondii, ... They are composed solely of a short strand of circular, single-stranded RNA that has no protein coating. All known viroids are ... They do not contain any DNA or RNA and cannot replicate other than to convert already existing normal proteins to the misfolded ... Viruses are small particles, typically between 20 and 300 nanometers in length,[15] containing RNA or DNA. Viruses require a ...
The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are ... RNA, proteins and metabolites, is utilised by the bacteria to achieve regulation of gene expression. In bacteria, the principal ... The organisms involved include pathogenic bacteria, causing diseases such as plague, tuberculosis and anthrax; protozoan ... "Kingdom protozoa and its 18 phyla". Microbiol. Rev. 57 (4): 953-994. doi:10.1128/mmbr.57.4.953-994.1993. PMC 372943. PMID ...
The Myxozoa, microscopic parasites, were first classified as protozoans.[32] Research then found that Polypodium hydriforme, a ... usually in their DNA or RNA.[54] ...
... bound to guide RNA (gRNA, yellow and red)). gRNA is a form of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that controls the process of RNA editing, ... Computer model showing a guide RNA-binding protein complex (green and blue), ... within the mitochondria of kinetoplastid organisms (a type of protozoa). gRNA binds to the region of mRNA to be edited, and the ... protozoa, protozoan, ribonucleic acid, rna editing, rna-editing, space fill, space filled, space-fill, space-filled, spacefill ...
Four stable RNAs from the L. tarentolae SLA RNA repeat. (A) RNA blot analysis of total RNA from T. brucei (lanes Tb) and L. ... Three Small Nucleolar RNAs Identified from the Spliced Leader-Associated RNA Locus in Kinetoplastid Protozoans. T. Guy Roberts ... Three Small Nucleolar RNAs Identified from the Spliced Leader-Associated RNA Locus in Kinetoplastid Protozoans ... Three Small Nucleolar RNAs Identified from the Spliced Leader-Associated RNA Locus in Kinetoplastid Protozoans ...
Experimental procedures using the RNA interference (RNAi) approach have recently emerged as a powerful tool for gene silencing ... Experimental procedures using the RNA interference (RNAi) approach have recently emerged as a powerful tool for gene silencing ... Our group has recently explored RNAi to knock down gene-specific expression in the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica, ... through delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) oligonucleotides by the soaking approach. Standardized conditions for the ...
CRISPR Corrects RNA-based Disease Defects. By Kerry Grens , August 10, 2017 ... tags: protozoans x disease/medicine x developmental biology x The Scientist. » protozoans, disease/medicine and developmental ...
CRISPR Corrects RNA-based Disease Defects. By Kerry Grens , August 10, 2017 ... A new study adds to the evidence that mammalian cells can use small interfering RNAs to defend against viruses, but questions ... Using single-cell RNA sequencing, scientists characterize new populations of dendritic cells and monocytes. ...
Find the perfect Rna stock photos and editorial news pictures from Getty Images. Download premium images you cant get anywhere ... Transcribing chromatin from a Protozoan.. RM. Editorial use only. Genetically Engineered Cells, Microscopic View. RM ... Unlike antisense and RNA interference gene silencers, U1 adaptors work at the spliceosome: macromolecular assemblies inside th ... Ribosomes are complexes of RNA and protein that are found in all cells. (Enhancement of 9A8796). RM ...
28S ribosomal RNA. A. 3788. Plasmodium falciparum 3D7. Find similar nucleic acids by: Sequence , Structure ... Cryo-EM structure of the Plasmodium falciparum 80S ribosome bound to the anti-protozoan drug emetine.. Wong, W., Bai, X.C., ... Cryo-EM structure of the Plasmodium falciparum 80S ribosome bound to the anti-protozoan drug emetine, large subunit. *DOI: ... Emetine is an anti-protozoan drug used in the treatment of ameobiasis that also displays potent anti-malarial activity. Emetine ...
Protozoa; RNA interference; RNAi; SCD; SM; TS; acetyl-CoA carboxylase; acyl carrier protein; cardiolipin; endoplasmic reticulum ... Lipid synthesis in protozoan parasites: a comparison between kinetoplastids and apicomplexans Prog Lipid Res. 2013 Oct;52(4): ...
Previously, we reported that a mechanism similar to RNA-interference (RNAi) ensures that only one VSP is expressed on the ... Efficient oral vaccination by bioengineering virus-like particles with protozoan surface proteins. *Marianela C. Serradell1. ... The early-branching eukaryote Giardia lamblia is perhaps the only protozoan capable of colonizing the lumen of the upper small ... Intestinal and free-living protozoa, such as Giardia lamblia, express a dense coat of variant-specific surface proteins (VSPs) ...
... our protozoa will help teachers demonstrate cell behavior, population studies, and ecology. ... DNA & RNA Structure. (4) * Eukaryotic Structure & Function. (3) * Evolution & Adaptation. (1) * Inheritance of Traits. (4) ... Carolina Protozoa and Invertebrate Manual. Complete care instructions and tips for Protozoa and Invert ...
Spliced leader RNA silencing (SLS) - a programmed cell death pathway in Trypanosoma brucei that is induced upon ER stress ... Impact of protozoan cell death on parasite-host interactions and pathogenesis PCD in protozoan parasites has emerged as a ... Are protozoan metacaspases potential parasite killers? Mechanisms concerning life or death decisions in protozoan parasites are ... Protozoan parasites and cell death. A key component of the life history of metazoans is the ability of their cells to undergo ...
As the only large service repository of parasitic protozoa in the world, ATCC offers over 1000 strains of parasites. ... Nucleic Acids - DNA/ RNA (8) Tissue. * Blood (8) Cell Origin. * Bovine (46) ... Parasitic Protozoa * Naegleria fowleri Carter (ATCC® 30809™) ATCC® Number: 30809™ Organism: Naegleria fowleri ...
As the only large service repository of parasitic protozoa in the world, ATCC offers over 1000 strains of parasites. ... Nucleic Acids - DNA/ RNA (8) Tissue. * Blood (8) Cell Origin. * Bovine (46) ... Parasitic Protozoa * Leishmania mexicana (Biagi) Garnham (ATCC® PRA-416™) ATCC® Number: PRA-416™ Deposited As Leishmania ...
As the only large service repository of parasitic protozoa in the world, ATCC offers over 1000 strains of parasites. ... Nucleic Acids - DNA/ RNA (7) Tissue. * Blood (8) Cell Origin. * Bovine (46) ... Parasitic Protozoa * Blastocystis hominis Brumpt (ATCC® 50610™) ATCC® Number: 50610™ Organism: Blastocystis hominis ...
As the only large service repository of parasitic protozoa in the world, ATCC offers over 1000 strains of parasites. ... Nucleic Acids - DNA/ RNA (8) Tissue. * Blood (8) Cell Origin. * Bovine (46) ... Parasitic Protozoa * Acanthamoeba sp. 26 (ATCC® 50722™) ATCC® Number: 50722™ Organism: Acanthamoeba sp. 26 ...
... somatic coliphages and F RNA coliphages. Turbidity and particle count have been proposed for non microbial measurements. The ... A clear gap on the literature about the best surrogates for protozoa in slow sand filters effluent is evident. While some ... This study shows that, in slow sand filters, efficient bacterial removal could indicate suitable protozoa removal, and that the ... This and other studies have shown good correlations between these traditional indicators and protozoa. It is also reasonable to ...
RNA Virus Infections. Virus Diseases. Respiratory Tract Infections. Respiratory Tract Diseases. Protozoan Infections. Parasitic ...
Protozoan Infections. Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections. Virus Diseases. Sexually ... We also hope to reduce the the infection rate (protozoa and HIV) and disease rate (STD) through the repetitively effective ...
Here, we demonstrate that snoRNAi requires the nuclear TbDCL2 protein, but not TbDCL1, which is involved in RNA interference ( ... Expression of dsRNA complementary to small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) in Trypanosoma brucei results in snoRNA silencing, termed ... Protozoan Proteins / physiology * RNA Interference* * RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional * RNA, Ribosomal / chemistry ... present in a cluster together with the spliced leader associated RNA (SLA1) and snR30, which are both H/ACA RNAs with special ...
Protozoa. The group of organisms known as protozoa are defined by a few of their shared characteristics. Protozoa are non- ... The protozoa can have very diverse lifecycles with multiple morphological stages, depending on species. Most protozoa have a ... Go to RNA Viruses Ch 7. Diseases Caused By... * Go to Diseases Caused By Protozoa ... Protozoa are divided into four main groups based on how the organism moves. The Flagellates move by waving long, whip-like ...
Test your understanding of the characteristics of protozoa with this interactive quiz/worksheet combo. You can read the ... Knowledge application - Apply your understanding of protozoa and the specific types of protozoa to questions about each type ... To learn more about protozoa, review the corresponding lesson called What are Protozoa? - Definition, Characteristics & ... Go to RNA Viruses Ch 7. Diseases Caused By... * Go to Diseases Caused By Protozoa ...
They are simply genetic material (DNA or RNA) packaged inside of a protein coating. They need to use another cells structures ... Protozoa. Protozoa (pronounced: pro-toe-ZO-uh) are one-celled organisms, like bacteria. But they are bigger than bacteria and ... For example, the protozoa that causes malaria grows inside red blood cells, eventually destroying them. Some protozoa are ... Some protozoa are parasites, which means that they need to live on or in another organism (like an animal or plant) to survive ...
They are simply genetic material (DNA or RNA) packaged inside of a protein coating. They need to use another cells structures ... Protozoa. Protozoa (pro-toe-ZO-uh) are one-celled organisms, like bacteria. But they are bigger than bacteria and contain a ... For example, the protozoa that causes malaria grows inside red blood cells, eventually destroying them. Some protozoa are ... Some protozoa are parasites. This means they need to live on or in another organism (like an animal or plant) to survive. ...
Mold, protozoan, and coelenterate mitochondrial + Mycoplasma / Spiroplasma 4 TGA UGA Trp (W) Stop * Includes the translation ... In RNA, it is replaced with uracil (U).[16] This is the only difference between the standard RNA codon table and the standard ... Standard RNA codon table[edit]. Amino-acid biochemical properties Nonpolar Polar Basic Acidic ↓ Termination: stop codon * ... RNA codon involved Translation with this code Standard translation Notes Standard 1 Includes translation table 8 (plant ...
Buy Molecular Biology of Parasitic Protozoa (9780199636020) (9780199636013): NHBS - Edited By: Deborah F Smith and Marilyn ... Trans-splicing in trypanosomatid protozoa; 7. RNA editing. Post-transcriptional restructuring of genetic information; 8. ... Molecular Biology of Parasitic Protozoa Series: Frontiers in Molecular Biology Volume: 13 ... Glycosyl-phosphatidylinositols and the surface architecture of parasitic protozoa Customer Reviews. Review this book ...
It is likely that these droplets harbor protozoan cell-associated bacteria; where protozoan cells are more resistant to ... Figure 1. Protozoan priming and target cell stage infections using Legionella pneumophila. A. Wild-type or type IV secretion ... We found protozoan toxicity effects at concentrations above 25 μg/ml, and found no differences in the total number of bacteria ... Lysis of the protozoan cell monolayer was performed with ice cold ultra-filtered H2O, a solvent that osmotically compromises ...
... with a highly divergent RNA-dependent RNA polymerase missed by conventional BLAST searches, an emergent clade of tombus-like ... We surveyed RNA viruses in 52 cultured monoxenous relatives of the human parasite Leishmania (Crithidia and Leptomonas), as ... Viral discovery and diversity in trypanosomatid protozoa with a focus on relatives of the human parasite Leishmania. Danyil ... We conducted a broad survey of RNA viruses within trypanosomatids, one of the iconic groups of protists. These revealed several ...
Next message: Protozoan infectivity studies * Messages sorted by: [ date ] [ thread ] [ subject ] [ author ] ... RNA editing. Peter Schuessler schuessl at Tue Mar 12 10:51:58 EST 1996 *Previous message: Trypanosome ... hallo out there, have anybody knowledge of RNA editing in trematodes or other parasites (without kinetoplastida)? thanks ...
RNA Virus infections. REFERENCES. Chapter 15. Parasitic Diseases. Introduction. Protozoa. Arthropods. Helminths ...
14 in Protozoa in Biological Research pp. 666-709. *_________, 1942. A case of inheritance of environmental effects and its ... Is the metagon an m-RNA in Paramecium and a virus in Didinium? PNAS 52(4): 869-876. ... Genetics of the Protozoa and its relation to general genetics. *186a. _________, 1966. Translation of #186 into Russian Journal ... Bearing of protozoan studies on current theory of genic and cytoplasmic actions. Proc. XVI. Intern. Cong. Zool. 3: 197-202. ...
  • Intestinal and free-living protozoa, such as Giardia lamblia , express a dense coat of variant-specific surface proteins (VSPs) on trophozoites that protects the parasite inside the host's intestine. (
  • [1] [2] The standard genetic code is traditionally represented as an RNA codon table, because when proteins are made in a cell by ribosomes , it is messenger RNA that directs protein biosynthesis . (
  • This complex consists of two mitochondrial RNA-binding proteins MRP1 and MRP2. (
  • These two proteins are from the protozoan Trypanosoma brucei. (
  • The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) functions to mediate and control the folding of proteins that traverse its membranes en route to intracellular organelles or the plasma membrane. (
  • The emerging role of RNA-binding proteins in the life cycle of Trypanosoma brucei. (
  • Messenger RNAs containing premature stop codons are rapidly degraded by a nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) system to avoid production of non-functional proteins. (
  • Copies of the viral genome and mRNA are transcribed from the integrated retrovirus and the resulting viral proteins are assembled with the RNA genome into viral particals which bud from the host cell. (
  • C-terminal Tudor domain interacts with several components involved in RNA splicing, including the Sm proteins SmB, SmD1/D3, SmD1, SAM68 and Prp8. (
  • That first RNA biomolecule would possibly have both informational and enzymatic properties, thus omitting the original necessity of DNA and proteins. (
  • Peptides are merely really short versions of proteins, so the scientists essentially cheated and the RNA replication process was not exclusively RNA-based. (
  • They consist of a capsule which encloses a single strand of DNA or RNA with many fewer proteins than a bacterium. (
  • For many years scientists assumed that proteins alone had the structural complexity needed to serve as specific catalysts in cells, but around 1980 the research groups of Tom Cech and Sidney Altman independently discovered that some biological catalysts are made of RNA. (
  • Although most ribozyme targets are RNA, there is now very strong evidence that the linkage of amino acids into proteins, which occurs at the ribosome during translation , is also catalyzed by RNA. (
  • One ribozyme of this type is RNase P, which consists of one RNA chain and one or more proteins (depending on the organism). (
  • Proteins are hypothesized to have evolved later, and as they evolved they took over functions previously performed by RNA molecules. (
  • The term 'germs' refers to the microscopic bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa that can cause disease. (
  • National Centre for Biotechnology Information, the CAB ferences between the major pathogen groups--viruses, International Bioscience database of fungal names, and bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and helminths. (
  • We examined 3 aspects of host range, both for all pathogens combined and separately for each of the virus- es, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and helminths. (
  • Unlike the relatively simple bacteria, protozoa can have many different intracellular organelles performing specific tasks. (
  • Protozoa (pronounced: pro-toe-ZO-uh) are one-celled organisms, like bacteria. (
  • Incubation of the bacteria-free ciliates with starch in the presence of antibiotics resulted in a release of volatile fatty acids with the net rate of 25 pmol per protozoan per h. (
  • For a virus to be larger than protozoans and bacteria, I don't know. (
  • A new study adds to the evidence that mammalian cells can use small interfering RNAs to defend against viruses, but questions remain about physiological importance. (
  • Protozoa E. Viruses 1. (
  • The viruses were also divided according to genome type (e.g., negative single- stranded RNA viruses). (
  • Retrovirues are enveloped, single-stranded RNA viruses. (
  • An increasing number of novel mycoviruses are being reported, including double-stranded (ds) RNA, circular single-stranded (ss) DNA, negative sense (−)ssRNA, and positive sense (+)ssRNA viruses. (
  • Some RNA viruses, such as the hepatitis delta virus, also include a ribozyme as part of their inherited RNA molecule. (
  • RNA interference has an important role in defending cells against parasitic nucleotide sequences - viruses and transposons . (
  • Experimental procedures using the RNA interference (RNAi) approach have recently emerged as a powerful tool for gene silencing in eukaryotic microbes for which gene replacement techniques have not yet been developed. (
  • Previously, we reported that a mechanism similar to RNA-interference (RNAi) ensures that only one VSP is expressed on the surface of Giardia at any time 11 . (
  • Here, we demonstrate that snoRNAi requires the nuclear TbDCL2 protein, but not TbDCL1, which is involved in RNA interference (RNAi) in the cytoplasm. (
  • The best-studied members of this family are microRNAs (miRNAs), small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and Piwi-related RNAs (piRNAs), which share members of the cell machinery for RNA interference (RNAi) gene silencing, with some exceptions. (
  • We are applying RNA interference (RNAi), namely down-regulation of gene expression by homologous double-stranded RNA, to identify genes essential for survival within the insect vector and mammalian host. (
  • Characterization of molecular mechanisms Involved in RNA metabolism with special emphasis on RNA interference and the role of small RNAs in trypanosome biology. (
  • Retention and loss of RNA interference pathways in trypanosomatid protozoans. (
  • Here, we used RNA interference to investigate the function of POLID in procyclic T. brucei . (
  • This inducible RNA interference (RNAi) effect was fast-acting, heritable and reversible. (
  • 1998 ). Potent and specific genetic interference by double-stranded RNA in Caenorhabditis elegans . (
  • 1999 ). mut -7 of C. elegans , required for transposon silencing and RNA interference, is a homolog of Werner syndrome helicase and RnaseD. (
  • Lentiviral delivery of designed shRNAs and the mechanism of RNA interference in mammalian cells. (
  • RNA interference ( RNAi ) is a biological process in which RNA molecules inhibit gene expression or translation, by neutralizing targeted mRNA molecules. (
  • Andrew Fire and Craig C. Mello shared the 2006 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their work on RNA interference in the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans , which they published in 1998. (
  • Two types of small ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules - microRNA (miRNA) and small interfering RNA ( siRNA ) - are central to RNA interference. (
  • Moreover, transcription can be inhibited via the pre-transcriptional silencing mechanism of RNA interference, through which an enzyme complex catalyzes DNA methylation at genomic positions complementary to complexed siRNA or miRNA. (
  • Color enhanced platinum-shadowed electron micrograph (freeze-fracture TEM) showing characteristic attachment of RNA polymerase molecules to DNA strands. (
  • RNA editing (also RNA modification) is a molecular process through which some cells can make discrete changes to specific nucleotide sequences within an RNA molecule after it has been generated by RNA polymerase. (
  • We screened liver samples from 441 specimens belonging to 20 different species of murine rodents from 2 mountain ranges on Sulawesi, using polymerase chin reaction (PCR) primers targeting the conserved 18S rDNA region across the protozoan class Kinetoplastea. (
  • Metacyclic VSG expression site promoters are recognized by the same general transcription factor that is required for RNA polymerase I transcription of bloodstream expression sites. (
  • The Canonical Poly (A) Polymerase PAP1 Polyadenylates Non-Coding RNAs and Is Essential for snoRNA Biogenesis in Trypanosoma brucei. (
  • In the present study the existence of genetic variation in the nested multiplex polymerase chain reaction (NM-PCR) amplified region of the 16S-like ribosomal RNA genes of E. histolytica, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii was investigated by riboprinting and single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. (
  • and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene, partial cds. (
  • Following the infection of a cell, a virus-encoded enzyme--called reverse transcriptase or RNA-dependent DNA polymerase--copies the RNA genome into DNA which is integrated into the genome of the host cell. (
  • Both single- and dual-gRNA expression vectors were developed using a strong RNA polymerase I promoter and ribozymes. (
  • 1999 ). Gene silencing in Neurospora crassa requires a protein homologous to RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. (
  • 1997 ). Transcription of protein-coding genes in trypanosomes by RNA polymerase I. (
  • Apoptosis-like programmed cell death (PCD) has recently been described in multiple taxa of unicellular protists, including the protozoan parasites Plasmodium, Trypanosoma and Leishmania . (
  • Mechanisms concerning life or death decisions in protozoan parasites are still imperfectly understood. (
  • PCD in protozoan parasites has emerged as a fascinating field of parasite biology. (
  • Some protozoa are parasites, which means that they need to live on or in another organism (like an animal or plant) to survive. (
  • Some protozoa are parasites. (
  • hallo out there, have anybody knowledge of RNA editing in trematodes or other parasites (without kinetoplastida)? (
  • The protozoan parasites, Babesia microti and Babesia divergens are the major causes of human babesiosis in the United States and Europe, respectively. (
  • Concurrent infection with protozoan parasites and various bacterial pathogens occurs frequently ( Cox, 2001 ). (
  • Many protozoa cause infections that often follow chronic courses, owing to coevolution between parasites and host immune system. (
  • A great challenge to research in immunology and parasitology is the development of strategies that favor immunity against protozoan parasites and prevent their evasion, chronic, or recurrent infections and associated pathologies. (
  • This special issue includes original papers and reviews that summarize current advances in our understanding on the mechanisms of immunity to protozoan parasites in humans and experimental animal models. (
  • Four papers of this special issue discuss molecules present at initial encounter between hosts and protozoan parasites plus the secretions of their insect vectors. (
  • Other PRRs, such as Nod-like receptors (NLR), only recently came into spotlight in immunity to protozoan parasites [ 5 ]. (
  • The vault RNA (vtRNA) of Trypanosoma brucei, the unicellular eukaryote causing African sleeping sickness, is shown set against an image of live procyclic form parasites in this cover photo for the October 25, 2019 issue of the Journal of Biological Chemistry. (
  • He is even more skeptical of cattle vaccines for protozoan parasites such as Trichomonas. (
  • Given its simplicity and high efficiency, CRISPR-Cas9 has now been used for genome engineering in a wide variety of organisms, including human protozoan parasites Toxoplasma gondii , Plasmodium falciparum , Trypanosoma cruzi , and Leishmania major ( 1 - 3 , 10 - 14 ). (
  • [3] Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania . (
  • The 9 and 12s RNA genes were also mapped on the T. brucei maxicircle. (
  • Sequence homology between the L. tarentolae 9 and 12s RNA genes and the T. brucei 9 and 12s RNA genes was observed. (
  • S. sclerotiorum inoculation strongly induced the expression of BnCAMTA3 genes while significantly suppressed that of some CGCG-containing RNA silencing component genes, suggesting that RNA silencing machinery might be targeted by CAMTA3. (
  • Based on comparison of the sequences of genes encoding various ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), the phylogenetic relationships in seven out of eight known classes of ciliates are discussed. (
  • The present study has revealed the subsistence of mutations in the ribosomal RNA genes of E. histolytica and E. moshkovskii, which points towards the existence of intra-species genetic variation in E. histolytica and E. moshkovskii isolates infecting humans. (
  • 2 This idea slowly gained traction and eventually became more popular in the 1980s with discoveries that some types of RNA were involved in enzymatic-like reactions in the complex processing of RNA transcribed from genes. (
  • RNAs are the direct products of genes, and these small RNAs can direct enzyme complexes to degrade messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules and thus decrease their activity by preventing translation, via post-transcriptional gene silencing. (
  • The initiating dsRNA can also be endogenous (originating in the cell), as in pre-microRNAs expressed from RNA-coding genes in the genome. (
  • First characterized in Trypanosoma brucei , the spliced leader-associated (SLA) RNA gene locus has now been isolated from the kinetoplastids Leishmania tarentolae and Trypanosoma cruzi . (
  • Expression of dsRNA complementary to small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) in Trypanosoma brucei results in snoRNA silencing, termed snoRNAi. (
  • Differentiation of Trypanosoma brucei, a flagellated protozoan parasite, between life cycle stages typically occurs through an asymmetric cell division process, producing two morphologically distinct daughter cells. (
  • The primary focus of Dr. Kolev's research is the molecular mechanism governing the development of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei to its infectious metacyclic form, responsible for the transmission of African sleeping sickness and related diseases from the tsetse fly vector to the mammalian host. (
  • The vault RNA of Trypanosoma brucei plays a role in the production of trans-spliced mRNA. (
  • Kolev NG, Rajan KS, Tycowski KT, Toh JY, Shi H, Lei Y, Michaeli S, Tschudi C. The vault RNA of Trypanosoma brucei plays a role in the production of trans-spliced mRNA. (
  • Construction of Trypanosoma brucei Illumina RNA-Seq libraries enriched for transcript ends. (
  • Developmental progression to infectivity in Trypanosoma brucei triggered by an RNA-binding protein. (
  • RNA editing in Trypanosoma brucei mitochondria produces mature mRNAs by a series of enzyme-catalyzed reactions that specifically insert or delete uridylates in association with a macromolecular complex. (
  • Our research focuses on the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei, which causes devastating diseases in humans and animals in sub-Saharan Africa. (
  • Most recently, we have established and used RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq), a novel high-throughput sequencing technology, to interrogate the transcriptome of the parasitic protozoa Trypanosoma brucei , the agent of African sleeping sickness in man and nagana in cattle. (
  • Profiling the transcriptome of the parasitic protozoa Trypanosoma bruce i, the agent of African sleeping sickness in man and nagana in cattle, by next-generation high-throughput sequencing. (
  • 1990 ). Homologous recombination and stable transfection in the parasitic protozoan Trypanosoma brucei . (
  • Our group has recently explored RNAi to knock down gene-specific expression in the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica, through delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) oligonucleotides by the soaking approach. (
  • The RNAi pathway is found in many eukaryotes , including animals, and is initiated by the enzyme Dicer , which cleaves long double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) molecules into short double-stranded fragments of ~21 nucleotide siRNAs . (
  • RNAi is an RNA-dependent gene silencing process that is controlled by the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) and is initiated by short double-stranded RNA molecules in a cell's cytoplasm, where they interact with the catalytic RISC component argonaute . (
  • Exogenous dsRNA initiates RNAi by activating the ribonuclease protein Dicer, [8] which binds and cleaves double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) in plants, or short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) in humans, to produce double-stranded fragments of 20-25 base pairs with a 2-nucleotide overhang at the 3' end. (
  • Candidate rRNA-snoRNA interactions can be found for one domain in each of the C/D element-containing RNAs. (
  • The putative target site for the 75/76-nt RNA is a highly conserved portion of the small subunit rRNA that contains 2′- O -ribose methylation at a conserved position (Gm1830) in L. tarentolae and in vertebrates. (
  • The 92/94-nt RNA has the potential to form base pairs near a conserved methylation site in the large subunit rRNA, which corresponds to position Gm4141 of small rRNA 2 in T. brucei . (
  • Eight commonly used RNA markers were chosen including -actin, GAPDH, RPS29, 18S rRNA, 5S rRNA, U6 snRNA, miRNA-9 and miRNA-125b, and the expression levels were detected in brain tissue by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR. (
  • Genome-wide analysis of small nucleolar RNAs of Leishmania major reveals a rich repertoire of RNAs involved in modification and processing of rRNA. (
  • Eliaz D, Doniger T, Tkacz ID, Biswas VK, Gupta SK, Kolev NG, Unger R, Ullu E, Tschudi C, Michaeli S. Genome-wide analysis of small nucleolar RNAs of Leishmania major reveals a rich repertoire of RNAs involved in modification and processing of rRNA. (
  • This paper reports ribosomal RNA (5S rRNA) sequences from three species of green algae. (
  • We introduced the Cas9 nuclease into L. donovani and generated guide RNA (gRNA) expression vectors by using the L. donovani rRNA promoter and the hepatitis delta virus (HDV) ribozyme. (
  • Most of the RNA modifications are found on transfer-RNA and ribosomal-RNA, but also eukaryotic mRNA has been shown to be modified with multiple different modifications. (
  • Certain modifications like 2'O-methylated nucleotides has been associated with cells ability to distinguish own mRNA from foreign RNA. (
  • In trans- splicing, which is essential for processing of each mRNA, an exon, the spliced leader (SL) is added to all mRNAs from a small RNA, the SL RNA. (
  • The immunoprecipitated material also contains gRNA-specific endoribonuclease, terminal uridylyltransferase, and RNA ligase activities as well as gRNA and both edited and unedited mRNA. (
  • The edited mRNA sequence is specified by trans -acting small RNA molecules called gRNAs, which are complementary to their edited cognate mRNAs ( 4 ). (
  • This class of splicing is a very common feature of messenger RNA (mRNA) processing in "higher" eukaryotes such as humans. (
  • It is more than 25 years since the first report that a protozoan parasite could die by a process resulting in a morphological phenotype akin to apoptosis. (
  • Are protozoan metacaspases potential parasite killers? (
  • Therefore, it is not surprising that about 70% of the papers published here deal with early steps of immune responses to protozoan infections, including the role of parasite products, host receptors, molecular mechanisms, and effector cells of innate immune system. (
  • The protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis serves as the natural host. (
  • Protozoan parasite trichomonas vaginalis serve as the natural host. (
  • Cryptosporidium is a protozoan parasite distributed worldwide. (
  • In the present study, the CRISPR-Cas9 system has been adapted to Leishmania donovani , a protozoan parasite that causes fatal human visceral leishmaniasis. (
  • Visceral Leishmaniasis/kala-azar samples from India revealed the presence of not only the primary causative protozoan parasite, i.e. (
  • The latter parasite (LS) further contained a RNA virus known as Leptomonas seymouri narna-like virus 1 ( Lepsey NLV1 ). (
  • So, it appears that a great majority of kala-azar victims in the Indian subcontinent are exposed to a RNA virus in LS, the co-infecting parasite with LD i.e. the "LD-LS-Lepsey NLV1 triple pathogen" phenomenon. (
  • gRNA is a form of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that controls the process of RNA editing, within the mitochondria of kinetoplastid organisms (a type of protozoa). (
  • These act together to bind to RNA (ribonucleic acid). (
  • RNA silencing refers to a variety of mechanisms whereby a small RNA molecule interferes with a given nucleotide sequence. (
  • RNA editing may include the insertion, deletion, and base substitution of nucleotides within the RNA molecule. (
  • Life requires DNA, RNA, and protein in an interdependent triad in which each molecule is wholly dependent on the other two to exist. (
  • One of these additional obstacles is how the first RNA molecule could have possibly replicated itself without the aid of protein polymerases. (
  • This ribozyme processes precursor transfer RNA (tRNA) by removing an extension from the 5-prime end, to create the 5-prime end of the "mature" tRNA (the two ends of an RNA molecule are chemically distinct and are called the 5-prime and 3-prime ends, referring to specific carbons in the sugar moiety of the terminal nucleotides). (
  • When the RNA molecule from bacterial RNase P is purified away from its protein, it can still cleave its precursor tRNA target, albeit at a very slow rate, proving that the RNA is the catalyst. (
  • Dr. Hoerr found that to the contrary, RNA could be administered directly into tissue as a therapeutic vaccine or agent once the biological properties of the molecule were appropriately modified. (
  • The most well-studied outcome is post-transcriptional gene silencing, which occurs when the guide strand pairs with a complementary sequence in a messenger RNA molecule and induces cleavage by Argonaute 2 (Ago2), the catalytic component of the RISC . (
  • Ribosomal RNA molecules from human cells. (
  • Authors present what we have learnt from experiments performed in mice defective in one or multiple TLRs or key signaling molecules to gain insight into their role on immunity triggered by protozoan PAMPs, with emphasis on T. cruzi and Leishmania infections. (
  • To identify diverse post-transcriptional modifications of RNA molecules and determine the transcriptome-wide landscape of RNA modifications by means of next generation RNA sequencing, recently many studies have developed conventional or specialised sequencing methods. (
  • Moreover, mass spectrometry allows the investigation of modification dynamics by labeling RNA molecules with stable (non-radioactive) heavy isotopes in vivo. (
  • These "new sRNAs" could derive from pre-existent molecules with canonical functions such as ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), transfer RNA (tRNA), small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs), and small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs), which could define a group of RNAs that have a wide range of roles in gene regulation in addition to having the structural and/or functional roles for which they were originally characterized. (
  • If we grant the evolutionists a lot of slack and assume that RNA molecules with meaningful biological information could somehow magically burst onto the scene in a chemical milieu favorable to RNA stability and life, there are still many other problems. (
  • Ribozymes are RNA molecules that catalyze chemical reactions. (
  • They act either as molecular scissors to cleave precursor RNA chains (the chains that form the basis of a new RNA chain) or as "molecular staplers" that ligate two RNA molecules together. (
  • Some precursor RNA molecules have a ribozyme built into their own intron, and this ribozyme is responsible for removal of the intron in which it is found. (
  • The ribozyme then cleaves the long multimeric molecules into pieces that contain one genome copy, and fits that RNA piece into a virus particle. (
  • Other ribozymes work on other RNA molecules. (
  • In this "RNA world," RNAs were the catalysts of such functions as replication, cleavage, and ligation of RNA molecules. (
  • In 2016, research was published that seemed to provide a solution to this dilemma by showing that RNA could be partially replicated without protein enzymes. (
  • Note also that some RNA splicing reactions are catalyzed by enzymes made of only protein. (
  • Evidence that programmed cell death also occurs in unicellular organisms, including parasitic protozoans, is rapidly growing. (
  • In this lesson, we will examine the protozoa, a diverse group of organisms that didn't really fit anywhere else. (
  • What resulted was a group of distantly related organisms forever lumped together and collectively called 'protozoa. (
  • The group of organisms known as 'protozoa' are defined by a few of their shared characteristics. (
  • Protozoa are a diverse group of organisms with defining characteristics. (
  • It occurs in all living organisms and is one of the most evolutionarily conserved properties of RNAs. (
  • The prokaryotic CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat)-Cas9, an RNA-guided endonuclease, has been shown to mediate efficient genome editing in a wide variety of organisms. (
  • The CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat)-Cas9, a prokaryotic immune system derived from Streptococcus pyogenes is an RNA-guided endonuclease which has been shown to facilitate site-specific DNA cleavage in diverse organisms ranging from yeast to mammalian cells ( 1 - 3 ). (
  • The RNA catalysts called ribozymes are found in the nucleus, mitochondria, and chloroplasts of eukaryotic organisms. (
  • 2002. Non-pathogenic trypanosomatid protozoa as a platform for protein research and production. (
  • This compendium has eleven chapters written by leading experts in their field and provides current research information on the molecular biology of parasitic protozoans causative agents of a broad spectrum of diseases around the world. (
  • 1930. Cause, inheritance, and effects of the chain-forming tendency in the Ciliate Protozoan, Colpidium campylum . (
  • 1932. Experimental production of chains and its genetic consequences in the Ciliate Protozoan Colpidium campylum . (
  • Mendelian methods applied to the Ciliate Protozoan, Paramecium aurelia . (
  • The ability of the rumen ciliate protozoan Diploplastron affine to digest and ferment starch. (
  • Miamiensis avidus is a ciliate protozoan that has been tied to a number of deaths in hatchery or farmed fish, especially in olive flounder in Japan and South Korea. (
  • In the ciliate protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila , a wide variety of programmed rearrangements occur during the development of the somatic nucleus including chromosome fragmentation and deletion of specific DNA sequences. (
  • Real-time PCR analysis indicates that a 16-hour treatment with siRNAs usually results in half-extinction of target messenger RNA. (
  • In plants, RNA silencing is triggered by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) that gives rise to small RNAs known as microRNAs (miRNAs) or small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs). (
  • [10] These short double-stranded fragments are called small interfering RNAs ( siRNAs ). (
  • A double-stranded length of RNA. (
  • The RNA has a region with double-stranded structure. (
  • Replication follows the double-stranded RNA virus replication model. (
  • Double-stranded RNA virus transcription is the method of transcription. (
  • We have generated an inducible mutant trypanosome cell line (snl-2) that expresses linked inverted copies of a PFRA gene, capable of forming a PFRA double-stranded (ds) RNA. (
  • RNA editing in mRNAs effectively alters the amino acid sequence of the encoded protein so that it differs from that predicted by the genomic DNA sequence. (
  • RNA editing produces mature mRNAs in the mitochondria of trypanosomatids by guide RNA (gRNA)-directed posttranscriptional insertion and deletion of uridylates (U's) ( 2 ). (
  • Examples of self-spliced RNAs include the ribosomal RNAs of ciliated protozoa and certain mRNAs of yeast mitochondria. (
  • They are simply genetic material (DNA or RNA) packaged inside of a protein coating. (
  • Pseudouridylation of nonsense codons suppresses translation termination both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that RNA modification may provide a new way to expand the genetic code. (
  • During replication of the viral RNA, long strands containing repeats of the RNA genome (viral genetic information) are synthesized. (
  • When expression of this dsRNA was induced, new PFRA RNA and PFRA protein quickly disappeared and PFR construction was affected, resulting in cell paralysis. (
  • [6] When the dsRNA is exogenous (coming from infection by a virus with an RNA genome or laboratory manipulations), the RNA is imported directly into the cytoplasm and cleaved to short fragments by Dicer. (
  • This disease is not the same as cutaneous leishmaniasis , a milder disease caused by another protozoan of the Leishmania genus which also causes skin lesions. (
  • Leishmania donovani (LD) but also co-infection with another protozoan member called Leptomonas seymouri (LS). (
  • Like other cellular RNAs, snoRNAs are believed to exist as ribonucleoprotein complexes ( 36 , 50 ) and have been divided into two major classes based on conserved sequence elements and protein associations. (
  • Ribosomes are complexes of RNA and protein that are found in all cells. (
  • These small RNAs are then incorporated into AGO-containing RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs) to serve as the sequence specificity in RNA degradation, translational inhibition, or heterochromatin formation ( Bologna and Voinnet, 2014 ). (
  • The antibodies cause a supershift of previously identified gRNA-specific ribonucleoprotein complexes and immunoprecipitate in vitro RNA editing activities that insert and delete uridylates. (
  • These studies indicate that the 21-kDa protein associates with the ribonucleoprotein complex (or complexes) that catalyze RNA editing. (
  • Besides ribozyme-mediated splicing, which involves RNA alone, there are some splicing reactions that involve RNA-protein complexes. (
  • Using riboprinting, a technique that compares ribosomal RNA gene sequences, we present evidence that the organism is Entamoeba gingivalis , an inhabitant of the mouth. (
  • Mutation detection analysis of a region of 16S-like ribosomal RNA gene of Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar and Entamoeba moshkovskii. (
  • The family of non-coding regulatory RNAs (ncRNAs) has been expanding its members in view of the fact that large-scale studies of the human transcriptome revealed that a significant fraction of the genome is transcribed into these ncRNAs. (
  • In the course of this work, we have optimized the RNA-Seq protocol for use with trypanosomatids, built our own server, implemented a stream-lined bioinformatics pipeline and generated one of the most comprehensive genome-wide transcript maps at single-nucleotide resolution. (
  • In addition to the T. brucei SLA RNA, both L. tarentolae and T. cruzi SLA RNA repeat units also yield RNAs of 75 or 76 nucleotides (nt), 92 or 94 nt, and ∼450 or ∼350 nt, respectively, each with significant sequence identity to transcripts previously described from the T. brucei SLA RNA locus. (
  • DCLs undergo RNase III-type activities to process complementary double-strand RNAs into small RNAs with 21-26 nucleotides in length ( Carmell and Hannon, 2004 ). (
  • the presence of box C/D-like elements in two of the transcripts suggests that they are members of a class of small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) that guide modification and cleavage of rRNAs. (
  • Posttranscriptional modifications to the rRNAs, including endonucleolytic cleavage, 2′- O -ribose methylation and pseudouridinylation, are mediated by small, nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs). (
  • Transgenerational inheritance may involve DNA methylation or other chromatin-based mechanisms, but can also involve RNA-mediated DNA methylation and RNA-mediated DNA excision/elimination in some of the more extreme examples. (
  • While these phenomena have been described in mammals and extensive work has been performed to elucidate mechanisms, this review will focus primarily on RNA-mediated transgenerational inheritance in ciliated protozoans and plants. (
  • In addition to RNA surveillance, NMD also regulates thousands of naturally occurring transcripts through a variety of mechanisms. (
  • The results showed that efficient bacterial removal could indicate suitable protozoa removal. (
  • This technique provides a method to harvest, normalize and quantify intracellular growth of bacterial pathogens that are pre-cultivated in natural protozoan host cells prior to infections of mammalian cells. (
  • Many intracellular bacterial pathogens use freshwater protozoans as a natural reservoir for proliferation in the environment. (
  • The gRNA consists of a 20-nucleotide (nt) guide (also known as protospacer) sequence, followed by an 82-nt chimeric sequence derived from the CRISPR RNA (crRNA) and the trans -activating RNAs (tracrRNAs) of the bacterial system. (
  • Our pre-clinical data have shown that RNActive® vaccines are suitable for viral, bacterial and protozoan infections. (
  • Protozoa and Algae C. Microbe Math 2. (
  • Pap smears occasionally reveal protozoa of the genus Entamoeba in the uterus of intrauterine device (IUD) users, but definitive identification of the species involved has not been possible. (
  • Stage-specific RNA editing appears to regulate mitochondrial respiration in the different life stages of African trypanosomes ( 9 , 29 ). (
  • 2003. Transcription in kinetoplastid protozoa: why be normal. (
  • 1995 ). Protein trafficking in kinetoplastid protozoa. (
  • Using a mitochondrial fraction enriched for in vitro RNA editing activity, we produced several monoclonal antibodies that are specific for a 21-kDa guide RNA (gRNA) binding protein initially identified by UV cross-linking. (
  • The two key components of the CRISPR-Cas9 system are the Cas9 nuclease and a guide RNA (gRNA) that directs this nuclease to its specific DNA target. (
  • The 3′ portion of the gRNA (82-nt chimeric sequence) and the Cas9 nuclease form an RNA-protein complex that is required for Cas9 nuclease activities ( 4 - 6 ). (
  • Each siRNA is unwound into two single-stranded RNAs (ssRNAs), the passenger strand and the guide strand. (
  • Protozoa are non-phototrophic, unicellular, eukaryotic microorganisms with no cell walls. (
  • In fact, the protozoa are often described as the pinnacle of unicellular complexity. (
  • Tetrahymena thermophila is a species of free-living unicellular ciliated protozoa that is widely distributed in freshwater environments around the world ( 1 ). (
  • The early-branching eukaryote Giardia lamblia is perhaps the only protozoan capable of colonizing the lumen of the upper small intestine of many vertebrates, including humans 6 . (
  • In SLS, the transcription of the SL RNA gene is extinguished, and tSNAP42, a specific SL RNA transcription factor, fails to bind to its cognate promoter. (
  • It is known that TSN is critically involved in virtually all pathways of gene expression, ranging from transcription to RNA silencing. (
  • Inhibition is sequence-specific in that the nucleotide sequences of the duplex region of the RNA and of a portion of the target gene are identical. (
  • It has been shown that small RNAs (sRNAs) are involved in the epigenetic transmission of information from parental nuclei to the developing macronucleus, leading to large-scale genomic rearrangements, altered chromatin states and ultimately the complete removal of specific DNA sequences. (
  • 1990. Tetrapod phylogeny inferred from 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA sequences and a review of the evidence for amniote relationships. (
  • tRNA-derived small RNAs represent one of these novel members that are, surprisingly, among the most conserved class of small RNAs throughout evolution. (
  • Nevertheless, the protein(s) in RNase P also has important functions, such as maintenance of the proper conformation of the RNase P RNA and interaction with the precursor tRNA. (
  • RNA editing occurs in the cell nucleus and cytosol, as well as within mitochondria and plastids. (
  • The subsequent chapters explore the DNA and RNA structure and the protein and enzyme content of some protists. (
  • 2016. Oligoarginine peptides slow strand annealing and assist non-enzymatic RNA replication. (
  • Indeed, small non-coding RNAs have been implicated in many of these processes and likely mediate transgenerational inheritance across eukaryotic species, since they can induce changes in chromatin dynamics and guide histone modifications. (
  • With the advent of new and improved high-throughput sequencing technologies in the last few years, a growing number of novel classes of small RNA, other than miRNAs or siRNA, has emerged, which appear as new actors in gene expression regulation. (
  • They could represent the most primitive small RNA pathways from which the well-known canonical RNA silencing pathways reported in higher eukaryotes evolved. (
  • 5 Small chains of amino acids called peptides were used to help keep the products of the replicated short RNAs from binding to each other. (
  • The mechanism of programmed DNA deletion in the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila involves small noncoding RNAs that direct formation of a specific chromatin structure. (
  • RNA silencing is an important mechanism to regulate gene expression and antiviral defense in plants. (
  • A process is provided of introducing an RNA into a living cell to inhibit gene expression of a target gene in that cell. (
  • In addition, high-throughput next-generation sequencing technologies (RNA-Seq) are used to analyze gene expression patterns (the transcriptome) during the developmental cycle. (
  • Telomerase is composed of an RNA component and reverse transcriptase. (
  • In addition, Lar7 is required to stabilise the association of telomerase RNA with the protective complex LSm2-8, and telomerase reverse transcriptase. (
  • Some species of protozoa have structures that are analogous to mouths, GI tracts, and anuses. (
  • The protozoa can have very diverse lifecycles with multiple morphological stages, depending on species. (
  • Many of these methods are based on specific capture of the RNA species containing the specific modification, for example through antibody binding coupled with sequencing of the captured reads. (
  • Similarities in ribosomal RNA sequence were investigated for 15 species of amphibians, 4 species of reptiles, and 2 species of birds. (
  • The RNA we see in there is quite specific to this species. (
  • Protozoa love moisture, so intestinal infections and other diseases they cause, such as amebiasis and giardiasis, often spread through contaminated water. (
  • Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF, " Macrophage migration inhibitory factor in protozoan infections ") is a host inflammatory cytokine with protective or pathogenic actions in distinct protozoan infections. (
  • The trophozoite is the stage that typically causes disease by pathogenic protozoa. (
  • The survival and transmission of pathogenic protozoa depends on their ability to evade or subvert host's innate and adaptive immune responses. (
  • RNA Biology 2015, 12:1222-55. (
  • RNA silencing has become a major focus of molecular biology and biomedical research around the world. (
  • The plant biology community has also made significant advancements in exploiting RNA silencing as a powerful tool for gene function studies and crop improvements. (
  • We also hope to reduce the the infection rate (protozoa and HIV) and disease rate (STD) through the repetitively effective health education and consultation during the conduct of this study. (
  • 14. The method of claim 13 in which a formulation comprised of the RNA is applied on or adjacent to a plant, and disease associated with nematode infection of the plant is thereby reduced. (
  • Our results reveal the importance of RNA silencing in plant resistance to S. sclerotiorum and imply a new mechanism of CAMTA function as well as RNA silencing regulation. (
  • snoRNAi was next utilized to elucidate the function of an abundant snoRNA, TB11Cs2C2 (92 nt), present in a cluster together with the spliced leader associated RNA (SLA1) and snR30, which are both H/ACA RNAs with special nuclear functions. (
  • Ciliates exhibit a special case of germline-soma specialization called nuclear dimorphism and are thus unique systems to study RNA-mediated transgenerational inheritance. (
  • The ciliate protozoa undergo large‐scale programmed DNA rearrangements during nuclear development. (
  • This process can be so extensive that most of the coding sequence, as well as the initiation and termination codons, results from RNA editing ( 1 , 11 , 27 , 28 , 30 ). (
  • Among the leftovers one sequence of RNA stood out. (
  • This quiz and worksheet combo will help you test your understanding of what makes an organism a protozoan. (
  • 17. The method of claim 12 in which the RNA is introduced within a body cavity of the organism and outside the target cell. (
  • 4291 FT /organism="Trichomonas vaginalis virus 1" FT /host="Homo sapiens" FT /isolate="Changchun" FT /mol_type="genomic RNA" FT /country="China" FT /db_xref="taxon:674953" FT CDS 1. (
  • Babesiosis is a tick-borne zoonosis caused by Methods intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genus Babesia (1,2). (
  • Molecular evolution of ciliates (Ciliophora) and some related groups of protozoans Lukashenko, N. 2009-08-25 00:00:00 The review summarizes current evidence, including the findings related to molecular phylogeny of ciliates (type Ciliophora) and some related groups of protozoans. (
  • The review summarizes current evidence, including the findings related to molecular phylogeny of ciliates (type Ciliophora) and some related groups of protozoans. (
  • Therefore, in this mini review, we discuss what is currently known in the field about transgenerational epigenetic inheritance in ciliates and plants, with a particular emphasis on RNA-mediated processes and changes in chromatin states. (