RNA transcripts of the DNA that are in some unfinished stage of post-transcriptional processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL) required for function. RNA precursors may undergo several steps of RNA SPLICING during which the phosphodiester bonds at exon-intron boundaries are cleaved and the introns are excised. Consequently a new bond is formed between the ends of the exons. Resulting mature RNAs can then be used; for example, mature mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER) is used as a template for protein production.
Use for nucleic acid precursors in general or for which there is no specific heading.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.
The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Short chains of RNA (100-300 nucleotides long) that are abundant in the nucleus and usually complexed with proteins in snRNPs (RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL NUCLEAR). Many function in the processing of messenger RNA precursors. Others, the snoRNAs (RNA, SMALL NUCLEOLAR), are involved with the processing of ribosomal RNA precursors.
The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.
A process that changes the nucleotide sequence of mRNA from that of the DNA template encoding it. Some major classes of RNA editing are as follows: 1, the conversion of cytosine to uracil in mRNA; 2, the addition of variable number of guanines at pre-determined sites; and 3, the addition and deletion of uracils, templated by guide-RNAs (RNA, GUIDE).
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying histidine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of RNA. It includes EC 3.1.26.-, EC 3.1.27.-, EC 3.1.30.-, and EC 3.1.31.-.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Within most types of eukaryotic CELL NUCLEUS, a distinct region, not delimited by a membrane, in which some species of rRNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) are synthesized and assembled into ribonucleoprotein subunits of ribosomes. In the nucleolus rRNA is transcribed from a nucleolar organizer, i.e., a group of tandemly repeated chromosomal genes which encode rRNA and which are transcribed by RNA polymerase I. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology & Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Ribonucleic acid in fungi having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
Nuclear nonribosomal RNA larger than about 1000 nucleotides, the mass of which is rapidly synthesized and degraded within the cell nucleus. Some heterogeneous nuclear RNA may be a precursor to mRNA. However, the great bulk of total hnRNA hybridizes with nuclear DNA rather than with mRNA.
An endoribonuclease that is specific for double-stranded RNA. It plays a role in POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL RNA PROCESSING of pre-RIBOSOMAL RNA and a variety of other RNA structures that contain double-stranded regions.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Small nuclear RNAs that are involved in the processing of pre-ribosomal RNA in the nucleolus. Box C/D containing snoRNAs (U14, U15, U16, U20, U21 and U24-U63) direct site-specific methylation of various ribose moieties. Box H/ACA containing snoRNAs (E2, E3, U19, U23, and U64-U72) direct the conversion of specific uridines to pseudouridine. Site-specific cleavages resulting in the mature ribosomal RNAs are directed by snoRNAs U3, U8, U14, U22 and the snoRNA components of RNase MRP and RNase P.
Pyrazolopyrimidine ribonucleosides isolated from Nocardia interforma. They are antineoplastic antibiotics with cytostatic properties.
An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of polyadenylic acid from ATP. May be due to the action of RNA polymerase (EC 2.7.7.6) or polynucleotide adenylyltransferase (EC 2.7.7.19). EC 2.7.7.19.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).
A single-pass type I membrane protein. It is cleaved by AMYLOID PRECURSOR PROTEIN SECRETASES to produce peptides of varying amino acid lengths. A 39-42 amino acid peptide, AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES is a principal component of the extracellular amyloid in SENILE PLAQUES.
RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
RNA that has catalytic activity. The catalytic RNA sequence folds to form a complex surface that can function as an enzyme in reactions with itself and other molecules. It may function even in the absence of protein. There are numerous examples of RNA species that are acted upon by catalytic RNA, however the scope of this enzyme class is not limited to a particular type of substrate.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The processes of RNA tertiary structure formation.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the internal bonds and thereby the formation of polynucleotides or oligonucleotides from ribo- or deoxyribonucleotide chains. EC 3.1.-.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Physiologically inactive substances that can be converted to active enzymes.
A family of proteins that promote unwinding of RNA during splicing and translation.
The extent to which an RNA molecule retains its structural integrity and resists degradation by RNASE, and base-catalyzed HYDROLYSIS, under changing in vivo or in vitro conditions.
RNA molecules which hybridize to complementary sequences in either RNA or DNA altering the function of the latter. Endogenous antisense RNAs function as regulators of gene expression by a variety of mechanisms. Synthetic antisense RNAs are used to effect the functioning of specific genes for investigative or therapeutic purposes.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated RNAs they are not included in this scope.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Nucleic acid structures found on the 5' end of eukaryotic cellular and viral messenger RNA and some heterogeneous nuclear RNAs. These structures, which are positively charged, protect the above specified RNAs at their termini against attack by phosphatases and other nucleases and promote mRNA function at the level of initiation of translation. Analogs of the RNA caps (RNA CAP ANALOGS), which lack the positive charge, inhibit the initiation of protein synthesis.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
Ribonucleic acid in protozoa having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
RNA present in neoplastic tissue.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of linear RNA to a circular form by the transfer of the 5'-phosphate to the 3'-hydroxyl terminus. It also catalyzes the covalent joining of two polyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage. EC 6.5.1.3.
A large family of RNA helicases that share a common protein motif with the single letter amino acid sequence D-E-A-D (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp). In addition to RNA helicase activity, members of the DEAD-box family participate in other aspects of RNA metabolism and regulation of RNA function.
Endopeptidases that are specific for AMYLOID PROTEIN PRECURSOR. Three secretase subtypes referred to as alpha, beta, and gamma have been identified based upon the region of amyloid protein precursor they cleave.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure where it transcribes DNA into RNA. It has specific requirements for cations and salt and has shown an intermediate sensitivity to alpha-amanitin in comparison to RNA polymerase I and II. EC 2.7.7.6.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. The enzyme functions in the nucleolar structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salts than RNA polymerase II and III and is not inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
RNA molecules found in the nucleus either associated with chromosomes or in the nucleoplasm.
Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 28S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
Small kinetoplastid mitochondrial RNA that plays a major role in RNA EDITING. These molecules form perfect hybrids with edited mRNA sequences and possess nucleotide sequences at their 5'-ends that are complementary to the sequences of the mRNA's immediately downstream of the pre-edited regions.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
Constituent of 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 3200 nucleotides. 23S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The small RNAs which provide spliced leader sequences, SL1, SL2, SL3, SL4 and SL5 (short sequences which are joined to the 5' ends of pre-mRNAs by TRANS-SPLICING). They are found primarily in primitive eukaryotes (protozoans and nematodes).
The process of moving specific RNA molecules from one cellular compartment or region to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms.
Small, linear single-stranded RNA molecules functionally acting as molecular parasites of certain RNA plant viruses. Satellite RNAs exhibit four characteristic traits: (1) they require helper viruses to replicate; (2) they are unnecessary for the replication of helper viruses; (3) they are encapsidated in the coat protein of the helper virus; (4) they have no extensive sequence homology to the helper virus. Thus they differ from SATELLITE VIRUSES which encode their own coat protein, and from the genomic RNA; (=RNA, VIRAL); of satellite viruses. (From Maramorosch, Viroids and Satellites, 1991, p143)
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Ribonucleic acid in archaea having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A group of ribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A reaction that severs one of the sugar-phosphate linkages of the phosphodiester backbone of RNA. It is catalyzed enzymatically, chemically, or by radiation. Cleavage may be exonucleolytic, or endonucleolytic.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The steps that generate the 3' ends of mature RNA molecules. For most mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), 3' end processing referred to as POLYADENYLATION includes the addition of POLY A.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 5.8S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.
Lymphocyte progenitor cells that are restricted in their differentiation potential to the T lymphocyte lineage.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Small RNAs found in the cytoplasm usually complexed with proteins in scRNPs (RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL CYTOPLASMIC).
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Short RNA, about 200 base pairs in length or shorter, that does not code for protein.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A sub-subclass of endopeptidases that depend on an ASPARTIC ACID residue for their activity.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A class of untranslated RNA molecules that are typically greater than 200 nucleotides in length and do not code for proteins. Members of this class have been found to play roles in transcriptional regulation, post-transcriptional processing, CHROMATIN REMODELING, and in the epigenetic control of chromatin.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying tyrosine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Synthetic transcripts of a specific DNA molecule or fragment, made by an in vitro transcription system. This cRNA can be labeled with radioactive uracil and then used as a probe. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A leukemia/lymphoma found predominately in children and adolescents and characterized by a high number of lymphoblasts and solid tumor lesions. Frequent sites involve LYMPH NODES, skin, and bones. It most commonly presents as leukemia.
Ribonucleic acid in chloroplasts having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of single-stranded regions of DNA or RNA molecules while leaving the double-stranded regions intact. They are particularly useful in the laboratory for producing "blunt-ended" DNA molecules from DNA with single-stranded ends and for sensitive GENETIC TECHNIQUES such as NUCLEASE PROTECTION ASSAYS that involve the detection of single-stranded DNA and RNA.
An RNA-containing enzyme that plays an essential role in tRNA processing by catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of TRANSFER RNA precursors. It removes the extra 5'-nucleotides from tRNA precursors to generate mature tRNA molecules.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.
Ribonucleic acid in helminths having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying phenylalanine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
An enzyme catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of RNA at the 3'-position of a guanylate residue. EC 3.1.27.3.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system. Oligodendroglia may be called interfascicular, perivascular, or perineuronal (not the same as SATELLITE CELLS, PERINEURONAL of GANGLIA) according to their location. They form the insulating MYELIN SHEATH of axons in the central nervous system.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying lysine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.
The cells in the erythroid series derived from MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS or from the bi-potential MEGAKARYOCYTE-ERYTHROID PROGENITOR CELLS which eventually give rise to mature RED BLOOD CELLS. The erythroid progenitor cells develop in two phases: erythroid burst-forming units (BFU-E) followed by erythroid colony-forming units (CFU-E); BFU-E differentiate into CFU-E on stimulation by ERYTHROPOIETIN, and then further differentiate into ERYTHROBLASTS when stimulated by other factors.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS which is the causal agent of POLIOMYELITIS in humans. Three serotypes (strains) exist. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route, pharyngeal secretions, or mechanical vector (flies). Vaccines with both inactivated and live attenuated virus have proven effective in immunizing against the infection.
The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.

In vivo expression of the nucleolar group I intron-encoded I-dirI homing endonuclease involves the removal of a spliceosomal intron. (1/3744)

The Didymium iridis DiSSU1 intron is located in the nuclear SSU rDNA and has an unusual twin-ribozyme organization. One of the ribozymes (DiGIR2) catalyses intron excision and exon ligation. The other ribozyme (DiGIR1), which along with the endonuclease-encoding I-DirI open reading frame (ORF) is inserted in DiGIR2, carries out hydrolysis at internal processing sites (IPS1 and IPS2) located at its 3' end. Examination of the in vivo expression of DiSSU1 shows that after excision, DiSSU1 is matured further into the I-DirI mRNA by internal DiGIR1-catalysed cleavage upstream of the ORF 5' end, as well as truncation and polyadenylation downstream of the ORF 3' end. A spliceosomal intron, the first to be reported within a group I intron and the rDNA, is removed before the I-DirI mRNA associates with the polysomes. Taken together, our results imply that DiSSU1 uses a unique combination of intron-supplied ribozyme activity and adaptation to the general RNA polymerase II pathway of mRNA expression to allow a protein to be produced from the RNA polymerase I-transcribed rDNA.  (+info)

A premature termination codon interferes with the nuclear function of an exon splicing enhancer in an open reading frame-dependent manner. (2/3744)

Premature translation termination codon (PTC)-mediated effects on nuclear RNA processing have been shown to be associated with a number of human genetic diseases; however, how these PTCs mediate such effects in the nucleus is unclear. A PTC at nucleotide (nt) 2018 that lies adjacent to the 5' element of a bipartite exon splicing enhancer within the NS2-specific exon of minute virus of mice P4 promoter-generated pre-mRNA caused a decrease in the accumulated levels of P4-generated R2 mRNA relative to P4-generated R1 mRNA, although the total accumulated levels of P4 product remained the same. This effect was seen in nuclear RNA and was independent of RNA stability. The 5' and 3' elements of the bipartite NS2-specific exon enhancer are redundant in function, and when the 2018 PTC was combined with a deletion of the 3' enhancer element, the exon was skipped in the majority of the viral P4-generated product. Such exon skipping in response to a PTC, but not a missense mutation at nt 2018, could be suppressed by frame shift mutations in either exon of NS2 which reopened the NS2 open reading frame, as well as by improvement of the upstream intron 3' splice site. These results suggest that a PTC can interfere with the function of an exon splicing enhancer in an open reading frame-dependent manner and that the PTC is recognized in the nucleus.  (+info)

Selection and characterization of pre-mRNA splicing enhancers: identification of novel SR protein-specific enhancer sequences. (3/3744)

Splicing enhancers are RNA sequences required for accurate splice site recognition and the control of alternative splicing. In this study, we used an in vitro selection procedure to identify and characterize novel RNA sequences capable of functioning as pre-mRNA splicing enhancers. Randomized 18-nucleotide RNA sequences were inserted downstream from a Drosophila doublesex pre-mRNA enhancer-dependent splicing substrate. Functional splicing enhancers were then selected by multiple rounds of in vitro splicing in nuclear extracts, reverse transcription, and selective PCR amplification of the spliced products. Characterization of the selected splicing enhancers revealed a highly heterogeneous population of sequences, but we identified six classes of recurring degenerate sequence motifs five to seven nucleotides in length including novel splicing enhancer sequence motifs. Analysis of selected splicing enhancer elements and other enhancers in S100 complementation assays led to the identification of individual enhancers capable of being activated by specific serine/arginine (SR)-rich splicing factors (SC35, 9G8, and SF2/ASF). In addition, a potent splicing enhancer sequence isolated in the selection specifically binds a 20-kDa SR protein. This enhancer sequence has a high level of sequence homology with a recently identified RNA-protein adduct that can be immunoprecipitated with an SRp20-specific antibody. We conclude that distinct classes of selected enhancers are activated by specific SR proteins, but there is considerable sequence degeneracy within each class. The results presented here, in conjunction with previous studies, reveal a remarkably broad spectrum of RNA sequences capable of binding specific SR proteins and/or functioning as SR-specific splicing enhancers.  (+info)

Substrate specificities of SR proteins in constitutive splicing are determined by their RNA recognition motifs and composite pre-mRNA exonic elements. (4/3744)

We report striking differences in the substrate specificities of two human SR proteins, SF2/ASF and SC35, in constitutive splicing. beta-Globin pre-mRNA (exons 1 and 2) is spliced indiscriminately with either SR protein. Human immunodeficiency virus tat pre-mRNA (exons 2 and 3) and immunoglobulin mu-chain (IgM) pre-mRNA (exons C3 and C4) are preferentially spliced with SF2/ASF and SC35, respectively. Using in vitro splicing with mutated or chimeric derivatives of the tat and IgM pre-mRNAs, we defined specific combinations of segments in the downstream exons, which mediate either positive or negative effects to confer SR protein specificity. A series of recombinant chimeric proteins consisting of domains of SF2/ASF and SC35 in various combinations was used to localize trans-acting domains responsible for substrate specificity. The RS domains of SF2/ASF and SC35 can be exchanged without effect on substrate specificity. The RNA recognition motifs (RRMs) of SF2/ASF are active only in the context of a two-RRM structure, and RRM2 has a dominant role in substrate specificity. In contrast, the single RRM of SC35 can function alone, but its substrate specificity can be influenced by the presence of an additional RRM. The RRMs behave as modules that, when present in different combinations, can have positive, neutral, or negative effects on splicing, depending upon the specific substrate. We conclude that SR protein-specific recognition of specific positive and negative pre-mRNA exonic elements via one or more RRMs is a crucial determinant of the substrate specificity of SR proteins in constitutive splicing.  (+info)

A novel genetic screen for snRNP assembly factors in yeast identifies a conserved protein, Sad1p, also required for pre-mRNA splicing. (5/3744)

The assembly pathway of spliceosomal snRNPs in yeast is poorly understood. We devised a screen to identify mutations blocking the assembly of newly synthesized U4 snRNA into a functional snRNP. Fifteen mutant strains failing either to accumulate the newly synthesized U4 snRNA or to assemble a U4/U6 particle were identified and categorized into 13 complementation groups. Thirteen previously identified splicing-defective prp mutants were also assayed for U4 snRNP assembly defects. Mutations in the U4/U6 snRNP components Prp3p, Prp4p, and Prp24p led to disassembly of the U4/U6 snRNP particle and degradation of the U6 snRNA, while prp17-1 and prp19-1 strains accumulated free U4 and U6 snRNA. A detailed analysis of a newly identified mutant, the sad1-1 mutant, is presented. In addition to having the snRNP assembly defect, the sad1-1 mutant is severely impaired in splicing at the restrictive temperature: the RP29 pre-mRNA strongly accumulates and splicing-dependent production of beta-galactosidase from reporter constructs is abolished, while extracts prepared from sad1-1 strains fail to splice pre-mRNA substrates in vitro. The sad1-1 mutant is the only splicing-defective mutant analyzed whose mutation preferentially affects assembly of newly synthesized U4 snRNA into the U4/U6 particle. SAD1 encodes a novel protein of 52 kDa which is essential for cell viability. Sad1p localizes to the nucleus and is not stably associated with any of the U snRNAs. Sad1p contains a putative zinc finger and is phylogenetically highly conserved, with homologues identified in human, Caenorhabditis elegans, Arabidospis, and Drosophila.  (+info)

Pseudouridine mapping in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae spliceosomal U small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) reveals that pseudouridine synthase pus1p exhibits a dual substrate specificity for U2 snRNA and tRNA. (6/3744)

Pseudouridine (Psi) residues were localized in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae spliceosomal U small nuclear RNAs (UsnRNAs) by using the chemical mapping method. In contrast to vertebrate UsnRNAs, S. cerevisiae UsnRNAs contain only a few Psi residues, which are located in segments involved in intermolecular RNA-RNA or RNA-protein interactions. At these positions, UsnRNAs are universally modified. When yeast mutants disrupted for one of the several pseudouridine synthase genes (PUS1, PUS2, PUS3, and PUS4) or depleted in rRNA-pseudouridine synthase Cbf5p were tested for UsnRNA Psi content, only the loss of the Pus1p activity was found to affect Psi formation in spliceosomal UsnRNAs. Indeed, Psi44 formation in U2 snRNA was abolished. By using purified Pus1p enzyme and in vitro-produced U2 snRNA, Pus1p is shown here to catalyze Psi44 formation in the S. cerevisiae U2 snRNA. Thus, Pus1p is the first UsnRNA pseudouridine synthase characterized so far which exhibits a dual substrate specificity, acting on both tRNAs and U2 snRNA. As depletion of rRNA-pseudouridine synthase Cbf5p had no effect on UsnRNA Psi content, formation of Psi residues in S. cerevisiae UsnRNAs is not dependent on the Cbf5p-snoRNA guided mechanism.  (+info)

p53 represses ribosomal gene transcription. (7/3744)

Induction of the tumor suppressor protein p53 restricts cellular proliferation. Since actively growing cells require the ongoing synthesis of ribosomal RNA to sustain cellular biosynthesis, we studied the effect of p53 on ribosomal gene transcription by RNA polymerase I (Pol I). We have measured rDNA transcriptional activity in different cell lines which either lack or overexpress p53 and demonstrate that wild-type but not mutant p53 inhibits cellular pre-rRNA synthesis. Conversely, pre-rRNA levels are elevated both in cells which express mutant p53 and in fibroblasts from p53 knock-out mice. Transient transfection assays with a set of rDNA deletion mutants demonstrate that intergenic spacer sequences are dispensable and the minimal rDNA promoter is sufficient for p53-mediated repression of Pol I transcription. However, in a cell-free transcription system, recombinant p53 does not inhibit rDNA transcription, indicating that p53 does not directly interfere with the basal Pol I transcriptional machinery. Thus, repression of Pol I transcription by p53 may be a consequence of p53-induced growth arrest.  (+info)

The C-terminal region of hPrp8 interacts with the conserved GU dinucleotide at the 5' splice site. (8/3744)

A U5 snRNP protein, hPrp8, forms a UV-induced crosslink with the 5' splice site (5'SS) RNA within splicing complex B assembled in trans- as well as in cis-splicing reactions. Both yeast and human Prp8 interact with the 5'SS, branch site, polypyrimidine tract, and 3'SS during splicing. To begin to define functional domains in Prp8 we have mapped the site of the 5'SS crosslink within the hPrp8 protein. Immunoprecipitation analysis limited the site of crosslink to the C-terminal 5060-kDa segment of hPrp8. In addition, size comparison of the crosslink-containing peptides generated with different proteolytic reagents with the pattern of fragments predicted from the hPrp8 sequence allowed for mapping of the crosslink to a stretch of five amino acids in the C-terminal portion of hPrp8 (positions 1894-1898). The site of the 5'SS:hPrp8 crosslink falls within a segment spanning the previously defined polypyrimidine tract recognition domain in yPrp8, suggesting that an overlapping region of Prp8 may be involved both in the 5'SS and polypyrimidine tract recognition events. In the context of other known interactions of Prp8, these results suggest that this protein may participate in formation of the catalytic center of the spliceosome.  (+info)

Alternative pre-mRNA splicing in Drosophila. D. Rio - PI Alternative pre-mRNA splicing is an important mechanism for regulating gene expression in metazoans. In...
The human T-cell antigen receptor-associated T3 complex consists of at least three polypeptides, gamma, delta and epsilon. cDNA clones for the delta-chain have recently been obtained and we have used such clones to isolate the T3 delta gene. The gene has been sequenced and comprises five exons, spread over approximately 3.7 kb of DNA. Transcription of the T3 delta gene is initiated from a non-TATA promoter. S1 mapping experiments and the sequence of a novel cDNA clone show that T3 delta mRNA exists in two forms in T cells. Alternative splicing of pre-mRNA sequences corresponding to the third exon of the T3 delta gene accounts for the two species of mRNA. A putative protein, produced by translation of the shorter mRNA, would lack a transmembrane region and might be secreted or associated with the outer surface of the cell.
Ellibs Ebookstore - Ebook: Alternative pre-mRNA Splicing: Theory and Protocols - Author: Lührmann, Reinhard (#editor) - Price: 93,30€
The YTH (for YT521-B homology) is a 100-150-residue domain that has been identified in the mammalian pre-mRNA splicing factor YT521-B and its Drosophila and yeast homologues. The YTH domain is found in a number of eukaryotic nuclear proteins of unknown function that could be involved in RNA binding. It is particularly abundant in plants. The YTH domain is usually located in the middle of the protein sequence. It has been predicted that the biological function of the YTH domain is to bind to RNA [1]. The YTH domain is predicted to have a mixed α-helix-β-sheet fold, with four α-helices and six β-strands. The conservation pattern follows the predicted secondary structure, with three blocks of conserved sequence separated by loops of variable size. Notable features of the YTH domain are the highly conserved aromatic residues located in the β-sheet [1]. Some proteins known to contain a YTH domain are listed below: ...
Alternative splicing (AS) of RNA is a key mechanism for diversification of the eukaryotic proteome. In this process, different mRNA transcripts can be produced through altered excision and/or inclusion of exons during processing of the pre-mRNA molecule. Since its discovery, AS has been shown to play roles in protein structure, function, and localization. Dysregulation of this process can result in disease phenotypes. Moreover, AS pathways are promising therapeutic targets for a number of diseases. Integral membrane proteins (MPs) represent a class of proteins that may be particularly amenable to regulation by alternative splicing because of the distinctive topological restraints associated with their folding, structure, trafficking, and function. Here, we review the impact of AS on MP form and function and the roles of AS in MP-related disorders such as Alzheimer's disease ...
Processing of accumulated pre-rRNA in Atnuc-L1 mutant plants is accurate.A) Northern blot analysis using total RNA isolated from WT and Atnuc-L1-1 mutant plants
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a novel group of recently discovered class of non-coding RNAs which are formed by back-splicing of pre-RNA transcript. In recent years, studies have published genome-wide circRNA-transcriptome in a number of organisms including human, cell lines, plants and animals. We have created a manually curated database, CircRNome, which is a compiled database for both animal and plants comprising predicted as well as validated cirRNAs for each organism. This serves the most updated database created for circRNAs ...
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Alternative pre-mRNA splicing is a powerful mechanism that is exploited by higher eukaryotes to diversify their proteomes, and to differentially regulate the expression, function, and localization of mRNA and proteins. Pre-mRNA splicing is typically regulated by RNA-binding proteins that recognize cis-acting RNA elements, and either activate or repress splicing of adjacent exons in a temporal, and tissue specific, manner. Understanding how RNA-binding proteins control the splicing code is fundamental to understanding organismal development and disease. The SR proteins are a well-conserved class of RNA-binding proteins that have an essential role in the regulation of splice site selection, and have also been implicated as key regulators during other stages of RNA metabolism. The complexity of the RNA targets, and specificity of RNA binding location remains poorly understood for many members of the SR protein family. Here, we present a comprehensive study to elucidate how the SR proteins ...
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Type 1 diabetes results from the autoimmune destruction of the insulin-producing pancreatic β-cells. In addition to a major susceptibility locus in the HLA region, termed IDDM1, genetic predisposition to this disease is conferred by a locus on chromosome 11, designated IDDM2 (1). The genetic risk at IDDM2 has been attributed to the INS minisatellite (2-6), which is composed of a variable number of tandem repeat sequences. However, reanalysis of allelic association data in type 1 diabetes did not rule out intragenic variants, including a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) −23HphI (7), which is located in position −6 relative to the 3′ splice site of intron 1 (IVS1-6A/T). This SNP has been used as a surrogate marker for INS genotyping in a large number of studies to infer minisatellite haplotypes (class I/III) in disease susceptibility (2,3,6 and refs. therein). IVS1-6A/T is located in the polypyrimidine tract (PPT), a splicing signal of central importance for vertebrate 3′ splice site ...
DNA- and RNA binding protein, involved in several nuclear processes. Essential pre-mRNA splicing factor required early in spliceosome formation and for splicing catalytic step II, probably as a heteromer with NONO. Binds to pre-mRNA in spliceosome C complex, and specifically binds to intronic polypyrimidine tracts. Involved in regulation of signal-induced alternative splicing. During splicing of PTPRC/CD45, a phosphorylated form is sequestered by THRAP3 from the pre-mRNA in resting T-cells; T-cell activation and subsequent reduced phosphorylation is proposed to lead to release from THRAP3 allowing binding to pre-mRNA splicing regulatotry elements which represses exon inclusion. Interacts with U5 snRNA, probably by binding to a purine-rich sequence located on the 3 side of U5 snRNA stem 1b. May be involved in a pre-mRNA coupled splicing and polyadenylation process as component of a snRNP-free complex with SNRPA/U1A. The SFPQ-NONO heteromer associated with MATR3 may play a role in nuclear ...
Somatically acquired mutations in components of the RNA processing pathway in CLL. Presented is an overview illustrating the individual components of the RNA-processing pathway, with those components identified as being somatically mutated highlighted (*) and the mutated protein listed in red. Initially, nascent pre-mRNA transcripts undergo 5′ capping and binding of the cap-binding complex (CBC), followed by the formation of the major spliceosome, the machinery responsible for the removal of pre-mRNA introns via a stepwise mechanism. Initial assembly steps include formation of pre-spliceosome complex A (top left nuclear complex) involving recognition of the 5′ splice site by U1 snRNP (an interaction stabilized by members of the serine-arginine-rich (SR) protein family) and recognition of the 3′ SS region by the U2 Auxiliary factor U2AF and by U2snRNP. U2AF binds to the intronic polypyrimidine tract and 3′SS, and facilitates binding of U2 snRNP to the branch-point sequence. Stable U2 ...
Synonyms: Regulation of Nuclear Pre-MRNA Domain Containing 1A, RPRD1A, P15RS, Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2B-Inhibitor-Related Protein, Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 2B-Related Protein (P15INK4B-Related Protein), P15INK4B-Related Protein, HsT3101, Regulation of Nuclear Pre-MRNA Domain-Containing Protein 1A, Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 2B-Related Protein, FLJ10656.. ...
The SRPK category of kinases regulates pre-mRNA splicing by phosphorylating serine/arginine (SR)-rich splicing factors, signals splicing control in response to extracellular stimuli, and plays a part in tumorigenesis, suggesting these splicing kinases are potential therapeutic targets. for treatment of age-related macular degeneration. In Short Hatcher et al. statement the 1st irreversible SRPK1/2 inhibitor SRPKIN-1, which inhibits phosphorylation of serine/arginine (SR)-wealthy splicing elements proteins and induces a VEGF alternate splicing isoform change, resulting in anti-angiogenesis inside a damp CNV mouse model. Open up in another window INTRODUCTION Alternate pre-mRNA splicing in eukaryotic cells is definitely a prevalent procedure for growing the transcriptome difficulty and proteome variety, which is vital for keeping both mobile and cells homeostasis. This technique is catalyzed with a complicated cellular machine referred to as the spliceosome, which comprises five little ...
Significant advances have been made in elucidating the biogenesis pathway and three-dimensional structure of the UsnRNPs, the building blocks of the spliceosome. U2 and U4/U6*U5 tri-snRNPs functionally associate with the pre-mRNA at an earlier stage of spliceosome assembly than previously thought, a …
RNA editing in the mitochondrion of Trypanosoma brucei extensively alters the adenosine triphosphate synthase (ATPase) subunit 6 precursor messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) by addition of 447 uridines and removal of 28 uridines. In vivo, the guide RNA gA6[14] is thought to specify the deletion of two uridines from the editing site closest to the 3 end. In this study, an in vitro system was developed that accurately removed uridines from this editing site in synthetic ATPase 6 pre-mRNA when gA6[14] and ATP were added. Mutations in both the guide RNA and the pre-mRNA editing site suggest that base-pairing interactions control the number of uridines deleted in vitro. Thus, guide RNAs are required for RNA editing and for the transfer of genetic information to pre-mRNAs. ...
In the present study, the spatial organization of intron-containing pre-mRNAs of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genes relative to location of splicing factors is investigated. The intranuclear position of transcriptionally active EBV genes, as well as of nascent transcripts, is found to be random with res …
Ohrt, T.; Odenwälder, P.; Dannenberg, J.; Prior , M.; Warkocki, Z.; Schmitzova, J.; Karaduman, R.; Gregor, I.; Enderlein, J.; Fabrizio, P. et al.; Lührmann, R.: Molecular dissection of step 2 catalysis of yeast pre-mRNA splicing investigated in a purified system. RNA 19 (7), pp. 902 - 915 (2013 ...
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The near-atomic structure of the Chaetomium thermophilum 90S preribosome explains how assembly factors and pre-rRNA guide folding of pre-40S domains and suggests a proofreading model for the 90S-pre-40S transition. The 40S small ribosomal subunit is cotranscriptionally assembled in the nucleolus as part of a large chaperone complex called the 90S preribosome or small-subunit processome. Here, we present the 3.2-Å-resolution structure of the Chaetomium thermophilum 90S preribosome, which allowed us to build atomic structures for 34 assembly factors, including the Mpp10 complex, Bms1, Utp14 and Utp18, and the complete U3 small nucleolar ribonucleoprotein. Moreover, we visualized the U3 RNA heteroduplexes with a 5′ external transcribed spacer (5′ ETS) and pre-18S RNA, and their stabilization by 90S factors. Overall, the structure explains how a highly intertwined network of assembly factors and pre-rRNA guide the sequential, independent folding of the individual pre-40S domains while the RNA regions
During spliceosome assembly, protein-protein interactions (PPI) are sequentially formed and disrupted to accommodate the spatial requirements of pre-mRNA substrate recognition and catalysis. Splicing activators and repressors, such as SR proteins and hnRNPs, modulate spliceosome assembly and regulate alternative splicing. However, it remains unclear how they differentially interact with the core spliceosome to perform their functions. Here, we investigate the protein connectivity of SR and hnRNP proteins to the core spliceosome using probabilistic network reconstruction based on the integration of interactome and gene expression data. We validate our model by immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry of the prototypical splicing factors SRSF1 and hnRNPA1. Network analysis reveals that a factors properties as an activator or repressor can be predicted from its overall connectivity to the rest of the spliceosome. In addition, we discover and experimentally validate PPIs between the oncoprotein SRSF1 and
Assembly of the spliceosome by the stepwise binding of the snRNPs to the pre-mRNA. In the early phase of spliceosome assembly, the U1 snRNP binds to the 5 splice site (5 SS: where exon 1 ends and the intron begins), and the U2 snRNP binds to the so-called branch point (BP: near the 3 end of the intron). This spliceosome assembly intermediate is called the A complex. The subsequent binding of the U4/U6.U5 tri snRNP complex gives rise to the precatalytic B complex. The catalytic activation of the spliceosome takes place in two steps. In the first, the RNA helicase Brr2 acts to produce the Bact complex and in the second, the RNA helicase Prp2 facilitates the formation of the B* complex. This has a functional active site and, following the recruitment of the protein Cwc25, the first step of splicing takes place. In this step, the phosphodiester bond at the 5 splice site is cleaved and, at the same time, the 5 end of the intron becomes linked to the 2 hydroxyl group of an adenosine at the ...
Rlp7 and L7 association with pre-ribosomal particles is not mutually exclusive. Extracts were prepared from cells co-expressing Rlp7-HA and L7B-TAP or, as a con
Nobel Street 3, Skolkovo Innovation Center, Moscow,. room 404. Abstract:. Eukaryotic RNAs undergo extensive processing at the. post-transcriptional level, including capping, 3-cleavage and polyadenylation, and splicing. These steps happen synergistically and, at the same time, concurrently with each other and with transcription, generating multiple alternative products arising from the same locus. We will discuss several mechanisms by which long-range complementary interactions can affect pre-mRNA splicing. Overall we find a highly non-random distribution of conserved complementary regions with respect to mammalian gene structure including not only splicing signal demarcation, but also transcriptional start and stop sites. In conjunction with NGS data this leads to a hypothesis that intramolecular RNA structure in combination with splicing could serve to suppress premature transcript polyadenylation by holding it together while the spliceosome excises the intron containing the cleavage site. ...
Developmental processes require precise spatial and temporal regulation of gene expression. Accordingly, developmental biologists have always been at the forefront of gene expression analysis, and recombinant DNA techniques such as transgenic and knockout models have greatly contributed to elucidation of developmental pathways and networks. Traditionally, these studies have focused on transcription factors and repressors that regulate the timing and strength of transcription. Recently, new regulatory mechanisms have emerged, such as post-transcriptional regulation by microRNAs and co-transcriptional regulation by alternative pre-mRNA splicing.. Alternative splicing is a pre-mRNA maturation process that consists of the removal or inclusion of certain alternative exons to produce different transcripts from one genomic locus [1, 2]. Alternative splicing is now known to be prevalent in advanced eukaryotes. In humans, recent reports show that more than 98% of multi-exonic pre-mRNAs are alternatively ...
During pre-mRNA splicing, exons in the primary transcript are precisely connected to generate an mRNA. Intron lariat RNAs are formed as by-products of this process. In addition, some exonic circular RNAs (circRNAs) may also result from exon skipping as by-products. Lariat RNAs and circRNAs are both RNase R resistant RNAs. RNase R is a strong 3 to 5 exoribonuclease, which efficiently degrades linear RNAs, such as mRNAs and rRNAs; therefore, the circular parts of lariat RNAs and the circRNAs can be segregated from eukaryotic total RNAs by their RNase R resistance. Thus, RNase R resistant RNAs could provide unexplored splicing information not available from mRNAs. Analyses of these RNAs identified repeating splicing phenomena, such as re-splicing of mature mRNAs and nested splicing. Moreover, circRNA might function as microRNA sponges. There is an enormous variety of endogenous circRNAs, which are generally synthesized in cells and tissues.
HTT lowering: Lowering HTT levels has become one of the most intriguing and promising emerging therapeutic options with disease modifying potential.. RNA based approaches: HTT pre-mRNA can be targeted using antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) and mature ribonucleic acid (mRNA) with interfering RNA (RNAi), both of which enhance early degradation and lower levels of mHTT [26]. ASOs are single-stranded deoxyribonucleotide capable of altering mRNA expression through several mechanisms, including direct steric blockage, inhibition of 5′cap formation, ribonuclease H mediated decay of the pre-mRNA, and exon content modulation through splicing site binding on pre-mRNA. The goal of the antisense approach is to influence certain protein production. Once inside the cell, the ASO binds to the target mRNA or pre-mRNA, inducing its degradation and preventing the mRNA from being translated into a detrimental protein product [26,27]. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) is impermeable to ASOs, therefore it has to be ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Enzymatic N-riboside scission in RNA and RNA precursors. AU - Schramm, Vern L.. N1 - Funding Information: Research in my laboratory has been supported by the National Institutes of Health, the US Army and the G Harold and L&la Y blathers Charitable Foundation. I thank PJ Berti and CK Bagdassarian for preparing the figures.. PY - 1997/10. Y1 - 1997/10. N2 - N-ribohydrolases and transferases act on nucleosides, nucleotides and oligonucleotides to effect base removal. Advances in mechanistic and structural analysis have established that enzymes of N-riboside scission act by combinations of leaving-group and ribosyl activation. Alternative O-riboside substrates have been developed for mechanistic diagnosis. Transition-state structures have been determined, and powerful inhibitors have been designed from structural and transition-state information.. AB - N-ribohydrolases and transferases act on nucleosides, nucleotides and oligonucleotides to effect base removal. Advances in ...
MicroRNA (miRNA), one of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), regulates gene expression directly by arresting the messenger RNA (mRNA) translation, which is important for identifying putative miRNAs. In this...
This gene encodes the enzyme responsible for pre-mRNA editing of the glutamate receptor subunit B by site-specific deamination of adenosines. Studies in rat found that this enzyme acted on its own pre-mRNA molecules to convert an AA dinucleotide to an AI …
Author: Maatz, H. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2014-08; Open Access; Title: RNA-binding protein RBM20 represses splicing to orchestrate cardiac pre-mRNA processing
Splicing is initiated by a productive interaction between the pre-mRNA and the U1 snRNP, in which a short RNA duplex is established between the 5 splice site ...
GO:0006364. Any process involved in the conversion of a primary ribosomal RNA (rRNA) transcript into one or more mature rRNA molecules. ...
Burge Lab MaxEntScan::score3ss scores 23 mers using different 3ss models To score 5 splice sites go to MaxEntScan::score5ss To build your own MaxEntScan models as described in the paper (below) refer to MaxEntScan::build Reference ...
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The adenovirus major late transcription unit (MLTU) is an example of a complex alternatively spliced gene, in which more than 15 different 3 splice sites can be joined to a common 5 splice site. Maturation of the full repertoire of possible mRNAs requires late viral protein synthesis and occurs only at late stages of the infectious cycle (16-24 hpi). We are trying to decipher the mechanisms regulating alternative 3 splice site choice during the infectious cycle. Therefore, we examined the splicing activity of several 3 splice sites from the MLTU in vitro in nuclear extracts prepared from adenovirus infected cells (Ad NE) and from uninfected cells. The results suggest that pre-mRNAs with weak 3 splice sites (short, atypical polypyrimidine tracts) are activated and pre-mRNAs with long, prototypical polypyrimidine tracts are repressed in Ad NE. In fact, our data show a reciprocal correlation between the strength of a polypyrimidine tract, defined by its affinity for U2AF65K in vitro, and the ...
The current model of spliceosome assembly was developed principally from the in vitro pattern of small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) particle association with synthetic splicing substrates (reviewed in Moore et al., 1993; Madhani and Guthrie, 1994; Krämer, 1996). In mammals and yeast, spliceosome assembly progresses by the sequential addition of the U1 snRNP→U2 snRNP→U4/U6.U5 tri‐snRNP particles to the pre‐mRNA. Before 5′ splice‐site cleavage (chemical step I in splicing), the affinities of the U1 and U4 snRNAs for the splicing complex are greatly reduced and, under many (Pikielny et al., 1986; Cheng and Abelson, 1987; Konarska and Sharp, 1987) although not all (Blencowe et al., 1989) isolation conditions, the U4 snRNA is lost from the spliceosome. This model of spliceosome assembly is supported by the abridged spliceosome assembly profiles observed when splicing is inhibited by specific mutations in the pre‐mRNA or when one of the many trans‐acting components of splicing is ...
Zheng X, Cho S, Moon H, Loh TJ, Oh HK, Green MR, Shen H. Polypyrimidine tract binding protein inhibits IgM pre-mRNA splicing by diverting U2 snRNA base-pairing away from the branch point. RNA. 2014 Apr; 20(4):440-6 ...
The Let-7 microRNA precursor was identified from a study of developmental timing in C. elegans, and was later shown to be part of a much larger class of non-coding RNAs termed microRNAs. miR-98 microRNA precursor from human is a let-7 family member. Let-7 miRNAs have now been predicted or experimentally confirmed in a wide range of species (MIPF0000002). miRNAs are initially transcribed in long transcripts (up to several hundred nucleotides) called primary miRNAs (pri-miRNAs), which are processed in the nucleus by Drosha and Pasha to hairpin structures of about 70 nucleotide. These precursors (pre-miRNAs) are exported to the cytoplasm by exportin5, where they are subsequently processed by the enzyme Dicer to a ~22 nucleotide mature miRNA. The involvement of Dicer in miRNA processing demonstrates a relationship with the phenomenon of RNA interference. In human genome, the cluster let-7a-1/let-7f-1/let-7d is inside the region B at 9q22.3, with the defining marker D9S280-D9S1809. One minimal LOH ...
PRPF3_HUMAN] Participates in pre-mRNA splicing. May play a role in the assembly of the U4/U5/U6 tri-snRNP complex. [RU2A_HUMAN] This protein is associated with sn-RNP U2. It helps the A protein to bind stem loop IV of U2 snRNA. [RUXG_HUMAN] Appears to function in the U7 snRNP complex that is involved in histone 3-end processing. Associated with snRNP U1, U2, U4/U6 and U5. [SF3B1_HUMAN] Subunit of the splicing factor SF3B required for A complex assembly formed by the stable binding of U2 snRNP to the branchpoint sequence (BPS) in pre-mRNA. Sequence independent binding of SF3A/SF3B complex upstream of the branch site is essential, it may anchor U2 snRNP to the pre-mRNA. May also be involved in the assembly of the E complex. Belongs also to the minor U12-dependent spliceosome, which is involved in the splicing of rare class of nuclear pre-mRNA intron. [LSM7_HUMAN] Binds specifically to the 3-terminal U-tract of U6 snRNA and is probably a component of the spliceosome. [U520_HUMAN] RNA ...
Constitutes one of the two catalytic subunit of the tRNA-splicing endonuclease complex, a complex responsible for identification and cleavage of the splice sites in pre-tRNA. It cleaves pre-tRNA at the 5- and 3-splice sites to release the intron. The products are an intron and two tRNA half-molecules bearing 2,3-cyclic phosphate and 5-OH termini. There are no conserved sequences at the splice sites, but the intron is invariably located at the same site in the gene, placing the splice sites an invariant distance from the constant structural features of the tRNA body. Isoform 1 probably carries the active site for 5-splice site cleavage. The tRNA splicing endonuclease is also involved in mRNA processing via its association with pre-mRNA 3-end processing factors, establishing a link between pre-tRNA splicing and pre-mRNA 3-end formation, suggesting that the endonuclease subunits function in multiple RNA-processing events. Isoform 2 is responsible for processing a yet unknown RNA substrate. ...
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate cardiovascular biology and disease, but the role of flow-sensitive microRNAs in atherosclerosis is still unclear. Here we identify miRNA-712 (miR-712) as a mechanosensitive miRNA upregulated by disturbed flow (d-flow) in endothelial cells, in vitro and in vivo. We also show that miR-712 is derived from an unexpected source, pre-ribosomal RNA, in an exoribonuclease-dependent but DiGeorge syndrome critical region 8 (DGCR8)-independent manner, suggesting that it is an atypical miRNA. Mechanistically, d-flow-induced miR-712 downregulates tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 (TIMP3) expression, which in turn activates the downstream matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and a disintegrin and metalloproteases (ADAMs) and stimulate pro-atherogenic responses, endothelial inflammation and permeability. Furthermore, silencing miR-712 by anti-miR-712 rescues TIMP3 expression and prevents atherosclerosis in murine models of atherosclerosis. Finally, we report that human miR-205 ...
Precursor mRNA (pre-mRNA) splicing is catalyzed by a large ribonucleoprotein complex known as the spliceosome. Numerous studies have indicated that aberrant splicing patterns or mutations in spliceosome components, including the splicing factor 3b subunit 1 (SF3B1), are associated with hallmark cancer phenotypes. This has led to the identification and development of small molecules with spliceosome-modulating activity as potential anticancer agents. Jerantinine A (JA) is a novel indole alkaloid which displays potent anti-proliferative activities against human cancer cell lines by inhibiting tubulin polymerization and inducing G2/M cell cycle arrest. Using a combined pooled-genome wide shRNA library screen and global proteomic profiling, we showed that JA targets the spliceosome by up-regulating SF3B1 and SF3B3 protein in breast cancer cells. Notably, JA induced significant tumor-specific cell death and a significant increase in unspliced pre-mRNAs. In contrast, depletion of endogenous SF3B1 ...
Cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor (CPSF) is relevant to the cleavage of the 3′ signaling region from a newly synthesized pre-messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) molecule. Specifically, it is in the process…. Read More Read More. ...
Excision, or splicing, of noncoding regions (introns) from precursor (pre)-mRNA in eukaryotes is catalyzed by the spliceosome, a ribonucleoprotein complex comprising recyclable small nuclear (sn)RNA and protein components. An early step in assembly of th
Pre-miR miRNA Precursor Molecules ... MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small regulatory RNAs...,Precursor,miRNAs,for,Successful,miRNA,Functional,Studies,biological,advanced biology technology,biology laboratory technology,biology device technology,latest biology technology
It almost sounds like a made up word, but the spliceosome is a very real and very complex molecular machine in the nucleus of cells, and its at the center of some exciting new Kimmel Cancer Center research.. Its job is to chop up genes so that proteins can be transcribed into cellular actions. If a spliceosome gene is mutated in a cancer, it sometimes leads to more gene mutations. These mutations may make cells look different and could attract T cells, so we are exploring spliceosome mutations as a marker for response to immunotherapy, says breast cancer researcher Natasha Hunter.. Spliceosome mutations are rare, occurring in a small fraction of cancers, including about four percent of breast cancers and about 19 percent of melanomas. Studies led by Brian Dalton revealed them as a prognosis indicator for patients with hematologic malignancies, but this new research is one of the first attempts to use them as a therapeutic target.. In conjunction with the GAITWAY Tumor Board, Hunter is leading ...
RNA-binding protein that acts as a regulator of alternative pre-mRNA splicing. Involved in apoptotic cell death through the regulation of the apoptotic factor BCL2L1 isoform expression. Modulates the ratio of proapoptotic BCL2L1 isoform S to antiapoptotic BCL2L1 isoform L mRNA expression. When overexpressed, stimulates proapoptotic BCL2L1 isoform S 5-splice site (5-ss) selection, whereas its depletion caused the accumulation of antiapoptotic BCL2L1 isoform L. Promotes BCL2L1 isoform S 5-ss usage through the 5-CGGGCA-3 RNA sequence. Its association with LUC7L3 promotes U1 snRNP binding to a weak 5 ss in a 5-CGGGCA-3-dependent manner. Binds to the exonic splicing enhancer 5-CGGGCA-3 RNA sequence located within exon 2 of the BCL2L1 pre-mRNA. Also involved in the generation of an abnormal and truncated splice form of SCN5A in heart failure.
Over three decades ago, Birchler (1979) studied the expression of several enzymes in a dosage series of the long arm of chromosome 1 in maize. Some of the gene products that were not encoded on this chromosome arm were negatively correlated in amount with the dosage of the chromosome arm. The range of effect was within the limits of an inverse correlation, and hence, this effect became known as the inverse effect. Subsequent studies on protein profiles in different dosage series of maize indicated that any one protein could be modulated in this way by several regions of the genome (Birchler and Newton 1981). Any one region would modulate some fraction of the total detectable proteins. In addition to inverse effects, there were also direct correlations of protein levels that operated in trans (i.e. variation of a particular chromosome arm would modulate the expression of a protein encoded elsewhere in the genome). Different chromosome arms produced a few to many effects. Further studies ...
The removal of introns from pre-mRNA transcripts is an essential step in the expression of almost all human genes. we are collaborating with several groups to d...
tRNase Z is an essential endonuclease responsible for tRNA 3-end maturation. tRNase Z exists in a short form (tRNase ZS) and a long form (tRNase ZL). Prokaryotes have only tRNase ZS,whereas eukaryotes can have both forms of tRNase Z.
Burge, C. B., Tuschl, T. and Sharp, P.A. Splicing of precursors to mRNAs by the spliceosomes. In RNA World II, R. Gesteland, T. Cech, and J. Atkins, eds., Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, NY, pp. 525-560 (1999) Dredge BK, Polydorides AD, Darnell RB. The splice of life: alternative splicing and neurological disease. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2001 Jan;2(1):43-50. Hastings ML, Krainer AR. Pre-mRNA splicing in the new millennium. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2001 Jun;13(3):302-9. Maniatis T, Reed R. An extensive network of coupling among gene expression machines. Nature. 2002 Apr 4;416(6880):499-506. Nilsen, T.W. RNA/RNA interactions in nuclear pre-mRNA splicing. In: RNA Structure and Function. R. Simons and M. Grunberg-Manago eds., Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, NY, pp. 279-307 (1998). Staley JP, Guthrie C. Mechanical devices of the spliceosome: motors, clocks, springs, and things. Cell. 1998 Feb 6;92(3):315-26. Tollervey D, Caceres JF. RNA processing marches on. Cell. 2000 Nov 22;103(5):703-9. ...
mirnaDetect :: DESCRIPTION A java based mining tool mirnaDetect is developed for detect potential pre-miRNAs from the genome-scale data. This program is based both on search and machine learning algorithms. ::DEVE
Moradian N, Ochs HD, Sedikies C, Hamblin MR, Camargo CA Jr, Martinez JA, Biamonte JD, Abdollahi M, Torres PJ, Nieto JJ, Ogino S, Seymour JF, Abraham A, Cauda V, Gupta S, Ramakrishna S, Sellke FW, Sorooshian A, Wallace Hayes A, Martinez-Urbistondo M, Gupta M, Azadbakht L, Esmaillzadeh A, Kelishadi R, Esteghamati A, Emam-Djomeh Z, Majdzadeh R, Palit P, Badali H, Rao I, Saboury AA, Jagan Mohan Rao L, Ahmadieh H, Montazeri A, Fadini GP, Pauly D, Thomas S, Moosavi-Movahed AA, Aghamohammadi A, Behmanesh M, Rahimi-Movaghar V, Ghavami S, Mehran R, Uddin LQ, Von Herrath M, Mobasher B, Rezaei N. ...
A complex secondary structure in U1A pre-mRNA that binds two molecules of U1A protein is required for regulation of polyadenylation.: The human U1A protein-U1A
Queen Elsa and Princess Anna are back in the trailer for Frozen II, which will likely mean more huge box office and merchandising returns for Disney.
SF3B4 is one of four subunits of the splicing factor 3B. The protein cross-links to a region in the pre-mRNA immediately upstream of the branchpoint…
Mikronizuotas L-Glutaminas su Glutamino peptidais. Glutaminas - viena iš dvidešimties pagrindinių amino rūgščių, kurios organizme yra daugiausiai - net 64% . Glutaminas detoksikuoja amoniaką, reguliuoja proteino sintezę ir protein
"A continuous reaction network that produces RNA precursors". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 117 (24): 13267- ... "New Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) Mapped Out: A high resolution gene map reveals many viral RNAs with unknown functions and ...
This protein domain provides the precursors necessary for DNA synthesis. It catalyses the biosynthesis of DNA from RNA. This ...
RNA Biology. 11 (4): 281-94. doi:10.4161/rna.28141. PMC 4075512. PMID 24643020. Bar-Eli M (May 2011). "Searching for the ' ... miR-214 is a vertebrate-specific family of microRNA precursors. The ~22 nucleotide mature miRNA sequence is excised from the ... precursor hairpin by the enzyme Dicer. This sequence then associates with RISC which effects RNA interference. miR-214 is a ...
"Prebiotic Precursors of the Primordial RNA World in Space: Detection of NH2OH". The Astrophysical Journal. 899 (2): L28. arXiv: ... "Researchers Use NRAO Telescope to Study Formation Of Chemical Precursors to Life", NRAO Press Release: 9, Bibcode:2006nrao.pres ...
Therefore, NDPK is the source of RNA and DNA precursors, except ATP. NDPK utilize specific enzyme kinetics for multi-substrate ...
The precursors for RNA are GTP, CTP, UTP and ATP, which is a major source of energy in group-transfer reactions. Scientists ... It is considered a molecular precursor of nucleic acids. Nucleotides are the basic building blocks of DNA and RNA. The monomer ... Both RNA and DNA contain two major purine bases, adenine (A) and guanine (G), and two major pyrimidines. In both DNA and RNA, ... DNA contains thymine (T) while RNA contains uracil (U). There are some rare cases where thymine does occur in RNA and uracil in ...
Precursor mRNA Messenger RNA Heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein particle Hieronymus, Haley; Pamela A. Silver (2004-12-01). "A ... When mRNA is being synthesized by RNA polymerase, this nascent mRNA is already bound by RNA 5′ end 7-methyl-guanosine capping ... one by mutations in the RNA binding protein while the other being an expansion of nucleotide repeats in the RNA. Another ... Later, the pre-mRNA is bound by the spliceosome containing exon and intron definition complexes and proteins and RNA that ...
This sequence then associates with RISC which effects RNA interference. In humans, the gene for miR-208 is located in an intron ... miR-208 is a family of microRNA precursors found in animals, including humans. The ~22 nucleotide mature miRNA sequence is ... excised from the precursor hairpin by the enzyme Dicer. ...
This sequence then associates with RISC which effects RNA interference. miR-296 has been named an "angiomiR" due to being ... miR-296 is a family of microRNA precursors found in mammals, including humans. The ~22 nucleotide mature miRNA sequence is ... excised from the precursor hairpin by the enzyme Dicer. ...
... is a family of microRNA precursors found in mammals, including humans. The ~22 nucleotide mature miRNA sequence is ... excised from the precursor hairpin by the enzyme Dicer. This sequence then associates with RISC which effects RNA interference ... Bellingham SA, Coleman BM, Hill AF (Nov 2012). "Small RNA deep sequencing reveals a distinct miRNA signature released in ...
This sequence then associates with RISC which effects RNA interference. miR-191 has been found to be dysregulated in many types ... miR-191 is a family of microRNA precursors found in mammals, including humans. The ~22 nucleotide mature miRNA sequence is ... excised from the precursor hairpin by the enzyme Dicer. ...
... is a family of microRNA precursors found in mammals, including humans. The ~22 nucleotide mature miRNA sequence is ... excised from the precursor hairpin by the enzyme Dicer. This sequence then associates with RISC which effects RNA interference ...
TNA could have been an early genetic system and a precursor to RNA. TNA is simpler than RNA and can be synthesized from a ... TNA is able to transfer back and forth information with RNA and with strands of itself that are complementary to the RNA. TNA ... due to its ability to efficiently base pair with complementary sequences of DNA and RNA. However, unlike DNA and RNA, TNA is ... Threose nucleic acid (TNA) is an artificial genetic polymer in which the natural five-carbon ribose sugar found in RNA has been ...
This sequence then associates with RISC which effects RNA interference. miR-338 is located in an intronic region within the ... miR-338 is a family of brain-specific microRNA precursors found in mammals, including humans. The ~22 nucleotide mature miRNA ... sequence is excised from the precursor hairpin by the enzyme Dicer. ...
They process precursors to ribosomal RNA, small nuclear RNA (snRNA) and small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) Yeast nucleases with the ... They process precursors to ribosomal RNA, small nuclear RNA (snRNA) and small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA). The basic dsRNA cleavage ... They are ubiquitous compounds in the cell and play a major role in pathways such as RNA precursor synthesis, RNA Silencing, and ... RNAs that are produced by Dicer act as guides for a sequence of particular silencing of cognate genes through RNAi and related ...
Both orotidylate and uridylate are major pyrimidine nucleotides, as uridylate is a precursor to RNA. Uridylate (UMP) is later ...
The resulting subgenomic RNA contains ORF2 and encodes precursor capsid protein (VP90). VP90 is proteolytically cleaved during ... Astrovirus RNA is infectious and functions as a messenger RNA for ORF1a and ORF1b. A frame-shifting mechanism between these two ... "Astroviridae - Positive Sense RNA Viruses - Positive Sense RNA Viruses (2011)". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses ... single-stranded RNA. Astrovirus has a non-segmented, single stranded, positive sense RNA genome within a non-enveloped ...
"The CRISPR-associated DNA-cleaving enzyme Cpf1 also processes precursor CRISPR RNA". Nature. 532 (7600): 517-521. doi:10.1038/ ... RNA Biology. 10 (5): 891-899. doi:10.4161/rna.23764. PMC 3737346. PMID 23403393. Mojica FJ, Díez-Villaseñor C, García-Martínez ... RNA Biology. 10 (5): 891-899. doi:10.4161/rna.23764. PMC 3737346. PMID 23403393. Archived from the original on 2014-09-04. ... from the bacterium Leptotrichia shahii is an RNA-guided CRISPR system that targets sequences in RNA rather than DNA. PAM is not ...
The M segment has a polyprotein precursor in the open reading frame. The L segment encodes for an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase ... Encoded by the M RNA segment they are involved in attachment to the host cell through unidentified receptors on the surface and ... Batai virus (BATV) is an enveloped, single-stranded, negative sense RNA genome. It is a member of the genus Orthobunyavirus and ... The structure of Batai virus (BATV) consists of an enveloped nucleocapsid that is composed of three RNA segments: small (S), ...
RNA. 4 (4): 407-17. PMC 1369627. PMID 9630247. "Entrez Gene: POP7 processing of precursor 7, ribonuclease P subunit (S. ... is required for processing of precursor tRNAs and 35S precursor rRNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A ...
... is specific for SS DNA and RNA whereas ABH2 has higher affinity for damages in double-stranded DNA. ALKBH8 has a RNA ... The methyltransferase domain generates the wobble nucleoside 5-methoxycarbonylmethyluridine (mcm5U) from its precursor 5- ... FTO, which is associated with obesity in humans, is the first identified RNA demethylase. It demethylates N6-methyladenosine in ... "N6-Methyladenosine in nuclear RNA is a major substrate of the obesity-associated FTO". Nature Chemical Biology. 7 (12): 885-887 ...
It is the precursor to many 4-anisyl derivatives. 4-Bromoanisole forms a Grignard reagent, which reacts with phosphorus ... 4-Bromoanisole is compound sometimes used in RNA extraction which serves to further eliminate DNA contamination. It interacts ... Khoury, Samantha; Ajuyah, Pamela; Tran, Nham (2014). "Isolation of Small Noncoding RNAs from Human Serum". Journal of ... containing the RNA extract. Anisole Stille, J. K.; Echavarren, Antonio M.; Williams, Robert M.; Hendrix, James A. (1993). "4- ...
"Multiple enzyme activities of Escherichia coli MutT protein for sanitization of DNA and RNA precursor pools". Biochemistry. 44 ...
This results in the depletion of nucleotide precursors and inhibition of DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis. It is classified as ... The vitamin folic acid is an oxidized precursor to reduced folates that is upstream of the blockade at dihydrofolate reductase ...
Kinniburgh, Alan; mertz, j; Ross, J. (July 1978). "The precursor of mouse β-globin messenger RNA contains two intervening RNA ... Group I and group II introns are found in genes encoding proteins (messenger RNA), transfer RNA and ribosomal RNA in a very ... and transfer RNA (tRNA). When proteins are generated from intron-containing genes, RNA splicing takes place as part of the RNA ... Padgett RA, Grabowski PJ, Konarska MM, Seiler S, Sharp PA (1986). "Splicing of messenger RNA precursors". Annu. Rev. Biochem. ...
"Accurate Processing of a Eukaryotic Precursor Ribosomal RNA by Ribonuclease MRP in Vitro". Science. 272 (5259): 268-270. doi: ... ribosomal RNA. "Zoi Lygerou". Google Scholar. Retrieved December 8, 2013. "Group Leader: Zoi Lygerou". Retrieved December 8, ...
Many Pol II transcripts exist transiently as single strand precursor RNAs (pre-RNAs) that are further processed to generate ... SRP RNA, and other stable short RNAs such as ribonuclease P RNA. RNA Polymerases I, II, and III contain 14, 12, and 17 subunits ... Unlike prokaryotic RNA polymerase that initiates the transcription of all different types of RNA, RNA polymerase in eukaryotes ... These non-coding RNAs perform a variety of important cellular functions. Eukaryotes have three nuclear RNA polymerases, each ...
Metzler M, Wilda M, Busch K, Viehmann S, Borkhardt A (Feb 2004). "High expression of precursor microRNA-155/BIC RNA in children ... RNA Biology. 7 (5): 540-547. doi:10.4161/rna.7.5.12685. PMC 3073250. PMID 21081842. Tarassishin L, Loudig O, Bauman A, Shafit- ... The MIR155HG is transcribed by RNA polymerase II and the resulting ~1,500 nucleotide RNA is capped and polyadenylated. The 23 ... "Polycistronic RNA polymerase II expression vectors for RNA interference based on BIC/miR-155". Nucleic Acids Research. 34 (7): ...
Precursor mRNA (pre-mRNA) is transcribed by RNA polymerase II in the nucleus. pre-mRNA is then processed by splicing to remove ... Other types of RNA include ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and transfer RNA (tRNA). These types are transcribed by RNA polymerase II and ... However 5s rRNA is the only rRNA which is transcribed by RNA Polymerase III. "gDNA - Definitions from Dictionary.com". ... Perry RP (1976). "Processing of RNA". Annual Review of Biochemistry. 45: 605-29. doi:10.1146/annurev.bi.45.070176.003133. PMID ...
UDP-glucose is a precursor of glycogen and can be converted into UDP-galactose and UDP-glucuronic acid, which can then be used ... DNA Nucleoside Nucleotide Oligonucleotide RNA TDP-glucose Uracil Uridine diphosphate Rademacher T, Parekh R, Dwek R (1988). " ... UDP-glucose can also be used as a precursor of sucrose, lipopolysaccharides and glycosphingolipids. UDP-glucose consists of the ...
RNA editing in plastidsEdit. RNA editing is the insertion, deletion, and substitution of nucleotides in a mRNA transcript prior ... Polypeptides, the precursors of proteins, are chains of amino acids. The two ends of a polypeptide are called the N-terminus, ... Chloroplasts also contain a mysterious second RNA polymerase that is encoded by the plant's nuclear genome. The two RNA ... Among land plants, the contents of the chloroplast genome are fairly similar[8]-they code for four ribosomal RNAs, 30-31 tRNAs ...
"Precursor miR-886, a novel noncoding RNA repressed in cancer, associates with PKR and modulates its activity". RNA. 17 (6): ... Single-molecule RNA FISH[edit]. Single-molecule RNA FISH, also known as Stellaris® RNA FISH,[11] is a method of detecting and ... doi:10.1261/rna.2701111. PMC 3096040. PMID 21518807.. *^ a b c Bernasconi, B.; Karamitopolou-Diamantiis, E.; Tornillo, L.; ... RNA Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization for the Simultaneous Detection of Immature and Mature Long Noncoding RNAs in Adherent ...
"An RNA Pseudoknot Is Required for Production of Yellow Fever Virus Subgenomic RNA by the Host Nuclease XRN1". Journal of ... so is denoted as precursor M (prM) and forms a complex with protein E. The immature particles are processed in the Golgi ... Yellow fever is caused by yellow fever virus, a 40- to 50-nm-wide enveloped RNA virus, the type species and namesake of the ... The virus is an RNA virus of the genus Flavivirus.[7] The disease may be difficult to tell apart from other illnesses, ...
RNA polymerase II synthesizes precursors of mRNAs and most snRNA and microRNAs.[3] This is the most studied type. It needs a ... Non-coding RNA or "RNA genes". These are a broad class of genes that encode RNA which is not translated into protein. The most ... RNA polymerase IV synthesizes siRNA in plants.[5]. *RNA polymerase V synthesizes RNAs involved in siRNA-directed ... RNA polymerase III synthesizes tRNAs, rRNA 5S and other small RNAs found in the nucleus and cytosol.[4] ...
amyloid precursor protein catabolic process. • apoptotic process. • activation of MAPKK activity. • thymus development. • ... negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • proteolysis. • regulation of synaptic plasticity. • ... amyloid precursor protein metabolic process. • neutrophil degranulation. • regulation of canonical Wnt signaling pathway. • ... Selkoe DJ (1994). "Cell biology of the amyloid beta-protein precursor and the mechanism of Alzheimer's disease". Annu. Rev. ...
VPg-containing precursor at the 3' end of plus- or minus-strand RNA for production of full-length RNA. Determinants of VPg ... strand RNA genome is replicated through a double-stranded RNA intermediate that is formed using viral RDRP (RNA-Dependent RNA ... The mRNA encodes RNA dependent RNA polymerase. This polymerase makes complementary minus strands of RNA, then uses them as ... Genomic RNAs of picornaviruses possess multiple RNA elements and they are required for both negative and plus strand RNA ...
... where it is initiated by recruitment of the RNA-induced transcriptional silencing (RITS) complex to double stranded RNAs ... Archaeal histones may well resemble the evolutionary precursors to eukaryotic histones.[12] Histone proteins are among the most ... "Huang R C & Bonner J. Histone, a suppressor of chromosomal RNA synthesis. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. US 48:1216-22, 1962" (PDF). ... The formation of this mark is tied to transcription in a rather convoluted manner: early in transcription of a gene, RNA ...
A fundamental building block of RNA structure crucial to RNA function in diverse biological systems". EMBO Rep. 1 (1): 18-23. ... Precursor mRNA (pre-mRNA / hnRNA). *5' capping. *Splicing. *Polyadenylation. *Histone acetylation and deacetylation ...
RNA) - ribosome - RNA - route of administration - RT-PCR - RTI - Ryan White C.A.R.E. act ... precursor cells - prevalence - primary HIV infection - primary isolate - primaquine - proctitis - prodrome - prodrug - ... messenger RNA - metabolism - metastasis - MHC - microbes - microbicide - Microsporidiosis - mitochondria - mitochondrial ...
Shimura, Y., Sakano, H. and Nagawa, F. (1978). "Specific ribonucleases involved in processing of tRNA precursors of Escherichia ... coli ribonuclease which removes an extra nucleotide from a biosynthetic intermediate of bacteriophage T4 proline transfer RNA ...
While diverse applications exist for organosilanes, silane itself has one dominant application, as a precursor to elemental ... Silane is of practical interest as a precursor to elemental silicon. ...
... in cortical precursors displaying EGFP-positive condensed apoptotic nuclei and a 2-4 fold increase in cortical precursors that ... RNA expression pattern. More reference expression data. Gene ontology. Molecular function. • receptor binding. • neurotrophin ... "Trk signaling regulates neural precursor cell proliferation and differentiation during cortical development". Development. 134 ...
This does not invalidate the concept of an RNA world, but posits that this world or its precursors originated not on Earth but ... Atkins JF, Gesteland RF, Cech T (2006). The RNA world: the nature of modern RNA suggests a prebiotic RNA world. Plainview, N.Y ... of RNAs with molecular properties predicted for RNAs of the RNA World constitutes an additional argument supporting the RNA ... Properties of RNA[edit]. The properties of RNA make the idea of the RNA world hypothesis conceptually plausible, though its ...
However, pentamidine is suspected to work through various methods of interference of critical functions in DNA, RNA, ... Precursors: L-Arginine. *Nω-Hydroxy-L-arginine (NOHA). *Cofactors: NADPH. *FAD ...
RNA silencing mechanisms are also important in the plant systemic response, as they can block virus replication.[40] The ... invertebrates possess mechanisms that appear to be precursors of these aspects of vertebrate immunity. Pattern recognition ... Baulcombe D (September 2004). "RNA silencing in plants". Nature. 431 (7006): 356-63. Bibcode:2004Natur.431..356B. doi:10.1038/ ... For example, the Influenza A virus produces NS1 protein, which can bind to host and viral RNA, interact with immune signaling ...
Alternately, trans-splicing of two non-functional RNA molecules may produce a single, functional RNA. Similarly, at the protein ... the enzyme that synthesizes penicillin is of no use to a fungus without the enzymes that synthesize the necessary precursors in ...
He originally believed those substances to be precursors of antibodies, just as zymogen is a precursor of an enzyme. But, by ... An autoantigen is usually a normal protein or protein complex (and sometimes DNA or RNA) that is recognized by the immune ...
DNA and RNA to re-construct evolutionary "family trees"; it has also been used to estimate the dates of important evolutionary ... alternative views are that modern-looking animals began evolving earlier but fossils of their precursors have not yet been ... most molecular phylogenetics research is now based on comparisons of RNA and DNA.[115] ...
Martínez, edited by Miguel Angel (2010). RNA interference and viruses : current innovations and future trends. Norfolk: Caister ... "Precursor to H.I.V. Was in Monkeys for Millennia". New York Times. Consultado o 2010-09-17. Dr. Marx cre que o evento crucial ...
negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor ... precursor structure, expression and homology to lymphotoxin". Nature. 312 (5996): 724-9. Bibcode:1984Natur.312..724P. doi: ... positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • positive regulation of leukocyte adhesion to arterial ...
Several genetic factors have been identified as contributing to AD, including mutations to the amyloid precursor protein (APP) ... Briefly, ncRNAs are involved in signaling cascades with epigenetic marking enzymes such as HMTs, and/or with RNA interference( ... As that gene's name suggests, BACE1 is an enzymatic protein that cleaves the Amyloid Precursor Protein into the insoluble ... significantly increases SMN2 RNA/protein levels in spinal muscular atrophy cells". primary. Human Genetics. 120 (1): 101-10. ...
This paper provided the first direct evidence that a fragment of the amyloid precursor protein could kill neurons, and helped ... focused on how proteins are produced from RNA in poliovirus. She dedicated her thesis to her colleagues David Rekosh and David ... "Neurotoxicity of a fragment of the amyloid precursor associated with Alzheimer's disease". Science. 245 (4916): 417-420. ...
"The human gene FALL39 and processing of the cathelin precursor to the antibacterial peptide LL-37 in granulocytes". European ...
PrP messenger RNA contains a pseudoknot structure (prion pseudoknot), which is thought to be involved in regulation of PrP ... negative regulation of amyloid precursor protein catabolic process. • positive regulation of protein localization to plasma ... "Circadian regulation of prion protein messenger RNA in the rat forebrain: a widespread and synchronous rhythm". Neuroscience. ...
There he was also appointed to the post of lecturer of Aristotelean physics at the Carolinum, the precursor of the University ...
Bartkowska K, Paquin A, Gauthier AS, Kaplan DR, Miller FD (December 2007). "Trk signaling regulates neural precursor cell ... in cortical precursors displaying EGFP-positive condensed apoptotic nuclei and a 2-4 fold increase in cortical precursors that ... RNA expression pattern. More reference expression data. Gene ontology. Molecular function. • receptor binding. • neurotrophin ...
RNA may spread directly to other cells or nuclei by diffusion. A large amount of RNA and protein is contributed to the zygote ... Morris KL (2008). "Epigenetic Regulation of Gene Expression". RNA and the Regulation of Gene Expression: A Hidden Layer of ... RNA transcripts[edit]. Sometimes a gene, after being turned on, transcribes a product that (directly or indirectly) maintains ... The obesity-associated FTO gene is shown to be able to demethylate N6-methyladenosine in RNA.[70][71] ...
... the precursor of platelets) and endothelial cells.[8] P-selectin expression is induced by two distinct mechanisms. First, P- ... RNA expression pattern. More reference expression data. Gene ontology. Molecular function. • heparin binding. • oligosaccharide ...
It does so by catalyzing the esterification of a specific cognate amino acid or its precursor to one of all its compatible ... Aminoacyl tRNA therefore plays an important role in RNA translation, the expression of genes to create proteins. ... The synthetase first binds ATP and the corresponding amino acid (or its precursor) to form an aminoacyl-adenylate, releasing ... Kawahara A, Stainier DY (August 2009). "Noncanonical activity of seryl-transfer RNA synthetase and vascular development". ...
... erythroid precursors in the bone marrow, it binds to it and is transported into the cell in a vesicle by receptor-mediated ... RNA expression pattern. More reference expression data. Gene ontology. Molecular function. • ferric iron binding. • metal ion ...
SR-related proteins and the processing of messenger RNA precursors.. Blencowe BJ1, Bowman JA, McCracken S, Rosonina E. ... The processing of messenger RNA precursors (pre-mRNA) to mRNA in metazoans requires a large number of proteins that contain ...
Cech TR (1987) The chemistry of self-splicing RNA and RNA enzymes. Science 236:1532-1539PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Cheng LK, Unrau PJ (2010) Closing the circle: replicating RNA with RNA. In: Deamer D, Szostak J (eds) Origins of Life. Cold ... Catalytic effects of Murchison Material: Prebiotic Synthesis and Degradation of RNA Precursors. ... Soukup G, Breaker R (1999a) Relationship between internucleotide linkage geometry and the stability of RNA. RNA 5:1308-1325 ...
Processing of a dicistronic small nucleolar RNA precursor by the RNA endonuclease Rnt1.. Chanfreau G1, Rotondo G, Legrain P, ... showing that dicistronic RNAs correspond to functional precursors stalled in the processing pathway. Rnt1 cleaves a dicistronic ... Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) are intron encoded or expressed from monocistronic independent transcription units, or, in the ... U14 snoRNAs from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are co-transcribed as a dicistronic precursor which is processed by the RNA ...
... subunit 6 precursor messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) by addition of 447 uridines and removal of 28 uridines. In vivo, the guide RNA gA6 ... RNA editing: transfer of genetic information from gRNA to precursor mRNA in vitro ... RNA editing: transfer of genetic information from gRNA to precursor mRNA in vitro ... RNA editing: transfer of genetic information from gRNA to precursor mRNA in vitro ...
CD4+CD11c− type 2 dendritic cell precursors (pre-DC2) were identified as the main producers of type I IFN in human blood in ... When two strands are better than one: the mediators and modulators of the cellular responses to double-stranded RNA. Virology ... Maturation, activation, and protection of dendritic cells induced by double-stranded RNA. J. Exp. Med. 189: 821. ... Expression of pTα mRNA in a committed dendritic cell precursor in the human thymus. Blood 94: 2647. ...
Ribosomal RNA precursor processing by a eukaryotic U3 small nucleolar RNA-like molecule in an archaeon ... Ribosomal RNA precursor processing by a eukaryotic U3 small nucleolar RNA-like molecule in an archaeon ... Ribosomal RNA precursor processing by a eukaryotic U3 small nucleolar RNA-like molecule in an archaeon ... Ribosomal RNA precursor processing by a eukaryotic U3 small nucleolar RNA-like molecule in an archaeon ...
RNA interference against granulin-epithelin precursor prevents hepatocellular carcinoma growth: Its application as a ... Park, M., Park, Y. S., Nam, J.RNA interference against granulin-epithelin precursor prevents hepatocellular carcinoma growth: ... Park, M., Park, Y. S., Nam, J.RNA interference against granulin-epithelin precursor prevents hepatocellular carcinoma growth: ... Park, M., Park, Y.S., & Nam, J. (2011). RNA interference against granulin-epithelin precursor prevents hepatocellular carcinoma ...
1982) Precursor molecules of both human 5S ribosomal RNA and transfer RNAs are bound by a cellular protein reactive with anti- ... 1998) Processing of a dicistronic small nucleolar RNA precursor by the RNA endonuclease Rnt1. EMBO J. 17:3726-3737. ... tracts of RNAs transcribed by RNA polymerase III are bound by the La protein (42, 48), as are the 3′ extended precursors to ... Precursors to the U3 Small Nucleolar RNA Lack Small Nucleolar RNP Proteins but Are Stabilized by La Binding. Joanna Kufel, ...
A critical function for beta-amyloid precursor protein in neuronal migration revealed by in utero RNA interference. Young- ...
View Rat Genome Database annotations to regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter involved in myocardial ... been curated linking Notch1 and regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter involved in myocardial precursor ... RGD objects have been annotated to regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter involved in myocardial precursor ...
E.N. Vithana, L. Abu-Safieh, A.C. Bird, D.M. Hunt, S.A. Bustin, S.S. Bhattacharya; Expression of Precursor RNA Processing ... Expression of Precursor RNA Processing Factor 31 (PRPF31) mRNA in Patients with Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa: A ... Expression of Precursor RNA Processing Factor 31 (PRPF31) mRNA in Patients with Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa: A ... To test the validity of using RNA from lymphoblastoid cell lines, PRPF31 expression in nucleated blood cells from control ...
F. Ghazavi et al., "Unique long non-coding RNA expression signature in ETV6/RUNX1-driven B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic ... Unique long non-coding RNA expression signature in ETV6/RUNX1-driven B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Farzaneh ... "Unique Long Non-Coding RNA Expression Signature in ETV6/RUNX1-Driven B-Cell Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia." ONCOTARGET ... "Unique Long Non-Coding RNA Expression Signature in ETV6/RUNX1-Driven B-Cell Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia." ONCOTARGET ...
Biochemical and electron microscopic data demonstrate that there are two intervening RNA moieties in the prec … ... the mRNA-specific sequences and the RNA sequences that are eventually cleaved from the 1860 nucleotide precursor of mouse beta- ... The Precursor of Mouse Beta-Globin Messenger RNA Contains Two Intervening RNA Sequences A J Kinniburgh et al. Cell. Jul 1978 ... The Precursor of Mouse Beta-Globin Messenger RNA Contains Two Intervening RNA Sequences A J Kinniburgh, J E Mertz, J Ross ...
The origin of RNA precursors on exoplanets. By Paul B. Rimmer, Jianfeng Xu, Samantha J. Thompson, Ed Gillen, John D. Sutherland ... The origin of RNA precursors on exoplanets. By Paul B. Rimmer, Jianfeng Xu, Samantha J. Thompson, Ed Gillen, John D. Sutherland ... RE: The origin of RNA precursors on exoplanets. *Karo Michaelian, Physicist, Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autonoma ... Finally, the photochemical structuring described above would also apply to the precursor molecules such as HCN and formamide. ...
Keller, W, Wolf, J and Gerber, A (1999) Editing of messenger RNA precursors and of tRNAs by adenosine to inosine conversion. ... Editing of messenger RNA precursors and of tRNAs by adenosine to inosine conversion. ... in messenger RNA precursors (pre-mRNA). Their main physiological substrates are pre-mRNAs encoding subunits of ionotropic ... The double-stranded RNA-specific adenosine deaminases ADAR1 and ADAR2 convert adenosine (A) residues to inosine (I) ...
A tumor-associated fibronectin isoform generated by alternative splicing of messenger RNA precursors. B Carnemolla, B ... A tumor-associated fibronectin isoform generated by alternative splicing of messenger RNA precursors.. J Cell Biol 1 March 1989 ...
Total RNA Quantification.. RT-PCR was performed by using the QuantiTect Multiplex RT-PCR kit using 50 ng of RNA per well, in ... All RNA was isolated freshly before analysis to ensure that RNA did not degrade during storage. Threshold data were exported to ... P450-mediated Taxol precursor synthesis in E. coli. Bradley Walters Biggs, Chin Giaw Lim, Kristen Sagliani, Smriti Shankar, ... P450-mediated Taxol precursor synthesis in E. coli. Bradley Walters Biggs, Chin Giaw Lim, Kristen Sagliani, Smriti Shankar, ...
Total RNA was extracted using the RNA-Isolation kit (Stratagene). Poly(A)+ RNA was isolated from total RNA with the Oligotex-dT ... Lane 1, 10 μg total RNA from PBMC; lane 2, 10 μg total RNA from C8166 cells; lane 3, 2 μg purified poly(A)+ RNA from PBMC. ... RNA (Fig. 1). The larger bands in the 5-6 kb range are probably due to incompletely spliced nuclear RNAs. ... The IL-16 precursor protein was detectable in mitogen stimulated PBMCs as a protein band with an apparent molecular mass of ≈80 ...
RNA isolation and molecular cloning. Total RNA was isolated from the hippocampal tissue of 4-month-old P8 mice by a previously ... Morley, J. E., Kumar, V. B., Bernardo, A. E., Farr, S. A., Uezu, K., Tumosa, N. and Flood, J. F. (2000). Beta-amyloid precursor ... Elbashir, S. M., Lendeckel, W. and Tuschl, T. (2001). RNA interference is mediated by 21- and 22-nucleotide RNAs. Genes Dev. 15 ... RNA cleaving agents like ribozyme (Macpherson et al., 1999) and RNA interference (Elbashir et al., 2001) have recently taken ...
RNA was isolated from 0.2 to 10 × 106 cells using TRIzol reagent (Invitrogen) or from ,0.2 × 106 cells using the PicoPure RNA ... marginal zone precursor. pDC. plasmacytoid dendritic cell. PNA. peanut agglutinin. QRT-PCR. quantitative real-time PCR. S1P. ... Marginal Zone Precursor B Cells as Cellular Agents for Type I IFN-Promoted Antigen Transport in Autoimmunity. John H. Wang,, ... B cells with this phenotype are referred to as marginal zone precursor (MZ-P) B cells in mice (24, 25). We further identified ...
RNA-sequencing reveals that β-arr1 KO DG astrocytes exhibit an aberrant gene expression profile of niche factors, including ... Here we show that β-arrestin 1 (β-arr1) in dentate gyrus (DG) regulates neural precursor proliferation. β-arr1 knockout (KO) ... mice show reduced neural precursor proliferation in subgranular zone (SGZ) which could be rescued by selective viral expression ... signaling regulates the production of excretive factors derived from niche astrocytes and expansion of neural precursors in DG ...
RNA Biology. 9 (3): 242-280. doi:10.4161/rna.19160. PMC 3384581 . PMID 22336713. Leaman, D; Chen PY; Fak J; Yalcin A; Pearce M ... Mir-2 hairpin precursor sequences are highly conserved, in particular in their 3 arm in which the first 10 nucleotides are ... MicroRNAs from this family are produced from the 3 arm of the precursor hairpin. Leaman et al. showed that the miR-2 family ... Functional mir-2 microRNAs come from the 3 arm of the precursors, and most of them have the same Drosha processing point. That ...
The stop codon (UAA) at position 2179 is created by RNA editing. Apo B-48, derived from the fully edited RNA, is produced only ... help/rna_editing target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>RNA editingi. Edited at position 2179.By similarity. ... RNA editing. ,p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at ... p>This subsection of the Sequence section provides information relevant to all types of RNA editing events (conversion, ...
RNA,/span> version.,p>,a href=/help/rna_editing target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>RNA editingi. Edited at position 2147.1 ... The stop codon (UAA) at position 2147 is created by RNA editing. Apo B-48, derived from the fully edited RNA, is produced only ... RNA editing. ,p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at ... p>This subsection of the Sequence section provides information relevant to all types of ,span class="caps">RNA,/span> editing ...
RNA isolation and real-time RT-PCR. The total RNA was extracted with an Absolutely RNA RT-PCR Miniprep Kit (Stratagene) ... Analyses of further isolated precursor populations suggested that the enhanced generation of T and B cell precursors resulted ... early T cell precursors and B220+CD43−/lo early B cell precursors, as well as Gr-1+ and/or F4/80+ myeloid cells. Furthermore, ... early B cell precursors. Higher densities of Delta1ext-IgG also enhanced the generation of Sca-1+c-kit+ precursor cells and ...
RNA was purified with the mirVANA miRNA Isolation Kit (Ambion). The purity and integrity of the total RNA were analyzed on RNA ... 2008) Lin-28 interaction with the Let-7 precursor loop mediates regulated microRNA processing. RNA 14(8):1539-1549. ... Total RNA samples with an RNA integrity number of 10 were used for miRNA analysis. The miRNA profiling was performed using ... by the RNA-induced silencing complex, RISC (12). In some cases, miRNA maturation is tightly controlled; for example, the RNA- ...
Perspectives on Small RNA Sequencing: Challenges and Complications of Small RNA Library Prep. ... This webinar will address a range of methods for optimizing small RNA library preparation. ...
RNA isolation and preparation. Total RNA was extracted from cell lines using the RNeasy Mini Kit (Qiagen, Venlo, the ... The RNA samples were labelled in duplicate with the Ambion Illumina TotalPrep RNA-amplification kit (Illumina, Son, The ... It is tempting to speculate that the Lin−CD7+CD127−CD34− IELs represent intermediate NK/T-lymphocyte precursors that undergo ... However, the RCDII lines did not express CD34, CD1a or CD117 (table 1), markers associated with T-cell and NK-cell precursors. ...
RNA in situ hybridization showed that all three genes are expressed in both the RGC layer of the retina and in the optic tectum ... Ho, A. and Sudhof, T. C. (2004). Binding of F-spondin to amyloid-beta precursor protein: a candidate amyloid-beta precursor ... Immunolocalization, RNA and affinity probe in situs. AP fusion proteins were used as in situ probes as described (Flanagan et ... The amyloid precursor protein (APP) plays a central role in Alzheimers disease, but its actions in normal development are not ...
Enzymatic N-riboside scission in RNA and RNA precursors. Together they form a unique fingerprint. * RNA Precursors Chemical ... Schramm, V. L. (1997). Enzymatic N-riboside scission in RNA and RNA precursors. Current Opinion in Chemical Biology, 1(3), 323- ... Schramm, Vern L. / Enzymatic N-riboside scission in RNA and RNA precursors. In: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology. 1997 ; Vol ... Schramm, VL 1997, Enzymatic N-riboside scission in RNA and RNA precursors, Current Opinion in Chemical Biology, vol. 1, no. 3 ...
  • MicroRNAs from this family are produced from the 3' arm of the precursor hairpin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Functional mir-2 microRNAs come from the 3' arm of the precursors, and most of them have the same Drosha processing point. (wikipedia.org)
  • Small, noncoding microRNAs (miRNAs) are transcribed as long precursors (pri-miRNAs) that are sequentially processed by the RNases Drosha/Pasha to form pri-miRNAs and by Dicer to form the mature miRNAs of ∼20-25 nucleotides. (pnas.org)
  • We found an organ-specific distribution of canonical microRNAs (miRNAs) and endogenous small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), indicative of their tissue-specific biogenesis. (plantcell.org)
  • MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small regulatory RNAs. (bio-medicine.org)
  • MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, regulatory RNAs that are expressed in animals and plants and affect the translation or stability of target mRNAs. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Later on, these small regulatory RNAs were affiliated as microRNAs (miRNAs) and the regions in the mRNAs, as their target sites [ 3 , 4 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • While microRNAs (miRNA) are known to regulate protein-coding gene expression principally through mRNA degradation, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) can activate and repress genes by a variety of mechanisms at both transcriptional and translational levels. (frontiersin.org)
  • 200 nt) RNA species, such as small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs, 19-23 nt), piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs, 26-30 nt), and microRNAs (miRNAs, 18-25 nt). (frontiersin.org)
  • Regulatory RNAs include microRNAs, small nucleolar RNAs, and bacterial small RNAs: Their role in regulation and modulation of gene expression is just beginning to be realised. (phys.org)
  • microRNAs (miRNAs) are short (20-24 nt) non-coding RNAs that are involved in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in multicellular organisms by affecting both the stability and translation of mRNAs. (genecards.org)
  • Therefore, both arms of the precursor have the potential to produce functional mature microRNAs. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We show that alternative mature products produced from the same precursor microRNAs have different targeting properties and therefore different biological functions. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Recent studies have shown that precursor microRNAs can change the arm from which the dominant functional mature microRNA is produced. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • For that reason, one may expect that microRNAs from the same precursor have similar targeting properties. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • So far, the only studied case is the mir-100/10 family, for which we have shown that opposite arms of precursor microRNAs do not significantly share target genes [ 13 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • MicroRNAs are endogenous 19-23 nucleotide, small non-coding RNAs that modulate mRNA levels through decreased transcription or post-transcriptionally induced mRNA decay. (mdpi.com)
  • recently it has also been shown that RNA polymerase III can transcribe certain primary microRNAs (pri-microRNA). (mdpi.com)
  • MicroRNAs are short lengths of RNA, a chemical cousin of DNA. (medlineplus.gov)
  • He L, Hannon GJ (2004) Micrornas: small RNAs with a big role in gene regulation. (springer.com)
  • SR-related proteins and the processing of messenger RNA precursors. (nih.gov)
  • The processing of messenger RNA precursors (pre-mRNA) to mRNA in metazoans requires a large number of proteins that contain domains rich in alternating arginine and serine residues (RS domains). (nih.gov)
  • snRNA are often divided into two classes based upon both common sequence features as well as associated protein factors such as the RNA-binding LSm proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The spliceosome is a large, protein-RNA complex that consists of five small nuclear RNAs (U1, U2, U4, U5, and U6) and over 150 proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 87K protein, together with proteins of 105,000 and 75,000 daltons, are translated from leftward transcribed (1-strand) messenger RNAs that are complementary to the viral genome between positions 11.2 and 31.5. (cshl.edu)
  • Electron microscopic heteroduplex analysis has revealed a family of 1-strand RNAs that probably encode these proteins. (cshl.edu)
  • Previous biochemical and structural studies of rotavirus replication suggest that selecting 11 distinct RNA segments must involve the RNAs forming complex interactions with proteins and other RNA molecules. (elifesciences.org)
  • The locally accumulated antisense RNAs are assumed to recruit chromatin remodeling proteins through either RNA-RNA or DNA-RNA recognition rules and trigger heterochromatin formation for gene silencing. (jcancer.org)
  • Not just RNA chains form in the mixtures, but also mixed molecules, made up of an RNA portion and a peptide chain (proteins are long peptide chains). (uni-stuttgart.de)
  • The β-amyloid precursor proteins (βAPPs) are a family of glycosylated transmembrane proteins that include in their sequences the β-amyloid peptide, a major component of the characteristic amyloid deposits or senile plaques found in the brains of Alzheimer's disease patients and aged Down's syndrome subjects. (csic.es)
  • Inherently infectious and are immediate precursors to virus production (i.e., the nucleic acids are capable of generating infectious forms of a regulated virus by utilizing host polymerases but without the need for any additional exogenous factors [proteins, nucleic acids, etc. (cdc.gov)
  • The regulation of gene expression mediated by miRNAs involves the processing of hairpin transcripts into ~22 nucleotide-long RNAs, association with Argonaute proteins which guide them to their target sites on mRNAs, and ultimately, repression of gene expression via mRNA degradation and/or translational inhibition. (mdpi.com)
  • These versatile molecules, with complex secondary structures, may interact with chromatin, proteins, and other RNA to form complexes with an array of functional consequences. (frontiersin.org)
  • These two RNA-binding proteins may exert common functions in neural precursor cells by regulating gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. (elsevier.com)
  • Recognition of RNA by RNA processing enzymes and RNA binding proteins often involves cooperation between multiple subunits. (bireme.br)
  • Fosrak was successful in identifying and experimentally validating predicted targets and associated proteins of small RNAs. (phys.org)
  • Bacterial proteins and enzymes implicated in RNA metabolism and regulation were also strong points of investigation. (phys.org)
  • on considering ultraviolet light in the prebiotic synthesis of fundamental molecules of life from simpler precursor molecules. (sciencemag.org)
  • Transcriptional regulation of expression levels of neural factors could be a critical mechanism to ensure the formation of the right niche, in response to environmental changes, whereas the key signaling molecules or pathways regulate niche factors required for the proliferation of neural precursor cells in adult brain are largely unknown. (nature.com)
  • Small nuclear ribonucleic acid (snRNA), also commonly referred to as U-RNA, is a class of small RNA molecules that are found within the splicing speckles and Cajal bodies of the cell nucleus in eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • These are small RNA molecules that play an essential role in RNA biogenesis and guide chemical modifications of ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and other RNA genes (tRNA and snRNAs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Viruses carry the instructions that determine their properties and behavior in molecules of DNA or RNA. (elifesciences.org)
  • Scientists from the Institute of Organic Chemistry at the University of Stuttgart have found that under certain conditions spontaneous reactions take place between ribonucleotides and amino acids, leading to molecules that contain both ribonucleic acid (RNA) and peptide chains. (uni-stuttgart.de)
  • Those Pre-miR miRNA Precursor Molecules and Anti-miR miRNA Inhibitors that affect the expression of the target gene represent miRNAs that directly or indirectly regulate the expression of that gene. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Screening for miRNAs that affect a cellular process-- Cells are sequentially transfected with a collection of Pre-miR miRNA Precursor Molecules or Anti-miR miRNA Inhibitors and then assayed for a phenotype like cell cycle arrest or differentiation. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Those Pre-miR miRNA Precursor Molecules or Anti-miR miRNA Inhibitors that induce the desired phenotype represent miRNAs that directly or indirectly participate in the cellular process being studied. (bio-medicine.org)
  • These synthetic miRNAs are known as Pre-miR miRNA Precursor Molecules (patent pending). (bio-medicine.org)
  • The entire collection of Pre-miR miRNA Precursor molecules and Anti-miR miRNA Inhibitors is cataloged in a searchable database accessible from http://www.ambion.com/techlib/resources/miRNA/index.html . (bio-medicine.org)
  • Pre-miR miRNA Precursor Molecules and Anti-miR miRNA Inhibitors can be obtained one at a time to facilitate in-depth studies of single miRNAs or in groups to facilitate screening studies. (bio-medicine.org)
  • miRNAs are short, 21-23 nucleotide-long, single stranded RNA molecules that bind to 3' untranslated regions (3' UTRs) of their target mRNAs. (mdpi.com)
  • To broaden knowledge on the function and evolution of these molecules, a EU project investigated various classes of regulatory RNAs in different kingdoms. (phys.org)
  • Primary microRNA transcripts are single-stranded RNA molecules that fold into hairpins, and are cleaved by two RNases producing an approximately 22-nucleotide RNA duplex [ 1 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Dicer cuts (cleaves) precursor RNA molecules to produce miRNA. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Thus, one of the functions of eukaryotic RNase III is, as for the bacterial enzyme, to liberate monocistronic RNAs from polycistronic transcripts. (nih.gov)
  • Another 3′ processing factor, the La phosphoprotein, was identified as the target of human autoimmune antibodies and was shown to bind to the poly(U) tracts located at the 3′ ends of all RNA polymerase III transcripts ( 42 , 48 ). (asm.org)
  • We have characterized the transcripts of the beta-globin gene in RNA isolated from rabbit bone marrow using the S1 mapping procedure of Berk and Sharp (1977). (nih.gov)
  • After transcription by RNA polymerase (pol) III, nascent Pol III transcripts pass through RNA processing, modification, and transport machineries as part of their posttranscriptional maturation process. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Our results indicate that control of RNA degradation rates contributes significantly to the differentiation stage-dependent differences in abundance of transcripts and splice variants. (omicsdi.org)
  • Using in situ hybridization histochemistry with [ 32 P]oligonucleotide probes, we studied the cellular localization of RNA transcripts for amyloid β-protein precursor (βAPP), growth-associated phosphoprotein-43 (GAP-43) and microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) in the mesostriatal system of normal (+/+) and weaver (wv/wv) mutant mice, which lose mesencephalic dopamine neurons. (elsevier.com)
  • Here we used next-gen RNA-Seq to examine the expression of transcripts coding for GRP, NPPB, NMB, and other peptides in DRG, trigeminal ganglion, and the spinal cord as well as expression levels for their cognate receptors in these tissues. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Surprisingly, the results also pointed to a partially extended conformation of newly synthesized precursor rRNA transcripts. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Further expression analysis revealed that the induction of genes encoding alcohol dehydrogenase 3, metalloprotease FtsH, cysteine protease 1 precursor, phytepsin precursor (aspartic protease), and a 26S proteasome regulatory subunit was associated with the androgenic potential of microspores, whereas the induction of transcripts involved in signaling and cytoprotection was associated with stress responses. (tudelft.nl)
  • miRNAs are transcribed by RNA polymerase II as part of capped and polyadenylated primary transcripts (pri-miRNAs) that can be either protein-coding or non-coding. (genecards.org)
  • Pri-microRNA transcripts produced by RNA polymerase II are 5' capped and 3' poly‑adenylated in the nucleus. (mdpi.com)
  • These experiments are consistent with the notion that the intervening sequences in the DNA of mouse beta-globin genes are transcribed into the mRNA precursor and are excised from the RNA by post-transcriptional events. (nih.gov)
  • Many genes differentially expressed between proliferating and differentiated myoblasts demonstrate major differences in RNA decay rates. (omicsdi.org)
  • MIRNA genes are transcribed by RNA polymerase II, and processed by a Dicer-like (DCL) protein from stem-loop structures. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although it is reported that some plant miRNAs inhibit target mRNA translation [ 14 - 17 ] or direct DNA methylation of target genes [ 18 ], the majority of plant miRNAs, once loaded, guide RISCs to cleave their target RNAs, which are subsequently degraded. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Additionally, a class of miRNA-like smRNAs, whose putative precursors can form short hairpins, potentially targets genes in trans. (plantcell.org)
  • Without enzymes, there is no transcription, and without genes and RNA there are no enzymes. (uni-stuttgart.de)
  • The first identifications of the endogenous short regulatory RNAs in Caenorhabditis elegans [ 1 ] and the 7-8 nucleotide-long motifs in the 3' untranslated regions (3' UTRs) of Drosophila melanogaster miRNAs [ 2 ] revealed that expression of genes are under control of small noncoding RNAs (sncRNAs) which bind to mRNAs and repress their expression post-transcriptionally. (mdpi.com)
  • Transcription of miRNAs usually involves RNA polymerase II (Pol II), meaning that miRNA genes share the transcriptional machinery of protein coding genes, including transcription factors, enhancers, and epigenetic regulation. (frontiersin.org)
  • In eukaryotes, there are three different forms of DNA-directed RNA polymerases transcribing different sets of genes. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Biologically, this implies that small RNAs are involved in the control of physiological responses , developmental checkpoints, disease-associated genes and virulence traits. (phys.org)
  • An RNA-containing endonuclease that catalyzes the excision and maturation of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) from the rRNA primary transcript (pre-rRNA) in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius has been characterized. (sciencemag.org)
  • The adult hippocampal neurogenesis, involving multiple key processes including proliferation and differentiation of neural precursors and maturation, migration and functional integration of newborn neurons into the existing neural network, is believed to be regulated by a specific neuro-microenvironment called neurogenic niche in SGZ 5 . (nature.com)
  • for example, the RNA-binding protein LIN28 regulates the biogenesis of the let-7 miRNA family by inhibiting their maturation at both the pri-miRNA ( 13 , 14 ) and premiRNA ( 15 , 16 ) processing steps. (pnas.org)
  • The variety of modifications found on La-associated RNAs is reviewed in detail and considered in the contexts of how La may bind the termini of structured RNAs without interfering with recognition by modification enzymes, and its ability to chaperone RNAs through multiple parts of their maturation pathways. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • An imminent goal is to understand how the bipartite RNA binding, intracellular trafficking, and signal transduction activities of La are integrated with the maturation pathways of the various RNAs with which it associates. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Spliceosomes are a major component of an integral step in eukaryotic precursor messenger RNA maturation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 87K precursor is processed curing virus maturation to the 55K terminal protein, possibly via a 62K intermediate form, by the virus-specified Ad2ts1 protease. (cshl.edu)
  • CK1δ and CK1ε are components of human 40S subunit precursors required for cytoplasmic 40S maturation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In this study, we show that the human casein kinase 1 (CK1) isoforms δ and ε are required for cytoplasmic maturation steps of 40S subunit precursors. (semanticscholar.org)
  • abstract = "Polyadenylated RNA extracted from anglerfish islets was translated in a wheat germ cell-free system containing [35S]methionine in the presence and absence of microsomal membranes prepared from a canine pancreas. (elsevier.com)
  • The miRNAs function through imperfect base-pairing with hundreds of target mRNAs to trigger their degradation (or block their translation) by the RNA-induced silencing complex, RISC ( 12 ). (pnas.org)
  • We are also interested in (3) protein-RNA complexes along the microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis pathway that mediate processing of primary miRNAs to their precursor counterparts, and processes associated with miRNA guide strand-mediated cleavage, translation inhibition or degradation of target RNAs. (mskcc.org)
  • In addition, PARE analysis revealed that differentially expressed miRNAs in the same family guide specific target RNA cleavage in a correspondingly tissue-preferential manner. (biomedcentral.com)
  • B. distachyon miRNAs and target RNAs were experimentally identified and analyzed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The pri-miRNAs, which can be more than 1000 nt in length, contain an RNA hairpin in which one of the two strands includes the mature miRNA [1]. (bio-medicine.org)
  • According to the last release of the miRNA database ( miRBase http://www.mirbase.org - release 21) 1881 precursor and 2588 mature miRNAs exist in the human genome ( Kozomara and Griffiths-Jones, 2014 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • miRNAs and some miRNA* regions were detected quite abundant short RNAs as expected, while other regions of precursors were found shorter RNAs or small fragments with fewer sequence counts. (springer.com)
  • Non-isotopic mapping of ribosomal RNA synthesis and processing in the nucleolus. (biomedsearch.com)
  • RNA polymerase I: located in the nucleoli, synthesises precursors of most ribosomal RNAs. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • RNA polymerase III: also occurs in the nucleoplasm, synthesises the precursors of 5S ribosomal RNA, the tRNAs, and a variety of other small nuclear and cytosolic RNAs. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • ribosomal precursor RNA, Proc. (ximicat.com)
  • Processing of a dicistronic small nucleolar RNA precursor by the RNA endonuclease Rnt1. (nih.gov)
  • Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) are intron encoded or expressed from monocistronic independent transcription units, or, in the case of plants, from polycistronic clusters. (nih.gov)
  • A 159-nucleotide RNA with sequence and structural similarity to U3 small nucleolar RNAs of eukaryotes copurified with the endonuclease activity. (sciencemag.org)
  • This has long been known for the highly abundant cytoplasmic RNAs, tRNAs, and rRNAs, but more recently it has become clear that is also the case for the small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs), which participate in pre-mRNA splicing, and the small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs), which participate in rRNA processing and modification. (asm.org)
  • A large group of snRNAs are known as small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs). (wikipedia.org)
  • RNA editing in the mitochondrion of Trypanosoma brucei extensively alters the adenosine triphosphate synthase (ATPase) subunit 6 precursor messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) by addition of 447 uridines and removal of 28 uridines. (sciencemag.org)
  • However, unlike the reaction with wild-type tRNA precursors, the reaction catalyzed by the holoenzyme with p4·5S as substrate has a much lower K m value than that catalyzed by M1 RNA with the same substrate, indicating that the protein subunit plays a crucial role in the recognition of p4·5S. (elsevier.com)
  • The contribution of the C5 protein subunit of ribonuclease P to specificity for precursor tRNA is modulated by proximal 5' leader sequences. (bireme.br)
  • To determine whether the contacts formed by P RNA and C5 contribute independently to specificity or exhibit cooperativity or anti-cooperativity, we compared the relative / values for all possible combinations of the six proximal 5' leader nucleotides ( = 4096) for processing by the P RNA subunit alone and by the RNase P holoenzyme. (bireme.br)
  • We observed that while the P RNA subunit shows specificity for 5' leader nucleotides N(-2) and N(-1), the presence of the C5 protein reduces the contribution of P RNA to specificity, but changes specificity at N(-2) and N(-3). (bireme.br)
  • Transcription initiation from promoter elements requires a sixth, dissociable subunit called a sigma factor, which reversibly associates with the core RNA polymerase complex to form a holoenzyme [ PMID: 3052291 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Yeast RNA polymerase II subunit RPB11 is related to a subunit shared by RNA polymerase I and III. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Dequard-Chablat M, Riva M, Carles C, Sentenac A. RPC19, the gene for a subunit common to yeast RNA polymerases A (I) and C (III). (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae RPC5 subunit (or RPC40) from RNA polymerases I and III. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • S. cerevisiae RPB3 subunit from RNA polymerase II. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Schizosaccharomyces pombe rpb3 subunit from RNA polymerase II. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Conjugation stage-specific protein cnjC from Tetrahymena thermophila, which may be a stage-specific RNA polymerase subunit. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Archaebacterial RNA polymerase subunit D (gene rpoD). (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The amino acid sequence of the human RNA polymerase II 33-kDa subunit hRPB 33 is highly conserved among eukaryotes. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Azuma Y, Yamagishi M, Ishihama A. Subunits of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe RNA polymerase II: enzyme purification and structure of the subunit 3 gene. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Functional interaction of the subunit 3 of RNA polymerase II (RPB3) with transcription factor-4 (ATF4). (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Drosha cleaves primary miRNA (pri-mRNA) to release a hairpin-shaped precursor miRNA (pre-miRNA). (mskcc.org)
  • Similarly an in-depth global analysis of miRNA-mediated target cleavage using parallel analysis of RNA ends (PARE) data is lacking in B. distachyon . (biomedcentral.com)
  • The resulting precursor miRNA, or "pre-miRNA," is transported to the cytoplasm via a process that involves Exportin-5 [2-4]. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The pre-miRNA is further cleaved by Dicer [5] to generate a short, partially double-stranded (ds) RNA in which one strand is the mature miRNA. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The mature miRNA is taken up by a protein complex that is similar, if not identical, to the RNA Induced Silencing Complex (RISC) that supports RNA interference (RNAi) [6], and miRNA-bound complex functions to regulate translation. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The primary transcript is cleaved by the Drosha ribonuclease III enzyme to produce an approximately 70-nt stem-loop precursor miRNA (pre-miRNA), which is further cleaved by the cytoplasmic Dicer ribonuclease to generate the mature miRNA and antisense miRNA star (miRNA*) products. (genecards.org)
  • The mature miRNA is incorporated into a RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which recognizes target mRNAs through imperfect base pairing with the miRNA and most commonly results in translational inhibition or destabilization of the target mRNA. (genecards.org)
  • MIR4279 (MicroRNA 4279) is an RNA Gene, and is affiliated with the miRNA class. (genecards.org)
  • Here, we attempted to track detailed miRNA precursor metabolic products and gain further insight into pre-miRNA processing by completely analyzing high-throughput sequencing data. (springer.com)
  • Highly expressed miRNA precursors could be entirely covered by various short RNAs and small RNA fragments with a hierarchical distribution. (springer.com)
  • Generally, there were several quite abundant RNA classes from a given miRNA locus, which suggested dominant cleavage sites of Drosha and Dicer during pre-miRNA processing. (springer.com)
  • An example of tracking miRNA precursor metabolic products based on high-throughput sequencing. (springer.com)
  • The idea that ribonucleic acid (RNA), because of its catalytic capability and multiple roles in protein synthesis, was the chemical that led directly to life is termed the RNA world hypothesis. (the-scientist.com)
  • According to the RNA World hypothesis, ribonucleic acid (RNA) played a critical role in the origin of life. (elementsmagazine.org)
  • An association has been curated linking Notch1 and regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter involved in myocardial precursor cell differentiation in Ictidomys tridecemlineatus. (mcw.edu)
  • They have also been shown to aid in the regulation of transcription factors (7SK RNA) or RNA polymerase II (B2 RNA), and maintaining the telomeres. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antisense RNAs are well suited for cis-regulation of their sense counterparts. (jcancer.org)
  • Component of the PAF1 complex ( PAF1 C) which has multiple functions during transcription by RNA polymerase II and is implicated in regulation of development and maintenance of embryonic stem cell pluripotency. (rcsb.org)
  • For the viruses listed below, regulation is limited to positive strand RNA forms of the viral genome which can be translated into protein precursors for virus production. (cdc.gov)
  • Within this framework, the recent discovery of thousands of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) with regulatory function is redefining the landscape of transcriptome regulation, highlighting the interplay of epigenetic, transcriptional, and post-transcriptional mechanisms in the specification of cell fate and in the regulation of developmental processes. (frontiersin.org)
  • To gain insight into the possible functions and regulation of VGF in vivo, we have used in situ hybridization to examine the regulation of VGF messenger RNA by experimental manipulations, and have found it to be regulated in the CNS by paradigms that affect electrical activity and by lesion. (elsevier.com)
  • Small non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) play a hitherto unrecognised role in regulation of gene expression. (phys.org)
  • The experimental work carried out by project partners was geared toward an in-depth understanding of RNA-mediated regulation in a variety of chosen model organisms. (phys.org)
  • La also binds to 3′ extended precursors to human U1 and the yeast snRNAs ( 34 , 58 ) and to internal sequences of several viral RNAs, in some cases at sequences that lack poly(U) tracts ( 4 , 23 ). (asm.org)
  • We have investigated the locations of the poly(A), the mRNA-specific sequences and the RNA sequences that are eventually cleaved from the 1860 nucleotide precursor of mouse beta-globin mRNA. (nih.gov)
  • Biochemical and electron microscopic data demonstrate that there are two intervening RNA moieties in the precursor which separate the beta-globin mRNA sequences into three portions containing 480, 205 and 155 nucleotides. (nih.gov)
  • At least one, and probably both, intervening RNAs occur within the coding portion of the mRNA sequences. (nih.gov)
  • The recent identification of inconsistencies in published IL-16 cDNA nucleotide sequences led to the proposal that IL-16 is synthesized in the form of a large precursor protein (pro-IL-16). (pnas.org)
  • Mir-2 hairpin precursor sequences are highly conserved, in particular in their 3' arm in which the first 10 nucleotides are identical to all family members. (wikipedia.org)
  • The kinetics of synthesis and turnover of animal cell nuclear precursor-mRNA fractions all of which, in the case of avian erythroblast RNA, are shown by specific complementary DNA hybridization to contain globin mRNA sequences, were analyzed by exponential polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. (meta.org)
  • Additional hybridization to the region between coordinates 37.3 and 41 suggests that the RNA body is spliced to sequences mapping farther right in the genome. (cshl.edu)
  • To identify the sites of these interactions, we have developed an RNA-RNA SELEX approach for mapping the sequences involved in inter-segment base-pairing. (elifesciences.org)
  • The roughly 5 million distinct genome-matched sequences that resulted represent an extensive dataset for analyzing small RNA-guided cleavage events. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The research group of Professor Clemens Richert was searching for reaction conditions inducing enzyme-free copying of RNA sequences. (uni-stuttgart.de)
  • 1961. An unstable intermediate sequences for the RNA polymerase. (ximicat.com)
  • It is often suggested that one of the sequences is degraded and the other is incorporated into the RNA-induced silencing complex. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Addgene: A critical function for beta-amyloid precursor protein in neuronal migration revealed by in utero RNA interference. (addgene.org)
  • Senescence-accelerated mice (SAMP8) serve as a model for Alzheimer's disease (AD) as they exhibit early loss of memory and increased amyloid precursor protein (APP) expression. (biologists.org)
  • Familial AD (FAD), on the other hand, is associated with mutations in amyloid precursor protein (APP) on chromosome 21, apolipoprotein E gene on chromosome 19, presenilin-1 (PS1) on chromosome 14 (14q24.3) and presenilin-2 (PS2) on chromosome 1. (biologists.org)
  • The amyloid precursor protein (APP) plays a central role in Alzheimer's disease, but its actions in normal development are not well understood. (biologists.org)
  • Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is a transmembrane protein that plays a key role in Alzheimer's disease. (biologists.org)
  • Abnormal phosphorylation of amyloid-β precursor protein (APP) is a pathologic feature of Alzheimer's disease. (jneurosci.org)
  • Alzheimer's disease (AD), the prevalent neurodegenerative disorder in humans later in life ( Hedera and Turner, 2002 ), is a multifactorial syndrome linked to abnormal metabolism of the transmembrane protein, amyloid-β precursor protein (APP) ( Selkoe, 2001 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • There is evidence that the amyloid precursor protein (APP) plays an important role in neuronal growth and synaptic plasticity and that its increased expression following traumatic brain injury represents an acute phase response to trauma. (edu.au)
  • Almost all small eukaryotic RNAs are processed from transiently stabilized 3′-extended forms. (asm.org)
  • Eukaryotic cells contain a large number of stable RNA species, nearly all of which are synthesized by posttranscriptional processing from larger precursors. (asm.org)
  • They are located in the nucleolus and the Cajal bodies of eukaryotic cells (the major sites of RNA synthesis), where they are called scaRNAs (small Cajal body-specific RNAs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Eukaryotic cells are also known to contain separate mitochondrial and chloroplast RNA polymerases. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Eukaryotic RNA polymerases, whose molecular masses vary in size from 500 to 700 kDa, contain two non-identical large (>100 kDa) subunits and an array of up to 12 different small (less than 50 kDa) subunits. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Cech TR (1987) The chemistry of self-splicing RNA and RNA enzymes. (springer.com)
  • RNase III enzymes play central roles in RNA silencing by processing double-stranded RNA precursors into small RNA duplexes. (mskcc.org)
  • Precise selection of cleavage sites by RNase III enzymes is critical, with Drosha and Dicer recognizing specific RNA structures and cleave a fixed distance away from that structural element. (mskcc.org)
  • These results are consistent with synthesis of anglerfish islet glucagon in the form of a pre-prohormonal precursor (M(r) = 14,500) containing a leader sequence that is cotranslationally cleaved from the protein by enzymes associated with microsomal membranes to produce a smaller intermediate prohormonal precursor (M(r) = 12,500) of pancreatic glucagon (M(r) = 3500). (elsevier.com)
  • The blueprints of the enzymes are encoded in DNA and are transcribed with the aid of both RNA and enzymes. (uni-stuttgart.de)
  • Earlier attempts to induce the formation of peptidyl RNAs in the absence of enzymes were largely unsuccessful. (uni-stuttgart.de)
  • Most RNA polymerases are multimeric enzymes and are composed of a variable number of subunits. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Editing of messenger RNA precursors and of tRNAs by adenosine to inosine conversion. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Taken together, these results represent the first therapeutic application of RNA interference to GEP, which is a promising target molecule for HCC treatment, as an approach for the suppression of HCC cell proliferation. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • This mixed type of molecule is called peptidyl RNA. (uni-stuttgart.de)
  • Since the condensation agent, an organic derivative of the molecule cyanamide, is also used in peptide synthesis, chemical engineer Helmut Griesser then mixed amino acids to the RNA building blocks. (uni-stuttgart.de)
  • The miR-129 microRNA precursor is a small non-coding RNA molecule that regulates gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nonisogenic E. faecalis strain V583 determinant encodes a homologous precursor protein, but it differs at two amino acid positions, both of which are located within the pheromone peptide moiety (positions 2 and 8). (asm.org)
  • Our new observation that the pAD1-encoded inhibitor peptide, iAD1, whose precursor is itself a signal sequence, is also dependent on Eep is consistent with the likelihood that such processing occurs at the amino terminus of the cAD1 moiety. (asm.org)
  • In today's protein synthesis (left-hand side of graphic), the peptide chain grows to a full-length protein by migrating from one charged transfer-RNA to the next, with one amino acid residue being added during each step according to the genetic code. (uni-stuttgart.de)
  • This explains why longer peptidyl RNAs were able to form, as this structural arrangement allows both the peptide chain and the RNA chain to grow simultaneously. (uni-stuttgart.de)
  • The VGF gene encodes a neuronal secretory-peptide precursor that is rapidly induced by neurotrophic growth factors and by depolarization in vitro, VGF expression in the animal peaks during critical periods in the developing peripheral and central nervous systems. (elsevier.com)
  • Expression of the neuronal secretory-peptide precursor VGF is therefore modulated in vivo by monocular deprivation, seizure, and cortical lesion, paradigms which lead to neurotrophin induction, synaptic remodeling and axonal sprouting. (elsevier.com)
  • Three neuropeptides, gastrin releasing peptide (GRP), natriuritic precursor peptide B (NPPB), and neuromedin B (NMB) have been proposed to play roles in itch sensation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • RNA silencing, also known as RNA interference, is a conserved biological response to double-stranded RNA that regulates gene expression. (mskcc.org)
  • Proneural expression of Mad-RNA interference (RNAi) or a Mad transgene with its Zw3/Gsk3-β phosphorylation sites mutated (MGM) generated wings with ectopic sensilla and chemosensory bristle duplications. (genetics.org)
  • Position-dependent function of a B block promoter element implies a specialized chromatin structure on the S.cerevisiae U6 RNA gene, SNR6. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The response is mediated by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), which guide the sequence-specific degradation of cognate messenger RNAs (mRNAs). (mskcc.org)
  • Steady-state RNA levels are a result of RNA synthesis and degradation. (omicsdi.org)
  • The importance of transcription-factor mediated induction or repression of mRNA synthesis is well established, but the role and mechanisms of RNA degradation are less well understood. (omicsdi.org)
  • We globally evaluated the RNA decay rates in proliferating and differentiated mouse myoblasts on whole-genome Affymetrix exon arrays, allowing for the assessment of directionality of RNA degradation and the detection of splice variant-specific differences in RNA decay rates. (omicsdi.org)
  • RNA degradation has no apparent preferential directionality. (omicsdi.org)
  • RNA degradation appears to affect the ratio of different splice variants. (omicsdi.org)
  • One of the two intervening RNA moieties contains 780 nucleotides. (nih.gov)
  • The size of the smaller intervening RNA has not been determined precisely, but it is 125 nucleotides or less. (nih.gov)
  • The largest mRNA-specific fragment is derived from the 3' terminus of the precursor, and contains the 3' terminal poly (A) and 330 mRNA-specific transcribed nucleotides. (nih.gov)
  • One mir-2 microRNA in Drosophila, dme-miR-2a-2 [1], is two nucleotides offset with respect to the canonical products of other mir-2 precursors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The world is divided into those who say it was RNA and those who say no because it is hard to make RNA nucleotides and conditions on the prebiotic Earth were not favorable for that," says Leslie Orgel, senior fellow and research professor at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies in San Diego. (the-scientist.com)
  • β-arr1 knockout (KO) mice show reduced neural precursor proliferation in subgranular zone (SGZ) which could be rescued by selective viral expression of β-arr1 but not its nuclear-function-deficient mutants under control of hGFAP promotor in DG. (nature.com)
  • Taken together, our data suggest that β-arr1 mediated nuclear signaling regulates the production of excretive factors derived from niche astrocytes and expansion of neural precursors in DG, thus maintaining homeostasis of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. (nature.com)
  • We further propose that β-arr1-mediated signaling in niche astrocytes enhances the mitotic expansion of neural precursors in adult hippocampus and this may involve nuclear β-arr1-mediated transcription of excretive niche factors, such as BMP2, from astrocytes in neurogenic niche. (nature.com)
  • U6 RNA is a member of a class of small abundant stable nuclear RNAs that are essential for splicing. (semanticscholar.org)
  • La protects RNAs from 3′ exonucleolytic digestion and also contributes to their nuclear retention. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • however, no stringent proof can be given that the two smaller nuclear precursor-mRNA fractions are direct physical precursors of functional mRNA. (meta.org)
  • The canonical pathway consists of at least four steps: transcription, nuclear, and cytoplasmic processing, loading into RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) and decay. (frontiersin.org)
  • Self-renewing, multipotent neural precursor cells (NPCs) are capable of terminally differentiating into neuronal and glial lineages during development and in the adult nervous system ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • These findings suggest that the activation of neurogenic precursors and stem cells via β 3 -adrenergic receptors could be a potent mechanism to increase neuronal production, providing a putative target for the development of novel antidepressants. (jneurosci.org)
  • Using the CAPSID program, we designed three small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting the GEP gene (GEP-siRNA1, 2 and 3) and examined their tumor regression and suppression effects on cell proliferation. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Our long-term goals are to structurally characterize and mechanistically define events associated with (1) processing of long double-stranded RNAs into siRNAs by the endonuclease acvtivity of Dicer and (2) guide-strand-mediated cleavage of target RNAs by Argonaute, the key component exhibiting slicer activity, within the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). (mskcc.org)
  • A group of 22-nucleotide siRNAs may originate from long-hairpin double-stranded RNAs and preferentially target gene-coding regions. (plantcell.org)
  • Expression of Precursor RNA Processing Factor 31 (PRPF31) mRNA in Patients with Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa: A Molecular `Clue' for Incomplete Penetrance? (arvojournals.org)
  • Nevertheless, their role in the molecular pathogenesis of pediatric B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia has not been extensively explored. (ugent.be)
  • Our investigation of the molecular biology of IL-16 has therefore subsequently focused on the characterization of this initially elusive IL-16 precursor. (pnas.org)
  • Peck-Miller, KA & Altman, S 1991, ' Kinetics of the processing of the precursor to 4·5 S RNA, a naturally occurring substrate for RNase P from Escherichia coli ', Journal of molecular biology , vol. 221, no. 1, pp. 1-5. (elsevier.com)
  • Whether serotonin or norepinephrine has a direct effect on adult hippocampal precursors, and the cellular and molecular identity of such a precursor population, therefore remains unknown. (jneurosci.org)
  • Three metabolically distinct size-fractions were characterized: (1) nascent precursor-mRNA (apparent molecular weight 5 to 20 x 10(6), approximate half-life 30 min), (2) intermediate-size precursor-mRNA (molecular weight 1 to 5 x 10(6), approximate half-life 3 hr), (3) small precursor-mRNA (molecular weight 0.5 to 1.5 x 10(6), half-life more than 15 hr). (meta.org)
  • Our findings elucidate the molecular basis underlying inter-segment interactions in rotaviruses, paving the way for delineating similar RNA-RNA interactions that govern assembly of other segmented RNA viruses. (elifesciences.org)
  • This makes it likely that life did not start with a pure 'RNA world' but with a molecular world in which RNA as well as very short protein chains were formed. (uni-stuttgart.de)
  • When Gerald Joyce, a professor in the departments of chemistry and molecular biology at the Scripps Research Institute in La Jolla, Calif., spoke about the RNA world at the 36th American Society for Cell Biology Annual Meeting in December 1996 in San Francisco, 2,000 people attended! (the-scientist.com)
  • However, the interdependent contributions of RNA and protein subunits to molecular recognition by ribonucleoproteins are relatively unexplored. (bireme.br)
  • In molecular biology, miR-194 microRNA precursor is a small non-coding RNA gene that regulated gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • A team of scientists at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL) has determined a hierarchical set of criteria that explain how the molecular precursors of gene-regulating small RNAs are sorted by the cellular machinery. (phys.org)
  • Here we show that β-arrestin 1 (β-arr1) in dentate gyrus (DG) regulates neural precursor proliferation. (nature.com)
  • Recent work revealed that niche cells could regulate the properties of neural precursors through secretion of certain niche factors (environmental cues). (nature.com)
  • As a well-known type of niche cells, astrocytes are also able to sustain neural precursors and believed to be a predominant source of many adhesive and soluble niche factors 8 . (nature.com)
  • Here we show that norepinephrine but not serotonin directly activates self-renewing and multipotent neural precursors, including stem cells, from the hippocampus of adult mice. (jneurosci.org)
  • Similarly, systemic injection of the β-adrenergic receptor agonist isoproterenol not only results in enhancement of proliferation in the SGZ but also leads to an increase in the percentage of nestin/glial fibrillary acidic protein double-positive neural precursors in vivo . (jneurosci.org)
  • Musashi1 (Msi1) is a mammalian neural RNA-binding protein highly enriched in neural precursor cells that are capable of generating both neurons and glia during embryonic and post-natal CNS development. (elsevier.com)
  • v) precursors for small ncRNAs. (jcancer.org)
  • Previously thought to be non-functional transcriptional "noise," non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are now known to play important roles in many diverse biological pathways, not least in vascular disease. (frontiersin.org)
  • RNA-sequencing reveals that β-arr1 KO DG astrocytes exhibit an aberrant gene expression profile of niche factors, including elevated transcription of Bmp2 . (nature.com)
  • Overall, the project findings provided important insight into how regulatory RNAs are integrated into the general network of gene expression. (phys.org)
  • We show that the snR190 and U14 snoRNAs from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are co-transcribed as a dicistronic precursor which is processed by the RNA endonuclease Rnt1, the yeast ortholog of bacterial RNase III. (nih.gov)
  • Pri-microRNA is then cleaved and processed by the RNase III enzyme, Drosha-DGCR8 (DiGeorge syndrome critical region 8), a microprocessor complex which results in ~70 nucleotide stem loop precursor microRNA (pre-microRNA). (mdpi.com)
  • Cytoplasmic RNase III enzyme, Dicer, in conjunction with TAR RNA-binding protein 2 binds to the pre‑microRNA and cleaves the terminal loop. (mdpi.com)
  • Involved in polyadenylation of mRNA precursors. (rcsb.org)
  • RNA polymerase II: occurs in the nucleoplasm, synthesises mRNA precursors. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • This webinar will address a range of methods for optimizing small RNA library preparation. (genomeweb.com)
  • Downregulation of JIP-3 by small interfering RNA impairs neurite extension and reduces the amount of localized pAPP. (jneurosci.org)
  • Dicer also participates in small interfering RNA (siRNA) production from long RNA duplexes. (mskcc.org)
  • One strand of the small RNA duplex is subsequently loaded onto the Argonaute protein to yield an active RNA-induced silencing complex. (mskcc.org)
  • B. distachyon small RNAs were cloned and deeply sequenced from 17 libraries that represent different tissues and stresses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We report genomic landscapes of representative epigenetic modifications and their relationships to mRNA and small RNA (smRNA) transcriptomes in maize shoots and roots. (plantcell.org)
  • To advance existing knowledge of the regulatory properties of small RNAs and explore potential applications in the prevention or cure of diseases, the EU-funded Function of small RNAs across kingdoms (Fosrak) project examined evolutionary aspects of these RNAs. (phys.org)
  • This data is a challenge our prior perception of the roles of small RNAs in health and disease, and is expected to open up new avenues of designing treatment strategies. (phys.org)
  • Small silencing RNAs: an expanding universe. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Addition of recombinant Rnt1 to yeast extracts made from RNT1 disruptants induces the chase of dicistronic RNAs into mature snoRNAs, showing that dicistronic RNAs correspond to functional precursors stalled in the processing pathway. (nih.gov)
  • Structural biology of RNA silencing and its functional implications. (mskcc.org)
  • Moreover, because these studies relied on RNA sequencing of bulk cell populations, potential heterogeneity representing distinct functional subsets or intermediate states of differentiation may have been missed. (thehub.press)
  • Chen J, Miao Z, Xue B, Shan Y, Weng G, Shen B. Long Non-coding RNAs in Urologic Malignancies: Functional Roles and Clinical Translation. (jcancer.org)
  • Our results indicate functional compartmentalization of DFCs with respect to the synthesis and processing of precursor rRNA. (biomedsearch.com)
  • However, both precursor arms may give rise to functional levels of mature microRNA and the dominant product may change from species to species, from tissue to tissue, or between developmental stages. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Tampa, Fla. (June 16, 2009) To determine if guided fat (adipose) precursor cells (APCs) could improve nerve regeneration and functional recovery, researchers at the University of Pittsburgh (USA) used biodegradable nerve guides to transplant APCs into the injured peripheral nerves of laboratory rats. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of transcription from an RNA polymerase II promoter that contributes to the differentiation of an endocardial precursor cell. (mcw.edu)
  • Subsequent work showed that the exosome participates in the 3′ processing of other RNA substrates, including many snRNAs and snoRNAs ( 5 , 55 ), and also participates in mRNA turnover ( 9 ). (asm.org)
  • Rnt1p also acts to separate the individual pre-snoRNAs from polycistronic precursors ( 15 , 16 ) and processes the 3′ external transcribed spacer of the yeast pre-rRNA ( 2 , 28 ). (asm.org)
  • In the adult, kainate-induced seizures transiently induced VGF messenger RNA in neurons of the dentate gyrus, hippocampus, and cerebral cortex within hours. (elsevier.com)
  • The mature microRNA is processed from the longer hairpin precursor by the Dicer enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • A tumor-associated fibronectin isoform generated by alternative splicing of messenger RNA precursors. (rupress.org)
  • Splicing of the U6 RNA precursor is impaired in fission yeast pre-mRNA splicing mutants. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Splicing of messenger RNA precursors. (springer.com)
  • U snRNPs Alternative splicing Intronic micro RNA biogenesis d spliceosome,which are connected by thepre- mRNA . (psu.edu)
  • The double-stranded RNA-specific adenosine deaminases ADAR1 and ADAR2 convert adenosine (A) residues to inosine (I) in messenger RNA precursors (pre-mRNA). (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Their primary function is in the processing of pre-messenger RNA (hnRNA) in the nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell-free translation of enkephalin-precursor messenger RNA from bovine adrenal medulla and corpus striatum. (elsevier.com)
  • Inhibition of retinal electrical activity during the critical period of visual development rapidly repressed VGF messenger RNA in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus. (elsevier.com)
  • Cortical lesion strongly induced VGF messenger RNA in ipsilateral cortex within hours, and strongly repressed expression in ipsilateral striatum. (elsevier.com)
  • Ten days postlesion there was a delayed induction of VGF messenger RNA in a portion of differentiated striatum where compensatory cortical sprouting has been detected. (elsevier.com)
  • In the first step of making a protein from a gene, another type of RNA called messenger RNA (mRNA) is formed and acts as the blueprint for protein production. (medlineplus.gov)
  • PHPC-02 is a phase II, randomized, placebo-controlled trial designed to investigate whether therapeutic immunization during highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) induces elevations of HIV-specific T cell precursors with high proliferative capacity (PHPC) in HIV-1-infected individuals, and whether the quantity of PHPC correlates with the viral load set point following analytical treatment interruption (ATI). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The precursor of the 55K adenovirus terminal protein is an 87K protein that is covalently linked to viral DNA. (cshl.edu)
  • We show that binding of the rotavirus-encoded non-structural protein NSP2 to viral ssRNAs results in the remodeling of RNA, which is conducive to formation of stable inter-segment contacts. (elifesciences.org)
  • A cDNA copy of the viral genomes listed below would not be regulated because they would first need to be transcribed into RNA then translated into protein and therefore would not be an immediate precursor to virus. (cdc.gov)
  • Thus, guide RNAs are required for RNA editing and for the transfer of genetic information to pre-mRNAs. (sciencemag.org)
  • pave the way for identifying the RNA-RNA interactions that govern how other segmented RNA viruses can package their genetic material. (elifesciences.org)
  • Up to now the solution for this dilemma was presumed to be that a so-called 'RNA world' was first, in which RNA acted both as a genetic material and as biocatalyst. (uni-stuttgart.de)
  • The past 10 years have seen an unprecedented accumulation of evidence presenting RNAs as ubiquitous regulators rather than merely passive transmitters of genetic information . (phys.org)
  • Mutations in both the guide RNA and the pre-mRNA editing site suggest that base-pairing interactions control the number of uridines deleted in vitro. (sciencemag.org)
  • Next, integration of this lncRNA signature with RNA sequencing of BCP-ALL cell lines and lncRNA profiling of an in vitro model system of ETV6/RUNX1 knockdown, revealed that lnc-NKX2-3-1, lnc-TIMM21-5, lnc-ASTN1-1 and lnc-RTN4R-1 are truly regulated by the oncogenic fusion protein. (ugent.be)
  • The in vitro effect of parathyroid hormone (PTH) on RNA and heme synthesis by embryonic mouse liver erythroid precursors was examined. (meta.org)
  • In the present study, we investigated the effects of serotonin and norepinephrine on adult hippocampal precursors in vitro using the neurosphere assay. (jneurosci.org)
  • Furthermore, in vitro studies showed that Msi2 and Msi1 have similar RNA-binding specificity. (elsevier.com)
  • Adipose precursor cells, said Marra and co-authors, have demonstrated an ability to differentiate in vitro into cartilage (chondrogenic), bone (osteogenic), fat (adipogenic) and muscle (myogenic) cell types. (bio-medicine.org)
  • ALKBH1 is an RNA dioxygenase responsible for cytoplasmic and mitochondrial tRNA modifications. (bireme.br)
  • Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Symposium on Regulatory RNAs 71, 81-93. (mskcc.org)
  • A study was made of the cleavage by M1 RNA and RNase P of a non-tRNA precursor that can serve as a substrate for RNase P from Escherichia coli, namely, the precursor to 4·5 S RNA (p4·5S). (elsevier.com)
  • Overwhelming evidence indicates that long non-coding RNAs have essential roles in tumorigenesis. (ugent.be)
  • The CTD of human La recognizes the 5′ end region of nascent RNA in a manner that is sensitive to serine 366 phosphorylation. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • some investigators have detected nascent RNA in the dense fibrillar components (DFCs) while others have localized transcription to the fibrillar centers (FCs). (biomedsearch.com)
  • ADAR1 and ADAR2 have similar sequence features, including double-stranded RNA binding domains (dsRBDs) and a deaminase domain. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Genomes of rotaviruses (RVs), and other pathogens of the Reoviridae family, comprise nine to twelve double-stranded (ds)RNA segments, co-packaged into each infectious virion. (elifesciences.org)
  • The core RNA polymerase complex forms a "crab claw"-like structure with an internal channel running along the full length [ PMID: 10499798 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Here, we show that there was a significantly larger population of marginal zone precursor (MZ-P) B cells, defined as being IgM hi CD1d hi CD21 hi CD23 hi in the spleens of autoimmune BXD2 mice compared with B6 mice. (jimmunol.org)
  • Only recently have we begun to appreciate the importance and complexity of the non-coding genome, owing in some part to truly significant advances in genomic technology such as RNA sequencing and genome-wide profiling studies. (frontiersin.org)
  • The larger of the intervening RNAs is located next to the 480 nucleotide mRNA-specific fragment, and the smaller intervening RNA is located between the 205 and 155 nucleotide mRNA-specific fragments. (nih.gov)
  • A mistake in even a single nucleotide can be devastating to the cell, and a reliable, repeatable method of RNA processing is necessary to ensure cell survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adipose tissues, shown to be multipotent, have also been shown to be an abundant source of post-natal precursor cells that are relatively easy to isolate from fat tissue and in sufficient amounts to be injected immediately post-isolation," said Dr. Kacey Marra, lead author of a study published in the current issue of the journal Cell Transplantation (18:2). (bio-medicine.org)