A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure where it transcribes DNA into RNA. It has specific requirements for cations and salt and has shown an intermediate sensitivity to alpha-amanitin in comparison to RNA polymerase I and II. EC 2.7.7.6.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. The enzyme functions in the nucleolar structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salts than RNA polymerase II and III and is not inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.
A process that changes the nucleotide sequence of mRNA from that of the DNA template encoding it. Some major classes of RNA editing are as follows: 1, the conversion of cytosine to uracil in mRNA; 2, the addition of variable number of guanines at pre-determined sites; and 3, the addition and deletion of uracils, templated by guide-RNAs (RNA, GUIDE).
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Cyclic peptides extracted from carpophores of various mushroom species. They are potent inhibitors of RNA polymerases in most eukaryotic species, blocking the production of mRNA and protein synthesis. These peptides are important in the study of transcription. Alpha-amanitin is the main toxin from the species Amanitia phalloides, poisonous if ingested by humans or animals.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Ribonucleic acid in fungi having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A protein which is a subunit of RNA polymerase. It effects initiation of specific RNA chains from DNA.
Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.
Short chains of RNA (100-300 nucleotides long) that are abundant in the nucleus and usually complexed with proteins in snRNPs (RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL NUCLEAR). Many function in the processing of messenger RNA precursors. Others, the snoRNAs (RNA, SMALL NUCLEOLAR), are involved with the processing of ribosomal RNA precursors.
Transcription factors whose primary function is to regulate the rate in which RNA is transcribed.
The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.
RNA that has catalytic activity. The catalytic RNA sequence folds to form a complex surface that can function as an enzyme in reactions with itself and other molecules. It may function even in the absence of protein. There are numerous examples of RNA species that are acted upon by catalytic RNA, however the scope of this enzyme class is not limited to a particular type of substrate.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The processes of RNA tertiary structure formation.
RNA transcripts of the DNA that are in some unfinished stage of post-transcriptional processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL) required for function. RNA precursors may undergo several steps of RNA SPLICING during which the phosphodiester bonds at exon-intron boundaries are cleaved and the introns are excised. Consequently a new bond is formed between the ends of the exons. Resulting mature RNAs can then be used; for example, mature mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER) is used as a template for protein production.
The extent to which an RNA molecule retains its structural integrity and resists degradation by RNASE, and base-catalyzed HYDROLYSIS, under changing in vivo or in vitro conditions.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
RNA molecules which hybridize to complementary sequences in either RNA or DNA altering the function of the latter. Endogenous antisense RNAs function as regulators of gene expression by a variety of mechanisms. Synthetic antisense RNAs are used to effect the functioning of specific genes for investigative or therapeutic purposes.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A family of proteins that promote unwinding of RNA during splicing and translation.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Nucleic acid structures found on the 5' end of eukaryotic cellular and viral messenger RNA and some heterogeneous nuclear RNAs. These structures, which are positively charged, protect the above specified RNAs at their termini against attack by phosphatases and other nucleases and promote mRNA function at the level of initiation of translation. Analogs of the RNA caps (RNA CAP ANALOGS), which lack the positive charge, inhibit the initiation of protein synthesis.
Systems in which an intracellular signal is generated in response to an intercellular primary messenger such as a hormone or neurotransmitter. They are intermediate signals in cellular processes such as metabolism, secretion, contraction, phototransduction, and cell growth. Examples of second messenger systems are the adenyl cyclase-cyclic AMP system, the phosphatidylinositol diphosphate-inositol triphosphate system, and the cyclic GMP system.
A DNA-dependent DNA polymerase characterized in prokaryotes and may be present in higher organisms. It has both 3'-5' and 5'-3' exonuclease activity, but cannot use native double-stranded DNA as template-primer. It is not inhibited by sulfhydryl reagents and is active in both DNA synthesis and repair. EC 2.7.7.7.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A DNA-dependent DNA polymerase characterized in E. coli and other lower organisms. It may be present in higher organisms and has an intrinsic molecular activity only 5% of that of DNA Polymerase I. This polymerase has 3'-5' exonuclease activity, is effective only on duplex DNA with gaps or single-strand ends of less than 100 nucleotides as template, and is inhibited by sulfhydryl reagents. EC 2.7.7.7.
The so-called general transcription factors that bind to RNA POLYMERASE II and that are required to initiate transcription. They include TFIIA; TFIIB; TFIID; TFIIE; TFIIF; TFIIH; TFII-I; and TFIIJ. In vivo they apparently bind in an ordered multi-step process and/or may form a large preinitiation complex called RNA polymerase II holoenzyme.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated RNAs they are not included in this scope.
Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T7-like phages, in the family PODOVIRIDAE, that infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and non-permuted.
A DNA-directed RNA polymerase found in BACTERIA. It is a holoenzyme that consists of multiple subunits including sigma factor 54.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Proteins found in any species of virus.
DNA sequences recognized as signals to end GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.
A DNA-dependent DNA polymerase characterized in E. coli and other lower organisms but may be present in higher organisms. Use also for a more complex form of DNA polymerase III designated as DNA polymerase III* or pol III* which is 15 times more active biologically than DNA polymerase I in the synthesis of DNA. This polymerase has both 3'-5' and 5'-3' exonuclease activities, is inhibited by sulfhydryl reagents, and has the same template-primer dependence as pol II. EC 2.7.7.7.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
RNA present in neoplastic tissue.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
Transcription factors that form transcription initiation complexes on DNA, bind to specific DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASES and are required to initiate transcription. Although their binding may be localized to distinct sequence and structural motifs within the DNA they are considered non-specific with regard to the specific gene being transcribed.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A general transcription factor that plays a major role in the activation of eukaryotic genes transcribed by RNA POLYMERASES. It binds specifically to the TATA BOX promoter element, which lies close to the position of transcription initiation in RNA transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE II. Although considered a principal component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID it also takes part in general transcription factor complexes involved in RNA POLYMERASE I and RNA POLYMERASE III transcription.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Ribonucleic acid in protozoa having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Factors that form a preinitiation complex at promoters that are specifically transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE I.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A series of 7 virulent phages which infect E. coli. The T-even phages T2, T4; (BACTERIOPHAGE T4), and T6, and the phage T5 are called "autonomously virulent" because they cause cessation of all bacterial metabolism on infection. Phages T1, T3; (BACTERIOPHAGE T3), and T7; (BACTERIOPHAGE T7) are called "dependent virulent" because they depend on continued bacterial metabolism during the lytic cycle. The T-even phages contain 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in place of ordinary cytosine in their DNA.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
An RNA POLYMERASE II specific transcription factor. It plays a role in assembly of the pol II transcriptional preinitiation complex and has been implicated as a target of gene-specific transcriptional activators.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
A DNA repair enzyme that catalyzes DNA synthesis during base excision DNA repair. EC 2.7.7.7.
The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A group of ribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
Permanganic acid (HMnO4), potassium salt. A highly oxidative, water-soluble compound with purple crystals, and a sweet taste. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Information, 4th ed)
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
A large family of RNA helicases that share a common protein motif with the single letter amino acid sequence D-E-A-D (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp). In addition to RNA helicase activity, members of the DEAD-box family participate in other aspects of RNA metabolism and regulation of RNA function.
One of several general transcription factors that are specific for RNA POLYMERASE III. TFIIIB recruits and positions pol III over the initiation site and remains stably bound to the DNA through multiple rounds of re-initiation by RNA POLYMERASE III.
Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
Enzymes that catalyze the template-directed incorporation of ribonucleotides into an RNA chain. EC 2.7.7.-.
An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC 2.7.7.49.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of linear RNA to a circular form by the transfer of the 5'-phosphate to the 3'-hydroxyl terminus. It also catalyzes the covalent joining of two polyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage. EC 6.5.1.3.
A conserved A-T rich sequence which is contained in promoters for RNA polymerase II. The segment is seven base pairs long and the nucleotides most commonly found are TATAAAA.
The major sequence-specific DNA-binding component involved in the activation of transcription of RNA POLYMERASE II. It was originally described as a complex of TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN and TATA-BINDING PROTEIN ASSOCIATED FACTORS. It is now know that TATA BOX BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE PROTEINS may take the place of TATA-box binding protein in the complex.
Within most types of eukaryotic CELL NUCLEUS, a distinct region, not delimited by a membrane, in which some species of rRNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) are synthesized and assembled into ribonucleoprotein subunits of ribosomes. In the nucleolus rRNA is transcribed from a nucleolar organizer, i.e., a group of tandemly repeated chromosomal genes which encode rRNA and which are transcribed by RNA polymerase I. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology & Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
RNA molecules found in the nucleus either associated with chromosomes or in the nucleoplasm.
The lengthening of a nascent RNA molecule by RNA POLYMERASE during transcription.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Catalytically active enzymes that are formed by the combination of an apoenzyme (APOENZYMES) and its appropriate cofactors and prosthetic groups.
An RNA polymerase II transcriptional inhibitor. This compound terminates transcription prematurely by selective inhibition of RNA synthesis. It is used in research to study underlying mechanisms of cellular regulation.
Factors that bind to RNA POLYMERASE III and aid in transcription. They include the assembly factors TFIIIA and TFIIIC and the initiation factor TFIIIB. All combine to form a preinitiation complex at the promotor that directs the binding of RNA POLYMERASE III.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
The process that starts the transcription of an RNA molecule. It includes the assembly of the initiation complex and establishment of the start site.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The small RNAs which provide spliced leader sequences, SL1, SL2, SL3, SL4 and SL5 (short sequences which are joined to the 5' ends of pre-mRNAs by TRANS-SPLICING). They are found primarily in primitive eukaryotes (protozoans and nematodes).
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
The process of moving specific RNA molecules from one cellular compartment or region to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Small kinetoplastid mitochondrial RNA that plays a major role in RNA EDITING. These molecules form perfect hybrids with edited mRNA sequences and possess nucleotide sequences at their 5'-ends that are complementary to the sequences of the mRNA's immediately downstream of the pre-edited regions.
Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 28S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Factors that associate with TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN. Many of them are components of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
A compound composed of a two CYCLIC PEPTIDES attached to a phenoxazine that is derived from STREPTOMYCES parvullus. It binds to DNA and inhibits RNA synthesis (transcription), with chain elongation more sensitive than initiation, termination, or release. As a result of impaired mRNA production, protein synthesis also declines after dactinomycin therapy. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1993, p2015)
A reaction that severs one of the sugar-phosphate linkages of the phosphodiester backbone of RNA. It is catalyzed enzymatically, chemically, or by radiation. Cleavage may be exonucleolytic, or endonucleolytic.
The first nucleotide of a transcribed DNA sequence where RNA polymerase (DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASE) begins synthesizing the RNA transcript.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
The steps that generate the 3' ends of mature RNA molecules. For most mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), 3' end processing referred to as POLYADENYLATION includes the addition of POLY A.
A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS which is the causal agent of POLIOMYELITIS in humans. Three serotypes (strains) exist. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route, pharyngeal secretions, or mechanical vector (flies). Vaccines with both inactivated and live attenuated virus have proven effective in immunizing against the infection.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Constituent of 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 3200 nucleotides. 23S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.
Nuclear nonribosomal RNA larger than about 1000 nucleotides, the mass of which is rapidly synthesized and degraded within the cell nucleus. Some heterogeneous nuclear RNA may be a precursor to mRNA. However, the great bulk of total hnRNA hybridizes with nuclear DNA rather than with mRNA.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Uridine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A uracil nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.
An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of polyadenylic acid from ATP. May be due to the action of RNA polymerase (EC 2.7.7.6) or polynucleotide adenylyltransferase (EC 2.7.7.19). EC 2.7.7.19.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
Small, linear single-stranded RNA molecules functionally acting as molecular parasites of certain RNA plant viruses. Satellite RNAs exhibit four characteristic traits: (1) they require helper viruses to replicate; (2) they are unnecessary for the replication of helper viruses; (3) they are encapsidated in the coat protein of the helper virus; (4) they have no extensive sequence homology to the helper virus. Thus they differ from SATELLITE VIRUSES which encode their own coat protein, and from the genomic RNA; (=RNA, VIRAL); of satellite viruses. (From Maramorosch, Viroids and Satellites, 1991, p143)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of single-stranded regions of DNA or RNA molecules while leaving the double-stranded regions intact. They are particularly useful in the laboratory for producing "blunt-ended" DNA molecules from DNA with single-stranded ends and for sensitive GENETIC TECHNIQUES such as NUCLEASE PROTECTION ASSAYS that involve the detection of single-stranded DNA and RNA.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Protein factors uniquely required during the elongation phase of protein synthesis.
Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.
Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
The discontinuation of transcription at the end of a transcription unit, including the recognition of termination sites and release of the newly synthesized RNA molecule.
A transcriptional elongation factor complex that is comprised of a heterodimer of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 9 and one of several CYCLINS including TYPE T CYCLINS and cyclin K. It functions by phosphorylating the carboxy-terminal domain of RNA POLYMERASE II.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
Ribonucleic acid in archaea having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of RNA. It includes EC 3.1.26.-, EC 3.1.27.-, EC 3.1.30.-, and EC 3.1.31.-.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
A multifunctional CDC2 kinase-related kinase that plays roles in transcriptional elongation, CELL DIFFERENTIATION, and APOPTOSIS. It is found associated with CYCLIN T and is a component of POSITIVE TRANSCRIPTIONAL ELONGATION FACTOR B.
Synthetic transcripts of a specific DNA molecule or fragment, made by an in vitro transcription system. This cRNA can be labeled with radioactive uracil and then used as a probe. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
ATP is one of four monomers required in the synthesis of RNA. The process is promoted by RNA polymerases. A similar process ... which is involved in triggering calcium signals by the release of calcium from intracellular stores. This form of signal ... most commonly in G protein-coupled receptor signal transduction pathways and is transformed to second messenger, cyclic AMP, ... It is also a precursor to DNA and RNA, and is used as a coenzyme. From the perspective of biochemistry, ATP is classified as a ...
The RNA polymerase II transcribes U1, U2, U4, U5 and the less abundant U11, U12 and U4atac (snRNAs) acquire a m7G-cap which ... The Sm proteins are synthesized in the cytoplasm by ribosomes translating Sm messenger RNA, just like any other protein. These ... are stored in the cytoplasm in the form of three partially assembled rings complexes all associated with the pICln protein. ... The RNA found within each snRNP particle is known as small nuclear RNA, or snRNA, and is usually about 150 nucleotides in ...
When mRNA is being synthesized by RNA polymerase, this nascent mRNA is already bound by RNA 5′ end 7-methyl-guanosine capping ... RNP granules store specific types of mRNAs under tight translational control while forming different types. Neuronal RNP ... Precursor mRNA Messenger RNA Heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein particle Hieronymus, Haley; Pamela A. Silver (2004-12-01). "A ... Messenger RNP (messenger ribonucleoprotein) is mRNA with bound proteins. mRNA does not exist "naked" in vivo but is always ...
RNA polymerase (RNAP) and sigma factors are necessary proteins for transcription of DNA into messenger RNA (mRNA). Eubacterial ... For long term storage, liquid cell cultures should be stored in a 15% glycerol solution at -80 degrees Celsius. The genome of ... As noted above in RNA Polymerase and Sigma Factors, the beta clamp proteins within the RNAP complex have a higher initial ... the other major lineages of domain Bacteria Biofertilizer Biofuel Cyanobacteria Cyanobacterial RNA thermometer Cyanobiont ...
ATP is one of four "monomers" required in the synthesis of RNA. The process is promoted by RNA polymerases.[26] A similar ... which is involved in triggering calcium signals by the release of calcium from intracellular stores.[24] This form of signal ... most commonly in G protein-coupled receptor signal transduction pathways and is transformed to second messenger, cyclic AMP, ... producing oxaloacetate and NADH from the newly transported malate and the mitochondrion's interior store of NAD+. A ...
Protein coding genes are transcribed by RNA polymerase II into messenger RNAs (mRNAs) that carry the information from DNA to ... process that eukaryotic cells use to copy genetic information stored in DNA into units of transportable complementary RNA ... Unlike prokaryotic RNA polymerase that initiates the transcription of all different types of RNA, RNA polymerase in eukaryotes ... SRP RNA, and other stable short RNAs such as ribonuclease P RNA. RNA Polymerases I, II, and III contain 14, 12, and 17 subunits ...
RNA uses a similar set of bases except that thymine is replaced with uracil. A group of enzymes called RNA polymerases ( ... After DNA is transcribed into RNA, the molecule is known as pre-messenger RNA (mRNA) and it consists of exons and introns that ... In effect, DNA serves as the "hard drive" which stores genetic data. DNA is replicated and serves as its own template for ... end of the RNA, generating a functional messenger RNA. This system allows the use of operons - collections of protein-coding ...
... as part of a second messenger system. This molecule acts in calcium signaling by releasing calcium from intracellular stores. ... Chen YG, Kowtoniuk WE, Agarwal I, Shen Y, Liu DR (December 2009). "LC/MS analysis of cellular RNA reveals NAD-linked RNA". Nat ... Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is carried out by the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases. The poly(ADP-ribose) structure is involved in the ... The solids are stable if stored dry and in the dark. Solutions of NAD+ are colorless and stable for about a week at 4 °C and ...
... the process in which the DNA instructions for making proteins are first copied into messenger RNA. Their middle son, Thomas ... and studying their role in helping cells store and retrieve energy. In 1955 she isolated an enzyme from E. coli bacteria that ... and was the first to characterize DNA polymerases II and III. Their youngest son, Kenneth Kornberg, became an architect and ... "contributed significantly to the science surrounding the discovery of DNA polymerase." One large contribution Sylvy made to the ...
In eukaryotes, transcription occurs in the nucleus, where the cell's DNA is stored. The RNA molecule produced by the polymerase ... First, the gene's DNA is transcribed to messenger RNA (mRNA). Second, that mRNA is translated to protein. RNA-coding genes must ... Some viruses store their entire genomes in the form of RNA, and contain no DNA at all. Because they use RNA to store genes, ... Some viruses store their genome in RNA instead of DNA and some gene products are functional non-coding RNAs. Therefore, a broad ...
A further member of this class is the RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain phosphatase. While this family remains poorly ... These functions are, in part, controlled by allosteric modification by secondary messengers and reversible protein ... and the net effect is for energy to enter and be stored inside the cell.[citation needed] In the adult brain, PPs are essential ...
General transcription factors position RNA polymerase at the start of a protein-coding sequence and then release the polymerase ... Three prime untranslated regions (3'-UTRs) of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) often contain regulatory sequences that post- ... The hippocampus is where new memories are initially stored. Methylation of CpGs in a promoter region of a gene represses ... Specificity factors alter the specificity of RNA polymerase for a given promoter or set of promoters, making it more or less ...
RNA polymerase III (Pol III) transcribes some miRNAs, especially those with upstream Alu sequences, transfer RNAs (tRNAs), and ... Estimates of the average number of unique messenger RNAs that are targets for repression by a typical miRNA vary, depending on ... The stability of stored miRNA samples has been questioned. microRNAs degrade much more easily than mRNAs, partly due to their ... miRNA genes are usually transcribed by RNA polymerase II (Pol II). The polymerase often binds to a promoter found near the DNA ...
It is most common in diffuse cutaneous scleroderma, and is often associated with antibodies against RNA polymerase (in 59% of ... Then, the stored blood is returned to the patient's bloodstream to reconstitute a healthy blood and immune system that will not ... is responsible for the secondary messenger system that induces transcription of the proteins and enzymes responsible for ... In this treatment, stem cells from the patient's blood are extracted and stored to preserve them. The patient's white blood ...
In any case, ssDNA viruses have their genomes converted to a dsDNA form prior to transcription, which creates the messenger RNA ... The 3'-end of the nicked strand remains as a free hydroxyl (OH) end that acts a signal for the host DNA polymerase to replicate ... The capsids of ssDNA viruses, which store the viral DNA, are usually icosahedral in shape and composed of either one type of ... Once the viral ssDNA is inside of the host cell, it is replicated by the host cell's DNA polymerase to produce a double- ...
... and the RNA polymerase III terminator.[16]. Long range correlationsEdit. Peng et al [17][18] found the existence of long-range ... noncoding sequences from 699 vertebrate messenger RNAs". Nucleic Acids Res. 15 (20): 8125-8148. doi:10.1093/nar/15.20.8125. PMC ... Once a nucleic acid sequence has been obtained from an organism, it is stored in silico in digital format. Digital genetic ... Some examples of sequence motifs are: the C/D[12] and H/ACA boxes[13] of snoRNAs, Sm binding site found in spliceosomal RNAs ...
Kozak M (October 1987). "An analysis of 5'-noncoding sequences from 699 vertebrate messenger RNAs". Nucleic Acids Res. 15 (20 ... the Kozak consensus sequence and the RNA polymerase III terminator. Peng et al. found the existence of long-range correlations ... Once a nucleic acid sequence has been obtained from an organism, it is stored in silico in digital format. Digital genetic ... Although DNA and RNA nucleotide bases are more similar to each other than are amino acids, the conservation of base pairs can ...
... on the RNA. For some RNA (non-coding RNA) the mature RNA is the final gene product. In the case of messenger RNA (mRNA) the RNA ... subunits of DNA-dependent RNA polymerases and eukaryotic RNA-dependent RNA polymerases and the origin of RNA polymerases". BMC ... The genetic information stored in DNA represents the genotype, whereas the phenotype results from the "interpretation" of that ... RNA polymerase I is responsible for transcription of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcribes all ...
Discovery of DNA polymerase I in E. Coli) pp.420 Genetics and Genomics Timeline: The discovery of messenger RNA (mRNA) by ... 2012: The flora of Wales is completely barcoded, and reference specimens stored in the BOLD systems database, by the National ... Francois Jacob and Matthew Meselson identified the function of messenger RNA. 1964: Howard Temin showed using RNA viruses that ... These scientists help explain the link between a messenger RNA nucleotide sequence and a polypeptide sequence. In the ...
The three universal types of RNA include transfer RNA (tRNA), messenger RNA (mRNA), and ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Messenger RNA ... Nucleic acids are also generated within the laboratory, through the use of enzymes (DNA and RNA polymerases) and by solid-phase ... the specific sequencing in DNA of these nucleobase-pairs enables storing and transmitting coded instructions as genes. In RNA, ... Most RNA molecules are linear, single-stranded molecules, but both circular and branched molecules can result from RNA splicing ...
This requires the presence of all three RNA polymerases. In fact, the transcription of pre-RNA by RNA polymerase I accounts for ... and messenger RNA (mRNA) to process and translate the latter into proteins. Ribosomal RNA is the predominant form of RNA found ... As a result, many thousands of rRNA sequences are known and stored in specialized databases such as RDP-II and SILVA. ... Zemora G, Waldsich C (November 2010). "RNA folding in living cells". RNA Biology. 7 (6): 634-41. doi:10.4161/rna.7.6.13554. PMC ...
... from DNA to messenger RNA by binding to a specific DNA sequence and promoting or blocking the recruitment of RNA polymerase to ... Long sequences of nucleotides are the principal means by which biological systems store genetic information, and therefore the ... RNA interference (RNAi) RNA polymerase Any of a class of enzymes that synthesizes RNA molecules from a DNA template. RNA ... including transfer RNA (tRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA), microRNA (miRNA), and small interfering RNA (siRNA); other non-coding RNAs ...
CPSF is in contact with RNA polymerase II, allowing it to signal the polymerase to terminate transcription. When RNA polymerase ... The 3′ end is also where the poly(A) tail is found on polyadenylated RNAs. Messenger RNA (mRNA) is RNA that has a coding region ... However, in a few cell types, mRNAs with short poly(A) tails are stored for later activation by re-polyadenylation in the ... For further information, see RNA and Messenger RNA RNAs are a type of large biological molecules, whose individual building ...
Histones, gene regulatory proteins, DNA and RNA polymerases, and other substances essential for nuclear activities must be ... Liver cells store carbohydrates in the form of glycogen. The breakdown of glycogen eventually leads to the release of glucose ... Receptor proteins on the membrane have a shape that matches with a chemical messenger, resulting in various cellular responses ... 2000). "Plant Vacuoles Store Small Molecules and Enable the Cell to Elongate Rapidly". Molecular Cell Biology. W. H. Freeman ...
Results are stored in a MySQL database to make possible additional analyses. GenePattern offers integrated solutions to RNA-Seq ... a method using new generation sequencing technologies to sequence the messenger RNA. SpliceMap SplitSeek SuperSplat was ... Recent sequencing technologies normally require DNA samples to be amplified via polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Amplification ... RNA-Skim RNA-Skim: a rapid method for RNA-Seq quantification at transcript-level. rSeq rSeq is a set of tools for RNA-Seq data ...
The two RNA polymerases may recognize and bind to different kinds of promoters within the chloroplast genome.[85] The ribosomes ... They store CO2 in a four-carbon compound, which is why the process is called C4 photosynthesis. The four-carbon compound is ... but instead pass on their signal to an unknown second messenger molecule. All these molecules initiate retrograde signaling- ... Protein synthesis within chloroplasts relies on two RNA polymerases. One is coded by the chloroplast DNA, the other is of ...
DNA helicase DNA polymerase DNA ligase RNA - Ribonucleic acid is a nucleic acid made from a long chain of nucleotide, in a cell ... Ribosomes build proteins from the genetic instructions held within messenger RNA. Symbiosome - A temporary organelle that ... Vesicle - A relatively small intracellular, membrane-enclosed sac that stores or transports substances . Golgi apparatus - A ... RNA polymerase mRNA rRNA tRNA Proteins - biochemical compounds consisting of one or more polypeptides typically folded into a ...
The host cell's RNA polymerase II then transcribes RNA in the nucleus from the proviral DNA. Some of this RNA may become mRNA ... Baltimore classification is a system used to classify viruses based on their manner of messenger RNA (mRNA) synthesis. By ... Structural characteristics such as the shape of the viral capsid, which stores the viral genome, and the evolutionary history ... allowing for the recruitment of a host RNA polymerase. Second, once the RNA polymerase is recruited, it uses the negative ...
The store of cellular RNA in the cells is constantly fluctuating. For example, in Escherichia coli, Messenger RNA's life ... Supplementary alternate degradosome components are PcnB (poly A polymerase) and the RNA helicases RhlE and SrmB. Other ... that is involved in the processing of ribosomal RNA and the degradation of messenger RNA and is regulated by Non-coding RNA. It ... RNA helicase is considered to help in the process of degradation to develop the double helix structure in RNA stem-loops. ...
Some of these enzymes, called DNA polymerase and RNA polymerase, make new copies of DNA and RNA. A virus's polymerase enzymes ... is used to produce RNA copies called messenger RNA (mRNA). These migrate through the cell and carry the code to ribosomes where ... These techniques rely on the availability of ancient viral DNA or RNA, but most viruses that have been preserved and stored in ... but viral RNA polymerase enzymes are error-prone, causing RNA viruses to mutate and form new strains. In some species of RNA ...
Gene transcription is the first step in the process whereby information stored in DNA patterns is used to manufacture protein. ... As the RNA polymerase enzyme begins reeling in the DNA strand, transcribing its store of information, scientists are able to ... the strands genetic information is transcribed to messenger RNA. Biochemical studies of transcription appear to indicate that ... An optical trap created by an 835-nm beam holds a polystyrene bead on one end of a DNA/RNA polymerase (RNAp) complex. The ...
Total RNA was extracted using Trizol reagent and human beta-defensin messenger RNA detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase ... Tissues from surgical biopsies were collected fresh onto ice and stored in liquid nitrogen. ... All six parotid gland samples studied were negative for human beta-defensin 2 messenger RNA. Thus, human beta-defensin 1 gene ... Human beta-defensin 1 messenger RNA was detected in all 25 samples that generated amplifiable cDNA, as assessed using abl- ...
Fuqua S. A. W., Falette N. F., McGuire W. L. Sensitive detection of estrogen receptor RNA by polymerase chain reaction assay. J ... The homogenate was centrifuged at 50,000 × g for 1 h. The supernatant was used for steroid receptor measurement and stored at − ... A known amount of tumor RNA was then mixed with 10 different amounts of the synthesized RNA multistandard and GAPDH RNA ... Messenger RNA Determination of Estrogen Receptor, Progesterone Receptor, pS2, and Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 by ...
... by the enzyme RNA polymerase II (RNAPII), a process called transcription. These transcripts undergo various modifications ... the DNA sequence that specifies the structure and function of each protein is transcribed into molecules of messenger RNA (mRNA ... In higher organisms, the genetic information, written in the nucleotide sequences of the hereditary material DNA, is stored in ... By binding simultaneously to both RNAPII and the growing RNA, the complex presumably helps the cell to keep long mRNAs in the ...
... messenger RNA and essential enzymes), DNA and RNA polymerases, and nonhistone nuclear proteins (tubulin and others). The ... By storing fairly large amounts of yolk, eggs may attain large, sometimes gigantic, dimensions. The egg diameter is about 1.4 ... The animal egg is a highly specialized cell that contains the stored nutrients essential for embryonic development. It usually ... The cytoplasm contains a large store of macromolecules, including the entire protein-synthesizing system ( ...
... messenger RNA or mRNA) with the aid of RNA polymerases.. Cells. Building blocks of life that divide. They have organelles that ... The process of transcribing or making a copy of genetic information stored in a DNA strand into a complementary strand of RNA ( ... Stores ions in solution.. Bottleneck Effect. The loss of genetic variation that occurs after outside forces destroy most of a ... Processes/stores proteins and send them out of the cell.. Darwin. English natural scientist who formulated a theory of ...
ATP is one of four monomers required in the synthesis of RNA. The process is promoted by RNA polymerases. A similar process ... which is involved in triggering calcium signals by the release of calcium from intracellular stores. This form of signal ... most commonly in G protein-coupled receptor signal transduction pathways and is transformed to second messenger, cyclic AMP, ... It is also a precursor to DNA and RNA, and is used as a coenzyme. From the perspective of biochemistry, ATP is classified as a ...
The RNA polymerase II transcribes U1, U2, U4, U5 and the less abundant U11, U12 and U4atac (snRNAs) acquire a m7G-cap which ... The Sm proteins are synthesized in the cytoplasm by ribosomes translating Sm messenger RNA, just like any other protein. These ... are stored in the cytoplasm in the form of three partially assembled rings complexes all associated with the pICln protein. ... The RNA found within each snRNP particle is known as small nuclear RNA, or snRNA, and is usually about 150 nucleotides in ...
4B063QQ53 Messenger RNA (mRNA) * 4B063QR08 DNA or RNA polymerases * 4B063QR42 Mononucleotides or dinucleotides, bases, or ... It is possible to retrieve in J-STORE by the same key word. → Retrieval result of J-STORE ... 4B063QS25 Polymerase chain reactions (PCR) * 4B063QX01 Visual or optical sensing (e.g., discoloration or degree of light ...
Messenger RNA analysis. Total RNA was extracted using QIAzol Lysis reagent (Qiagen Nordic, Sweden). 1 μg of total RNA was ... The resulting PCR product, containing the T7 RNA polymerase promoter, Blast region and poly(A) tail, was purified from the ... Blast RNA was purified with phenol/chloroform, extracted with ethanol, dissolved in nuclease-free water and stored at −80°C in ... Control reactions with reverse-transcribed RNA without Blast, with only Blast RNA, and with RNA without reverse transcriptase ...
Real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction Levels of messenger RNA (mRNA) for PGF, total VEGFA, VEGFA165, and ... This is consistent with the concept that PGF and VEGFA proteins are not stored within granulosa cells but released rapidly ... Real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction Levels of messenger RNA (mRNA) for PGF, total VEGFA, VEGFA165, and ... G KDR kinase insert domain receptor LH luteinizing hormone mRNA messenger RNA NFκB nuclear factor-κB PCR polymerase chain ...
RNA/cDNA templates were initially denatured for 2 min at 94-95°C before the addition of Taq DNA polymerase. Reactions were ... Because the stores are finite, the release rate quickly declines to the point where it is exceeded by removal processes and [Ca ... In turn, either these messengers or other pathways result in an increase in the intracellular Ca2+concentration ([Ca2+]i) by ... Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR).. Total RNA (∼500 ng/sample) was reverse transcribed (25-μl reaction ...
Messenger RNA Use Is Subject to Regulation The Stability of Messenger RNA Also Can Be Regulated Small RNAs Can Regulate mRNA ... 36.1 Cellular RNA Is Synthesized by RNA Polymerases Genes Are the Transcriptional Units RNA Polymerase Is Composed of Multiple ... Starch and Sucrose Are the Major Carbohydrate Stores in Plants Biological Insight Why Bread Becomes Stale: The Role of Starch ... Messenger RNA Use Is Subject to Regulation The Stability of Messenger RNA Also Can Be Regulated Small RNAs Can Regulate mRNA ...
... capped messenger RNAs were generated using T7 RNA polymerase (New England Biolabs, Ipswich, MA) with the FspI-linearized pDluc ... and stored at −80°C. ... Most RNA viruses have polycistronic genomes and have evolved ... Nidovirales: evolving the largest RNA virus genome. Virus Res 117:17-37. doi:10.1016/j.virusres.2006.01.017. ... 6E). These data indicate that the C-rich RNA motif is required for efficient −2/−1 PRF in simarteriviruses and that X_XUC_UCU ...
Which of the following enzymes is responsible for RNA synthesis? RNA polymerase ... The transfer of information from DNA into an RNA molecule is known as ________. Art: curl, wave, circle train ... RNA contains the nitrogenous base ________ instead of ________, which is found only in DNA ... manufacture of a strand of RNA complementary to a strand of DNA ... Translation converts the information stored in ________ to ...
A standard solution of total RNA was first prepared by pooling RNA from several cell lines and stored in aliquots. A 270-bp ... method for competitive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for rapid and automated quantitation of messenger RNA in ... A standard solution of total RNA was first prepared by pooling RNA from several cell lines and stored in aliquots. A 270-bp ... A standard solution of total RNA was first prepared by pooling RNA from several cell lines and stored in aliquots. A 270-bp ...
The most common type of RNA that is analyzed is the messenger RNA (mRNA) because it represents the protein-coding genes that ... The DNA can be replicated by the DNA polymerase enzyme. Unlike DNA, which is located in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells, RNA ... The DNA samples can be stored frozen at -80°C for several years. ... Taq polymerase is a DNA polymerase isolated from the ... DNA and RNA Extraction. To study or manipulate nucleic acids, the DNA or RNA must first be isolated or extracted from the cells ...
RNA polymerase I produces three ribosomal RNAs RNA polymerase III produces transfer RNA The product of RNA polymerase II, the ... Sequences within the newly transcribed RNA signal termination Some messenger RNAs directly sense metabolite concentrations The ... Free energy stored in concentration gradients can be quantified 13.2 Two Families of Membrane Proteins Use ATP Hydrolysis to ... RNA polymerase I produces three ribosomal RNAs RNA polymerase III produces transfer RNA The product of RNA polymerase II, the ...
Quantification of messenger RNAs.. The concentrations of the mRNAs corresponding to the genes of interest were measured by RT- ... Total RNA solutions were stored at −80°C until quantification of the target mRNAs. ... The method relies on the addition of known amounts of a competitor DNA molecule in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to ... Total RNA preparation.. Tissue samples were pulverized in liquid nitrogen and total RNA was prepared according to a procedure ...
... has used biochemical techniques to isolate the large complex of proteins that allow RNA polymerase II to produce messenger RNA ... Eukaryotic organisms such as humans store their genetic information in the structure of DNA molecules. Most of the genetic ... RNA polymerase in bacteria is less complex than RNA polymerase in eukaryotes. Some of the increased complexity of RNA ... In contrast, RNA polymerase II of yeast (Bakers yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae) has 12 protein subunits[1] and requires five ...
Data were normalized to the expression of messenger RNA for β-actin, included on the same polymerase chain reaction array plate ... Ferritin is a protein that binds to and stores iron. It is composed of two subunits, the ferritin light chain (FTL, L-subunit, ... Recovered RNA was quantified by its absorbance at 260 nm. cDNA was prepared by reverse transcription of isolated RNA using the ... Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The MCF-7 cells (1.5×106 cells/well) were seeded in 6-well plates and allowed ...
The quantitative Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay revealed that the Messenger RNA (mRNA) of SAA- ... A total of 5 ovarian cancer tissues and paracancerous tissues were collected and then stored at - 80 °C until the qRT-PCR assay ... Long non-coding RNA LINC00160 functions as a decoy of microRNA-132 to mediate autophagy and drug resistance in hepatocellular ... Here, we focused on the small nucleolar RNA host gene 4 (SNHG4) in liver cancer prognosis based on The Cancer Genome Atlas ( ...
We further treated astrocytes with supernatants from highly pure Th1 and Th17 cultures and assessed the messenger RNA ... messenger RNA (mRNA) from the spinal cord, 1 μg of RNA was used for cDNA synthesis. Changes in mRNA expression levels were ... Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. RNA was isolated from the cell pellet using the RNeasy Mini Kit (Qiagen) ... Supernatants of astrocytes cultured in the medium and Th1 and Th17 supernatants, respectively, were collected and stored at − ...
"For the genetic code to be transcribed into messenger RNA, the DNA double helix has to be opened and the strand of gene ... Located in this complex is a large assemblage of proteins comprised of RNA polymerase II (Pol II). Additionally, a class of ... The act of mapping out human DNA and storing it in research databases was a huge leap forward in our understanding of a wide ... Their findings indicate a major advance in our understanding of just how genetic information is transcribed from DNA to RNA. ...
RNA was stored in aliquots at −70°C. RNA samples were reversely transcribed using the Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain ... The quantity of messenger RNA (mRNA) was given as 2−ΔΔct. Δct and ΔΔct were calculated as follows: Δct = ct (gene of interest ... The L3-L5 spinal cord segments of sacrificed mice were dissected and frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at −70°C. Total RNA ... and mGluR5 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression after the surgery on mice. Spinal GFAP (A ), mGluR3 (B ), and mGluR5 (C ) mRNA ...
In a first step, the enzyme RNA polymerase II generates messenger RNA copies of the DNA segments (genes) in the complex […]. ... www.plantcell.org/content/29/4/854.abstract The genetic blueprint for the production of proteins is stored in the DNA of a ... provide insight into the complex process of transcription elongation by RNA polymerase II http:// ...
It was this messenger RNA workflow that was modified to sequence influenza viral RNA. Keller said that messenger RNA has a tail ... Information determining the makeup of nearly every living thing is stored in dual-stranded DNA. The complete set of these DNA ... This method, often referred to as "reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction" (RT-PCR), works well for clinical purposes ... One capability of the nanopore sequencer is to sequence messenger RNA. Messenger RNA is a kind of intermediary that tells the ...
After centrifugation, the cell pellet was frozen and stored at-70°C until RNA was isolated. ... and 0.3 units of Taq DNA polymerase (Life Technologies, Inc.). Each PCR consisted of 30 cycles (30 s at 94°C, 30 s at 60°C, and ... Estrogen Receptor-β Messenger RNA Expression in Human Breast Tumor Biopsies. Helmut Dotzlaw, Etienne Leygue, Peter H. Watson ... Estrogen Receptor-β Messenger RNA Expression in Human Breast Tumor Biopsies. Helmut Dotzlaw, Etienne Leygue, Peter H. Watson ...
Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic RNA polymerase. Functions of RNA Polymerase. RNA polymerase I, II, III, IV, V. ... during which the information stored in a molecule of DNA is copied into a new molecule of messenger RNA. ... RNA polymerase. Image Source: Wikipedia. Image created with biorender.com.. RNA polymerase definition. Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) ... RNA polymerase III. *It is located in the nucleus.. *The RNA polymerase III has 14 or more distinct subunits with a mass of ...
Transcription is the synthesis of messenger Ribonucleic Acid (mRNA). The enzyme. RNA polymerase initiates transcription by ... DNA stores this information by a sequence of nucleotides. There are. four different nucleotides that construct DNA. They all ... A ribosomal RNA molecule with in the ribosome binds to the. "start" sequence of the mRNA strand. The ribosome then moves the ... RNA. nucleotides then bind to their complementary DNA nucleotides of the BRCA1 gene. to form a mRNA strand. The mRNA is ...
  • First, the DNA sequence that specifies the structure and function of each protein is transcribed into molecules of messenger RNA (mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase II (RNAPII), a process called transcription. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • The process of transcribing or making a copy of genetic information stored in a DNA strand into a complementary strand of RNA (messenger RNA or mRNA) with the aid of RNA polymerases. (studystack.com)
  • snRNPs (pronounced "snurps"), or small nuclear ribonucleoproteins, are RNA-protein complexes that combine with unmodified pre-mRNA and various other proteins to form a spliceosome, a large RNA-protein molecular complex upon which splicing of pre-mRNA occurs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The action of snRNPs is essential to the removal of introns from pre-mRNA, a critical aspect of post-transcriptional modification of RNA, occurring only in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, U7 snRNP is made of U7 small nuclear RNA and associated proteins and is involved in the processing of the 3′ stem-loop of histone pre-mRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methods and Results: Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta-1) mRNA was assayed in total RNA extracted from cultured human skin fibroblasts. (elsevier.com)
  • Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA)labeled sense primer to amplify a 161-bp-long c DNA product of target TGF-beta1 mRNA sequence and the RNA mimic. (elsevier.com)
  • The concentration of TGF-beta-1 mRNA in standard RNA was determined by conventional competitive RT-PCR. (elsevier.com)
  • The most common type of RNA that is analyzed is the messenger RNA (mRNA) because it represents the protein-coding genes that are actively expressed. (oercommons.org)
  • Eukaryotic RNA polymerase II in a complex with DNA and mRNA [1] . (wikiversity.org)
  • The quantitative Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay revealed that the Messenger RNA (mRNA) of SAA-1 and SAA-4 was much higher in cancer tissues than in adjacent tissues, and MMPs was up-regulation including MMP-1, MMP-9 and MMP- 12 in OVCAR-3 cell stimulated by SAA. (bvsalud.org)
  • The function of RNA polymerase is to control the process of transcription, through which copying of information stored in DNA into a new molecule of messenger RNA (mRNA. (microbenotes.com)
  • The prokaryotes have a single type of RNA polymerase (RNAP) which synthesizes all the classes of RNA, i.e mRNA, tRNA, rRNA, sRNA. (microbenotes.com)
  • Transcription is the synthesis of messenger Ribonucleic Acid (mRNA). (artscolumbia.org)
  • RNA nucleotides then bind to their complementary DNA nucleotides of the BRCA1 gene to form a mRNA strand. (artscolumbia.org)
  • Pol II is the molecular machine that transcribes the genetic information encoded in the DNA into molecules of messenger RNA (mRNA). (nano-initiative-munich.de)
  • Transcription factors bind to DNA, RNA polymerase begins transcribing messanger RNA (mRNA) molecule from DNA. (dnalc.org)
  • Three distinct zinc-containing RNA polymerases are found in eukaryotic nuclei: polymerase I for the ribosomal RNA precursor, polymerase II for the mRNA precursor, and polymerase III for 5S and tRNA genes. (abcam.com)
  • The particular type of RNA that is made is called messenger RNA (or mRNA) because it carries the information, or message, from the DNA in the nucleus into the cytoplasm. (thekennelclub.org.uk)
  • As shown schematically above, messenger RNA is synthesized complementary and antiparallel to the template strand (anticodons) of DNA, so the resulting mRNA consists of codons corresponding to those in the coding strand of DNA. (mandrivausers.ro)
  • The process associated with RNA polymerase is to unwind the DNA and build a strand of mRNA by placing on the growing mRNA molecule the base complementary to that on the template strand of the DNA. (mandrivausers.ro)
  • This complementary strand is called messenger RNA, or mRNA. (mandrivausers.ro)
  • RNA polymerase It is the enzyme that constructs the mRNA chain using the template strand of the gene. (mandrivausers.ro)
  • 3. ... amino acid attaches to it Define mRNA Messenger RNA What is the end product of transcription and what is the end product of translation? (mandrivausers.ro)
  • Messenger RNA (mRNA) then travels to the ribosomes in the cell cytoplasm, where protein synthesis occurs (Figure 3). (mandrivausers.ro)
  • The mRNA strand that is synthesized will be complementary to the template … The base triplets of transfer RNA (tRNA) pair with those of mRNA and at the same time deposit their amino acids on the growing protein chain. (mandrivausers.ro)
  • When mRNA forms a duplex with a complementary antisense RNA sequence, translation is blocked. (mandrivausers.ro)
  • TRANSCRIPTION osms.it/transcription First step in creating protein from gene Gene read, copied on individual messenger RNA (mRNA) PROCESS DNA unpacked from chromatin, undergoes dehelicization Promoter region identifies starting point for transcription (e.g. (mandrivausers.ro)
  • The only case of "RNA replication" (a misnomer) taking place in cell nuclei is the transcription of RNA (from DNA) to messenger RNA (mRNA), performed by RNA polymerases. (arklatexcraftbeerandbbq.com)
  • Compared with the CON, oxidative stress markedly increased the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression level of claudin-1 and occludin in the duodenum, and the value of occludin was significantly decreased in the jejunum of the diquat group (DIQ). (frontiersin.org)
  • lncRNA and mRNA microarray chips were used to identify dysregulated lncRNAs in tumor tissue and tumor-adjacent normal tissue, and SYBR Green-based miRNA quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions were used to validate upregulated lncRNAs. (plos.org)
  • One function of lncRNAs is to downregulate gene expression by binding with messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and depressing mRNA translation or speeding mRNA degradation [ 13 ]. (plos.org)
  • Once it is formed, it is sent out of the nucleus of the cell, and, if it is messenger RNA (mRNA), it will go to a special structure called a ribosome where it is translated into a chain of amino acids [7] . (inhisimage.blog)
  • and other types of RNA, microRNAs (miRNAs) play a role in regulating gene expression, while small nuclear(sn) RNA helps with assuring that mRNA contains no nucleotide units that would lead to formation of a faulty protein. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Although messenger RNA is produced by RNA Polymerase II, ribosomal RNA is made by its very own enzyme, RNA Polymerase I. In a typical cell there is much far more rRNA than mRNA. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Using SP6 RNA polymerase from the mMessage mMachine SP6 in vitro transcription kit (Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA, USA), 5′-capped YC2.12 mRNA was synthesized in vitro using pCS2-YC2.12 as a template. (peerj.com)
  • Synthesized mRNA from a single expected electrophoretic band was purified, dissolved in nuclease-free water, and stored at −80 °C before use. (peerj.com)
  • In this method, RNA is first transcribed into complementary DNA (cDNA) by reverse transcriptase from total RNA or messenger RNA (mRNA). (thermofisher.com)
  • When designing a RT-qPCR assay it is important to decide whether to use total RNA or purified mRNA as the template for reverse transcription. (thermofisher.com)
  • mRNA may provide slightly more sensitivity, but total RNA is often used because it has important advantages over mRNA as a starting material. (thermofisher.com)
  • BERKELEY, Calif. -- Gene transcription is the first step in the process whereby information stored in DNA patterns is used to manufacture protein. (photonics.com)
  • Biochemical studies of transcription appear to indicate that the RNA polymerase enzyme pauses and sometimes stops completely. (photonics.com)
  • As the RNA polymerase enzyme begins reeling in the DNA strand, transcribing its store of information, scientists are able to record the history of the transcription process, one molecule at a time. (photonics.com)
  • A 270-bp competitor RNA molecule (RNA mimic) was prepared by in vitro transcription and was added to each reaction. (elsevier.com)
  • The RNA polymerase of bacteria is relatively small with a core of five protein subunits and one additional protein that recognizes the start points for transcription [6] . (wikiversity.org)
  • In contrast, RNA polymerase II of yeast (Baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) has 12 protein subunits [1] and requires five general transcription factor proteins (TFIIB, D, E, F and H). The general transcription factors are complex, for example, TFIIH has at least six protein subunits in various eukaryotic organisms from yeast to mammals. (wikiversity.org)
  • In addition to the polymerase core and its associated general transcription factors, another large protein complex called Mediator is involved in the control of RNA polymerase II [7] . (wikiversity.org)
  • In some cells, Mediator is about 4 times larger than the RNA polymerase core complex (with as many as 20 different protein subunits) and is important for transmitting the effects of positive and negative regulators of gene transcription (often quite distant from the transcription start site) to the core polymerase. (wikiversity.org)
  • How do HIV proteins interact with RNA polymerase II and induce transcription from the HIV-1 promoter? (wikiversity.org)
  • 1.0 1.1 Structural basis of transcription: an RNA polymerase II elongation complex at 3.3 A resolution by Averell L. Gnatt, Patrick Cramer, Jianhua Fu, David A. Bushnell and Roger D. Kornberg in Science (2001) Volume 292, pages 1876-1882. (wikiversity.org)
  • For the genetic code to be transcribed into messenger RNA, the DNA double helix has to be opened and the strand of gene sequences has to be properly positioned so that RNA polymerase, the enzyme that catalyzes transcription, knows where the gene starts. (redorbit.com)
  • This method, often referred to as "reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction" (RT-PCR), works well for clinical purposes, such as identifying specific viruses from respiratory samples taken from sick patients. (cdc.gov)
  • provide insight into the complex process of transcription elongation by RNA polymerase II http://www.plantcell.org/content/29/4/854.abstract The genetic blueprint for the production of proteins is stored in the DNA of a plant cell. (plantae.org)
  • Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) Polymerase (RNAP) enzyme is a multi-subunit enzyme that applies its activity in the catalyzation of the transcription process of RNA synthesized from a DNA template. (microbenotes.com)
  • And therefore, RNA polymerase enzyme is responsible for the copying of DNA sequences into RNA sequences during transcription. (microbenotes.com)
  • The collaborator proteins assist in enabling the specific binding of RNA polymerase, assist in the unwinding of the double chemical structure of DNA, moderate the enzymatic activities of RNA polymerase and to control the speed of transcription. (microbenotes.com)
  • RNA polymerase is an enzyme that is responsible for copying a DNA sequence into an RNA sequence, during the process of transcription. (microbenotes.com)
  • As a complex molecule composed of protein subunits, RNA polymerase controls the process of transcription, during which the information stored in a molecule of DNA is copied into a new molecule of messenger RNA. (microbenotes.com)
  • The promoter is the sequence of DNA that is required for accurate and specific initiation of transcription, and also, it is the sequence of DNA to which RNA polymerase binds accurately to initiate transcription. (microbenotes.com)
  • RNA polymerase initiates transcription by separation of DNA strands. (artscolumbia.org)
  • DNA can also serve as a template for RNA ( transcription ). (cuny.edu)
  • Gene transcription is central to cell function, as it converts the information stored in the DNA into RNA molecules of defined sequence, which then program protein synthesis. (nano-initiative-munich.de)
  • TFIIS alters the shape of the active center of the enzyme, so that the tangled stretch of RNA can be excised, and transcription then resumes, with Pol II synthesizing that segment again. (nano-initiative-munich.de)
  • The only difference is that in the RNA copy, the letter T is replaced with a closely related building block known as 'U'. You are watching this process - called transcription - in real time. (dnalc.org)
  • During transcription RNA polymerase begins moving down the DNA template strand in the 5' to 3' direction, when it does it strings together complementary nucleotides. (mandrivausers.ro)
  • Splicing is often tightly coupled to transcription by RNA polymerase II that proceeds in 5′ → 3′ along DNA template. (springer.com)
  • RNA is produced as part of the transcription process. (inhisimage.blog)
  • Transcription is catalyzed by special enzymes called RNA polymerases [5] . (inhisimage.blog)
  • One RNA polymerase is bound, and other transcription factors complete the mature transcription complex. (wikidot.com)
  • When the end of the transcription unit is reached, the RNA polymerase dissociates, and the newly formed strand of RNA is released. (wikidot.com)
  • During the transcription cycle, the CTD of the large subunit of RNA pol II is reversibly phosphorylated. (activemotif.com)
  • RNA pol II containing unphosphorylated CTD is recruited to the promoter, whereas the hyperphosphorylated CTD form is involved in active transcription. (activemotif.com)
  • Two of these, transcription and translation, allow the genetic information stored in DNA to be deciphered into the proteins that form all living things, from bacteria to humans to plants. (wisc.edu)
  • The process of transcription utilizes an enzyme called RNA polymerase to turn DNA into RNA. (wisc.edu)
  • POLR2E is a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase that catalyzes the transcription of DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside triphosphates as substrates. (creativebiomart.net)
  • From reverse transcription (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, the messenger RNA was ubiquitously expressed in various human adult tissues. (statescale.tk)
  • What they found was a preliminary transcription phase with a flurry of switches flicked "on" and then "off" as seen by the synthesis of non-coding RNA before the final "on" switch is tripped. (blogspot.com)
  • Here we show that RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) transcription of ncRNAs is required for chromatin remodelling at the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe fbp1 + locus during transcriptional activation. (blogspot.com)
  • Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) is used when the starting material is RNA. (thermofisher.com)
  • One-step assays combine reverse transcription and PCR in a single tube and buffer, using a reverse transcriptase along with a DNA polymerase. (thermofisher.com)
  • It was awarded for Kornberg's fundamental studies on transcription - the process by which the information stored in the genes is copied and transferred to those parts of the cells that produce proteins. (blogspot.com)
  • By binding simultaneously to both RNAPII and the growing RNA, the complex presumably helps the cell to keep long mRNAs in the vicinity of the CTD - to which proteins involved in the processing of nascent transcripts also bind. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Provide and store energy, spare fat and proteins from being used. (studystack.com)
  • The Sm proteins are synthesized in the cytoplasm by ribosomes translating Sm messenger RNA, just like any other protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Macromolecules are inactivated using enzymes such as proteases that break down proteins, and ribonucleases (RNAses) that break down RNA. (oercommons.org)
  • Roger Kornberg's laboratory has used biochemical techniques to isolate the large complex of proteins that allow RNA polymerase II to produce messenger RNA. (wikiversity.org)
  • In this strong belief is held the idea that genetic information flows from DNA to RNA to proteins. (redorbit.com)
  • Located in this complex is a large assemblage of proteins comprised of RNA polymerase II (Pol II). (redorbit.com)
  • Messenger RNA is a kind of intermediary that tells the body how to convert the instructions contained in the genome into actual proteins. (cdc.gov)
  • The enzyme RNA polymerase interacts with proteins to enable it to function in catalyzation of the synthesis of RNA. (microbenotes.com)
  • RNA polymerases have been found in all species, but the number and composition of these proteins vary across taxa. (microbenotes.com)
  • RNA is decoded into amino acids to generate proteins ( translation ). (cuny.edu)
  • This RNA is then translated in amino acids to yield proteins. (cuny.edu)
  • These RNA messengers provide the instructions to make proteins, which then form structures and act as molecular machines inside cells. (elifesciences.org)
  • Life evolved from this so-called 'RNA world' because DNA provides a more reliable long-term store of information, whilst proteins are more versatile and able to perform more tasks. (elifesciences.org)
  • It has been argued that the translation machinery requires more heritable information than can be maintained by RNA genomes ( Maynard Smith and Szathmáry, 1995 ), thus placing the invention of DNA before the invention of proteins. (elifesciences.org)
  • Conversely, it has been argued that the biochemical reduction of ribonucleotides to deoxynucleotides is beyond the catalytic abilities of RNA ( Freeland, 1999 ), placing proteins before DNA, although a photoreductive route to the deoxynucleotides also has been proposed ( Ritson and Sutherland, 2014 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • Compared to DNA virus genomes, which can encode up to hundreds of viral proteins, RNA viruses have smaller genomes that usually encode only a few proteins. (arklatexcraftbeerandbbq.com)
  • RNA should in theory be able to self replicate without the help of proteins however this is not seen in nature. (arklatexcraftbeerandbbq.com)
  • In order to grow and replicate, all modern cells require DNA, RNA, and proteins, and the synthesis of each inside cells requires the other two. (arklatexcraftbeerandbbq.com)
  • Ribonucleic acid, or RNA is one of the three major biological macromolecules that are essential for all known forms of life (along with DNA and proteins). (arklatexcraftbeerandbbq.com)
  • Following that process, another molecular machine called a ribosome translates the RNA, more specifically called messenger RNA, into proteins the bacteria can use to function. (wisc.edu)
  • In living cells, RNA in different configurations fulfills several important roles in the process of translating genetic information from deoxyribonucleic acid ( DNA ) into proteins . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • One location where much of the action occurs is the nucleolus - a dense ball found inside of the nucleus that is filled with RNA binding proteins. (scienceblogs.com)
  • The function of other portions of that 98.5% includes such things as introns found within genes, gene regulatory sequences , and " RNA genes " that code for various kinds of RNA that doesn't wind up being translated into proteins. (blogspot.com)
  • This last, known as "long ncRNA" for short, is especially intriguing, because some studies have shown that there may be roughly four times as much of it (in base units) as there is of messenger RNA that is ultimately translated into proteins. (blogspot.com)
  • Previously thought to be inert carriers of the genetic instructions from DNA, so-called non-coding RNAs turn out to reveal a novel mechanism for creating access to DNA required by transcriptional activation proteins for successful gene expression, according to Boston College Biology Professor Charles Hoffman, a co-author of the study with researchers from two Japanese universities. (blogspot.com)
  • The researchers assume that messages can even be exchanged in this way between the reading enzyme and the histones - the packaging proteins that act as reels, on which the thread-like genetic substance is wound and stored in the cell nucleus. (healthcanal.com)
  • Most RNAs instruct the body to make important molecules called proteins. (asu.edu)
  • But some genes make special RNA molecules that don't have the instructions to make proteins. (asu.edu)
  • Some RNA molecules bring these instructions to cell parts that make proteins. (asu.edu)
  • But not all RNA molecules carry instructions to make proteins. (asu.edu)
  • The snRNA in snRNPs is similar to ribosomal RNA in that it directly incorporates both an enzymatic and a structural role. (wikipedia.org)
  • messenger RNA, transfer RNA, ribosomal RNA. (mandrivausers.ro)
  • It has been estimated that in some cells, there is 10 times more ribosomal RNA than there is DNA. (scienceblogs.com)
  • According to this dogma, genes in DNA produce messages made from a similar molecule called RNA. (elifesciences.org)
  • Protein-coding and noncoding genes in eukaryotes are typically expressed as linear messenger RNAs, with exons arranged colinearly to their genomic order. (springer.com)
  • Recent advances in sequencing and in mapping RNA reads to reference genomes have revealed that thousands of genes express also covalently closed circular RNAs. (springer.com)
  • Still, whether RNA circularization was due to an infrequent error in splicing or to an artefact in molecular characterization, or concerned only highly particular genes, remained rather unclear for decades. (springer.com)
  • The Pol II phospho Ser2 antibody detects polymerase more toward the 3´ end of the genes and the phospho Ser5 antibody detects Pol II more at the 5´ end of the genes. (activemotif.com)
  • Genes in DNA hold the instructions to make RNA, which are special messengers in the body. (asu.edu)
  • Total RNA was extracted using Trizol reagent and human beta-defensin messenger RNA detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction amplification. (nih.gov)
  • Thereafter, LCM derived cells can be examined using downstream assays such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and quantitative, real-time PCR, providing much insight into the regulatory pathways observed within proliferating cancer cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showing transcript levels of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), VEGF-C, and VEGF-D and VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3 in dry eye corneas at different time points. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Here we describe methods that characterize cRNA from non-small cell lung cancer patients using sensitive and specific digital polymerase chain reaction. (jove.com)
  • Mellert, H. S., Alexander, K. E., Jackson, L. P., Pestano, G. A. A Blood-based Test for the Detection of ROS1 and RET Fusion Transcripts from Circulating Ribonucleic Acid Using Digital Polymerase Chain Reaction. (jove.com)
  • Immunohistochemical staining, polymerase chain reaction, and immunoblotting were performed to determine levels of death ligands including tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in DED-induced LGs. (arvojournals.org)
  • Since the effect of estrogen is mediated through the estrogen receptor (ER), we examined the ontogeny and expression of the ER gene in mouse oocytes and embryos of various gestational stages using the highly sensitive reverse transcriptase- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique. (elsevier.com)
  • Another type of RNA, known as transfer RNA (tRNA), helps to construct the protein, one amino acid at a time until the ribosome comes across a specific codon which tells it to stop. (thekennelclub.org.uk)
  • The RNA found within each snRNP particle is known as small nuclear RNA, or snRNA, and is usually about 150 nucleotides in length. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA stores this information by a sequence of nucleotides. (artscolumbia.org)
  • DNA polymerases extend a DNA strand by adding nucleotides to the 3' end (in the 5' to 3' direction). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • It then pairs the appropriate nucleotides on the RNA strand to the DNA. (inhisimage.blog)
  • DNA is composed of only four Two nucleotides on opposite complementary DNA or RNA strands that are connected via hydrogen bonds. (godandscience.org)
  • RNA nucleotides contain ribose while DNA nucleotides contain the closely related sugar deoxyribose . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • RNA molecules may comprise as few as 75 nucleotides or more than 5,000 nucleotides, while a DNA molecule may comprise more than 1,000,000 nucleotide units. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The non-coding RNAs initiate over one thousand base pairs of nucleotides along the DNA away from the known start site for this gene. (blogspot.com)
  • RNA polymerase I that synthesizes a pre-rRNA 45S (35S in yeast), which matures and forms the major RNA sections of the ribosome. (microbenotes.com)
  • This makes the answers a bit dicey, since by convention, an unlabeled DNA sequence is assumed to be the top strand, making the answer C-A-A-G-G-U. Each amino acid is brought to the ribosome by a specific transfer RNA molecule. (mandrivausers.ro)
  • In the bacterial expressome, the polymerase and ribosome form one complex structure to carry out these two processes in a coupled manner, and this newly solved structure provides a snapshot of this taking place, says Rachel Mooney, a research scientist in Biochemistry and co-author on the paper. (wisc.edu)
  • Any time you find a novel interface in research like this, such as where the polymerase and ribosome come together, that interface becomes a target for drugs," Landick says. (wisc.edu)
  • Prokaryotic (Bacteria, viruses, archaea) organisms have a single type of RNA polymerase that synthesizes all the subtypes of RNA, while eukaryotes (multicellular organisms) have 5 different types of RNA polymerases which perform different functions in the synthesis of different RNA molecules. (microbenotes.com)
  • The β' + β form the catalytic center, responsible for RNA synthesis. (microbenotes.com)
  • There are 5 known types of RNA polymerases each responsible for the synthesis of specific subtypes of RNA. (microbenotes.com)
  • The virus particle is taken into the cell, where it is disrupted, causing a decrease in detectable virus shortly after infection intracellular synthesis of the viral RNA and protein then occurs. (healthcpn.com)
  • Francis Crick describes RNA and its role and Paul Zamecnick explains protein synthesis. (dnalc.org)
  • during RNA synthesis, U is incorporated when there is an A in the complementary antisense strand. (mandrivausers.ro)
  • Antisense Strand: Antisense strand is the template strand for the RNA synthesis. (mandrivausers.ro)
  • This antibiotic is a bacteriostatic agent that inhibits protein synthesis by binding to the 23S RNA of the 50S subunit of bacterial ribosomes. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • RNA synthesis is tightly linked to encapsidation of the progeny molecule. (arklatexcraftbeerandbbq.com)
  • The connectedness of living organisms can be seen in the ubiquitousness of RNA in living cells and in viruses throughout nature, and in the universal role of RNA in protein synthesis. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The transient synthesis of these non-coding RNAs serves to unfurl the tightly wound DNA, essentially loosening the structure to allow for gene expression. (blogspot.com)
  • Each of the nuclear RNA polymerases is a large protein molecule with about 8 to 14 subunits and the molecular weight is approximately 500,000 for each. (microbenotes.com)
  • In yeast, this polymerase subunit, in combination with at least two other subunits, forms a structure that stabilizes the transcribing polymerase on the DNA template. (abcam.com)
  • In addition, this subunit, in combination with several other polymerase subunits, forms the DNA binding domain of the polymerase, a groove in which the DNA template is transcribed into RNA. (creativebiomart.net)
  • This subunit is shared by the other two DNA-directed RNA polymerases and is present in two-fold molar excess over the other polymerase subunits. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Mitochondrial calcium uniporter MCU supports cytoplasmic Ca2+ oscillations, store-operated Ca2+ entry and Ca2+-dependent gene expression in response to receptor stimulation. (ox.ac.uk)
  • These ROS act as obligate second messengers, regulating protein kinase activation, gene expression, and proliferative responses. (sciencemag.org)
  • When an RNA polymerase enzyme latches onto a DNA strand and begins to slowly reel it in, the strand's genetic information is transcribed to messenger RNA. (photonics.com)
  • This machine threads a DNA or RNA strand through a tiny hole. (cdc.gov)
  • As the machine takes these measurements, it decodes the genetic sequence of the DNA or RNA strand. (cdc.gov)
  • The RNA product is complementary to the template strand of DNA and is almost identical to the nontemplate DNA strand, or the sense strand. (mandrivausers.ro)
  • Six species of polyadenylated subgenomic RNAs, isolated from MBG-infected cells, are complementary to the negative-strand RNA … Which complementary base pairing would most likely result during replication? (mandrivausers.ro)
  • Picornaviruses have a single strand, 3'-polyadenylated, positive sense RNA genome surrounded by a naked (unenveloped) icosahedral capsid that is around 28 nm in diameter (figure 2). (yoo7.com)
  • At the 5' end of the RNA strand is a viral protein called VPg. (yoo7.com)
  • RNA polymerase then synthesizes an RNA template from the strand of DNA. (wikidot.com)
  • What 3 identical but functionally different RNA molecules are transcribed from anti-sense (-) DNA (template strand)? (brainscape.com)
  • In a historic first, a group of CDC laboratory and bioinformatics scientists became the first to directly sequence an RNA genome. (cdc.gov)
  • For decades, scientists who wanted to research the genome of RNA viruses, such as influenza, had to do so using an indirect and time-consuming method that involved first converting the single-stranded RNA into double-stranded DNA. (cdc.gov)
  • The new method described in this study has the potential to allow researchers to decode the genome of an RNA virus with greater detail (and less distortion) than ever before. (cdc.gov)
  • Now that Keller et al have managed to directly sequence RNA for the first time, the group hopes to find details of the influenza A virus' genome that are otherwise hidden and extremely difficult to detect. (cdc.gov)
  • The RNA genome consists of 8 distinct pieces with an aggregate molecular weight of 2-4 X 10^6. (healthcpn.com)
  • This structure contains the virion-associated RNA-dependent RNA polymerase as well as the genome. (healthcpn.com)
  • During RNA replication, the gene-start and gene-end signals are ignored and an exact complementary copy of the genome (antigenome) is synthesized. (arklatexcraftbeerandbbq.com)
  • Based on advances in genome and RNA sequencing and sparked by a publication by Salzman et al. (springer.com)
  • The genome is associated with the P (polymerase) protein and this complex is, in turn, surrounded by the core antigens (HBcAg and HBeAg). (yoo7.com)
  • POLR2F belongs to the archaeal rpoK/eukaryotic RPB6 RNA polymerase subunit family and is the sixth largest subunit of RNA polymerase II. (abcam.com)
  • POLR2E, also as known as DNA-directed RNA polymerases I, II, and III subunit RPABC1, belongs to the archaeal RpoH/eukaryotic RPB5 RNA polymerase subunit family. (creativebiomart.net)
  • One feasible way of stopping viral replication is to target the genetic machinery involved in the process - namely by cleaving, or splitting, the DNA or RNA strands so that they can no longer function correctly. (arklatexcraftbeerandbbq.com)
  • Uracil only exists on RNA strands which are formed from DNA strands (more on that in a moment). (inhisimage.blog)
  • Evidently, all messenger RNA is complementary to the virion RNA. (healthcpn.com)
  • An enzyme (RNA polymerases) travels along the unwound DNA and builds a new complementary version of the code, called RNA (ribonucleic acid). (thekennelclub.org.uk)
  • In RNA molecules adenine is complementary to. (mandrivausers.ro)
  • In the second, the RNA world contained RNA polymerase ribozymes that were able to produce single-stranded complementary DNA and then convert it into stable double-stranded DNA genomes. (arklatexcraftbeerandbbq.com)
  • RNA polymerase III synthesizes tRNAs, rRNA 5S, and other small RNAs found in the nucleus and cytosol. (microbenotes.com)
  • RNA is usually single stranded, while DNA naturally seeks its stable form as a double stranded molecule. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Base-pairing in a siRNA (small interfering RNA) segment, a double-stranded type of RNA. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Recombinant His tagged fragment containing the carboxy-terminal repeat domain of Human RNA polymerase II isolated from an E. coli strain that carries the coding sequence of human RNA pol II CTD under the control of a T7 promoter. (creativebiomart.net)
  • This gene encodes the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, the polymerase responsible for synthesizing messenger RNA in eukaryotes. (creativebiomart.net)
  • POLR2E is the fifth largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, the polymerase responsible for synthesizing messenger RNA in eukaryotes. (creativebiomart.net)
  • For DNA, these letters are A, C, G and T. For RNA, the T becomes a U, so the letters are A, C, G and U. The T stands for "Thymine," whereas the U stands for "Uracil. (cdc.gov)
  • RNA is similar to DNA apart from A) it is single stranded, B) the sugar molecule has different chemical properties (RNA is made up of ribose instead of deoxyribose), C) It uses the base uracil instead of thymine and D) because RNA is single stranded, it does not form a helix. (thekennelclub.org.uk)
  • RNA, which contains uracil (U) instead of thymine, carries the code to protein-making sites in the cell. (mandrivausers.ro)
  • In RNA the base uracil replaces thymine. (mandrivausers.ro)
  • bases ( A purine base found in DNA and RNA, which pairs with thymine in DNA or with uracil in RNA. (godandscience.org)
  • guanine ) and two Organic bases (cytosine and thymine in DNA, uracil in RNA) made from a single ring structure, which base-pair with purines to form the rungs in the DNA double helix. (godandscience.org)
  • Ribonucleic acid or RNA is a polymer or chain of nucleotide units, each comprising a nitrogenous base ( adenine , cytosine , guanine , or uracil ), a five-carbon sugar ( ribose ), and a phosphate group. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Furthermore, RNA uses the nucleotide uracil in its composition, instead of the thymine that is present in DNA. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The most common nucleotide bases are the purines adenine and guanine and the pyrimidines cytosine and thymine (or uracil in RNA). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The RNA polymer features a ribose and phosphate backbone with one of four different nucleotide bases- adenine , guanine , cytosine , and uracil -attached to each ribose-phosphate unit. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • LncRNAs are long, endogenous, single-stranded RNAs without coding functions. (plos.org)
  • Finally, silencing of endogenous HIPK2 by RNA-interference has been shown to increase cell survival after genotoxic damage ( 12 ), suggesting an involvement in restraining tumor progression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • It was this messenger RNA workflow that was modified to sequence influenza viral RNA. (cdc.gov)
  • Although viral RNA has not proved to be infectious, viral ribonucleoproteins appear to be so. (healthcpn.com)
  • Viral RNA pieces are synthesized individually in the nucleus within 2-3 hours. (healthcpn.com)
  • this is similar to negative-sense viral RNA. (mandrivausers.ro)
  • Despite the advantages over DNA and viral vectors, RNA-based therapeutics have been plagued by problems of poor translatability, stability, and adverse immune reactions. (pnas.org)
  • however, conventional competitive RT-PCR methods require four or five reactions per sample of RNA, employing serial dilutions of an internal competitor sequence, making analysis of multiple samples a tedious process. (elsevier.com)
  • One capability of the nanopore sequencer is to sequence messenger RNA. (cdc.gov)
  • were able to get the machine to specifically target and sequence flu virus RNA. (cdc.gov)
  • Rambo-Martin's work translated the data into something that made sense, and he was able to confirm that the molecular work performed did, in fact, sequence the RNA genomes of the influenza viruses studied. (cdc.gov)
  • This RNA pol II CTD phospho Ser2 antibody was raised against a peptide containing the RNA pol II CTD sequence phosphorylated at serine 2. (activemotif.com)
  • ChIP DNA was sequenced on the Illumina HiSeq and 22 million sequence tags were mapped to identify RNA pol II phospho Ser2 binding. (activemotif.com)
  • RNA is a nucleic acid , a complex, high-molecular-weight macromolecule composed of nucleotide chains whose sequence of bases conveys genetic information . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Like all ancient biomolecules, ribosomes are RNA enzymes. (scienceblogs.com)
  • 2) when energy stores are adequate and 3) when the cell has enough ribosomes, it initiates a round of cell division. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Unlike DNA, which is located in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells, RNA molecules leave the nucleus. (oercommons.org)
  • Crystals and structures are provided for an eukaryotic RNA polymerase, and an elongation complex containing a eukaryotic RNA polymerase. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • RNA is made up of ribose units, which have a highly reactive hydroxyl group on C2 that takes part in RNA-mediated enzymatic events. (arklatexcraftbeerandbbq.com)
  • RNA polymerase in bacteria is less complex than RNA polymerase in eukaryotes. (wikiversity.org)
  • Some of the increased complexity of RNA polymerase in eukaryotes reflects differences between DNA in eukaryotes and DNA in bacteria. (wikiversity.org)
  • For instance, bacteria contain a single type of RNA polymerase, while eukaryotes (multicellular organisms and yeasts) contain three distinct types. (microbenotes.com)
  • This polymerase, along with two other DNA-directed RNA polymerases, is responsible for synthesizing messenger RNA in eukaryotes. (abcam.com)
  • RNA pol II ( RNA polymerase II ) is responsible for synthesizing messenger RNA in eukaryotes. (activemotif.com)
  • POLR2I is a subunit of RNA polymerase II, the polymerase responsible for synthesizing messenger RNA in eukaryotes. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Western blots using two different antibodies against two unique regions of this protein target confirm the same apparent molecular weight in our tests.This gene encodes a subunit of RNA polymerase II, the polymerase responsible for synthesizing messenger RNA in eukaryotes. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • RNA polymerase II synthesizes precursors of mRNAs and most snRNA and microRNAs. (microbenotes.com)
  • Given the primacy of DNA as central information-storing nucleic acid, which is organized, transcribed as well as translated in a 5′ → 3′ polarized fashion, it came as a surprise that not all mRNAs contain exons in their colinear 5′ → 3′ arrangement. (springer.com)
  • Total RNAs from synovial lining tissues were obtained from the specimens selected by laser capture microdissection and the mRNAs were amplified by bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase. (biomedcentral.com)
  • They did so with the RNA genomes of five influenza (Flu) A viruses, including seasonal influenza A and avian influenza A viruses. (cdc.gov)
  • However, while the genomes of people and other living things consist of DNA, some things that aren't technically "living," such as viruses, have genomes coded by RNA instructions instead. (cdc.gov)
  • This activity is thought to have been crucial for the transition from RNA to DNA genomes during the early history of life on Earth, when it similarly could have arisen as a secondary function of an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. (elifesciences.org)
  • However, single-stranded RNA is rather unstable and is easily damaged by enzymes. (arklatexcraftbeerandbbq.com)
  • Unlike DNA, RNA in biological cells is predominantly a single-stranded molecule. (arklatexcraftbeerandbbq.com)
  • Single-stranded RNA is similar to the protein polymer in its natural propensity to fold back and double up with itself in complex ways assuming a variety of biologically useful configurations. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • While DNA contains deoxyribose, RNA contains ribose, characterised by the presence of the 2′-hydroxyl group on the pentose ring (Figure 5). (arklatexcraftbeerandbbq.com)
  • The chemical combination of one of five single or double ringed bases and a sugar (ribose for RNA or deoxyribose for DNA). (godandscience.org)
  • In higher organisms, the genetic information, written in the nucleotide sequences of the hereditary material DNA, is stored in the cell's nucleus. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Organisms that store chemical energy in carbohydrate food molecules they build themselves. (studystack.com)
  • Eukaryotic organisms such as humans store their genetic information in the structure of DNA molecules. (wikiversity.org)
  • RNA and Organic compounds made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain, joined together by peptide bonds between the carboxyl and amino groups of the adjacent amino acid residues. (godandscience.org)
  • The enzyme TEFb phosphorylates the amino acid serine at position 5, thus activating the RNA polymerase (above). (healthcanal.com)
  • There are RNA molecules catalyse chemical reactions, a role usually carried out only by protein enzymes, these are called ribozymes. (arklatexcraftbeerandbbq.com)
  • like protein enzymes, RNA enzymes (ribozymes) can catalyze (start or accelerate) chemical reactions that are critical for life. (arklatexcraftbeerandbbq.com)
  • RNA is transcribed from DNA by enzymes called RNA polymerases and is generally further processed by other enzymes, some of them guided by non-coding RNAs. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Active Motif's HeLa nuclear extract (Catalog No. 36010) can be used as a positive control for RNA Pol II CTD phospho Ser2 antibody. (activemotif.com)
  • Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) is found mainly in the nucleus of the cell, while Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) is found mainly in the cytoplasm of the cell although it is usually synthesized in the nucleus. (arklatexcraftbeerandbbq.com)
  • No. 53040) with 10 µg of chromatin from human myeloma LP1 cells and 20 µg RNA pol II CTD phospho Ser2 antibody. (activemotif.com)
  • Both message RNA quantification and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis were used to study the regulation of CXCR2 and ligand expression. (asahq.org)
  • To expand on that just a bit, recall that chromatin is the form in which DNA is actually stored for safe keeping. (blogspot.com)
  • Experience of transient hyperosmotic stress by young plants is stored in a long-term somatic memory comprising differences of chromatin status, transcriptional responsiveness and whole plant physiology. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The plant chloroplast encodes the ssRNAPs and uses bacteria-like RNA Polymerase. (microbenotes.com)
  • Furthermore, the methods used in this study could be used to learn more about other RNA viruses. (cdc.gov)
  • Influenza viruses are an example of an RNA virus. (cdc.gov)
  • The results of hybridization studies on RNA have supported the immunologic grouping of the hemagglutins of the influenza A viruses. (healthcpn.com)
  • Influenza viruses are relatively stable and may be stored at 0-4 degrees Celsius for weeks. (healthcpn.com)
  • 16551. Concept 25: Some viruses store genetic information in RNA. (dnalc.org)
  • Several new vaccines against hit and stay viruses are feasible, but protective vaccines against RNA HIV and hepatitis C agents are highly unlikely, short of a major breakthrough. (pnas.org)
  • RNA also serves as a genetic blueprint for certain viruses , and some RNA molecules (called ribozymes) are also involved in the catalysis of biochemical reactions. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • A standard solution of total RNA was first prepared by pooling RNA from several cell lines and stored in aliquots. (elsevier.com)
  • Subsequently, equal amounts of RNA mimic were mixed with four serial dilutions of standard RNA and 0.1 u,g of sample total RNA for RT-PCR. (elsevier.com)
  • As a result, the total RNA concentration increased from an average of 33.4 ng/ul +/- 24.3 (mean +/- S.D.) to 1913.4 ng/ul +/- 164. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Taken together, total RNA is more suitable to use in most cases since relative quantification of the targets is more important for most applications than the absolute sensitivity of detection 1 . (thermofisher.com)
  • When genetic information is read from the genetic blueprint DNA, RNA polymerase II translates it into RNA molecules. (healthcanal.com)
  • To study or manipulate nucleic acids, the DNA or RNA must first be isolated or extracted from the cells. (oercommons.org)
  • Information flow in living cells from DNA to RNA to protein. (wikiversity.org)
  • DNA is stored in every single cell (apart from red blood cells) and is kept in the nucleus, the core of each cell, to prevent it from being damaged. (thekennelclub.org.uk)
  • Micro RNA 23, 24, 27 are highly present in endothelial cells and vascularized tissues. (123helpme.com)
  • These self-adjuvanting RNA vaccines, administered intradermally without any additional adjuvant, induce a comprehensive balanced immune response, comprising antigen specific CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells and B cells. (wiley.com)
  • U2OS cells were stained with RNA Pol II pS2 antibody at a dilution of 1:500. (activemotif.com)
  • Relatively pure RNA was retrieved from both endothelial and epithelial cells as indicated by the 260/280 ratios (range 2.22-2.47). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our present study demonstrates that in vivo Rhodamine RCA angiogenic vessel labeling provided a practical approach to effectively guide functional endothelial cell isolation by laser capture microdissection with fluorescent microscopy, resulting in high quality RNA and pure samples of endothelial cells pooled for detecting genomic expression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • DNA is stored in a central location within the cell, called the A membrane-enclosed organelle found in all eukaryotic (non-bacterial) cells, which contains most of the cell's DNA genetic material, organized to form chromosomes. (godandscience.org)
  • These findings suggest that cytosolic Ca 2+ serves as an important second messenger in MeJA signaling in Arabidopsis guard cells. (plantphysiol.org)
  • To investigate the impact of TWEAK on B cell differentiation in SLE, the levels of AID , Blimp - 1 , and IRF4 messenger RNA were measured in CD19 + B cells extracted from the spleens of sanroque mice and cultured with TWEAK. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the PLOS Pathogens article " Immune-inducible non-coding RNA molecule lincRNA-IBIN connects immunity and metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster , " scientists used flies to study how this special RNA might help immune cells get the energy that they need to be good defenders. (asu.edu)
  • thymine and A pyrimidine base found in DNA and RNA, which pairs with guanine in both DNA and RNA. (godandscience.org)
  • Human beta-defensin 1 messenger RNA was detected in all 25 samples that generated amplifiable cDNA, as assessed using abl-specific primers. (nih.gov)
  • It can be used to assay several RNA molecules in a given sample by designing RNA mimics and PCR primers to generate PCR products of different lengths so that they can be analyzed by the laser scanning of a single lane of electrophoretic gel. (elsevier.com)
  • These are stored in the cytoplasm in the form of three partially assembled rings complexes all associated with the pICln protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The virus spends its entire life in the cytoplasm where it replicates using a virus-encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. (yoo7.com)
  • Triacylglycerol hydrolase (TGH) is an enzyme that catalyzes the lipolysis of intracellular stored triacylglycerol (TG). (nih.gov)
  • We investigated the role of the WW domain-containing oxidoreductase ( wwox ) gene in the embryonic development of zebrafish, with particular emphasis on intracellular Ca 2+ dynamics because Ca 2+ is an important intracellular messenger. (peerj.com)
  • A highly evolved RNA polymerase ribozyme was found to also be capable of functioning as a reverse transcriptase, an activity that has never been demonstrated before for RNA. (elifesciences.org)
  • Yet based on their previous work using RNA molecules to make copies of other RNAs, Samanta and Joyce attempted to develop an artificial reverse transcriptase ribozyme. (elifesciences.org)
  • The other key transitional molecule between RNA- and DNA/protein-based life is reverse transcriptase, which catalyzes the RNA-dependent polymerization of DNA and is responsible for maintaining genetic information in the more stable form of DNA. (elifesciences.org)
  • The first reverse transcriptase may have been either an RNA or protein enzyme. (elifesciences.org)
  • We also used dsRNA feeding as a method to induce RNA interference in larval chemosensory tissues. (beds.ac.uk)
  • adenine and A purine base found in DNA and RNA, which pairs with cytosine in both DNA and RNA. (godandscience.org)
  • The structures and structural coordinates are useful in structural homology deduction, in developing and screening agents that affect the activity of eukaryotic RNA polymerase, and in designing modified forms of eukaryotic RNA polymerase. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The structures are also used to identify molecules that bind to or otherwise interact with structural elements in the polymerase. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • RNA is very similar to DNA, but differs in a few important structural details. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Tissues from surgical biopsies were collected fresh onto ice and stored in liquid nitrogen. (nih.gov)
  • A total of 5 ovarian cancer tissues and paracancerous tissues were collected and then stored at - 80 °C until the qRT-PCR assay was conducted. (bvsalud.org)
  • Find tissues and cell lines supported by RNA-seq analysis to express POLR2A . (avivasysbio.com)
  • P-TEFb equips the reading enzyme RNA polymerase II with phosphate messages. (healthcanal.com)