A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A process that changes the nucleotide sequence of mRNA from that of the DNA template encoding it. Some major classes of RNA editing are as follows: 1, the conversion of cytosine to uracil in mRNA; 2, the addition of variable number of guanines at pre-determined sites; and 3, the addition and deletion of uracils, templated by guide-RNAs (RNA, GUIDE).
The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.
The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Use of a metal casting, usually with a post in the pulp or root canal, designed to support and retain an artificial crown.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.
RNA that has catalytic activity. The catalytic RNA sequence folds to form a complex surface that can function as an enzyme in reactions with itself and other molecules. It may function even in the absence of protein. There are numerous examples of RNA species that are acted upon by catalytic RNA, however the scope of this enzyme class is not limited to a particular type of substrate.
The processes of RNA tertiary structure formation.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.
Ribonucleic acid in fungi having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The extent to which an RNA molecule retains its structural integrity and resists degradation by RNASE, and base-catalyzed HYDROLYSIS, under changing in vivo or in vitro conditions.
A family of proteins that promote unwinding of RNA during splicing and translation.
RNA molecules which hybridize to complementary sequences in either RNA or DNA altering the function of the latter. Endogenous antisense RNAs function as regulators of gene expression by a variety of mechanisms. Synthetic antisense RNAs are used to effect the functioning of specific genes for investigative or therapeutic purposes.
Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.
The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.
Short chains of RNA (100-300 nucleotides long) that are abundant in the nucleus and usually complexed with proteins in snRNPs (RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL NUCLEAR). Many function in the processing of messenger RNA precursors. Others, the snoRNAs (RNA, SMALL NUCLEOLAR), are involved with the processing of ribosomal RNA precursors.
RNA transcripts of the DNA that are in some unfinished stage of post-transcriptional processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL) required for function. RNA precursors may undergo several steps of RNA SPLICING during which the phosphodiester bonds at exon-intron boundaries are cleaved and the introns are excised. Consequently a new bond is formed between the ends of the exons. Resulting mature RNAs can then be used; for example, mature mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER) is used as a template for protein production.
RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated RNAs they are not included in this scope.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Nucleic acid structures found on the 5' end of eukaryotic cellular and viral messenger RNA and some heterogeneous nuclear RNAs. These structures, which are positively charged, protect the above specified RNAs at their termini against attack by phosphatases and other nucleases and promote mRNA function at the level of initiation of translation. Analogs of the RNA caps (RNA CAP ANALOGS), which lack the positive charge, inhibit the initiation of protein synthesis.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Ribonucleic acid in protozoa having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
RNA present in neoplastic tissue.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of linear RNA to a circular form by the transfer of the 5'-phosphate to the 3'-hydroxyl terminus. It also catalyzes the covalent joining of two polyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage. EC 6.5.1.3.
A large family of RNA helicases that share a common protein motif with the single letter amino acid sequence D-E-A-D (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp). In addition to RNA helicase activity, members of the DEAD-box family participate in other aspects of RNA metabolism and regulation of RNA function.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure where it transcribes DNA into RNA. It has specific requirements for cations and salt and has shown an intermediate sensitivity to alpha-amanitin in comparison to RNA polymerase I and II. EC 2.7.7.6.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. The enzyme functions in the nucleolar structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salts than RNA polymerase II and III and is not inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.
RNA molecules found in the nucleus either associated with chromosomes or in the nucleoplasm.
Small kinetoplastid mitochondrial RNA that plays a major role in RNA EDITING. These molecules form perfect hybrids with edited mRNA sequences and possess nucleotide sequences at their 5'-ends that are complementary to the sequences of the mRNA's immediately downstream of the pre-edited regions.
Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 28S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
Constituent of 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 3200 nucleotides. 23S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
The process of moving specific RNA molecules from one cellular compartment or region to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms.
The small RNAs which provide spliced leader sequences, SL1, SL2, SL3, SL4 and SL5 (short sequences which are joined to the 5' ends of pre-mRNAs by TRANS-SPLICING). They are found primarily in primitive eukaryotes (protozoans and nematodes).
Small, linear single-stranded RNA molecules functionally acting as molecular parasites of certain RNA plant viruses. Satellite RNAs exhibit four characteristic traits: (1) they require helper viruses to replicate; (2) they are unnecessary for the replication of helper viruses; (3) they are encapsidated in the coat protein of the helper virus; (4) they have no extensive sequence homology to the helper virus. Thus they differ from SATELLITE VIRUSES which encode their own coat protein, and from the genomic RNA; (=RNA, VIRAL); of satellite viruses. (From Maramorosch, Viroids and Satellites, 1991, p143)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Ribonucleic acid in archaea having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A reaction that severs one of the sugar-phosphate linkages of the phosphodiester backbone of RNA. It is catalyzed enzymatically, chemically, or by radiation. Cleavage may be exonucleolytic, or endonucleolytic.
A group of ribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A tooth from which the dental pulp has been removed or is necrotic. (Boucher, Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
Nuclear nonribosomal RNA larger than about 1000 nucleotides, the mass of which is rapidly synthesized and degraded within the cell nucleus. Some heterogeneous nuclear RNA may be a precursor to mRNA. However, the great bulk of total hnRNA hybridizes with nuclear DNA rather than with mRNA.
Small RNAs found in the cytoplasm usually complexed with proteins in scRNPs (RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL CYTOPLASMIC).
The steps that generate the 3' ends of mature RNA molecules. For most mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), 3' end processing referred to as POLYADENYLATION includes the addition of POLY A.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.
Short RNA, about 200 base pairs in length or shorter, that does not code for protein.
Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.
A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 5.8S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A class of untranslated RNA molecules that are typically greater than 200 nucleotides in length and do not code for proteins. Members of this class have been found to play roles in transcriptional regulation, post-transcriptional processing, CHROMATIN REMODELING, and in the epigenetic control of chromatin.
Small nuclear RNAs that are involved in the processing of pre-ribosomal RNA in the nucleolus. Box C/D containing snoRNAs (U14, U15, U16, U20, U21 and U24-U63) direct site-specific methylation of various ribose moieties. Box H/ACA containing snoRNAs (E2, E3, U19, U23, and U64-U72) direct the conversion of specific uridines to pseudouridine. Site-specific cleavages resulting in the mature ribosomal RNAs are directed by snoRNAs U3, U8, U14, U22 and the snoRNA components of RNase MRP and RNase P.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Synthetic transcripts of a specific DNA molecule or fragment, made by an in vitro transcription system. This cRNA can be labeled with radioactive uracil and then used as a probe. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Reduced (protonated) form of THIAZOLES. They can be oxidized to THIAZOLIDINEDIONES.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Einsteinium. A man-made radioactive actinide with atomic symbol Es, atomic number 99, and atomic weight 252. Its known isotopes range in mass number from 243-246. Its valence can be +2 or +3. Einsteinium was originally discovered in the debris from a thermonuclear explosion in 1952.
Ribonucleic acid in chloroplasts having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The plan and delineation of dental prostheses in general or a specific dental prosthesis. It does not include DENTURE DESIGN. The framework usually consists of metal.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of single-stranded regions of DNA or RNA molecules while leaving the double-stranded regions intact. They are particularly useful in the laboratory for producing "blunt-ended" DNA molecules from DNA with single-stranded ends and for sensitive GENETIC TECHNIQUES such as NUCLEASE PROTECTION ASSAYS that involve the detection of single-stranded DNA and RNA.
Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.
Ribonucleic acid in helminths having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Break or rupture of a tooth or tooth root.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying phenylalanine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying lysine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying tyrosine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Cyclic peptides extracted from carpophores of various mushroom species. They are potent inhibitors of RNA polymerases in most eukaryotic species, blocking the production of mRNA and protein synthesis. These peptides are important in the study of transcription. Alpha-amanitin is the main toxin from the species Amanitia phalloides, poisonous if ingested by humans or animals.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A genus of leguminous herbs or shrubs whose roots yield GLYCYRRHETINIC ACID and its derivative, CARBENOXOLONE.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.
An enzyme catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of RNA at the 3'-position of a guanylate residue. EC 3.1.27.3.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Within most types of eukaryotic CELL NUCLEUS, a distinct region, not delimited by a membrane, in which some species of rRNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) are synthesized and assembled into ribonucleoprotein subunits of ribosomes. In the nucleolus rRNA is transcribed from a nucleolar organizer, i.e., a group of tandemly repeated chromosomal genes which encode rRNA and which are transcribed by RNA polymerase I. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology & Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
Enzymes that catalyze the addition of a carboxyl group to a compound (carboxylases) or the removal of a carboxyl group from a compound (decarboxylases). EC 4.1.1.
The description and measurement of the various factors that produce physical stress upon dental restorations, prostheses, or appliances, materials associated with them, or the natural oral structures.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
Intermediates in protein biosynthesis. The compounds are formed from amino acids, ATP and transfer RNA, a reaction catalyzed by aminoacyl tRNA synthetase. They are key compounds in the genetic translation process.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
Nucleotide sequences located at the ends of EXONS and recognized in pre-messenger RNA by SPLICEOSOMES. They are joined during the RNA SPLICING reaction, forming the junctions between exons.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying alanine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS which is the causal agent of POLIOMYELITIS in humans. Three serotypes (strains) exist. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route, pharyngeal secretions, or mechanical vector (flies). Vaccines with both inactivated and live attenuated virus have proven effective in immunizing against the infection.
A treatment modality in endodontics concerned with the therapy of diseases of the dental pulp. For preparatory procedures, ROOT CANAL PREPARATION is available.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
An RNA-containing enzyme that plays an essential role in tRNA processing by catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of TRANSFER RNA precursors. It removes the extra 5'-nucleotides from tRNA precursors to generate mature tRNA molecules.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.
The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC 2.7.7.49.
A compound composed of a two CYCLIC PEPTIDES attached to a phenoxazine that is derived from STREPTOMYCES parvullus. It binds to DNA and inhibits RNA synthesis (transcription), with chain elongation more sensitive than initiation, termination, or release. As a result of impaired mRNA production, protein synthesis also declines after dactinomycin therapy. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1993, p2015)
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying aspartic acid to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying methionine to sites on the ribosomes. During initiation of protein synthesis, tRNA(f)Met in prokaryotic cells and tRNA(i)Met in eukaryotic cells binds to the start codon (CODON, INITIATOR).
A metallocarboxypeptidase that removes C-terminal lysine and arginine from biologically active peptides and proteins thereby regulating their activity. It is a zinc enzyme with no preference shown for lysine over arginine. Pro-carboxypeptidase U in human plasma is activated by thrombin or plasmin during clotting to form the unstable carboxypeptidase U.
A genus of tripartite plant viruses in the family BROMOVIRIDAE. Transmission is by beetles. Brome mosaic virus is the type species.
A ribonuclease that specifically cleaves the RNA moiety of RNA:DNA hybrids. It has been isolated from a wide variety of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms as well as RETROVIRUSES.
Sequences within RNA that regulate the processing, stability (RNA STABILITY) or translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of RNA.
A multiribosomal structure representing a linear array of RIBOSOMES held together by messenger RNA; (RNA, MESSENGER); They represent the active complexes in cellular protein synthesis and are able to incorporate amino acids into polypeptides both in vivo and in vitro. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
Large woodland game BIRDS in the subfamily Meleagridinae, family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. Formerly they were considered a distinct family, Melegrididae.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the exonucleolytic cleavage of RNA. It includes EC 3.1.13.-, EC 3.1.14.-, EC 3.1.15.-, and EC 3.1.16.-. EC 3.1.-
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A prosthetic restoration that reproduces the entire surface anatomy of the visible natural crown of a tooth. It may be partial (covering three or more surfaces of a tooth) or complete (covering all surfaces). It is made of gold or other metal, porcelain, or resin.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying glycine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying histidine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying valine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
A group of uridine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each uridine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
Energy that is generated by the transfer of protons or electrons across an energy-transducing membrane and that can be used for chemical, osmotic, or mechanical work. Proton-motive force can be generated by a variety of phenomena including the operation of an electron transport chain, illumination of a PURPLE MEMBRANE, and the hydrolysis of ATP by a proton ATPase. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed, p171)
Use for nucleic acid precursors in general or for which there is no specific heading.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
Dental cements composed either of polymethyl methacrylate or dimethacrylate, produced by mixing an acrylic monomer liquid with acrylic polymers and mineral fillers. The cement is insoluble in water and is thus resistant to fluids in the mouth, but is also irritating to the dental pulp. It is used chiefly as a luting agent for fabricated and temporary restorations. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p159)
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying arginine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
Ribonucleic acid in algae having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A family of ribonucleoproteins that were originally found as proteins bound to nascent RNA transcripts in the form of ribonucleoprotein particles. Although considered ribonucleoproteins they are primarily classified by their protein component. They are involved in a variety of processes such as packaging of RNA and RNA TRANSPORT within the nucleus. A subset of heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoproteins are involved in additional functions such as nucleocytoplasmic transport (ACTIVE TRANSPORT, CELL NUCLEUS) of RNA and mRNA stability in the CYTOPLASM.
Synthetic resins, containing an inert filler, that are widely used in dentistry.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Highly conserved nuclear RNA-protein complexes that function in RNA processing in the nucleus, including pre-mRNA splicing and pre-mRNA 3'-end processing in the nucleoplasm, and pre-rRNA processing in the nucleolus (see RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL NUCLEOLAR).
A defective virus, containing particles of RNA nucleoprotein in virion-like form, present in patients with acute hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis. It requires the presence of a hepadnavirus for full replication. This is the lone species in the genus Deltavirus.
Proteins found in ribosomes. They are believed to have a catalytic function in reconstituting biologically active ribosomal subunits.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying tryptophan to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.

Activation of systemic acquired silencing by localised introduction of DNA. (1/4193)

BACKGROUND: In plants, post-transcriptional gene silencing results in RNA degradation after transcription. Among tobacco transformants carrying a nitrate reductase (Nia) construct under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (35S-Nia2), one class of transformants spontaneously triggers Nia post-transcriptional gene silencing (class II) whereas another class does not (class I). Non-silenced plants of both classes become silenced when grafted onto silenced stocks, indicating the existence of a systemic silencing signal. Graft-transmitted silencing is maintained in class II but not in class I plants when removed from silenced stocks, indicating similar requirements for spontaneous triggering and maintenance. RESULTS: Introduction of 35S-Nia2 DNA by the gene transfer method called biolistics led to localised acquired silencing (LAS) in bombarded leaves of wild-type, class I and class II plants, and to systemic acquired silencing (SAS) in class II plants. SAS occurred even if the targeted leaf was removed 2 days after bombardment, indicating that the systemic signal is produced, transmitted and amplified rapidly. SAS was activated by sense, antisense and promoterless Nia2 DNA constructs, indicating that transcription is not required although it does stimulate SAS. CONCLUSIONS: SAS was activated by biolistic introduction of promoterless constructs, indicating that the DNA itself is a potent activator of post-transcriptional gene silencing. The systemic silencing signal invaded the whole plant by cell-to-cell and long-distance propagation, and reamplification of the signal.  (+info)

Gene silencing: plants and viruses fight it out. (2/4193)

Plants can become 'immune' to attack by viruses by degrading specific viral RNA, but some plant viruses have evolved the general capacity to suppress this resistance mechanism.  (+info)

In vivo expression of the nucleolar group I intron-encoded I-dirI homing endonuclease involves the removal of a spliceosomal intron. (3/4193)

The Didymium iridis DiSSU1 intron is located in the nuclear SSU rDNA and has an unusual twin-ribozyme organization. One of the ribozymes (DiGIR2) catalyses intron excision and exon ligation. The other ribozyme (DiGIR1), which along with the endonuclease-encoding I-DirI open reading frame (ORF) is inserted in DiGIR2, carries out hydrolysis at internal processing sites (IPS1 and IPS2) located at its 3' end. Examination of the in vivo expression of DiSSU1 shows that after excision, DiSSU1 is matured further into the I-DirI mRNA by internal DiGIR1-catalysed cleavage upstream of the ORF 5' end, as well as truncation and polyadenylation downstream of the ORF 3' end. A spliceosomal intron, the first to be reported within a group I intron and the rDNA, is removed before the I-DirI mRNA associates with the polysomes. Taken together, our results imply that DiSSU1 uses a unique combination of intron-supplied ribozyme activity and adaptation to the general RNA polymerase II pathway of mRNA expression to allow a protein to be produced from the RNA polymerase I-transcribed rDNA.  (+info)

The 3' end CCA of mature tRNA is an antideterminant for eukaryotic 3'-tRNase. (4/4193)

Cytoplasmic tRNAs undergo posttranscriptional 5' and 3' end processing in the eukaryotic nucleus, and CCA (which forms the mature 3' end of all tRNAs) must be added by tRNA nucleotidyl transferase before tRNA can be aminoacylated and utilized in translation. Eukaryotic 3'-tRNase can endonucleolytically remove a 3' end trailer by cleaving on the 3' side of the discriminator base (the unpaired nucleotide 3' of the last base pair of the acceptor stem). This reaction proceeds despite a wide range in length and sequence of the 3' end trailer, except that mature tRNA containing the 3' terminal CCA is not a substrate for mouse 3'-tRNase (Nashimoto, 1997, Nucleic Acids Res 25:1148-1154). Herein, we extend this result with Drosophila and pig 3'-tRNase, using Drosophila melanogaster tRNAHis as substrate. Mature tRNA is thus prevented from recycling through 3' end processing. We also tested a series of tRNAs ending at the discriminator base (-), with one C added (+C), two Cs added (+CC), and CCA added (+CCA) as 3'-tRNase inhibitors. Inhibition was competitive with both Drosophila and pig 3'-tRNase. The product of the 3'-tRNase reaction (-) is a good 3'-tRNase inhibitor, with a KI approximately two times KM for the normal 3'-tRNase substrate. KI increases with each nucleotide added beyond the discriminator base, until when tRNA+CCA is used as inhibitor, KI is approximately forty times the substrate KM. The 3'-tRNase can thus remain free to process precursors with 3' end trailers because it is barely inhibited by tRNA+CCA, ensuring that tRNA can progress to aminoacylation. The active site of 3'-tRNase may have evolved to make an especially poor fit with tRNA+CCA.  (+info)

In vivo and in vitro processing of the Bacillus subtilis transcript coding for glutamyl-tRNA synthetase, serine acetyltransferase, and cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase. (5/4193)

In Bacillus subtilis, the adjacent genes gltX, cysE, and cysS encoding respectively glutamyl-tRNA synthetase, serine acetyl-transferase, and cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase, are transcribed as an operon but a gltX probe reveals only the presence of a monocistronic gltX mRNA (Gagnon et al., 1994, J Biol Chem 269:7473-7482). The transcript of the gltX-cysE intergenic region contains putative alternative secondary structures forming a p-independent terminator or an antiterminator, and a conserved sequence (T-box) found in the leader of most aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase and many amino acid biosynthesis genes in B. subtilis and in other Gram-positive eubacteria. The transcription of these genes is initiated 45 nt upstream from the first codon of gltX and is under the control of a sigmaA-type promoter. Analysis of the in vivo transcript of this operon revealed a cleavage site immediately downstream from the p-independent terminator structure. In vitro transcription analysis, using RNA polymerases from Escherichia coli, B. subtilis, and that encoded by the T7 phage, in the presence of various RNase inhibitors, shows the same cleavage. This processing generates mRNAs whose 5'-end half-lives differ by a factor of 2 in rich medium, and leaves putative secondary structures at the 3' end of the gltX transcript and at the 5' end of the cysE/S mRNA, which may be involved in the stabilization of these mRNAs. By its mechanism and its position, this cleavage differs from that of the other known transcripts encoding aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases in B. subtilis.  (+info)

A novel nucleotide incorporation activity implicated in the editing of mitochondrial transfer RNAs in Acanthamoeba castellanii. (6/4193)

In Acanthamoeba castellanii, most of the mtDNA-encoded tRNAs are edited by a process that replaces one or more of the first three nucleotides at their 5' ends. As a result, base pairing potential is restored at acceptor stem positions (1:72, 2:71, and/or 3:70, in standard tRNA nomenclature) that are mismatched according to the corresponding tRNA gene sequence. Here we describe a novel nucleotide incorporation activity, partially purified from A. castellanii mitochondria, that has properties implicating it in mitochondrial tRNA editing in this organism. This activity is able to replace nucleotides at the first three positions of a tRNA (positions 1, 2, and 3), matching the newly incorporated residues through canonical base pairing to the respective partner nucleotide in the 3' half of the acceptor stem. Labeling experiments with natural (Escherichia coli tRNATyr) and synthetic (run-off transcripts corresponding to A. castellanii mitochondrial tRNALeu1) substrates suggest that the nucleotide incorporation activity consists of at least two components, a 5' exonuclease or endonuclease and a template-directed 3'-to-5' nucleotidyltransferase. The nucleotidyltransferase component displays an ATP requirement and generates 5' pppN... termini in vitro. The development of an accurate and efficient in vitro system opens the way for detailed studies of the biochemical properties of this novel activity and its relationship to mitochondrial tRNA editing in A. castellanii. In addition, the system will allow delineation of the structural features in a tRNA that identify it as a substrate for the labeling activity.  (+info)

Overexpression of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase under the control of mouse metallothionein I promoter in transgenic mice: evidence for a striking post-transcriptional regulation of transgene expression by a polyamine analogue. (7/4193)

We recently generated a transgenic mouse line overexpressing spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT) gene under its own promoter. The tissue polyamine pools of these animals were profoundly affected and the mice were hairless from early age. We have now generated another transgenic-mouse line overexpressing the SSAT gene under the control of a heavy-metal-inducible mouse metallothionein I (MT) promoter. Even in the absence of heavy metals, changes in the tissue polyamine pools indicated that a marked activation of polyamine catabolism had occurred in the transgenic animals. As with the SSAT transgenic mice generated previously, the mice of the new line (MT-SSAT) suffered permanent hair loss, but this occurred considerably later than in the previous SSAT transgenic animals. Liver was the most affected tissue in the MT-SSAT transgenic animals, revealed by putrescine overaccumulation, significant decrease in spermidine concentration and >90% reduction in the spermine pool. Even though hepatic SSAT mRNA accumulated to massive levels in non-induced transgenic animals, SSAT activity was only moderately elevated. Administration of ZnSO4 further elevated the level of hepatic SSAT message and induced enzyme activity, but not more than 2- to 3-fold. Treatment of the transgenic animals with the polyamine analogue N1,N11-diethylnorspermine (DENSPM) resulted in an immense induction, more than 40000-fold, of enzyme activity in the liver of transgenic animals, and minor changes in the SSAT mRNA level. Liver spermidine and spermine pools were virtually depleted within 1-2 days in response to the treatment with the analogue. The treatment also resulted in a marked mortality (up to 60%) among the transgenic animals which showed ultrastructural changes in the liver, most notably mitochondrial swelling, one of the earliest signs of cell injury. These results indicated that, even without its own promoter, SSAT is powerfully induced by the polyamine analogue through a mechanism that appears to involve a direct translational and/or heterogenous nuclear RNA processing control. It is likewise significant that overexpression of SSAT renders the animals extremely sensitive to polyamine analogues.  (+info)

An RNA switch at the 5' splice site requires ATP and the DEAD box protein Prp28p. (8/4193)

Pre-mRNA splicing requires dramatic RNA rearrangements hypothesized to be catalyzed by ATP-dependent RNA unwindases of the DExD/H box family. In a rearrangement critical for the fidelity of 5' splice site recognition, a base-pairing interaction between the 5' splice site and U1 snRNA must be switched for a mutually exclusive interaction between the 5' splice site and U6 snRNA. By lengthening the U1:5' splice site duplex, we impeded this switch in a temperature-dependent manner and prevented formation of the spliceosome's catalytic core. Using genetics, we identified the DExD/H box protein Prp28p as a potential mediator of the switch. In vitro, the switch requires both Prp28p and ATP. We propose that Prp28p directs isomerization of RNA at the 5' splice site and promotes fidelity in splicing.  (+info)

Aim 1 will elucidate the impact of variable RNA processing on bovine macrophage response to IFNG stimulation or infection with Toxoplasma or Neospora. It will also include maturation of the bioinformatics pipeline to analyze resulting sequence data.. Aim 2 will decipher the parasites response to changes in the host cell microenvironment. It will exploit dual RNA- and Ribo-seq to reveal Toxoplasma and Neospora transcriptional and translational reprogramming in naïve and IFNG-stimulated macrophages.. The proposed work will yield a comprehensive view of the role for RNA processing in the host and pathogen, as well as new information on the extent of translation of individual gene products. In addition, it will reveal the functions of the numerous recently identified short open-reading frames (sORFs) in cattle, Toxoplasma and Neospora.. Through this project, the student should acquire a solid understanding of molecular biology, immunology, and computational biology. He/she will become proficient ...
The regulation of the transcriptome is key to cellular processes that underpin cell biology, development and tissue function. All classes of cellular RNA are subject to post-transcriptional modification, be it by direct chemical modification, editing or non-templated nucleotide additions. It is now emerging that the modification status of the transcriptome is dynamic and responsive to environmental/developmental cues. Together, this has elicited the realisation of an epitranscriptome where post-transcriptional RNA modification coupled with recruitment of effector RNA binding proteins dynamically regulates genomic output. Importantly, mutations in setting or reading RNA modifications are causative of many human diseases or congenital disorders. This meeting aims to explore all aspects of this emerging topic, from methods development to molecular mechanism. Most importantly, the meeting will place an emphasis on the contribution of RNA modification to mammalian development, tissue homeostasis ...
Patrick, Kristin - Texas A&M University (TAMU) Scholar profile, educations, publications, research, grants, awards, courses, concepts, and topics. My interests lie in understanding the precise spatial-temporal resolution of RNA processing events in Mtb infected macrophages during early infection, focusing on the following questions: Are gene expression changes upon Mtb infection regulated post-transcriptionally (i.e. at the level of pre-mRNA splicing, mRNA release from chromatin, or mRNA export)? Does Mtb hijack normal post-transcriptional RNA processing events in order to promote its survival in the macrophage? Are Mtb-induced changes dependent on the ESX-1 secretion system and can we implicate any specific bacterial gene products? Working alongside Dr. Robert Watson, my group will work to understand how regulation of RNA metabolism can influence early stages of Mtb pathogenesis, with the eventual goal of modulating said pathways in order to control Mtb infection.
Dr. Yi Xing is a Professor in the Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics at UCLA, and the director of UCLAs Bioinformatics Interdepartmental Ph.D. Program. He received his B.S. in Molecular and Cellular Biology and B.E. in Computer Science and Technology from the University of Science and Technology of China (2001). He completed his Ph.D. training in Bioinformatics with Dr. Christopher Lee at UCLA (2001-2006), and his postdoctoral training with Drs. Wing Hung Wong and Matthew Scott at the Stanford University (2006-2007). Dr. Xing has an extensive publication record in bioinformatics, genomics, and RNA biology. His research has provided fundamental insights into the function, regulation, and evolution of post-transcriptional RNA processing in mammals. Today his group combines genomic, bioinformatic, molecular, and systems approaches to elucidate the variation and dynamics of RNA regulatory networks in development and disease. Dr. Xing has received prestigious young ...
Background Sequencing-based large screening of RNA-protein and RNA-RNA interactions has enabled the mechanistic study of post-transcriptional RNA processing and sorting, including exosome-mediated RNA...
Purpose: MicroRNAs (miR), single-stranded non-protein coding gene products, regulate gene expression through post-transcriptional inhibition, and involved in essential biological processes including obesity and insulin resistance. miR-378/378*, which are encoded by PGC-1β gene and counterbalance the metabolic actions of PGC-1β. We conducted to elucidate the role of miR378 expression in human adiposity and adipose tissue inflammation.. Methods: Study 1 (clinical study): Pair samples were obtained from subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) during elective operation in 71 men and 42 women. MiRNA and adipocytokines levels were determined by qRT-PCR. Study 2 (in vitro study): We quantitated adipocytokine transcription during adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells overexpressing mimics or inhibitors of miR378 and assessed post-transcriptional regulation in HEK 293 cells expressing a renilla-luciferase-adiponectin-3UTR sequence.. Results: Study 1: The mean size, median and mode of adipocytes ...
Summary. Work in my lab is focusing on understanding how microorganisms manage to rapidly adapt (and even thrive) to sudden changes in their environment. Many pathogenic species have developed very sophisticated mechanisms to efficiently scavenge essential nutrients from the host environment and even evade the immune system.. We hypothesize that this successful rapid adaptation program is underpinned by the ability of the microorganism to very rapidly remodel its gene expression profile. Obviously, transcription factors largely dictate which genes are switched on and off during adaptive responses.. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that post-transcriptional regulation plays a key role in this process by shaping gene expression profiles. Small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) and RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are believed to play a crucial role in post-transcriptional regulation by modulating the translation efficiency and stability of mRNA targets. However, for the vast majority their function is ...
Förderung: 2011 bis 2016 We are constantly protected by our adaptive immune system. Its functioning requires precise control of gene expression in lymphocytes, since deregulation can cause autoimmune diseases (affecting ~5% of our population) as well as allergic reactions (~9-16%, with increasing incidence). Post-transcriptional control of gene expression is crucial in many immune decisions, however the determinants of specificity in this type of regulation are less well defined. The recently described Rc3h1 or Roquin protein prevents the development of autoimmune disease in mice. Rc3h1 destabilizes the mRNA of the inducible costimulator (ICOS), a co-receptor on T cells. ICOS is critical in the germinal center reaction in which T cell help selects B cells making high affinity antibodies. However, the molecular interactions of this posttranscriptional regulation and the pathways that specify such repressor/target relations are unsolved, and they are the focus of my work in this proposal. Rc3h1 ...
Fur (ferric uptake regulation protein) activates sodB expression, increasing expression levels by a factor of seven and sodB transcript stability by a factor of three. Post-transcriptional regulation of sodB was investigated by searching for endoribonucleases that might be involved in sodB mRNA degradation. The activation of sodB expression was significantly reduced if both the RNaseE and RNaseIII genes were mutated. This correlated with cleavage at a palindromic sequence located in the 5′ untranslated region of the sodB transcript. An RNA-binding assay showed that Fur did not directly protect the sodB transcript. It was hypothesized that the persistence of Fur-mediated activation of sodB expression in the RNase double mutant was probably due to an effect at the transcriptional level. Therefore, it was investigated whether Fur had a direct transcriptional effect in vitro. Fur bound the sodB promoter region with low affinity, but it was not able to increase sodB transcription. H-NS-mediated repression
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Cross-talks between transcription and post-transcriptional events within a mRNA factory. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression is achieved through the control of mRNA translation, mRNA stability and subcellular mRNA localization. Post-transcriptional regulation is mediated by RNA-binding proteins and regulatory RNAs that recognize specific sequences within target transcripts. We use both Drosophila and yeast to study the mechanisms that underlie post-transcriptional regulation.. Not Accepting Graduate Students ...
Active Motif offers research kits, assays and biocomputing systems that help researchers study the function, regulation and interactions between genes, proteins and metabolic pathways.
Post-transcriptional regulation of cancer traits and gene expression in a genetically defined, primary cell-derived model of breast tumorigenesis ...
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 7 is a polyglutamine disorder caused by an expanded CAG repeat mutation that results in neurodegeneration. Since no treatment exists for this chronic disease, novel therapies such post-transcriptional RNA interference-based gene silencing are under investigation, in particular those that might enable constitutive and tissue-specific silencing, such as expressed hairpins. Given that this method of silencing can be abolished by the presence of nucleotide mismatches against the target RNA, we sought to identify expressed RNA hairpins selective for silencing the mutant ataxin-7 transcript using a linked SNP. By targeting both short and full-length tagged ataxin-7 sequences, we show that mutation-specific selectivity can be obtained with single nucleotide mismatches to the wild-type RNA target incorporated 3 to the centre of the active strand of short hairpin RNAs. The activity of the most effective short hairpin RNA incorporating the nucleotide mismatch at position 16 was
Post-transcriptional regulation is an important step in the control of bacterial gene expression in response to environmental and cellular signals. Pseudomonas putida KT2440 harbors three known members of the CsrA/RsmA family of post-transcriptional regulators: RsmA, RsmE and RsmI. We have carried out a global analysis to identify RNA sequences bound in vivo by each of these proteins. Affinity purification and sequencing of RNA molecules associated with Rsm proteins were used to discover direct binding targets, corresponding to 437 unique RNA molecules, 75 of them being common to the three proteins. Relevant targets include genes encoding proteins involved in signal transduction and regulation, metabolism, transport and secretion, stress responses, and the turnover of the intracellular second messenger c-di-GMP. To our knowledge, this is the first combined global analysis in a bacterium harboring three Rsm homologs. It offers a broad overview of the network of processes subjected to this type of
Computational identification of cis-acting elements affecting post-transcriptional control of gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Journal Article ...
The recent discovery of reversible mRNA methylation has opened a new realm of post-transcriptional gene regulation in eukaryotes. The identification and functional characterization of proteins that specifically recognize RNA N|sup|6|/sup|-methyladenosine (m|sup|6|/sup|A) unveiled it as a modificatio …
Cellular microRNAs play an integral part in the post-transcriptional regulation of almost every cellular gene regulatory pathway and it therefore is not amazing that viruses have found ways to subvert this process. right now known that microRNAs (miRNAs) play key functions in the rules of almost every important cellular process in all multicellular eukaryotes3. Human being E-7010 cells encode over 1000 miRNA varieties, and these have been implicated in cellular differentiation, innate immunity, apoptosis and oncogenic transformation, as well as many other cell fate decisions3. Almost all cellular miRNAs are 1st transcribed as capped, polyadenylated main miRNA (pri-miRNA) transcripts that can encompass one or a cluster of ~22-nt miRNAs4. These miRNAs occupy the upper portion of an ~33-bp imperfect stem that is crowned by a large (10 nt) unstructured loop and flanked by solitary stranded RNA. This ~80-nt RNA structure is definitely identified by Rabbit polyclonal to nephrin. the nuclear ...
Post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) agents such as ribozymes, RNAi and antisense have substantial potential for gene therapy of human retinal degenerations. These technologies are used to knockdown a specific target RNA and its cognate protein. The disease target mRNA may be a mutant mRNA causing an autosomal dominant retinal degeneration or a normal mRNA that is overexpressed in certain diseases. All PTGS technologies depend upon the initial critical annealing event of the PTGS ligand to the target RNA. This event requires that the PTGS agent is in a conformational state able to support hybridization and that the target have a large and accessible single-stranded platform to allow rapid annealing, although such platforms are rare. We address the biocomplexity that currently limits PTGS therapeutic development with particular emphasis on biophysical variables that influence cellular performance. We address the different strategies that can be used for development of PTGS agents intended for
The specification of skeletal muscle cells, starting from totipotent stem cells, lies at the core of skeletal myogenesis. During this process, the genome of the...
If you have a question about this talk, please contact Philipe Mendonca.. The rapid changes in gene expression that accompany developmental transitions, stress responses and proliferation are controlled by signal-mediated co-ordination of transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. The synthesis of new RNA with the capacity to encode proteins or with regulatory potential is a keystone event in these processes. Of equal importance is the regulation of RNA stability and localisation (on translating ribosomes or elsewhere in the cell). Thus the dynamics of gene expression involve the integration of transcription and post-transcriptional control by signal transduction networks. Understanding the mechanics of these processes and the contexts in which they are employed during haematopoiesis and immune challenge is a goal towards which important progress has been made in recent years. A significant aspect of the progress is the recognition of the importance of non-coding RNA in the development ...
Before the mRNA leaves the nucleus, it is given two protective caps that prevent the end of the strand from degrading during its journey. The 5′ cap, which is placed on the 5′ end of the mRNA, is usually composed of a methylated guanosine triphosphate molecule (GTP). The poly-A tail, which is attached to the 3′ end, is usually composed of a series of adenine nucleotides. Once the RNA is transported to the cytoplasm, the length of time that the RNA remains there can be controlled. Each RNA molecule has a defined lifespan and decays at a specific rate. This rate of decay can influence how much protein is in the cell. If the RNA decays more rapidly, translation has less time to occur, so less protein will be produced. Conversely, if RNA decays less rapidly, more protein will be produced. This rate of decay is referred to as the RNA stability. If the RNA is stable, it will be detected for longer periods of time in the cytoplasm. Binding of proteins to the RNA can influence its stability ...
Apobec-1 protects intestine from radiation injury through posttranscriptional regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 expression.. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 ...
Targeted gene- and protein-specific studies report protein regulation at the levels of protein synthesis or protein degradation (15, 45); yet, few global techniques have been developed to efficiently identify multiple targets of posttranscriptional regulation. Our developed methodology uses 2 standard high-throughput approaches tethered to computational analysis to systematically identify targets of posttranscriptional regulation. Our approach has the potential to identify a plethora of novel regulatory strategies because it can be applied to other perturbations and model systems. What we have demonstrated is that matched transcript-protein level studies can be used to identify discrepancies in standard gene regulatory models (i.e., transcript is induced to make more protein). The identification of any discrepancy or unusual regulatory pattern can be challenging to comprehend but detailed study ultimately leads to a better understanding of biology. Here we focused our studies on the large ...
Interactions between RNA binding proteins (RBPs) and mRNAs are critical to post-transcriptional gene regulation. Eukaryotic genomes encode thousands of mRNAs and hundreds of RBPs. However, in contrast to interactions between transcription factors (TFs) and DNA, the interactome between RBPs and … Continue reading →. ...
Methylation of the N(6) position of adenosine (m(6)A) is a posttranscriptional modification of RNA with poorly understood prevalence and physiological relevance. The recent discovery that FTO, an obesity risk gene, encodes an m(6)A demethylase implicates m(6)A as an important regulator of physiologi …
Alternative splicing (AS) is a post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism for gene expression regulation. Splicing decisions are affected by the combinatorial behavior of different splicing factors that bind to multiple binding sites in exons and introns.
In inflammation, the post-transcriptional regulation of transiently expressed genes provides a potential therapeutic target. Tristetraprolin (TTP) is of the factors regulating decay of cytokine mRNAs. The aim of the present ...
Investigating post-transcriptional mechanisms that drive cancer behaviour and researching novel cancer therapeutics for patients with advanced malignancies.
GO:0006364. Any process involved in the conversion of a primary ribosomal RNA (rRNA) transcript into one or more mature rRNA molecules. ...
Contact: Lundberg Laboratory, Medicinaregatan 9, room 1413 RESEARCH Posttranscriptional regulation under stress A cell uses several mechanisms to deal with the stress imposed by a rapidly changing environment. It has to focus on expressing those particular proteins that enable it to survive the stress, and then quickly readapt to normal conditions. Regulation on the RNA level (
Click on a genes description to view its network relationships with genes known to be involved in posttranscriptional gene silencing ...
microRNAs (miRNAs) are short (20-24 nt) non-coding RNAs that are involved in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in multicellular organisms by affecting both the stability and translation of mRNAs. miRNAs are transcribed by RNA polymerase II as part of capped and polyadenylated primary transcripts (pri-miRNAs) that can be either protein-coding or non-coding. The primary transcript is cleaved by the Drosha ribonuclease III enzyme to produce an approximately 70-nt stem-loop precursor miRNA (pre-miRNA), which is further cleaved by the cytoplasmic Dicer ribonuclease to generate the mature miRNA and antisense miRNA star (miRNA*) products. The mature miRNA is incorporated into a RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which recognizes target mRNAs through imperfect base pairing with the miRNA and most commonly results in translational inhibition or destabilization of the target mRNA. The RefSeq represents the predicted microRNA stem-loop. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]
microRNAs (miRNAs) are short (20-24 nt) non-coding RNAs that are involved in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in multicellular organisms by affecting both the stability and translation of mRNAs. miRNAs are transcribed by RNA polymerase II as part of capped and polyadenylated primary transcripts (pri-miRNAs) that can be either protein-coding or non-coding. The primary transcript is cleaved by the Drosha ribonuclease III enzyme to produce an approximately 70-nt stem-loop precursor miRNA (pre-miRNA), which is further cleaved by the cytoplasmic Dicer ribonuclease to generate the mature miRNA and antisense miRNA star (miRNA*) products. The mature miRNA is incorporated into a RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which recognizes target mRNAs through imperfect base pairing with the miRNA and most commonly results in translational inhibition or destabilization of the target mRNA. The RefSeq represents the predicted microRNA stem-loop. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]
Functions of the PolyA Tail 1.Promotes mRNA stability - Deadenylation (shortening of the polyA tail) can trigger rapid degradation of the mRNA 2.Enhances translation - promotes recruitment by ribosomes - bound by a polyA-binding protein in the cytoplasm called PAB1 - synergistic stimulation with Cap!
View Notes - U07_F08 from BIOBM 330 at Cornell. Unit 7 1 UNIT 7 PART A: RNA STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION PART B: TRANSCRIPTION PART C: CO- AND POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL MODIFICATION OF RNA PART D:
Cancer cells are unique in that they can persist (grow and survive) under stressful conditions, such as hypoxia, chemotherapy, and radiation. Cancer cells do this by re-programing transcriptional and post-transcriptional processes that contribute to cell growth, invasion and survival. These post-transcriptional processes include microRNA-mediated mRNA silencing, mRNA decay, mRNA surveillance and translational repression. The induction of these processes results in the formation of Processing Bodies (P-bodies), dynamic cytoplasmic granules that contain mRNAs, microRNAs, and several mRNA processing enzymes, in the cell. In our lab, we have found that P-bodies are associated with a biological process known as epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in breast cancer cells. EMT promotes the polarization and motility of epithelial cells to undergo biochemical and epigenetic changes to assume a mesenchymal phenotype and often times stem-like properties.. Recent studies indicate a role for tyrosine ...
The invention features a method of identifying a nucleic acid molecule capable of post-transcriptional gene silencing by (a) affixing a plurality nucleic acid molecules onto a surface in discrete, defined locations; (b) contacting eukaryotic cells with the affixed nucleic acid molecules under appropriate conditions for entry of the nucleic acid molecules into the cells, whereby said nucleic acid molecules are introduced into the cells in the location in which they were affixed; and (c) determining the ability of the nucleic acid molecules to post-transcriptionally silence expression of a gene in the cells, wherein post-transcriptional gene silencing at a discrete, defined location identifies the nucleic acid molecules affixed at that location as being capable of post-transcriptional gene silencing.
From NCBI Gene: microRNAs (miRNAs) are short (20-24 nt) non-coding RNAs that are involved in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in multicellular organisms by affecting both the stability and translation of mRNAs. miRNAs are transcribed by RNA polymerase II as part of capped and polyadenylated primary transcripts (pri-miRNAs) that can be either protein-coding or non-coding. miRNAs bind to complementary sequences in the 3 UTR of multiple target mRNAs, usually silencing the targeted mRNA. miRNAs may trigger the cleavage of their target molecules or act as translational repressors. miRNAs are thought to target approximateley 60% of all genes and are able to repress hundreds of targets each.
In plants, transcription is initiated from a promoter located in the IGS. There are subrepeated regions upstream and downstream of a transcription starting site that have been proposed to have regulatory function (Flavell et al., 1988; Sardana et al., 1993; Komarova et al., 2004). The primary transcript is of variable length (6-9 kb) and is processed into mature 18S, 5.8S, and 26S RNA by excision of ITS1 and ITS2 and a transcribed part of the IGS (called externally transcribed spacer [ETS]). Maturation of primary transcript, post-transcriptional modifications, and ribosome assembly occur in the nucleolus. The regulation of rRNA gene expression occurs through the suppression of whole loci (termed nucleolar dominance) and at genes within the array. Large numbers of repeats are not transcribed and are packed into transcriptionally inactive heterochromatin. Formation of rDNA heterochromatin is believed to be under epigenetic control mediated by modifications of DNA and histones. In mammals, cytosine ...
Our immune system efficiently protects us against the daily onslaught of foreign pathogens. However, the targeting, strength and extent...
In the upcoming releases, we are expecting to provide more data for a multitude of prokaryotic and eukaryotic pathways for more RNA classes. We are looking for contributors, who would like to help us with supplementing data! MODOMICS and RNApathwaysDB are two complementary resources whichpresent RNA metabolism at different levels. While MODOMICS presents RNA modification pathways on the level of nucleosides, RNApathwaysDB deals with RNA metabolism with respect to whole RNA molecules. Our ultimate goal is to integrate these databases, however at the moment the users are invited to consult both of these complementary resources, depending on their needs and interests. ...
Bouguyon, E., Perrine Walker, F., Pervent, M., Rochette, J., Cuesta, C., Benková, E., … Nacry, P. (2016). Nitrate controls root development through posttranscriptional regulation of the NRT1.1/NPF6.3 transporter sensor. Plant Physiology, 172(2), 1237-1248. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.16.01047 ...
LSM2102 - Molecular Biology. This module teaches the structure, organization and function of genes and genomes in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes (e.g.: DNA topology, hierarchy of packaging of DNA in chromosomes and relationship to gene activity and genome dynamics). The functional roles of DNA regulatory ciselements and transcription factors involved in gene expression will be examined extensively. The molecular events of transcription; post-transcriptional modifications and RNA processing; temporal and spatial gene expression, control and regulation, signals of gene expression will be dealt with in detail. The cause and/or effect of dysfunction of gene expression and diseases will be discussed.
RNA Biology. Post-transcriptional processes play a crucial role in controlling gene expression in all organisms. Our research is aimed at elucidating the mechanisms by which such control is imposed. To identify and characterize the proteins, RNA elements, and molecular mechanisms that govern these key regulatory processes, we employ a comprehensive approach combining biochemical, molecular biological, and genetic methods. We are particularly interested in understanding how gene expression in bacterial and mammalian cells is regulated by mRNA degradation.. Detailed Research Summary ...
Peer-reviewed articles. 1: Lopatniuk M, Myronovskyi M, Nottebrock A, Busche T, Kalinowski J, Ostash B, Fedorenko V, Luzhetskyy A. Effect of ribosome engineering on the transcription level and production of S. albus indigenous secondary metabolites. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2019 Sep;103(17):7097-7110. doi: 10.1007/s00253-019-10005-y.. 2: Koshla O, Yushchuk O, Ostash I, Dacyuk Y, Myronovskyi M, Jäger G, Süssmuth RD, Luzhetskyy A, Byström A, Kirsebom LA, Ostash B. Gene miaA for post-transcriptional modification of tRNA(XXA) is important for morphological and metabolic differentiation in Streptomyces. Mol Microbiol. 2019 Jul;112(1):249-265. doi: 10.1111/mmi.14266.. 3: Yushchuk O, Horbal L, Ostash B, Marinelli F, Wohlleben W, Stegmann E, Fedorenko V. Regulation of teicoplanin biosynthesis: refining the roles of tei cluster-situated regulatory genes. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2019 May;103(10):4089-4102. doi: 10.1007/s00253-019-09789-w.. 4: Kuzhyk Y, Lopatniuk M, Luzhetskyy A, Fedorenko V, ...
My recent work on a maternal effect mutant, brom bones, leads to an interesting finding that RNA binding proteins play crucial roles during oocyte development, egg activation and embryonic axis formation. Therefore, brom bones mutant provides a powerful tool to study the function of RNA binding protein during early development and the mechanism through which post-transcriptional regulation regulates gene function during vertebrate development. Specifically, my lab is interested in addressing the following questions ...
The central dogma states that DNA is transcribed to generate RNA and that the mRNA components are then translated to generate proteins; a simple statement that completely belies the complexities of gene expression. Post-transcriptional regulation alone has many points of control, including changes in the stability, translatability or susceptibility to degradation of RNA species, where both cis- and trans-acting elements will play a role in the outcome. The present review concentrates on just one aspect of this complicated process, which ultimately regulates the protein production in cells, or more specifically what governs RNA catabolism in a particular subcompartment of human cells: the mitochondrion. ...
GO Process. tRNA splicing, via endonucleolytic cleavage and ligation onclick=removeFacet(GO Process/tRNA splicing, via endonucleolytic cleavage and ligation)> GO Process tRNA splicing, via endonucleolytic cleavage and ligation ...
Switzerland The Gene Regulation Workshop is a one day meeting in Lausanne featuring internationally recognized scientists that work on molecular mechanisms controlling transcriptional and post-transcriptional responses in gene expression to cell-type specific, developmental or environmental cues ...
Plasmid pAAV.EF1a.ChR2-YFP.WPRE.hGH from Dr. Karl Deisseroths lab contains the insert ChR2. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
"Computational prediction of RNA structural motifs involved in post-transcriptional regulatory processes". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ... PCFGs have application in areas as diverse as natural language processing to the study the structure of RNA molecules and ... The RNA analysis package Infernal uses such profiles in inference of RNA alignments. The Rfam database also uses CMs in ... Since RNAs preserve their structures over their primary sequence; RNA structure prediction can be guided by combining ...
Berkas RNA ini selanjutnya akan mengalami proses yang disebut sebagai proses pascatranskripsi (post-transcriptional process). ... adalah pembuatan RNA terutama mRNA dengan menyalin sebagian berkas DNA oleh enzim RNA polimerase.[1] Transkripsi merupakan ... Eukaryotic RNA. ISBN 0-7167-3520-2. Diakses tanggal 2010-08-17.. Pemeliharaan CS1: Banyak nama: authors list (link) ... Assembly of the RNA polymerase II initiation complex. ISBN 0-7167-3520-2. Diakses tanggal 2010-08-17.. Pemeliharaan CS1: Banyak ...
In hippocampal neurons, long-lasting down-regulation of ligation mRNA levels occurs via post-transcriptional RNA processing ... This protein contains single PUA and SUI1 domains and these domains may function in RNA binding and translation initiation, ...
The 5-HT2C receptors are the only G-protein coupled receptors known to undergo a post-transcriptional process of RNA editing. ... This process of RNA editing generates 14 unique receptor isoforms of the 5-HT2C receptor that differ in three amino acids in ... This gene product undergoes an RNA editing process leading to a decrease in agonist binding affinity, however antagonist ... In the drug discovery process of a 5-HT2C agonist, a pharmacophore module has been used to discover novel 5-HT2C receptor ...
Virtually any step of gene expression can be modulated, from transcriptional initiation, to RNA processing, and to the post- ... Chromatin domains Transcription Post-transcriptional modification RNA transport Translation mRNA degradation In eukaryotes, the ... Three prime untranslated regions (3'-UTRs) of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) often contain regulatory sequences that post- ... Epistatic interactions can be investigated by synthetic genetic array analysis Due to post-transcriptional regulation, ...
Her work has revealed the mechanism by which plants remember they have experienced winter, demonstrated novel RNA processing ... Her discoveries have broad significance in the fields of epigenetics, post-transcriptional regulation and molecular evolution. ... This acceleration of flowering by prolonged cold is a classic epigenetic process called vernalisation. FLC regulation involves ... transcription and non-coding RNAs. Her goal is to understand the chromatin dynamics that enable switching between epigenetic ...
Polypyrimidine tract Valcárcel J, Gebauer F (November 1997). "Post-transcriptional regulation: the dawn of PTB". Current ... Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein, also known as PTB or hnRNP I, is an RNA-binding protein. PTB functions mainly as a ... splicing regulator, although it is also involved in alternative 3' end processing, mRNA stability and RNA localization. Two ...
... and are then processed into 21-nucleotide-long RNA duplexes with overhangs. These segments are incorporated into a RNA-induced ... that repress gene expression through post-transcriptional gene silencing in land plants. Precursor transcripts from TAS loci ... RDR6 then converts the transcript into a double strand RNA fragment which then gets processed by DCL4 to generate the 21-nt ... "Identification of trans-acting siRNAs in moss and an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase required for their biogenesis". Plant J. 48 ( ...
Hammond SM, Caudy AA, Hannon GJ (Feb 2001). "Post-transcriptional gene silencing by double-stranded RNA". Nature Reviews ... Screens developed using small RNAs have been used to identify genes involved in fundamental processes such as cell division, ... RNA silencing also gets regulated[edit]. The same way that RNA silencing regulates downstream target mRNAs, RNA silencing ... doi:10.1261/rna.5235104. PMC 1370948. PMID 14970398.. *^ Zhou H, Hu H, Lai M (Dec 2010). "Non-coding RNAs and their epigenetic ...
... or post-translational processing. It is also different from multifunctionality of the protein, in which the protein has ... For example, a ribosome is made up of 90 proteins and RNA. A number of the currently known moonlighting proteins are ... The fact that similar transcriptional factors such as Pax-6, and retinoic acid receptors, regulate different crystalline genes ... Multifunctionality could also be as a consequence of differential post translational modifications (PTMs). In the case of the ...
RNA binding protein) plays a crucial role. Post-transcriptional modifications due to various enzymes like methyltransferase ... TRAMP complex is involved in processing and surveillance of various RNAs and degrade abnormal RNAs. Different type of RNA ... small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs), transfer RNAs (tRNAs), small nuclear RNAs(snRNAs), Long transcripts of RNA polymerase II (Pol ... TRAMP complex also affects various other RNA processes either directly or indirectly. It is involved in RNA export, Splicing, ...
... the protein complex specialized for carrying out RNA splicing during the process of post-transcriptional modification. The ... RNA 4:85-100. Gooding C, Roberts GC, Moreau G, Nadal-Ginard B, Smith CW. (1994). Smooth muscle-specific switching of alpha- ... The polypyrimidine tract is a region of pre-messenger RNA (mRNA) that promotes the assembly of the spliceosome, ...
... rna processing, post-transcriptional MeSH G05.315.700.225 - rna 3' end processing MeSH G05.315.700.225.710 - polyadenylation ... protein processing, post-translational MeSH G05.315.670.600.400 - protein isoprenylation MeSH G05.315.670.600.700 - protein ... MeSH G05.315.700.250 - rna editing MeSH G05.315.700.700 - rna splicing MeSH G05.315.700.700.100 - alternative splicing MeSH ... rna interference MeSH G05.315.425 - genomic imprinting MeSH G05.315.670 - protein modification, translational MeSH G05.315. ...
Micro RNAs up- or downregulate expression levels of mRNAs by the process of RNA interference at the post-transcriptional level ... The RNA purification process is different for short and long RNAs. This step is usually followed by an assessment of RNA ... RNA integrity can also be analyzed quantitatively comparing the ratio and intensity of 28S RNA to 18S RNA reported in the RNA ... This process occurs in the nucleus of a cell along with RNA processing by which mRNA molecules are capped, spliced and ...
... post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS), and quelling. The detailed study of each of these seemingly different processes ... "RITS acts in cis to promote RNA interference-mediated transcriptional and post-transcriptional silencing". Nature Genetics. 36 ... Hammond S, Bernstein E, Beach D, Hannon G (2000). "An RNA-directed nuclease mediates post-transcriptional gene silencing in ... RNAi is an RNA-dependent gene silencing process that is controlled by the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) and is initiated ...
Virtually any step of gene expression can be modulated, from transcriptional initiation, to RNA processing, and to the post- ... Post-transcriptional regulation[edit]. Main article: Post-transcriptional regulation. After the DNA is transcribed and mRNA is ... Due to post-transcriptional regulation, transcription rates and total RNA levels differ significantly. To measure the ... Any step of gene expression may be modulated, from the DNA-RNA transcription step to post-translational modification of a ...
Trypanosomatid protists and other kinetoplastids have a novel post-transcriptional mitochondrial RNA modification process known ... Guide RNAs binds to the anti sense RNA sequence and regulates the RNA modification. It is observed that small interfering RNA ( ... Adenosine deaminase acts on RNA bringing post transcriptional modification by altering the codons and different protein ... Guide RNA (gRNA) is a piece of RNAs that function as guides for RNA- or DNA-targeting enzymes, which they form complexes with. ...
In eukaryotes using RNA Pol II, this termination is very variable (up to 2000 bases), relying on post transcriptional ... The process of elongation is the synthesis of a copy of the DNA into messenger RNA. RNA Pol II matches complementary RNA ... RNA polymerase I. II. III. IV. V. ssRNAP POLRMT. Primase 1. 2. PrimPol. RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Polyadenylation. PAP. ... RNA polymerase II[edit]. Main article: RNA polymerase II. RNA polymerase II (also called RNAP II and Pol II) is an enzyme found ...
The cleavage is the first step in adding a polyadenine tail to the pre-mRNA, which is one of the necessary post-transcriptional ... untranslated region of a newly synthesized pre-messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule in the process of gene transcription. ... Stumpf, G; Domdey, H (1996). "Dependence of yeast pre-mRNA 3'-end processing on CFT1: a sequence homolog of the mammalian ... Ustyantsev, I. G.; Golubchikova, J. S.; Borodulina, O. R.; Kramerov, D. A. (9 May 2017). "Canonical and noncanonical RNA ...
... ncRNAs also control various aspects of post-transcriptional mRNA processing. Similar to small regulatory RNAs such as microRNAs ... short interfering RNAs (siRNAs), Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs), and other short RNAs. However ... In eukaryotes, RNA transcription is a tightly regulated process. NcRNAs can target different aspects of this process, targeting ... potentially affecting any step in post-transcriptional gene expression including pre-mRNA processing and splicing, transport, ...
Genomic approaches for studying transcriptional and post-transcriptional processes. 67 (1): 13-19. doi:10.1016/j.ymeth.2013.11. ... This technique provides insight into the post-transcriptional gene regulation which occurs between RNA and RNA binding proteins ... RNA-Binding Protein Immunoprecipitation-Microarray Profiling", Post-Transcriptional Gene Regulation, Methods In Molecular ... keeping the protein-bound RNA and discarding the beads. Disassociate the RNA from the protein of interest. Isolate the RNA ...
stRNAs exert negative post-transcriptional regulation by binding to complementary sequences in the 3' untranslated regions of ... stRNAs are transcribed as longer precursor RNAs that are processed by the RNase Dicer/DCR-1 and members of the RDE-1/AGO1 ... Banerjee D, Slack F (February 2002). "Control of developmental timing by small temporal RNAs: a paradigm for RNA-mediated ... Small temporal RNA (abbreviated stRNA) regulates gene expression during roundworm development by preventing the mRNAs they bind ...
A-to-I RNA editing controls cathepsin S expression in atherosclerosis by enabling HuR-mediated post-transcriptional regulation ... "SR proteins are NXF1 adaptors that link alternative RNA processing to mRNA export". Genes Dev. 30 (5): 553-66. doi:10.1101/gad. ... inosine RNA editing controls cathepsin S expression in atherosclerosis by enabling HuR-mediated post-transcriptional regulation ... Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing, which is catalyzed by adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) enzymes, is important ...
The 5′-end of nascent messenger RNA is the site at which post-transcriptional capping occurs, a process which is vital to ... The 3′-end of nascent messenger RNA is the site of post-transcriptional polyadenylation, which attaches a chain of 50 to 250 ... but it was discovered to be transcribed into RNA and quickly removed during processing of the primary transcript to form the ... The 5′-end (pronounced "five prime end") designates the end of the DNA or RNA strand that has the fifth carbon in the sugar- ...
Post-transcriptional modification RNA-binding protein Cook, Kate B.; Kazan, Hilal (2010). "RBPDB: a database of RNA-binding ... RNA-binding proteins ( RBPs ) play critical role during this process. All RBPs can bind to RNA depends on different ... RBPDB database: a database for RNA-binding proteins. Protein-RNA interface: a database for Protein-RNA interface. Rice RNA ... Glisovic, Tina; Bachorik, Jennifer L. (2008). "RNA-binding proteins and post-transcriptional gene regulation". FEBS Letters. ...
"RITS acts in cis to promote RNA interference-mediated transcription and post-transcriptional silencing". Nature Genetics. 36 ( ... This process is called RNA interference (RNAi) and it is found in many eukaryotes; it is a key process in defense against viral ... RNA-induced transcriptional silencing (RITS) RNA interference Pratt AJ, MacRae IJ (2009). "The RNA-induced silencing complex: A ... "An RNA-directed nuclease mediates post-transcriptional gene silencing in Drosophila cells". Nature. 404 (6775): 293-296. doi: ...
... s' transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of RNA has a role in regulating the patterns of gene ... plays a critical role in RNA processing, RNA localization, RNA interference, RNA editing, and translational repression. All ... As nuclear RNA emerges from RNA polymerase, RNA transcripts are immediately covered with RNA-binding proteins that regulate ... Glisovic T, Bachorik JL, Yong J, Dreyfuss G (June 2008). "RNA-binding proteins and post-transcriptional gene regulation". FEBS ...
... splicing but also makes complex mechanisms such as the RNA post-transcriptional to cooperate with the splicing-mRNA processing ... On the one hand, SON protein is required to maintain the genome stability in order to ensure an efficient RNA processing of ... It also facilitates the interaction of SR proteins with RNA polymerase II and is required for processing of weak constitutive ... Specifically, these results revealed that the serine-arginine-rich protein involved in the RNA splicing process, could suppress ...
Mendell and members of his research group investigate post-transcriptional gene regulation. As a graduate student with Harry ( ... a process known as nonsense mediated decay. Mendell's interest in RNA led him into the field of microRNA. In 2005, Mendell ... Hal) Dietz at Johns Hopkins, Mendell researched how cells recognize and degrade messenger RNA molecules with early stop codons ...
Hundreds of different PPR proteins from the nuclear genome are involved in the RNA editing process. These proteins consist of ... The highly oxidative environment inside chloroplasts increases the rate of mutation so post-transcription repairs are needed to ... "Endosymbiotic gene transfer and transcriptional regulation of transferred genes in Paulinella chromatophora". Molecular Biology ... RNA editing in plastidsEdit. RNA editing is the insertion, deletion, and substitution of nucleotides in a mRNA transcript prior ...
Post-transcriptional modification is simpler than in eukaryotes, since most archaeal genes lack introns, although there are ... 2 in the atmosphere as a source of carbon, in a process called carbon fixation (they are autotrophs). This process involves ... Archaea were split off as a third domain because of the large differences in their ribosomal RNA structure. The particular RNA ... The energy stored in these electrochemical gradients is then converted into ATP by ATP synthase.[86] This process is a form of ...
... where it is initiated by recruitment of the RNA-induced transcriptional silencing (RITS) complex to double stranded RNAs ... This process therefore helps ensure that transcription is not interrupted.. Repressed genes[edit]. Three histone modifications ... This post-translational modification happens in conjunction with the H3K4me3 modification. The serotonylation potentiates the ... Examples of histone modifications in transcriptional regulation Type of. modification Histone H3K4 H3K9 H3K14 H3K27 H3K79 H3K36 ...
Biological process. • G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • T cell differentiation in thymus. • chorionic trophoblast ... post-embryonic camera-type eye development. • positive regulation of T cell cytokine production. • angiogenesis. • neuron ... positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • negative regulation of cell proliferation. • signal ... Katoh Y, Katoh M (2007). "Conserved POU-binding site linked to SP1-binding site within FZD5 promoter: Transcriptional ...
pattern specification process. · skeletal muscle tissue development. · embryo development. · post-embryonic development. · ... sequence-specific enhancer binding RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity. · transcription factor binding. · zinc ion ...
효소는 5,000가지 이상의 생화학 반응 유형들을 촉매하는 것으로 알려져 있다.[5] 대부분의 효소들은 단백질이지만, 일부 효소들은 촉매 기능을 가지고 있는 RNA 분자이다. 촉매 기능을 가지고 있는 RNA를 리보자임이라고 한다 ... Alkorta I, Garbisu C, Llama MJ, Serra JL (January 1998). "Industrial applications of pectic enzymes: a review". 》Process ... Chapman-Smith A, Cronan JE (1999). "The enzymatic biotinylation of proteins: a post-translational modification of exceptional ... Zenkin N, Yuzenkova Y, Severinov K (July 2006). "Transcript-assisted transcriptional proofreading". 》Science》 313 (5786): 518- ...
miRNAs are involved in post-transcriptional gene silencing via inhibiting translation or involvement in RNAi pathways. Some ... "Misregulated RNA processing in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis". review. Brain Research. 1462: 3-15. doi:10.1016/j.brainres. ... "Post-transcriptional regulation of alpha-synuclein expression by mir-7 and mir-153". primary. The Journal of Biological ... non-coding RNA (ncRNA) function. Briefly, histone-mediated transcriptional control occurs by the wrapping of DNA around a ...
Small interfering RNAs can modulate transcriptional gene expression via epigenetic modulation of targeted promoters.[61] ... Mattick JS, Amaral PP, Dinger ME, Mercer TR, Mehler MF (January 2009). "RNA regulation of epigenetic processes". BioEssays. 31 ... The first way is post translational modification of the amino acids that make up histone proteins. Histone proteins are made up ... It has been suggested that chromatin-based transcriptional regulation could be mediated by the effect of small RNAs. ...
post-translational protein modification. • cellular protein metabolic process. • transport. Sources:Amigo / QuickGO. ... Transferrin has been shown to interact with insulin-like growth factor 2[18] and IGFBP3.[19] Transcriptional regulation of ... Biological process. • positive regulation of receptor-mediated endocytosis. • cellular response to iron ion. • regulation of ... RNA expression pattern. More reference expression data. Gene ontology. Molecular function. • ferric iron binding. • metal ion ...
Most organisms then process the pre-mRNA (also known as a primary transcript) using various forms of Post-transcriptional ... messenger RNA (mRNA) by proteins such as RNA polymerase. ... This process usually begins with cell lysis, in which a cell's ... The process of synthesizing a protein from an mRNA template is known as translation. The mRNA is loaded onto the ribosome and ... Proteins make up half the dry weight of an Escherichia coli cell, whereas other macromolecules such as DNA and RNA make up only ...
"Single-cell RNA-seq reveals hidden transcriptional variation in malaria parasites". eLife. 7: e33105. doi:10.7554/eLife.33105. ... There are two components to this process: a) stochastic over- and under-amplification of random regions; and b) systematic bias ... and/or post-sequencing confirmation.[10] The bias of MDA against high %GC regions can be addressed by using thermostable ... To target larger non-poly(A) RNAs, such as long non-coding mRNA, histone mRNA, circular RNA, and enhancer RNA, size selection ...
Eukaryotic pre-mRNA processingEdit. Main article: Post-transcriptional modification. Processing of mRNA differs greatly among ... Small interfering RNA (siRNA)Edit. Main article: siRNA. In metazoans, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) processed by Dicer are ... This process of translation of codons into amino acids requires two other types of RNA: Transfer RNA (tRNA), that mediates ... A 5' cap (also termed an RNA cap, an RNA 7-methylguanosine cap, or an RNA m7G cap) is a modified guanine nucleotide that has ...
The GluN2B subunit has been involved in modulating activity such as learning, memory, processing and feeding behaviors, as well ... Extrasynaptic NMDA receptors promote death signaling; they cause transcriptional shut-off, mitochondrial dysfunction, and ... The detailed time course of this switch in the human cerebellum has been estimated using expression microarray and RNA seq and ... GluN2B are exclusively within the post-synaptic density, and mediate higher cognitive operations such as working memory.[36] ...
"DNAzyme Mediated Post-transcriptional Gene Silencing: A Novel Therapeutic Approach".. *^ Kumar B, Khanna M, Kumar P, Sood V, ... but by incorporating the full RNA substrate strand into the selection process, deoxyribozymes which functioned with substrates ... RNA ligases[edit]. Of particular interest are DNA ligases.[5] These molecules have demonstrated remarkable chemoselectivity in ... This is similar to the action of other biological enzymes, such as proteins or ribozymes (enzymes composed of RNA).[1] However ...
Henras, AK; Soudet, J; Gérus, M; Lebaron, S; Caizergues-Ferrer, M; Mougin, A; Henry, Y (Aug 2008). "The post-transcriptional ... ends of 5S rRNA are processed by the exonucleases Rex1p, Rex2p, and Rex3p.[4] The 60S and 40S ribosomal subunits are exported ... The 5S ribosomal RNA (5S rRNA) is an approximately 120 nucleotide-long ribosomal RNA molecule with a mass of 40 kDa. It is a ... "A specific transcription factor that can bind either the 5S RNA gene or 5S RNA". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 77 (7): 4170-, ...
This is determined by post-transcriptional modification - RNA editing - of the Q-to-R editing site of the GluA2 mRNA. Here, A→I ... Subunit compositions are determined at the time of modification at the rough ER.[9] After post-ER processing in the golgi ... Alongside RNA editing, alternative splicing allows a range of functional AMPA receptor subunits beyond what is encoded in the ... AMPARs play a key role in this process, as one of the key indicators of LTP induction is the increase in the ratio of AMPAR to ...
... post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS), and quelling. The detailed study of each of these seemingly different processes ... These processed RNAs are incorporated into the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which targets messenger RNA to prevent ... "RITS acts in cis to promote RNA interference-mediated transcriptional and post-transcriptional silencing". Nature Genetics. 36 ... Transcriptional silencingEdit. The enzyme dicer trims double stranded RNA, to form small interfering RNA or microRNA. ...
It is part of the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme and plays a role in transcriptional elongation. ... Torok MS, Grant PA (2004). "Histone acetyltransferase proteins contribute to transcriptional processes at multiple levels". Adv ... Acetylation is not the only regulatory post-translational modification to histones that dictates chromatin structure; ... HATs act as transcriptional co-activators or gene silencers and are most often found in large complexes made up of 10 to 20 ...
Biological process. • apoptotic cell clearance. • phospholipase C-activating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • ... The expression of tTG is regulated at the transcriptional level depending on complex signal cascades. Once synthesized, most of ... "TG2 regulates the heat-shock response by the post-translational modification of HSF1". EMBO Reports. 19 (7): e45067. doi ... positive regulation of apoptotic process. • protein homooligomerization. • positive regulation of smooth muscle cell ...
"RITS acts in cis to promote RNA interference-mediated transcriptional and post-transcriptional silencing". Nat Genet 36 (11): ... Preall J, He Z, Gorra J, Sontheimer E (2006). "Short interfering RNA strand selection is independent of dsRNA processing ... Hammond S, Bernstein E, Beach D, Hannon G (2000). "An RNA-directed nuclease mediates post-transcriptional gene silencing in ... Ahlquist P (2002). "RNA-dependent RNA polymerases, viruses, and RNA silencing". Science 296 (5571): 1270-3. PMID 12016304. doi: ...
... genes are predominantly located within introns and are differentially expressed in adult frog tissues via post-transcriptional ... Rna. 9 (2): 180-6. doi:10.1261/rna.2141503. PMC 1370383 . PMID 12554860. Landgraf P, Rusu M, Sheridan R, Sewer A, Iovino N, ... MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are transcribed as ~70 nucleotide precursors and subsequently processed by the RNase-III type enzyme Dicer ... Linsen SE, de Wit E, de Bruijn E, Cuppen E (April 2010). "Small RNA expression and strain specificity in the rat". BMC Genomics ...
immune system process. • histone H3-R17 methylation. • regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • negative ... transcriptional activator activity, RNA polymerase II transcription factor binding. • thyroid hormone receptor activity. • bile ... Ricketts ML, Boekschoten MV, Kreeft AJ, Hooiveld GJ, Moen CJ, Müller M, Frants RR, Kasanmoentalib S, Post SM, Princen HM, ... transcriptional activator activity, RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific binding. • metal ion ...
RNA-protein interactions have been investigated through a three-hybrid variation of the two-hybrid technique. In this case, a ... essentially reversing the process used to produce the original library phage. Finally, the DNA sequences are determined through ... Yeast cells often do not have the same post translational modifications, have a different codon use or lack certain proteins ... the technique was originally designed to detect protein-protein interactions using the Gal4 transcriptional activator of the ...
PAN, polyadenylated nuclear RNA - non-coding linear and circular RNAs miRNAs (mirKs) - viral microRNAs expressed during latency ... The viral genome is released where it recircularizes through a poorly understood process that appears to involve homologous ... "ESCRT-I Protein Tsg101 Plays a Role in the Post-macropinocytic Trafficking and Infection of Endothelial Cells by Kaposi's ... "Identification of Direct Transcriptional Targets of the Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Rta Lytic Switch Protein by ...
Based on November 2011 SEER data submission, posted to the SEER web site, 2012. ... processed meat, and alcohol.[2][4] Another risk factor is inflammatory bowel disease, which includes Crohn's disease and ... It is a transcriptional factor that influences the expression of hepatocyte growth factor. This gene is associated with the ... for example the putative RNA-binding protein 3 (RBM3).[42] ... processed meats, obesity, smoking, and a lack of physical ...
Both transcriptional and post-transcriptional gene silencing are used to regulate genes. Methods of gene silencing also protect ... This means the transcriptional machinery (RNA polymerase, transcription factors, etc.) cannot get at the gene. Genes may be ... Gene silencing is a general term describing epigenetic processes of gene regulation. It is used to describe the "switching off ... Post-transcriptional gene silencing is done by blocking or destroying the mRNA of a particular gene. The destruction of the ...
... compares the DNA and RNA of modern organisms to re-construct the "family trees" of their evolutionary ancestors. It has also ... "Terrestrial-marine teleconnections in the Devonian: links between the evolution of land plants, weathering processes, and ... Post-transcriptional modification. Biochemistry. *Carbohydrates. *Enzyme. *Lipids. *Metabolism. *Nucleic acids. *Photosynthesis ... most molecular phylogenetics research is now based on comparisons of RNA and DNA.[117] ...
The process of generating neurons from stem cells is called neurogenesis. One prominent example of a neural stem cell is the ... Stephen G. Kunin for Patents Post Grant. May 10, 2010 BPAI Rejects WARF Stem Cell Patent Claims in Inter Partes Reexamination ... "Core transcriptional regulatory circuitry in human embryonic stem cells". Cell. 122 (6): 947-56. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.08. ... 2002: RNA interference. *2003: Dark energy. *2004: Spirit rover. *2005: Evolution in action ...
"A complete landscape of post-transcriptional modifications in mammalian mitochondrial tRNAs". Nucleic Acids Research. 42 (11): ... 2011). "Transfer RNA-derived fragments: origins, processing, and functions". Wiley interdisciplinary reviews. 2: 853-862. doi: ... A transfer RNA (abbreviated tRNA and formerly referred to as sRNA, for soluble RNA[1]) is an adaptor molecule composed of RNA, ... doi:10.4161/rna.27177. PMC 3917982 . PMID 24351723.. *^ a b Shigematsu Megumi; et al. (2014). "Transfer RNA as a source of ...
Transcriptional Analysis of the sfa Determinant Revealing Multiple mRNA Processing Events in the Biogenesis of S Fimbriae in ... RNase III Processing of Intervening Sequences Found in Helix 9 of 23S rRNA in the Alpha Subclass of Proteobacteria Elena ... In Vitro Processing of the 16S rRNA of the Thermophilic Archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus Andrea Ciammaruconi, Paola Londei ... Posttranscriptional Regulation of Flagellin Synthesis in Helicobacter pylori by the RpoN Chaperone HP0958 Francois P. Douillard ...
Post-transcriptional processing generates a diversity of 5-modified long and short RNAs.. Affymetrix ENCODE Transcriptome ... Post-transcriptional processing generates a diversity of 5′-modified long and short RNAs ... Post-transcriptional processing generates a diversity of 5′-modified long and short RNAs ... Post-transcriptional processing generates a diversity of 5′-modified long and short RNAs ...
... is a post-transcriptional process triggered by the introduction of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) which leads to gene silencing in ... RNA interference (RNAi) is a post-transcriptional process triggered by the introduction of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) which ... HomeReview List RNA Interference - Review RNA Interference - Review. 2005. RNA interference (RNAi) is one of the most exciting ... Overexpression of exportin 5 enhances RNA interference mediated by short hairpin RNAs and microRNAs. RNA. 11(2):220-6. 11. ...
Computational analysis of RNA sequencing data to unravel post-transcriptional processes influencing mitochondrial function at ... Mitochondrial Genomics: Computational analysis of RNA sequencing data to unravel post-transcriptional processes influencing ... Mitochondrial Genomics: Computational analysis of RNA sequencing data to unravel post-transcriptional processes influencing ... Mitochondrial Genomics: Computational analysis of RNA sequencing data to unravel post-transcriptional processes influencing ...
post-transcriptional modifications of RNA N6-methyladenosine RNA demethylation alternative splicing alternative polyadenylation ... Roles of posttranscriptional modifications in RNA processing. Roles of posttranscriptional modifications in RNA processing. ... Posttranscriptional modifications of RNA are an important part of RNA metabolism in all living cells. Multiple RNA processing ... nuclear RNA processing Post-transkripční modifikace RNA N6-metyladenosin demetylace RNA alternativní sestřih alternativní ...
Post-Transcriptional information including symptoms, causes, diseases, symptoms, treatments, and other medical and health ... RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional. Description of RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional. RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional ... Post-Transcriptional: *Post-Transcriptional *RNA *Processing *Post Terms associated with RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional: ... RNA Splicing *RNA Editing *RNA 3 End Processing Source - MeSH 2007 Broader terms for RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional. * ...
"RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional" by people in this website by year, and whether "RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional" was ... RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional*RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional. *RNA Processing, Posttranscriptional. * ... "RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, ... Below are the most recent publications written about "RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional" by people in Profiles. ...
Estimated mRNA Half-Lives and RNA Processing Times in Mouse Liver.. In addition to disentangling transcriptional and ... 2015) Analysis of intronic and exonic reads in RNA-seq data characterizes transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. ... Data Processing for Total RNA-Seq in Mouse Liver Around the Clock.. To quantify the temporal accumulation of pre-mRNA and mRNA ... 2009) Conserved principles of mammalian transcriptional regulation revealed by RNA half-life. Nucleic Acids Res 37:e115. ...
The impact of post-transcriptional RNA processing on macrophage response to exogenous stimulation. Supervisors: Prof. Bruce ... Home » The impact of post-transcriptional RNA processing on macrophage response to exogenous stimulation. ... The proposed work will yield a comprehensive view of the role for RNA processing in the host and pathogen, as well as new ... Aim 1 will elucidate the impact of variable RNA processing on bovine macrophage response to IFNG stimulation or infection with ...
Recent studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have shown that in response to iron deficiency, an RNA-binding protein denoted Cth2 ... Once inside the nucleus, Cth2 binds target mRNAs and stimulates alternative 3 end processing. A Cth2/mRNA-containing complex ... This post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism limits iron utilization in nonessential pathways and activates essential iron- ... for all eukaryotic organisms because it participates as a redox cofactor in a wide variety of biological processes. ...
Download E-books Post-Transcriptional Gene Regulation: RNA Processing in Eukaryotes PDF. By admin on Tuesday, December 6, 2016 ... Read Online or Download Post-Transcriptional Gene Regulation: RNA Processing in Eukaryotes PDF ... Download E-books Post-Transcriptional Gene Regulation: RNA Processing in Eukaryotes PDF. ... the present figuring out of molecular mechanisms of post-transcriptional gene law thereby concentrating on RNA processing ...
The identification and functional characterization of proteins that specifically recognize RNA N,sup,6,/sup,-methyladenosine (m ... The recent discovery of reversible mRNA methylation has opened a new realm of post-transcriptional gene regulation in ... N6-adenosine methylation directs mRNAs to distinct fates by grouping them for differential processing, translation and decay in ... Post-transcriptional gene regulation by mRNA modifications Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2017 Jan;18(1):31-42. doi: 10.1038/nrm. ...
Here, we describe four genetic loci that are required for posttranscriptional gene silencing in Arabidopsis. One of these, SDE1 ... Posttranscriptional gene silencing is a defense mechanism in plants that is similar to quelling in fungi and RNA interference ... RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional* * RNA Replicase / genetics* * Sequence Homology, Amino Acid * Tobacco Mosaic Virus / ... An RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene in Arabidopsis is required for posttranscriptional gene silencing mediated by a transgene ...
Post-Transcriptional Regulation of Plant Gene Expression. RNA processing and Arabidopsis flowering time control. G.G. Simpson, ... FCA interacts with the 3′-end RNA-processing factor FY to autoregulate its own expression post-transcriptionally and to control ... RNA processing and Arabidopsis flowering time control. G.G. Simpson, V. Quesada, I.R. Henderson, P.P. Dijkwel, R. Macknight, C. ... RNA processing and Arabidopsis flowering time control Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Biochemical ...
Post-Transcriptional Gene Regulation: RNA Processing in Eukaryotes. Wu, Jane. 105,70€ ... process; removal; premrna; introns; vast; undergo; human; alternative; majority; premrnas; mrna; rna; different; mature, ... Keywords: eukaryotic messenger rnas; precursors; nuclear; series; modifications; extensive; remaining; splicing; exons; ...
Richard William Carthew; Henry Stewart Talks (Firm)] -- A talk and slideshow presentation on RNA interference functions and ... Post-transcriptional cleavage of mRNAs --. Applications of RNAi --. Dicer and its cofactors process and load RNA into Argonaute ... Post-transcriptional cleavage of mRNAs -- Applications of RNAi -- Dicer and its cofactors process and load RNA into Argonaute ... schema:name "RNA Interference"@en ;. . rna_messenger> # RNA, ...
Timing effciency in small-RNA-regulated post-transcriptional processes.. Biswas K, Ghosh A. ...
... some investigators have detected nascent RNA in the dense fibrillar components (DFCs) while others have localized transcription ... The precise location of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis within the nucleolus is the subject of recent controversy; ... RNA Precursors / biosynthesis, genetics, metabolism. RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional*. RNA, Ribosomal / biosynthesis*, ... 0/Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone; 0/Luminescent Proteins; 0/RNA Precursors; 0/RNA, Ribosomal; 0/fibrillarin; 147336-22-9/ ...
Post-Transcriptional RNA Processing. *Genome-Wide Association Study. *Lung Cancer. *Algorithms. *Chromosome 5 ... microRNAs (miRNAs) are short (20-24 nt) non-coding RNAs that are involved in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression ... MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that involved in various cancer-related cellular processes. Diverse studies on ... miRNAs are transcribed by RNA polymerase II as part of capped and polyadenylated primary transcripts (pri-miRNAs) that can be ...
Gene Expression and Post-Translational Modifications Conference scheduled on August 04-05, 2020 in August 2020 in Montreal is ... RNA processing. Non-coding RNA maturation. RNA export. Translation. Folding. Translocation. Protein transport. Regulation of ... Transcriptional regulation. Transcriptional regulation in cancer. Post-transcriptional regulation. Translational regulation. ... Gene Expression and Post-Translational Modifications. ICGEPTM 2020: 14. International Conference on Gene Expression and Post- ...
Keywords: plant mitochondria; genome structure; posttranscriptional processing; RNA editing References. Forde BG and Leaver CJ ... Binder S and Brennicke A (2003) Gene expression in plant mitochondria: transcriptional and posttranscriptional control. ... Plant Evolution , Plant Genetics and Molecular Biology , Cell Compartments and Cellular Organelles , Posttranscriptional ... van der Merwe JA, Takenaka M, Neuwirt J, Verbitskiy D and Brennicke A (2006) RNA editing sites in plant mitochondria can share ...
Computational Prediction of RNA Structural Motifs Involved in Post-Transcriptional Regulatory Processes ... The Dual Use of RNA Aptamer Sequences for Affinity Purification and Localization Studies of RNAs and RNA-Protein Complexes ... RNA-Binding Protein Immunopurification-Microarray (RIP-Chip) Analysis to Profile Localized RNAs ... In Vivo Visualization of RNA Using the U1A-Based Tagged RNA System ...
RNA processing. Main article: Post-transcriptional modification. Transcription of protein encoding genes creates a primary ... Post-transcriptional regulation. Main article: Post-transcriptional regulation. In eukaryotes, where export of RNA is required ... For some RNA (non-coding RNA) the mature RNA is the finished gene product.[9] In the case of messenger RNA (mRNA) the RNA is an ... RNA processing, also known as post-transcriptional modification, can start during transcription, as is the case for splicing, ...
Biomedical Science explores the biochemical processes that occur in the human body, how medicines are discovered and how they ... Role of RNA - types, post-transcriptional processing, tRNA structure, ribosomes. Proteins. Amino acids - structure, ... Post-transcriptional regulation: mRNA processing and turnover, translational control, non-coding RNAs. Epigenetic control. ... 3. Transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in bacteria: Transcription and translation in ...
Role of RNA - types, post-transcriptional processing, tRNA structure, ribosomes. Proteins. Amino acids - structure, ... Post-transcriptional regulation: mRNA processing and turnover, translational control, non-coding RNAs. Epigenetic control. ... 3. Transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in bacteria: Transcription and translation in ... The regulation of gene expression at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level in response to environmental factors ...
RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional. 1. 2015. 449. 0.030. Why? Animals, Newborn. 1. 2017. 3065. 0.030. Why? ...
Argonaute Proteins; Cell Biology; Embryonic Stem Cells; Genetics; Gynecology; RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional; Stem Cells ...
Autoantibodies; Biochemistry; Biophysics; Cell Transformation, Viral; RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional; Gene Expression; ...
... mechanisms of RNA processing, transport, localization, translation, and turnover; and the nature and function of non-protein- ... mechanisms of gene regulation from transcriptional through post-translational; epigenetics and epigenomics; chromatin ... coding RNAs. Sophisticated, original informatic and computational analyses of genes and genomes are welcome, as well as the ... the nature of mutations and the mutation process, including mobile genetic elements; molecular evolution, phylogenomics, and ...
Transfer RNA Post-Transcriptional Processing, Turnover, and Subcellular Dynamics in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae ... Maf1 Protein, Repressor of RNA Polymerase III, Indirectly Affects tRNA Processing. Iwona Karkusiewicz, Tomasz W. Turowski, ... tRNA Processing and Subcellular Trafficking Proteins Multitask in Pathways for Other RNAs ... Nucleocytoplasmic Transport of RNAs and RNA-Protein Complexes. Katherine E. Sloan, Pierre-Emmanuel Gleizes, Markus T. Bohnsack ...
  • ⑥ The "guide strand" is integrated in the active RNA Interference Specificity Complex (RISC) that contains different argonautes and argonaute-associated proteins [16]. (invivogen.com)
  • The second part of the thesis investigates the function of the NEXT complex, which is composed of two RNA binding proteins ZCCHC8 and RBM7 and the RNA helicase SKIV2L2 (hMTR4). (theses.cz)
  • While diurnally rhythmic transcription regulation is well studied and often thought to be the main factor generating rhythmic mRNA accumulation, the extent of rhythmic posttranscriptional regulation is debated, and the kinetic parameters (e.g., half-lives), as well as the underlying regulators (e.g., mRNA-binding proteins) are relatively unexplored. (pnas.org)
  • Utilized plant genomics and biotechnology reports the new developments within the post-genomic period, discussing how diversified forms reply to abiotic and biotic stresses, investigating epigenetic variations and epigenetic reminiscence via research of DNA methylation states, applicative makes use of of RNA silencing and RNA interference in plant body structure and in experimental transgenics, and vegetation converted to provide high-value pharmaceutical proteins. (netdesszert.hu)
  • The identification and functional characterization of proteins that specifically recognize RNA N 6 -methyladenosine (m 6 A) unveiled it as a modification that cells utilize to accelerate mRNA metabolism and translation. (nih.gov)
  • The autonomous pathway controls the level of mRNA encoding a floral repressor, FLC , and comprises three RNA-binding proteins, FCA, FPA and FLK. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • The higher plant mitochondrial genome contains in the order of 50 proteins coding genes scattered throughout the genome and while much of the genome is transcribed, regulatory control is primarily exercised posttranscriptionally at the level of the ribonucleic acid (RNA) or protein turnover. (els.net)
  • These products are often proteins , but in non-protein coding genes such as rRNA genes or tRNA genes, the product is a functional RNA . (thefullwiki.org)
  • RNA has been largely investigated within its role as an intermediary in the translation of genes into proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Synthesis of the ribosomal subunits from pre-rRNA requires a large number of trans-acting proteins and small nucleolar ribonucleoprotein particles to execute base modifications, RNA cleavages, and structural rearrangements. (diva-portal.org)
  • RNA binding proteins (RBPs) are emerging epigenetic regulators of various RNA processing events, such as splicing, localization, stabilization and translation, and can regulate various types of stem cells. (mdpi.com)
  • This discovery has quickly resulted in the widespread use of artificial interfering RNAs as an important laboratory research technique for altering the amount of specific proteins inside cells. (wikiversity.org)
  • Several proteins (colored ovals) are required for efficient RNA interference. (wikiversity.org)
  • The siRNA can form a molecular complex with proteins that first strip away the sense strand of RNA, making the antisense inhibitory RNA (iRNA) available for base pairing with messenger RNA (mRNA). (wikiversity.org)
  • There are different types of RNA, each of which plays a specific role, including specifying the amino acid sequence of proteins (performed by messenger RNAs, or mRNAs), organizing and catalyzing the synthesis of proteins (ribosomal RNAs or rRNAs), translating codons in the mRNA into amino acids (transfer RNAs or tRNAs) and directing many of the RNA processing steps (performed by small RNAs in the nucleus, called snRNAs and snoRNAs). (encyclopedia.com)
  • His team is currently studying the proteins that bind the C-terminal domain (CTD) in RNA polymerase II. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • There is considerable interest in understanding the function of RNA transcripts that do not code for proteins in eukaryotic cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Interestingly, lncRNAs can influence the expression of specific target proteins at specific genomic loci ( 12, 13 ), modulate the activity of protein binding partners ( 14, 15 ), direct chromatin-modifying complexes to their sites of action ( 16 ), and are posttranscriptionally processed to produce numerous 5′-capped small RNAs ( 17, 18 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • We also isolated mutations in five previously uncharacterized genes, one of which, split ends , we have characterized molecularly and have shown to encode a member of the RRM family of RNA-binding proteins. (genetics.org)
  • Our multidisciplinary approach will illuminate the "dark matter" of the genome and the mechanisms by which it is expressed into functional RNA and proteins. (searlescholars.net)
  • DEAD box proteins, characterized by the conserved motif Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp (DEAD), are putative RNA helicases. (genecards.org)
  • In recent years it has been appreciated that along with protein coding genes, much of our genome encodes tens of thousands of functional RNAs that do not make proteins. (albany.edu)
  • The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) Zta and Mta regulatory proteins were previously found to be required for efficient replication of oriLyt in cotransfection-replication assays, but the contribution of Mta to the replication process was unknown. (asm.org)
  • These organelles maintain a characteristic juxtaposition that appears to be essential for efficient inter-membranous exchange of RNA, proteins and ions. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • RREs are defined by characteristic sequence motifs that serve as docking sites for trans-acting factors, such as short non-coding regulatory RNAs (e.g. microRNAs) and RNA binding proteins (RBPs) 2 . (nature.com)
  • P-bodies are dynamic aggregates of RNA and proteins involved in several post-transcriptional regulation processes. (jove.com)
  • In eukaryotes, the transcription is done by three types of RNA polymerases, each of them needs special DNA sequence called promoter and a set of DNA-binding proteins - transcription factors to initiate the process. (academic.ru)
  • RNA binding proteins play important roles in post-transcriptional RNA processing and transcriptional regulation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Distinguishing the RNA-binding residues in proteins is crucial for understanding how protein and RNA recognize each other and function together as a complex. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 12 ] implement a RF classifier to detect the RNA binding residues in proteins by integrating interaction propensity with other sequence and structural features. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, viruses are known to fight back using RNA silencing suppressors, proteins that inhibit this defense mechanism. (intechopen.com)
  • The NNS complex contains two RNA-binding proteins, Nrd1 and Nab3, which recognize specific sequences in nascent transcripts and direct termination in a process that requires the RNA helicase Sen1 ( 8 , 9 , 15 - 20 ). (asm.org)
  • psiRNA is an RNA polymerase III-based plasmid that produces short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs). (invivogen.com)
  • psiRNA is used to insert a DNA fragment of approximately 50 mer designed in such a way that after transcription from the human 7SK RNA polymerase III promoter it will generate shRNAs. (invivogen.com)
  • One of these, SDE1, is a plant homolog of QDE-1 in Neurospora crassa that encodes an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. (nih.gov)
  • According to this idea, when a virus induces posttranscriptional gene silencing, the virus-encoded RNA polymerase would produce the double-stranded RNA and SDE1 would be redundant. (nih.gov)
  • miRNAs are transcribed by RNA polymerase II as part of capped and polyadenylated primary transcripts (pri-miRNAs) that can be either protein-coding or non-coding. (cancerindex.org)
  • The production of RNA copies of the DNA is called transcription , and is performed by RNA polymerase , which adds one RNA nucleotide at a time to a growing RNA strand. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Ct-RBD-1 is mainly located in the nucleolus in an RNA polymerase I transcription-dependent manner, but it is also present in discrete foci in the interchromatin and in the cytoplasm. (diva-portal.org)
  • However, in plants, most siRNAs are generated by RNA-dependent RNA polymerase [1] . (wikiversity.org)
  • This is the big question - both protein-coding and non-coding transcripts are produced by the RNA polymerase II machinery, but they are regulated and function in a very different manner. (biologists.org)
  • Prokaryotes, which lack a nucleus, can translate an mRNA as soon as it is transcribed by RNA polymerase. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The lab uses genetic and biochemical approaches in yeast and mammals to study the control of eucaryotic RNA polymerase II, particularly through its unusual repetitive domain at the C-terminus of the largest subunit. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • RNA polymerase II holoenzyme is a form of eukaryotic RNA polymerase II that is recruited to the promoters of protein -coding genes in living cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNA polymerase II (also called RNAP II and Pol II ) is an enzyme found in eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • [5] Many of them are involved in the formation of a preinitiation complex , which, together with RNA polymerase II , bind to and read the single-stranded DNA gene template. (wikipedia.org)
  • [6] The cluster of RNA polymerase II and various transcription factors is known as a basal transcriptional complex (BTC). (wikipedia.org)
  • The PIC helps position RNA polymerase II over gene transcription start sites , denatures the DNA, and positions the DNA in the RNA polymerase II active site for transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • The N-terminal domain of TFIIB brings the DNA into proper position for entry into the active site of RNA polymerase II . (wikipedia.org)
  • The TFIID-TFIIA-TFIIB (DAB)-promoter complex subsequently recruits RNA polymerase II and TFIIF. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transcription and RNA polymerase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using the polymerase processivity factor BMRF1 as an example, we found that in transfected cells, total BMRF1 mRNA levels were unaffected by Mta but that the amounts of cytoplasmic BMRF1 RNA and protein were greatly increased in the presence of Mta. (asm.org)
  • Genome-wide RNA-polymerase II occupancy analysis in myofibers of the LINC mutant klar indicated an altered binding profile, including a significant decrease in the chromatin regulator barrier-to-autointegration factor (BAF) and the contractile regulator Troponin C. Importantly, muscle-specific knockdown of BAF led to increased DNA content in myonuclei, phenocopying the LINC mutant phenotype. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • Transcription in prokaryotes is carried out by a single type of RNA polymerase, which needs DNA sequence called Pribnow box and sigma factor (σ factor) to start transcription. (academic.ru)
  • RNA polymerase I is responsible for transcription of rRNA genes, while RNA polymerase II transcribes all protein-coding genes but also some non-coding RNAs (e.g. snRNAs, snoRNAs or long non-coding RNAs) as well. (academic.ru)
  • RNA polymerase III transcribes 5S rRNA and tRNA genes but also some small non-coding RNA genes (e.g. 7SK ). (academic.ru)
  • Termination of Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcripts occurs through two alternative pathways. (asm.org)
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA polymerase II (Pol II) synthesizes both mRNAs and noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), including snRNAs, snoRNAs, and a large number of RNAs with unknown functions ( 1 , 2 ). (asm.org)
  • To examine the effect on transcription of depleting Nab3 from the nucleus, we C-terminally tagged Nab3 with the FRB ( F KBP12- r apamycin b inding) domain in an anchor-away strain that contains an HTB (6 H is- T EV- b iotin, where TEV is tobacco etch virus) tag on the RNA polymerase subunit Rpb2 ( 15 , 40 , 41 ). (asm.org)
  • Associates with nascent mRNAs transcribed by RNA polymerase II. (nih.gov)
  • microRNAs (miRNAs) are short (20-24 nt) non-coding RNAs that are involved in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in multicellular organisms by affecting both the stability and translation of mRNAs. (cancerindex.org)
  • RNA silencing may also be defined as sequence-specific regulation of gene expression triggered by double-stranded RNA ( dsRNA ). (wikipedia.org)
  • [16] However, the varied and nuanced role of RNA silencing in the regulation of gene expression remains an ongoing scientific inquiry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transcriptional Regulation of Gene Expression. (nhbs.com)
  • The 3′ untranslated regions (UTRs) of mRNAs play a major role in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Regulation of gene expression (Control of bacterial and eukaryotic genome expression, induction and repression, operon, transcription factors, posttranscriptional regulatory mechanisms) 7. (muni.cz)
  • Post-transcriptional control refers to the regulation of gene expression after RNA transcription. (jcancer.org)
  • We conducted a review of mechanisms involved in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression related to cell proliferation, apoptosis, the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), metastasis, angiogenesis, and drug resistance. (jcancer.org)
  • With chapters on mechanisms as RNA splicing, RNA interference, MicroRNAs, RNA modifying and others, the publication additionally discusses the serious position of RNA processing for the pathogenesis of quite a lot of human ailments. (netdesszert.hu)
  • RNA silencing or RNA interference refers to a family of gene silencing effects by which gene expression is negatively regulated by non-coding RNAs such as microRNAs . (wikipedia.org)
  • Competing endogenous RNA, ceRNA, vie with messenger RNAs (mRNAs) for microRNAs (miRNAs) with shared miRNAs responses elements (MREs) and act as modulator of miRNA by influencing the available level of miRNA. (hindawi.com)
  • This includes small RNAs called microRNAs which have been very well studied as well as a large class of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) the functions of which still very much need to be explored. (albany.edu)
  • Background MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that play important regulatory roles in a variety of biological processes. (bmj.com)
  • Inhibitory RNAs can be expressed in cells as naturally occurring microRNAs or small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). (washington.edu)
  • The initiating dsRNA can also be endogenous (originating in the cell), as in pre-microRNAs expressed from RNA-coding genes in the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Liu W, Ma R, Yuan Y. Post-transcriptional Regulation of Genes Related to Biological Behaviors of Gastric Cancer by Long Noncoding RNAs and MicroRNAs. (jcancer.org)
  • Noncoding RNAs play critical roles in regulating protein-coding genes and comprise two major classes: long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs). (jcancer.org)
  • LncRNAs exceed 200 nucleotides (nt) in length [ 2 ], whereas sncRNAs are less than 200 nt in length and include microRNAs of approximately 21 to 24 nt and Piwi-interacting RNAs [ 3 ]. (jcancer.org)
  • We discuss the elaborate role of microRNAs (miRNAs) and trans-acting small interfering RNAs (ta-siRNAs) in various aspects of plant growth and development and highlight relevance of small RNA mobility. (springer.com)
  • MicroRNAs, which are usually 22 to 33 nucleotides in length, are known as post-transcriptional regulators. (eurekalert.org)
  • RNA interference (RNAi) is one of the most exciting discoveries of the past decade in functional genomics. (invivogen.com)
  • RNA interference (RNAi) is a post-transcriptional process triggered by the introduction of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) which leads to gene silencing in a sequence-specific manner. (invivogen.com)
  • Once unwound, the guide strand is incorporated into the RNA Interference Specificity Complex (RISC), while the passenger strand is released. (invivogen.com)
  • Posttranscriptional gene silencing is a defense mechanism in plants that is similar to quelling in fungi and RNA interference in animals. (nih.gov)
  • A talk and slideshow presentation on RNA interference functions and mechanisms in animals. (worldcat.org)
  • In eukaryotes RNase III or RNaseIII like enzymes such as Dicer are involved in RNAi (RNA interference) and miRNA (micro-RNA) gene silencing [ PMID: 14983173 , PMID: 15066275 , PMID: 11809414 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • RNA interference (RNAi) is a post-transcriptional gene silencing method reproducing a naturally occurring phenomena. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • [2] The most common and well-studied example is RNA interference ( RNAi ), in which endogenously expressed microRNA ( miRNA ) or exogenously derived small interfering RNA ( siRNA ) induces the degradation of complementary messenger RNA . (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite early focus in the literature on RNA interference ( RNAi ) as a core mechanism which occurs at the level of messenger RNA translation, others have since been identified in the broader family of conserved RNA silencing pathways acting at the DNA and chromatin level. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNA interference requires that two base pair-complementary strands of RNA to come together to form double stranded RNA [2] . (wikiversity.org)
  • The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2006 was awarded to Andrew Z. Fire and Craig C. Mello for their research on RNA interference [3] . (wikiversity.org)
  • The goal of this learning project is to complement the Wikipedia article about RNA interference in two ways. (wikiversity.org)
  • This means providing learning resources for people who would normally be unable to understand a technical Wikipedia article on the topic of RNA interference. (wikiversity.org)
  • Explore a user-friendly introduction to the practical medical implications of RNA interference that arise from the Nobel Prize-winning scientific research of Andrew Z. Fire and Craig C. Mello. (wikiversity.org)
  • If you were able to read and appreciate the Wikipedia article about RNA interference then continue reading below and participate in further exploration of this subject. (wikiversity.org)
  • RNA interference was discovered as a mechanism used by cells for regulating gene expression . (wikiversity.org)
  • There is also active study of the potential value of RNA interference for medical applications [4] . (wikiversity.org)
  • This section and the next few sections briefly introduce RNA interference (RNAi) and will orient you towards the activities . (wikiversity.org)
  • The normal function of RNA interference inside cells depends on the production of double stranded RNA (dsRNA). (wikiversity.org)
  • An important aspect of RNA interference is its role in protecting organisms from some deleterious effects of viruses [8] . (wikiversity.org)
  • Such a role for RNA interference was first found in plants, but has also been found in some animals [9] . (wikiversity.org)
  • RNA interference is now a widely used biology research technique that can be applied to both cultured cells [10] and whole animals [11] . (wikiversity.org)
  • RNA interference can be used to selectively reduce the level of expression of a specific protein. (wikiversity.org)
  • RNA interference (RNAi) is a conserved cellular process whereby double-stranded RNAs direct post-transcriptional gene silencing through sequence-specific degradation of the target RNA. (washington.edu)
  • Lentiviral delivery of designed shRNAs and the mechanism of RNA interference in mammalian cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNA interference ( RNAi ) is a biological process in which RNA molecules inhibit gene expression or translation, by neutralizing targeted mRNA molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Andrew Fire and Craig C. Mello shared the 2006 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their work on RNA interference in the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans , which they published in 1998. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two types of small ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules - microRNA (miRNA) and small interfering RNA ( siRNA ) - are central to RNA interference. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, transcription can be inhibited via the pre-transcriptional silencing mechanism of RNA interference, through which an enzyme complex catalyzes DNA methylation at genomic positions complementary to complexed siRNA or miRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNA interference has an important role in defending cells against parasitic nucleotide sequences - viruses and transposons . (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common and studied representation is RNA interference (RNAi). (intechopen.com)
  • RNA interference (RNAi) is a highly conserved post-transcriptional gene silencing process triggered by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) in eukaryotic cells. (bl.uk)
  • Here we show that processing of mature mRNAs through an as yet unknown mechanism may generate complex populations of both long and short RNAs whose apparently capped 5' ends coincide. (nih.gov)
  • This project seeks to quantitatively assess genome-wide transcript abundance, isoform usage, splicing, and mRNA translation by applying a recent protocol that couples template-switching PCR with the depth and breadth of next generation RNA sequencing to profile mRNAs that are occupied by ribosomes (an indicator of translation) from low input data [3]. (eastscotbiodtp.ac.uk)
  • Once inside the nucleus, Cth2 binds target mRNAs and stimulates alternative 3′ end processing. (mdpi.com)
  • N 6 -adenosine methylation directs mRNAs to distinct fates by grouping them for differential processing, translation and decay in processes such as cell differentiation, embryonic development and stress responses. (nih.gov)
  • The mature miRNA is incorporated into a RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which recognizes target mRNAs through imperfect base pairing with the miRNA and most commonly results in translational inhibition or destabilization of the target mRNA. (cancerindex.org)
  • In RNA Detection and Visualization: Methods and Protocols , the best and brightest investigators provide an up-to-date and in-depth description of basic methods and protocols used for detecting and visualizing mRNAs in both fixed and live cells, from bacteria to mammals. (springer.com)
  • An siRNA can be processed to the single strand anti-sense RNA and used to target mRNAs for destruction. (wikiversity.org)
  • As a consequence, there is very little processing of prokaryotic mRNAs. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Unlike the case of mRNAs, both eukaryotes and prokaryotes process their rRNAs and tRNAs in broadly similar ways. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Although a number of potential target mRNAs could be identified, cellular processes that depend on Rrm4-mediated transport remain largely unknown. (mcponline.org)
  • RNA live imaging demonstrated that target mRNAs colocalize with Rrm4 in ribonucleoprotein particles, so-called mRNPs, that shuttle along microtubules ( 18 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Our experiments indicate that Mta functions in RNA processing and transport and mediates cytoplasmic accumulation of a number of EBV early mRNAs. (asm.org)
  • RNA-binding protein that is involved in the post-transcriptional regulation of mRNAs. (xenbase.org)
  • LncRNAs mainly form RNA-RNA duplexes with mRNAs, occupy the binding sites of mRNAs and transacting factors [ 8 ], and influence mRNAs degradation and stability, thus regulating gene expression post-transcriptionally. (jcancer.org)
  • Termination of mRNAs is coupled to cleavage and polyadenylation while noncoding transcripts are terminated through the Nrd1-Nab3-Sen1 (NNS) pathway in a process that is linked to RNA degradation by the nuclear exosome. (asm.org)
  • The recent discovery of reversible mRNA methylation has opened a new realm of post-transcriptional gene regulation in eukaryotes. (nih.gov)
  • Recent advances, such as findings of extensive modifications of regulatory RNAs, indicate that our understanding of the role of RNAs in gene regulation is far from complete. (biomedcentral.com)
  • They can regulate the post-transcriptional expression of target genes and play an important role in gene regulation. (bmj.com)
  • RNA regulatory elements (RREs) are an important yet relatively under-explored facet of gene regulation. (nature.com)
  • In this review, we discuss the advances made in understanding the biogenesis, functional conservation/divergence in miRNA-mediated gene regulation, and the developmental role of small RNAs in different plant species. (springer.com)
  • The Hfq protein mediates gene regulation by small RNAs (sRNAs) in about 50% of all bacteria. (asm.org)
  • The most important RNA modifications in eukaryotes are nucleotide base modifications and 3′ end tailing. (theses.cz)
  • The process of gene expression is used by all known life - eukaryotes (including multicellular organisms ), prokaryotes ( bacteria and archaea ) and viruses - to generate the macromolecular machinery for life. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Extensive RNA processing may be an evolutionary advantage made possible by the nucleus of eukaryotes. (thefullwiki.org)
  • In prokaryotes transcription and translation (see below) happen together whilst in eukaryotes the nuclear membrane separates the two processes giving time for RNA processing to occur. (thefullwiki.org)
  • [1] RNA silencing mechanisms are highly conserved in most eukaryotes . (wikipedia.org)
  • Although plant pre-rRNA processing appears to follow a pathway similar to that of other eukaryotes ( Grierson, 1982 ), only a few major processing sites have been identified (e.g. (plantcell.org)
  • Under the supervision of Steve Buratowski, Lidia focused on transcriptional regulation in eukaryotes. (biologists.org)
  • The student must show competences of basic knowledge about the fundamental processes of molecular biology of eukaryotes, the gene expression changes in response to immobility and chronic diseases, and the benefits induced by exercise in the prevention and treatment of such conditions. (uniurb.it)
  • The next class is the ribosomal RNAs which contain 204-209 modified nucleotides within 18S (1,869 nt) + 28S (5,035 nt) RNA in eukaryotes. (hindawi.com)
  • RNA editing is a widespread post-transcriptional process contributing to greater cellular transcriptome diversity in eukaryotes. (bmj.com)
  • The RNAi pathway is found in many eukaryotes , including animals, and is initiated by the enzyme Dicer , which cleaves long double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) molecules into short double-stranded fragments of ~21 nucleotide siRNAs . (wikipedia.org)
  • some investigators have detected nascent RNA in the dense fibrillar components (DFCs) while others have localized transcription to the fibrillar centers (FCs). (biomedsearch.com)
  • We traced a movement of RNA from transcription sites through DFCs to granular components. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In situ mapping of the 5' leader sequence of the 5' external transcribed spacer together with transcription labeling indicated that transcription and the first steps in processing of precursor rRNA are spatially separated. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Several steps in the gene expression process may be modulated, including the transcription , RNA splicing , translation , and post-translational modification of a protein. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Transcription of protein encoding genes creates a primary transcript of RNA at the place where the gene was located. (thefullwiki.org)
  • RNA processing, also known as post-transcriptional modification, can start during transcription, as is the case for splicing , where the spliceosome removes introns from newly formed RNA. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Base pair-complementary RNA strands (ssRNA) can be produced by transcription of both template DNA strands of some genes (Figure 1). (wikiversity.org)
  • We discovered that these specificity factors are recruited to nascent RNA as early as during transcription, therefore pre-programming the specific transcripts for their future fate. (biologists.org)
  • Another direction is to understand what happens to RNA after transcription, and this deals more with mechanisms involved in exosome function. (biologists.org)
  • Thus, RNA processing refers to any modification made to RNA between its transcription and its final function in the cell. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This separates the processes of transcription and translation in space and time. (encyclopedia.com)
  • By contrast, in eukaryotic cells many processing steps occur between mRNA transcription and translation. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The transcriptional analysis showed that genes related to photosynthesis, glycolysis, Ser-Gly-Cys group amino acid synthesis, regulation of transcription, ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation and cell death were significantly up-regulated by flooding. (springer.com)
  • [5] In the process, the torsional strain on the DNA may aid in DNA melting at the promoter , forming the transcription bubble . (wikipedia.org)
  • transcription ) adalah pembuatan RNA terutama mRNA dengan menyalin sebagian berkas DNA oleh enzim RNA polimerase . (wikipedia.org)
  • Tergantung intensitasnya, dalam satu berkas transcription unit sejumlah RNA polimerase dapat bekerja secara simultan. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genome transcription (Transcription of bacterial and eukaryotic genome, post-transcriptional processing of RNA, mechanisms of RNA splicing) 5. (muni.cz)
  • While transcription of prokaryotic protein-coding genes creates messenger RNA (mRNA) which is ready for translation, transcription of eukaryotic genes leaves a primary transcript of RNA ( pre-mRNA ), which first has to undergo series of modification to become a mature mRNA. (academic.ru)
  • Biogenesis of miRNAs is a multistep process which includes transcription, processing and modification, and their loading onto RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). (springer.com)
  • Both coding and noncoding transcripts originate from promoters located in nucleosome-free regions in a process that requires both general transcription factors and gene-specific factors ( 5 - 7 ), but termination of these different classes of Pol II transcripts takes place through two different processes. (asm.org)
  • The NEXT complex is a functional homologue of the human TRAMP complex involved in stimulation of RNA degradation by the exosome. (theses.cz)
  • We also show that in vivo, RNA targeting by the RBM7 and the NEXT complex is required for proper processing or degradation of snRNAs. (theses.cz)
  • RNAi is the process whereby double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) induces the sequence-specific degradation of homologous mRNA. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The exosome is a major eukaryotic RNA degradation and RNA processing machine. (biologists.org)
  • Modification of the ends can protect the RNA from degradation by exoribonucleases and can also act as a signal to guide the transport of the molecule to a particular subcellular compartment. (encyclopedia.com)
  • These include 5' capping , which is set of enzymatic reactions that add 7-methylguanosine (m 7 G) to the 5' end of pre-mRNA and thus protect the RNA from degradation by exonucleases. (academic.ru)
  • The pre-mRNA is first cleaved and then a series of ~200 adenines (A) are added to form poly(A) tail which protects the RNA from degradation. (academic.ru)
  • Post-transcriptional regulation by miRNAs is mainly mediated by specific binding to the 3ʹ-UTR of target genes and leads to cytoplasmic degradation and translational inhibition. (jcancer.org)
  • RNA silencing is a robust sequence-specific RNA degradation process triggered by the formation of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). (intechopen.com)
  • Individual non-coding RNAs dwarf the number of protein-coding genes, and include classes that are well understood as well as classes for which the nature, extent and functional roles are obscure. (nih.gov)
  • Members of an extensive class of both small RNAs and CAGE tags were distributed across internal exons of annotated protein coding and non-coding genes, sometimes crossing exon-exon junctions. (nih.gov)
  • Recent developments in DNA and RNA sequencing technologies have allowed for the detection of genes and mutations involved in mitochondrial function and also for the analysis of how mitochondrial genome processing varies across human individuals and populations. (findaphd.com)
  • Rujkijyanont P, Adams SL, Beyene J, Dror Y. Bone marrow cells from patients with Shwachman-Diamond syndrome abnormally express genes involved in ribosome biogenesis and RNA processing. (sickkids.ca)
  • Here, we developed a mathematical model based on total RNA-seq to classify genes according to the respective contributions of transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation toward mRNA expression profiles. (pnas.org)
  • Genes are expressed by being transcribed into RNA, and this transcript may then be translated into protein. (thefullwiki.org)
  • In most organisms non-coding genes (ncRNA) are transcribed as precursors which undergo further processing. (thefullwiki.org)
  • We also compare the different modes of snoRNA production in different eukaryotic kingdoms, highlight the novel organization of snoRNA genes in plants, and present a model that synthesizes our current understanding of the organization of rRNA processing events in the nucleolus. (plantcell.org)
  • Additionally, genes related to RNA processing and initiation of protein synthesis were not up-regulated in soybean, however, those in tolerant plants were up-regulated. (springer.com)
  • RNA plays important roles in the many complex pathways that control how genes are expressed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus, five of the six core replication genes require Mta for efficient accumulation of cytoplasmic RNA. (asm.org)
  • IE63 expression leads to enhanced binding of cleavage stimulation factor (CstF) to the polyadenylation signal of HSV genes ( 43 , 44 ), and IE63 has recently been shown to shuttle between the nucleus and cytoplasm, indicating a role in facilitating RNA transport ( 60 , 68 , 83 ). (asm.org)
  • RNAs are the direct products of genes, and these small RNAs can direct enzyme complexes to degrade messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules and thus decrease their activity by preventing translation, via post-transcriptional gene silencing. (wikipedia.org)
  • The primary transcripts from such genes are first processed to form the characteristic stem-loop structure of pre-miRNA in the nucleus , then exported to the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • By binding to the 3'-untranslated regions (3'-UTR) of target genes, miRNAs post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. (jcancer.org)
  • Herein, we conducted a review of post-transcriptional regulation by lncRNAs and miRNAs of genes associated with biological behaviors of gastric cancer. (jcancer.org)
  • RNA silencing (also called as posttranscriptional gene silencing PTGS) refers to a family of gene silencing effects by which the expression of one or more genes is downregulated or entirely suppressed by the introduction of the antisense RNA molecule. (intechopen.com)
  • In order to determine the mechanisms underlying this relationship, we have examined the role of Brd4 in regulating the expression of several genes that are central to the process of autophagy. (stanford.edu)
  • We conclude that Brd4 plays a significant role in autophagy activation through the direct transcriptional regulation of genes essential for it, as well as through the Keap1-Nrf2 axis in NPMc+ and MLL-fusion AML cells. (stanford.edu)
  • That means they work by turning genes on or off during the part of the protein synthesis process that involves making a strand of RNA from a DNA template. (eurekalert.org)
  • Posttranscriptional modifications of RNA are an important part of RNA metabolism in all living cells. (theses.cz)
  • With its complex and extensively regulated metabolism, the study of the RNA lifecycle demands tools that allow for the localization of RNAs to be observed either in an in situ setting or, preferably, under in vivo conditions. (springer.com)
  • This protein's diverse activities range from nuclear tRNA export and the maintenance of genomic integrity, to cytoplasmic post-transcriptional control of gene expression and receptor mediated cell signaling, to membrane facilitation of iron metabolism, trafficking and fusion. (worldcat.org)
  • A key element in the study of cellular RNA metabolism is the molecular characterization of RNA. (hindawi.com)
  • miRNAs are non-coding RNAs with fewer than 25 nucleotides, and function as epigenetic regulators of protein expression. (mdpi.com)
  • Our results also highlight the prominence of post-transcriptional regulation (miRNAs, mRNA decay, and lincRNAs) in attenuating the myocardial injury-induced inflammatory response. (sebbm.es)
  • Similarly, large numbers of short ncRNAs such as micro-RNAs (miRNAs), endogenous siRNAs, PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), and small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) are also known to play important regulatory roles in eukaryotic cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • LncRNAs can also function as endogenous competitive RNAs for miRNAs and indirectly regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally. (jcancer.org)
  • Currently, mechanisms of post-transcriptional regulation by lncRNAs and miRNAs in cancer have become a hot topic. (jcancer.org)
  • miRNAs and ta-siRNAs constitute two important classes of endogenous small RNAs in plants, which play important roles in plant growth and developmental processes like embryogenesis, organ formation and patterning, shoot and root growth, and reproductive development. (springer.com)
  • RISC-loaded miRNAs carry out post-transcriptional silencing of their target(s). (springer.com)
  • miRNAs are well-studied subset of hairpin RNAs defined by the highly precise excision of one or more functional products, which are called as mature miRNAs. (springer.com)
  • Transcriptome analysis has been utilized extensively to identify non-coding RNAs such as miRNAs and long intergenic non-coding (LINC) RNAs. (intechopen.com)
  • The mechanisms by which RNAi works is initiated by a progressive cleavage of dsRNA into 21 to 23 nucleotide (nt) short interfering RNAs (siRNAs). (ebi.ac.uk)
  • [26] RNA silencing refers to the silencing activity of a range of small RNAs and is generally regarded as a broader category than RNAi. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the terms have sometimes been used interchangeably in the literature, RNAi is generally regarded as a branch of RNA silencing. (wikipedia.org)
  • The purpose of this RFA is to stimulate research towards (1) understanding uptake and processing of RNAi by target tissues, (2) assessing stability, half-life and off-target effects in target tissues, and (3) determining optimal delivery methods for uptake by the target tissues. (nih.gov)
  • RNA-FISH analysis showed that SPRY4-IT1 is predominantly localized in the cytoplasm of melanoma cells, and SPRY4-IT1 RNAi knockdown results in defects in cell growth, differentiation, and higher rates of apoptosis in melanoma cell lines. (aacrjournals.org)
  • An efficient alternative to transfection of siRNAs synthesized in vitro is the introduction of recombinant viral vectors expressing short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) that take advantage of the cellular RNAi pathways for subsequent processing to active siRNAs in vivo . (washington.edu)
  • [1] Historically, RNAi was known by other names, including co-suppression , post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS), and quelling . (wikipedia.org)
  • The detailed study of each of these seemingly different processes elucidated that the identity of these phenomena were all actually RNAi. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNAi may be used for large-scale screens that systematically shut down each gene in the cell, which can help to identify the components necessary for a particular cellular process or an event such as cell division . (wikipedia.org)
  • RNAi is an RNA-dependent gene silencing process that is controlled by the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) and is initiated by short double-stranded RNA molecules in a cell's cytoplasm, where they interact with the catalytic RISC component argonaute . (wikipedia.org)
  • Exogenous dsRNA initiates RNAi by activating the ribonuclease protein Dicer, [8] which binds and cleaves double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) in plants, or short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) in humans, to produce double-stranded fragments of 20-25 base pairs with a 2-nucleotide overhang at the 3' end. (wikipedia.org)
  • The phenomenon of RNAi process can be divided into three steps. (intechopen.com)
  • The efficient gene silencing achieved by these short hairpin RNA (shRNA) molecules and the cumulative understanding of the RNAi pathway has prompted the development of hairpin expression vectors capable of mediating stable gene silencing in vitro and in vivo. (bl.uk)
  • Subsequently, we used lentivirally-mediated RNAi to study disease processes in the retina concentrating on tight junction (TJ) modulators ZO-1 and ZONAB and their role in RPE homeostasis, cell-cycle progression and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). (bl.uk)
  • Overall, small RNAs tended to align with CAGE (cap-analysis of gene expression) tags, which mark the 5' ends of capped, long RNA transcripts. (nih.gov)
  • Prokaryotic RNAse III also plays a role in the maturation of tRNA precursors and in the processing of phage and plasmid transcripts. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • [4] CDGS involves the assembly of small RNA complexes on nascent transcripts and is regarded as encompassing mechanisms of action which implicate transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) and co-transcriptional gene silencing (CTGS) events. (wikipedia.org)
  • Single strand RNA transcripts: ssRNA. (wikiversity.org)
  • Her group investigates the molecular transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms that control RNA levels of protein-coding and non-coding transcripts in response to cellular or developmental programmes. (biologists.org)
  • We are looking at highly regulated messenger RNA coding transcripts, and also non-coding transcripts for a conceptual angle, and we want to understand how the cells are able to regulate transcripts differently in response to the needs of the cell. (biologists.org)
  • All of these types of RNAs begin as primary transcripts copied from DNA by one of the RNA polymerases. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Almost all RNAs have extra sequences at one or both ends of the primary transcripts that must be removed. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Ribosomal RNAs are synthesized as long primary transcripts that contain several different rRNAs separated by spacer regions (see figure). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Dr. Corden's lab has shown that this pathway is important for formation of the 3' ends of small nuclear and nucleolar RNA transcripts in yeast. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Deutschmann AJ et al (2014) Mutation or knock-down of 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 10 cause loss of MRPP1 and impaired processing of mitochondrial heavy strand transcripts. (springer.com)
  • The diversity of processed transcripts in eukaryotic genomes poses a challenge for the classification of their biological functions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Glutathione S -transferase-Mta bound to BMRF1 and BMLF1 transcripts but not to a control cellular gene RNA. (asm.org)
  • Design By utilising large scale transcriptome sequencing of three paired HCC clinical specimens and their adjacent non-tumour (NT) tissue counterparts at depth, we discovered an average of 20 007 inferred A to I (adenosine to inosine) RNA editing events in transcripts. (bmj.com)
  • Stable transcripts like mRNA and SUTs terminate through a process linked to cleavage and polyadenylation while snoRNAs and CUTs terminate through the Nrd1-Nab3-Sen1 (NNS) pathway ( 8 - 14 ). (asm.org)
  • In the case of ribosomal RNAs (rRNA) , they are often transcribed as a pre-rRNA which contains one or more rRNAs, the pre-rRNA is cleaved and modified (2′-O-methylation and pseudouridine formation) at a specific sites by approximately 150 different small nucleolus-restricted RNA species, called small nucleolar RNAs(snoRNAs) , which like snRNAs, snoRNAs associate with proteins, forming snoRNPs. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Eukaryotic RNase III's participate (through direct cleavage) in rRNA processing, in processing of small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) and snRNA's (components of the spliceosome). (ebi.ac.uk)
  • This interest has been largely stimulated by the discovery of large families of small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) and the analysis of their functions in rRNA production and ribosome biogenesis. (plantcell.org)
  • For example, these studies demonstrated that enzymes detect double-stranded RNA ( dsRNA ) not normally found in cells and digest it into small pieces that are not able to cause disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, the most frequent type of editing is the conversion of A to I, which is catalysed by the dsRNA specific ADAR family of RNA editing enzymes. (bmj.com)
  • [6] When the dsRNA is exogenous (coming from infection by a virus with an RNA genome or laboratory manipulations), the RNA is imported directly into the cytoplasm and cleaved to short fragments by Dicer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enzymes search double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) that is normally present in cells and digest it into small pieces that render them inefficient to cause disease. (intechopen.com)
  • This post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism limits iron utilization in nonessential pathways and activates essential iron-dependent enzymes such as ribonucleotide reductase, which is required for DNA synthesis and repair. (mdpi.com)
  • These works are destined to reach final pathway of work "Function and Structure of Spliceosome" in addition to exciting new exploitation of other noncoding RNAs in all aspects of regulatory functions. (hindawi.com)
  • This brief review focuses on the molecular mechanism of ceRNA as part of the complex post-transcriptional regulatory circuit in cell and the impact of ceRNAs in development and disease. (hindawi.com)
  • The regulatory functions of m 5 C modifications in RNA are still not fully understood. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here we describe genome-engineering based evaluation of RNA regulatory element activity (GenERA), a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 platform for in situ high-content functional analysis of RREs. (nature.com)
  • This study provides a genome editing-based multiplex strategy for direct functional interrogation of RNA cis -regulatory elements in a native cellular environment. (nature.com)
  • Within this context, intragenic non-coding RNA cis -regulatory elements (RREs) provide an essential post-transcriptional control layer, through regulation of RNA stability, localisation and processing 1 . (nature.com)
  • Introns are RNA segments which are not found in the mature RNA, although they can function as precursors, e.g. for snoRNAs , which are RNAs that direct modification of nucleotides in other RNAs. (thefullwiki.org)
  • and modifying RNA nucleotides either at the ends of an RNA or within the body of the RNA. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The removal of individual nucleotides from the ends of the RNA strand is carried out by any of several ribonucleases (enzymes that cut RNA), called exoribonucleases. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Modification of RNA nucleotides can occur at the ends of an RNA molecule or at internal positions. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The most modified RNAs are tRNAs containing approximately 2-22 modified nucleotides per molecule of ~75 nucleotide length, and there have been more than 130 different signature modified nucleotides reported [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Crystallographic and modeling studies of RNase III suggest a mechanism for double-stranded RNA cleavage. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • An entire section of RNA sequence can be removed by cleavage in the middle of an RNA strand. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Just as with the cleavage enzymes, the splicing machinery recognizes particular sites within the RNA, in this case the junctions between exons and introns, and cleaves and rejoins the RNA at those positions. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Since mitochondrial DNA is transcribed as a polycistronic message comprised of three forms of RNA (rRNA, mRNA, and tRNA), proper 5′- and 3′-end cleavage is essential. (springer.com)
  • Selection of transcript cleavage and polyadenylation sites is a dynamic process that produce. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The most well-studied outcome is post-transcriptional gene silencing, which occurs when the guide strand pairs with a complementary sequence in a messenger RNA molecule and induces cleavage by Argonaute 2 (Ago2), the catalytic component of the RISC . (wikipedia.org)
  • The studies presented here expand the catalogue of cellular small RNAs and demonstrate a biological impact for at least one class of non-canonical small RNAs. (nih.gov)
  • Mitochondria are involved in a wide range of fundamental cellular processes, from cellular energy production to thermogenesis, lipid biosynthesis and cell death. (findaphd.com)
  • This protein contains six consensus RNA-binding domains and is conserved as to sequence, domain organization, and cellular location from yeast to human. (diva-portal.org)
  • We will briefly examine each of these and then discuss how they are applied to the various types of cellular RNAs. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In the study of cellular RNA chemistry, a major thrust of research focused upon sequence determinations for decades. (hindawi.com)
  • Cellular RNAs are posttranscriptionally modified at various points in the primary RNA transcript as well as processed. (hindawi.com)
  • In cellular RNA metabolisms, RNA maturation is performed through various structural alterations that include chemical modifications of constituent components. (hindawi.com)
  • They are implicated in a number of cellular processes involving alteration of RNA secondary structure such as translation initiation, nuclear and mitochondrial splicing, and ribosome and spliceosome assembly. (genecards.org)
  • Post-transcriptional changes in RNA processing are essential regulators for most, if not all, cellular responses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Deciphering the prevalence and functional impact of this post-transcriptional control layer requires technologies for disrupting RREs without perturbing cellular homeostasis. (nature.com)
  • the structure/function of various cellular RNAs, recombinant DNA technology. (mun.ca)
  • Thus, we wondered whether the general RNA chaperone Hfq might be involved in controlling cellular processes and virulence in the phytopathogen. (asm.org)
  • We have generated a whole transcriptome dataset (mRNA, miRNA, and lincRNA) of macrophages in the healthy heart and at different stages post-injury, providing an important resource for improving understanding of how macrophages integrate, process, and respond to signals from their local environment. (sebbm.es)
  • It has recently been discovered that, apart from protein-coding ceRNAs, pseudogenes, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), and circular RNAs act as miRNA "sponges" by sharing common MRE, inhibiting normal miRNA targeting activity on mRNA. (hindawi.com)
  • Biogenesis of sRNAs (miRNA and ta-siRNA) is a multistep process involving various components specific for each type. (springer.com)
  • aims to bring together leading academic scientists, researchers and research scholars to exchange and share their experiences and research results on all aspects of Gene Expression and Post-Translational Modifications. (waset.org)
  • Also, high quality research contributions describing original and unpublished results of conceptual, constructive, empirical, experimental, or theoretical work in all areas of Gene Expression and Post-Translational Modifications are cordially invited for presentation at the conference. (waset.org)
  • ICGEPTM 2020 has teamed up with the Special Journal Issue on Gene Expression and Post-Translational Modifications . (waset.org)
  • These processing steps include the removal of extra sections of RNA, specific modifications of RNA bases, and modifications of the ends of the RNA. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Some internal modifications, particularly of tRNAs and rRNAs, are necessary for these RNAs to carry out their functions in protein synthesis. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Another is chain expansion demonstrated by modifications observed on polyadenylation, U-addition at 3′ ends, 5′-cap formation at 5′ ends, and insertions within trypanosome RNA. (hindawi.com)
  • As learned from studying ribosomal and transfer RNAs, two of the key features influencing the function of RNA are its structure and post-transcriptional modifications. (deepdyve.com)
  • A deep understanding of RNA function therefore requires rapid and straightforward approaches to study the complex and intricate landscape of RNA structures and modifications. (deepdyve.com)
  • We also discuss the potential functions of m 5 C in RNA and compare them to 6-methyladenosine modifications. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although RNA modifications are more prevalent and diverse in their chemical nature than DNA modifications [ 1 ], our knowledge of their occurrence and function in RNA is generally limited. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Post-transcriptional modifications are highly likely to add complexity to RNA-mediated functions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS) tools has enabled the identification of RNA modifications both globally and in a substrate-specific manner. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In human cancers, aberrant post-transcriptional modifications, such as alternative splicing and RNA editing, may lead to tumour specific transcriptome diversity. (bmj.com)
  • Such regulation is only partially dependent on the circadian clock, showing that systemic pathways and feeding patterns contribute important posttranscriptional control of gene expression in liver. (pnas.org)
  • The components involved in this complex process have been identified using a molecular genetic approach in Arabidopsis and classified into genetically separable pathways. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • RNA silencing describes several mechanistically related pathways which are involved in controlling and regulating gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • [8] It has also been observed that the major RNA silencing pathways currently identified have mechanisms of action which may involve both post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) [22] as well as chromatin-dependent gene silencing (CDGS) pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular mechanisms of signalling (Molecules involved in signalling pathways, receiving and processing of signals, communication between cells) 8. (muni.cz)
  • Here, we report that Salmonella infection induces P-body disassembly in a cell type-specific manner, and independently of previously characterized pathways such as inhibition of host cell RNA synthesis or microRNA-mediated gene silencing. (jove.com)
  • In plants, it serves as an antiviral defense, and small RNA pathways serve as a defense against viruses and other invading nucleic acids. (intechopen.com)
  • This chapter focuses on the interactions between host small RNA pathways and viral suppressors of silencing. (intechopen.com)
  • Small RNAs (sRNAs) of 21-24 nucleotide length are derived from double-stranded RNAs through the combined activity of several biogenesis and processing components. (springer.com)
  • We endeavored to resolve this controversy by applying a new technique for non-isotopic labeling of RNA and examined the synthesis and movement of non-isotopically labeled rRNA within the nucleolus. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Our results indicate functional compartmentalization of DFCs with respect to the synthesis and processing of precursor rRNA. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In the dipteran Chironomus tentans, RBD-1 (Ct-RBD-1) binds pre-rRNA in vitro and anti-Ct-RBD-1 antibodies repress pre-rRNA processing in vivo. (diva-portal.org)
  • Indeed, there has been a recent resurgence of interest in the production of rRNA, the most abundant RNA in the cell, and in the cell biology of the nuclear domain in which ribosome biogenesis occurs-the nucleolus. (plantcell.org)
  • In this review, we describe recent studies of rRNA processing, concentrating mainly on the role of snoRNAs. (plantcell.org)
  • ① Plasmid-expressed short hairpin RNA (shRNA) requires the activity of endogenous Exportin 5 for nuclear export [10]. (invivogen.com)
  • Multiple RNA processing and modification steps ensure that a proper level of functional mRNA or ncRNA is produced in the right place and at the correct time. (theses.cz)
  • The first part of this work is focused on, a recently described, internal modification of adenosine to N6-methyladenosine involved in regulation of multiple RNA metabolic processes such as splicing, nuclear export, translation or RNA decay. (theses.cz)
  • Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. (rightdiagnosis.com)
  • This work offered an exciting problem of posttranscriptional modification and underwent numerous significant advances through technological revolutions during pregenomic, genomic, and postgenomic eras. (hindawi.com)
  • The post-transcriptional modification 5-methylcytosine (m 5 C) occurs in a wide range of coding and non-coding RNAs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It contains special part called C-terminal domain (CTD) that is rich of serines, which after being phosphorylated accumulate factors necessary for RNA modification and maturation. (academic.ru)
  • When the GFP -transcribed region was targeted, PTGS affected both transgene and viral RNA levels. (plantcell.org)
  • however, viral RNA levels were unaffected. (plantcell.org)
  • In this example, no methylation of the rbcS DNA was associated with the reduction in rbcS transcript levels, and viral RNA levels were unaffected. (plantcell.org)
  • Through RNA silencing, plant cells recognize this viral genetic material, remember and copy it so that other cells in the organism can be warned to destroy the virus. (intechopen.com)
  • This combination of epigenetic and post-transcriptional control gives precision to the control of FLC expression and flowering time. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • We hypothesize that lncRNAs play a critical role in an EMT gene expression program governed in part by RNA-mediated epigenetic regulation leading to resistance to conventional therapies in breast cancer. (albany.edu)
  • Combined, these data support an epigenetic model of PTGS in which transgene methylation is associated with an RNA-DNA interaction that ensures that PTGS is maintained. (plantcell.org)
  • LncRNAs regulate gene expression at transcriptional, post-transcriptional, and epigenetic levels via multiple action modes. (jcancer.org)
  • It has been suggested that ncRNAs can regulate gene expression at transcriptional, post-transcriptional, and epigenetic levels, thereby participating in physiological and pathological processes [ 2 , 4 ]. (jcancer.org)
  • Yeast Nrd1, Nab3, and Sen1 transcriptome-wide binding maps suggest multiple roles in post-transcriptional RNA processing. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • In each instance, homology-based, RNA-directed methylation was associated with silencing. (plantcell.org)
  • The finding adds to mounting evidence that tiny strands of RNA -- called microRNA -- play key roles in some of the deadliest types of cancer. (eurekalert.org)
  • In 2007, deVere White was part of a team that identified miR-125b, a gene that encodes for a microRNA that jump starts prostate cancer cell growth midway through the disease process, eventually causing it to become fatal. (eurekalert.org)
  • These small dsRNAs are called small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). (invivogen.com)
  • [10] These short double-stranded fragments are called small interfering RNAs ( siRNAs ). (wikipedia.org)
  • They are currently investigating the mechanism by which RNA sequences in the nascent transcript trigger Pol II termination. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Iron is an essential micronutrient for all eukaryotic organisms because it participates as a redox cofactor in a wide variety of biological processes. (mdpi.com)
  • Authoritative and cutting-edge, RNA Detection and Visualization: Methods and Protocols offers well-honed techniques in order to inspire researchers around the world to further our knowledge of the vital biological significance of RNA. (springer.com)
  • The identification of cancer-associated long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) and the investigation of their molecular and biological functions are important to understand the molecular biology of cancer and its progression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • ceRNAs are widely implicated in many biological processes. (hindawi.com)
  • Inopportunely, the biological mechanism underlying this brain process is poorly understood. (biology-online.org)
  • Its application as a model organism has contributed to the characterization of important biological processes and more than 70,000 publications. (g3journal.org)
  • Determining these protein-RNA binding residues can help to elucidate the underlying mechanisms, to control biological processes, or to design RNA-based drug. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We found that FTO preferentially binds to the pre-mRNA and that the FTO-mediated RNA demethylation triggers alternative exon inclusion. (theses.cz)
  • An accessory subcomplex made of the m 1 A9 methyltransferase MRPP1 and the dehydrogenase MRPP2 binds to the metallonuclease MRPP3 that cleaves the RNA phosphodiester backbone. (springer.com)
  • The Neuroprotective Marine Compound Psammaplysene A Binds the RNA-Binding Protein HNRNPK. (harvard.edu)
  • probably binds RNA as a homodimer. (nih.gov)
  • Molecular biology: The long and short of RNAs. (nih.gov)
  • Reflecting the speedy growth within the box, the ebook offers the present figuring out of molecular mechanisms of post-transcriptional gene law thereby concentrating on RNA processing mechanisms in eucaryotic cells. (netdesszert.hu)
  • Recent advances in resolving the structure of the nucleolus and in the number of protein and RNA probes that are available have also made it possible to relate subcellular structure to molecular events. (plantcell.org)
  • The course aims to provide students with basic knowledge on fundamental processes of molecular biology and their mechanisms of regulation needed to understand the causes of genetic diseases and those related to physical inactivity. (uniurb.it)
  • It is noted that RNA sequencing can aid the determination of the molecular pathogenesis of diseases. (hindawi.com)
  • In this review, we discuss what is known about the mitochondrial RNase P complex, the molecular mechanism of 5′-end mitochondrial tRNA processing, and how loss of this activity causes human disease. (springer.com)
  • The aim of this lecture is to provide the introduction into molecular biology and into general processes by which the cells express their genetic information. (muni.cz)
  • Identification of post-transcriptional regulation in gastric cancer can help to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in genesis and development of gastric cancer, thus providing new clues for clinical diagnosis and therapy. (jcancer.org)
  • Prokaryotic RNAse III is important in post-transcriptional control of mRNA stability and translational efficiency. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Post-transcriptional control, including mRNA transport, stability, and translation, plays a crucial role in plant growth and development (Choi et al . (wiley.com)
  • While RNA silencing is an evolving class of mechanisms, a common theme is the fundamental relationship between small RNAs and gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • We want to understand both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms involved. (biologists.org)
  • One direction aims to understand how RNA regulators are recruited to RNA and to uncover transcriptional mechanisms that regulate their recruitment. (biologists.org)
  • It was also envisioned that processing mechanisms could be discerned by comparing the genomic structure with the RNA sequence determined using cDNA methods. (hindawi.com)
  • Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product . (thefullwiki.org)
  • It is imperative to understand how RNA structure complements the functional definition of RNA. (hindawi.com)
  • These results suggest that functional disorder of acclimative responses to flooding through transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulations is involved in occurring flooding injury to soybean seedlings. (springer.com)
  • ⑧ RISC delivers the mRNA to cytoplasmic foci named processing bodies (P-bodies or GW-bodies) wherein mRNA decay factors are concentrated [17, 18]. (invivogen.com)
  • Borowski LS, Dziembowski A, Hejnowicz MS, Stepien PP, Szczesny RJ (2013) Human mitochondrial RNA decay mediated by PNPase-hSuv3 complex takes place in distinct foci. (springer.com)
  • Using yeast three-hybrid, electrophoretic mobility shift, RNA immunoprecipitation, and protoplast transient assays, we found that AtBRNs bind to the 3′ UTR of SOC1 RNA and participate in mRNA decay, which was mediated by the distal region of the SOC1 3′ UTR. (wiley.com)
  • Abdelhaleem M. RNA helicases: regulators of differentiation. (sickkids.ca)
  • We have characterized a novel protein, RNA-binding domain-1 (RBD-1), that is involved in ribosome biogenesis. (diva-portal.org)
  • Antonicka H, Shoubridge EA (2015) Mitochondrial RNA granules are centers for posttranscriptional RNA processing and ribosome biogenesis. (springer.com)
  • These native siRNA duplexes are then incorporated into a protein complex called RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Cells can trim double stranded RNA to form small inhibitory RNA (siRNA). (wikiversity.org)
  • The sense and antisense RNA strands form double strand RNA (Figure 2, top) that is processed to small (about 20 base pairs long) inhibitory RNA (siRNA). (wikiversity.org)
  • Each siRNA is unwound into two single-stranded RNAs (ssRNAs), the passenger strand and the guide strand. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some organisms, this process spreads systemically, despite the initially limited molar concentrations of siRNA . (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) cannot be translated into protein and can be divided into 2 major categories according to their lengths: long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) and small noncoding RNAs (sncRNAs) [ 1 ]. (jcancer.org)
  • Supplying synthetic promoter-associated small RNAs corresponding to the c-MYC transcriptional start site reduced MYC messenger RNA abundance. (nih.gov)
  • RNA silencing functions by repressing translation or by cleaving messenger RNA ( mRNA ), depending on the amount of complementarity of base-pairing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Messenger RNA Accumulation. (nhbs.com)
  • Posttranscriptional Processing of Messenger RNA. (nhbs.com)
  • Messenger RNA (mRNA) translation and thereby gene expression depend on the cell's ability to produce vast numbers of ribosomes, the major component of the translational machinery. (plantcell.org)
  • The protein-containing complex was named "RNA-induced silencing complex", RISC. (wikiversity.org)
  • Diagram showing how the anti-sense RNA (the yellow strand in this diagram) of the RISC complex targets destruction of complementary mRNA. (wikiversity.org)
  • The passenger strand is degraded and the guide strand is incorporated into the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). (wikipedia.org)
  • In the nucleus, tRNA 5′-end processing is carried out by the first identified ribozyme, RNase P. In contrast, mitochondrial tRNAs are processed by a three-protein complex, mitochondrial RNase P, which does not have an RNA component. (springer.com)
  • Dubrovsky EB, Dubrovskaya VA, Levinger L, Schiffer S, Marchfelder A (2004) Drosophila RNase Z processes mitochondrial and nuclear pre-tRNA 3′ ends in vivo . (springer.com)
  • Finally, we propose a model in which RBM7 potentially targets post-transcriptionally uridylated RNA molecules. (theses.cz)
  • PCFGs have application in areas as diverse as natural language processing to the study the structure of RNA molecules and design of programming languages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oliviero, Salvatore 2017-04-01 00:00:00 A large fraction of higher metazoan genomes transcribe RNA molecules whose functions extend far beyond carrying instructions for protein synthesis. (deepdyve.com)
  • The hnRNP protein has a strong affinity for polypyrimidine-rich RNA and for single-stranded polypyrimidine-rich DNA. (harvard.edu)
  • These MRE sharing elements form the posttranscriptional ceRNA network to regulate mRNA expression. (hindawi.com)
  • Small non-coding RNAs regulate various aspects of plant development. (springer.com)
  • Many small RNAs, including the previously described promoter-associated small RNAs, appeared to possess cap structures. (nih.gov)
  • Aberrant 3' oligoadenylation of spliceosomal U6 small nuclear RNA in poikiloderma with neutropenia. (sickkids.ca)
  • Other classes of small RNA have been identified, including piwi-interacting RNA ( piRNA ) and its subspecies repeat associated small interfering RNA ( rasiRNA ). (wikipedia.org)
  • A range of diverse functions have been proposed for a growing number of characterized small RNA sequences-e.g., regulation of developmental, neuronal cell fate, cell death, proliferation, fat storage, haematopoietic cell fate, insulin secretion. (wikipedia.org)
  • [23] This is significant at least because the evidence suggests that small RNAs play a role in the modulation of chromatin structure and TGS. (wikipedia.org)
  • To the extent it is useful to craft a distinction between these related concepts, RNA silencing may be thought of as referring to the broader scheme of small RNA related controls involved in gene expression and the protection of the genome against mobile repetitive DNA sequences, retroelements, and transposons to the extent that these can induce mutations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Present review addresses the advances made in the understanding of biogenesis of plant small RNAs and their role in plant development. (springer.com)
  • Recent studies identified orthologues of different biogenesis components of novel and conserved small RNAs from different model plants. (springer.com)
  • Although many small RNAs have been identified from diverse plant species, only a handful of them have been functionally characterized. (springer.com)
  • We have previously found that small RNAs (sRNAs) play an important role in A. tumefaciens ( 68 ). (asm.org)
  • It will exploit dual RNA- and Ribo-seq to reveal Toxoplasma and Neospora transcriptional and translational reprogramming in naïve and IFNG-stimulated macrophages. (eastscotbiodtp.ac.uk)
  • Translational and post-translational control. (uniurb.it)
  • Genome translation (Translation of bacterial and eukaryotic mRNA, the ribosome structure, post-translational processing) 6. (muni.cz)
  • Alan Hodgkinson's group aims to exploit both DNA and RNA sequencing to gain a better understanding of the factors that influence mitochondrial genome processing (see: Hodgkinson et al. (findaphd.com)
  • Initially the project will focus on combining large amounts of RNA sequencing data to determine the genetic drivers of post-transcriptional processes in human mitochondria via genome-wide association studies. (findaphd.com)
  • To understand the transcriptional responses to flooding stress in roots including hypocotyl of soybean seedlings, genome-wide changes in gene expression were analyzed using a soybean microarray chip containing 42,034 60-mer oligonucleotide probes. (springer.com)
  • The genome-wide investigation of APA has been hampered by an inability to reliably profile it using conventional RNA-seq. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We introduce a k -mer-based computational protocol, DE-kupl, for capturing local RNA variation in a set of RNA-seq libraries, independently of a reference genome or transcriptome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • RNA splicing is similar to trimming in that it removes extra RNA sequences, but it is different because the sequence is removed from the middle of an RNA and the two flanking pieces are joined together again (see figure). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Based on the ever-increasing number of RNA sequences, it was determined that most coding RNAs mature as a result of alternative splicing. (hindawi.com)
  • The Inside-Outside algorithm is used in model parametrization to estimate prior frequencies observed from training sequences in the case of RNAs. (wikipedia.org)
  • 10 , 11 ] propose a Naive Bayes classifier named RNABindR that can predict RNA-binding amino acids from 3D protein structures or protein sequences of unknown structure are most likely to interact with RNA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Non-isotopic mapping of ribosomal RNA synthesis and processing in the nucleolus. (biomedsearch.com)
  • She is also interested in the regulation of ribosomal RNA synthesis in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells and in the role of dysregulated synthesis in bone marrow failure syndromes. (stanford.edu)
  • The RNA-binding protein Rrm4 constitutes a key component of microtubule-dependent mRNA transport in filaments of Ustilago maydis . (mcponline.org)
  • We describe transcriptome-wide approaches to capture the global m 5 C RNA methylome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chatfield KC et al (2015) Mitochondrial energy failure in HSD10 disease is due to defective mtDNA transcript processing. (springer.com)
  • We propose that the role of SDE1 is to synthesize a double-stranded RNA initiator of posttranscriptional gene silencing. (nih.gov)
  • RNAse III is a double stranded RNA-specific endonuclease [ PMID: 11738048 , PMID: 15016361 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Noncatalytic assembly of ribonuclease III with double-stranded RNA. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • [1] demonstrating that double-stranded RNA could act as a trigger for gene silencing. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, it was only in 1998 that experiments were described showing the unexpected power of double stranded RNA to block gene expression [6] . (wikiversity.org)
  • The roles of the double stranded RNA specific ADAR (Adenosine DeAminase that act on RNA) family members (ADARs) and the altered gene specific editing patterns were investigated in clinical specimens, cell models and mice. (bmj.com)
  • Although RNA is apparently a simple molecule, the ways in which it performs many of its functions have remained highly elusive for decades. (deepdyve.com)
  • As with the other types of RNA processing, the enzymes that modify RNAs are directed to specific sites on the RNA. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) is a homology-dependent process that reduces cytoplasmic RNA levels. (plantcell.org)