RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.RNA Splicing: The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.RNA Editing: A process that changes the nucleotide sequence of mRNA from that of the DNA template encoding it. Some major classes of RNA editing are as follows: 1, the conversion of cytosine to uracil in mRNA; 2, the addition of variable number of guanines at pre-determined sites; and 3, the addition and deletion of uracils, templated by guide-RNAs (RNA, GUIDE).Second Messenger Systems: Systems in which an intracellular signal is generated in response to an intercellular primary messenger such as a hormone or neurotransmitter. They are intermediate signals in cellular processes such as metabolism, secretion, contraction, phototransduction, and cell growth. Examples of second messenger systems are the adenyl cyclase-cyclic AMP system, the phosphatidylinositol diphosphate-inositol triphosphate system, and the cyclic GMP system.RNA, Ribosomal: The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.RNA, Double-Stranded: RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.RNA, Catalytic: RNA that has catalytic activity. The catalytic RNA sequence folds to form a complex surface that can function as an enzyme in reactions with itself and other molecules. It may function even in the absence of protein. There are numerous examples of RNA species that are acted upon by catalytic RNA, however the scope of this enzyme class is not limited to a particular type of substrate.RNA Folding: The processes of RNA tertiary structure formation.RNA Polymerase II: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.RNA Stability: The extent to which an RNA molecule retains its structural integrity and resists degradation by RNASE, and base-catalyzed HYDROLYSIS, under changing in vivo or in vitro conditions.RNA, Fungal: Ribonucleic acid in fungi having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional: Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.RNA, Transfer: The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.RNA, Antisense: RNA molecules which hybridize to complementary sequences in either RNA or DNA altering the function of the latter. Endogenous antisense RNAs function as regulators of gene expression by a variety of mechanisms. Synthetic antisense RNAs are used to effect the functioning of specific genes for investigative or therapeutic purposes.RNA Helicases: A family of proteins that promote unwinding of RNA during splicing and translation.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.RNA Precursors: RNA transcripts of the DNA that are in some unfinished stage of post-transcriptional processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL) required for function. RNA precursors may undergo several steps of RNA SPLICING during which the phosphodiester bonds at exon-intron boundaries are cleaved and the introns are excised. Consequently a new bond is formed between the ends of the exons. Resulting mature RNAs can then be used; for example, mature mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER) is used as a template for protein production.RNA, Small Nuclear: Short chains of RNA (100-300 nucleotides long) that are abundant in the nucleus and usually complexed with proteins in snRNPs (RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL NUCLEAR). Many function in the processing of messenger RNA precursors. Others, the snoRNAs (RNA, SMALL NUCLEOLAR), are involved with the processing of ribosomal RNA precursors.RNA, Untranslated: RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated RNAs they are not included in this scope.RNA Caps: Nucleic acid structures found on the 5' end of eukaryotic cellular and viral messenger RNA and some heterogeneous nuclear RNAs. These structures, which are positively charged, protect the above specified RNAs at their termini against attack by phosphatases and other nucleases and promote mRNA function at the level of initiation of translation. Analogs of the RNA caps (RNA CAP ANALOGS), which lack the positive charge, inhibit the initiation of protein synthesis.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.RNA, Neoplasm: RNA present in neoplastic tissue.Sequence Analysis, RNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.RNA, Plant: Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.RNA, Protozoan: Ribonucleic acid in protozoa having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)RNA Ligase (ATP): An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of linear RNA to a circular form by the transfer of the 5'-phosphate to the 3'-hydroxyl terminus. It also catalyzes the covalent joining of two polyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage. EC 6.5.1.3.DEAD-box RNA Helicases: A large family of RNA helicases that share a common protein motif with the single letter amino acid sequence D-E-A-D (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp). In addition to RNA helicase activity, members of the DEAD-box family participate in other aspects of RNA metabolism and regulation of RNA function.Poly A: A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Polyribosomes: A multiribosomal structure representing a linear array of RIBOSOMES held together by messenger RNA; (RNA, MESSENGER); They represent the active complexes in cellular protein synthesis and are able to incorporate amino acids into polypeptides both in vivo and in vitro. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.RNA Transport: The process of moving specific RNA molecules from one cellular compartment or region to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms.RNA Polymerase III: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure where it transcribes DNA into RNA. It has specific requirements for cations and salt and has shown an intermediate sensitivity to alpha-amanitin in comparison to RNA polymerase I and II. EC 2.7.7.6.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.RNA Polymerase I: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. The enzyme functions in the nucleolar structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salts than RNA polymerase II and III and is not inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.RNA, Guide: Small kinetoplastid mitochondrial RNA that plays a major role in RNA EDITING. These molecules form perfect hybrids with edited mRNA sequences and possess nucleotide sequences at their 5'-ends that are complementary to the sequences of the mRNA's immediately downstream of the pre-edited regions.RNA, Nuclear: RNA molecules found in the nucleus either associated with chromosomes or in the nucleoplasm.Ribonucleoproteins: Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).RNA, Ribosomal, 28S: Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 28S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.RNA, Ribosomal, 18S: Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Ribonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.RNA, Ribosomal, 23S: Constituent of 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 3200 nucleotides. 23S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.UridineOligoribonucleotides: A group of ribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Ribosomes: Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.RNA, Spliced Leader: The small RNAs which provide spliced leader sequences, SL1, SL2, SL3, SL4 and SL5 (short sequences which are joined to the 5' ends of pre-mRNAs by TRANS-SPLICING). They are found primarily in primitive eukaryotes (protozoans and nematodes).RNA, Satellite: Small, linear single-stranded RNA molecules functionally acting as molecular parasites of certain RNA plant viruses. Satellite RNAs exhibit four characteristic traits: (1) they require helper viruses to replicate; (2) they are unnecessary for the replication of helper viruses; (3) they are encapsidated in the coat protein of the helper virus; (4) they have no extensive sequence homology to the helper virus. Thus they differ from SATELLITE VIRUSES which encode their own coat protein, and from the genomic RNA; (=RNA, VIRAL); of satellite viruses. (From Maramorosch, Viroids and Satellites, 1991, p143)HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Cell-Free System: A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.RNA, Heterogeneous Nuclear: Nuclear nonribosomal RNA larger than about 1000 nucleotides, the mass of which is rapidly synthesized and degraded within the cell nucleus. Some heterogeneous nuclear RNA may be a precursor to mRNA. However, the great bulk of total hnRNA hybridizes with nuclear DNA rather than with mRNA.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.RNA, Archaeal: Ribonucleic acid in archaea having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Templates, Genetic: Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.RNA 3' End Processing: The steps that generate the 3' ends of mature RNA molecules. For most mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), 3' end processing referred to as POLYADENYLATION includes the addition of POLY A.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Dactinomycin: A compound composed of a two CYCLIC PEPTIDES attached to a phenoxazine that is derived from STREPTOMYCES parvullus. It binds to DNA and inhibits RNA synthesis (transcription), with chain elongation more sensitive than initiation, termination, or release. As a result of impaired mRNA production, protein synthesis also declines after dactinomycin therapy. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1993, p2015)RNA Cleavage: A reaction that severs one of the sugar-phosphate linkages of the phosphodiester backbone of RNA. It is catalyzed enzymatically, chemically, or by radiation. Cleavage may be exonucleolytic, or endonucleolytic.TritiumRNA, Small Untranslated: Short RNA, about 200 base pairs in length or shorter, that does not code for protein.Reticulocytes: Immature ERYTHROCYTES. In humans, these are ERYTHROID CELLS that have just undergone extrusion of their CELL NUCLEUS. They still contain some organelles that gradually decrease in number as the cells mature. RIBOSOMES are last to disappear. Certain staining techniques cause components of the ribosomes to precipitate into characteristic "reticulum" (not the same as the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM), hence the name reticulocytes.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Endoribonucleases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of RNA. It includes EC 3.1.26.-, EC 3.1.27.-, EC 3.1.30.-, and EC 3.1.31.-.RNA, Small Cytoplasmic: Small RNAs found in the cytoplasm usually complexed with proteins in scRNPs (RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL CYTOPLASMIC).3' Untranslated Regions: The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.RNA, Ribosomal, 5.8S: Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 5.8S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.RNA, Complementary: Synthetic transcripts of a specific DNA molecule or fragment, made by an in vitro transcription system. This cRNA can be labeled with radioactive uracil and then used as a probe. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)RNA, Long Noncoding: A class of untranslated RNA molecules that are typically greater than 200 nucleotides in length and do not code for proteins. Members of this class have been found to play roles in transcriptional regulation, post-transcriptional processing, CHROMATIN REMODELING, and in the epigenetic control of chromatin.RNA, Small Nucleolar: Small nuclear RNAs that are involved in the processing of pre-ribosomal RNA in the nucleolus. Box C/D containing snoRNAs (U14, U15, U16, U20, U21 and U24-U63) direct site-specific methylation of various ribose moieties. Box H/ACA containing snoRNAs (E2, E3, U19, U23, and U64-U72) direct the conversion of specific uridines to pseudouridine. Site-specific cleavages resulting in the mature ribosomal RNAs are directed by snoRNAs U3, U8, U14, U22 and the snoRNA components of RNase MRP and RNase P.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.RNA Virus InfectionsSaccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.PolynucleotidesSingle-Strand Specific DNA and RNA Endonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of single-stranded regions of DNA or RNA molecules while leaving the double-stranded regions intact. They are particularly useful in the laboratory for producing "blunt-ended" DNA molecules from DNA with single-stranded ends and for sensitive GENETIC TECHNIQUES such as NUCLEASE PROTECTION ASSAYS that involve the detection of single-stranded DNA and RNA.Poly U: A group of uridine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each uridine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Base Pairing: Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Genetic Code: The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).Globins: A superfamily of proteins containing the globin fold which is composed of 6-8 alpha helices arranged in a characterstic HEME enclosing structure.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.5' Untranslated Regions: The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.Plant Viruses: Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.Oligonucleotides: Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)RNA, Helminth: Ribonucleic acid in helminths having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Cyclic GMP: Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)RNA, Chloroplast: Ribonucleic acid in chloroplasts having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.RNA, Messenger, Stored: Messenger RNA that is stored in a masked state for translation at a later time. Distinguish from RNA, UNTRANSLATED which refers to non-messenger RNA, i.e. RNA that does not code for protein.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Peptide Chain Initiation, Translational: A process of GENETIC TRANSLATION whereby the formation of a peptide chain is started. It includes assembly of the RIBOSOME components, the MESSENGER RNA coding for the polypeptide to be made, INITIATOR TRNA, and PEPTIDE INITIATION FACTORS; and placement of the first amino acid in the peptide chain. The details and components of this process are unique for prokaryotic protein biosynthesis and eukaryotic protein biosynthesis.Nucleic Acid Denaturation: Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.Ribonuclease T1: An enzyme catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of RNA at the 3'-position of a guanylate residue. EC 3.1.27.3.Carcinoma, Krebs 2Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Cyclic ADP-Ribose: A pyridine nucleotide that mobilizes CALCIUM. It is synthesized from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by ADP RIBOSE CYCLASE.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate: Intracellular messenger formed by the action of phospholipase C on phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, which is one of the phospholipids that make up the cell membrane. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate is released into the cytoplasm where it releases calcium ions from internal stores within the cell's endoplasmic reticulum. These calcium ions stimulate the activity of B kinase or calmodulin.RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase: An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC 2.7.7.49.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Alternative Splicing: A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.Amanitins: Cyclic peptides extracted from carpophores of various mushroom species. They are potent inhibitors of RNA polymerases in most eukaryotic species, blocking the production of mRNA and protein synthesis. These peptides are important in the study of transcription. Alpha-amanitin is the main toxin from the species Amanitia phalloides, poisonous if ingested by humans or animals.RNA, Transfer, Phe: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying phenylalanine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.RNA, Transfer, Lys: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying lysine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Inositol Phosphates: Phosphoric acid esters of inositol. They include mono- and polyphosphoric acid esters, with the exception of inositol hexaphosphate which is PHYTIC ACID.RNA Splice Sites: Nucleotide sequences located at the ends of EXONS and recognized in pre-messenger RNA by SPLICEOSOMES. They are joined during the RNA SPLICING reaction, forming the junctions between exons.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Mosaic Viruses: Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.RNA, Transfer, Amino Acyl: Intermediates in protein biosynthesis. The compounds are formed from amino acids, ATP and transfer RNA, a reaction catalyzed by aminoacyl tRNA synthetase. They are key compounds in the genetic translation process.Nucleotides: The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Nucleoproteins: Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.Regulatory Sequences, Ribonucleic Acid: Sequences within RNA that regulate the processing, stability (RNA STABILITY) or translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of RNA.Peptide Biosynthesis: The production of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS by the constituents of a living organism. The biosynthesis of proteins on RIBOSOMES following an RNA template is termed translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). There are other, non-ribosomal peptide biosynthesis (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NUCLEIC ACID-INDEPENDENT) mechanisms carried out by PEPTIDE SYNTHASES and PEPTIDYLTRANSFERASES. Further modifications of peptide chains yield functional peptide and protein molecules.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.RNA, Transfer, Tyr: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying tyrosine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Nucleic Acid Precursors: Use for nucleic acid precursors in general or for which there is no specific heading.Puromycin: A cinnamamido ADENOSINE found in STREPTOMYCES alboniger. It inhibits protein synthesis by binding to RNA. It is an antineoplastic and antitrypanosomal agent and is used in research as an inhibitor of protein synthesis.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Cell Nucleolus: Within most types of eukaryotic CELL NUCLEUS, a distinct region, not delimited by a membrane, in which some species of rRNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) are synthesized and assembled into ribonucleoprotein subunits of ribosomes. In the nucleolus rRNA is transcribed from a nucleolar organizer, i.e., a group of tandemly repeated chromosomal genes which encode rRNA and which are transcribed by RNA polymerase I. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology & Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Ribosomal Proteins: Proteins found in ribosomes. They are believed to have a catalytic function in reconstituting biologically active ribosomal subunits.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Cycloheximide: Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Exoribonucleases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the exonucleolytic cleavage of RNA. It includes EC 3.1.13.-, EC 3.1.14.-, EC 3.1.15.-, and EC 3.1.16.-. EC 3.1.-Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Polyadenylation: The addition of a tail of polyadenylic acid (POLY A) to the 3' end of mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). Polyadenylation involves recognizing the processing site signal, (AAUAAA), and cleaving of the mRNA to create a 3' OH terminal end to which poly A polymerase (POLYNUCLEOTIDE ADENYLYLTRANSFERASE) adds 60-200 adenylate residues. The 3' end processing of some messenger RNAs, such as histone mRNA, is carried out by a different process that does not include the addition of poly A as described here.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.DiglyceridesOligonucleotide Probes: Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Calcium Signaling: Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.

The surface ectoderm is essential for nephric duct formation in intermediate mesoderm. (1/126162)

The nephric duct is the first epithelial tubule to differentiate from intermediate mesoderm that is essential for all further urogenital development. In this study we identify the domain of intermediate mesoderm that gives rise to the nephric duct and demonstrate that the surface ectoderm is required for its differentiation. Removal of the surface ectoderm resulted in decreased levels of Sim-1 and Pax-2 mRNA expression in mesenchymal nephric duct progenitors, and caused inhibition of nephric duct formation and subsequent kidney development. The surface ectoderm expresses BMP-4 and we show that it is required for the maintenance of high-level BMP-4 expression in lateral plate mesoderm. Addition of a BMP-4-coated bead to embryos lacking the surface ectoderm restored normal levels of Sim-1 and Pax-2 mRNA expression in nephric duct progenitors, nephric duct formation and the initiation of nephrogenesis. Thus, BMP-4 signaling can substitute for the surface ectoderm in supporting nephric duct morphogenesis. Collectively, these data suggest that inductive interactions between the surface ectoderm, lateral mesoderm and intermediate mesoderm are essential for nephric duct formation and the initiation of urogenital development.  (+info)

Apontic binds the translational repressor Bruno and is implicated in regulation of oskar mRNA translation. (2/126162)

The product of the oskar gene directs posterior patterning in the Drosophila oocyte, where it must be deployed specifically at the posterior pole. Proper expression relies on the coordinated localization and translational control of the oskar mRNA. Translational repression prior to localization of the transcript is mediated, in part, by the Bruno protein, which binds to discrete sites in the 3' untranslated region of the oskar mRNA. To begin to understand how Bruno acts in translational repression, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen to identify Bruno-interacting proteins. One interactor, described here, is the product of the apontic gene. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments lend biochemical support to the idea that Bruno and Apontic proteins physically interact in Drosophila. Genetic experiments using mutants defective in apontic and bruno reveal a functional interaction between these genes. Given this interaction, Apontic is likely to act together with Bruno in translational repression of oskar mRNA. Interestingly, Apontic, like Bruno, is an RNA-binding protein and specifically binds certain regions of the oskar mRNA 3' untranslated region.  (+info)

Difference between mammary epithelial cells from mature virgin and primiparous mice. (3/126162)

Mammary epithelial cells from mature virgin mice are similar to those from primiparous mice in several respects. However, there is one known difference. The cells from the mature virgin must traverse the cell cycle in order to become competent to make casein and enzymatically active alpha-lactalbumin in vitro; those from the primiparous animal can make these proteins without first traversing the cycle. In this regard, cells from human placental lactogen- and prolactin-treated mature virgins are, after involution, similar to those from primiparous mice. The developemental block in the cells from the mature virgin, imposed by preventing cell cycle traversal, has been partially delineated. It does not appear to reside at the levels of ultrastructural maturation or the formation of casein messenger RNA. Rather, the lesion is postranscriptional and may be at the level of translation, or posttranslational modification, or both.  (+info)

Factor VII deficiency rescues the intrauterine lethality in mice associated with a tissue factor pathway inhibitor deficit. (4/126162)

Mice doubly heterozygous for a modified tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) allele (tfpi delta) lacking its Kunitz-type domain-1 (TFPI+/delta) and for a deficiency of the factor VII gene (FVII+/-) were mated to generate 309 postnatal and 205 embryonic day 17.5 (E17. 5) offspring having all the predicted genotypic combinations. Progeny singly homozygous for the tfpidelta modification but with the wild-type fVII allele (FVII+/+/TFPIdelta/delta), and mice singly homozygous for the fVII deficiency and possessing the wild-type tfpi allele (FVII-/-/TFPI+/+), displayed previously detailed phenotypes (i.e., a high percentage of early embryonic lethality at E9.5 or normal development with severe perinatal bleeding, respectively). Surprisingly, mice of the combined FVII-/-/TFPIdelta/delta genotype were born at the expected mendelian frequency but suffered the fatal perinatal bleeding associated with the FVII-/- genotype. Mice carrying the FVII+/-/TFPIdelta/delta genotype were also rescued from the lethality associated with the FVII+/+/TFPIdelta/delta genotype but succumbed to perinatal consumptive coagulopathy. Thus, the rescue of TFPIdelta/delta embryos, either by an accompanying homozygous or heterozygous FVII deficiency, suggests that diminishment of FVII activity precludes the need for TFPI-mediated inhibition of the FVIIa/tissue factor coagulation pathway during embryogenesis. Furthermore, the phenotypes of these combined deficiency states suggest that embryonic FVII is produced in mice as early as E9.5 and that any level of maternal FVII in early-stage embryos is insufficient to cause a coagulopathy in TFPIdelta/delta mice.  (+info)

TIF1gamma, a novel member of the transcriptional intermediary factor 1 family. (5/126162)

We report the cloning and characterization of a novel member of the Transcriptional Intermediary Factor 1 (TIF1) gene family, human TIF1gamma. Similar to TIF1alpha and TIF1beta, the structure of TIF1beta is characterized by multiple domains: RING finger, B boxes, Coiled coil, PHD/TTC, and bromodomain. Although structurally related to TIF1alpha and TIF1beta, TIF1gamma presents several functional differences. In contrast to TIF1alpha, but like TIF1beta, TIF1 does not interact with nuclear receptors in yeast two-hybrid or GST pull-down assays and does not interfere with retinoic acid response in transfected mammalian cells. Whereas TIF1alpha and TIF1beta were previously found to interact with the KRAB silencing domain of KOX1 and with the HP1alpha, MODI (HP1beta) and MOD2 (HP1gamma) heterochromatinic proteins, suggesting that they may participate in a complex involved in heterochromatin-induced gene repression, TIF1gamma does not interact with either the KRAB domain of KOX1 or the HP1 proteins. Nevertheless, TIF1gamma, like TIF1alpha and TIF1beta, exhibits a strong silencing activity when tethered to a promoter. Since deletion of a novel motif unique to the three TIF1 proteins, called TIF1 signature sequence (TSS), abrogates transcriptional repression by TIF1gamma, this motif likely participates in TIF1 dependent repression.  (+info)

Leptin suppression of insulin secretion and gene expression in human pancreatic islets: implications for the development of adipogenic diabetes mellitus. (6/126162)

Previously we demonstrated the expression of the long form of the leptin receptor in rodent pancreatic beta-cells and an inhibition of insulin secretion by leptin via activation of ATP-sensitive potassium channels. Here we examine pancreatic islets isolated from pancreata of human donors for their responses to leptin. The presence of leptin receptors on islet beta-cells was demonstrated by double fluorescence confocal microscopy after binding of a fluorescent derivative of human leptin (Cy3-leptin). Leptin (6.25 nM) suppressed insulin secretion of normal islets by 20% at 5.6 mM glucose. Intracellular calcium responses to 16.7 mM glucose were rapidly reduced by leptin. Proinsulin messenger ribonucleic acid expression in islets was inhibited by leptin at 11.1 mM, but not at 5.6 mM glucose. Leptin also reduced proinsulin messenger ribonucleic acid levels that were increased in islets by treatment with 10 nM glucagon-like peptide-1 in the presence of either 5.6 or 11.1 mM glucose. These findings demonstrate direct suppressive effects of leptin on insulin-producing beta-cells in human islets at the levels of both stimulus-secretion coupling and gene expression. The findings also further indicate the existence of an adipoinsular axis in humans in which insulin stimulates leptin production in adipocytes and leptin inhibits the production of insulin in beta-cells. We suggest that dysregulation of the adipoinsular axis in obese individuals due to defective leptin reception by beta-cells may result in chronic hyperinsulinemia and may contribute to the pathogenesis of adipogenic diabetes.  (+info)

Differential stability of the DNA-activated protein kinase catalytic subunit mRNA in human glioma cells. (7/126162)

DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) functions in double-strand break repair and immunoglobulin [V(D)J] recombination. We previously established a radiation-sensitive human cell line, M059J, derived from a malignant glioma, which lacks the catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) of the DNA-PK multiprotein complex. Although previous Northern blot analysis failed to detect the DNA-PKcs transcript in these cells, we show here through quantitative studies that the transcript is present, albeit at greatly reduced (approximately 20x) levels. Sequencing revealed no genetic alteration in either the promoter region, the kinase domain, or the 3' untranslated region of the DNA-PKcs gene to account for the reduced transcript levels. Nuclear run-on transcription assays indicated that the rate of DNA-PKcs transcription in M059J and DNA-PKcs proficient cell lines was similar, but the stability of the DNA-PKcs message in the M059J cell line was drastically (approximately 20x) reduced. Furthermore, M059J cells lack an alternately spliced DNA-PKcs transcript that accounts for a minor (5-20%) proportion of the DNA-PKcs message in all other cell lines tested. Thus, alterations in DNA-PKcs mRNA stability and/or the lack of the alternate mRNA may result in the loss of DNA-PKcs activity. This finding has important implications as DNA-PKcs activity is essential to cells repairing damage induced by radiation or radiomimetric agents.  (+info)

Alternative sulfonylurea receptor expression defines metabolic sensitivity of K-ATP channels in dopaminergic midbrain neurons. (8/126162)

ATP-sensitive potassium (K-ATP) channels couple the metabolic state to cellular excitability in various tissues. Several isoforms of the K-ATP channel subunits, the sulfonylurea receptor (SUR) and inwardly rectifying K channel (Kir6.X), have been cloned, but the molecular composition and functional diversity of native neuronal K-ATP channels remain unresolved. We combined functional analysis of K-ATP channels with expression profiling of K-ATP subunits at the level of single substantia nigra (SN) neurons in mouse brain slices using an RT-multiplex PCR protocol. In contrast to GABAergic neurons, single dopaminergic SN neurons displayed alternative co-expression of either SUR1, SUR2B or both SUR isoforms with Kir6.2. Dopaminergic SN neurons expressed alternative K-ATP channel species distinguished by significant differences in sulfonylurea affinity and metabolic sensitivity. In single dopaminergic SN neurons, co-expression of SUR1 + Kir6.2, but not of SUR2B + Kir6.2, correlated with functional K-ATP channels highly sensitive to metabolic inhibition. In contrast to wild-type, surviving dopaminergic SN neurons of homozygous weaver mouse exclusively expressed SUR1 + Kir6.2 during the active period of dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Therefore, alternative expression of K-ATP channel subunits defines the differential response to metabolic stress and constitutes a novel candidate mechanism for the differential vulnerability of dopaminergic neurons in response to respiratory chain dysfunction in Parkinson's disease.  (+info)

*Antisense RNA

... is a single stranded RNA that is complementary to a protein coding messenger RNA (mRNA) that hybridize with it and thereby ... RNA I and RNA II forms a duplex which introduces a conformational change of RNA II. Consequently, RNA II cannot hybridize with ... RNA-RNA interactions either in nucleus or cytoplasm and RNA-protein interactions (epigenetic). Antisense RNAs can be ... The replication of ColE1 relies on the transcription of a primer RNA named RNA II. Once RNA II is transcribed, it hybridizes to ...

*POLRMT

Kravchenko JE, Rogozin IB, Koonin EV, Chumakov PM (2005). "Transcription of mammalian messenger RNAs by a nuclear RNA ... DNA-directed RNA polymerase, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLRMT gene. This gene encodes a ... Although this polypeptide has the same function as the three nuclear DNA-directed RNA polymerases, it is more closely related ... The gene product is responsible for mitochondrial gene expression as well as for providing RNA primers for initiation of ...

*Small nuclear RNA

Their primary function is in the processing of pre-messenger RNA (hnRNA) in the nucleus. They have also been shown to aid in ... U1 spliceosomal RNA, U2 spliceosomal RNA, U4 spliceosomal RNA, U5 spliceosomal RNA, and U6 spliceosomal RNA. Their nomenclature ... These are small RNA molecules that play an essential role in RNA biogenesis and guide chemical modifications of ribosomal RNAs ... Spliceosomes are a major component of an integral step in eukaryotic precursor messenger RNA maturation. A mistake in even a ...

*Transfer-messenger RNA

... (abbreviated tmRNA, also known as 10Sa RNA and by its genetic name SsrA) is a bacterial RNA molecule ... "Transfer-messenger RNA unfolds as it transits the ribosome". RNA. 11 (5): 668-73. doi:10.1261/rna.7269305. PMC 1370753 . PMID ... November 2007). "Semiautomated improvement of RNA alignments". RNA. 13 (11): 1850-9. doi:10.1261/rna.215407. PMC 2040093 . PMID ... Subsequently, the ribosome moves from the 3' end of the truncated messenger RNA onto the resume codon of the MLR, followed by a ...

*POLR2A

This gene encodes the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, the polymerase responsible for synthesizing messenger RNA in ... DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB1, also known as RPB1, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLR2A gene. ... Scully R, Anderson SF, Chao DM, Wei W, Ye L, Young RA, Livingston DM, Parvin JD (May 1997). "BRCA1 is a component of the RNA ... Cho H, Orphanides G, Sun X, Yang XJ, Ogryzko V, Lees E, Nakatani Y, Reinberg D (September 1998). "A human RNA polymerase II ...

*Positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus

The positive-sense viral RNA genome can also serve as messenger RNA and can be translated into protein in the host cell. ... All positive-sense ssRNA virus genomes encode RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP), a viral protein that synthesizes RNA from an ... Positive-sense ssRNA viruses have genetic material that can function both as a genome and as messenger RNA; it can be directly ... Single stranded RNA viruses are classified as positive or negative depending on the sense or polarity of the RNA. ...

*Messenger RNA

... (mRNA) is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they ... MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNAs that typically are partially complementary to sequences in metazoan messenger RNAs. Binding ... A 5' cap (also termed an RNA cap, an RNA 7-methylguanosine cap, or an RNA m7G cap) is a modified guanine nucleotide that has ... that are targeted to specific messenger RNAs by a combination of cis-regulatory sequences on the RNA and trans-acting RNA- ...

*Messenger RNA decapping

The process of messenger RNA decapping consists of hydrolysis of the 5' cap structure on the RNA exposing a 5' monophosphate. ... Sheth, Ujwal; Parker, Roy (2 May 2003). "Decapping and Decay of Messenger RNA Occur in Cytoplasmic Processing Bodies". Science ... Deana, Atilio; Celesnik, Helena; Belasco, Joel G. (17 January 2008). "The bacterial enzyme RppH triggers messenger RNA ... Meyer, Sylke; Temme, Claudia; Wahle, Elmar (January 2004). "Messenger RNA Turnover in Eukaryotes: Pathways and Enzymes". ...

*Mature messenger RNA

... , often abbreviated as mature mRNA is a eukaryotic RNA transcript that has been spliced and processed and ... Unlike the eukaryotic RNA immediately after transcription known as precursor messenger RNA, mature mRNA consists exclusively of ... RNA splicing removes the non-coding RNA introns leaving behind the exons, which are then spliced and joined together to form ... ", "mature RNA" or "mRNA". The production of a mature mRNA molecule occurs in 3 steps: During capping, a 7-methylguanosine ...

*Variant of uncertain significance

Marotta CA, Wilson JT, Forget BG, Weissman SM (1977). "Human beta-globin messenger RNA. III. Nucleotide sequences derived from ... Less than 5% of the human genome encodes proteins, and the rest is associated with non-coding RNA molecules, regulatory DNA ...

*REG1B

Giorgi D, Bernard JP, Rouquier S, Iovanna J, Sarles H, Dagorn JC (1989). "Secretory pancreatic stone protein messenger RNA. ...

*HBE1

1977). "Human beta-globin messenger RNA. I. Nucleotide sequences derived from complementary RNA". J. Biol. Chem. 252 (14): 5019 ... Chabot B, Black DL, LeMaster DM, Steitz JA (1986). "The 3' splice site of pre-messenger RNA is recognized by a small nuclear ... Proudfoot NJ, Brownlee GG (1976). "3' non-coding region sequences in eukaryotic messenger RNA". Nature. 263 (5574): 211-4. doi: ...

*Phytic acid

... required for efficient messenger RNA export". Science. 285 (5424): 96-100. doi:10.1126/science.285.5424.96. PMID 10390371. ...

*HBG1

1977). "Human beta-globin messenger RNA. I. Nucleotide sequences derived from complementary RNA". J. Biol. Chem. 252 (14): 5019 ... Proudfoot NJ, Brownlee GG (1976). "3' non-coding region sequences in eukaryotic messenger RNA". Nature. 263 (5574): 211-4. doi: ...

*Chuan He

... methylation in mammalian messenger RNA (mRNA) in 2011. The existence of m6A in mRNA was discovered in 1974 in both eukaryotic ... "N6-methyladenosine modulates messenger RNA translation efficiency". Cell. 161 (6): 1388-1399. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2015.05.014. ... "N6-Methyladenosine-dependent regulation of messenger RNA stability". Nature. 505 (7481): 117-120. Bibcode:2014Natur.505..117W. ... Chuan He is best known for his work in discovering and deciphering reversible RNA methylation in post-transcriptional gene ...

*Exosome component 6

van Hoof A, Parker R (2002). "Messenger RNA degradation: beginning at the end". Curr. Biol. 12 (8): R285-7. doi:10.1016/S0960- ... Its exact function is not known, however, it has been shown using a cell-free RNA decay system that the exosome is required for ...

*Hemoglobin subunit zeta

1974). "Nucleotide Sequences of Human Globin Messenger RNA". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 71 (6): 2300-4. doi:10.1073/pnas. ... Proudfoot NJ, Brownlee GG (1976). "3' non-coding region sequences in eukaryotic messenger RNA". Nature. 263 (5574): 211-4. doi: ...

*REG3A

Messenger RNA cloning and expression in pancreatic diseases". J. Clin. Invest. 90 (6): 2284-91. doi:10.1172/JCI116115. PMC ...

*RNA modification

"N6-methyladenosine-dependent regulation of messenger RNA stability". Nature. 505 (7481): 117-20. doi:10.1038/nature12730. PMC ... RNA modification occurs in all living organisms, and is one of the most evolutionarily conserved properties of RNAs. It can ... To identify diverse post-transcriptional modifications of RNA molecules and determine the transcriptome-wide landscape of RNA ... 2013). "NSun2-mediated cytosine-5 methylation of vault noncoding RNA determines its processing into regulatory small RNAs". ...

*YTHDF2

"N6-methyladenosine-dependent regulation of messenger RNA stability". Nature. 505 (7481): 117-20. doi:10.1038/nature12730. PMC ... YTH N6-methyladenosine RNA binding protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the YTHDF2 gene. This gene encodes a ... Tirumuru N, Zhao BS, Lu W, Lu Z, He C, Wu L (2016). "N(6)-methyladenosine of HIV-1 RNA regulates viral infection and HIV-1 Gag ... The YTH domain is usually located in the middle of the protein sequence and may function in binding to RNA. In addition to a ...

*CPSF2

Bienroth S, Keller W, Wahle E (1993). "Assembly of a processive messenger RNA polyadenylation complex". EMBO J. 12 (2): 585-94 ... 1996). "The RNA 3' cleavage factors CstF 64 kDa and CPSF 100 kDa are concentrated in nuclear domains closely associated with ... 2005). "Human Fip1 is a subunit of CPSF that binds to U-rich RNA elements and stimulates poly(A) polymerase". EMBO J. 23 (3): ... 1997). "The C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II couples mRNA processing to transcription". Nature. 385 (6614): 357-61. doi: ...

*Dihydrofolate reductase

Morandi C, Masters JN, Mottes M, Attardi G (April 1982). "Multiple forms of human dihydrofolate reductase messenger RNA. ... "A human dihydrofolate reductase pseudogene and its relationship to the multiple forms of specific messenger RNA". Journal of ... Masters JN, Attardi G (March 1985). "Discrete human dihydrofolate reductase gene transcripts present in polysomal RNA map with ... "Intronless human dihydrofolate reductase genes are derived from processed RNA molecules". Proceedings of the National Academy ...

*HBAP1

1974). "Nucleotide sequences of human globin messenger RNA". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 71 (6): 2300-4. doi:10.1073/pnas. ... non-coding region sequences in eukaryotic messenger RNA". Nature. 263 (5574): 211-4. doi:10.1038/263211a0. PMID 822353. ...

*PCK1

1985). "Rat hepatic cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP). Structures of the protein, messenger RNA, and gene". J. ...

*CUGBP1

Meyer S, Temme C, Wahle E (2004). "Messenger RNA turnover in eukaryotes: pathways and enzymes". Crit. Rev. Biochem. Mol. Biol. ... Moraes KC, Wilusz CJ, Wilusz J (June 2006). "CUG-BP binds to RNA substrates and recruits PARN deadenylase". RNA. 12 (6): 1084- ... 2004). "Altered expression of CUG binding protein 1 mRNA in myotonic dystrophy 1: possible RNA-RNA interaction". Neurosci. Res ... CUG triplet repeat, RNA binding protein 1, also known as CUGBP1, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CUGBP1 gene. ...

*Metabolism

... using the sequence information in a messenger RNA. Nucleotides are made from amino acids, carbon dioxide and formic acid in ... Many viruses have an RNA genome, such as HIV, which uses reverse transcription to create a DNA template from its viral RNA ... RNA in ribozymes such as spliceosomes and ribosomes is similar to enzymes as it can catalyze chemical reactions. Individual ... The two nucleic acids, DNA and RNA, are polymers of nucleotides. Each nucleotide is composed of a phosphate attached to a ...

*EIF2S1

Characterization of the protein and its messenger RNA". J Biol Chem. 262 (3): 1206-12. PMID 2948954. "Entrez Gene: EIF2S1 ... 1993). "Translational regulation by the interferon-induced double-stranded-RNA-activated 68-kDa protein kinase". Proc. Natl. ... 1999). "The interferon-induced double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase PKR will phosphorylate serine, threonine, or ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential mRNA expression of prostaglandin receptor subtypes in macrophage activation. AU - Hubbard, Neil. AU - Lee, S. H.. AU - Lim, D.. AU - Erickson, Kent L. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - Assessing the regulation of macrophage receptors for prostaglandin (PGE2) is essential to understanding the control which that potent lipid mediator has in modulating macrophage activities. The purpose of this study was to assess the differential mRNA expression of PGE2 receptor subtypes (EP) during macrophage exposure to activating and transducing agents. RAW 264.7 macrophages constitutively expressed mRNA for EP2, EP3 and EP4 receptor subtypes. Messenger RNA for EP4 was expressed at a much higher level when compared to EP2 in unstimulated macrophages as assessed by kinetic quantitative RT-PCR. When macrophages were stimulated with LPS, EP2 mRNA levels were 12-fold higher when compared to unstimulated macrophages, while EP4 mRNA remained unchanged. Conversely, mRNA levels of both EP2 and EP4 ...
The substantial amount of RNA required for expression analysis is a limiting factor for the cDNA microarray technology in a number of potentially important applications. Two main approaches, signal amplification and global mRNA amplification, have been developed to overcome this obstacle. Signal amplification, such as dendrimer technology [1] and tyramide signal amplification (TSA) [2] aim to increase the fluorescent signal emitted per mRNA molecule. Global mRNA amplification has the purpose of increasing the number of available transcript equivalents for sufficient labeling from a limited starting amount. In current implementations, mRNA amplification techniques require less RNA than those based on signal amplification.. Van Gelder et al. [3] devised a multistep strategy to amplify mRNA from limited quantities of cDNA in studies of gene expression. Their method is commonly referred to in the literature as the Eberwine method. The general steps involve reverse transcription of mRNA with an oligo ...
Figure 3 Thermogenic program and β3-adrenergic receptor signaling is mediated by membrane-initiated ERα signaling. A: Immunoblot analysis of UCP1 levels in BAT and pWAT of ERα+/+, ERα−/−, WT, and KRRki/ki mice. Representative immunoblots and quantification are shown (n = 5-8 per group). #P , 0.01. B: qRT-PCR analysis of genes consistent with beige adipocytes in adipose tissues of ERα+/+, ERα−/−, WT, and KRRki/ki mice (n = 6-8). Relative mRNA expression levels are normalized to gapdh. *P , 0.05, #P , 0.01. C: Hematoxylin and eosin staining of pWAT of ERα+/+, ERα−/−, WT, and KRRki/ki mice. Scale bar indicates 100 µm. The graph depicts the quantification of mean cell area (n = 4). #P , 0.01. D: qRT-PCR analysis of genes consistent with beige adipocytes in NIH 3T3-L1 preadipocytes treated with vehicle (control), 100 nmol/L E2, or 2 µmol/L rosiglitazone for 72 h. Relative mRNA expression levels are normalized to gapdh. Data depict the results from three independent experiments. ...
RNA expression patterns of cancer-adjacent breast tissue could be to gauge future survival outcomes for women with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer
Figure 3. Western blots of Cos7 cell extracts stained with CCM2 antibody (A and B). Cells were transfected with an expression vector encoding a full-length CCM2-GFP fusion protein ( ). Untransfected cells served as controls ( ). A, In transfected cells, the CCM2 antibody detects an 82-kDa protein (expected size for the fusion protein). No staining is observed in untransfected controls. B, Peptide competition eliminates staining, demonstrating the specificity of this antibody for the CCM2 protein. C, Multitissue Western blot reveals CCM2 protein expression in the brain, heart, lung, and kidney. - CCM2 expression parallels that of CCM1.
Principal Investigator:FUKUDA Takeshi, Project Period (FY):1991 - 1993, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (C), Research Field:Respiratory organ internal medicine
gene, would facilitate examination of the role of this gene in the inheritance of human obesity. Northern blot analysis revealed that OB RNA is present at a high level in adipose tissue but at much lower levels in placenta and heart. OB RNA is undetectable in a wide range of other tissues. Comparative mapping of mouse and human DNA indicated that the ob gene is located within a region of mouse chromosome 6 that is homologous to a portion of human chromosome 7q. We mapped the human ...
Gene ablation and reconstitution data show that PAI1 can promote cancer progression (11-14), and correlative data consistently indicate that its elevated expression in breast tumors is an independent indicator of poor prognosis (4-8). Here, we found that high PAI1 mRNA expression is also associated with shorter overall survival in breast cancer. Nevertheless, the transcription-altering PAI1 4G/5G SNP was not associated with breast cancer incidence, outcome, or tumoral PAI1 mRNA expression. Thus, local factors seem to be more important than germ line genetic variability in determining the level of PAI1 expression in breast cancer. Furthermore, our data show that PAI1 mRNA levels correlate with CTGF and the level of PAI1 gene amplification, suggesting that they play an important role in regulating the expression and adverse effects of PAI1 in breast cancer.. Because PAI1 mRNA expression correlates with its protein expression in breast cancer (39), we reasoned that its mRNA expression should also ...
Individual fractions of polysomes were isolated from yeast. Pulse labeling experiments in vivo show constant specific activity of messenger RNA in each polysome peak; this suggests a uniform density of ribosomes per unit length of messenger RNA. In the cell-free incorporating system, the amount of peptide per ribosome unit increased with the size of polysome.. ...
Shinde and Klein are not yet sure whether GSK-3s effect on RNA splicing explains its role in mood disorders. The effect of GSK-3 on messenger RNA in neuronal cells, with or without lithium, would need to be examined to determine this. The study underlines how investigations into the basic biological function of a drug target can lead in unexpected directions. "[The GSK-3 phosphoproteome] is a really large data set," Shinde said. "Its a resource for the field." "The relevance to leukemia could be direct and something worthy of immediate study," Klein said. "The role in psychiatric disorders is a major interest of the work, but the impact would be down the road, not immediate." ...
Time-dependent induction of connected cells by overexpression of cdc5ΔN. (A) Strain KLY1083 expressing three copies of GAL1-EGFP-cdc5ΔN homogeneously induced
Alternative splicing (AS) is a post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism for gene expression regulation. Splicing decisions are affected by the combinatorial behavior of different splicing factors that bind to multiple binding sites in exons and introns.
... (mRNA) is a molecule of RNA encoding a chemical "blueprint" for a protein product. mRNA is transcribed from a DNA template, and carries coding information to the sites of protein synthesis: the ribosomes. Here, the nucleic acid polymer is translated into a polymer of amino acids: a protein. In mRNA as in DNA, genetic information is encoded in the sequence of nucleotides arranged into codons consisting of three bases each. Each codon encodes for a specific amino acid, except the stop codons that terminate protein synthesis. This process requires two other types of RNA: transfer RNA (tRNA) mediates recognition of the codon and provides the corresponding amino acid, while ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is the central component of the ribosomes protein manufacturing machinery.. ...
Background: Current methodology of gene expression analysis limits the possibilities of comparison between cells/tissues of organs in which cell size and/or number changes as a consequence of the study (e.g. starvation). A method relating the abundance of specific mRNA copies per cell may allow direct comparison or different organs and/or changing physiological conditions. Methods: With a number of selected genes, we analysed the relationship of the number of bases and the fluorescence recorded at a present level using cDNA standards. A lineal relationship was found between the final number of bases and the length of the transcript. The constants of this equation and those of the relationship between fluorescence and number of bases in cDNA were determined and a general equation linking the length of the transcript and the initial number of copies of mRNA was deduced for a given pre-established fluorescence setting. This allowed the calculation of the concentration of the corresponding mRNAs per ...
The budding yeast genome comprises roughly 6000 genes generating a number of about 10 [ ] 000 mRNA copies, which gives a general estimation of 1-2 mRNA copies generated per gene. What does this observation implicate for cellular processes and their regulation? Whether the number of mRNA molecules produced is imp
I would like to know what amounts of protein are necessary for pregnant women? I have been eating the Paleo Diet since you introduced me to it. This is my first
Im prepping for surgery right now with a liquid diet. What would you say is the minimum grams of protein to get a day? My doctor wants 100g but Ive been lucky to get 60g. Is this going to hurt me down the road?Thanks!
YV Subrahmanyam, S Yamaga, Y Prashar, HH Lee, NP Hoe, Y Kluger, M Gerstein, JD Goguen, PE Newburger, SM Weissman (2001). Blood 97: 2457-68 ...
Mouse monocytic Mm-A, Mm-P, Mm-S1, and Mm-S2 cells are sublines of mouse monocytic and immortalized Mm-1 cells derived from spontaneously differentiated, mouse myeloblastic M1 cells. Although these subline cells retain their monocytic characteristics in vitro, Mm-A and Mm-P cells are highly leukemogenic to syngeneic SL mice and athymic nude mice, whereas Mm-S1 and Mm-S2 cells are not or are only slightly leukemogenic. To better understand the molecular mechanisms of these levels of leukemogenicity, we investigated putative leukemogenesis-associated genes or oncogenes involved in the maintenance of growth, especially in vivo, by means of differential mRNA display. We isolated a fragment clone (15T01) from Mm-P cells. The mRNA probed with 15T01 was expressed at high levels in leukemogenic Mm-P and Mm-A cells but not in nonleukemogenic Mm-S1 and Mm-S2 cells. The gene corresponding to 15T01, named TRA1, was isolated from an Mm-P cDNA library. The longest open reading frame of the TRA1 clone predicts ...
Mouse monocytic Mm-A, Mm-P, Mm-S1, and Mm-S2 cells are sublines of mouse monocytic and immortalized Mm-1 cells derived from spontaneously differentiated, mouse myeloblastic M1 cells. Although these subline cells retain their monocytic characteristics in vitro, Mm-A and Mm-P cells are highly leukemogenic to syngeneic SL mice and athymic nude mice, whereas Mm-S1 and Mm-S2 cells are not or are only slightly leukemogenic. To better understand the molecular mechanisms of these levels of leukemogenicity, we investigated putative leukemogenesis-associated genes or oncogenes involved in the maintenance of growth, especially in vivo, by means of differential mRNA display. We isolated a fragment clone (15T01) from Mm-P cells. The mRNA probed with 15T01 was expressed at high levels in leukemogenic Mm-P and Mm-A cells but not in nonleukemogenic Mm-S1 and Mm-S2 cells. The gene corresponding to 15T01, named TRA1, was isolated from an Mm-P cDNA library. The longest open reading frame of the TRA1 clone predicts ...
The stably expressed Mad2 proteins were immunoprecipitated from cell extracts with anti‐Flag antibody, and the co‐immunoprecipitated Cdc27 and Mad1 were visualized by western blot analysis (Figure 6B). Cdc20 co‐migrates with the antibody heavy chain, which makes it difficult to visualize Cdc20 by western blot analysis in co‐immunoprecipitations. Therefore, the same extracts were subjected to an immunoprecipitation with Cdc20 antibody, followed by a Mad2 western blot. Analysis of the interaction profiles of the stably expressed Mad2 constructs in cycling cells reveals that 3S‐D Flag‐Mad2 is unable to associate with Cdc27 (Figure 6B, lane 7) and Mad1 (Figure 6B, lane 11). The interaction with Cdc20 is also impaired (Figure 6B, lane 15). Similar results were observed in transient transfection assays (Figure 6G, lane 7 and 11). Finally, even though the protein amounts of 3S‐A Flag‐Mad2 are lower than those of Flag‐Mad2 (Figure 6B, compare lanes 2 and 4), a stronger interaction with ...
Cancer cells. (A) Relative expression levels of Nox1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 mRNAs in A549 cells were determined by real-time RT-PCR and are presented as mean delta Ct
J:60127 Pascolo S, Tsoukatou D, Mamalaki C, Identification of thymus specific and developmentally regulated genes by an improved version of the mRNA differential display technique. Dev Immunol. 1999;7(1):1-7 ...
SUBUNIT STRUCTURE:. The PAN deadenylation complex is a heterodimer of a catalytic subunit PAN2 and a regulatory subunit PAN3.. ENZYME REGULATION:. Positively regulated by the regulatory subunit PAN3. Negatively regulated by PAB1-binding protein PBP1. Inhibited under stress conditions. Inhibition of deadenylation under stress increases mRNA stability, which may be a mechanism to retain the majority of the cytoplasmic pool of mRNAs for later reuse and recovery from stress.. ...
Comments, concepts and statistics about Systematic discovery of structural elements governing stability of mammalian messenger RNAs..
The technology we have available to us today in the lab is both a boon and a bafflement. Example: The screens we have for RNA expression in cells is so sensitive we can see tiny changes in RNA expression levels in healthy/diseased/drug treated/etc cells. YAY! More information! More observations! More new ideas for research!… Except,…. ...
DS was born at 36 weeks by EMCS, following a failed induction attempt. There were complications in the pregnancy that meant he was monitored closely
DNA is the informational basis from which living cells derive instructions for synthesizing proteins. Many of the resulting proteins are enzymes that catalyze biochemical reactions from which the cell derives energy or generates other molecules essential to its health and safety. The process normally occurs when the sequence of nucleotides in DNA is transcribed into a complementary, single strand of nucleotides known as messenger RNA, or mRNA. The mRNA provides the instructions by which other components in the cell synthesize proteins. Because not all genes are transcribed (or expressed) but all genes that are transcribed do so through mRNA, the presence of mRNA is an indicator that a gene from the cells DNA has been expressed. The DNA from which the mRNA is obtained is sometimes interspersed with oligonucleotide spacers that do not appear in the final mRNA. Because mRNA is used for the cells molecular machinery to generate the protein, the sequence of DNA (or gene) that corresponds to a ...
overexpressing GPX1 in endothelial cells is able to change the basal mRNA and protein BAX levels without affecting those of TP53 and BCL2 (useful to antiatherogenic therapies which use antioxidants with the aim of protecting the vascular wall against ...
Question 1 (1 point) Which of the following is a true statement about genes?Question 1 options: A) Genes are structures within chromosomes of each cell that contain deoxyribonucleic acid B) Genes are messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) C) Genes are cells that determine gender during fertilization D) Genes are antibodies that promote disease SaveQuestion 2 (1 point) Which of the following is the major cause of death from cancer?Question 2 options: A) Infection B) Hemorrhage C) Pain D) Metastasis SaveQuestion 3 (1 point) Which of the following statements is true with respect to the stages of cancer?Question 3 options: A) Stage 1 represents a poor prognosis B) Localized cancer is a stage 4 C) Benign tumors are stage 2 D) &
CureVac is the first company to successfully harness messenger RNA (mRNA) for medical purposes. The principle is promising: use natural mRNA as a data carrier to instruct the human body to produce its own proteins to fight a wide range of diseases. ...
Study Flashcards On FA page 199 G-protein linked 2nd messengers, major functions plus major grouping at Cram.com. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want!
Last weekend I had the opportunity to learn from one of the most intelligent fitness minds in the industry. Aside from learning an abundant amount of
With all of thre recent talk of the noes, I wanted to post pics of my mono noe worn messenger style with the long strap (purchased separately for...
(PhysOrg.com) -- A tiny motor tasked with one of nature’s biggest jobs is now better understood. The molecular machinery that helps export messenger RNA from a cell’s nucleus has been structurally mapped at the ...
Translate Bio, Inc. (TBIO), a clinical-stage messenger RNA (mRNA) therapeutics company developing a new class of potentially transformative medicines to treat diseases caused by protein or gene dysfunction, today announced the pricing of its underwritten public offering of 9,000,000 shares of its common
WE have seen how the ordinary glands of the body produce their secretions and how the latter pass down particular ducts to the sites where they act. We have now
டி.என்.ஏ யில் இருந்து ஆர்.என்.ஏ யாக மாற்றப்படும் செயல்முறை. இம்மாற்றத்தின் போது மரபு ஈரிழையின் (டி.என்.எ ) 5 (முனை அல்லது தொடர்) ப்ரீம் இருந்து 3 (முனை அல்லது தொடர்) ப்ரீம் நோக்கி ஆர்.என்.ஏ நகலாக்கப்படும். இவ்வினையின் பொழுது ஆர்.என்.ஏ பாலிமரசு ௨ (II) என்ற நொதி டி.என்.ஏ யிலிருந்து செய்திகாவும் (messenger) ஆர்.என்.ஏ (எம்.ஆர்.என்.ஏ) உருவாதலில் முக்கிய பங்காற்றுகின்றது. இதுவே ஆர்.என்.ஏ. படியெடுப்பு ...
The TV MegaSites As The World Turns Site is a large fan page with information, links, daily summaries, transcripts, and more
The TV MegaSites As The World Turns Site is a large fan page with information, links, daily summaries, transcripts, and more
Promoter Methylation and Relative mRNA Expression of the p16 Gene in Cervical Cancer in North Indians Cervical cancer;p16 methylation;p16 mRNA expression;North Indian population; Background: Cervical carcinoma is one of the main causes of mortality in women worldwide as well as in India. It occurs as a result of various molecular events that develop from the combined influences of an individuals genetic predisposition and external agents such as smoking and menstrual hygiene, for example. However, infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is the established major risk factor. The aim of the current study was to investigate p16 CpG island methylation and establish any correlation with mRNA expression in north Indian population. Materials and Methods: We analyzed 196 woman volunteer out of which 98 were cases and 98 healthy controls. For the analysis of methylation pattern, DNA extracted from blood samples was modified with a bisulfate kit and used as template for methylation specific PCR (MSP).
The regulation of mRNA stability has emerged as a critical control step in dynamic gene expression. This process occurs in response to modifications of the cellular environment, including hormonal variations, and regulates the expression of subsets of proteins whose levels need to be rapidly adjusted. Modulation of messenger RNA stability is usually mediated by stabilizing or destabilizing RNA-binding proteins (RNA-BP) that bind to the 3-untranslated region (3UTR) regulatory motifs, such as AU-rich elements (AREs). Destabilizing ARE-binding proteins enhance the decay of their target transcripts by recruiting the mRNA decay machineries. Failure of such mechanisms, in particular misexpression of RNA-BP, has been linked to several human diseases. In the adrenal cortex, the expression and activity of mRNA stability regulatory proteins are still understudied. However, ACTH- or cAMP-elicited changes in the expression/phosphorylation status of the major mRNA-destabilizing protein TIS11b/BRF1 or in the
Relative mRNA expression of osteoblast/ osteocyte markers.MSCs were cultured in unmodified (no ALP), ALP-modified (ALP) alginate beads or on traditional culture
Most in situ hybridization histochemistry studies of messenger RNA in human brain have been carried out on frozen tissue. Recently, autoclaving has been reported to enable routinely processsed material to be used for in situ localization of messenger RNA. We have investigated whether autoclaving also permits in situ hybridization histochemistry to be used quantitatively. To do this, we targeted synaptophysin messenger RNA with a 35S-labelled oligonucleotide probe in autoclaved, formalin-fixed, paraffin wax-embedded sections of the hippocampal formation of 11 schizophrenics and 11 controls. We compared the results with those seen on frozen sections from adjacent blocks, which had been used previously to demonstrate a loss of the messenger RNA in schizophrenia. Synaptophysin messenger RNA was readily detected in the autoclaved sections. The hybridization signal correlated strongly with that seen in the frozen sections. We found a similar pattern and magnitude of decreased synaptophysin messenger RNA in
The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate how genome engineering might be used to generate Escherichia coli strains with increased capacities for recombinant protein production. As translation constitute a possible bottleneck in recombinant production processes [Mahalik et. al, 2014] this work focused on evaluating and increasing translational capacities in E. coli. Two methods were used to evaluate translational capacities in E. coli: 1. Two plasmid reporter systems were established to investigate levels of ribosome expression. These plasmids carried red fluorescent protein genes (mCherry), under control of ribosomal promoters. Levels of expression of ribosomal constituents were evaluated by measuring fluorescence from strains carrying reporter plasmids.. 2. Exponential phase growth rates were used to assess translational capacities. Protein synthesis is generally the growth rate limiting factor during exponential phases, and a positive linear correlation between growth rates and ...
This study examined the different molecular forms of CRH in normal and preeclampsia maternal plasma and protease-blocked placental extracts using antibodies to different regions of the CRH precursor, pro-CRH. In the absence of protease inhibitors, chromatographed normal placental extracts contained four peaks of immunoreactivity corresponding to unprocessed approximately 19-kDa pro-CRH, its approximately 8-kDa intermediate metabolite, pro-CRH125-194, its approximately 2.8-kDa midportion fragment, pro-CRH125-151, and 4.75-kDa CRH1-41. However, if protease inhibitors were included in the extraction medium, only pro-CRH and pro-CRH125-194 were found. Pro-CRH processing was more extensive in protease-blocked preeclampsia placentas than in those from normal pregnancy, with three peaks corresponding to pro-CRH, pro-CRH125-194, and mature CRH1-41 peptide found. Using quantitative competitive PCR, the messenger ribonucleic acid levels of CRH precursor in preeclampsia placentas were 1.7-fold higher than ...
In order to better understand cellular responses to viral infection at the transcriptional level, we employed differential display RT-PCR to analyze mRNAs from RD rhabdomyosarcoma cells following infection with a neurovirulent enterovirus 71 (EV71) strain, compared with mRNAs from uninfected cells. Of 250 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) isolated, sequenced, and identified, all were of cellular origin except 1 that was of viral origin. Of these, 156 were individual distinctive clones, comprising 45 mRNAs showing unaltered expression and 111 mRNAs exhibiting upregulation or downregulation. Of the 45 uniformly expressed mRNAs, 14 represented unknown genes. Of the 111 differentially expressed mRNAs, 63 did not match any known genes. Forty-eight of the 111 mRNAs modified by EV71 infection matched known genes, including those encoding components of cell cycle, cytoskeleton, and cell death mediators; protein degradation mediators; mitochondrial-related proteins; components of protein translation and ...
In our study, we tried to quantify the relative contribution of transcriptional and post‐transcriptional regulation to mRNA levels. We show that tri‐methylation of lysine 36 of histone H3, a chromatin modification that is set co‐transcriptionally, provides a quantitative measure of the process of RNA synthesis. We built a linear model that combines H3K36 tri‐methylation with other histone marks and Pol‐II occupancy to predict transcription and to relate it to mRNA levels. This reveals a high correlation between predicted transcription based on chromatin and actual mRNA abundance in both dividing pluripotent cells and terminally differentiated neurons, suggesting that transcription and mRNA levels are tightly linked at different cellular stages. These findings are consistent with two recent studies comparing direct measures of transcription with mRNA abundance (Rabani et al, 2011; Schwanhäusser et al, 2011). Furthermore, we investigated the predictive power of histone marks towards ...
BioAssay record AID 755109 submitted by ChEMBL: Antiviral activity against HCV JFH-1 infected in human Huh7.5.1 cells assessed as viral core protein expression at 0.8 to 8 uM after 72 hrs by Western blot analysis.
The presence of angiotensinogen messenger RNA (mRNA) was assessed in total RNA extracted from hepatoma, glioma, neuroblastoma, and glioma-neuroblastoma hybrid cell lines. Total RNA from 1 X 10(7) cells was extracted, transferred to a membrane, and hybridized with a 32P-labeled, full-length (1650-base pair) rat angiotensinogen complementary DNA (cDNA). Angiotensinogen RNA sequences could be definitively detected only in hepatoma cells. Steroids were used in an attempt to increase the angiotensinogen mRNA level. Dexamethasone (2 X 10(-6) M) or 17 beta-estradiol (1 X 10(-7) M) was added to the cultures 18 to 24 hours prior to harvest. Dexamethasone treatment of the hepatoma cells resulted in a large increase in angiotensinogen mRNA, whereas estradiol had no effect. Steroids failed to induce detectable levels of angiotensinogen mRNA in total RNA from the other cell lines. That the RNA was intact was ensured by hybridizing duplicate Northern blots to a 32P-labeled actin cDNA. Actin mRNA sequences ...
Under conditions of normal oxygen tension (normoxia), translation of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) into proteins depends on the binding of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) to the 7-methylguanosine (m7-GpppG) 5′ cap of the mRNA. When oxygen tension is low (hypoxia), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-dependent signaling results in the sequestration of eIF4E, thus inhibiting cap-dependent translation. Uniacke et al. studied expression of the gene encoding the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and found that EGFR mRNA was translated under hypoxic conditions through a process that was dependent on hypoxia-inducible factor 2α (HIF-2α) but was not affected by the addition of transcription inhibitors to block the expression of HIF-2α target genes. EGFR mRNA was associated with polysomes in hypoxic cells, and knockdown of HIF-2α blocked its translation. HIF-2α was physically associated with polysomes containing EGFR mRNA, and RNA immunoprecipitation assays showed that the ...
mRNA stability is modulated by elements in the mRNA transcript and their cognate RNA binding proteins. Poly(U) binding protein 1 (Pub1) is a cytoplasmic Saccharomyces cerevisiae mRNA binding protein that stabilizes transcripts containing AU-rich elements (AREs) or stabilizer elements (STEs). In a yeast two-hybrid screen, we identified nuclear poly(A) binding protein 2 (Nab2) as being a Pub1-interacting protein. Nab2 is an essential nucleocytoplasmic shuttling mRNA binding protein that regulates poly(A) tail length and mRNA export. The interaction between Pub1 and Nab2 was confirmed by copurification and in vitro binding assays. The interaction is mediated by the Nab2 zinc finger domain. Analysis of the functional link between these proteins reveals that Nab2, like Pub1, can modulate the stability of specific mRNA transcripts. The half-life of the RPS16B transcript, an ARE-like sequence-containing Pub1 target, is decreased in both nab2-1 and nab2-67 mutants. In contrast, GCN4, an STE-containing ...
Mature messenger RNA, often abbreviated as mature mRNA is a eukaryotic RNA transcript that has been spliced and processed and is ready for translation in the course of protein synthesis. Unlike the eukaryotic RNA immediately after transcription known as precursor messenger RNA, mature mRNA consists exclusively of exons and has all introns removed. Mature mRNA is also called "mature transcript", "mature RNA" or "mRNA". The production of a mature mRNA molecule occurs in 3 steps: During capping, a 7-methylguanosine residue is attached to the 5-terminal end of the primary transcripts. This is otherwise known as the GTP or 5 Cap, and is used for the stability and attachment point for ribosomes. In polyadenylation, a poly-adenosine tail of about 200 adenylate residues is added by a nuclear polymerase post-transcriptionally. This is known as a Poly-A tail and is used for stability and guidance, so that the mRNA can exit the nucleus and find the ribosome. RNA splicing removes the non-coding RNA ...
AU-rich elements (AREs) in 3-untranslated regions of mRNAs confer instability. They target mRNAs for rapid deadenylation and degradation and may enhance decapping. The p38 MAPK pathway stabilizes many otherwise unstable ARE-containing mRNAs encoding proteins involved in inflammation; however, the mRNA decay step(s) regulated by the signaling pathway are unknown. To investigate whether it regulates deadenylation or the decay of the mRNA body, we used a tetracycline-regulated beta-globin mRNA reporter system to transcribe pulses of mRNA of uniform length. We measured on Northern gels the migration of reporter mRNAs isolated from cells transfected only with reporter plasmid or co-transfected with an active mutant of MAPK kinase-6, and treated either with or without the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB 203580. Differences in migration were shown by RNase H mapping with oligo(dT) to be due to poly(A) shortening. Insertion of an ARE into the beta-globin reporter mRNA promoted rapid deadenylation and decay of hypo
Some work on this problem has been done. A fairly recent reference (with abstract) is given below. Authors Thanaraj TA. Argos P. Title Protein secondary structural types are differentially coded on messenger RNA. Source Protein Science. Vol 5(10) (pp 1973-1983), 1996. Abstract Tricodon regions on messenger RNAs corresponding to a set of proteins from Escherichia coli were scrutinized for their translation speed. The fractional frequency values of the individual codons as they occur in mRNAs of highly expressed genes from Escherichia coli were taken as an indicative measure of the translation speed. The tricodons were classified by the sum of the frequency values of the constituent codons. Examination of the conformation of the encoded amino acid residues in the corresponding protein tertiary structures revealed a correlation between codon usage in mRNA and topological features of the encoded proteins. Alpha helices on proteins tend to be preferentially coded by translationally fast mRNA regions ...
We determined the effects of supplemental L-carnitine on the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system in porcine embryonic myoblasts (PEM) from gilts. Forty gilts (BW = 303.6 lb) were allotted to 1 of 4 treatments that were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial, with main effects of L-carnitine (0 or 50 ppm) and day of gestation (55 or 70). All gilts were fed 3.86 lb/day and a top-dress containing either 0 or 50 ppm of L-carnitine, starting on the first day of breeding and continuing through the allotted gestation length. At d 55 or 70 of gestation, fetuses were removed for isolation of PEM from the hind-limb muscles. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to determine growth factor messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in cultured PEM at 72-, 96-, 120-, and 144-h after plating. Flow cytometry was used to analyze percentage of myogenic cells with a myoblast/myotube specific monoclonal antibody 5.1H11, and for determination of cell cycle stage. There was no treatment differences (P,0.10) for the expression of ...
A regulatory locus in a higher organism has been shown to control a specific messenger RNA activity. The Gur locus in mice regulates the production of kidney beta-glucuronidase messenger RNA activity after induction of the beta-glucuronidase structural gene, Gus, by testosterone. beta-Glucuronidase messenger RNA was assayed by its ability to direct the synthesis of catalytically active murine beta-glucuronidase in Xenopus oocytes.
Functions of the PolyA Tail 1.Promotes mRNA stability - Deadenylation (shortening of the polyA tail) can trigger rapid degradation of the mRNA 2.Enhances translation - promotes recruitment by ribosomes - bound by a polyA-binding protein in the cytoplasm called PAB1 - synergistic stimulation with Cap!
Messenger RNA (mRNA) degradation is an important element of gene expression that can be modulated by alterations in translation, such as reductions in initiation or elongation rates. Reducing translation initiation strongly affects mRNA degradation by driving mRNA toward the assembly of a decapping complex, leading to decapping. While mRNA stability decreases as a consequence of translational inhibition, in apparent contradiction several external stresses both inhibit translation initiation and stabilize mRNA. A key difference in these processes is that stresses induce multiple responses, one of which stabilizes mRNAs at the initial and rate-limiting step of general mRNA decay. Because this increase in mRNA stability is directly induced by stress, it is independent of the translational effects of stress, which provide the cell with an opportunity to assess its response to changing environmental conditions. After assessment, the cell can store mRNAs, reinitiate their translation or, ...
Hatfield, L., Beelman, C. A., Stevens, A. and Parker, R. (1996). "Mutations in Trans-acting Factors Affecting mRNA Decapping in Saccharomyces cereviciae." Molecular and Cellular Biology 16(10): 5830-8.. ...
Sur8/Shoc2 is a scaffold protein that regulates the Rasextracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. However, the roles of Sur8 in cellular physiologies are poorly understood. In this study, Sur8 was severely repressed in the course of neural progenitor cell (NPC) differentiation in the cerebral cortex of developing rat embryos. Similarly, Sur8 was also critically reduced in cultured NPCs, which were induced differentiation by removal of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Sur8 regulation occurs at the protein level rather than at the mRNA level as revealed by both in situ hybridization and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analyses. The role of Sur8 in NPC differentiation was confirmed by lentivirus-mediated Sur8 knockdown, which resulted in increased differentiation, whereas exogenous expression of Sur8 inhibited differentiation. Contrastingly, NPC proliferation was promoted by overexpression, but was suppressed by Sur8 knockdown. The role of Sur8 as an ...
Post-transcriptional mechanisms of gene regulation play a prominent role during early development. Because the oocyte and developing embryo go through a phase in which no transcription takes place, gene expression relies on a pool of maternal mRNAs accumulated during oogenesis and is regulated at the level of translation or mRNA stability. It has been shown in several biological systems that poly(A) tail shortening contributes to translational silencing, whereas translational activation requires poly(A) tail extension (Richter, 2000; Tadros and Lipshitz, 2005). Poly(A) tail shortening, or deadenylation, is also the first step in mRNA decay. Subsequent steps occur only after the poly(A) tail has been shortened beyond a critical limit (Meyer et al., 2004; Parker and Song, 2004). Rapid deadenylation of unstable RNAs is caused by destabilizing elements, for example AU-rich elements (AREs) found in the 3′ UTRs of several mRNAs. A number of proteins have been identified that bind to destabilizing ...
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a peroxisome proliferating agent when administered in pharmacological dosages, but it has not been shown to function through the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor in cell-based assays. Because members of the thyroid hormone/vitamins A and D nuclear receptor subfamily, including PPAR, are known to modulate each others function in gene expression by heterodimerization, we sought to establish whether DHEA and thyroid hormone interact to regulate several of the hepatic and renal enzymes associated with peroxisome proliferation, i.e., peroxisomal beta-oxidation and microsomal NADPH:cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase and the cytochromes P450 4A. In rats administered exogenous T3 to attain a hyperthyroid state, induction of the three isozymes of CYP4A (4A1, 4A2, and 4A3) by DHEA was suppressed , 60-80% at the mRNA level, with induction of CYP4A2 mRNA being completely inhibited. Nuclear run-on transcription assays indicated that this inhibitory effect was regulated ...
HER-2 and EGFR have been shown to act synergistically to transform NIH3T3 cells (18), with HER-2 potentiating the signaling of EGFR through increased affinity of ligand binding to EGFR, suppression of EGFR degradation, and enhancement of EGFR recycling (19-21). These observations suggest that both HER-2 and EGFR may play a role in promoting tumor cell growth in selected breast cancers; therefore, both may represent targets for anti-receptor-targeted therapy. From this perspective, inhibition of both receptors could be more effective cancer therapy than inhibition of either receptor alone. To assess the potential clinical utility of HER-2 and EGFR as molecular markers of responsiveness to lapatinib, we retrospectively evaluated the association between these receptors and clinical outcome in two trials of lapatinib treatment for women with metastatic breast cancer. These trials were designed to treat patients with, respectively, HER-2-positive breast cancer (EGF100151) and HER-2-negative/untested ...
MicroRNA (miRNA) directed gene repression is an important mechanism of posttranscriptional regulation. Comprehensive analyses of how microRNA influence biological processes requires paired miRNA-mRNA expression datasets. However, a review of both GEO and ArrayExpress repositories revealed few such datasets, which was in stark contrast to the large number of messenger RNA (mRNA) only datasets. It is of interest that numerous primary miRNAs (precursors of microRNA) are known to be co-expressed with coding genes (host genes). We developed a miRNA-mRNA interaction analyses pipeline. The proposed solution is based on two miRNA expression prediction methods - a scaling function and a linear model. Additionally, miRNA-mRNA anti-correlation analyses are used to determine the most probable miRNA gene targets (i.e. the differentially expressed genes under the influence of up- or down-regulated microRNA). Both the consistency and accuracy of the prediction method is ensured by the application of stringent
Only a small proportion of the mouse genome is transcribed into mature messenger RNA transcripts. There is an international collaborative effort to identify all full-length mRNA transcripts from the mouse, and to ensure that each is represented in a physical collection of clones. Here we report the manual annotation of 60,770 full-length mouse complementary DNA sequences. These are clustered into 33,409 transcriptional units, contributing 90.1% of a newly established mouse transcriptome database. Of these transcriptional units, 4,258 are new protein-coding and 11,665 are new non-coding messages, indicating that non-coding RNA is a major component of the transcriptome. 41% of all transcriptional units showed evidence of alternative splicing. In protein-coding transcripts, 79% of splice variations altered the protein product. Whole-transcriptome analyses resulted in the identification of 2,431 sense-antisense pairs. The present work, completely supported by physical clones, provides the most ...
Due to the poor correlation between steady state mRNA levels and protein products, traditional microarray analysis may miss many genes which are regulated primarily at the level of mRNA stability and translation. Posttranscriptional gene regulation is becoming increasingly recognized as an important form of cellular control. The importance of microRNAs and RNA binding proteins (RBPs) is now beginning to be better appreciated. We study the elav (embryonic lethal abnormal vision) family of RBPs, which are paraneoplastic antigens, over-expressed in a variety of malignancies, including breast cancer. Antibodies against elav family members are believed to be cancer-protective. The elav family of RBPs binds to the AU-rich elements (AREs) found in the 3\#8217; untranslated regions (UTRs) of many early-response genes, including proto-oncogenes and cell cycle regulators. HuR, the ubiquitously expressed family member, has been described to play a role in cancer progression. HuR stabilizes and ...
A primary transcript is the single-stranded ribonucleic acid (RNA) product synthesized by transcription of DNA, and processed to yield various mature RNA products such as mRNAs, tRNAs, and rRNAs. The primary transcripts designated to be mRNAs are modified in preparation for translation. For example, a precursor messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) is a type of primary transcript that becomes a messenger RNA (mRNA) after processing. There are several steps contributing to the production of primary transcripts. All these steps involve a series of interactions to initiate and complete the transcription of DNA in the nucleus of eukaryotes. Certain factors play key roles in the activation and inhibition of transcription, where they regulate primary transcript production. Transcription produces primary transcripts that are further modified by several processes. These processes include the 5 cap, 3-polyadenylation, and alternative splicing. In particular, alternative splicing directly contributes to the ...
Untranslated regions (UTRs) are sections of the RNA before the start codon and after the stop codon that are not translated, termed the five prime untranslated region (5 UTR) and three prime untranslated region (3 UTR), respectively. These regions are transcribed as part of the same transcript as the coding region. Several roles in gene expression have been attributed to the untranslated regions, including mRNA stability, mRNA localization, and translational efficiency. The ability of a UTR to perform these functions depends on the sequence of the UTR and can differ between mRNAs. The stability of mRNAs may be controlled by the 5 UTR and/or 3 UTR due to varying affinity for RNA degrading enzymes called ribonucleases and for ancillary proteins that can promote or inhibit RNA degradation. Translational efficiency, including sometimes the complete inhibition of translation, can be controlled by UTRs. Proteins that bind to either the 3 or 5 UTR may affect translation by influencing the ...
Extensive genomic characterization of human cancers presents the problem of inference from genomic abnormalities to cancer phenotypes. To address this problem, we analysed proteomes of colon and rectal tumours characterized previously by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and perform integrated proteogenomic analyses. Somatic variants displayed reduced protein abundance compared to germline variants. Messenger RNA transcript abundance did not reliably predict protein abundance differences between tumours. Proteomics identified five proteomic subtypes in the TCGA cohort, two of which overlapped with the TCGA microsatellite instability/CpG island methylation phenotype transcriptomic subtype, but had distinct mutation, methylation and protein expression patterns associated with different clinical outcomes. Although copy number alterations showed strong cis- and trans-effects on mRNA abundance, relatively few of these extend to the protein level. Thus, proteomics data enabled prioritization of ...
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To evaluate the clinical relevance of circulating CEACAM5mRNA-positive cells in patients with operable colorectal cancer (CRC). Peripheral blood was obtained from 265 patients with operable CRC before the initiation of adjuvant systemic therapy
The following description of the experiment is taken from that vignette.. Experimental Data "The investigators in this experiment were interested in the effect of estrogen on the genes in ER+ breast cancer cells over time. After serum starvation of all eight samples, they exposed four samples to estrogen, and then measured mRNA transcript abundance after 10 hours for two samples and 48 hours for the other two. They left the remaining four samples untreated, and measured mRNA transcript abundance at 10 hours for two samples, and 48 hours for the other two. Since there are two factors in this experiment (estrogen and time), each at two levels (present or absent,10 hours or 48 hours), this experiment is said to have a 2x2 factorial design." The table below describes the experimental conditions for each of the eight arrays.. ...
As reported elsewhere,[1] the study of RNA synthesis in vitro in immature duck erythrocytes has revealed the occurrence in the nucleus of fast turning-over RNA of high molecular weight (from 2 X 10^6 to 10^7, or possibly more) and with base composition different from that of ribosomal RNA, and characterized by a high U and relatively low GC content. No relationship of precursor-to-product type -- or, at any rate, not a simple one-appears to exist between this RNA and the messenger RNA fraction associated with cytoplasmic polysomes. In this paper, evidence is presented indicating that this class of nuclear RNA molecules is not exclusive of immature erythrocytes, or in general of nondividing cells undergoing differentiation, but occurs also in exponentially growing cells. ...
Scaffolding component of the CCR4-NOT complex which is one of the major cellular mRNA deadenylases and is linked to various cellular processes including bulk mRNA degradation, miRNA-mediated repression, translational repression during translational initiation and general transcription regulation. Additional complex functions may be a consequence of its influence on mRNA expression. Its scaffolding function implies its interaction with the catalytic complex module and diverse RNA-binding proteins mediating the complex recruitment to selected mRNA 3UTRs. Involved in degradation of AU-rich element (ARE)-containing mRNAs probably via association with ZFP36. Mediates the recruitment of the CCR4-NOT complex to miRNA targets and to the RISC complex via association with TNRC6A, TNRC6B or TNRC6C. Acts as a transcriptional repressor. Represses the ligand-dependent transcriptional activation by nuclear receptors. Involved in the maintenance of emryonic stem (ES) cell identity; prevents their differentiation
subject: discussion on Quantitative Competitive RT-PCR dear netters, I am busy writing a discussion for a report I hope graduate on. So at the moment I am looking for some additional comments and insights on Quantitative Competitive RT-PCR that will help me getting a more thorough discussion. Here are some of the questions I am taking in account: What are the strong and weak points in the QC RT-PCR system (internal control: insertion of approx. 4bp; 5 fluorescent labeled primer; genescan analysis/ABI 370)? What is the best way to validate the method you are trying to set up. And are the results obtained with this method reliable/reproducible enough to get accepted by reviewers. Is there some strong literature discussing the system including the disadvantages of it. Thanks in advance, David E. Sluijs Pathology, Academic Hospital Utrecht. please mail to: ,paspoort at dds.nl ...
Protein synthesis in neuronal dendrites underlies long-term memory formation in the brain. Local translation of reporter mRNAs has demonstrated translation in dendrites at focal points called translational hotspots. Various reports have shown that hundreds to thousands of mRNAs are localized to dendrites, yet the dynamics of translation of multiple dendritic mRNAs has remained elusive. Here, we show that the protein translational activities of two dendritically localized mRNAs are spatiotemporally complex but constrained by the translational hotspots in which they are colocalized. Cotransfection of glutamate receptor 2 (GluR2) and GluR4 mRNAs (engineered to encode different fluorescent proteins) into rat hippocampal neurons demonstrates a heterogeneous distribution of translational hotspots for the two mRNAs along dendrites. Stimulation with s-3,5-dihydroxy-phenylglycine modifies the translational dynamics of both of these RNAs in a complex saturable manner. These results suggest that the ...
Mullerian inhibiting substance (MIS) is a 140-kilodalton homodimeric glycoprotein that causes regression of the Mullerian ducts in male embryos, and may also have a role in both males and females in the regulation of germ cell maturation. We examined the ontogeny of MIS messenger RNA (mRNA) in rat testes from midgestation through adulthood and found two discrete MIS mRNA species that are developmentally regulated. The larger 2.0-kilobase species is abundant at embryonic day 14, then decreases in late gestation, and is barely detectable after birth. The smaller 1.8-kilobase species is first noted at embryonic day 18 and is the major species detected postnatally. Both species are abundant just prior to birth, at embryonic day 21, then decrease markedly after birth. This variation in MIS mRNA levels correlates with the developmental expression of MIS protein. A series of oligonucleotide-directed ribonuclease H mapping experiments determined that the two mRNA species differ at their 3 ends in the extent of
http://updepla1srv1.epfl.ch/getprime/ A gene- or transcript-specific primer database for quantitative real-time PCR] This user-friendly plateform uniquely combines and automates several features critical for optimal qPCR primer design. These include the consideration of all gene splice variants to enable either gene-specific (covering the majority of splice variants) or transcript-specific (covering one splice variant) expression profiling, primer specificity validation, automated best primer pair selection according to strict criteria and graphical visualization of the latter primer pairs within their genomic context. GETPrime primers have been extensively validated experimentally demonstrating their high quality and demonstrating high transcript specificity in complex samples. Until now, you could retrieve primers in a high-throughput fashion for all Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster and Danio rerio genes in ...
http://updepla1srv1.epfl.ch/getprime/ A gene- or transcript-specific primer database for quantitative real-time PCR] This user-friendly plateform uniquely combines and automates several features critical for optimal qPCR primer design. These include the consideration of all gene splice variants to enable either gene-specific (covering the majority of splice variants) or transcript-specific (covering one splice variant) expression profiling, primer specificity validation, automated best primer pair selection according to strict criteria and graphical visualization of the latter primer pairs within their genomic context. GETPrime primers have been extensively validated experimentally demonstrating their high quality and demonstrating high transcript specificity in complex samples. Until now, you could retrieve primers in a high-throughput fashion for all Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster and Danio rerio genes in ...
BioAssay record AID 350380 submitted by ChEMBL: Induction of apoptosis in human Jurkat E6-1 cells assessed as reduction of Bcl-2 mRNA expression at 85 nM after 6 to 18 hrs by RT-PCR analysis.
Using tissue samples obtained from a previous study, the effect of naproxen on the gene expression profiles of antral mucosal tissue will be assessed. We hypothesize that there will be distinct changes in the gene expression profiles of samples taken from individuals treated with naproxen versus samples taken from individuals treated with placebo ...
Project Title: Combinatorial Control of Gene Expression by MiRNAs and RBPs. Gene expression is elaborately controlled at the post-transcriptional level. Molecularly, this control is accomplished through interactions of small RNAs (microRNAs) and RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) with specific sites on messenger RNAs; these associations affect the stability and translation rates of the mRNAs, altering the protein output. As the cell or its environment changes (for example, in cases of differentiation or stress), the interactions between these factors and mRNAs dynamically rearrange to adjust the expression program. Furthermore, binding of microRNAs or RBPs at nearby sites on the same mRNA allows for additive or synergistic interactions between the regulators themselves, imparting a higher order of combinatorial control. In this way, hundreds of microRNAs and RBPs functioning in mammalian cells set up a post-transcriptional regulatory network.. Our research focuses on understanding the overall mapping ...
Figure 2. The phenotype of FoxC1 depleted gastulae. A:Xenopus FoxC1 pseudoalleles aligned against the reverse complement of the morpholino oligo used in the study using Clustal alignment in Macvector. B: FoxC1 MO (MO) blocks translation of FoxC1 mRNA (FoxC1) in a dose-responsive fashion, but does not block translation of a protected FoxC1 RNA, (MOR-), in an in vitro translation assay. C: HA-tagged Fox1 mRNA was injected alone or together with different doses of FoxC1 MO at the 2-cell stage to confirm a reduction of FoxC1 translation. D-G: Wild type sibling embryos and embryos injected with 40 ng MO (MO), or 40 ng MO and 50 pg MO-R FoxC1 mRNA (MO+RNA) were cultured until early (stage 10), mid (stage 11), and late gastrula (stage 11.5) stages before freezing and analyzing by real time RT-PCR for the expression of Mespo (D), Endodermin (E), Bix4 (F), and CK1ϵ (G). Expression levels are normalized to ODC. H,I: Whole mount in situ hybridization on FoxC1-depleted mid-gastrulae (bottom) as compared to ...
Cancer cells are unique in that they can persist (grow and survive) under stressful conditions, such as hypoxia, chemotherapy, and radiation. Cancer cells do this by re-programing transcriptional and post-transcriptional processes that contribute to cell growth, invasion and survival. These post-transcriptional processes include microRNA-mediated mRNA silencing, mRNA decay, mRNA surveillance and translational repression. The induction of these processes results in the formation of Processing Bodies (P-bodies), dynamic cytoplasmic granules that contain mRNAs, microRNAs, and several mRNA processing enzymes, in the cell. In our lab, we have found that P-bodies are associated with a biological process known as epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in breast cancer cells. EMT promotes the polarization and motility of epithelial cells to undergo biochemical and epigenetic changes to assume a mesenchymal phenotype and often times stem-like properties.. Recent studies indicate a role for tyrosine ...
Summary. Work in my lab is focusing on understanding how microorganisms manage to rapidly adapt (and even thrive) to sudden changes in their environment. Many pathogenic species have developed very sophisticated mechanisms to efficiently scavenge essential nutrients from the host environment and even evade the immune system.. We hypothesize that this successful rapid adaptation program is underpinned by the ability of the microorganism to very rapidly remodel its gene expression profile. Obviously, transcription factors largely dictate which genes are switched on and off during adaptive responses.. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that post-transcriptional regulation plays a key role in this process by shaping gene expression profiles. Small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) and RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are believed to play a crucial role in post-transcriptional regulation by modulating the translation efficiency and stability of mRNA targets. However, for the vast majority their function is ...
Gstm1,Gsta3, andGstp1mRNA Expression Analysis. To analyze the GST isoform gene expression, total RNA was isolated from the livers of the Gstm1-null mice, the heterozygotes, and the wild-type controls. After DNase I treatment, cDNAs were synthesized using an oligo(dT) primer and SuperScript II reverse transcriptase (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA). RT-PCR was performed using the primers specific for the mouse Gstm1 gene (forward: 5′-GCTCATCATGCTCTGTTACAAC-3′, and reverse: 5′-TGTAGCAAGGGCCTACTTGT-3′) and β-actin gene (forward: 5′-ATGGAATCCTGTGGCATCCATG-3′, and reverse: 5′-TAGAAGCACTTGCGGTGCACGAT-3′). Real-time quantitative RT-PCR for the mouse Gsta3, Gstp1, and Gapdh genes was performed using the TaqMan Gene Expression Assays (Applied Biosystems) and qPCR Mastermix Plus (Nippon EGT, Toyama, Japan). The mRNA content level was quantified with a GeneAmp 5700 Sequence Detection System (Applied Biosystems), according to the manufacturers instruction.. Measurement of the GST Activities ...
5622 Introduction: To decrease the incidence of false positive and to better characterize marginally CK19 mRNA positive peripheral blood samples for patients with early stage breast cancer. Methods: To improve the specificity and sensitivity of our previously described methodology we designed and evaluated a new set of primers specific for the same region of the CK19 gene (protocol B). The breast cancer cell line MCF-7 was used as a positive control for the development and analytical evaluation of the assay, while peripheral blood samples from 62 healthy female individuals and 201 patients with early breast cancer, were used for the evaluation of the sensitivity and specificity of the new primer pair. Results: The new assay (protocol B) was highly sensitive and specific as none of the healthy individuals had detectable CK19 mRNA positive cells. In the 201 patients with early breast cancer, CK19 mRNA positive cells were detected in 56 (27.9%). Overall the results obtained by the proposed new ...
The message transported through mRNA after a certain amount of time will be degraded and be deleted. This process is called degradation. The cell can easily and quickly changed the protein production in case of any changing needs due to the lifetime of the mRNA. The lifetime of different types of mRNA can be different.The life span of mRNA molecules in the cytoplasm is an important key in determining the pattern of protein synthesis within a cell. Prokaryotic mRNA molecules often are degraded by enzymes within a few minutes of their synthesis and this is one reason as to why prokaryotes can vary their patterns of protein synthesis so quickly in response to changes in their environment. Eukaryotic mRNA, on the other hand, typically survives for hours, days, or for some instances, weeks. One example of multicellular mRNA is hemoglobin polypeptides which, in the process of developing red blood cells which are unusually stable, these long-lived mRNAs are translated repeatedly in the cell. Research ...
The high-affinity interleukin 2 (IL-2) receptor is a heterotrimer consisting of α, β, and γ subunits. We examined the concentration of subunit mRNA for each of the three protein subunits on human hematopoietic cell lines, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and murine fibroblasts transfected with cDNAs encoding the human IL-2 receptor subunits. In most cultured hematopoietic cells, there was abundant γ subunit message. In contrast, there was variable expression of both α and β subunit message. Sensitivity of cells to the diphtheria fusion toxin DAB389IL-2 was not related to expression of any single IL-2 receptor subunit mRNA. Rather, the greatest sensitivity was observed for cells possessing all three subunit mRNAs. Cells displaying β and γ subunit mRNA showed a reduced but significant sensitivity to the fusion toxin. In contrast, cells with α and γ subunit mRNA, but missing the β subunit mRNA, were insensitive to DAB389IL-2. The data correlate with the requirement for an ...
Rocklands Immunohistochemistry Studies (IHC) provide confidential high-quality target localization data through wide services. Option to outsource IHC.
(KudoZ) English to Portuguese translation of marked down-regulation: regulação descendente marcante, regulação descendente acentuada [Medical (general) (Medical)].
A large set of yeast mRNA 3-processing regulatory sequences was analyzed statistically, revealing a systematic variation that correlates with measured mRNA stability. Transcripts with relatively short half-lives have a high frequency of inclusion of 3-processing elements that include the core sequence of binding sites for the PUF proteins, which enhance mRNA turnover. These results suggest that regulatory sequence variation, typically modeled as random, could arise instead from the necessity or advantage of specifying multiple functions in a common sequence element.
Due to its high nuclease resistance and improved stability in biological fluids, circular DNA (cDNA) has been used to fabricate an intracellular mRNA sensing platform. cDNA has turned out to be a good option for highly efficient biosensing and therapeutics in living biological systems.
Selective mRNA turnover is an important mechanism of eukaryotic gene regulation. The expression of proto‐oncogenes, lymphokines and cytokines is usually transient, requiring rapid mRNA removal through destabilization following the cessation of transcription. AU‐rich elements (AREs) located in their 3′ untranslated regions (3′ UTRs) comprise a major class of cis‐elements that target these mRNAs for rapid degradation (Caput et al., 1986; Shaw and Kamen, 1986; for reviews, see Belasco and Brawerman, 1993; Chen and Shyu, 1995). Loss of this negative regulatory control conferred by AREs has been shown to be associated with transforming phenotypes (Miller et al., 1984; Meijlink et al., 1985; Lee,W. et al., 1988). Besides mRNAs, small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) can also be targeted by AREs for rapid degradation, presumably through similar decay pathway(s) (Fan et al., 1997). ARE‐mediated decay may also be differentially regulated. For instance, in a monocyte tumor cell line, c‐fos mRNA is ...
In what appears to be an unexpected challenge to a long-accepted fact of biology, Johns Hopkins researchers say they have found that ribosomes - the molecular machines in all cells that build proteins - can sometimes do so even within the so-called untranslated regions of the ribbons of genetic material known as messenger RNA (mRNA).
In animals, including humans, mothers supply eggs with the mRNAs and proteins that drive the critical early stages of development. These maternally supplied fac...
article{1fdd16d8-cade-46c6-b3bf-0719173f035c, abstract = {Both brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the serotonin receptor 2A (5-HT2A) have been related to depression pathology. Specific 5-HT2A receptor changes seen in BDNF conditional mutant mice suggest that BDNF regulates the 5-HT2A receptor level. Here we show a direct effect of BDNF on 5-HT2A receptor protein levels in primary hippocampal neuronal and mature hippocampal organotypic cultures exposed to different BDNF concentrations for either 1, 3, 5 or 7 days. In vivo effects of BDNF on hippocampal 5-HT2A receptor levels were further corroborated in (BDNF +/-) mice with reduced BDNF levels. In primary neuronal cultures, 7 days exposure to 25 and 50 ng/mL BDNF resulted in downregulation of 5-HT2A, but not of 5-HT1A, receptor protein levels. The BDNF-associated downregulation of 5-HT2A receptor levels was also observed in mature hippocampal organotypic cultures, excluding confounding effects of BDNF on immature tissue. BDNF +/- mice ...
An assay based on the competitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed to quantify Glomus mosseae, an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus, within plant roots. Using previously designed G. mosseae specific primers, a heterologous internal standard was constructed by amplifying Pseudomonas DNA under low stringency annealing conditions. Go-amplification of G. mosseae and internal standard DNA within leek root extracts provided accurate quantification of target DNA. Colonization of leek roots by G. mosseae was monitored in a comparative study by competitive PCR and microscopy, a conventional method of quantification. These two methods gave closely parallel data for G. mosseae colonization from three different inoculum levels over a 6 week period Results indicate that competitive PCR is a sensitive and accurate method of quantification. The major advantage of competitive PCR over microscopy is that it can quantify specific AM fungi. ...
The expression of mRNA for the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor, EGF and transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) was determined in 76 malignant, six borderline and 15 benign primary ovarian tumours using the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and related to clinical and pathological parameters. Of the malignant tumours, 70% (53/76) expressed EGF receptor mRNA, 31% (23/75) expressed EGF mRNA and 35% (26/75) expressed TGF-alpha mRNA. For the borderline tumours, four of six (67%) expressed EGF receptor mRNA, 1/6 (17%) expressed TGF-alpha mRNA and none expressed EGF mRNA. Finally, 33% (5/15) of the benign tumours expressed EGF receptor mRNA, whereas 40% (6/15) expressed EGF mRNA and 7% (1/15) expressed TGF-alpha mRNA. The presence of the EGF receptor in malignant tumours was associated with that of TGF-alpha (P = 0.0015) but not with EGF (P = 1.00), whereas there was no relationship between the presence of EGF and TGF-alpha (P = 1.00). EGF receptor mRNA expression was significantly
The steady-state level of α1(I) collagen mRNA is regulated by amino acid availability in human lung fibroblasts. Depletion of amino acids decreases α1(I) collagen mRNA levels and repletion of amino acids induces rapid re-expression of α1(I) mRNA. In these studies, we examined the requirements for individual amino acids on the regulation of α1(I) collagen mRNA. We found that re-expression of α1(I) collagen mRNA was critically dependent on cystine but not on other amino acids. However, the addition of cystine alone did not result in re-expression of α1(I) collagen mRNA. Following amino acid depletion, the addition of cystine with selective amino acids increased α1(I) collagen mRNA levels. The combination of glutamine and cystine increased α1(I) collagen mRNA levels 6.3-fold. Methionine or a branch-chain amino acid (leucine, isoleucine or valine) also acted in combination with cystine to increase α1(I) collagen mRNA expression, whereas other amino acids were not effective. The prolonged ...
IFN gamma inhibits the rise in transferrin receptor mRNA level which is normally observed when stationary WISH cells are stimulated to proliferate. This effect is not attributable to a change in the transcription rate of the transferrin receptor gene or in the cytoplasmic stability of the mRNA. The IFN gamma-induced reduction of the transferrin receptor mRNA content is already present at the nuclear level to an extent comparable to that observed in whole cells. Thus, IFN gamma does not impair the passage of this mRNA from the nuclear to the cytoplasmic compartment but probably interferes with a nuclear post-transcriptional event during the processing of the immature transferrin receptor mRNA. Two different levels of regulation of transferrin receptor mRNA have been previously reported. Iron modulates the cytoplasmic stability of this mRNA through the binding of a specific cytoplasmic factor, whereas cell growth variation influences the transcription of this gene. Our results suggest the ...
The endogenous opioid enkephalin neuropeptides are mediators of pain perception and have been implicated in human addictions. The preproenkephalin gene and its mRNA have also provided many examples of tissue- and species-specific variations in mRNA structure produced through a variety of transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. Resultant differences in mRNA structure, in several cases, have impact on translation of enkephalin prepropeptide. The reports and discussion presented herein describe studies of the preproenkephalin gene and mRNA structure in the guinea pig, an animal that may have specific advantages for modeling the human endogenous opioid system. A guinea pig brain cDNA library was constructed and screened for clones of preproenkephalin and preprodynorphin, which were then sequenced. These studies confirmed the predicted mRNA structure that had been previously proposed based on homology with gene sequences and other methods. Multiple transcription initiation sites for each ...
Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that spontaneously hypertensive rats have increased atrial natriuretic peptide stores and reduced norepinephrine release from nerve terminals in the anterior hypothalamus. We have postulated that atrial natriuretic peptide inhibits norepinephrine release in anterior hypothalamus, reducing excitation of sympathoinhibitory neurons, increasing sympathetic outflow, and elevating blood pressure in this model. The current study tested the hypothesis that atrial natriuretic peptide messenger RNA (mRNA) transcript levels are increased in anterior hypothalamus of spontaneously hypertensive rats compared with normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats. Atrial natriuretic peptide mRNA in hypothalamic regions was measured by the quantitative polymerase chain reaction technique using a p-SELECT mutant atrial natriuretic peptide RNA as an internal standard. Atrial natriuretic peptide mRNA from hypothalamic regions of spontaneously hypertensive and Wistar-Kyoto rats and the ...
cDNA, FLJ94334, Homo sapiens growth arrest-specific 2 (GAS2), mRNA (Growth arrest-specific 2, isoform CRA_a) contains a PF00307 domain.. cDNA, FLJ94334, Homo sapiens growth arrest-specific 2 (GAS2), mRNA (Growth arrest-specific 2, isoform CRA_a) contains a PF02187 domain.. cDNA, FLJ94334, Homo sapiens growth arrest-specific 2 (GAS2), mRNA (Growth arrest-specific 2, isoform CRA_a) is proteolytically cut by caspase-7 (C14.004) cleavage. SRVD-GKTS.. cDNA, FLJ94334, Homo sapiens growth arrest-specific 2 (GAS2), mRNA (Growth arrest-specific 2, isoform CRA_a) is proteolytically cut by caspase-3 (C14.003) cleavage. SRVD-GKTS.. ...

C-MYC Messenger-RNA in Cytoskeletal-Bound Polysomes in Fibroblasts<...C-MYC Messenger-RNA in Cytoskeletal-Bound Polysomes in Fibroblasts<...

C-MYC Messenger-RNA in Cytoskeletal-Bound Polysomes in Fibroblasts. / HESKETH, J E ; Campbell, Gillian Patricia; WHITELAW, P F ... C-MYC Messenger-RNA in Cytoskeletal-Bound Polysomes in Fibroblasts. Biochemical Journal. 1991 Mar 1;274:607-609. ... HESKETH, J. E., Campbell, G. P., & WHITELAW, P. F. (1991). C-MYC Messenger-RNA in Cytoskeletal-Bound Polysomes in Fibroblasts. ... title = "C-MYC Messenger-RNA in Cytoskeletal-Bound Polysomes in Fibroblasts",. abstract = "3T3 fibroblasts were treated ...
more infohttps://abdn.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/c-myc-messenger-rna-in-cytoskeletal-bound-polysomes-in-fibroblast

Messenger RNA - WikipediaMessenger RNA - Wikipedia

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they ... A 5 cap (also termed an RNA cap, an RNA 7-methylguanosine cap, or an RNA m7G cap) is a modified guanine nucleotide that has ... MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNAs that typically are partially complementary to sequences in metazoan messenger RNAs.[32] ... that are targeted to specific messenger RNAs by a combination of cis-regulatory sequences on the RNA and trans-acting RNA- ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Messenger_RNA

Messenger RNAMessenger RNA

... (mRNA) is a molecule of RNA encoding a chemical "blueprint" for a protein product. mRNA is transcribed from a DNA ... This process requires two other types of RNA: transfer RNA (tRNA) mediates recognition of the codon and provides the ... corresponding amino acid, while ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is the central component of the ribosomes protein manufacturing machinery ...
more infohttps://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Messenger_RNA.html

Messenger RNAMessenger RNA

... The ribonucleic acid (RNA) that is directly involved in the transcription of the pattern of bases from the DNA ... The sequence of bases on a segment of DNA called a gene is copied to a strand of RNA with the assistance of RNA polymerase. ... to provide a blueprint for the construction of proteins is called messenger RNA or typically mRNA. ... synthesis is then read and translated into the language of amino acids for protein construction with the help of transfer RNA ...
more infohttp://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/Organic/mrna.html

Messenger-rna | Encyclopedia.comMessenger-rna | Encyclopedia.com

... m-RNA*)* A single-stranded RNA [1] molecule that is responsible for the transmission to the ribosomes [2] of the genetic ... messenger-RNA (m-RNA) A single-stranded RNA molecule that is responsible for the transmission to the ribosomes of the genetic ... messenger-RNA (m-RNA) A single-stranded RNA molecule that is responsible for the transmission to the ribosomes of the genetic ... messenger-RNA (m-RNA) A single-stranded RNA molecule that is responsible for the transmission to the ribosomes of the genetic ...
more infohttps://www.encyclopedia.com/earth-and-environment/ecology-and-environmentalism/environmental-studies/messenger-rna

Messenger RNA | genetics | Britannica.comMessenger RNA | genetics | Britannica.com

Messenger RNA (mRNA), molecule in cells that carries codes from the DNA in the nucleus to the sites of protein synthesis in the ... nucleic acid: Messenger RNA (mRNA). Messenger RNA (mRNA) delivers the information encoded in one or more genes from the DNA to ... More About Messenger RNA. 22 references found in Britannica articles. Assorted References. *classification of RNA* In nucleic ... a type of RNA called messenger RNA (mRNA), so named because it carries a genetic message from the gene on a nuclear chromosome ...
more infohttps://www.britannica.com/science/messenger-RNA

Messenger RNA transcripts | TreesearchMessenger RNA transcripts | Treesearch

In contrast to DNA, messenger RNA (mRNA) in complex substrata is rarely analyzed, in large part because labile RNA molecules ... Messenger RNA, transcripts, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, decay fungi. Related Search. *Enzymology and molecular biology of ... Messenger RNA transcripts. Biodiversity of fungi : inventory and monitoring methods. Amsterdam : Elsevier Academic Press, 2004 ... In the case of beaded oligo (dT) chains, polyadenylated [Poly (A)] RNA, which is a suitable template for reverse-transcription- ...
more infohttps://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/7099

Messenger RNA - WikipediaMessenger RNA - Wikipedia

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they ... A 5 cap (also termed an RNA cap, an RNA 7-methylguanosine cap, or an RNA m7G cap) is a modified guanine nucleotide that has ... MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNAs that typically are partially complementary to sequences in metazoan messenger RNAs.[32] ... that are targeted to specific messenger RNAs by a combination of cis-regulatory sequences on the RNA and trans-acting RNA- ...
more infohttps://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/MRNA

Messenger RNA | Define Messenger RNA at Dictionary.comMessenger RNA | Define Messenger RNA at Dictionary.com

... a single-stranded molecule of RNA that is synthesized in the nucleus from a DNA template and then enters the cytoplasm, where ... messenger RNA. noun 1. (biochem) a form of RNA, transcribed from a single strand of DNA, that carries genetic information ... a single-stranded molecule of RNA that is synthesized in the nucleus from a DNA template and then enters the cytoplasm, where ... British Dictionary definitions for messenger RNA Expand. ... messenger RNA in Medicine Expand. messenger RNA mes·sen·ger RNA ...
more infohttp://www.dictionary.com/browse/messenger-rna

Masked messenger rnaMasked messenger rna

Biology-online is a completely free and open Biology dictionary with over 60,000 biology terms. It uses the wiki concept, so that anyone can make a contribution.
more infohttps://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/Special:Browse/:Masked-5Fmessenger-5Frna

Messenger RNA - wikidocMessenger RNA - wikidoc

RNA messaggero he:MRNA la:MRNA lt:IRNR nl:Messenger RNAsk:Mediátorová ribonukleová kyselina sv:Budbärar-RNAuk:Матрична ... A 5 cap (also termed an RNA cap, an RNA 7-methylguanosine cap or an RNA m7G cap) is a modified guanine nucleotide that has ... Messenger Ribonucleic Acid (mRNA) is a molecule of RNA encoding a chemical "blueprint" for a protein product. mRNA is ... In eukaryotic organisms, most messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules are polyadenylated at the 3 end. The poly(A) tail and the protein ...
more infohttps://www.wikidoc.org/index.php/MRNA

messenger RNA - definition and meaningmessenger RNA - definition and meaning

The form of RNA that mediates the transfer of genetic information from the cell nucleus to ribosomes in the cytoplasm, where it ... RNA. that encodes and carries. information. from DNA. during transcription. to sites of protein synthesis. to undergo ... noun The form of RNA that mediates the transfer of genetic information from the cell nucleus to ribosomes in the cytoplasm, ...
more infohttps://www.wordnik.com/words/messenger%20RNA

Messenger RNA in EukaryotesMessenger RNA in Eukaryotes

... Akusjärvi, Göran Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of ... Thus, a eukaryotic cell can use alternative ribonucleic acid (RNA) splicing, alternative polyadenylation and RNA editing to ...
more infohttp://uu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:43687

Purification of Messenger RNA by Polysome Isolation with Monoclonal Antibodies | SpringerLinkPurification of Messenger RNA by Polysome Isolation with Monoclonal Antibodies | SpringerLink

Brown J.P., Rose T.M., Plowman G.D. (1985) Purification of Messenger RNA by Polysome Isolation with Monoclonal Antibodies. In: ... Kraus, J. P., and Rosenberg, L. E., 1982, Purification of low-abundance messenger RNAs from rat liver by polysome ... Expedient techniques for the isolation of undegraded polysomes and messenger ribonucleic acid, Biochemistry 13:3606-3615.PubMed ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4684-4964-8_26

Frontiers | ACTH Action on Messenger RNA Stability Mechanisms | EndocrinologyFrontiers | ACTH Action on Messenger RNA Stability Mechanisms | Endocrinology

Modulation of messenger RNA stability is usually mediated by stabilizing or destabilizing RNA-binding proteins (RNA-BP) that ... Failure of such mechanisms, in particular misexpression of RNA-BP, has been linked to several human diseases. In the adrenal ... Failure of such mechanisms, in particular misexpression of RNA-BP, has been linked to several human diseases. In the adrenal ... RNA-BP) that bind to the 3-untranslated region (3UTR) regulatory motifs, such as AU-rich elements (AREs). Destabilizing ARE- ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fendo.2017.00003/full

Viral Messenger RNA | Springer for Research & DevelopmentViral Messenger RNA | Springer for Research & Development

The nucleotide sequence of the gene from which messenger RNA mole- cules are transcribed is in a form that can be translated by ... The discovery of messenger RNA more than twenty years ago led to a series of studies on its organization and function in cells ... The nucleotide sequence of the gene from which messenger RNA mole- cules are transcribed is in a form that can be translated by ... This volume is devoted to current studies in the field of cellular and viral messenger RNA. The studies presented provide an ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/book/10.1007%2F978-1-4613-2585-7

Messenger RNA mRNA - Biology-Online DictionaryMessenger RNA mRNA - Biology-Online Dictionary

The messenger RNA (mRNA) is one of the three types of RNA; the other two are transfer RNA (tRNA) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA). ... A type of RNA that carries the code or chemical blueprint for a specific protein. In the early stages of protein synthesis, the ... Retrieved from "https://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/index.php?title=Messenger_RNA_mRNA&oldid=96682" ...
more infohttps://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/Messenger_RNA_mRNA

Messenger RNA of the Histidine-Rich Glycoprotein in Breast Tumors | SpringerLinkMessenger RNA of the Histidine-Rich Glycoprotein in Breast Tumors | SpringerLink

Tarazona, S., Garcia-Alcalde, F., Dopazo, J., Ferrer, A., and Conesa, A., Differential expression in RNA-seq: a matter of depth ... Matboli, M., Eissa, S., and Said, H., Evaluation of histidine- rich glycoprotein tissue RNA and serum protein as novel markers ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1134/S1607672918010106

PUF proteins bind Pop2p to regulate messenger RNAs.  - PubMed - NCBIPUF proteins bind Pop2p to regulate messenger RNAs. - PubMed - NCBI

PUF proteins bind Pop2p to regulate messenger RNAs.. Goldstrohm AC1, Hook BA, Seay DJ, Wickens M. ... PUF proteins, a family of RNA-binding proteins, interact with the 3 untranslated regions (UTRs) of specific mRNAs to control ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16715093?dopt=Abstract

SR-related proteins and the processing of messenger RNA precursors.  - PubMed - NCBISR-related proteins and the processing of messenger RNA precursors. - PubMed - NCBI

The processing of messenger RNA precursors (pre-mRNA) to mRNA in metazoans requires a large number of proteins that contain ... SR-related proteins and the processing of messenger RNA precursors.. Blencowe BJ1, Bowman JA, McCracken S, Rosonina E. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10546891?dopt=Abstract

The production of messenger RNA, Fran ois Jacob :: DNA Learning CenterThe production of messenger RNA, Fran ois Jacob :: DNA Learning Center

Who named messenger RNA?, François Jacob. François Jacob talks about how he and Jacques Monod named messenger RNA.. SOURCE: ... Messenger RNA, Matthew Meselson. Matt Meselson also had a hand in Sydney Brenners RNA experiment. He talks about the ... As a messenger, RNA transported the information from the nucleus to the protein-making machinery in the cell. SOURCE: DNAi. ... And I said that you could simply act by, the model was that you have some kind of a switch to make the messenger RNA, and that ...
more infohttps://www.dnalc.org/view/15274-The-production-of-messenger-RNA-Fran-ois-Jacob.html

Presence of angiotensinogen messenger RNA in various cultured cell lines. | HypertensionPresence of angiotensinogen messenger RNA in various cultured cell lines. | Hypertension

The presence of angiotensinogen messenger RNA (mRNA) was assessed in total RNA extracted from hepatoma, glioma, neuroblastoma, ... Presence of angiotensinogen messenger RNA in various cultured cell lines.. V Fatigati, J M Washington, K R Lynch, M J Peach, E ... Presence of angiotensinogen messenger RNA in various cultured cell lines.. V Fatigati, J M Washington, K R Lynch, M J Peach and ... Presence of angiotensinogen messenger RNA in various cultured cell lines.. V Fatigati, J M Washington, K R Lynch, M J Peach and ...
more infohttp://hyper.ahajournals.org/content/9/6_Pt_2/III25

Identification of an AUUUA-specific messenger RNA binding protein | ScienceIdentification of an AUUUA-specific messenger RNA binding protein | Science

Identification of an AUUUA-specific messenger RNA binding protein Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... An important control point in gene expression is at the level of messenger RNA (mRNA) stability. The mRNAs of certain ... This protein consists of three subunits and binds rapidly to AUUUA-containing RNA. Such protein-RNA complexes are resistant to ... A cytosolic protein was identified that binds specifically to RNA molecules containing four reiterations of the AUUUA ...
more infohttp://science.sciencemag.org/content/246/4930/664

Biomolecules  | Free Full-Text | Guardian of Genetic Messenger-RNA-Binding Proteins | HTMLBiomolecules | Free Full-Text | Guardian of Genetic Messenger-RNA-Binding Proteins | HTML

RNA localization, mRNA turn-over as well as translation. Given their diverse functions, cells express a variety of RNA-binding ... In this review we focus on the effect of alcohol on different RNA-binding proteins and their possible contribution to alcohol- ... We further discuss the conventional methods and newer techniques that are employed to identify RNA-binding proteins. ... RNA in cells is always associated with RNA-binding proteins that regulate all aspects of RNA metabolism including RNA splicing ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/2218-273X/6/1/4/htm

Messenger RNA definição e significado | Dicionário Inglês CollinsMessenger RNA definição e significado | Dicionário Inglês Collins

... a form of RNA , transcribed from a single strand of DNA , that carries genetic... , Significado, pronúncia, traduções e ... Tendências de messenger RNA. Palavra de uso ocasional. messenger RNA é uma das 30000 palavras mais frequentemente usadas no ... a form of RNA, transcribed from a single strand of DNA, that carries genetic information required for protein synthesis from ... a single-stranded form of RNA that carries genetic information for protein synthesis from the DNA in the nucleus to the ...
more infohttps://www.collinsdictionary.com/pt/dictionary/english/messenger-rna
  • We have discovered that substances called ribonucleic acids (RNA), which carry the genetic instructions for the production of telomerase, can be used to overcome this problem and stimulate a strong immune response in cancer patients. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The studies presented provide an insight into molecular and genetic aspects of messenger RNA. (springer.com)
  • However, the direct delivery of nucleic acids to correct a genetic disorder has numerous limitations owing to the inability of naked nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) to traverse the cell membrane. (rsc.org)
  • The work is a collaboration between the Verma lab and Arcturus Therapeutics, a local biotech company that developed a system of encapsulating messenger RNA within lipid (fatty acid) nanoparticles. (salk.edu)
  • Failure of such mechanisms, in particular misexpression of RNA-BP, has been linked to several human diseases. (frontiersin.org)
  • Sydney Brenner, Francois Jacob and Matt Meselson's experiment showed that RNA was a copy of the information in DNA. (dnalc.org)
  • The discovery of messenger RNA more than twenty years ago led to a series of studies on its organization and function in cells in the presence of infecting viruses. (springer.com)
  • Total RNA from 1 X 10(7) cells was extracted, transferred to a membrane, and hybridized with a 32P-labeled, full-length (1650-base pair) rat angiotensinogen complementary DNA (cDNA). (ahajournals.org)
  • Angiotensinogen RNA sequences could be definitively detected only in hepatoma cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • Before this information can be relayed to the cytoplasm, the nascent RNA undergoes extensive post-transcriptional processing before arriving at its final destination in cells. (mdpi.com)