Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
A family of RNA plant viruses infecting dicotyledons. Transmission is mainly by mechanical inoculation and through propagative plant material. All species elicit formation of multivesicular inclusion bodies. There are at least eight genera: Aureusvirus, Avenavirus, CARMOVIRUS, Dianthovirus, Machlomovirus, Necrovirus, Panicovirus, and TOMBUSVIRUS.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
A process that changes the nucleotide sequence of mRNA from that of the DNA template encoding it. Some major classes of RNA editing are as follows: 1, the conversion of cytosine to uracil in mRNA; 2, the addition of variable number of guanines at pre-determined sites; and 3, the addition and deletion of uracils, templated by guide-RNAs (RNA, GUIDE).
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.
Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.
Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.
Basic functional unit of plants.
The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.
The parts of plants, including SEEDS.
RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.
Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
RNA that has catalytic activity. The catalytic RNA sequence folds to form a complex surface that can function as an enzyme in reactions with itself and other molecules. It may function even in the absence of protein. There are numerous examples of RNA species that are acted upon by catalytic RNA, however the scope of this enzyme class is not limited to a particular type of substrate.
The processes of RNA tertiary structure formation.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.
Ribonucleic acid in fungi having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
RNA molecules which hybridize to complementary sequences in either RNA or DNA altering the function of the latter. Endogenous antisense RNAs function as regulators of gene expression by a variety of mechanisms. Synthetic antisense RNAs are used to effect the functioning of specific genes for investigative or therapeutic purposes.
The extent to which an RNA molecule retains its structural integrity and resists degradation by RNASE, and base-catalyzed HYDROLYSIS, under changing in vivo or in vitro conditions.
Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.
A family of proteins that promote unwinding of RNA during splicing and translation.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
RNA transcripts of the DNA that are in some unfinished stage of post-transcriptional processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL) required for function. RNA precursors may undergo several steps of RNA SPLICING during which the phosphodiester bonds at exon-intron boundaries are cleaved and the introns are excised. Consequently a new bond is formed between the ends of the exons. Resulting mature RNAs can then be used; for example, mature mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER) is used as a template for protein production.
Short chains of RNA (100-300 nucleotides long) that are abundant in the nucleus and usually complexed with proteins in snRNPs (RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL NUCLEAR). Many function in the processing of messenger RNA precursors. Others, the snoRNAs (RNA, SMALL NUCLEOLAR), are involved with the processing of ribosomal RNA precursors.
RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated RNAs they are not included in this scope.
Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.
Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Nucleic acid structures found on the 5' end of eukaryotic cellular and viral messenger RNA and some heterogeneous nuclear RNAs. These structures, which are positively charged, protect the above specified RNAs at their termini against attack by phosphatases and other nucleases and promote mRNA function at the level of initiation of translation. Analogs of the RNA caps (RNA CAP ANALOGS), which lack the positive charge, inhibit the initiation of protein synthesis.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.
Poisoning by the ingestion of plants or its leaves, berries, roots or stalks. The manifestations in both humans and animals vary in severity from mild to life threatening. In animals, especially domestic animals, it is usually the result of ingesting moldy or fermented forage.
Ribonucleic acid in protozoa having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The reproductive organs of plants.
The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
RNA present in neoplastic tissue.
A localized proliferation of plant tissue forming a swelling or outgrowth, commonly with a characteristic shape and unlike any organ of the normal plant. Plant tumors or galls usually form in response to the action of a pathogen or a pest. (Holliday, P., A Dictionary of Plant Pathology, 1989, p330)
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of linear RNA to a circular form by the transfer of the 5'-phosphate to the 3'-hydroxyl terminus. It also catalyzes the covalent joining of two polyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage. EC
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
The above-ground plant without the roots.
A large family of RNA helicases that share a common protein motif with the single letter amino acid sequence D-E-A-D (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp). In addition to RNA helicase activity, members of the DEAD-box family participate in other aspects of RNA metabolism and regulation of RNA function.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure where it transcribes DNA into RNA. It has specific requirements for cations and salt and has shown an intermediate sensitivity to alpha-amanitin in comparison to RNA polymerase I and II. EC
Material prepared from plants.
Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. The enzyme functions in the nucleolar structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salts than RNA polymerase II and III and is not inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC
The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.
RNA molecules found in the nucleus either associated with chromosomes or in the nucleoplasm.
The act of feeding on plants by animals.
Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.
Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 28S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
Small kinetoplastid mitochondrial RNA that plays a major role in RNA EDITING. These molecules form perfect hybrids with edited mRNA sequences and possess nucleotide sequences at their 5'-ends that are complementary to the sequences of the mRNA's immediately downstream of the pre-edited regions.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Sugar-rich liquid produced in plant glands called nectaries. It is either produced in flowers or other plant structures, providing a source of attraction for pollinating insects and animals, as well as being a nutrient source to animal mutualists which provide protection of plants against herbivores.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.
Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
Small, linear single-stranded RNA molecules functionally acting as molecular parasites of certain RNA plant viruses. Satellite RNAs exhibit four characteristic traits: (1) they require helper viruses to replicate; (2) they are unnecessary for the replication of helper viruses; (3) they are encapsidated in the coat protein of the helper virus; (4) they have no extensive sequence homology to the helper virus. Thus they differ from SATELLITE VIRUSES which encode their own coat protein, and from the genomic RNA; (=RNA, VIRAL); of satellite viruses. (From Maramorosch, Viroids and Satellites, 1991, p143)
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.
Constituent of 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 3200 nucleotides. 23S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.
Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Physiological functions characteristic of plants.
The process of moving specific RNA molecules from one cellular compartment or region to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.
Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.
Knobbed structures formed from and attached to plant roots, especially of LEGUMES, which result from symbiotic infection by nitrogen fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA. Root nodules are structures related to MYCORRHIZAE formed by symbiotic associations with fungi.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Substances released by PLANTS such as PLANT GUMS and PLANT RESINS.
The small RNAs which provide spliced leader sequences, SL1, SL2, SL3, SL4 and SL5 (short sequences which are joined to the 5' ends of pre-mRNAs by TRANS-SPLICING). They are found primarily in primitive eukaryotes (protozoans and nematodes).
Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
The reproductive cells of plants.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.
The failure of PLANTS to complete fertilization and obtain seed (SEEDS) as a result of defective POLLEN or ovules, or other aberrations. (Dict. of Plant Genet. and Mol. Biol., 1998)
Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Ribonucleic acid in archaea having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
A large plant family of the order Asterales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. The family is also known as Compositae. Flower petals are joined near the base and stamens alternate with the corolla lobes. The common name of "daisy" refers to several genera of this family including Aster; CHRYSANTHEMUM; RUDBECKIA; TANACETUM.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A variable annual leguminous vine (Pisum sativum) that is cultivated for its rounded smooth or wrinkled edible protein-rich seeds, the seed of the pea, and the immature pods with their included seeds. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1973)
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Oils derived from plants or plant products.
Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
A reaction that severs one of the sugar-phosphate linkages of the phosphodiester backbone of RNA. It is catalyzed enzymatically, chemically, or by radiation. Cleavage may be exonucleolytic, or endonucleolytic.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Abscission-accelerating plant growth substance isolated from young cotton fruit, leaves of sycamore, birch, and other plants, and from potatoes, lemons, avocados, and other fruits.
A creeping annual plant species of the CUCURBITACEAE family. It has a rough succulent, trailing stem and hairy leaves with three to five pointed lobes.
A group of ribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.
A species of gram-negative, fluorescent, phytopathogenic bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. It is differentiated into approximately 50 pathovars with different plant pathogenicities and host specificities.
A class of organic compounds known as STEROLS or STEROIDS derived from plants.
Short RNA, about 200 base pairs in length or shorter, that does not code for protein.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Nuclear nonribosomal RNA larger than about 1000 nucleotides, the mass of which is rapidly synthesized and degraded within the cell nucleus. Some heterogeneous nuclear RNA may be a precursor to mRNA. However, the great bulk of total hnRNA hybridizes with nuclear DNA rather than with mRNA.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.
A class of plants within the Bryophyta comprising the mosses, which are found in both damp (including freshwater) and drier situations. Mosses possess erect or prostrate leafless stems, which give rise to leafless stalks bearing capsules. Spores formed in the capsules are released and grow to produce new plants. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990). Many small plants bearing the name moss are in fact not mosses. The "moss" found on the north side of trees is actually a green alga (CHLOROPHYTA). Irish moss is really a red alga (RHODOPHYTA). Beard lichen (beard moss), Iceland moss, oak moss, and reindeer moss are actually LICHENS. Spanish moss is a common name for both LICHENS and an air plant (TILLANDSIA usneoides) of the pineapple family. Club moss is an evergreen herb of the family LYCOPODIACEAE.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and the stems, leafs, and roots of plants. Some biotypes are pathogenic and cause the formation of PLANT TUMORS in a wide variety of higher plants. The species is a major research tool in biotechnology.
The steps that generate the 3' ends of mature RNA molecules. For most mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), 3' end processing referred to as POLYADENYLATION includes the addition of POLY A.
A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.
Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).
A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 5.8S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.
Small RNAs found in the cytoplasm usually complexed with proteins in scRNPs (RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL CYTOPLASMIC).
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Ribonucleic acid in chloroplasts having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.
Any of several BRASSICA species that are commonly called mustard. Brassica alba is white mustard, B. juncea is brown or Chinese mustard, and B. nigra is black, brown, or red mustard. The plant is grown both for mustard seed from which oil is extracted or used as SPICES, and for its greens used as VEGETABLES or ANIMAL FEED. There is no relationship to MUSTARD COMPOUNDS.
Small nuclear RNAs that are involved in the processing of pre-ribosomal RNA in the nucleolus. Box C/D containing snoRNAs (U14, U15, U16, U20, U21 and U24-U63) direct site-specific methylation of various ribose moieties. Box H/ACA containing snoRNAs (E2, E3, U19, U23, and U64-U72) direct the conversion of specific uridines to pseudouridine. Site-specific cleavages resulting in the mature ribosomal RNAs are directed by snoRNAs U3, U8, U14, U22 and the snoRNA components of RNase MRP and RNase P.
Plant hormones that promote the separation of daughter cells after mitotic division of a parent cell. Frequently they are purine derivatives.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.
A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.
A class of untranslated RNA molecules that are typically greater than 200 nucleotides in length and do not code for proteins. Members of this class have been found to play roles in transcriptional regulation, post-transcriptional processing, CHROMATIN REMODELING, and in the epigenetic control of chromatin.

Gene silencing: plants and viruses fight it out. (1/2997)

Plants can become 'immune' to attack by viruses by degrading specific viral RNA, but some plant viruses have evolved the general capacity to suppress this resistance mechanism.  (+info)

Cytokinin activation of Arabidopsis cell division through a D-type cyclin. (2/2997)

Cytokinins are plant hormones that regulate plant cell division. The D-type cyclin CycD3 was found to be elevated in a mutant of Arabidopsis with a high level of cytokinin and to be rapidly induced by cytokinin application in both cell cultures and whole plants. Constitutive expression of CycD3 in transgenic plants allowed induction and maintenance of cell division in the absence of exogenous cytokinin. Results suggest that cytokinin activates Arabidopsis cell division through induction of CycD3 at the G1-S cell cycle phase transition.  (+info)

NADH-glutamate synthase in alfalfa root nodules. Genetic regulation and cellular expression. (3/2997)

NADH-dependent glutamate synthase (NADH-GOGAT; EC is a key enzyme in primary nitrogen assimilation in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) root nodules. Here we report that in alfalfa, a single gene, probably with multiple alleles, encodes for NADH-GOGAT. In situ hybridizations were performed to assess the location of NADH-GOGAT transcript in alfalfa root nodules. In wild-type cv Saranac nodules the NADH-GOGAT gene is predominantly expressed in infected cells. Nodules devoid of bacteroids (empty) induced by Sinorhizobium meliloti 7154 had no NADH-GOGAT transcript detectable by in situ hybridization, suggesting that the presence of the bacteroid may be important for NADH-GOGAT expression. The pattern of expression of NADH-GOGAT shifted during root nodule development. Until d 9 after planting, all infected cells appeared to express NADH-GOGAT. By d 19, a gradient of expression from high in the early symbiotic zone to low in the late symbiotic zone was observed. In 33-d-old nodules expression was seen in only a few cell layers in the early symbiotic zone. This pattern of expression was also observed for the nifH transcript but not for leghemoglobin. The promoter of NADH-GOGAT was evaluated in transgenic alfalfa plants carrying chimeric beta-glucuronidase promoter fusions. The results suggest that there are at least four regulatory elements. The region responsible for expression in the infected cell zone contains an 88-bp direct repeat.  (+info)

Characterization of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii zygote-specific cDNAs that encode novel proteins containing ankyrin repeats and WW domains. (4/2997)

Genes that are expressed only in the young zygote are considered to be of great importance in the development of an isogamous green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Clones representing the Zys3 gene were isolated from a cDNA library prepared using zygotes at 10 min after fertilization. Sequencing of Zys3 cDNA clones resulted in the isolation of two related molecular species. One of them encoded a protein that contained two kinds of protein-to-protein interaction motifs known as ankyrin repeats and WW domains. The other clone lacked the ankyrin repeats but was otherwise identical. These mRNA species began to accumulate simultaneously in cells beginning 10 min after fertilization, and reached maximum levels at about 4 h, after which time levels decreased markedly. Genomic DNA gel-blot analysis indicated that Zys3 was a single-copy gene. The Zys3 proteins exhibited parallel expression to the Zys3 mRNAs at first, appearing 2 h after mating, and reached maximum levels at more than 6 h, but persisted to at least 1 d. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed their localization in the endoplasmic reticulum, which suggests a role in the morphological changes of the endoplasmic reticulum or in the synthesis and transport of proteins to the Golgi apparatus or related vesicles.  (+info)

Antisense expression of the CK2 alpha-subunit gene in Arabidopsis. Effects on light-regulated gene expression and plant growth. (5/2997)

The protein kinase CK2 (formerly casein kinase II) is thought to be involved in light-regulated gene expression in plants because of its ability to phosphorylate transcription factors that bind to the promoter regions of light-regulated genes in vitro. To address this possibility in vivo and to learn more about the potential physiological roles of CK2 in plants, we transformed Arabidopsis with an antisense construct of the CK2 alpha-subunit gene and investigated both morphological and molecular phenotypes. Antisense transformants had a smaller adult leaf size and showed increased expression of chs in darkness and of cab and rbcS after red-light treatment. The latter molecular phenotype implied that CK2 might serve as one of several negative and quantitative effectors in light-regulated gene expression. The possible mechanism of CK2 action and its involvement in the phytochrome signal transduction pathway are discussed.  (+info)

The mechanism of rhythmic ethylene production in sorghum. The role of phytochrome B and simulated shading. (6/2997)

Mutant sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench) deficient in functional phytochrome B exhibits reduced photoperiodic sensitivity and constitutively expresses a shade-avoidance phenotype. Under relatively bright, high red:far-red light, ethylene production by seedlings of wild-type and phytochrome B-mutant cultivars progresses through cycles in a circadian rhythm; however, the phytochrome B mutant produces ethylene peaks with approximately 10 times the amplitude of the wild type. Time-course northern blots show that the mutant's abundance of the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidase mRNA SbACO2 is cyclic and is commensurate with ethylene production, and that ACC oxidase activity follows the same pattern. Both SbACO2 abundance and ACC oxidase activity in the wild-type plant are very low under this regimen. ACC levels in the two cultivars did not demonstrate fluctuations coincident with the ethylene produced. Simulated shading caused the wild-type plant to mimic the phenotype of the mutant and to produce high amplitude rhythms of ethylene evolution. The circadian feature of the ethylene cycle is conditionally present in the mutant and absent in the wild-type plant under simulated shading. SbACO2 abundance in both cultivars demonstrates a high-amplitude diurnal cycle under these conditions; however, ACC oxidase activity, although elevated, does not exhibit a clear rhythm correlated with ethylene production. ACC levels in both cultivars show fluctuations corresponding to the ethylene rhythm previously observed. It appears that at least two separate mechanisms may be involved in generating high-amplitude ethylene rhythms in sorghum, one in response to the loss of phytochrome B function and another in response to shading.  (+info)

The FLF MADS box gene: a repressor of flowering in Arabidopsis regulated by vernalization and methylation. (7/2997)

A MADS box gene, FLF (for FLOWERING LOCUS F ), isolated from a late-flowering, T-DNA-tagged Arabidopsis mutant, is a semidominant gene encoding a repressor of flowering. The FLF gene appears to integrate the vernalization-dependent and autonomous flowering pathways because its expression is regulated by genes in both pathways. The level of FLF mRNA is downregulated by vernalization and by a decrease in genomic DNA methylation, which is consistent with our previous suggestion that vernalization acts to induce flowering through changes in gene activity that are mediated through a reduction in DNA methylation. The flf-1 mutant requires a greater than normal amount of an exogenous gibberellin (GA3) to decrease flowering time compared with the wild type or with vernalization-responsive late-flowering mutants, suggesting that the FLF gene product may block the promotion of flowering by GAs. FLF maps to a region on chromosome 5 near the FLOWERING LOCUS C gene, which is a semidominant repressor of flowering in late-flowering ecotypes of Arabidopsis.  (+info)

Overexpression of BiP in tobacco alleviates endoplasmic reticulum stress. (8/2997)

To study the role of the lumenal binding protein (BiP) in the transport and secretion of proteins, we have produced plants with altered BiP levels. Transgenic plants overexpressing BiP showed dramatically increased BiP mRNA levels but only a modest increase in BiP protein levels. The presence of degradation products in BiP overproducers suggests a regulatory mechanism that increases protein turnover when BiP is abundant. Antisense inhibition of BiP synthesis was not successful, demonstrating that even a minor reduction in the basal BiP level is deleterious to cell viability. Overexpression of BiP leads to downregulation of the basal transcript levels of endogenous BiP genes and greatly reduces the unfolded protein response. The data confirm that BiP transcription is regulated via a feedback mechanism that involves monitoring of BiP protein levels. To test BiP activity in vivo, we designed a functional assay, using the secretory protein alpha-amylase and a cytosolic enzyme as a control for cell viability. During tunicamycin treatment, an overall reduction of alpha-amylase synthesis was observed when compared with the cytosolic marker. We show that the tunicamycin effect is due to the depletion of BiP in the endoplasmic reticulum because coexpressed BiP alone is able to restore efficient alpha-amylase synthesis. This is a novel assay to monitor BiP activity in promoting secretory protein synthesis in vivo.  (+info)

ISOLATE II Plant miRNA Kit is specially designed for the rapid, phenol-free isolation of high quality and highly enriched small RNA (|200nt) without bias, from a wide range of plant cells and tissues.
Plants small to robust, in loose to dense, soft or rigid tufts, dull green to glaucous, sometimes yellowish or yellowish brown above, radiculose proximally. Stems erect, often forked, 1--15 cm, roundish in cross section, cortex of somewhat firm walled cells forming an indistinct to distinct hyaloderm. Leaves erect-appressed to spreading or circinate, occasionally flexuose when dry, spreading when moist, slenderly lanceolate-subulate from a more or less sheathing, non plicate base; lamina 2- or 3-stratose at margins or throughout; margins revolute at shoulders, serrate to serrulate distally, teeth single or paired; costa usually strong and abaxially prominent, sometimes obscure in distal acumen and low in profile, subpercurrent to excurrent; distal laminal cells small, subquadrate to oblong linear, firm-walled, prorulose on both surfaces; basal cells elongate to rectangular or linear, thin-walled or infrequently thick walled toward costa, pale, smooth. Sexual condition dioicous, autoicous or ...
The substantial differences between the biogenesis of animal and plant miRNAs are also reflected in the differences in their requirements for target recognition. It has long been known that plant miRNAs often have targets with perfect [72] or, more frequently, near-perfect [10] complementarity, facilitating relatively simple identification. Canonical plant miRNA target sites are found in 5 UTRs, ORFs and 3 UTRs, as well as within non-protein-coding transcripts, suggesting that all RNA contexts are equally amenable to miRNA-directed regulation in plants. Many of these plant miRNA targets succumb to AGO-catalyzed cleavage when they encounter a cognate miRNA; the characteristic remnants of these cleavage reactions enable molecular confirmation of plant miRNA target predictions in vivo [72-74]. However, not all plant miRNA-target interactions lead to AGO-catalyzed slicing. Some plant miRNA targets have conserved central mismatches embedded within perfectly base-paired regions at the 5 and 3 ends ...
MicroRNAs constitute a particularly important class of small RNAs given their abundance, broad phylogenetic conservation and strong regulatory effects, with plant miRNAs uniquely divulging their ancie
Small RNAs have emerged as a means of genetic control that were completely unsuspected only 10 years ago, points out Gregory Hannon, Ph.D., of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, who led the research. What we are now finding is that the diversity of small RNAs in many systems is even greater than previously suspected. The new study shows this in Arabidopsis (a model plant), where small RNAs have a major role in controlling the epigenetic organization of the entire genome.. Conventional DNA sequencing methods gave us glimpses of the various classes of small RNAs that exist in plants and animals. However, only with 454 Sequencing have we been able to fully appreciate the extent of small RNA populations and the breadth of biological processes they might affect, adds Dr. Hannon.. The study, entitled, Distinct Catalytic and Non-Catalytic Roles of ARGONAUTE4 in RNA-directed DNA Methylation, which describes a method for obtaining a comprehensive view of the total small RNAs from a single sample, was ...
Attention Due to government legislation, the selling of seeds, herbs and plants from the same location that therapeutic uses are given about plants, would contravene the law. THEREFORE… We do not display or advertise any information of therapeutic uses, of any kind on this web site. We believe that all information on this website is in line with all legal codes of practice ...
RNA silencing pathways control the expression of genes and other DNA loci by the action of small RNA molecules and are found in many eukaryotes. In plants there are a number of RNA silencing pathways, of which RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) is one. In this pathway the small RNA molecules direct DNA methylation, resulting in the down regulation of expression of the target locus. In terms of the mechanism of the pathway it is mostly well characterised but several gaps exist in our knowledge. These relate to its initiation, where it is not known how RdDM targets the correct locus; methylation, where it is unclear how the action of small RNAs triggers methylation; and chromatin modification, where it is unclear how methylated DNA is converted into higher order chromatin modification. These gaps in the pathway raised the possibility of the involvement of novel proteins and so this project aimed to identify and characterise mutants in these proteins. Screening of a library of putative RdDM ...
Fu et al. demonstrate a requirement for the heterochromatin factors CMT and DDM1 in RNA-directed DNA methylation in maize. Plant Cell
One of the most important developments in molecular biology over the past two decades is the emerging picture of a new level of gene regulation under the control of small yet versatile RNAs (1). Small RNA (sRNA) molecules are widely recognized as common and effective modulators of gene expression in many eukaryotic organisms. According to current knowledge, sRNAs are generally divided into several categories, including microRNAs (miRNAs), short interfering RNAs (siRNAs), trans-acting siRNAs (ta-siRNAs), natural antisense transcript siRNAs (nat-siRNAs), and piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) in metazoans (2). In plants, microRNAs (miRNAs) are produced from partially complementary dsRNA precursor molecules (3, 4). These plant miRNAs are the most characterized sRNAs, and the pathways by which they are generated and they play roles in gene regulation have been well documented (2, 3, 5). Several hundred genes encoding miRNAs in plants have been experimentally identified by the traditional Sanger ...
Explore the research topics touched on by this project. These labels are generated based on the underlying awards/grants. Together they form a unique fingerprint ...
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small RNA molecules that regulate gene expression by inhibiting the protein translation or targeting the mRNA cleavage. They play many important roles in living organism cells; however, the knowledge on miRNAs functions has become more extensive upon their identification in biological
A web-based easy-to-use tool dedicated to the identification of smRNAs with stem-loop shaped precursors (such as microRNAs and short hairpin RNAs) and their target genes/transcripts. PsRobot performs fast analysis to identify smRNAs with stem-loop shaped precursors among batch input data and predicts their targets using a modified Smith-Waterman algorithm. PsRobot integrates the expression data of smRNAs in major plant smRNA biogenesis gene mutants and smRNA-associated protein complexes to give clues to the smRNA generation and functional processes.
Although I am fully convinced of the truth of the views given in this volume, I by no means expect to convince experienced naturalists whose minds are stocked with a multitude of facts all viewed, during a long course of years, from a point of view directly opposite to mine. It is so easy to hide our ignorance under such expressions as plan of creation, unity of design, etc., and to think that we give an explanation when we only restate a fact. Any one whose disposition leads him to attach more weight to unexplained difficulties than to the explanation of a certain number of facts will certainly reject the theory. ...
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are single stranded non-coding endogenous small RNAs of about 22 nucleotides, which are directly involved in regulating gene expression at post transcr..
Our small ZZ plant for delivery is the ideal choice for inexperienced plant parents. Not only is it adorable, with glossy dark green leaves, its also one of our most low-maintenance houseplants. It thrives in spots with low levels of light, and can go for weeks without watering. Keep it on your desk in the office or o
Meyers, B.C., Axtell, M.J., Bartel, B., Bartel, D.P., Baulcombe, D., Bowman, J.L., Cao, X., Carrington, J.C., Chen, X., Green, P.J., Griffiths-Jones, S., Jacobsen, S.E., Mallory, A.C., Martienssen, R.A., Poethig, R.S., Qi, Y., Vaucheret, H., Voinnet, O., Watanabe, Y., Weigel, D., Zhu, J.K. (2008) Criteria for annotation of plant microRNAs. Plant Cell 20:3186-3190. PMID: 19074682 ...
8 Meyers, B.C., Axtell, M.J., Bartel, B., Bartel, D.P., Baulcombe, D., Bowman, J.L., Cao, X., Carrington, J.C., Chen, X., Green, P.J., Griffiths-Jones, S., Jacobsen, S.E., Mallory, A.C., Martienssen, R.A., Poethig, R.S., Qi, Y., Vaucheret, H., Voinnet, O., Watanabe, Y., Weigel, D., Zhu, J.K. (2008) Criteria for annotation of plant microRNAs. Plant Cell 20:3186-3190. PMID: 19074682 ...
With all four features, a more negative score is associated with a more favorable site. The context score is the sum of the above scores, and the context score percentile is the percentile rank of each site compared to all sites for this miRNA family. Thus a high context score percentile (between 50 and 100) shows that a specific site is more favorable than most other sites of this miRNA. In a gene with multiple sites for one miRNA family, a total context score is calculated as the sum of context scores for the most favorable (most negative) miRNA in this family (as shown on the miRNA family pages [example]). If the context score for any of these sites is positive (unfavorable), its contribution to the total context score is 0. The representative miRNA is the miRNA in this family with the most favorable total context score ...
With all four features, a more negative score is associated with a more favorable site. The context score is the sum of the above scores, and the context score percentile is the percentile rank of each site compared to all sites for this miRNA family. Thus a high context score percentile (between 50 and 100) shows that a specific site is more favorable than most other sites of this miRNA. In a gene with multiple sites for one miRNA family, a total context score is calculated as the sum of context scores for the most favorable (most negative) miRNA in this family (as shown on the miRNA family pages [example]). If the context score for any of these sites is positive (unfavorable), its contribution to the total context score is 0. The representative miRNA is the miRNA in this family with the most favorable total context score ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Methylation as a crucial step in plant microRNA biogenesis. AU - Yu, Bin. AU - Yang, Zhiyong. AU - Li, Junjie. AU - Minakhina, Svetlana. AU - Yang, Maocheng. AU - Padgett, Richard W.. AU - Steward, Ruth. AU - Chen, Xuemei. PY - 2005/2/11. Y1 - 2005/2/11. N2 - Methylation on the base or the ribose is prevalent in eukaryotic ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and is thought to be crucial for ribosome biogenesis and function. Artificially introduced 2′-O-methyl groups in small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) can stabilize siRNAs in serum without affecting their activities in RNA interference in mammalian cells. Here, we show that plant microRNAs (miRNAs) have a naturally occurring methyl group on the ribose of the last nucleotide. Whereas methylation of rRNAs depends on guide RNAs, the methyltransferase protein HEN1 is sufficient to methylate miRNA/miRNA* duplexes. Our studies uncover a new and crucial step in plant miRNA biogenesis and have profound implications in the function of miRNAs.. AB - ...
Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 26:617-625...Jang-Kyun Seo,1 Jianguo Wu,2 Yifan Lii,1 Yi Li,2 and Hailing Jin1...© 2013 The American Phytopathological Society...Small RNAs regulate a multitude of cellular processes, including development, stress responses, metabolism, and maintenance of genome integrity, in a sequence-specific manner. Accumulating evidence reveals that host endogenous small RNAs and small RNA pathway components play important roles in plan...
p,In plants, tasiRNAs form a class of endogenous secondary siRNAs produced through the action of RNA-DEPENDENT-RNA-POLYMERASE-6 (RDR6) upon microRNA-mediated cleavage of non-coding TAS RNAs. In Arabidopsis thaliana, TAS1, TAS2 and TAS4 tasiRNA production proceeds via a single cleavage event mediated by 22nt-long or/and asymmetric miRNAs in an ARGONAUTE-1 (AGO1)-dependent manner. By contrast, tasiRNA production from TAS3 seems to follow the so-called two-hit process, where dual targeting of TAS3, specifically mediated by the 21nt-long, symmetric miR390, initiates AGO7-dependent tasiRNA production. Interestingly, features for TAS3 tasiRNA production differ in other plant species and we show here that such features also enable TAS3 tasiRNA biogenesis in Arabidopsis, and that a single miR390 targeting event is, in fact, sufficient for this process, suggesting that the one-hit model underpins all the necessary rudiments of secondary siRNA biogenesis from plant TAS transcripts. Further results ...
Plant microRNAs (miRNAs) have recently been reported to be involved in the cross-kingdom regulation of specific cellular and physiological processes in animals. However, little of this phenomenon is known for the communication between host plant and insect herbivore. In this study, the plant-derived miRNAs in the hemolymph of a cruciferous specialist Plutella xylostella were identified by small RNAs sequencing. A total of 39 miRNAs with typical characteristics of plant miRNAs were detected, of which 24 had read counts ≥ 2 in each library. Three plant-derived miRNAs with the highest read counts were validated, and all of them were predicted to target the hemocyanin domains-containing genes of P. xylostella. The luciferase assays in the Drosophila S2 cell demonstrated that miR159a and novel-7703-5p could target BJHSP1 and PPO2 respectively, possibly in an incomplete complementary pairing mode. We further found that treatment with agomir-7703-5p significantly influenced the pupal development and egg
植物 miRNA 與 mRNA 完全或接近完全的配對結合後, 會引起目標基因在配對的第十位核酸上發生剪切,進行基因表達的調控。 伴隨第二代定序的進步,利用 PARE* (Parallel Analysis of RNA Ends) 方法, 以降解組定序(Degradome Sequencing)測出剪切位點, 被剪切的 3 片段以 RNA 連接酶連接上 5 adaptor 後, 經反轉錄形成雙股 cDNA, 再以 EcoP 15I** 酵素切位接上 3 adaptor 後往下進行定序分析。 目前此方法已成功應用於阿拉伯芥,水稻等植物的降解組定序上 ...
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Phenol-free Plant RNA Isolation Kit is designed to isolate RNA from plant tissue or cells. This kit eliminates the use of organic solvent extractions by using phenol/chloroform free reagents. Sufficient reagents are provided for 50 extractions. Advantages: Fast and Simple Phenol/chloroform free Exelent recovery Isolate
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate the expression of target mRNAs in plants and animals [1]. Plant miRNA targets have been predicted on… Expand ...
One type of dsRNA is microRNA (miRNA). MicroRNA are basically small pieces of RNA that interact with your genes, essentially stopping certain genes from being expressed. MiRNA exists in human body fluid naturally; however, microRNA also exists in plants, and research has shown that eating the wrong plants may transfer this plant miRNA to humans - with potentially devastating implications.. The study, published in 2011, determined that microRNA from cooked plant foods like rice, wheat and potatoes can in fact collect in your blood and tissue, leading to a number of potential health problems.5 The study further revealed that microRNA remains completely stable after not only cooking, but through the digestion process as well. Most importantly, the researchers found a significant quantity of microRNA in the human body, concluding that:. ...
The characteristics of microbial small RNA transcription are largely unknown, while it is of primary importance for a better identification of molecules with functional activities in the gut niche under both healthy and disease conditions. By performing combined analyses of metagenomic and small RNA sequencing (sRNA-Seq) data, we characterized both the human and microbial small RNA contents of stool samples from healthy individuals and... ...
Plants small to occasionally medium sized, forming tufts or thin mats, glossy green to yellowish-green or golden. Primary stems short and inconspicuous, or conspicuous and creeping and spreading. Secondary stems erect to ascending, or stems and branches spreading or subascending, spirally foliate or complanate; pseudoparaphyllia apparently absent; radiculose below. Leaves ovate- to oblong-lanceolate or obovate-oblong symmetric or asymmetric, apex acuminate, acute or obtuse-apiculate, base slightly decurrent on one or both sides; margins plane to recurved, entire to bluntly or sharply serrate, bordered; costae single, 1/3-3/4 lamina length, sometimes forked along costa; laminal cells either short to ± long hexagonal and walls weak or lax, or cells oval to rhomboidal and walls firm; alar region undifferentiated (occasionally border cells at base numerous and extend part or fully across to costa). Propagula absent or present in leaf axial, short to long cylindrical. Autoicous, rarely dioicous. ...
Relative number of gains and losses of entire miRNA families during metazoan evolution. The relative gain is the number of gained miRNA families compared to the
رشد و متابولیسم گیاه تحت تأثیر انواع محرک‌های زنده و غیرزنده‌ از جمله تنش‌های محیطی قرار می‌گیرد که گیاه از طریق هورمون‌ها به آن‌ها پاسخ می‌دهد. miRNAها، گروهی از RNAهای کوچک غیر کدکننده هستند که برخی از آن‌ها در سیگنالینگ هورمون‌های گیاهی نقش دارند. در این مطالعه با استفاده از تکنیک qRT-PCR، الگوی بیان miR159a,b، miR160، miR167a,b و miR171a، که به‌ترتیب در تنظیم بیان فاکتورهای رونویسی MYB، ARF، ARF، SCL نقش دارند، در دو رقم حساس و متحمل به تنش خشکی در گندم مورد بررسی قرار گرفتند. بررسی میزان شباهت نوکلئوتیدی نشان داد که بیشترین شباهت در هر یک از این خانواده‌ها در ناحیه تولید
komakino fanzine - Giardini di Mir - w/ Mokda: Visti i Giardini di Mirò ieri sera, al circolo degli artisti a roma. - Pieno di ...
PathwayCommons: ctd Pathway. [MIR138-1 results in decreased expression of H2AFX] onclick=removeFacet(PathwayCommons: ctd Pathway/[MIR138-1 results in decreased expression of H2AFX])> PathwayCommons: ctd Pathway [MIR138-1 results in decreased expression of H2AFX] ...
Small RNA-guided gene silencing at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels has emerged as an important mode of gene regulation in plants and animals. Thus far, conventional sequencing of small RNA libraries from rice led to the identification of most of the conserved miRNAs. Deep sequencing of small RNA libraries is an effective approach to uncover rare and lineage- and/or species-specific microRNAs (miRNAs) in any organism. In order to identify new miRNAs and possibly abiotic-stress regulated small RNAs in rice, three small RNA libraries were constructed from control rice seedlings and seedlings exposed to drought or salt stress, and then subjected to pyrosequencing. A total of 58,781, 43,003 and 80,990 unique genome-matching small RNAs were obtained from the control, drought and salt stress libraries, respectively. Sequence analysis confirmed the expression of most of the conserved miRNAs in rice. Importantly, 23 new miRNAs mostly each derived from a unique locus in rice genome were
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and their regulatory functions have been extensively characterized in model species but whether apple has evolved similar or unique regulatory features remains unknown. We performed deep small RNA-seq and identified 23 conserved, 10 less-conserved and 42 apple-specific miRNAs or families with distinct expression patterns. The identified miRNAs target 118 genes representing a wide range of enzymatic and regulatory activities. Apple also conserves two TAS gene families with similar but unique trans-acting small interfering RNA (tasiRNA) biogenesis profiles and target specificities. Importantly, we found that miR159, miR828 and miR858 can collectively target up to 81 MYB genes potentially involved in diverse aspects of plant growth and development. These miRNA target sites are differentially conserved among MYBs, which is largely influenced by the location and conservation of the encoded amino acid residues in MYB factors. Finally, we found that 10 of the 19 miR828-targeted MYBs undergo
Oxidative stress in plants can be triggered by many environmental stress factors, such as drought and salinity. Brachypodium distachyon is a model organism for the study of biofuel plants and crops, such as wheat. Although recent studies have found many oxidative stress response-related proteins, the mechanism of microRNA (miRNA)-mediated oxidative stress response is still unclear. Using next generation high-throughput sequencing technology, the small RNAs were sequenced from the model plant B. distachyon 21 (Bd21) under H2O2 stress and normal growth conditions. In total, 144 known B. distachyon miRNAs and 221 potential new miRNAs were identified. Further analysis of potential new miRNAs suggested that 36 could be clustered into known miRNA families, while the remaining 185 were identified as B. distachyon-specific new miRNAs. Differential analysis of miRNAs from the normal and H2O2 stress libraries identified 31 known and 30 new H2O2 stress responsive miRNAs. The expression patterns of seven
The novel NEBNext Small RNA workflow has been optimized to minimize adaptor-dimers while producing high-yield, high-diversity libraries.
The novel NEBNext Small RNA workflow has been optimized to minimize adaptor-dimers while producing high-yield, high-diversity libraries.
Molecular Cloning, also known as Maniatis, has served as the foundation of technical expertise in labs worldwide for 30 years. No other manual has been so popular, or so influential.
There is a desperate need for new means to diagnose and treat most human diseases. Extracellular small RNAs provide great promise. In particular, recent findings provide strong evidence for their utility as biomarkers. Furthermore, very recent work shows functional roles for at least a subset of the extracellular small RNAs, which provides an opportunity for their manipulation in the treatment of disease. However, as the field is so recent with only anecdotal evidence in limited systems, there remains a fundamental gap in our knowledge of how wide spread the phenomenon of functional extracellular small RNAs really is and how can its potential be fully realized. This U19 Centers long-term goal is to uncover paradigms of extracellular small RNA function in health and disease and apply those paradigms to clinically relevant settings including biomarker discovery and therapeutic intervention. Members of the Center already have a significant track record in these areas. The objective here is to ...
Epipterygium Lindb., Öfvers. Förh. Kongl. Svenska Vetensk.-Akad. 19: 603. 1862. Plants small, dull or glossy, pale, glaucous-green to pinkish or reddish green in loose tufts; stems forked or simple; rhizoids sparse, reddish brown, lightly papillose. Leaves dimorphic, lateral leaves in 2-3 rows, obovate to broadly elliptic, acute, sometimes decurrent, dorsal leaves in 1-3 rows, smaller and narrower than the lateral leaves, lanceolate to linear-lanceolate acute to shortly acuminate; margins bordered or elimbate, plane, entire to obscurely serrulate above; costa ½ to _ the leaf length in lateral leaves, shorter in dorsal leaves; cells broadly rhombic, rhomboidal or linear, lax or firm, thin-walled, alar cells undifferentiated. Dioicous. Perigonia terminal, bud-like. Setae reddish orange, smooth. Capsules cylindrical to pyriform, inclined to pendent; exothecial cells collenchymatous; stomata superficial; opercula conic-apiculate; annuli rudimentary or revoluble; peristome double, exostome densely ...
R200c, miR205 miR-miR376b, miR381, miR4095p, miR410, miR114 TNBC casesTaqMan qRTPCR (Thermo Fisher Scientific) SYBR green qRTPCR (Qiagen Nv) TaqMan qRTPCR
TY - JOUR. T1 - Elucidation of the RNA Recognition Code for Pentatricopeptide Repeat Proteins Involved in Organelle RNA Editing in Plants. AU - Yagi, Yusuke. AU - Hayashi, Shimpei. AU - Kobayashi, Keiko. AU - Hirayama, Takashi. AU - Nakamura, Takahiro. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2013 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2013/3/5. Y1 - 2013/3/5. N2 - Pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins are eukaryotic RNA-binding proteins that are commonly found in plants. Organelle transcript processing and stability are mediated by PPR proteins in a gene-specific manner through recognition by tandem arrays of degenerate 35-amino-acid repeating units, the PPR motifs. However, the sequence-specific RNA recognition mechanism of the PPR protein remains largely unknown. Here, we show the principle underlying RNA recognition for PPR proteins involved in RNA editing. The distance between the PPR-RNA alignment and the editable C was shown to be conserved. Amino acid variation at 3 particular positions within the ...
The Small RNA Library Prep Kit for Illumina consists of all the reagents and components required to generate small RNA libraries to be used for next-generation sequencing on an Illumina platform. All molecular reagents including adaptors, primers, enzyme mixes and buffers are provided. A purification module is also provided for rapid purification of nucleic acid products generated at various steps of the workflow. The purification module utilizes Norgens patent resin technology which enhances recovery of desired library intermediates or final products. The library prep workflow could be used for different forms of input including purified total RNA or enriched small RNA, as well as RNA from low content inputs such as plasma, serum and urine.. Workflow. ...
1. MatzkeM, KannoT, DaxingerL, HuettelB, MatzkeAJ (2009) RNA-mediated chromatin-based silencing in plants. Curr Opin Cell Biol 21: 367-376.. 2. LawJA, JacobsenSE (2010) Establishing, maintaining and modifying DNA methylation patterns in plants and animals. Nat Rev Genet 11: 204-220.. 3. CastelSE, MartienssenRA (2013) RNA interference in the nucleus: roles for small RNAs in transcription, epigenetics and beyond. Nat Rev Genet 14: 100-112.. 4. MirouzeM, ReindersJ, BucherE, NishimuraT, SchneebergerK, et al. (2009) Selective epigenetic control of retrotransposition in Arabidopsis. Nature 461: 427-430.. 5. TsukaharaS, KobayashiA, KawabeA, MathieuO, MiuraA, et al. (2009) Bursts of retrotransposition reproduced in Arabidopsis. Nature 461: 423-426.. 6. SlotkinRK, VaughnM, BorgesF, TanurdzicM, BeckerJD, et al. (2009) Epigenetic reprogramming and small RNA silencing of transposable elements in pollen. Cell 136: 461-472.. 7. MosherRA, MelnykCW, KellyKA, DunnRM, StudholmeDJ, et al. (2009) Uniparental ...
Lesion mimic mutants are used to elucidate mechanisms controlling plant responses to pathogen attacks and environmental stresses. Here, a new rice (Oryza sativa) lesion mimic mutant, natural blight leaf 3 (nbl3), was identified from T-DNA insertion li
These investigators were studying specific miRNA in plants. They found that such plant derived small RNAs were present in human serum, presumably from ingested plant material.. They also investigated the presence of these plant-derived miRNAs in mice fed with either rice or mouse chow. The rice-fed mice had a higher levels of plant-derived miRNAs compared to the mice fed with chow. And when the researchers added plant miRNAs to the chow, this resulted in higher plant miRNAs in the mouse serum.. Cooking the rice had no effect. That is, the plant-derived miRNAs apparently survived not only the digestive process, but also cooking temperatures.. Apparently what happens is that the plant-derived miRNAs are absorbed by the cells in the intestines. These intestinal cells then package the miRNAs and secrete them into the bloodstream.. What are the implications?. Well, of course, the main implication is that the cooked or uncooked plant material you eat may actually affect the regulation of some of your ...
The Genetics Society of America (GSA), founded in 1931, is the professional membership organization for scientific researchers and educators in the field of genetics. Our members work to advance knowledge in the basic mechanisms of inheritance, from the molecular to the population level.. Online ISSN: 1943-2631. ...
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Genome-wide profiling and functional analyses reveal a network of heterochromatin and small RNA factors that silences repetitive elements and prevents genotoxic stress to ensure fertility.
Quantification of miRNA expression can be performed using a variety of technologies, including NGS and real-time PCR (qPCR). While NGS is the default tool for novel miRNA discovery, commercially available library preparation kits introduce biases and involve tedious procedures. As a result, qPCR has been the most commonly used technology for quantification of miRNA expression - until now. The QIAseq miRNA Library Kit defines a new generation in small RNA sequencing products and includes several distinct features not found in other sequencing kits. With the QIAseq miRNA Library Kit, the power of NGS has been combined with single molecule quantification from Unique Molecular Indices (UMI) to generate the most representative expression data possible. In recent years, NGS has emerged as a highly advanced research tool for both high-throughput miRNA expression analysis and novel miRNA discovery. The QIAseq miRNA Library Kit procedure does not require gel purification, excision and elution, which ...
Except for TAS1 and TAS2 loci, the rapidly evolving PPR-P clade yields the most easily recognizable set of RDR6/DCL4-dependent siRNAs in Arabidopsis. Most of the PPR-P clade transcripts are targeted by multiple miRNAs and/or tasiRNAs, which efficiently drive the cleavage fragments through the RDR6/DCL4 pathway. This very likely reinforces silencing that might be directed via targeting by miR161, miR400, and TAS1/TAS2 tasiRNAs. Given the abundance of the resulting clade-derived siRNAs, it is puzzling why siRNA biogenesis does not spread outside of the clade. Despite 33 nonclade PPR-P transcripts possessing multiple, plausible target sites for sequenced, clade-derived siRNAs, the RDR6/DCL4 system was not directed to this group of transcripts. It is possible that the target prediction algorithm, which we have used successfully with miRNAs and tasiRNAs (Allen et al., 2005; Fahlgren et al., 2007), did not accurately identify prospective targets for this analysis. It is also possible that ...
The ASRP website organizes information about Arabidopsis thaliana small RNAs. This site is funded by NSF grant MCB-1231726. All small RNAs have either been isolated by the ASRP or published by other labs ...
Objective: In this study, tumor-stage predictive abilities of miR21, miR155, miR29a and miR92a were evaluated in rectal cancer (RC). Methods: Expression of miR21, miR155, miR29a and miR92a was detected and quantitated in tumor tissue and in adjacent normal tissue from 40 patients by TaqMan MicroRNA assay. Results: Significant overexpression of miR21, miR155, miR29a and miR92a was observed in RC tissues. While high expression of miR21, miR155 and miR29a in N1-2 and C-D stages presented a potential correlation with N and Duke stages, partial correlation analysis suggested that only miR155 rather than miR21 and miR29a played a greater influencing role. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis showed that miR155 could discriminate N0 from N1-2 with 85.0% sensitivity and 85.0% specificity, N2 from N0-1 with 90.0% sensitivity and 96.7% specificity, and C-D stage from A-B stage with 81.0% sensitivity and 84.2% specificity. Conclusions: Increase in expression of miR155 might represent a novel
The long-term research interest of my laboratory is to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying small RNA metabolism and function. Small RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), are 20 to 24 nucleotide (nt) RNAs that function as sequence-specific regulators of gene expression at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels in eukaryotes.. These small RNAs are involved in numerous cellular processes including development, differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, and stress responses. We currently employ a combination of genetic, biochemical, cell biological, and genomic approaches to identify and characterize components involved in small RNA metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana.. ...
microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of negative regulators that take part in many processes such as growth and development, stress responses, and metabolism in plants. Recently, miRNAs were shown to function in plant nutrient metabolism. Moreover, several miRNAs were identified in the response to nitrogen (N) deficiency. To investigate the functions of other miRNAs in N deficiency, deep sequencing technology was used to detect the expression of small RNAs under N-sufficient and -deficient conditions. The results showed that members from the same miRNA families displayed differential expression in response to N deficiency. Upon N starvation, the expression of miR169, miR171, miR395, miR397, miR398, miR399, miR408, miR827, and miR857 was repressed, whereas those of miR160, miR780, miR826, miR842, and miR846 were induced. miR826, a newly identified N-starvation-induced miRNA, was found to target the AOP2 gene. Among these N-starvation-responsive miRNAs, several were involved in cross-talk among responses to
The International Indian Film Academy brings its annual award show to Florida. Alicia Powell reports. Credit to Reuters. COURTESY IIFA/WIZCRAFT. NO RESALE
QaziTM Total RNA Isolation Kit is a rapid, phenol-free, filter based RNA isolation system. It can be used to isolate total RNA from animal and plant tissue, cultured cells, bacteria, yeast, and viral particles with some modification of the Lysis/Binding Buffer. Plant RNA Isolation Aid is included with QaziTMTotal RNA Isolation Kit (Plant tissues) to... Read More ...
A method of detection and quantification of miRNA free of specific cells of cells, tissue and / or organs in the body fluid for the evaluation of cell death in vivo in different tissues and organs, where in vivo cell death is associated with a disorder of a specific tissue and / or organ comprising: the analysis of a sample of body fluid selected from blood, serum and urine obtained from a subject to determine one or more specific miRNA sequences, wherein said analysis comprises the step of detecting said miRNA with a primer and / or probe that is substantially complementary to a portion of said specific miRNA sequences.
This miR-95-5p miRNA inhibitor is designed to bind to miR-95-5p mature miRNA, inhibiting its effect on the cell. This miRNA inhibitor can be used in experiments to investigate miRNA targets and roles in the cell.
MicroRNAs are ~22nt small RNAs that regulate gene expression post transcriptionally. They have the potential to regulate a large fraction of the human genes, an...
In Arabidopsis and other plant species, the IMEter has been developed to calculate the likelihood that an intron sequence will ... Rose, A (2002). "Requirements for intron-mediated enhancement of gene expression in Arabidopsis". RNA. 8 (11): 1444-53. doi: ... Gallegos, Jenna E.; Rose, Alan B. (2015-08-01). "The enduring mystery of intron-mediated enhancement". Plant Science. 237: 8-15 ... The Plant Journal. 11 (3): 455-464. doi:10.1046/j.1365-313X.1997.11030455.x. PMID 9107035. Jeon, JS; Lee, S; Jung, KH; Jun, SH ...
The RNA polymerase II subunit RPB1 is the largest subunit of the RNA polymerase II. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, it is encoded ... Kress WJ (2017). "Plant DNA barcodes: Applications today and in the future". Journal of Systematics and Evolution. 55 (4): 291- ... RNA. 3 (4): 543-55. doi:10.1002/wrna.1118. PMC 3374885. PMID 22555874. Meyer W, Irinyi L, Hoang MT, Robert V, Garcia-Hermoso D ... However, its discrimination power is partly superseded by that of the DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB1 (see also ...
... and that they were co-opted in the plant lineage as RNA binding modules by incorporation into diverse protein contexts. Plant ... The diversity of the CRM domain family in plants suggests a diverse set of RNA targets. The CRM domain is a compact alpha/beta ... In molecular biology, the CRM domain is an approximately 100-amino acid RNA-binding domain. The name CRM (chloroplast RNA ... and that the domain was recruited to serve as an RNA binding module during the evolution of plant genomes. YhbY has a fold ...
Chen M, Meng Y, Gu H, Chen D (December 2010). "Functional characterization of plant small RNAs based on next-generation ... RNA. 14 (5): 836-43. doi:10.1261/rna.895308. PMC 2327369. PMID 18356539. Page for MIR396 microRNA precursor family at Rfam v t ... In molecular biology mir-396 microRNA is a short RNA molecule. MicroRNAs function to regulate the expression levels of other ... Hewezi T, Howe P, Maier TR, Baum TJ (December 2008). "Arabidopsis small RNAs and their targets during cyst nematode parasitism ...
Axtell MJ, Snyder JA, Bartel DP (June 2007). "Common functions for diverse small RNAs of land plants". The Plant Cell. 19 (6): ... "Small RNA regulation of ovule development in the cotton plant, G. hirsutum L". BMC Plant Biology. 8: 93. doi:10.1186/1471-2229- ... "Identification of trans-acting siRNAs in moss and an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase required for their biogenesis". The Plant ... Li F, Orban R, Baker B (June 2012). "SoMART: a web server for plant miRNA, tasiRNA and target gene analysis". The Plant Journal ...
RNA recombination in animal and plant viruses. Microbiol Rev. 1992 Mar;56(1):61-79. PMID: 1579113; PMCID: PMC372854 Weiss BG, ... end of Sindbis virus genome RNA regulate minus- and plus-strand RNA synthesis". RNA. 7 (11): 1638-1651. doi:10.1017/ ... The genomic RNA is partially translated at the 5' end to produce the non-structural proteins which are then involved in genome ... A non-coding RNA element has been found to be essential for Sindbis virus genome replication. Recombination has been ...
Many enopleans are parasites of plants and animals, including humans. The orders Triplonchida and Dorylaimida include plant- ... 2012). "Armless mitochondrial tRNAs in Enoplea (Nematoda)". RNA Biology. 9 (9): 1161-66. doi:10.4161/rna.21630. PMC 3579883. ... Nemaplex: Nematode-Plant Expert Information System. University of California, Davis. Version October 4, 2012. Jühling, F.; et ... Nemaplex: Nematode-Plant Expert Information System. University of California, Davis. Version October 4, 2012. Lee 2010, p. 13. ...
RNA silencing mechanisms are also important in the plant systemic response, as they can block virus replication. The jasmonic ... Most plant immune responses involve systemic chemical signals sent throughout a plant. Plants use pattern-recognition receptors ... Baulcombe D (September 2004). "RNA silencing in plants". Nature. 431 (7006): 356-63. Bibcode:2004Natur.431..356B. doi:10.1038/ ... see: plant defense against herbivory). Like invertebrates, plants neither generate antibody or T-cell responses nor possess ...
Baulcombe D (September 2004). "RNA silencing in plants". Nature. 431 (7006): 356-63. Bibcode:2004Natur.431..356B. doi:10.1038/ ... but many plant immune responses involve systemic chemical signals that are sent through a plant. Individual plant cells respond ... When a part of a plant becomes infected, the plant produces a localized hypersensitive response, whereby cells at the site of ... Systemic acquired resistance is a type of defensive response used by plants that renders the entire plant resistant to a ...
In higher plants, it was thought that CGG encoded for tryptophan and not arginine; however, the codon in the processed RNA was ... Hiesel R, Wissinger B, Schuster W, Brennicke A (December 1989). "RNA editing in plant mitochondria". Science. 246 (4937): 1632- ... Plant mitochondria can also produce a limited amount of ATP either by breaking the sugar produced during photosynthesis or ... Some of these differences should be regarded as pseudo-changes in the genetic code due to the phenomenon of RNA editing, which ...
"The Conservation and Function of RNA Secondary Structure in Plants". Annual Review of Plant Biology. 67 (1): 463-88. doi: ... Paz I, Kosti I, Ares M, Cline M, Mandel-Gutfreund Y (July 2014). "RBPmap: a web server for mapping binding sites of RNA-binding ... Control of Messenger RNA Stability. 1993. doi:10.1016/c2009-0-03269-3. ISBN 9780120847822. Zuker M (July 2003). "Mfold web ... The dorsal horn shows considerable expression in the cervical spine of adult mouse (P56). RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) that bind ...
"Carlavirus Isolation and RNA Extraction." Foster, Gary D. and Sally C. Taylorin. Plant Virology Protocols: From Virus Isolation ... The genome encodes 3 to 6 proteins including a coat protein located at the 3' end and an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase located ... Replication follows the positive stranded RNA virus replication model. Positive stranded RNA virus transcription is the method ... Plants serve as the natural host. Infection is at times spread by aphids in a semi-persistent mode, that is, the vector is ...
... (small RNA identified from Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris) is a family of trans-acting non-coding RNA (also ... vesicatoria is homologous to two-component response regulators". Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 9 (8): 704-12. doi:10.1094/mpmi-9- ... RNA Biol. 8 (6): 947-53. doi:10.4161/rna.8.6.16690. PMC 3256417. PMID 21941121. Schmidtke C, Findeiß S, Sharma CM, Kuhfuß J, ... 2011). "Genome-wide transcriptome analysis of the plant pathogen Xanthomonas identifies sRNAs with putative virulence functions ...
... parallels with spliceosomal U6 RNA". RNA. 12 (2): 235-47. doi:10.1261/rna.2237806. PMC 1370903. PMID 16428604. Valadkhan S (May ... Ahlert D, Piepenburg K, Kudla J, Bock R (July 2006). "Evolutionary origin of a plant mitochondrial group II intron from a ... RNA. 16 (1): 1-9. doi:10.1261/rna.1791310. PMC 2802019. PMID 19948765. Peebles CL, Perlman PS, Mecklenburg KL, Petrillo ML, ... doi:10.4161/rna.7.3.12089. PMID 20458185. de Lencastre A, Hamill S, Pyle AM (July 2005). "A single active-site region for a ...
"Experimental evolution of plant RNA viruses". Heredity. 100 (5): 478-83. doi:10.1038/sj.hdy.6801088. PMC 7094686. PMID 18253158 ... Attenuated RNA virus vaccines can revert to virulent forms. RNA viruses released in nature for pest control purposes can mutate ... The molecular basis of high error rates is the limited template-copying fidelity of RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRps) and ... RNA-RNA interactions and replicator networks, the error threshold in variable fitness landscapes, consideration of chemical ...
"Experimental evolution of plant RNA viruses". Heredity. 100 (5): 478-483. doi:10.1038/sj.hdy.6801088. PMC 7094686. PMID ... Viruses have enormous populations, are doubtfully living since they consist of little more than a string of DNA or RNA in a ... The nomenclatural codes that guide the naming of species, including the ICZN for animals and the ICN for plants, do not make ... As a rule of thumb, microbiologists have assumed that kinds of Bacteria or Archaea with 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences more ...
To quantify gene expression, the (Cq) for an RNA or DNA from the gene of interest is subtracted from the (Cq) of RNA/DNA from a ... mixed in with the DNA of the host plant. Discrimination between the DNA of the pathogen and the plant is based on the ... The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a common method for amplifying DNA; for RNA-based PCR the RNA sample is first reverse- ... As the process of creating a transgenic plant normally leads to the insertion of more than one copy of the transgene its ...
In plants, starch is used for the same purpose. The most abundant carbohydrate, cellulose, is a structural component of the ... cell wall of plants and many forms of algae. Ribose is a component of RNA. Deoxyribose is a component of DNA. Lyxose is a ... Plant components are consumed by animals and fungi, and used as fuel for cellular respiration. Oxidation of one gram of ... Cellulose, a polysaccharide found in the cell walls of all plants, is one of the main components of insoluble dietary fiber. ...
RNA Biol. 8 (1): 5-10. doi:10.4161/rna.8.1.13865. PMC 3142362. PMID 21317561. "2.A.109 The Tellurium Ion Resistance (TerC) ... Plant J. 55 (3): 428-442. doi:10.1111/j.1365-313X.2008.03523.x. PMID 18429937. Meyer, M.M.; Hammond, M.C.; Salinas, Y.; Roth, A ... The Plant Journal. 55 (3): 428-442. doi:10.1111/j.1365-313X.2008.03523.x. ISSN 1365-313X. PMID 18429937. Turkovicova, L.; ...
The ribosome selects aminoacylated transfer RNAs (tRNAs) based on the sequence of a protein-encoding messenger RNA (mRNA) and ... However, the ribosomes of eukaryotes (animals, plants, fungi, and large number unicellular organisms all with a nucleus) are ... The 60S subunit contains a 28S rRNA that is homologous to the prokaryotic 23S ribosomal RNA. In addition, it contains a 5.8S ... The majority of the eukaryote-specific RNA and protein elements are found on the solvent-exposed sides of the 40S and 60S ...
Chloroplasts also contain a mysterious second RNA polymerase that is encoded by the plant's nuclear genome. The two RNA ... Parasitic plants such as Epifagus virginiana show a loss of RNA editing resulting in a loss of function for photosynthesis ... Tillich M, Krause K (July 2010). "The ins and outs of editing and splicing of plastid RNAs: lessons from parasitic plants". New ... Takenaka M, Zehrmann A, Verbitskiy D, Härtel B, Brennicke A (2013). "RNA editing in plants and its evolution". Annual Review of ...
... the existence of an RNA Information Superhighway in plants by which information is transmitted throughout the plant via RNA ... "An RNA-Based Information Superhighway in Plants". Science. 279 (5356): 1486-1487. doi:10.1126/science.279.5356.1486. PMID ... From 2003 through 2007 Jorgensen served as editor-in-chief of The Plant Cell, a research journal in plant biology. From 2007 to ... Jorgensen Wins 2007 Gibbs Award from American Society of Plant Biologists". News release. American Society of Plant Biologists ...
The virus is associated with swelling in plant vein tissues. They are negative single stranded RNA viruses. Infection occurs ... Kormelink R, Garcia ML, Goodin M, Sasaya T, Haenni AL (2011). "Negative-strand RNA viruses: the plant-infecting counterparts". ... The genome consists of a bi-segmented linear, single-stranded negative sense RNA. The first segment is about 6350-7000 ... Varicosavirus is a genus of plant viruses that currently consists of one recognised species: Lettuce big-vein associated ...
Bonner, James (1994). "Chapters from my life". Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology. 45: 1-23. doi: ... where it is initiated by recruitment of the RNA-induced transcriptional silencing (RITS) complex to double stranded RNAs ... The formation of this mark is tied to transcription in a rather convoluted manner: early in transcription of a gene, RNA ... Bonner and his postdoctoral fellow Ru Chih C. Huang showed that isolated chromatin would not support RNA transcription in the ...
... linking plant ultrastructure with physiology and biochemistry; and protein and RNA synthesis in plants. She was active in the ... another key plant hormone) in controlling numerous aspects of plant development. This work led her to develop the idea of the ... Her research focused on plant hormones, seed biology and plant DNA repair. She is best known for her work on the gas ethylene, ... She also originated the concept of the target cell as a model for understanding plant hormone action. Born in India, where her ...
Plant Biology, by the American Society of Plant Biologists (2005). 1965: Ernest Dechelle Prize of the French Academy of ... RNA, proteins; functioning, cell cycle). After simple mitosis surveys for the vegetative point of Bean, quantitative methods ... Arlette Nougarède and her team identify, in the whole plant, regions of constant localization, differentiated into G1 and which ... In the 20th century, histocytology and ontogenic examination made it possible to understand how plant meristems regularly form ...
Plant viruses induce the rearrangement of membranes structures to form the viroplasm. This is mostly shown for plant RNA ... Viroplasms also control release of virions when the insect stings an infected plant cell or a cell near the infected cells. ... viroplasms from plant viruses have not been as studied as viroplasms from animal viruses. Viroplasms have been found in the ... may help to develop new therapeutic approaches against virus infections in animal and plant cells. Viral evolution Viral ...
Plant Toxins: 1-29. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-6728-7_16-3. ISBN 978-94-007-6728-7. Tsurugi, K.; Endo, Y. (1987-06-15). "RNA N- ... Ribotoxins cleave RNA following a general acid-base mechanism shared by all the extracellular fungal RNases so far ... However, there is a fairly general consensus to use this name only for plant N-glycosidases, whereas the term ribotoxins refers ... RIPs are also highly specialized toxic proteins produced by plants and fungi that inactivate ribosomes acting as N-glycosidases ...
As other (+)RNA plant viruses do, potyviruses utilize the protein synthesis machinery of the host in the production of viral ... The RNA is then translated to produce a polyprotein, which is then processed by viral proteases into RNA dependent RNA ... stems and other parts of the plant to darken and wilt. This is a result of the virus using the plant as a host, as the plant's ... Their mouthparts consist of a needle-like stylet that is capable of piercing plant cells walls in order to feed on the plant's ...
US Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) and US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). "National Select ... et sua genoma per RNA unius fili sensu negativo scribunt. Duo notissima familiae genera sunt Ebolavirus et Marburgvirus. Ambo ...
3 RNA-Viren *3.1 Doppelsträngige RNA-Viren (dsRNA, double stranded RNA). *3.2 Einzelstrang-RNA-Viren mit negativer Polarität ( ... Virgaviridae: a new Familie of rod-shaped plant viruses. . In: Arch Virol. . 154, Nr. 12, 2009, S. 1967-72. doi:10.1007/s00705- ... ss(−)RNA: negative single-stranded RNA). *3.3 Einzelstrang-RNA-Viren mit positiver Polarität (ss(+)RNA: positive single ... Einzelstrang-RNA-Viren mit negativer Polarität (ss(−)RNA: negative single-stranded RNA)[Bearbeiten , Quelltext bearbeiten]. ...
Finding the virus, viral RNA, or antibodies in blood[1]. Differential diagnosis. Malaria, cholera, typhoid fever, meningitis, ... Of 24 plant and 19 vertebrate species experimentally inoculated with EBOV, only bats became infected.[86] The bats displayed no ... Ebolaviruses contain single-stranded, non-infectious RNA genomes.[46] Ebolavirus genomes contain seven genes including 3'-UTR- ... The specific diagnosis of EVD is confirmed by isolating the virus, detecting its RNA or proteins, or detecting antibodies ...
Chloroplasts also contain a mysterious second RNA polymerase that is encoded by the plant's nuclear genome. The two RNA ... Among land plants, the contents of the chloroplast genome are fairly similar[8]-they code for four ribosomal RNAs, 30-31 tRNAs ... Parasitic plants such as Epifagus virginiana show a loss of RNA editing resulting in a loss of function for photosynthesis ... Takenaka M, Zehrmann A, Verbitskiy D, Härtel B, Brennicke A (2013). "RNA editing in plants and its evolution". Annual Review of ...
RNA editing. Octopuses and other coleoid cephalopods are capable of greater RNA editing (which involves changes to the nucleic ... while at the same time mimicking plant matter.[78] This form of locomotion allows these octopuses to move quickly away from a ... Coleoids rely mostly on ADAR enzymes for RNA editing, which requires large double-stranded RNA structures to flank to the ... High levels of RNA editing do not appear to be present in more basal cephalopods or other molluscs.[118][119] ...
1993). "On the evolution of RNA editing". Trends in Genetics. 9 (8): 265-268. doi:10.1016/0168-9525(93)90011-6.. ... Daniel, Chammiran; Behm, Mikaela; Öhman, Marie (2015). "The role of Alu elements in the cis-regulation of RNA processing". ... RNA editing may have arisen in Trypanosoma brucei.[21][24][23][25][26] ...
RNA polymerase IV synthesizes siRNA in plants.[5]. *RNA polymerase V synthesizes RNAs involved in siRNA-directed ... Non-coding RNA or "RNA genes". These are a broad class of genes that encode RNA which is not translated into protein. The most ... RNA polymerase III synthesizes tRNAs, rRNA 5S and other small RNAs found in the nucleus and cytosol.[4] ... RNA polymerase (RNAP) in action. It is building a messenger RNA molecule from a DNA helix. Part of the enzyme was made ...
... specializing in ecology and plant population biology (b. 1925). 9 April - Carl Rettenmeyer, American biologist who specialised ... American biochemist who discovered transfer RNA (tRNA) (b. 1921). 6 October - Ruth L. Kirschstein, American pathologist and ...
In vertebrates and plants, five paralogs of RAD51 are expressed in somatic cells, including RAD51B (RAD51L1), RAD51C (RAD51L2 ... messenger RNA. [13]. Breast cancer (progesteron receptor negative). Over-expression. -. messenger RNA. [16]. ... Outside of plants and vertebrates, a much broader diversity of Rad51 recombinase paralog proteins exists. In budding yeast, ...
Cadbury used to make Curly Wurly, Double Decker and Crunchie at the Somerdale Factory, Keynsham until Kraft closed the plant in ... Fourth Element (wet suits) are on the A3083 at Cury, south of RNAS Culdrose and Helston. A.P. Valves make diving equipment in ... "Mini Plant Swindon". MINI. Archived from the original on 14 November 2017. Retrieved 30 December 2017.. ... X-Fab UK (semiconductor fabrication plant, former Plessey Semiconductors) is next to the A386 Bickleigh Cross roundabout; ...
... strand RNA genome is replicated through a double-stranded RNA intermediate that is formed using viral RDRP (RNA-Dependent RNA ... The plant-infecting picorna-like viruses have a number of properties that are distinct from the animal viruses.The ... The mRNA encodes RNA dependent RNA polymerase. This polymerase makes complementary minus strands of RNA, then uses them as ... Genomic RNAs of picornaviruses possess multiple RNA elements and they are required for both negative and plus strand RNA ...
They flourish in Arctic and Antarctic lakes,[12] hotsprings[13] and wastewater treatment plants.[14] They even inhabit the fur ... is toxic to liver and kidney tissue and is thought to inhibit protein synthesis and to covalently modify DNA and/or RNA. There ... Skulberg OM (1996) "Terrestrial and limnic algae and cyanobacteria". In: A Catalogue of Svalvard Plants, Fungi, Algae and ... Rhoades, David F (1979). "Evolution of Plant Chemical Defense against Herbivores". In Rosenthal, Gerald A.; Janzen, Daniel H. ...
... were split off as a third domain because of the large differences in their ribosomal RNA structure. The particular RNA ... Plants and other organisms consume the latter.[181]. In the sulfur cycle, archaea that grow by oxidizing sulfur compounds ... although there are many introns in their transfer RNA and ribosomal RNA genes,[146] and introns may occur in a few protein- ... Werner F (September 2007). "Structure and function of archaeal RNA polymerases". Mol. Microbiol. 65 (6): 1395-404. doi:10.1111/ ...
... the TATA box is found at RNA polymerase II promoter regions, although some in vitro studies have demonstrated that RNA ... Mutations in maize promoters affect the expression of the promoter genes in a plant-organ-specific manner.[29] A duplication of ... "RNA polymerase III accurately initiates transcription from RNA polymerase II promoters in vitro". The Journal of Biological ... TATA-binding protein (TBP) can be recruited in two ways, by SAGA, a cofactor for RNA polymerase II, or by TFIID.[11] When ...
Bonner, James (1994). "Chapters from my life". Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology. 45: 1-23. doi: ... where it is initiated by recruitment of the RNA-induced transcriptional silencing (RITS) complex to double stranded RNAs ... "Huang R C & Bonner J. Histone, a suppressor of chromosomal RNA synthesis. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. US 48:1216-22, 1962" (PDF). ... The formation of this mark is tied to transcription in a rather convoluted manner: early in transcription of a gene, RNA ...
Plant Biology[11]. Plant genome sequencing; epigenetics and stem cell fate; stem cell signaling; plant-environment interactions ... RNA interference (RNAi) and small-RNA biology; DNA replication; RNA splicing; signal transduction; genome structure; non-coding ... increase fruit yield in flowering plants, e.g., tomato. Other initiatives: genetics of aquatic plants for biofuel development; ... "Plant Biology - Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory". Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. Retrieved 2018-08-08.. ...
13.0 13.1 13.2 AW Robards (1976) Plasmodesmata in higher plants. In: Intercellular communications in plants: studies on ... 原生質絲可以讓蛋白質(包括轉錄因子)、小干擾RNA、mRNA和病毒的基因組在細胞內流通。其中一個病毒的運動蛋白例子是MP-30。MP-30可結合病毒的基因組,並且將病毒的基因組經由原生質絲傳入未受感染的細胞。[14]Flowering Locus T ... Plant Biology. 2001, 3: 223-33. doi:10.1055/s-2001-15204.. *^ Lucas W., Ding, B. and Van
In the mid-Permian, coal-age flora are replaced by cone-bearing gymnosperms (the first true seed plants) and by the first true ... The first life forms and self-replicating RNA molecules evolve around 4,000 Ma, after the Late Heavy Bombardment ends on Earth ... Flowering plants proliferate, along with new types of insects. More modern teleost fish begin to appear. Ammonoidea, belemnites ... First vascular plants (the rhyniophytes and their relatives), first millipedes and arthropleurids on land. First jawed fishes, ...
"for his researches on plant pigments, especially سبزینه"[۲۰] ۱۹۱۸ فریتس هابر[۱] آلمان "for the synthesis of ammonia from its ... "for their discovery of catalytic properties of RNA"[۳۳] ۱۹۹۲ رادولف مارکوس[۱] United States "for his contributions to the ... "for his research on the carbon dioxide assimilation in plants"[۲۳] ۱۹۶۲ ماکس پراتز[۲۴] United Kingdom "for their studies of the ... "for his discovery of آران‌ای سرکوبگر - gene silencing by double-stranded RNA"[۷۹] ...
The NSs protein is also a non-structural protein and contributes to suppression of RNA silencing during plant infection. ... Typically thrips feeding alone on soybean plants does not cause economic damage, however it may if the plant is under some ... The L segment is 9010 nt and encodes for the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). The M segment is 4955 nt and to encode for ... Adult thrips are then able via feeding to transmit the virus to the plant host. It is important to keep in mind with this ...
Evert RF, Eichhorn SE (2006). Esau's Plant Anatomy: Meristems, Cells, and Tissues of the Plant Body: Their Structure, Function ... Corpas FJ (2015). "What is the role of hydrogen peroxide in plant peroxisomes?". Plant Biol (Stuttg). 17 (6): 1099-103. doi: ... "Peroxisomes as a source of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide signal molecules in plant cells". Trends in Plant Science. ... "Frontiers in Plant Science. 5: 97. doi:10.3389/fpls.2014.00097. PMC 3956114. PMID 24672535.. ...
"Analysis of a silane explosion in a photovoltaic fabrication plant". Process Safety Progress. 25 (3): 237-244. doi:10.1002/prs. ... "Revisiting of a silane explosion in a photovoltaic fabrication plant". Process Safety Progress. 26 (2): 155-158. doi:10.1002/ ...
Plant sources[edit]. Ficus carica (fig) is probably the most abundant source of psoralens. They are also found in small ... Research on psoralen has historically focused on interactions with DNA and RNA (in particular, ICL formation). Psoralen, ... and therefore have been used extensively for the analysis of interactions and structures for both DNA and RNA.[26][27] ... "RNA Duplex Map in Living Cells Reveals Higher-Order Transcriptome Structure". Cell. 165 (5): 1267-1279. doi:10.1016/j.cell. ...
RNA: consists of a dimer RNA. It has a cap at the 5' end and a poly(A) tail at the 3' end. The RNA genome also has terminal ... These inserts are transcribed by enzymes of the host into new RNA molecules that enter the cytosol. Next, some of these RNA ... In most viruses, DNA is transcribed into RNA, and then RNA is translated into protein. However, retroviruses function ... While transcription was classically thought to occur only from DNA to RNA, reverse transcriptase transcribes RNA into DNA. The ...
THE PLANT CELL ONLINE. 1990, roč. 2, čís. 4, s. 279-289. DOI:10.1105/tpc.2.4.279.. ... RNA interference (z angl., česky doslova „rušení RNA"), zkratka RNAi, je relativně nedávno objasněný proces, kterým je ... Animace znázorňující RNA-interfernci z nakladatelství NATURE REVIEWS. *Objev RNA Interference (vyžaduje Flash), z Howard Hughes ... V tomto článku byl použit překlad textu z článku RNA interference na anglické Wikipedii. ...
Werner F (2007). "Structure and function of archaeal RNA polymerases". Mol. Microbiol. 65 (6): 1395-404. PMID 17697097. doi: ... Simon HM, Dodsworth JA, Goodman RM (2000). "Crenarchaeota colonize terrestrial plant roots". Environ. Microbiol. 2 (5): 495-505 ... 2008). "Characterization of the methanogenic Archaea within two-phase biogas reactor systems operated with plant biomass". Syst ... "A putative RNA-interference-based immune system in prokaryotes: computational analysis of the predicted enzymatic machinery, ...
೪೧.೦ ೪೧.೧ Eddy SR (December 2001). "Non-coding RNA genes and the modern RNA world". Nat. Rev. Genet. 2 (12): 919-29. doi: ... Puchta, H.; Fauser, F. (2013). "Gene targeting in plants: 25 years later". Int. J. Dev. Biol 57 (6-7-8): 629-637. doi:10.1387/ ... ೯೦.೦ ೯೦.೧ Claverie JM (September 2005). "Fewer genes, more noncoding RNA". Science 309 (5740): 1529-30. Bibcode:2005Sci... ... Domingo, E; Escarmís, C; Sevilla, N; Moya, A; Elena, SF; Quer, J; Novella, IS; Holland, JJ (June 1996). "Basic concepts in RNA ...
ingesting contaminated plants Foodborne illnesses (commonly diarrheal diseases) Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli, ... but there is increasing evidence from DNA and RNA sequencing, that measles, smallpox, influenza, HIV, and diphtheria came to ...
Populations near nuclear plants have an additional ≈0.02 mSv of exposure annually. ...
N. V. Fedoroff, "RNA-binding proteins in plants: the tip of an iceberg?" Current Opinion in Plant Biology, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. ... A. S. N. Reddy, "Alternative splicing of pre-messenger RNAs in plants in the genomic era," Annual Review of Plant Biology, vol ... RNA-Binding Proteins in Plant Immunity. Virginia Woloshen,1,2 Shuai Huang,1,2 and Xin Li1,2 ... V. Ramachandran and X. Chen, "Small RNA metabolism in Arabidopsis," Trends in Plant Science, vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 368-374, 2008. ...
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Compared to other eukaryotes, RNA metabolism in plant mitochondria is complex and combines bacterial-like traits with novel ... RNA metabolism in plant mitochondria Trends Plant Sci. 2014 Jun;19(6):380-9. doi: 10.1016/j.tplants.2013.12.008. Epub 2014 Jan ... Here we review RNA metabolism in plant mitochondria, from RNA transcription to translation, with a special focus on their ... Compared to other eukaryotes, RNA metabolism in plant mitochondria is complex and combines bacterial-like traits with novel ...
... automated purification of RNA from plant tissue samples. ... The Maxwell RSC Plant RNA Kit is used with the Maxwell RSC ... Automated RNA Extraction from Plant Tissues. *Extracts RNA from a range of plant sample types with no organic reagents ... Maxwell® 16 LEV Plant RNA Kit. RNA extraction from 1-16 plant tissue samples in 60 minutes using the Maxwell® Instrument. ... The Maxwell® RSC Plant RNA Kit is used with the Maxwell® RSC Instruments to provide an easy method for efficient, automated ...
... automated purification of RNA from plant tissue samples. ... The Maxwell 16 LEV Plant RNA Kit is used with the Maxwell 16 ... Maxwell® RSC Plant RNA Kit. Extracts RNA from plant tissue samples using the Maxwell® RSC Instrument. ... RSC Plant RNA Kit and eluted in 50µl. Eluted RNA was quantified using the QuantiFluor® RNA Dye and the Quantus™ Fluorometer. ... RNA Yield and Performance. RNA was extracted from 40mg of plant leaf tissue from the indicated species, eluted in 50µl and ...
Hi there, I have isolated Arabidopsis total RNA using RNeasy Plant Total RNA Kit produced by QIAGEN. It works pretty well, ... RNA isolation from plants. Xiao-Hui Wang xhwang at MIT.EDU Tue Feb 27 18:44:34 EST 1996 *Previous message: How do I initiate a ... Xiaohui Wang ,Has anyone had any experience with commercial kits from rapid isolation of total or poly-A+ Rna from plant tissue ...
The GenElute Plant Genomic DNA Miniprep Kit enables the purification of high-quality genomic DNA from a variety of plant ... Genomic DNA Isolation from Rice (GenElute Plant Genomic DNA Kit). Genomic DNA Isolation from Cotton (GenElute Plant Genomic DNA ... Description: With the GenElute Plant Genomic DNA Miniprep Kit, high quality genomic DNA can be purified from a variety of plant ... Genomic DNA from various plant species isolated with GenElute Plant Genomic DNA Miniprep Kit. ...
Inhibition of gene expression in plant cells by expression of antisense RNA. Joseph R. Ecker and Ronald W. Davis ... Antisense RNA techniques have immediate practical applications in both basic research and in plant genetic engineering. ... Thus, the observation that antisense RNA inhibits gene expression in bacteria and animal systems has been extended to the plant ... Inhibition of gene expression in plant cells by expression of antisense RNA ...
Empirical measurement of RNA secondary structure is an invaluable tool that has provided a more complete understanding of the ... RNA life cycle and functionality of this extremely important molecule. In... ... RNA genomics RNA secondary structure Posttranscriptional regulation Transcriptome Nuclease probing Abbreviations. RBP. RNA ... Li F et al (2012) Regulatory impact of RNA secondary structure across the arabidopsis transcriptome. Plant Cell 24:4346-4359 ...
RNA viral community in human feces: prevalence of plant pathogenic viruses.. Zhang T1, Breitbart M, Lee WH, Run JQ, Wei CL, Soh ... The vast majority of the 36,769 viral sequences obtained were similar to plant pathogenic RNA viruses. The most abundant fecal ... C) RNA viruses were directly detected by RT-PCR from the total RNA of fecal sample 2: PMMV (lane 1), MCMV (lane 2), PBV, ... Many RNA viruses are known to be associated with gastroenteritis; however, the enteric RNA viral community present in healthy ...
Transmission of plant pathogens and the challenges in managing insect vectors due to insecticide resistance are factors that ... RNA interference (RNAi) was recently suggested as a promising strategy for controlling insect pests, including those that serve ... The majority of plant pathogens are disseminated by arthropod vectors such as aphids, beetles, leafhoppers, planthoppers, ... This review will focus on summarizing success cases in which RNAi was used for silencing genes in insect vector for plant ...
Plants use an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDRP) to transcribe the second strand of RNA before Dicer-like cleavage, but it is ... These plant-specific RNA polymerases have non-redundant roles in RNA-mediated gene silencing pathways, specifically in RNA- ... Both plants and ciliates exhibit a case of RNA-mediated epigenetic inheritance, utilizing classes of small RNAs, but the ... Zhang X, Henderson IR, Lu C, Green PJ, Jacobsen SE (2007) Role of RNA polymerase IV in plant small RNA metabolism. Proc Natl ...
Two Pol II-related, plant-specific RNA polymerases, named Pol IV and Pol V, collaborate with proteins of the RNA interference ... RNA-mediated chromatin-based silencing in plants.. Matzke M1, Kanno T, Daxinger L, Huettel B, Matzke AJ. ... As revealed by a variety of genetic, molecular, and genomic technologies, these RNAs are used extensively in plants to direct ... Plants have evolved an elaborate transcriptional machinery dedicated to eliciting sequence-specific, chromatin-based gene ...
Page for Plant small nucleolar RNA R71 at Rfam plant snoRNA database v t e. ... small nucleolar RNA R71 (also known as snoRNA R71) is a non-coding RNA (ncRNA) molecule which functions in the modification of ... It is known as a small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) and also often referred to as a guide RNA. R71 belongs to the C/D box class of ... "Site-specific ribose methylation of preribosomal RNA: a novel function for small nucleolar RNAs". Cell. 85 (7): 1077-88. doi: ...
... of other small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs). It is known as a small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) and also often referred to as a guide RNA ... O-methylation of substrate RNAs. This plant snoRNA was identified in Arabidopsis thaliana by computational screening and ... snoR9 is a non-coding RNA (ncRNA) which functions in the biogenesis (modification) ... Page for Small nucleolar RNA snoR9 at Rfam v t e. ... O-Methylation of Target RNA in Vitro". Molecular and Cellular ...
CANDIDATE RNAS FOR THE MOBILE SILENCING SIGNAL. siRNAs. Small RNAs associated with RNA silencing were discovered in plants ( ... Consistent with the antiviral nature of RNA silencing in plants, many plant viruses have evolved proteins that suppress RNA ... For instance, viroids-plant pathogens with a noncoding RNA genome composed of a circular RNA duplex-move cell to cell and ... American Society of Plant Biologists. INTRODUCTION. RNA silencing is a sequence-specific RNA degradation mechanism that occurs ...
Accumulating evidence reveals that host endogenous small RNAs and small RNA pathway components play important roles in plan... ... Small RNAs regulate a multitude of cellular processes, including development, stress responses, metabolism, and maintenance of ... Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 26:617-625...Jang-Kyun Seo,1 Jianguo Wu,2 Yifan Lii,1 Yi Li,2 and Hailing Jin1...© 2013 ... Accumulating evidence reveals that host endogenous small RNAs and small RNA pathway components play important roles in plant ...
Short interfering RNA (siRNA) can silence genes in neighbouring and distant plant cells. The authors show that transgenes, ... the RNase III Dicer processes long double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into short interfering RNA (siRNA), which, when loaded into ... Movement of long single-stranded RNA, dsRNA, free/AGO-bound secondary siRNA or primary siRNA have all been advocated12-15; ... however, an entity necessary and sufficient for all known manifestations of plant mobile RNAi remains to be ascertained. Here, ...
siRNA Movement in Plant Tissues. Long-distance movement of RNA interference (RNAi)-derived signals in plants plays an important ... In the plant RNA interference (RNAi) pathway, 21-nucleotide duplexes of small interfering RNA (siRNA) are processed from longer ... Small RNA Duplexes Function as Mobile Silencing Signals Between Plant Cells Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page ... Small RNA Duplexes Function as Mobile Silencing Signals Between Plant Cells. By Patrice Dunoyer, Gregory Schott, Christophe ...
... rna fish, rna meaning, rna polymerase, rna primer, rna replication, rna reset, rna sequence, rna sequencing, rna splicing, rna ... structure, rna vaccine, rna vaccine wiki, rna velocity, rna viruses, rna vs dna, rna world, rna-seq, rnac, rnahybrid, rnai, ... rna reset Viral infections in humans and mice with genetic deficiencies of the type I IFN response pathway. March 19, 2021. ... Bayesian approach for analysis of time-to-event data in plant biology. dna templates google slides dna template synthesis dna ...
RNA was isolated from 20 mg freeze-dried budding leaves of A. thaliana using ISOLATE II RNA Plant Kit. The RNA was split into ... the ISOLATE II RNA Plant Kit provides a fast method for the purification of high-quality total RNA from most plant cells, ... The ISOLATE II RNA Plant Kit provides a simple, efficient column-based method for the isolation of total RNA from a wide ... Fast purification of high-quality total RNA from a wide variety of plant tissues, including leaves, bark, roots and fruits. ...
2003) Evidence for nuclear processing of plant micro RNA and short interfering RNA precursors. Plant Physiol 132: 1382-1390. ... 2014) RNA-directed DNA methylation requires stepwise binding of silencing factors to long non-coding RNA. Plant J 79: 181-191. ... 2005) Overexpression of exportin 5 enhances RNA interference mediated by short hairpin RNAs and microRNAs. RNA 11: 220-226. ... RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) is guided to a target RNA, which leads to its cleavage (predominantly in plants; ...
RNA Silencing in Plant and Animal Biotechnology. Add to your list(s) Download to your calendar using vCal ... Eukaryotes - plants and animals - contain small regulatory RNA that have been referred to as the dark matter of genetics. They ... University of Cambridge , , Cambridge Society for the Application of Research (CSAR) , RNA Silencing in Plant and ... These RNAs may also influence evolutionary mechanisms. The discovery of these small regulatory RNAs has opened up new ...
Your Name) has sent you a message from Plant Physiology Message Body (Your Name) thought you would like to see the Plant ... Dynamic N1-Methyladenosine in Plant Messenger RNA Message Subject ( ... Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on Plant Physiology. ... Plant Physiology Aug 2020, 183 (4) 1416-1417; DOI: 10.1104/pp.20.00747 ...
Plant genetic resistance against hemipterans provides a model to explore the regulatory roles of sRNAs in plant defense. Aphid ... Plant genetic resistance against hemipterans provides a model to explore the regulatory roles of sRNAs in plant defense. Aphid ... Plant responses to hemipteran feeding are determined by changes in the host transcriptome that appear to be fine-tuned by sRNAs ... Plant responses to hemipteran feeding are determined by changes in the host transcriptome that appear to be fine-tuned by sRNAs ...
... a dynamic model for RNA-RNA interactions of mRNA termini. RNA 12, 1304-1314. 10.1261/rna.69506 [PubMed] [Cross Ref] ... Dinesh-Kumar S. P., Miller W. A. (1993). Control of start codon choice on a plant viral RNA encoding overlapping genes. Plant ... Miller W. A., White K. A. (2006). Long-distance RNA-RNA interactions in plant virus gene expression and replication. Ann. Rev. ... Nicholson B. L., White K. A. (2014). Functional long-range RNA-RNA interactions in positive-strand RNA viruses. Nat. Rev. ...
In addition, the journal welcomes field review articles of general interest to plant scientists in plant genomics. Although the ... genome technologies and applications of genomic tools in plant breeding. ... International Journal of Plant Genomics is an international, peer-reviewed Open Access journal that publishes novel and ... journal is dedicated to publish the research results in plant genomics, research articles in genomics of animals or other ...
Herein, to investigate the phenotypic and molecular features of SSP deficiency transgenic rice plants suppressing all glutelins ... prolamins and globulin were generated using RNA interference (RNAi). The results revealed that glutelin A, cysteine-rich 13-kDa ... prolamins and globulin were generated using RNA interference (RNAi). The results revealed that glutelin A, cysteine-rich 13-kDa ... Herein, to investigate the phenotypic and molecular features of SSP deficiency transgenic rice plants suppressing all glutelins ...
Small RNA based genetic engineering (SRGE) technology had been explored for crop protection against viruses for nearly thirty ... Small RNA based genetic engineering (SRGE) technology had been explored for crop protection against viruses for nearly thirty ... Small RNAs regulate a large set of gene expression in all plants and constitute a natural immunity against viruses. ... Small RNAs regulate a large set of gene expression in all plants and constitute a natural immunity against viruses. ...
J. Ingram, D. Bartels, THE MOLECULAR BASIS OF DEHYDRATION TOLERANCE IN PLANTS, Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant ... Miguel Angel Freire, Montserrat Pag�s, Functional characteristics of the maize RNA-binding protein MA16, Plant Molecular ... since it possesses a ribonucleoprotein consensus sequence-type RNA-binding domain (CS-RBD). To assess the predicted RNA binding ... RNA binding characteristics of a 16 kDa glycine-rich protein from maize. Authors. *. M. Dolors Ludevid,. * Departmento de ...
  • N. V. Fedoroff, "RNA-binding proteins in plants: the tip of an iceberg? (
  • S. van Nocker and R. D. Vierstra, "Two cDNAs from Arabidopsis thaliana encode putative RNA binding proteins containing glycine-rich domains," Plant Molecular Biology , vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 695-699, 1993. (
  • Regulation of plant innate immunity by three proteins in a complex conserved across the plant and animal kingdoms," Genes and Development , vol. 21, no. 12, pp. 1484-1493, 2007. (
  • These complex RNA processes are regulated by families of nucleus-encoded RNA-binding proteins. (
  • Two Pol II-related, plant-specific RNA polymerases, named Pol IV and Pol V, collaborate with proteins of the RNA interference machinery to generate long and short noncoding RNAs involved in epigenetic regulation. (
  • Consistent with the antiviral nature of RNA silencing in plants, many plant viruses have evolved proteins that suppress RNA silencing (reviewed in Li and Ding, 2001 ). (
  • Small-RNA-mediated defense responses are regulated through diverse pathways and the components of these pathways, including Dicer-like proteins, RNA-dependent RNA polymerases, Argonaute proteins, and RNA polymerase IV and V, exhibit functional specificities as well as redundancy. (
  • In addition, we have cloned genes encoding other proteins which potentially interact with RNA, such as RNA helicases, and strategies involving transgenic plants are being developed to analyse their function. (
  • Messenger RNA (mRNA) is often presented as a copy of the information contained within a gene - an intermediate step in the path to making proteins from DNA. (
  • The ten-eleven translocation (Tet) family of proteins , which are the main enzymes that demethylate 5-mC in DNA, mediate 5-mC demethylation in RNA. (
  • Intercellular communication mediated by transporting different proteins and RNA molecules to distant locations is a normal biological mechanism in certain plant species such as Arabidopsis , wine grapes, cucumbers, and watermelons. (
  • In a new study done in plants, University of Pennsylvania biologists give a global view of the patterns that can affect the various RNA regulatory processes that occur before these molecules move into the cytoplasm, where they are translated into the proteins that make up a living organism. (
  • In a new study done in plants, University of Pennsylvania biologists built on earlier work in which they cataloged all the interactions that occur between RNA and the proteins that bind to it. (
  • Earlier this year in Genome Biology , Gregory's team reported on a method they developed to obtain a complete catalog of the interactions in live organisms between RNA and RNA-binding proteins, or RBPs, which interact with RNA transcripts to repress, enhance or otherwise alter gene expression in a cell-type specific manner. (
  • By focusing specifically on the nucleus we can get away from all of the features on RNA molecules that are associated with the process of translation into proteins, which occurs in the cytoplasm," Gregory said. (
  • Another significant finding was unique patterns of RBP binding and structure present around the start codon of each messenger RNA transcript, which is where a cell's protein-making machinery begins the process of making RNA in proteins. (
  • This is unusual because most proteins use loops and helices to bind double-stranded RNA, for example, see 1di2 , 2zi0 , 2hvy or 2az0 . (
  • The RNA is preferentially purified from other cellular components, such as proteins, without the use of phenol or chloroform. (
  • Genomes from all organisms known to date express two types of RNA molecules: messenger RNAs (mRNAs), which are translated into proteins, and non-messenger RNAs, which function at the RNA level and do not serve as templates for translation. (
  • Their work shows that a tiny tag on RNA molecules-the transcripts that are translated to produce proteins-serves to stabilize and protect these strands of genetic material. (
  • When plants are exposed to high-salt conditions, the RNA mark, known as N6-methyladenosine, or m6A, prevents the breakdown of transcripts encoding proteins that help plants more effectively deal with the challenging conditions. (
  • Can Allprotect Tissue Reagent be used to stabilize RNA, DNA and proteins in cells, bacteria, yeast, and plants? (
  • Allprotect Tissue Reagent is optimized to protect RNA, DNA, and proteins in humans and animal tissues. (
  • Researchers knew that eliminating either one of two proteins-one an mRNA-degrading enzyme called EIN5, and another a protein called ABH1 that binds to and protects mRNA from degradation-caused developmental defects in plants. (
  • Liu, W. 2011-12-23 00:00:00 Most of conventional RNA extraction methods failed to extract highly pure and integral RNA from peanut seeds because peanut seeds are extremely rich in lipids, proteins, polysaccharides, and phenolic compounds. (
  • Replication of RNA viruses is carried out by membrane-bound multisubunit replicase complexes, which consist of virus- and host-coded proteins ( 5 , 6 , 19 ). (
  • The pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins form one of the largest protein families in land plants. (
  • A code describing how PPR proteins recognise their RNA targets promises to accelerate research on these proteins, but making use of this code requires accurate definition and annotation of all of the various nucleotide-binding motifs in each protein. (
  • We have used a structural modelling approach to define 10 different variants of the PPR motif found in plant proteins, in addition to the putative deaminase motif that is found at the C-terminus of many RNA-editing factors. (
  • Accurate prediction of the RNA targets of pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins requires accurate annotation of their RNA-binding motifs. (
  • Here we used structural modelling to define 10 different variants of PPR motifs in plant proteins and used these redefined motifs to develop improved annotations of PPRs from 109 genomes. (
  • These successes involved an entirely different approach from that used to engineer positive-strand RNA viruses, and consisted of transforming cell lines expressing bacteriophage T7 polymerase with transcription plasmids encoding the core nucleocapsid proteins and exact copies of the agRNAs. (
  • RNA trafficking to parasitic plants has been best characterized in these species, particularly may acquire host resources by apoplastic transfer, although this seems to fall short of explaining the ability of to readily absorb macromolecules such as mRNA, proteins, and viruses from their hosts. (
  • Functions for RNA-binding proteins in orchestrating plant development and environmental responses are well established. (
  • However, the lack of a genome-wide view of their in vivo binding targets and binding landscapes represents a gap in understanding the mode of action of plant RNA-binding proteins. (
  • RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) regulate RNA processing steps from synthesis to decay, including pre-mRNA splicing, transport, 3′ end formation, translation, and degradation. (
  • Arabidopsis thaliana harbors 197 proteins with an RNA recognition motif (RRM), the most frequent type of RNA-binding domain [ 1 ]. (
  • To date, global mapping of in vivo RNA-protein interactions is performed by immunopurification of RNA-binding proteins using antibodies against the native protein or an epitope, and cataloguing the associated RNAs by RNA-seq. (
  • To preserve the physiological RNA-protein interactions, RNA and bound proteins are often crosslinked in vivo. (
  • To visualize the intermediates of 45S pre-rRNA processing (Supplemental Fig. After transcription by RNA polymerase I and site-specific modification by small nucleolar ribonucleoproteins, the nascent 35S rRNA, the common precursor of 18S, 5.8S, and 25S rRNAs, is quickly assembled with many assembly factors and ribosomal proteins into small subunit processome/90S preribosomal particles (13 ⇓ -15). (
  • In our recent research work, we have identified and characterized two types of factors involved in RNA editing in plant organelles, PPR type RNA editing factor and MORF (Multiple organellar RNA editing factor) proteins. (
  • Plant Glycine-Rich Proteins in Stress Response: An Emerging, Still Prospective Story. (
  • These proteins also include the conserved RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDRP) domain. (
  • eBioscience, an Affymetrix business, announced the availability of the PrimeFlow RNA Assay, a flow cytometry assay capable of simultaneously detecting RNA and proteins within millions of cells at single-cell resolution. (
  • With the PrimeFlow assay, researchers can now incorporate the simultaneous analysis of RNA transcripts and proteins to elevate their understanding of single-cell dynamics, the company said. (
  • RNA interference (RNAi) was recently suggested as a promising strategy for controlling insect pests, including those that serve as important vectors for plant pathogens. (
  • RNA silencing is a sequence-specific RNA degradation mechanism that occurs in a broad range of eukaryotic organisms including fungi (quelling), animals (RNA interference [RNAi]), and plants (post-transcriptional gene silencing). (
  • Long-distance movement of RNA interference (RNAi)-derived signals in plants plays an important role in development and in defense against viral attack. (
  • In the plant RNA interference (RNAi) pathway, 21-nucleotide duplexes of small interfering RNA (siRNA) are processed from longer double-stranded RNA precursors by the RNaseIII Dicer-like 4 (DCL4). (
  • The "RNA revolution" that started at the end of the 20th century with the discovery of post-transcriptional gene silencing and its mechanism via RNA interference (RNAi) placed tiny 21-24 nucleotide long noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) in the forefront of biology as one of the most important regulatory elements in a host of physiologic processes. (
  • Herein, to investigate the phenotypic and molecular features of SSP deficiency transgenic rice plants suppressing all glutelins, prolamins, and globulin were generated using RNA interference (RNAi). (
  • RNA interference (RNAi) is an incredible revolution in the field of functional genomics, a breakthrough in plant molecular genetics. (
  • fungi, bacteria and viruses using RNA interference technique and host-pathogen related targeted sites. (
  • One function of RNA silencing, which is also called post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) or RNA interference (RNAi), is to act in surveillance against molecular parasites, such as viruses. (
  • Abstract RNA interference (RNAi) and related processes serve as a nucleic‐acid‐mediated surveillance system conserved in almost all eukaryotic organisms. (
  • CRISPR-Cas9 has been harnessed to confer virus interference against DNA viruses in eukaryotes, including plants. (
  • Recently, CRISPR-Cas13a has been shown to confer modest interference against RNA viruses. (
  • Here, we characterized a set of different Cas13 variants to identify those with the most efficient, robust, and specific interference activities against RNA viruses in planta using Nicotiana benthamiana . (
  • Our data show that LwaCas13a, PspCas13b, and CasRx variants mediate high interference activities against RNA viruses in transient assays. (
  • CasRx targets either one virus alone or two RNA viruses simultaneously, with robust interference efficiencies. (
  • Our data establish CasRx as the most robust Cas13 variant for RNA virus interference applications in planta and demonstrate its suitability for studying key questions relating to virus biology. (
  • RNA interference (RNAi), for example, is an innate antiviral immunity mechanism that has been successfully used to combat various plant viruses [ 7 , 8 ]. (
  • RNA interference knockdown of BRASSIN. (
  • RNA interference (RNAi) using the extracellular coding region of a maize zmbril complementary DNA knocked down the expression of all five homologs. (
  • Such interference was observed in isolation of RNA with medicinal plants rheum ( Rheum australe ) and arnebia ( Arnebia euchroma ). (
  • RNA interference (RNAi) has rapidly advanced to become a powerful genetic tool and holds promise to revolutionizing agriculture by providing a strategy for controlling a wide array of crop pests. (
  • Transgenic potato plants were generated in which the CAROTENOID CLEAVAGE DIOXYGENASE8 ( CCD8 ) gene, key in the SL biosynthetic pathway, was silenced by RNA interference (RNAi). (
  • The vaccine triggers a process called RNA interference, which prevents invading RNA strands from carrying out their functions, thus causing the pest to die. (
  • U. Ellendorff, E. F. Fradin, R. De Jonge, and B. P. H. J. Thomma, "RNA silencing is required for Arabidopsis defence against Verticillium wilt disease," Journal of Experimental Botany , vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 591-602, 2009. (
  • J. Glazebrook, "Genes controlling expression of defense responses in Arabidopsis -2001 status," Current Opinion in Plant Biology , vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 301-308, 2001. (
  • A putative RNA-binding protein positively regulates salicylic acid-mediated immunity in Arabidopsis ," Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions , vol. 23, no. 12, pp. 1573-1583, 2010. (
  • Z. Xie, E. Allen, A. Wilken, and J. C. Carrington, "DICER-LIKE 4 functions in trans-acting small interfering RNA biogenesis and vegetative phase change in Arabidopsis thaliana ," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , vol. 102, no. 36, pp. 12984-12989, 2005. (
  • Hi there, I have isolated Arabidopsis total RNA using 'RNeasy Plant Total RNA Kit' produced by QIAGEN. (
  • In this review, we summarize the recent insights revealed mainly through the examination of two model plants, Arabidopsis and rice, with a primary focus on our emerging understanding of how these small RNA pathway components contribute to plant immunity. (
  • Bologna, N. G. & Voinnet, O. The diversity, biogenesis, and activities of endogenous silencing small RNAs in Arabidopsis . (
  • p. 912 , published online 22 April) now show that in Arabidopsis , both exogenous and endogenous small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), rather than their long double-stranded precursor RNAs, are the molecules that transfer information between plant cells. (
  • Arabidopsis AGO4 binds 24-nt siRNAs, which are most likely generated in the nucleus by DCL3 in the RNA polymerase IV (RNAPIV) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 2 (RDR2)-dependent pathway (for review, see Wendte and Pikaard, 2017 ). (
  • The discovery and characterization of the archetypical RNA demethylase in A. thaliana sheds light on the occurrence and functional role(s) of reversible mRNA methylation in plants, and defines the role of m6A RNA modification in Arabidopsis floral transition. (
  • In the current work, they used the commonly studied plant Arabidopsis thaliana to map out all of the RBP interaction sites as well as compile a full look at the secondary structure of the RNA transcripts. (
  • A lariat-derived circular RNA is required for plant development in Arabidopsis. (
  • Arabidopsis noncoding RNA modulates seedling greening during deetiolation. (
  • We have generated a specialized cDNA library from Arabidopsis thaliana to investigate the population of small non-messenger RNAs (snmRNAs) sized 50-500 nt in a plant. (
  • In the model plant Arabidopsis, miRNA are predicted to play a role in the degradation cell wall biosynthesis genes. (
  • Analyzing leaves from mature Arabidopsis, the researchers globally identified m 6 A in normal plants as well as in those in which the enzyme that adds m6A had been eliminated, thus experimentally depleting them of the mark. (
  • Total RNA was isolated from 100 mg of Arabidopsis thaliana leaf tissue according to manufacturer's recommended protocols. (
  • Ecker and colleagues tinkered with factors that process mRNAs in the mustard weed Arabidopsis thaliana and observed affects on short, or small RNAs. (
  • New generation of artificial MicroRNA and synthetic trans-acting small interfering RNA vectors for efficient gene silencing in Arabidopsis . (
  • Multiple, nearly identical copies of this snoRNA have been identified in the Arabidopsis thaliana genome and it is thought to function as a 2'-O-ribose methylation guide for 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA). (
  • This plant snoRNA was identified in Arabidopsis thaliana by computational screening and experimentally verified by primer extension analysis. (
  • Here, we adapt individual nucleotide resolution crosslinking and immunoprecipitation (iCLIP) genome-wide to determine the binding repertoire of the circadian clock-regulated Arabidopsis thaliana glycine-rich RNA-binding protein At GRP7. (
  • In a first RIP-seq analysis in Arabidopsis , more than 4000 targets of the serine/arginine rich (SR)-like protein SR45 were identified by RNA immunoprecipitation, followed by high-throughput sequencing [ 5 ]. (
  • Cellular total RNA was isolated from Arabidopsis thalianan (leaves) using the InviTrap Spin Plant RNA Mini Kit. (
  • Additionally, the ISOLATE II RNA Plant Kit can be used to purify samples prior to RT-PCR amplification using the Tetro cDNA Synthesis Kit and any enzyme from the Bioline PCR portfolio, including MyTaq DNA Polymerase. (
  • Such a high mutation rate is attributed to the lack of repair function of the RNA polymerase of these viruses, the short replication times, and the large populations in infected hosts ( 7 ). (
  • Most viruses infecting plants are RNA viruses, which comprise diverse groups and subgroups that are classified based on phylogenetic relationships determined by sequence homologies among the conserved virus genes, such as RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), coat protein (CP), and movement protein (MP) [ 4 ]. (
  • our results indicate that the deletion of Dicer-like genes and an RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase gene increases the transcriptional regulation of this subset of genes, including one involved in virulence. (
  • In vitro assays revealed that the recombinant p88 has an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) activity and can also bind to RNA. (
  • The catalytic subunit of the viral replicase complexes is a virus-coded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). (
  • In plants, miRNA derives from primary miRNA transcript (pri-miRNA), which is transcribed by RNA polymerase II. (
  • Unlike miRNAs, endogenous siRNAs arise from loci, in which double-stranded RNAs are able to be formed by the action of RNA-dependent polymerase or by two convergent transcripts. (
  • Isolated RNA was amenable to downstream applications such as reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), differential display (DD), suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) library construction, and northern hybridization. (
  • However, it is known that SA increases expression of a gene called RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1 ( RDR1 ). (
  • RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity associated with the yeast viral p91/20S RNA ribonucleoprotein complex. (
  • RNA viral community in human feces: prevalence of plant pathogenic viruses. (
  • however, the enteric RNA viral community present in healthy humans has not been described. (
  • For this study, uncultured viruses were concentrated by tangential flow filtration, and viral RNA was extracted and cloned into shotgun viral cDNA libraries for sequencing analysis. (
  • The vast majority of the 36,769 viral sequences obtained were similar to plant pathogenic RNA viruses. (
  • The mechanisms involved in systemic RNA silencing in plant systems are being actively investigated using grafting and transient expression approaches ( Figure 1 ) in conjunction with a variety of plant viral suppressors of silencing that act at different steps in the silencing pathway. (
  • In addition to causing direct damage to the host plant, hemipteran insects are often vectors of viral pathogens. (
  • Here, we review the tools utilized by positive-sense single-stranded (+ss) RNA plant viruses to initiate non-canonical translation, focusing on cis -acting sequences present in viral mRNAs. (
  • 2013 ), and in fact the host range of a given virus may be determined by its ability to efficiently translate viral mRNAs using host translation factors, as we have shown recently for a plant virus (Truniger et al. (
  • Plant viruses impose serious threats to wide range of crops in modern agriculture and it is estimated that economic loss caused by viral pathogen ranks the second compared to those caused by other pathogens ( Simon-Mateo and Garcia, 2011 ). (
  • Plant viral disease significantly reduces crop quality and yield. (
  • In one such evasion strategy, the plant viral protein p19 suppresses a plant's anti-viral RNA silencing response. (
  • The cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) 2b protein not only inhibits anti-viral RNA silencing but also quenches transcriptional responses of plant genes to jasmonic acid, a key signalling molecule in defence against insects. (
  • The great variety of genome organizations means that most plant positive strand viral RNAs differ from the standard 5'-cap/3'-poly(A) structure of eukaryotic mRNAs. (
  • Here, we characterized a pro-viral role of CCR4 in replication of a plant cytorhabdovirus , Barley yellow striate mosaic virus (BYSMV). (
  • Biochemistry experiments revealed that HvCCR4 was recruited into N-RNA complexes by the BYSMV P protein and triggered turnover of N-bound cellular mRNAs, thereby releasing RNA-free N protein to bind viral genomic RNA for optimal viral replication. (
  • Investigators already knew that plants defend themselves against invading pathogens like viruses by generating short RNAs that recognize and silence foreign viral RNA. (
  • Both hpRNA and dsRNA can serve as substrates of DCL(s) (green crescent) to produce viral siRNAs (bottom of A). VSRs ('prohibited' sign) disrupt the DCL‐processing step by either binding to unprocessed dsRNA or hairpin RNA (TCV P38), or interact with DCLs/DRBs (light blue ball) (CaMV P6). (
  • Viral siRNAs produced can target viral RNA for degradation or viral DNA for methylation (brown flag). (
  • Heterologous viral and artificial promoters are recognized poorly by the recombinant and the plant TCV RdRps. (
  • Therefore, the minimal infectious units of NSR viruses are the viral NCs and generating infectious NCs for reverse genetic studies initially was a major challenge due to difficulties in in vivo reconstitution of functional NCs containing recombinant RNAs. (
  • Delivery can be oral - worms and insects, viral infections, viruses - or through a vascular connections - parasitic plants, while delivery to target cells is by cell to cell systemic movement of the silencing signal. (
  • High virulence does not necessarily impede viral adaptation to a new host: a case study using a plant RNA virus. (
  • The RDR1 gene encodes an enzyme that is thought to help degrade viral RNA genomes through an important process called RNA silencing. (
  • In Panel B, longer sections of RDR1-expressing plants are shown and illustrate that a combination of SA treatment and RDR1 expression increases the protection of the meristem region from viral invasion. (
  • With the GenElute Plant Genomic DNA Miniprep Kit, high quality genomic DNA can be purified from a variety of plant species ( Table 1 , Figure 1 , and Figure 2 ). (
  • The kit contains all the reagents, columns and tubes necessary to isolate genomic DNA from up to 100 mg of fresh or 20 mg of freeze-dried plant tissue. (
  • Genomic DNA from various plant species isolated with GenElute Plant Genomic DNA Miniprep Kit. (
  • Genomic DNA from soybean leaves was purified using the GenElute™ Plant Genomic DNA Miniprep Kit. (
  • The prep time required using the GenElute Plant Genomic DNA Miniprep Kit compared to that of three kits from other suppliers. (
  • It has been shown that small RNAs (sRNAs) are involved in the epigenetic transmission of information from parental nuclei to the developing macronucleus, leading to large-scale genomic rearrangements, altered chromatin states and ultimately the complete removal of specific DNA sequences. (
  • As revealed by a variety of genetic, molecular, and genomic technologies, these RNAs are used extensively in plants to direct the establishment, spread, and removal of DNA cytosine methylation throughout their genomes. (
  • The presence of high molecular weight double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) within plant cells is an indicator of infection with RNA viruses as these possess genomic or replicative dsRNA. (
  • One genomic RNA and five subgenomic (sg) RNAs representing the p65/p6.4, p64, p24, p22, and p21 ORFs were identified. (
  • Hybridization with 5′- and 3′-end probes indicated that preparations of BYV particles contained the genomic RNA as well as two additional RNA molecules corresponding in size to the coat protein (CP) sgRNA and an unidentified RNA. (
  • Accumulation of genomic plus-strand RNA was evident as early as 15 h postinoculation. (
  • This kit provides for rapid spin column isolation and purification of total RNA and genomic DNA simultaneously from a single plant sample without splitting the lyate. (
  • The total RNA and genomic DNA are both column purified in under 30 minutes. (
  • It is often necessary to isolate total RNA and genomic DNA from a single plant sample, such as for studies of gene expression, mutant or transgenic plant characterization, and host plant-pathogen characterization. (
  • Ecker, a professor in the Plant Biology Laboratory and director of the Salk Institute Genomic Analysis Laboratory, started by posing a simple genetic question. (
  • TCV RNA contains five open reading frames, of which two are expressed from the genomic RNAs (shown by shaded boxes) and three (shown by black boxes) are expressed from two subgenomic RNAs. (
  • Unlike positive-strand RNA viruses, whose genomic RNAs (gRNAs) are infectious upon introduction into permissive host cells, neither the naked gRNAs nor the antigenomic RNAs (agRNAs) of NSR viruses are able to initiate infection process when present alone. (
  • Comparative sequence analysis of genomic and complementary DNA clones from several mitochondrial genes in the higher plant Oenothera revealed nucleotide sequence divergences between the genomic and the messenger RNA-derived sequences. (
  • This review will focus on summarizing success cases in which RNAi was used for silencing genes in insect vector for plant pathogens, and will be particularly helpful for vector biologists. (
  • however, an entity necessary and sufficient for all known manifestations of plant mobile RNAi remains to be ascertained. (
  • RNAi is not cell-autonomous in higher plants, but the nature of the mobile nucleic acid(s) signal remains unknown. (
  • Using cell-specific rescue of DCL4 function and cell-specific inhibition of RNAi movement, we genetically establish that exogenous and endogenous siRNAs, as opposed to their precursor molecules, act as mobile silencing signals between plant cells. (
  • Like RNAi, this phenomenon, initially called short temporary RNA (stRNA), was at first regarded as a one-off curiosity but, again like RNAi, persistence paid off with the explosive validation of the microRNA (miRNA) [ 9 - 12 ]. (
  • Over the past several years RNAi has become a powerful tool for understanding the role played by dozens of plant and animal genes in a wide range of cellular processes, both normal and pathogenic [ 14 ]. (
  • It is therapeutic in approach as the resistance induced by RNAi is triggered by ds RNA that results in silencing of specific genes before being translated in a homology dependent manner. (
  • Over the time, RNAi is significantly proving it as one of the most promiscent management strategy which eliminates certain risks associated with the development of transgenic plants. (
  • The synthetic R N A substrate mimics the 21-nt double-stranded siRNAs that occur in the double-strand RNA-induced RNAi silencing pathway. (
  • One of the major roles of RNAi in plants and invertebrates is antiviral defense. (
  • Research activities focusing on the relationship between plant viruses and RNAi have been essential to our current understanding of RNAi mechanisms. (
  • zmbriI-RNAi plants showed dwarf stature due to shortened internodes, with upper internodes most strongly affected. (
  • Leaves of zmbriI-RNAi plants are dark green, upright, and twisted, with decreased auricle formation. (
  • In general, host derived pest resistance through RNAi is achieved by genetically transforming host plants with double stranded RNA constructs targeted at essential parasite genes leading to generation of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). (
  • The resulting CCD8 -RNAi potato plants showed significantly more lateral and main branches than control plants, reduced stolon formation, together with a dwarfing phenotype and a lack of flowering in the most severely affected lines. (
  • RNA molecules can also be processed by the covalent addition of chemical modifications to RNA bases. (
  • This time, they looked exclusively at these interactions in the nuclei, and simultaneously obtained data about the nuclear RNA molecules' structure. (
  • RNA silencing is a gene inactivation system in many eukaryotes that relies on tiny RNAs as the targeting molecules. (
  • Although the role of plant circRNAs during the biotic and abiotic stresses is still poorly characterised, these molecules have the potential to expand the number of targets and tools in the biotechnology field. (
  • Sanger HL, Klotz G, Riesner D et al (1976) Viroids are single-stranded covalently closed circular RNA molecules existing as highly base-paired rod-like structures. (
  • Cocquerelle C, Mascrez B, Hétuin D et al (1993) Mis-splicing yields circular RNA molecules. (
  • La Jolla, CA - Now that high school biology students can recite that genes are made of DNA, which is transcribed into messenger RNA (mRNA), which is then translated into protein, along comes a new class of molecules, sending students-and many scientists-scrambling for updated textbooks. (
  • On the other hand, type VI CRISPR/Cas systems are distinct in that they exclusively target RNA molecules [ 10 , 11 ]. (
  • Small RNAs are a group of regulatory molecules that fall into two major classes, microRNAs (miRNAs) and short interfering RNAs (siRNAs). (
  • These and other data suggest that these RNA-2 molecules with physicochemical properties similar to viroids found in particles of some sobemoviruses are satellite RNA species whose multiplication is assisted by some, but not all, of the viruses in this group. (
  • RNA molecules in the vaccine do not negatively affect the host plant. (
  • Here, we present a comparative metagenomic analysis of the RNA viruses found in three fecal samples from two healthy human individuals. (
  • Intriguingly, the fecal PMMV was infectious to host plants, suggesting that humans might act as a vehicle for the dissemination of certain plant viruses. (
  • Accumulating evidence reveals that host endogenous small RNAs and small RNA pathway components play important roles in plant immune responses against various pathogens, including bacteria, fungi, oomycetes, and viruses. (
  • common to both plants and animals, control endogenous gene expression in response to external stimuli and protect the host from invasive viruses. (
  • We also describe other translation strategies used by plant viruses to optimize the usage of the coding capacity of their very compact genomes, including leaky scanning initiation, ribosomal frameshifting and stop-codon readthrough. (
  • Small RNAs regulate a large set of gene expression in all plants and constitute a natural immunity against viruses. (
  • Small RNA based genetic engineering (SRGE) technology had been explored for crop protection against viruses for nearly 30 years. (
  • Due to their devastating threat to crop production, plant viruses has been studied extensively since the first virus, TMV, was discovered. (
  • Our results suggest that a combination of DECS analysis and NGS, designated here as "DECS-C," is a powerful method for detecting novel plant viruses. (
  • Double-stranded RNA triggers the RNA silencing pathway and most plant viruses use a double-stranded RNA to replicate their genome. (
  • Various plant viruses have developed evasion techniques to circumvent this surveillance system. (
  • Finally, future directions for research on the translation of plant positive strand viruses are discussed. (
  • The rate of evolution of an RNA plant virus has never been estimated using temporally spaced sequence data, by contrast to the information available on an increasing range of animal viruses. (
  • The overall and synonymous evolution rates of RYMV were within the range of the rates of 50 RNA animal viruses, below the average but above the distribution median. (
  • The results show that an RNA plant virus such as RYMV evolves as rapidly as most RNA animal viruses. (
  • Knowledge of the molecular clock of plant viruses provides methods for testing a wide range of biological hypotheses. (
  • The mutation rates of RNA viruses (i.e., the number of nucleotide misincorporations per site and per round of replication) are 10 4 to 10 5 times higher than those of their DNA hosts ( 8 , 9 ). (
  • A high mutation rate often results in rapid evolution of RNA animal viruses. (
  • A large variation in the evolution rates of RNA animal viruses was subsequently found and was attributed mostly to differences in replication rates ( 24 , 26 ). (
  • Interestingly, some RNA viruses change little or not at all over time. (
  • Our study shows that the way plants regulate RNAs produced in viruses is also probably the way they regulate their own genes," said Ecker. (
  • a) For single‐stranded (ss) RNA viruses, partially double‐stranded hpRNA is frequently detected, which often plays important regulative roles in genome replication, transcription, translation, or assembly. (
  • Hence, VSRs encoded by these viruses were shown to suppress both RNA degradation and DNA methylation (AC2 of begomoviruses). (
  • In addition, CRISPR-Cas13 systems have been used to target RNA viruses and the transcriptome in mammalian and plant cells. (
  • Plant viruses are obligate parasites that rely mostly on host cells to complete their life (infection) cycle. (
  • Therefore, plant viruses threaten world agriculture and the food security of the rapidly growing world population. (
  • Viruses with positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genomes represent most of these viruses. (
  • Biochemical features of RdRps for several positive-strand RNA viruses, including poliovirus ( 3 ), flaviviruses ( 12 , 18 , 22 , 23 , 45 ), plant potyviruses ( 16 ), and potexviruses ( 21 ) have been examined in some detail by using purified preparations obtained from heterologous expression systems. (
  • Although plant negative-strand RNA (NSR) viruses consist of members in the Rhabdoviridae, Bunyaviridae, Ophioviridae families and several unassigned genera that collectively account for many economically important crop diseases, unfortunately, several technical difficulties have hindered application of genetic engineering to these groups of viruses. (
  • This study describes the first reverse genetics system developed for plant NSR viruses. (
  • Moreover, our findings provide a template for reverse genetics studies with other plant rhabdoviruses, and a strategy to circumvent technical difficulties that have hampered these applications to plant NSR viruses. (
  • Negative-strand RNA (NSR) viruses have major impacts on public health, agriculture and ecology, and they collectively are responsible for some of our most serious human, veterinary, wildlife and plant diseases [ 1 ]. (
  • Plant NSR viruses comprise members of the Rhabdoviridae , Bunyaviridae , Ophioviridae families, and of the unassigned Emaravirus , Tenuivirus , Varicosavirus and Dichorhavirus genera and account for many economically important crop diseases [ 1 - 3 ]. (
  • Most members of the plant NSR viruses are transmitted by specific arthropods (aphids, leafhoppers, thrips or mites) in which they also replicate, and many of these viruses share similarities in particle morphology, genome organization and fundemental replication strategies to their animal/human-infecting counterparts within the same families [ 3 - 7 ]. (
  • In addition to the unbiased detection of various viruses from wild plants in natural environments, RNA-Seq also allows for the parallel collection of host plant transcriptome data. (
  • EN] Populations of plant RNA viruses are highly polymorphic in infected plants, which may allow rapid within-host evolution. (
  • The possible interaction of the RNA-2 species from LTSV and SNMV with the genomes of other plant viruses was tested by mixing the RNA-2 species with nucleic acid from 11 other viruses. (
  • A lot is known about how SA helps plants to defeat invasion by bacteria and fungi but how this vital defence signal protects plants from infection by viruses remains much more mysterious. (
  • In contrast to the genome organization of these plant viruses, no ORF is present at the 3′ end of the DaRV genome that encodes a coat protein. (
  • In this review, we focus on the application of RNA silencing to produce plants that are resistant to plant viruses such as RNA and DNA viruses, viroids, insects, and the recent expansion to fungal pathogens. (
  • article{6951401, abstract = {Brassinosteroids (BRs) are plant hormones involved in various growth and developmental processes. (
  • Abstract To reduce the losses caused by plant pathogens, plant biologists have adopted numerous methods to engineer resistant plants. (
  • type proteasome subunit and a transformer-2-like SR-related protein: early induction of the corresponding genes in tobacco cells treated with cryptogein," Plant Molecular Biology , vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 261-269, 1997. (
  • Transcription of antisense RNA was found to effectively block the expression of target genes. (
  • Similarly, the world of miRNAs has grown from the two original nematode "genes" to now number more than one thousand loci in plants and animals and their role in regulating cellular processes has expanded to a point where virtually all normal and pathogenic cellular processes are affected at some point by one or more of these tiny entities. (
  • Plants coordinate their growth and development through complex regulatory networks involving changes in the expression of thousands of genes. (
  • Reports have demonstrated that there are over 12,000 sites of m6A methylation in RNA in the human transcriptome , including m6A methylation in more than 7,000 different protein-coding genes. (
  • Darbani B, Noeparvar S, Borg S (2016) Identification of circular RNAs from the parental genes involved in multiple aspects of cellular metabolism in Barley. (
  • The researchers had hints that m6A labeling might be involved in stress response , judging from the affected genes between the normal and mutant plants . (
  • There are genes expressed in tumor cells that protect them from being killed by chemotherapy - we might be able to use small RNAs to antagonize the effect of these genes in cancer cells. (
  • About 90 sites of RNA editing were found in the transcripts of 14 genes in the chloroplasts from Pteridium. (
  • Publications] M.Kapoor: 'Organization of chloroplast ribosomal RNA genes and in vitro self-splicing activity of the large subunit rRNA intron from the green alga Chlorella'Curr. (
  • Among plant cell wall modifying genes, increased transcript levels of several expansin and xyloglucan endo-transglycosylase/hydrolase genes were also found in high WBD plants. (
  • Interestingly, strong transcript levels of several cytoskeleton genes encoding tubulin, actin and myosin were observed in high WBD plants. (
  • Furthermore, we also found elevated transcript levels of genes encoding NAC, MYB, basic helix-loop-helix, homeodomain, WRKY and LIM transcription factors in the high WBD plants. (
  • All these results indicate that the high WBD in plants has been associated with the increased transcription of many genes related to lignocellulose formation. (
  • Most lignocellulose biosynthesis related genes exhibited a tendency to transcribe at relatively higher level in high WBD plants. (
  • They play important regulatory roles in plants and animals by regulating transcription, stability and/or translation of target genes in a sequence-complementary dependent manner. (
  • Our research work involved cloning of relevant genes from medicinal plants, rheum ( Rheum australe ) and arnebia ( Arnebia euchroma ), which are rich in secondary metabolites anthraquinones and alkannins/shikonins, respectively. (
  • Splicing-related genes are alternatively spliced upon changes in ambient temperatures in plants. (
  • Turnip crinkle virus genes required for RNA replication and virus movement. (
  • The discovery of new classes of ncRNAs including endogenous small interfering RNAs, microRNAs, and PIWI-interacting RNAs is a hallmark in the understanding of RNA-dependent gene regulation. (
  • MicroRNAs from common plant crops such as rice and cabbage can be found in the blood and tissues of humans and other plant-eating mammals, according to a study published today in Cell Research. (
  • MicroRNAs are, as the name implies, very short RNA sequences (approximately 22 nucleotides in length) discovered in the early 1990s. (
  • To test his hypothesis, Zhang and his team of researchers sequenced the blood microRNAs of 31 healthy Chinese subjects and searched for the presence of plant microRNAs. (
  • Because plant microRNAs are structurally different from those of mammals, they react differently to oxidizing agents, and the researchers were able to differentiate the two by treating them with sodium periodate, which oxidizes mammal but not plant microRNAs. (
  • The plant microRNAs with the highest concentrations were MIR156a and MIR168a, both of which are known to be enriched in rice and cruciferous vegetables such as cauliflower, cabbage, and broccoli. (
  • His research led to the discovery of microRNAs, a special type of silencing RNAs, in Chlamydomonas , which were previously only known to associate with multicellular organisms. (
  • Although they don't fit neatly into the DNA-to-mRNA-to-protein progression, small RNAs or microRNAs are the next big thing in both plant and animal molecular biology. (
  • This surveillance system detects various forms of double‐stranded RNA (dsRNA) in cells and initiates a cascade of events that degrades dsRNAs into small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) or microRNAs (miRNAs). (
  • Endogenous small RNAs (sRNAs), including small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) are critical components of gene regulation in many eukaryotic organisms. (
  • MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are two major classes of small RNAs. (
  • Small RNAs, such as microRNAs (miRNAs), regulate gene expression and play important roles in many plant processes. (
  • MicroRNAs are a class of _21-22 nucleotide small RNAs which are excised from a stable hairpin-like secondary structure. (
  • The mechanism for RNA silencing involves an initial processing of the inducing dsRNA into small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) of 21 to 25 nucleotides, corresponding to both sense and antisense strands of the target gene ( Hamilton and Baulcombe, 1999 ). (
  • Furthermore, siRNA-processing enzymes were required in the source, and not the recipient, cells for spreading, and bombardment of plants with double-stranded siRNAs directly showed siRNA spread between cells. (
  • Single-stranded siRNAs then guide Argonaute 1 (AGO1) to execute posttranscriptional silencing of complementary target RNAs. (
  • In addition, the universe of small RNAs has expanded to include not only miRNAs but new classes including endogenous small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), 21U RNAs, and Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) [ 17 ]. (
  • In the next step, siRNAs are directed to homologous ssRNA, programming the cleavage or translational repression of these RNA through AGOs (purple wedged ball). (
  • Over 4,000 miRNAs and several classes of siRNAs have been identified in plants, but in tobacco only computational prediction has been performed and no tobacco-specific miRNA has been experimentally identified. (
  • In addition to confirmation of expression of 27 known miRNA families, we identified 59 novel tobacco-specific miRNA members of 38 families and a large number of loci generating phased 21- or 24-nt small RNAs (including ta-siRNAs). (
  • ta-siRNAs are 21-nt phased small RNAs and function like miRNAs. (
  • Here, we present a sensitive method for insitu detection of miRNAs and siRNAs in intact plant tissues that utilizes both double-labeled probes and a specific cross-linker. (
  • The most common internal modification to mRNAs is the methylation of adenosines at the N 6 position, often referred to as m 6 A. The process by which RNA is methylated appears to be conserved in plants and animals. (
  • How are plant mRNAs modified? (
  • Thousands of different mRNAs have been shown to be transported across graft junctions to specific regions in plants as a way to respond to the environment and react to stressful conditions. (
  • In plant organelles, specific messenger RNAs (mRNAs) are subjected to conversion editing, a process that often converts the first or second nucleotide of a codon and hence of the encoded amino acid. (
  • In recent years, both mammalian and plant biologists have been paying attention to the m6A mark as a player in the process by which mRNAs are targeted to either keep around or destroy. (
  • Aided by revolutionary "deep-sequencing" technology, which detects rare RNAs at high resolution, the investigators combed through the collection of all small RNAs - known as the "smRNAome" - and found that ein5/abh1 double mutant plants ramped up small RNA levels just enough to reveal something not seen before: the mutant plant cells were churning out small RNAs made from some of their own protein-coding mRNAs. (
  • Furthermore, the evolutionary distance between and most of its hosts means that the majority of mRNAs synthesized in a host have sequences that are divergent from those of connections to hosts approximate normal cell-to-cell connections within plants, can serve as an exceptionally wide heterograft to facilitate studies of mobile RNA. (
  • By combining the stringency of guanidinium thiocyanate lysis with the speed and ease-of-use of silica-membrane purification, the ISOLATE II RNA Plant Kit provides a fast method for the purification of high-quality total RNA from most plant cells, including plant tissues, leaves, bark, roots and fruits. (
  • Some plant tissues such as maize endosperm and the mycelia of filamentous fungi do not lyse well in guanidinium thiocyanate and can solidify, resulting in poor yields and so guanidinium hydrochloride lysis buffer is also provided as an alternative. (
  • This is essentially a question about RNA stability in in-tact plant tissues. (
  • RNA mobility in plants, which involves the transport of RNA molecule to different plant tissues, is a phenomenon that has been known to exist for years. (
  • The presence of peculiar metabolites in a variety of plant tissues or fungi, however, may lead to solidification of the lysate, resulting in a non-processible slurry. (
  • In his second project in the Baulcombe lab, he demonstrated that systemic silencing is mediated by mobile small RNAs, and provided the first evidence in any organism that mobile small RNAs direct epigenetic changes in distant tissues. (
  • Total RNA can be purified from fresh or frozen plant tissues, plant cells or filamentous fungi samples using this kit. (
  • For total RNA isolation from 50-500 mg of any type of plant and animal tissues or cultured cells. (
  • However, Allprotect can also be used with plant tissues. (
  • Today, RNA-seq data is available for a wide range of organisms, tissues and environmental conditions, and can be utilized for genome annotation pipelines. (
  • Transcriptomic analysis of two groups of five plants each with high (570-609 kg/m 3 ) or low (378-409 kg/m 3 ) WBD was carried out by RNA-Seq analysis with total RNAs extracted from developing xylem tissues at a breast height. (
  • Their function is to provide mechanical strength to these cell types, which serve as mechanical tissues that facilitate growth of vascular plants to great heights. (
  • We determined the expression patterns of several small RNAs in diverse plant tissues. (
  • Here, we present a quick insitu hybridization protocol for non-sectioned plant tissues, allowing semi-quantitative detection of small RNAs. (
  • The present manuscript describes a rapid protocol for isolation of RNA, which works well with all the tissues examined so far. (
  • The remarkable feature was the success in isolation of RNA with those tissues, wherein the most commonly used methods failed. (
  • Denaturing gel electrophoresis of RNA isolated from leaf tissues of rheum (A), and arnebia (B) using different RNA isolation methods viz. (
  • Determining the activated defense responses in potato stems is key in deciphering potential control approaches against pectobacteria as these soft rot pathogens colonize vascular tissues during infection of plants. (
  • In chapter 3, a bioinformatics analysis using strand-specific RNA sequencing allowed the identification of 1113 potato long intergenic noncoding RNA (lincRNAs) from stem tissues. (
  • The sequence of the encoded 16 kDa protein (MA 16) predicts that it is an RNA-binding protein, since it possesses a ribonucleoprotein consensus sequence-type RNA-binding domain (CS-RBD). (
  • To assess the predicted RNA binding property of the protein and as a starting point to characterize its function we have used ribohomopolymer-binding assays. (
  • Here we show that the MA16-encoded protein binds preferentially to uridine- and guanosine-rich RNAs. (
  • In light of these results a likely role for this protein in RNA metabolism during late embryogenesis and in the stress response is discussed. (
  • The FT protein is also a component of the flowering signal in rice and tomato plants. (
  • The researchers exploited this by creating genetically engineered PVX constructs and introduced them into Nicotiana benthamiana , a close relative of the tobacco plant, which was also engineered to express green fluorescent protein (GFP). (
  • Homology searching with the RIP protein led to the discovery of ORRM1, a hybrid protein which possesses a RIP-like domain at its N terminus and an RNA Recognition Motif (RRM) domain at its C terminus. (
  • dsRNAs were isolated from BSSV-infected blueberry plants using the dsRNA-binding protein, reverse-transcribed, amplified, and sequenced using NGS. (
  • We aim to address the function of the UsnRNP-specific protein, U2B", via the production of transgenic plants expressing antisense U2B" transcripts and epitope-tagged U2B" protein. (
  • The protein Aly/REF associates with 5-mC in RNA and therefore appears to "read" this epigenetic modification. (
  • includes both protein and RNA in the complex. (
  • Norgen Biotek is an innovative biotechnology company providing RNA, DNA and protein purification kits of exceptional quality, ease-of-use and sensitivity. (
  • Norgen Biotek Corp. is dedicated to providing our customers with first class sample preparation kits for RNA, microRNA, DNA and protein purification, clean-up and concentration and to provide dedicated and expert support services to our customers and partners worldwide. (
  • Small RNA sequencing of Potato leafroll virus-infected plants reveals an additional subgenomic RNA encoding a sequence-specific RNA-binding protein, 438(2), 61-69. (
  • For an organism to produce any protein, it must first possess the corresponding strand of messenger RNA (mRNA). (
  • Discovered a decade ago, numerous studies show that small RNAs put the brakes on the mRNA-to-protein step, by latching onto mRNA and blocking its translation into protein or causing its destruction, a phenomenon called RNA silencing. (
  • The target of the antisense RNA is the rare messenger RNA of the Rep protein, encoded by the C1 gene. (
  • We have established iCLIP for plants to identify target transcripts of the RNA-binding protein At GRP7. (
  • For CLIP, adapters are attached to both the 5′ and 3′ ends of the RNAs co-precipitating with the protein of interest. (
  • Adaptation of iCLIP to plants determines the binding landscape of the clock-regulated RNA-binding protein AtGRP7", Genome Biology , vol. 18, 2017, : 204. (
  • The plants were infected with tobacco mosaic virus engineered to express the green fluorescent protein (TMV-GFP). (
  • 1 Department of Plant Pathology & Microbiology, Center for Plant Cell Biology, Institute for Integrative Genome Biology, University of California, Riverside, California 92521-0122, U.S.A. (
  • Small RNAs regulate a multitude of cellular processes, including development, stress responses, metabolism, and maintenance of genome integrity, in a sequence-specific manner. (
  • In this paper, we present a description of existing small RNA cloning methods as well as next-generation sequencing methods that have accelerated this research along with a description of the application of one in vitro cloning method in an initial small RNA survey in the "still unsequenced" allotetraploid cotton genome. (
  • Zhao W, Cheng Y, Zhang C et al (2017) Genome-wide identification and characterization of circular RNAs by high throughput sequencing in soybean. (
  • These RNAs were classified based on their location on the A. thaliana genome. (
  • These small RNAs in turn serve as sequence‐specific guides to interfere with the function of other nucleic acids through degradation or translational repression of homologous RNAs, or modification of homologous genome segments. (
  • The resulting libraries are composed of more than 37 million total genome matched reads mapping to intergenic regions, coding sequences, retrotransposons, inverted, tandem, and other repeated regions of the genome with more than half of the small RNAs arising from intergenic regions. (
  • Phylogenetic relationship based in the nucleotide sequence of chloroplast genome was not altered even when the nucleotide sequence was collected by RNA editing. (
  • Over the last ten years, bioinformatics approaches have increasingly been used to interrogate genome and transcriptome datasets with a view to identifying novel regulators of plant development. (
  • amount of nucleotide series divergence may can be found between sponsor and parasites and invite confident identification of all sponsor RNAs in the parasite program. (
  • All sizes of RNA are purified, from large mRNA and ribosomal RNA down to microRNA (miRNA) and small interfering RNA (siRNA). (
  • All sizes of RNA including microRNA are recovered without the need for phenol. (
  • High-throughput small RNA (sRNA) sequencing technology enables an entirely new perspective for plant microRNA (miRNA) research and has immense potential to unravel regulatory networks. (
  • Dong H et al (2007) Distinct RNA elements confer specificity to flavivirus RNA cap methylation events. (
  • Transgenerational inheritance may involve DNA methylation or other chromatin-based mechanisms, but can also involve RNA-mediated DNA methylation and RNA-mediated DNA excision/elimination in some of the more extreme examples. (
  • One of the key ways in which RNAs are processed is by the methylation of the RNA base adenosine - a modification known as m 6 A. Even though it was first discovered in the 1970s, the biological significance of m 6 A marks has only recently become clear. (
  • RNA methylation is one of the most abundant types of RNA modifications, and two main types of RNA methylation, m6A and 5-mC, are among the most studied to date. (
  • RNA methylation was first reported in the 1950s , it was identified in yeast by paper chromatography and UV spectrophotometry. (
  • Investigating RNA methylation is easier today due to the development of better and more specific antibodies and other tools . (
  • N6-methyladenosine (also known as m6A) was one of the first forms of RNA methylation discovered and it is one of the most abundant RNA modifications. (
  • 5-methylcytidine (5-mC) was another one of the first types of RNA methylation variants discovered. (
  • While 5-mC is best known for being the most common form of DNA methylation, its role in RNA biology is also becoming increasingly investigated. (
  • The function of 5-mC methylation in RNA is not completely understood, but mutations in the gene encoding the 5-mC methyltransferase NSUN2 have been observed to exhibit developmental and neurological phenotypes . (
  • Most of the members of the box C/D family function in directing site-specific 2'-O-methylation of substrate RNAs. (
  • Voinnet, O., Vain, P., Angell, S. & Baulcombe, D. C. Systemic spread of sequence-specific transgene RNA degradation in plants is initiated by localized introduction of ectopic promoterless DNA. (
  • RNases are inactivated to prevent RNA degradation. (
  • Thus, the observation that antisense RNA inhibits gene expression in bacteria and animal systems has been extended to the plant kingdom. (
  • Many of these small RNAs are negative regulators of gene expression. (
  • Small RNAs (sRNAs) are essential regulators of eukaryotic gene expression and function. (
  • RNA silencing, the process by which gene expression is suppressed by blocking the action of RNA, prevents Potato Virus X (PVX) from infecting the shoot apex but not other parts of the plant. (
  • Furthermore, gene expression analysis will be more reliable since the RNA and DNA are derived from the same sample, therefore eliminating inconsistent results. (
  • We will characterize target gene expression as well as the cell wall phenotype of mutant plants, including their biofuel feedstock quality. (
  • Significance Statement Small RNAs regulate gene expression. (
  • A rapid and less cumbersome system for isolation of RNA was essential to facilitate any study related to gene expression. (
  • This regulation at the RNA level represents an important checkpoint to extensively modulate gene expression once transcription has been initiated. (
  • 2016). Processing of preribosomal RNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (
  • Plant responses to hemipteran feeding are determined by changes in the host transcriptome that appear to be fine-tuned by sRNAs. (
  • Plants respond to changing environmental conditions by altering their transcriptome, which is actively modulated by sRNAs. (
  • Unlike the first study, which looked at all the RNA in the cell, a set of material known as the transcriptome, this study looked only in the nucleus. (
  • Transcriptome-Wide Mapping 5-Methylcytosine by mC RNA Immunoprecipitation Followed by Deep Sequencing in Plant. (
  • Transcriptome-wide mapping RNA modification is crucial to understand the distribution and function of RNA modifications. (
  • Here, we describe a protocol to transcriptome-wide mapping 5-methylcytosine (mC) in plant, by a RNA immunoprecipitation followed by deep sequencing (mC-RIP-seq) approach. (
  • Cross-referencing the targets against transcriptome changes in At GRP7 loss-of-function mutants or At GRP7-overexpressing plants reveals a predominantly negative effect of At GRP7 on its targets. (
  • Transcriptome profiling of potato plant stems challenged with Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. (
  • In chapter 2, by implementing a time-course RNA-seq analysis, our study revealed important signaling pathways suggested to contribute to the potato defense transcriptome against P. c. brasiliense infection. (
  • Researchers at the John Innes Centre have developed GaST-seq (Grid-assisted, Spatial Transcriptome sequencing), an easy to adopt, micro-scale spatial-transcriptomics workflow that allows to study expression profiles across small areas of plant tissue at a fraction of the cost of existing sequencing-based methods. (
  • Nevertheless, for the many "yet-unsequenced" plant genomes, the discovery of small RNA world requires in vitro cloning from purified cellular RNAs. (
  • On the other hand, de novo finding of miRNAs in species whose genomes have yet to be sequenced and discovering new classes of small RNAs must still rely upon in vitro cloning from purified cellular RNAs. (
  • Highly efficient purification of total RNA by combining the stringency of either guanidinium thiocyanate or guanidinium hydrochloride with the speed and purity of silica-membrane column purification. (
  • NucleoSpin RNA Plant is designed for isolation and purification of DNA-free, high-quality RNA from a wide variety of plant and fungal samples. (
  • The working procedure is similar to the standard RNA purification method without the use of organic compounds (e.g. (
  • Norgen's Plant/Fungi Total RNA Purification Kit provides a rapid method for the isolation and purification of total RNA, including virus & viroid RNA, from a wide range of plants. (
  • Total RNA was isolated from 50 mg samples of apple (red), peach (green), pine needle (blue) and grape leaves (burgundy) using Norgen´s Plant/Fungi Total RNA Purification Kit. (
  • EF1-a was detected from all samples, indicating that the RNA is of high quality and that the Plant/Fungi RNA Purification kit is highly sensitive for total RNA isolation. (
  • For the isolation of plant and fungal RNA from challenging samples using Norgen's Plant/Fungi RNA Purification Kit, see application notes (links below). (
  • Plant RNA/DNA Purification Kit (Cat. (
  • This kit provides a homogenizer column for filtration and homogenization of viscous plant cell lysate by centrifugation in combination with the HiBind RNA spin column for RNA purification. (
  • p19 binds with high affinity to the double-stranded RNA silencing mediator, called siRNA , and this binding sequesters the siRNA, preventing its participation in later steps of RNA silencing. (
  • The variety of RNA precursors accumulating in mitochondria highlights the importance of post-transcriptional processes to determine the size and abundance of transcripts. (
  • In higher plants, RNA editing is a C-to-U conversion that corrects chloroplast and mitochondrial transcripts that are otherwise defective. (
  • We identified 1,190 m6A hypermethylated transcripts in the alkbh10b-1 mutant involved in plant development. (
  • They found that transcripts that were abundant when marked by m 6 A in the normal plants were much lower in the m 6 A-depleted mutant plants, a sign that the mark was acting in a protective capacity to stabilize the transcripts. (
  • Closely comparing the normal and the mutant plants, the team found that m 6 A, when present, protected the transcripts by preventing an enzyme from degrading them. (
  • The salt treatment, they discovered, caused plants to affix more m 6 A marks on mRNA transcripts associated with responding to salt stress, as well as drought stress. (
  • There's also evidence," Anderson says, "that plants may be able to actively remove the mark from transcripts they don't need. (
  • Extensive RNA editing was found in atpB transcripts in the chloroplasts from 4 kinds of lycopsids, which included U to C conversion. (
  • Publications] K.Yoshinaga: 'Extensive RNA editing and possible double-stranded structures dtermining editing sites in the atpB transcripts of hornwort chloroplasts'Nucleic Acids Res. (
  • iCLIP identifies 858 transcripts with significantly enriched crosslink sites in plants expressing At GRP7-GFP that are absent in plants expressing an RNA-binding-dead At GRP7 variant or GFP alone. (
  • RIP and subsequent identification of bound transcripts by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR has been used to confirm candidate in vivo targets of plant RBPs [ 3 , 4 ]. (
  • While RIP is useful to identify in vivo target transcripts, it does not provide immediate information about the binding motifs on the RNAs. (
  • Has anyone had any experience with commercial kits from rapid isolation of total or poly-A+ Rna from plant tissue? (
  • Plant tissue is disrupted by grinding in liquid nitrogen, and DNA is released with detergent and chaotrope. (
  • How to ship plant tissue for RNA extraction? (
  • I would like to ship a plant fruit during the winter months with the intention of extracting RNA from the tissue. (
  • I'm turning to you for advice on how to ship this tissue without damaging the RNA. (
  • If freezing is not an option (and it might not be), do you think a few days of transport in the mail would allow time for RNA degredation with such fresh tissue? (
  • Isolate and purify total RNA from plant cells and tissue, and filamentous fungi without the use of organic compounds (e.g. (
  • If the plants leaves are waxy, the surface of the leaves can be scratched to allow Allprotect reagent to permeate the tissue. (
  • RNA yield (μg/100 mg tissue) is mentioned above each panel, whereas A 260/280 ratio is mentioned at the bottom of the panel. (
  • Phenol-free Plant RNA Isolation Kit is designed to isolate RNA from plant tissue or cells. (
  • The ISOLATE II RNA Plant Kit has been designed to deliver optimal performance in RT-qPCR in conjunction with either the SensiFAST cDNA Synthesis Kit and SensiFAST Real-Time PCR Kits, or the SensiFAST One-Step Real-Time RT-PCR Kits. (
  • These RNAs were identified by cDNA probes specific to six open reading frames (ORFs). (
  • We propose to use the PIMRNAext method to extract RNA from peanuts and peanut-like plant species not only for RT-PCR, but also for most molecular biology techniques that need copies of pure RNA, such as microarray or cDNA library construction. (
  • long RNAs are first converted into a library of cDNA fragments through either RNA fragmentation or DNA fragmentation. (
  • In this study, we established the complete cDNA sequence of this dsRNA, which represents a replicative form of a positive-strand RNA virus that we have named D. ambigua RNA virus (DaRV). (
  • The ISOLATE II RNA Plant Kit provides a simple, efficient column-based method for the isolation of total RNA from a wide variety of plant materials, including leaves, bark, roots and fruits, without the need for hazardous reagents such as phenol. (
  • RNA was isolated from 20 mg freeze-dried budding leaves of A. thaliana using ISOLATE II RNA Plant Kit. (
  • Tetragonia expansa plants infected with a California isolate of beet yellows virus (BYV-60) contained multiple BYV-specific RNAs identified by Northern blot hybridization. (
  • Norgen's kit allowed for the isolation of high-quality RNA from all the samples, including the difficult samples, while the competitor failed to isolate RNA from grape, pine needles and strawberry. (
  • Furthermore, only Norgen's kit was able to isolate the small RNA species (white box). (
  • Optional on-column DNase and RNase treatments provide flexibility to isolate DNA-free RNA or RNA-free DNA respectively. (
  • The prevalent methods namely TRIzol ® (Invitrogen, USA), RNeasy ® (Qiagen, Germany) and guanidinium salt based method [ 5 ] either failed to isolate RNA or yielded negligible quantity of RNA from these plants (Figure 1 ). (
  • RNA epigenetics, also known as epitranscriptomics, is sometimes referred to as the next frontier in molecular biology. (
  • This method is about ten times more efficient than conventional methods, and the RNA produced by it is compatible with further molecular biology experiments, such as RT-PCR. (
  • Here, we describe an approach that utilizes a combination of ssRNA- and dsRNA-specific nuclease (ss- and dsRNase, respectively) treatments along with high-throughput sequencing technology to provide comprehensive and robust measurements of RNA secondary structure across entire plant transcriptomes. (
  • High-throughput sequencing is a powerful tool for exploring small RNA populations in plants. (
  • The ever-increasing output from an Illumina Sequencing System allows for multiplexing multiple samples while still obtaining sufficient data for small RNA discovery and characterization. (
  • Here we describe a protocol for generating multiplexed small RNA libraries for sequencing up to 12 samples in one lane of an Illumina HiSeq System single-end, 50 base pair run. (
  • Targets of small RNAs were further surveyed by degradome sequencing. (
  • Sequencing of RNA by next generation sequencers, RNA-Seq, is revolutionizing virus detection. (
  • To independently validate the targets, we performed RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP)-sequencing of At GRP7-GFP plants subjected to formaldehyde fixation. (
  • Warf MB, Berglund JA (2010) The role of RNA structure in regulating pre-mRNA splicing. (
  • Bullock SL, Ringel I, Ish-Horowicz D, Lukavsky PJ (2010) A′-form RNA helices are required for cytoplasmic mRNA transport in Drosophila. (
  • Subramanian M et al (2011) G-quadruplex RNA structure as a signal for neurite mRNA targeting. (
  • We have previously described a developmentally regulated mRNA in maize that accumulates in mature embryos and is involved in a variety of stress responses in the plant. (
  • Pre-mRNA splicing or the removal of introns from precursor messenger RNAs depends on the accurate recognition of intron sequences by the plant splicing machinery. (
  • Many developmental pathways are regulated at the level of messenger RNA (mRNA) through alternative choices in mRNA processing. (
  • N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most abundant, internal, post-transcriptional modification in messenger RNA (mRNA) among all higher eukaryotes. (
  • Ecker thinks this type of mRNA silencing is not an aberration of ein5/abh1 mutant plants. (
  • Furthermore, we established a fluorescent whole-mount RNA in situ hybridization (F-WISH) protocol, which allows mRNA visualization on a subcellular level. (
  • Hence, the discovery of miRNAs represents a hallmark in RNA science for understanding RNA-dependent regulation of many complex biological processes such as development, function of metabolic pathways, cell fate and death [ 16 ]. (
  • Of these small RNA classes, only miRNAs form a characteristic thermodynamically stable hairpin structure. (
  • A number of miRNAs and phased small RNAs were found to be responsive to wounding or topping treatment. (
  • The expression changes of miRNAs and phased small RNAs responsive to wounding or topping and identification of defense related targets for these small RNAs suggest that the inducible defense response in tobacco might be controlled by pathways involving small RNAs. (
  • Gregor Mendel Institute of Molecular Plant Biology, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Dr. Bohr-Gasse 3, A-1030 Vienna, Austria. (
  • The m6A modification has been linked to several different aspects of RNA biology, including RNA processing and RNA stability. (
  • A recent paper in the journal Current Biology provides evidence that epitranscriptomics plays a role in RNA mobility , and that RNA transport is a required function for RNA-based signaling. (
  • Dr. Yijun Qi is a Professor in School of Life Sciences and Center for Plant Biology at Tsinghua University in Beijing. (
  • Other authors contributing to the study include Ronan C. O'Malley, Ph.D., Ryan Lister, PhD., Mark A. Urich, and Huaming Chen-all in the Ecker lab - and Julian Tonti - Filippini and Harvey Millar, Ph.D., both at ARC Centre of Excellence in Plant Energy Biology at the University of Western Australia, Perth. (
  • The work is published in BMC Plant Biology. (
  • New research in the Plant Biology Journal details an approach that involves directly spraying plant leaves with an RNA-based vaccine. (
  • Insects and other arthropods are the most important vectors of plant pathogens. (
  • The majority of plant pathogens are disseminated by arthropod vectors such as aphids, beetles, leafhoppers, planthoppers, thrips and whiteflies. (
  • Transmission of plant pathogens and the challenges in managing insect vectors due to insecticide resistance are factors that contribute to major food losses in agriculture. (
  • If you understand how plants respond normally to pathogens, you can rapidly make changes in that response," he said. (
  • Since small RNAs evolved to target invading pathogens, manipulating them may combat these effects. (
  • Currently effective chemical control measures are unavailable once soft rot pathogens have established disease in potato plants and/or harvested tubers. (
  • Scientists in Finland and France have developed a new protection method that vaccinates plants against certain pests and pathogens. (
  • Indeed, small non-coding RNAs have been implicated in many of these processes and likely mediate transgenerational inheritance across eukaryotic species, since they can induce changes in chromatin dynamics and guide histone modifications. (
  • and cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) can infect more than 1200 plant species in 100 families, including many vegetables and ornamentals ( Zitter and Murphy, 2009 ). (
  • Wang Z, Liu Y, Li D et al (2017) Identification of circular RNAs in Kiwifruit and their species-specific response to bacterial canker pathogen invasion. (
  • Zhao T, Wang L, Li S et al (2017) Characterization of conserved circular RNA in polyploid Gossypium species and their ancestors. (
  • Based on conserved sequence and structure motifs, 104 snmRNA species can be assigned to novel members of known classes of RNAs (designated Class I snmRNAs), namely, small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs), 7SL RNA, U snRNAs, as well as a tRNA-like RNA. (
  • For the first time, 39 novel members of H/ACA box snoRNAs could be identified in a plant species. (
  • Our study has identified 140 novel candidates for small non-messenger RNA species in the plant A. thaliana and thereby sets the stage for their functional analysis. (
  • has a relatively wide host range and INCB8761 enzyme inhibitor can effectively parasitize a number of species from a diverse range of plant families, this parasite can act as a sink for host mobile RNA from many different species. (
  • TAS3 is conserved in many plant species. (
  • In addition, this thesis explores some of the regulatory mechanisms important in the adaptation of Pectobacterium species to harsh nutrient-deficient environments such as plant xylem vessels. (
  • The provided lysis buffers are adapted to the special requirements for lysis of plant material from different species. (
  • This editing suggests that the standard genetic code is used in plant mitochondria and resolves the frequent coincidence of CGG codons and tryptophan in different plant species. (
  • The apparently frequent and non-species-specific equivalency of CGG and TGG codons in particular suggests that RNA editing is a common feature of all higher plant mitochondria. (
  • In general, methods for probing structural information involve treating RNA with either a chemical or an enzyme that preferentially targets regions of the RNA in a single- or double-stranded conformation (ssRNA and dsRNA, respectively). (
  • Transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants expressing C1 antisense RNA were obtained and shown to resist infection by TYLCV. (
  • Isolation of total RNA from 90 mg Brassica oleracea and Nicotiana tabacum leaves using the InviTrap Spin Plant RNA Mini Kit. (
  • Total RNA was isolated using the InviTrap Spin Plant RNA Mini Kit from Nicotiana tabacum. (
  • The stock culture of solanum nodiflorum mottle virus (SNMV) was freed from RNA-2 by passage through single lesions induced in inoculated leaves of Nicotiana debneyi by dilute inocula of partially purified SNMV RNA-1. (
  • Sam Lee and colleagues in John Carr's lab , and in collaboration with Rick Nelson at the Noble Foundation (Oklahoma, USA), showed that in the plant Nicotiana benthamiana RDR1 activity protects plants from being killed by tobacco mosaic virus. (
  • Turnip crinkle virus (TCV) is a small, plus-sense, single-stranded RNA virus of plants. (
  • This gives plants a dynamic and really powerful mechanism to regulate stress response," Gregory says. (
  • This type of modifying RNA is usually located in the nucleolus of the eukaryotic cell which is a major site of snRNA biogenesis. (
  • Little is known about the RNA helicases involved in pre-60S ribosomal subunit processing and assembly in plants. (
  • Isolation of High Quality RNA, even from Difficult Samples. (
  • Hypovirulent isolates of the fruit tree fungal pathogen Diaporthe ambigua have previously been shown to harbour a double-stranded (ds)RNA genetic element of about 4 kb. (
  • Frequencies, timing, and spatial patterns of co-suppression of nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase in transgenic tobacco plants. (
  • Panel A shows high magnification images of the vicinity of the meristem for control (non-transgenic) plants and plants modified to express a gene for RDR1 (MtRDR1-transgenic). (
  • If the miRNA do indeed play a role in cell wall transcript stability, there should be an observable vascular development defect and altered cell wall properties perhaps resulting in a plant more amenable to conversion to biofuels. (
  • As an important group of small RNAs, miRNA has attracted much attention. (
  • Empirical measurement of RNA secondary structure is an invaluable tool that has provided a more complete understanding of the RNA life cycle and functionality of this extremely important molecule. (
  • ligation products that lack a small RNA molecule (adaptor-adaptor products) are intentionally depleted. (
  • small nucleolar RNA R71 (also known as snoRNA R71) is a non-coding RNA (ncRNA) molecule which functions in the modification of other small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs). (
  • Wanrooij PH, Uhler JP, Simonsson T, Falkenberg M, Gustafsson CM (2010) G-quadruplex structures in RNA stimulate mitochondrial transcription termination and primer formation. (
  • No RNA editing was found in the mitochondrial cox1 transcript from 4 kinds of liverworts. (
  • Overexpression of HvCCR4 promoted BYSMV replication in plants. (
  • Our results demonstrate that the co-opted the CCR4-mediated RNA decay facilitates cytorhabdovirus replication in plants and insects. (
  • However, S1 did not support the replication of the RNA-2 from lucerne transient streak virus (LTSV). (
  • Tsai M-C et al (2010) Long noncoding RNA as modular scaffold of histone modification complexes. (
  • Work in his laboratory includes investigating the functions of small RNAs and long non-coding RNAs, biochemical and molecular analysis of Argonaute complexes, and RNA-directed repair of DNA double-strand breaks. (
  • Therefore, it is proposed that DaRV is not encapsidated but that it occurs as RNA-RDRP complexes and/or that it might be associated with cell membranes. (
  • We show on published benchmark data for plants, animals and fungi that GeMoMa performs better than the gene prediction programs BRAKER1, MAKER2, and CodingQuarry, and purely RNA-seq-based pipelines for transcript identification. (
  • The InviTrap ® Spin Plant RNA Mini Kit is ideal for easy and quick isolation of total RNA from different plant samples and filamentous fungi. (
  • Here we review RNA metabolism in plant mitochondria, from RNA transcription to translation, with a special focus on their unique features that are controlled by trans-factors. (
  • Reverse transcription (RT)-PCR primer sets based on sequences from this contig enabled the detection of BSSV in all BSSV-infected plants tested but not in healthy controls. (
  • The purified RNA is of the highest integrity, and can be used in a number of downstream applications including real time PCR, reverse transcription PCR, Northern blotting, RNase protection and primer extension, and expression array assays. (
  • Plants have evolved an elaborate transcriptional machinery dedicated to eliciting sequence-specific, chromatin-based gene silencing. (
  • Compared to other eukaryotes, RNA metabolism in plant mitochondria is complex and combines bacterial-like traits with novel features that evolved in the host cell. (
  • Eukaryotes - plants and animals - contain small regulatory RNA that have been referred to as the dark matter of genetics. (
  • Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been implicated in diverse regulatory roles in eukaryotes. (
  • Polyploidy has occurred throughout the evolutionary history of all eukaryotes and is extremely common in plants. (
  • In the mitochondria from Lycopodium, 5 sites of RNA editing were found in the region of 420 nucleotides of cox1 transcript. (
  • Almost all of them are post-translationally targeted to plastids and mitochondria, where they play important roles in post-transcriptional processes including splicing, RNA editing and the initiation of translation. (
  • RNA editing events are found in almost all land plants in mitochondria and plastids. (
  • Plant Mitochondria / Kempken, Frank (Hrsg. (
  • Antisense RNA techniques have immediate practical applications in both basic research and in plant genetic engineering. (
  • Plant genetic resistance against hemipterans provides a model to explore the regulatory roles of sRNAs in plant defense. (
  • The best-documented example is an RNA plant virus, Tobacco mild green mosaic virus , which showed no increase in genetic diversity over the 90 years considered, in the longest series of isolates with known isolation times for any virus ( 20 ). (
  • Indeed, many studies have shown the remarkable genetic stability of RNA plant virus populations from different geographical regions, hosts, and collection times ( 21 ). (
  • Wang Y, Yang M, Wei S et al (2017) Identification of circular RNAs and their targets in leaves of Triticum aestivum L. under dehydration stress. (
  • Due to the paucity of mutations in biochemical pathways in plants, an alternative approach to classical genetics was tested by expressing antisense RNA in plant cells. (
  • In plants, RNA processing is crucial in the regulation of key developmental pathways. (
  • What we learn about RNA silencing pathways in plants could be applied to cancer chemotherapy," Gregory explained. (
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  • His independent research began from 2011 and he is currently a principal investigator at National Key Laboratory of Plant Molecular Genetics (NKLPMG), CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Plant Sciences, Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology (SIPPE), CAS. (
  • Plant Physiology 169 (1): 826-839. (
  • Therefore, in this mini review, we discuss what is currently known in the field about transgenerational epigenetic inheritance in ciliates and plants, with a particular emphasis on RNA-mediated processes and changes in chromatin states. (
  • RNA-mediated chromatin-level silencing is increasingly implicated in development, stress responses, and natural epigenetic variation that may promote phenotypic diversity, physiological plasticity, and evolutionary change. (
  • Small silencing RNAs in plants are mobile and direct epigenetic modification in recipient cells. (
  • The researchers also found that FT messenger RNA played a role in the signal that induces the growth of flowers. (
  • The NucleoSpin RNA Plant kit features 2 alternative lysis buffers: in most cases, use of buffer RA1 is recommended for lysis due to its strong denaturing properties. (
  • Their findings could impact fields as diverse as plant pathology and cancer research. (
  • Fertile hypomorphic ARGONAUTE (ago1) mutants impaired in post-transcriptional gene silencing and virus resistance," Plant Cell , vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 629-639, 2002. (
  • RNA-mediated chromatin-based silencing in plants. (
  • The systemic spread of silencing reflects the existence of an as yet unidentified mobile silencing signal as an integral component of the RNA silencing pathway. (
  • This review focuses on advances in understanding the nature of systemic silencing in plants and the signal(s) that induces silencing at distant sites. (
  • A Guide to Plant Systems for the Study of Systemic Silencing. (
  • Silencing may spread from silenced rootstocks to scions or from locally silenced regions of a plant to upper parts of the same plant. (
  • Recent research indicates significant roles for sRNA-mediated gene silencing during plant-hemipteran interactions that involve all three of these biological processes. (
  • Dr Attila Molnar of the University of Edinburgh, Institute of Molecular Plant Sciences will give this seminar entitled 'Mobile silencing RNAs in plants' at the James Hutton Institute in Dundee. (
  • silencing across the plant has been recognised for nearly two decades, however, only recent publications demonstrated beyond a doubt that sRNAs act as mobile silencing signals. (
  • He is an expert on RNA silencing in plants. (
  • Among them, RNA silencing-based resistance has been a powerful tool that has been used to engineer resistant crops during the last two decades. (
  • They performed PIP-seq and also obtained information on the secondary structure of the RNA-how the strands of RNA fold, loop or bind together. (
  • They are characterised by tandem 30-40 amino acid motifs that form an extended binding surface capable of sequence-specific recognition of RNA strands. (
  • Easy and quick isolation of total RNA from a wide variety of plant samples. (
  • E.Z.N.A.® Plant RNA Kit provides a convenient and rapid method for the isolation of total RNA from a variety of plant samples. (
  • Thus, reproducible methods for in vitro small RNA cloning are of paramount importance and will remain so into the foreseeable future. (
  • In the absence of an in vitro splicing system for plants, transient expression in protoplasts and stable plant transform ations have been used to analyse splicing of intron constructs. (
  • With the help of an in vitro replicase assay based on an RdRp preparation obtained from TCV-infected plants, these satellite RNAs were widely used to dissect cis -acting elements involved in RNA accumulation ( 13 , 24 , 29 , 37 , 39 , 40 ). (
  • Purified RNA can be used for most downstream applications such as RT-PCR, Northern blot analysis, differential display, and poly A+ RNA selection. (
  • Quinones bind to RNA and hinder RNA isolation and/or downstream applications [ 8 ]. (
  • Aphid-induced sRNA expression in resistance genotypes delivers a new paradigm in understanding the regulation of R gene-mediated resistance in host plants. (
  • Although this phenomenon of mobile RNAs has been known to exist for years, the molecular details that control its regulation remain largely unknown. (
  • Much of this regulation occurs during and just after DNA is transcribed into RNA. (
  • The role of sRNA in plant defense responses is complex. (
  • Hemipterans feeding on resistant plants also show changes in insect sRNA profiles, possibly influencing insect development and reproduction. (
  • The m6A modification appears to most commonly be associated with stop codon-3' UTR junctions and intron-exon junctions, especially at long introns, suggesting that it likely plays a role in RNA processing. (
  • The enzymes known to add the m6A modification to RNA include the RNA methyltransferases METTL3 , METTL14 , and WTAP . (
  • To get insight into the role of small RNAs in damage-induced responses, we sequenced and analysed small RNA populations in roots and leaves from wounding or topping treated tobacco plants. (