RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.
A process that changes the nucleotide sequence of mRNA from that of the DNA template encoding it. Some major classes of RNA editing are as follows: 1, the conversion of cytosine to uracil in mRNA; 2, the addition of variable number of guanines at pre-determined sites; and 3, the addition and deletion of uracils, templated by guide-RNAs (RNA, GUIDE).
Systems in which an intracellular signal is generated in response to an intercellular primary messenger such as a hormone or neurotransmitter. They are intermediate signals in cellular processes such as metabolism, secretion, contraction, phototransduction, and cell growth. Examples of second messenger systems are the adenyl cyclase-cyclic AMP system, the phosphatidylinositol diphosphate-inositol triphosphate system, and the cyclic GMP system.
The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.
RNA that has catalytic activity. The catalytic RNA sequence folds to form a complex surface that can function as an enzyme in reactions with itself and other molecules. It may function even in the absence of protein. There are numerous examples of RNA species that are acted upon by catalytic RNA, however the scope of this enzyme class is not limited to a particular type of substrate.
The processes of RNA tertiary structure formation.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.
The extent to which an RNA molecule retains its structural integrity and resists degradation by RNASE, and base-catalyzed HYDROLYSIS, under changing in vivo or in vitro conditions.
Ribonucleic acid in fungi having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.
RNA molecules which hybridize to complementary sequences in either RNA or DNA altering the function of the latter. Endogenous antisense RNAs function as regulators of gene expression by a variety of mechanisms. Synthetic antisense RNAs are used to effect the functioning of specific genes for investigative or therapeutic purposes.
A family of proteins that promote unwinding of RNA during splicing and translation.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
RNA transcripts of the DNA that are in some unfinished stage of post-transcriptional processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL) required for function. RNA precursors may undergo several steps of RNA SPLICING during which the phosphodiester bonds at exon-intron boundaries are cleaved and the introns are excised. Consequently a new bond is formed between the ends of the exons. Resulting mature RNAs can then be used; for example, mature mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER) is used as a template for protein production.
Short chains of RNA (100-300 nucleotides long) that are abundant in the nucleus and usually complexed with proteins in snRNPs (RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL NUCLEAR). Many function in the processing of messenger RNA precursors. Others, the snoRNAs (RNA, SMALL NUCLEOLAR), are involved with the processing of ribosomal RNA precursors.
RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated RNAs they are not included in this scope.
Nucleic acid structures found on the 5' end of eukaryotic cellular and viral messenger RNA and some heterogeneous nuclear RNAs. These structures, which are positively charged, protect the above specified RNAs at their termini against attack by phosphatases and other nucleases and promote mRNA function at the level of initiation of translation. Analogs of the RNA caps (RNA CAP ANALOGS), which lack the positive charge, inhibit the initiation of protein synthesis.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
RNA present in neoplastic tissue.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Ribonucleic acid in protozoa having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of linear RNA to a circular form by the transfer of the 5'-phosphate to the 3'-hydroxyl terminus. It also catalyzes the covalent joining of two polyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage. EC 6.5.1.3.
A large family of RNA helicases that share a common protein motif with the single letter amino acid sequence D-E-A-D (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp). In addition to RNA helicase activity, members of the DEAD-box family participate in other aspects of RNA metabolism and regulation of RNA function.
A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A multiribosomal structure representing a linear array of RIBOSOMES held together by messenger RNA; (RNA, MESSENGER); They represent the active complexes in cellular protein synthesis and are able to incorporate amino acids into polypeptides both in vivo and in vitro. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The process of moving specific RNA molecules from one cellular compartment or region to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure where it transcribes DNA into RNA. It has specific requirements for cations and salt and has shown an intermediate sensitivity to alpha-amanitin in comparison to RNA polymerase I and II. EC 2.7.7.6.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. The enzyme functions in the nucleolar structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salts than RNA polymerase II and III and is not inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.
Small kinetoplastid mitochondrial RNA that plays a major role in RNA EDITING. These molecules form perfect hybrids with edited mRNA sequences and possess nucleotide sequences at their 5'-ends that are complementary to the sequences of the mRNA's immediately downstream of the pre-edited regions.
RNA molecules found in the nucleus either associated with chromosomes or in the nucleoplasm.
Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).
Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 28S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Constituent of 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 3200 nucleotides. 23S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A group of ribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The small RNAs which provide spliced leader sequences, SL1, SL2, SL3, SL4 and SL5 (short sequences which are joined to the 5' ends of pre-mRNAs by TRANS-SPLICING). They are found primarily in primitive eukaryotes (protozoans and nematodes).
Small, linear single-stranded RNA molecules functionally acting as molecular parasites of certain RNA plant viruses. Satellite RNAs exhibit four characteristic traits: (1) they require helper viruses to replicate; (2) they are unnecessary for the replication of helper viruses; (3) they are encapsidated in the coat protein of the helper virus; (4) they have no extensive sequence homology to the helper virus. Thus they differ from SATELLITE VIRUSES which encode their own coat protein, and from the genomic RNA; (=RNA, VIRAL); of satellite viruses. (From Maramorosch, Viroids and Satellites, 1991, p143)
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Nuclear nonribosomal RNA larger than about 1000 nucleotides, the mass of which is rapidly synthesized and degraded within the cell nucleus. Some heterogeneous nuclear RNA may be a precursor to mRNA. However, the great bulk of total hnRNA hybridizes with nuclear DNA rather than with mRNA.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Ribonucleic acid in archaea having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The steps that generate the 3' ends of mature RNA molecules. For most mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), 3' end processing referred to as POLYADENYLATION includes the addition of POLY A.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A compound composed of a two CYCLIC PEPTIDES attached to a phenoxazine that is derived from STREPTOMYCES parvullus. It binds to DNA and inhibits RNA synthesis (transcription), with chain elongation more sensitive than initiation, termination, or release. As a result of impaired mRNA production, protein synthesis also declines after dactinomycin therapy. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1993, p2015)
A reaction that severs one of the sugar-phosphate linkages of the phosphodiester backbone of RNA. It is catalyzed enzymatically, chemically, or by radiation. Cleavage may be exonucleolytic, or endonucleolytic.
Short RNA, about 200 base pairs in length or shorter, that does not code for protein.
Immature ERYTHROCYTES. In humans, these are ERYTHROID CELLS that have just undergone extrusion of their CELL NUCLEUS. They still contain some organelles that gradually decrease in number as the cells mature. RIBOSOMES are last to disappear. Certain staining techniques cause components of the ribosomes to precipitate into characteristic "reticulum" (not the same as the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM), hence the name reticulocytes.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A family of enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of RNA. It includes EC 3.1.26.-, EC 3.1.27.-, EC 3.1.30.-, and EC 3.1.31.-.
Small RNAs found in the cytoplasm usually complexed with proteins in scRNPs (RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL CYTOPLASMIC).
The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 5.8S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
Synthetic transcripts of a specific DNA molecule or fragment, made by an in vitro transcription system. This cRNA can be labeled with radioactive uracil and then used as a probe. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A class of untranslated RNA molecules that are typically greater than 200 nucleotides in length and do not code for proteins. Members of this class have been found to play roles in transcriptional regulation, post-transcriptional processing, CHROMATIN REMODELING, and in the epigenetic control of chromatin.
Small nuclear RNAs that are involved in the processing of pre-ribosomal RNA in the nucleolus. Box C/D containing snoRNAs (U14, U15, U16, U20, U21 and U24-U63) direct site-specific methylation of various ribose moieties. Box H/ACA containing snoRNAs (E2, E3, U19, U23, and U64-U72) direct the conversion of specific uridines to pseudouridine. Site-specific cleavages resulting in the mature ribosomal RNAs are directed by snoRNAs U3, U8, U14, U22 and the snoRNA components of RNase MRP and RNase P.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of single-stranded regions of DNA or RNA molecules while leaving the double-stranded regions intact. They are particularly useful in the laboratory for producing "blunt-ended" DNA molecules from DNA with single-stranded ends and for sensitive GENETIC TECHNIQUES such as NUCLEASE PROTECTION ASSAYS that involve the detection of single-stranded DNA and RNA.
A group of uridine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each uridine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).
A superfamily of proteins containing the globin fold which is composed of 6-8 alpha helices arranged in a characterstic HEME enclosing structure.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
Ribonucleic acid in helminths having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Ribonucleic acid in chloroplasts having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Messenger RNA that is stored in a masked state for translation at a later time. Distinguish from RNA, UNTRANSLATED which refers to non-messenger RNA, i.e. RNA that does not code for protein.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A process of GENETIC TRANSLATION whereby the formation of a peptide chain is started. It includes assembly of the RIBOSOME components, the MESSENGER RNA coding for the polypeptide to be made, INITIATOR TRNA, and PEPTIDE INITIATION FACTORS; and placement of the first amino acid in the peptide chain. The details and components of this process are unique for prokaryotic protein biosynthesis and eukaryotic protein biosynthesis.
Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.
An enzyme catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of RNA at the 3'-position of a guanylate residue. EC 3.1.27.3.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
A pyridine nucleotide that mobilizes CALCIUM. It is synthesized from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by ADP RIBOSE CYCLASE.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
Intracellular messenger formed by the action of phospholipase C on phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, which is one of the phospholipids that make up the cell membrane. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate is released into the cytoplasm where it releases calcium ions from internal stores within the cell's endoplasmic reticulum. These calcium ions stimulate the activity of B kinase or calmodulin.
An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC 2.7.7.49.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.
Cyclic peptides extracted from carpophores of various mushroom species. They are potent inhibitors of RNA polymerases in most eukaryotic species, blocking the production of mRNA and protein synthesis. These peptides are important in the study of transcription. Alpha-amanitin is the main toxin from the species Amanitia phalloides, poisonous if ingested by humans or animals.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying phenylalanine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying lysine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Phosphoric acid esters of inositol. They include mono- and polyphosphoric acid esters, with the exception of inositol hexaphosphate which is PHYTIC ACID.
Nucleotide sequences located at the ends of EXONS and recognized in pre-messenger RNA by SPLICEOSOMES. They are joined during the RNA SPLICING reaction, forming the junctions between exons.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
Intermediates in protein biosynthesis. The compounds are formed from amino acids, ATP and transfer RNA, a reaction catalyzed by aminoacyl tRNA synthetase. They are key compounds in the genetic translation process.
The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.
Sequences within RNA that regulate the processing, stability (RNA STABILITY) or translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of RNA.
The production of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS by the constituents of a living organism. The biosynthesis of proteins on RIBOSOMES following an RNA template is termed translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). There are other, non-ribosomal peptide biosynthesis (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NUCLEIC ACID-INDEPENDENT) mechanisms carried out by PEPTIDE SYNTHASES and PEPTIDYLTRANSFERASES. Further modifications of peptide chains yield functional peptide and protein molecules.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying tyrosine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Use for nucleic acid precursors in general or for which there is no specific heading.
A cinnamamido ADENOSINE found in STREPTOMYCES alboniger. It inhibits protein synthesis by binding to RNA. It is an antineoplastic and antitrypanosomal agent and is used in research as an inhibitor of protein synthesis.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Within most types of eukaryotic CELL NUCLEUS, a distinct region, not delimited by a membrane, in which some species of rRNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) are synthesized and assembled into ribonucleoprotein subunits of ribosomes. In the nucleolus rRNA is transcribed from a nucleolar organizer, i.e., a group of tandemly repeated chromosomal genes which encode rRNA and which are transcribed by RNA polymerase I. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology & Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Proteins found in ribosomes. They are believed to have a catalytic function in reconstituting biologically active ribosomal subunits.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the exonucleolytic cleavage of RNA. It includes EC 3.1.13.-, EC 3.1.14.-, EC 3.1.15.-, and EC 3.1.16.-. EC 3.1.-
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The addition of a tail of polyadenylic acid (POLY A) to the 3' end of mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). Polyadenylation involves recognizing the processing site signal, (AAUAAA), and cleaving of the mRNA to create a 3' OH terminal end to which poly A polymerase (POLYNUCLEOTIDE ADENYLYLTRANSFERASE) adds 60-200 adenylate residues. The 3' end processing of some messenger RNAs, such as histone mRNA, is carried out by a different process that does not include the addition of poly A as described here.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.

The surface ectoderm is essential for nephric duct formation in intermediate mesoderm. (1/126162)

The nephric duct is the first epithelial tubule to differentiate from intermediate mesoderm that is essential for all further urogenital development. In this study we identify the domain of intermediate mesoderm that gives rise to the nephric duct and demonstrate that the surface ectoderm is required for its differentiation. Removal of the surface ectoderm resulted in decreased levels of Sim-1 and Pax-2 mRNA expression in mesenchymal nephric duct progenitors, and caused inhibition of nephric duct formation and subsequent kidney development. The surface ectoderm expresses BMP-4 and we show that it is required for the maintenance of high-level BMP-4 expression in lateral plate mesoderm. Addition of a BMP-4-coated bead to embryos lacking the surface ectoderm restored normal levels of Sim-1 and Pax-2 mRNA expression in nephric duct progenitors, nephric duct formation and the initiation of nephrogenesis. Thus, BMP-4 signaling can substitute for the surface ectoderm in supporting nephric duct morphogenesis. Collectively, these data suggest that inductive interactions between the surface ectoderm, lateral mesoderm and intermediate mesoderm are essential for nephric duct formation and the initiation of urogenital development.  (+info)

Apontic binds the translational repressor Bruno and is implicated in regulation of oskar mRNA translation. (2/126162)

The product of the oskar gene directs posterior patterning in the Drosophila oocyte, where it must be deployed specifically at the posterior pole. Proper expression relies on the coordinated localization and translational control of the oskar mRNA. Translational repression prior to localization of the transcript is mediated, in part, by the Bruno protein, which binds to discrete sites in the 3' untranslated region of the oskar mRNA. To begin to understand how Bruno acts in translational repression, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen to identify Bruno-interacting proteins. One interactor, described here, is the product of the apontic gene. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments lend biochemical support to the idea that Bruno and Apontic proteins physically interact in Drosophila. Genetic experiments using mutants defective in apontic and bruno reveal a functional interaction between these genes. Given this interaction, Apontic is likely to act together with Bruno in translational repression of oskar mRNA. Interestingly, Apontic, like Bruno, is an RNA-binding protein and specifically binds certain regions of the oskar mRNA 3' untranslated region.  (+info)

Difference between mammary epithelial cells from mature virgin and primiparous mice. (3/126162)

Mammary epithelial cells from mature virgin mice are similar to those from primiparous mice in several respects. However, there is one known difference. The cells from the mature virgin must traverse the cell cycle in order to become competent to make casein and enzymatically active alpha-lactalbumin in vitro; those from the primiparous animal can make these proteins without first traversing the cycle. In this regard, cells from human placental lactogen- and prolactin-treated mature virgins are, after involution, similar to those from primiparous mice. The developemental block in the cells from the mature virgin, imposed by preventing cell cycle traversal, has been partially delineated. It does not appear to reside at the levels of ultrastructural maturation or the formation of casein messenger RNA. Rather, the lesion is postranscriptional and may be at the level of translation, or posttranslational modification, or both.  (+info)

Factor VII deficiency rescues the intrauterine lethality in mice associated with a tissue factor pathway inhibitor deficit. (4/126162)

Mice doubly heterozygous for a modified tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) allele (tfpi delta) lacking its Kunitz-type domain-1 (TFPI+/delta) and for a deficiency of the factor VII gene (FVII+/-) were mated to generate 309 postnatal and 205 embryonic day 17.5 (E17. 5) offspring having all the predicted genotypic combinations. Progeny singly homozygous for the tfpidelta modification but with the wild-type fVII allele (FVII+/+/TFPIdelta/delta), and mice singly homozygous for the fVII deficiency and possessing the wild-type tfpi allele (FVII-/-/TFPI+/+), displayed previously detailed phenotypes (i.e., a high percentage of early embryonic lethality at E9.5 or normal development with severe perinatal bleeding, respectively). Surprisingly, mice of the combined FVII-/-/TFPIdelta/delta genotype were born at the expected mendelian frequency but suffered the fatal perinatal bleeding associated with the FVII-/- genotype. Mice carrying the FVII+/-/TFPIdelta/delta genotype were also rescued from the lethality associated with the FVII+/+/TFPIdelta/delta genotype but succumbed to perinatal consumptive coagulopathy. Thus, the rescue of TFPIdelta/delta embryos, either by an accompanying homozygous or heterozygous FVII deficiency, suggests that diminishment of FVII activity precludes the need for TFPI-mediated inhibition of the FVIIa/tissue factor coagulation pathway during embryogenesis. Furthermore, the phenotypes of these combined deficiency states suggest that embryonic FVII is produced in mice as early as E9.5 and that any level of maternal FVII in early-stage embryos is insufficient to cause a coagulopathy in TFPIdelta/delta mice.  (+info)

TIF1gamma, a novel member of the transcriptional intermediary factor 1 family. (5/126162)

We report the cloning and characterization of a novel member of the Transcriptional Intermediary Factor 1 (TIF1) gene family, human TIF1gamma. Similar to TIF1alpha and TIF1beta, the structure of TIF1beta is characterized by multiple domains: RING finger, B boxes, Coiled coil, PHD/TTC, and bromodomain. Although structurally related to TIF1alpha and TIF1beta, TIF1gamma presents several functional differences. In contrast to TIF1alpha, but like TIF1beta, TIF1 does not interact with nuclear receptors in yeast two-hybrid or GST pull-down assays and does not interfere with retinoic acid response in transfected mammalian cells. Whereas TIF1alpha and TIF1beta were previously found to interact with the KRAB silencing domain of KOX1 and with the HP1alpha, MODI (HP1beta) and MOD2 (HP1gamma) heterochromatinic proteins, suggesting that they may participate in a complex involved in heterochromatin-induced gene repression, TIF1gamma does not interact with either the KRAB domain of KOX1 or the HP1 proteins. Nevertheless, TIF1gamma, like TIF1alpha and TIF1beta, exhibits a strong silencing activity when tethered to a promoter. Since deletion of a novel motif unique to the three TIF1 proteins, called TIF1 signature sequence (TSS), abrogates transcriptional repression by TIF1gamma, this motif likely participates in TIF1 dependent repression.  (+info)

Leptin suppression of insulin secretion and gene expression in human pancreatic islets: implications for the development of adipogenic diabetes mellitus. (6/126162)

Previously we demonstrated the expression of the long form of the leptin receptor in rodent pancreatic beta-cells and an inhibition of insulin secretion by leptin via activation of ATP-sensitive potassium channels. Here we examine pancreatic islets isolated from pancreata of human donors for their responses to leptin. The presence of leptin receptors on islet beta-cells was demonstrated by double fluorescence confocal microscopy after binding of a fluorescent derivative of human leptin (Cy3-leptin). Leptin (6.25 nM) suppressed insulin secretion of normal islets by 20% at 5.6 mM glucose. Intracellular calcium responses to 16.7 mM glucose were rapidly reduced by leptin. Proinsulin messenger ribonucleic acid expression in islets was inhibited by leptin at 11.1 mM, but not at 5.6 mM glucose. Leptin also reduced proinsulin messenger ribonucleic acid levels that were increased in islets by treatment with 10 nM glucagon-like peptide-1 in the presence of either 5.6 or 11.1 mM glucose. These findings demonstrate direct suppressive effects of leptin on insulin-producing beta-cells in human islets at the levels of both stimulus-secretion coupling and gene expression. The findings also further indicate the existence of an adipoinsular axis in humans in which insulin stimulates leptin production in adipocytes and leptin inhibits the production of insulin in beta-cells. We suggest that dysregulation of the adipoinsular axis in obese individuals due to defective leptin reception by beta-cells may result in chronic hyperinsulinemia and may contribute to the pathogenesis of adipogenic diabetes.  (+info)

Differential stability of the DNA-activated protein kinase catalytic subunit mRNA in human glioma cells. (7/126162)

DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) functions in double-strand break repair and immunoglobulin [V(D)J] recombination. We previously established a radiation-sensitive human cell line, M059J, derived from a malignant glioma, which lacks the catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) of the DNA-PK multiprotein complex. Although previous Northern blot analysis failed to detect the DNA-PKcs transcript in these cells, we show here through quantitative studies that the transcript is present, albeit at greatly reduced (approximately 20x) levels. Sequencing revealed no genetic alteration in either the promoter region, the kinase domain, or the 3' untranslated region of the DNA-PKcs gene to account for the reduced transcript levels. Nuclear run-on transcription assays indicated that the rate of DNA-PKcs transcription in M059J and DNA-PKcs proficient cell lines was similar, but the stability of the DNA-PKcs message in the M059J cell line was drastically (approximately 20x) reduced. Furthermore, M059J cells lack an alternately spliced DNA-PKcs transcript that accounts for a minor (5-20%) proportion of the DNA-PKcs message in all other cell lines tested. Thus, alterations in DNA-PKcs mRNA stability and/or the lack of the alternate mRNA may result in the loss of DNA-PKcs activity. This finding has important implications as DNA-PKcs activity is essential to cells repairing damage induced by radiation or radiomimetric agents.  (+info)

Alternative sulfonylurea receptor expression defines metabolic sensitivity of K-ATP channels in dopaminergic midbrain neurons. (8/126162)

ATP-sensitive potassium (K-ATP) channels couple the metabolic state to cellular excitability in various tissues. Several isoforms of the K-ATP channel subunits, the sulfonylurea receptor (SUR) and inwardly rectifying K channel (Kir6.X), have been cloned, but the molecular composition and functional diversity of native neuronal K-ATP channels remain unresolved. We combined functional analysis of K-ATP channels with expression profiling of K-ATP subunits at the level of single substantia nigra (SN) neurons in mouse brain slices using an RT-multiplex PCR protocol. In contrast to GABAergic neurons, single dopaminergic SN neurons displayed alternative co-expression of either SUR1, SUR2B or both SUR isoforms with Kir6.2. Dopaminergic SN neurons expressed alternative K-ATP channel species distinguished by significant differences in sulfonylurea affinity and metabolic sensitivity. In single dopaminergic SN neurons, co-expression of SUR1 + Kir6.2, but not of SUR2B + Kir6.2, correlated with functional K-ATP channels highly sensitive to metabolic inhibition. In contrast to wild-type, surviving dopaminergic SN neurons of homozygous weaver mouse exclusively expressed SUR1 + Kir6.2 during the active period of dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Therefore, alternative expression of K-ATP channel subunits defines the differential response to metabolic stress and constitutes a novel candidate mechanism for the differential vulnerability of dopaminergic neurons in response to respiratory chain dysfunction in Parkinson's disease.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential mRNA expression of prostaglandin receptor subtypes in macrophage activation. AU - Hubbard, Neil. AU - Lee, S. H.. AU - Lim, D.. AU - Erickson, Kent L. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - Assessing the regulation of macrophage receptors for prostaglandin (PGE2) is essential to understanding the control which that potent lipid mediator has in modulating macrophage activities. The purpose of this study was to assess the differential mRNA expression of PGE2 receptor subtypes (EP) during macrophage exposure to activating and transducing agents. RAW 264.7 macrophages constitutively expressed mRNA for EP2, EP3 and EP4 receptor subtypes. Messenger RNA for EP4 was expressed at a much higher level when compared to EP2 in unstimulated macrophages as assessed by kinetic quantitative RT-PCR. When macrophages were stimulated with LPS, EP2 mRNA levels were 12-fold higher when compared to unstimulated macrophages, while EP4 mRNA remained unchanged. Conversely, mRNA levels of both EP2 and EP4 ...
The substantial amount of RNA required for expression analysis is a limiting factor for the cDNA microarray technology in a number of potentially important applications. Two main approaches, signal amplification and global mRNA amplification, have been developed to overcome this obstacle. Signal amplification, such as dendrimer technology [1] and tyramide signal amplification (TSA) [2] aim to increase the fluorescent signal emitted per mRNA molecule. Global mRNA amplification has the purpose of increasing the number of available transcript equivalents for sufficient labeling from a limited starting amount. In current implementations, mRNA amplification techniques require less RNA than those based on signal amplification.. Van Gelder et al. [3] devised a multistep strategy to amplify mRNA from limited quantities of cDNA in studies of gene expression. Their method is commonly referred to in the literature as the Eberwine method. The general steps involve reverse transcription of mRNA with an oligo ...
The present study was designed to characterize the regulation of the type II corticosteroid receptor (GR) mRNA in two tissues involved in the control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. We have used a solution hybridization/S1 nuclease protection assay to quantitate GR mRNA levels in the rat …
Imaging products of gene expression in live cells will provide unique insights into the biology of cells. Molecular beacons make attractive probes for imaging mRNA in live cells as they can report the presence of an RNA target by turning on the fluorescence of a quenched fluorophore. However, when oligonucleotide probes are introduced into cells, they are rapidly sequestered in the nucleus, making the detection of cytoplasmic mRNAs difficult. We have shown that if a molecular beacon is linked to a tRNA, it stays in the cytoplasm and permits detection of cytoplasmic mRNAs. Here we describe two methods of linking molecular beacons to tRNA and show how the joint molecules can be used for imaging an mRNA that is normally present in the cytoplasm in live cultured cells. This protocol should take a total of 4 d to complete.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Human lymphocyte messenger RNA activity profiles in type I and type II diabetes. T2 - A tool for classification of metabolic disease. AU - Mariash, C. N.. AU - Burmeister, L. A.. PY - 1988/12/1. Y1 - 1988/12/1. N2 - We have previously used rat hepatic messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) activity profiles to categorize various pathophysiologic states. To test the hypothesis that similar techniques can be used to categorize disease states in humans, we examined the mRNA activity profiles by using in vitro translational assays of Ficoll-Hypaque-separated mononuclear cells obtained from six normal volunteers, six patients with type I diabetes, and five patients with type II diabetes as examples of different disease states. Translated proteins were labeled with sulfur 35-labeled methionine, separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and quantitated by videodensitometry of autoradiographs derived from the two-dimensional gels. Of approximately 160 quantitated mRNAs, the levels of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - BCL2 protein expression parallels its mRNA level in normal and malignant B cells. AU - Shen, Yulei. AU - Iqbal, Javeed. AU - Huang, James Z.. AU - Zhou, Guimei. AU - Chan, Wing C.. PY - 2004/11/1. Y1 - 2004/11/1. N2 - The regulation of B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) protein expression in germinal center (GC) B cells has been controversial. Previous reports have indicated post-transcriptional regulation plays a dominant role. However, a number of recent studies contradicted these reports. Using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Standardized Reverse Transcriptase-PCR (StaRT-PCR), we measured the level of mRNA expression in GC, mantle zone (MNZ), and marginal zone (MGZ) cells from laser capture microdissection. Both quantitative RT-PCR measurements of microdissected GC cells from tonsils showed that GC cells had low expression of BCL2 transcripts commensurate with the low protein expression level. These results are in agreement with microarray studies on fluorescence-activated ...
Figure 3 Thermogenic program and β3-adrenergic receptor signaling is mediated by membrane-initiated ERα signaling. A: Immunoblot analysis of UCP1 levels in BAT and pWAT of ERα+/+, ERα−/−, WT, and KRRki/ki mice. Representative immunoblots and quantification are shown (n = 5-8 per group). #P , 0.01. B: qRT-PCR analysis of genes consistent with beige adipocytes in adipose tissues of ERα+/+, ERα−/−, WT, and KRRki/ki mice (n = 6-8). Relative mRNA expression levels are normalized to gapdh. *P , 0.05, #P , 0.01. C: Hematoxylin and eosin staining of pWAT of ERα+/+, ERα−/−, WT, and KRRki/ki mice. Scale bar indicates 100 µm. The graph depicts the quantification of mean cell area (n = 4). #P , 0.01. D: qRT-PCR analysis of genes consistent with beige adipocytes in NIH 3T3-L1 preadipocytes treated with vehicle (control), 100 nmol/L E2, or 2 µmol/L rosiglitazone for 72 h. Relative mRNA expression levels are normalized to gapdh. Data depict the results from three independent experiments. ...
Non-small cell lung tumor (NSCLC) may be the most common tumor as well as the leading reason behind death from tumor worldwide. in comparison to people that have low mRNA amounts (20.three months vs 34.three months, respectively; Log Rank Check, p?=?0.016), when contemplating all NSCLC levels which difference is buy 958772-66-2 a great deal larger when contemplating only sufferers with stage IV (15.9 months vs 31.three months, respectively; Log Rank Check, p?=?0.036). Furthermore, circulating Ang-2 mRNA amounts independently determine general survival, as well as the concordance (c) index evaluation showed that this is of the nomogram which has information relating to tumor stage, sufferers smoking position and circulating Ang-2 mRNA amounts present an elevated capacity to anticipate overall success in NSCLC sufferers (c-index 0.798). These outcomes claim that this nomogram could serve as a distinctive and practical device to determine prognosis in NSCLC, not really counting on the option of ...
RNA expression patterns of cancer-adjacent breast tissue could be to gauge future survival outcomes for women with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer
Gene expression differs among individuals and populations and is thought to be a major determinant of phenotypic variation. Although variation and genetic loci responsible for RNA expression levels have been analysed extensively in human populations, our knowledge is limited regarding the differences in human protein abundance and the genetic basis for this difference. Variation in messenger RNA expression is not a perfect surrogate for protein expression because the latter is influenced by an array of post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms, and, empirically, the correlation between protein and mRNA levels is generally modest. Here we used isobaric tag-based quantitative mass spectrometry to determine relative protein levels of 5,953 genes in lymphoblastoid cell lines from 95 diverse individuals genotyped in the HapMap Project. We found that protein levels are heritable molecular phenotypes that exhibit considerable variation between individuals, populations and sexes. Levels of specific sets of
Figure 3. Western blots of Cos7 cell extracts stained with CCM2 antibody (A and B). Cells were transfected with an expression vector encoding a full-length CCM2-GFP fusion protein ( ). Untransfected cells served as controls ( ). A, In transfected cells, the CCM2 antibody detects an 82-kDa protein (expected size for the fusion protein). No staining is observed in untransfected controls. B, Peptide competition eliminates staining, demonstrating the specificity of this antibody for the CCM2 protein. C, Multitissue Western blot reveals CCM2 protein expression in the brain, heart, lung, and kidney. - CCM2 expression parallels that of CCM1.
Gene transcription is a random process in single cells manifested by the observed distribution of mRNA copy numbers in homogeneous cell populations. A central question is to understand how mRNA distribution is modulated under environmental changes. In this work, we initiate a theoretical study on mRNA distribution dynamics for the stochastic transcription model that involves cross-talking signaling pathways to direct gene activation in response to external signals. We first express the distribution in mathematical dynamical formulas under both moderate and high transcriptional upregulations. In each scenario, our further numerical examples display an observed dynamical transition type among three distribution modes for stress genes in yeast. In particular, the intermediate bimodal stage sustains within a certain length of early time and lasts much longer than that generated by the single pathway. This shows the general and robust bimodal transcription regulated by the cross-talk of signaling pathways.
Principal Investigator:FUKUDA Takeshi, Project Period (FY):1991 - 1993, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (C), Research Field:Respiratory organ internal medicine
gene, would facilitate examination of the role of this gene in the inheritance of human obesity. Northern blot analysis revealed that OB RNA is present at a high level in adipose tissue but at much lower levels in placenta and heart. OB RNA is undetectable in a wide range of other tissues. Comparative mapping of mouse and human DNA indicated that the ob gene is located within a region of mouse chromosome 6 that is homologous to a portion of human chromosome 7q. We mapped the human ...
Supplementary MaterialsSupplementary information 41467_2019_10135_MOESM1_ESM. reduces right center hypertrophy, restores the cardiac index, and order KOS953 decreases pulmonary vascular redecorating. These total results demonstrate that inhibition of CDKs by palbociclib could be a therapeutic strategy in PAH. and (Fig.?1f) and (and mRNA amounts could possibly be demonstrated, helping increased activity of the CDK-induced Rb-E2F pathway in HPASMCs from IPAH sufferers. To confirm the fact that predicted upsurge in activity of CDK2, CDK4, CDK6, and CDK9 is because order KOS953 of an enhanced appearance level under disease circumstances, real-time PCR analyses had been performed in isolated major HPASMCs 48?h after hunger (Supplementary Fig.?2aCh) and in homogenates of explanted individual lungs (Supplementary Fig.?2iCp). In HPASMCs (Supplementary Fig.?2aCompact disc), aswell such TM4SF4 as lung homogenates from IPAH sufferers (Supplementary Fig.?2iCl), increased and mRNA amounts were noted, whereas ...
The application of synthetic modified messenger RNA (mRNA) is a promising approach for the treatment of a variety of diseases and vaccination. In the past few years, different modifications of synthetic mRNA were applied to render the mRNA more stable and less immunogenic. However, the repeated application of synthetic mRNA still requires the suppression of immune activation to avoid cell death and to allow a sufficient production of exogenous proteins. Thus, the addition of type I interferon (IFN) inhibiting recombinant protein B18R is often required to avoid IFN response. In this study, the ability of B18R encoding mRNA to prevent the immune response of cells to the delivered synthetic mRNA was analyzed. The co-transfection of enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) mRNA transfected fibroblasts with B18R encoding mRNA over 7-days resulted in comparable cell viability and eGFP protein expression as in the cells transfected with eGFP mRNA and incubated with B18R protein. Using qRT-PCR, significantly
Individual fractions of polysomes were isolated from yeast. Pulse labeling experiments in vivo show constant specific activity of messenger RNA in each polysome peak; this suggests a uniform density of ribosomes per unit length of messenger RNA. In the cell-free incorporating system, the amount of peptide per ribosome unit increased with the size of polysome.. ...
RNA binding proteins (RBPs) can regulate the stability and/or translatability of messengerRNAs (mRNAs) throughinteractions with their 30-untranslated regions. However, individual mRNAs may be regulated simultaneously or successivelyby more than one RBP, as well as by Argonaute (AGO)-bound miRNAs; the coordination of these various influenceson an individual mRNA is therefore complex and not well studied. In this report we examine the roles of two RBPs thatbind to AU-rich elements (ARE) - AUF1 and HuR - in the stability and translation of cyclin D1 (Ccnd1) mRNA in ratmyoblasts transiting the G phase of the cell cycle, and their interactions with miRNAs. Knockdown (KD) of AUF1 resultedin (1) transient upregulation of the mRNA level as well as an advancement of translation onset time (TOT) from 6 to 5 hpost-serum addition, (2) loss of miRNA loading on AGO1 and AGO2 and (3) reduction in the level of AGO-1 and AGO-2bound mRNA. In contrast, KD of HuR had no effect on the mRNA level, or on the AGO-mRNA ...
酵母细胞通过提高葡萄糖合成酶和糖酵解作用维持能量代谢的平衡。在人体细胞中我们也发现了同样的代谢调节途径,主要通过eIF3e蛋白与代谢相关的mRNA结合并促进这些与能量代谢相关的蛋白表达来维持代谢的平衡。在肿瘤形成的过程中,这种通过eIF3d和eIF3e调控的能量代谢机制是被打破的,因此该研究成果将有助于科学家通过靶向代谢通路研发治愈肿瘤的药物。该研究利用转录组学、蛋白组学和代谢组学的方法发现缺少了eIF3e和eIF3d的裂殖酵母细胞无法合成线粒体电子传递链相关的蛋白,从而导致呼吸功能阻断,内源性的氧化应激压力和细胞老化产生。 课题组硕士研究生苏丹为共同第一作者 。 Dieter A. ...
Shinde and Klein are not yet sure whether GSK-3s effect on RNA splicing explains its role in mood disorders. The effect of GSK-3 on messenger RNA in neuronal cells, with or without lithium, would need to be examined to determine this. The study underlines how investigations into the basic biological function of a drug target can lead in unexpected directions. [The GSK-3 phosphoproteome] is a really large data set, Shinde said. Its a resource for the field. The relevance to leukemia could be direct and something worthy of immediate study, Klein said. The role in psychiatric disorders is a major interest of the work, but the impact would be down the road, not immediate. ...
Effect of gefitinib on CYP mRNAs expression and EROD activity in NSCLC cell lines The baseline transcript levels of had been determined in both sensitive and resistant cell lines selleck chemical MK-0457 by RT PCR and information are summarized in Figure 4A. CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 had been expressed at important levels only in H322, H292 and Calu three cell lines, CYP2D6 was detected in all cell lines, whereas CYP3A4 was undetected. CYP3A5 was present at higher level only in A549 cells. The inducibility of individual CYP genes by gefitinib was then investigated along with the levels of CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2D6 and CYP3A5 mRNAs have been assessed just after treating cells with the drug. After six h, significantly greater gene expression levels of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 had been observed in all sensitive cell lines. By contrast no substantial modulation of gene expression was observed in resistant cell lines. As a way to evaluate no matter if modulation of the CYP1A1 transcript levels was connected with ...
Time-dependent induction of connected cells by overexpression of cdc5ΔN. (A) Strain KLY1083 expressing three copies of GAL1-EGFP-cdc5ΔN homogeneously induced
Our mRNA assays have exceptional sensitivity and specificity using short, LNA-enhanced primers and are optimized to eliminate nonspecific amplification
Our mRNA assays have exceptional sensitivity and specificity using short, LNA-enhanced primers and are optimized to eliminate nonspecific amplification
Alternative splicing (AS) is a post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism for gene expression regulation. Splicing decisions are affected by the combinatorial behavior of different splicing factors that bind to multiple binding sites in exons and introns.
Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a molecule of RNA encoding a chemical blueprint for a protein product. mRNA is transcribed from a DNA template, and carries coding information to the sites of protein synthesis: the ribosomes. Here, the nucleic acid polymer is translated into a polymer of amino acids: a protein. In mRNA as in DNA, genetic information is encoded in the sequence of nucleotides arranged into codons consisting of three bases each. Each codon encodes for a specific amino acid, except the stop codons that terminate protein synthesis. This process requires two other types of RNA: transfer RNA (tRNA) mediates recognition of the codon and provides the corresponding amino acid, while ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is the central component of the ribosomes protein manufacturing machinery.. ...
Background: Current methodology of gene expression analysis limits the possibilities of comparison between cells/tissues of organs in which cell size and/or number changes as a consequence of the study (e.g. starvation). A method relating the abundance of specific mRNA copies per cell may allow direct comparison or different organs and/or changing physiological conditions. Methods: With a number of selected genes, we analysed the relationship of the number of bases and the fluorescence recorded at a present level using cDNA standards. A lineal relationship was found between the final number of bases and the length of the transcript. The constants of this equation and those of the relationship between fluorescence and number of bases in cDNA were determined and a general equation linking the length of the transcript and the initial number of copies of mRNA was deduced for a given pre-established fluorescence setting. This allowed the calculation of the concentration of the corresponding mRNAs per ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Scleraxis messenger ribonucleic acid is expressed in C2C12 myoblasts and its level is down-regulated by bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2). Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
I would like to know what amounts of protein are necessary for pregnant women? I have been eating the Paleo Diet since you introduced me to it. This is my first
Im prepping for surgery right now with a liquid diet. What would you say is the minimum grams of protein to get a day? My doctor wants 100g but Ive been lucky to get 60g. Is this going to hurt me down the road?Thanks!
YV Subrahmanyam, S Yamaga, Y Prashar, HH Lee, NP Hoe, Y Kluger, M Gerstein, JD Goguen, PE Newburger, SM Weissman (2001). Blood 97: 2457-68 ...
Mouse monocytic Mm-A, Mm-P, Mm-S1, and Mm-S2 cells are sublines of mouse monocytic and immortalized Mm-1 cells derived from spontaneously differentiated, mouse myeloblastic M1 cells. Although these subline cells retain their monocytic characteristics in vitro, Mm-A and Mm-P cells are highly leukemogenic to syngeneic SL mice and athymic nude mice, whereas Mm-S1 and Mm-S2 cells are not or are only slightly leukemogenic. To better understand the molecular mechanisms of these levels of leukemogenicity, we investigated putative leukemogenesis-associated genes or oncogenes involved in the maintenance of growth, especially in vivo, by means of differential mRNA display. We isolated a fragment clone (15T01) from Mm-P cells. The mRNA probed with 15T01 was expressed at high levels in leukemogenic Mm-P and Mm-A cells but not in nonleukemogenic Mm-S1 and Mm-S2 cells. The gene corresponding to 15T01, named TRA1, was isolated from an Mm-P cDNA library. The longest open reading frame of the TRA1 clone predicts ...
Mouse monocytic Mm-A, Mm-P, Mm-S1, and Mm-S2 cells are sublines of mouse monocytic and immortalized Mm-1 cells derived from spontaneously differentiated, mouse myeloblastic M1 cells. Although these subline cells retain their monocytic characteristics in vitro, Mm-A and Mm-P cells are highly leukemogenic to syngeneic SL mice and athymic nude mice, whereas Mm-S1 and Mm-S2 cells are not or are only slightly leukemogenic. To better understand the molecular mechanisms of these levels of leukemogenicity, we investigated putative leukemogenesis-associated genes or oncogenes involved in the maintenance of growth, especially in vivo, by means of differential mRNA display. We isolated a fragment clone (15T01) from Mm-P cells. The mRNA probed with 15T01 was expressed at high levels in leukemogenic Mm-P and Mm-A cells but not in nonleukemogenic Mm-S1 and Mm-S2 cells. The gene corresponding to 15T01, named TRA1, was isolated from an Mm-P cDNA library. The longest open reading frame of the TRA1 clone predicts ...
For zooming please use the mouse wheel. The movie shows a sequence of slides with expression data at t=0h, t=5h, t=7h and t=9h after a shift of an aerobically grown culture to anaerobic conditions. Expression on protein level has been encoded in shades of blue with white (no expression at all) and blue (highest observed expression along the shown time line). Cell sizes encode the maximum protein amount over the monitored sampling points t0 to t9 ...
Data Availability StatementThe first study data used to aid the results of the scholarly research are included within this article. 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine downregulated the methylation of NKX2.2 and retrieved its manifestation of mRNA and proteins amounts (p 0.05). No significant association was discovered Ntf5 between your NKX2.2 sex and methylation, age group, tumor differentiation, TNM stage, CEA, CA199, and fecal occult bloodstream (p 0.05). Kaplan-Meier evaluation indicated that NKX2.2 hypermethylation showed a tendency however, not statistical FK-506 (Tacrolimus) significance for predicting poor overall success in CRC individuals (p=0.33). NKX2.2 overexpression suppressed cell proliferation, colony formation, and inhibited tumor invasion and migration in CRC cells (both p 0.05). Conclusions: This research shows that NKX2.2 is a tumor suppressor in CRC because of hypermethylation. strong course=kwd-title Keywords: Colorectal tumor, Hypermethylation, NK homeobox 2.2, Epigenetic Intro ...
Cancer cells. (A) Relative expression levels of Nox1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 mRNAs in A549 cells were determined by real-time RT-PCR and are presented as mean delta Ct
The first and foremost point to be made here is that messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines are not legally vaccines at all according to the CDC official definition. The FDA granted
Every cell in the human body contains DNA, Messenger RNA and Protein among many other components. The DNA stores instructions for what that cell is to actually…
For this article, RNA was isolated from mouse and rat brain followed by denaturing agarose gel electrophoresis and Northern blot analysis of isolated RNA. RT-PCR analysis was performed on total RNA from mouse and rat brain as well as rat poly(A)+ RNA followed by T-vector cloning of beta-actin RT-PCR product and colony screening for positive recombinants.
Alcyomics are looking for a Scientist, Grade 1 (with 1-3 years post doctoral experience and industry experience an advantage).. The work will primarily be to ensure client projects are completed efficiently and in a timely manner and will also involve research and development (R&D) within Alcyomics Ltd. The job entails working with a team of scientists within Alcyomics Ltd in the completion of client proposals as well as development of primary cell lines and differentiation of these lines to develop in vitro 3D skin models or 3D osteoarthritic (OA) joint models. Experience of tissue culture, immunohistochemistry, mRNA expression analysis and cytokine analysis will be required. Work will also involve sectioning and embedding of tissue, Skimune® assays and cytokine analysis. The job will also involve the Scientist contributing to other commercial activities.. Essential Requirements: -. Must have extensive tissue culture experience and tissue sectioning and staining expertise.. Working within a ...
J:60127 Pascolo S, Tsoukatou D, Mamalaki C, Identification of thymus specific and developmentally regulated genes by an improved version of the mRNA differential display technique. Dev Immunol. 1999;7(1):1-7 ...
Comments, concepts and statistics about Systematic discovery of structural elements governing stability of mammalian messenger RNAs..
Messenger RNA science has tremendously accelerated the development of effective COVID-19 vaccines. Enabling the creation of a variety of proteins inside the body, mRNAs are a promising weapon in the fight against intractable diseases such as cancer. This episode of The Signs focuses on Japanese researchers who work to create new vaccines and medicine through combining mRNAs with original technology.
Download Messenger Plus! Live. Messenger Plus! Live is an add-on for Windows Live Messenger which adds lots of features and extras.
The technology we have available to us today in the lab is both a boon and a bafflement. Example: The screens we have for RNA expression in cells is so sensitive we can see tiny changes in RNA expression levels in healthy/diseased/drug treated/etc cells. YAY! More information! More observations! More new ideas for research!… Except,…. ...
DS was born at 36 weeks by EMCS, following a failed induction attempt. There were complications in the pregnancy that meant he was monitored closely
DNA is the informational basis from which living cells derive instructions for synthesizing proteins. Many of the resulting proteins are enzymes that catalyze biochemical reactions from which the cell derives energy or generates other molecules essential to its health and safety. The process normally occurs when the sequence of nucleotides in DNA is transcribed into a complementary, single strand of nucleotides known as messenger RNA, or mRNA. The mRNA provides the instructions by which other components in the cell synthesize proteins. Because not all genes are transcribed (or expressed) but all genes that are transcribed do so through mRNA, the presence of mRNA is an indicator that a gene from the cells DNA has been expressed. The DNA from which the mRNA is obtained is sometimes interspersed with oligonucleotide spacers that do not appear in the final mRNA. Because mRNA is used for the cells molecular machinery to generate the protein, the sequence of DNA (or gene) that corresponds to a ...
overexpressing GPX1 in endothelial cells is able to change the basal mRNA and protein BAX levels without affecting those of TP53 and BCL2 (useful to antiatherogenic therapies which use antioxidants with the aim of protecting the vascular wall against ...
Researchers note a number of caveats, including that the protection from vaccines could be waning over time anyway, and the 66% estimate is based on a relatively short study period with few infections.
Question 1 (1 point) Which of the following is a true statement about genes?Question 1 options: A) Genes are structures within chromosomes of each cell that contain deoxyribonucleic acid B) Genes are messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) C) Genes are cells that determine gender during fertilization D) Genes are antibodies that promote disease SaveQuestion 2 (1 point) Which of the following is the major cause of death from cancer?Question 2 options: A) Infection B) Hemorrhage C) Pain D) Metastasis SaveQuestion 3 (1 point) Which of the following statements is true with respect to the stages of cancer?Question 3 options: A) Stage 1 represents a poor prognosis B) Localized cancer is a stage 4 C) Benign tumors are stage 2 D) &
messenger RNA. [13]. Breast cancer (progesteron receptor negative). Over-expression. -. messenger RNA. [16]. ...
Messenger RNA. References[edit]. *^ "Simmons magazine, Simmons College, Summer 2008, page 44, Obituaries" (PDF). Archived from ... Howard Haym Hiatt is a medical researcher involved with the discovery of messenger RNA, past chair from 1963-1972 of the ... Dean, Harvard School of Public Health (1972-1984); discovery, messenger RNA; founder, Center for Global Health Equity, Brigham ... and he was part of the team led by James Watson that was among the first to demonstrate messenger RNA in mammalian cells[7]. Dr ...
Messenger RNA vaccines[change , change source]. Other scientists have developed vaccines that use messenger RNA to teach the ... Messenger RNA vaccines need to be stored at very cold temperatures. Ordinary refrigerators are not cold enough.[24] ...
... (mRNA) is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they ... A 5' cap (also termed an RNA cap, an RNA 7-methylguanosine cap, or an RNA m7G cap) is a modified guanine nucleotide that has ... MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNAs that typically are partially complementary to sequences in metazoan messenger RNAs.[32] ... that are targeted to specific messenger RNAs by a combination of cis-regulatory sequences on the RNA and trans-acting RNA- ...
1977). "Human beta-globin messenger RNA. I. Nucleotide sequences derived from complementary RNA". J. Biol. Chem. 252 (14): 5019 ... Proudfoot NJ, Brownlee GG (1976). "3' non-coding region sequences in eukaryotic messenger RNA". Nature. 263 (5574): 211-4. doi: ...
Morandi C, Masters JN, Mottes M, Attardi G (April 1982). "Multiple forms of human dihydrofolate reductase messenger RNA. ... "A human dihydrofolate reductase pseudogene and its relationship to the multiple forms of specific messenger RNA". Journal of ... RNA binding. • oxidoreductase activity. • mRNA binding. • folate reductase activity. • translation repressor activity, nucleic ... "Intronless human dihydrofolate reductase genes are derived from processed RNA molecules". Proceedings of the National Academy ...
Exon Messenger RNA Conrad, Richard; Fen Liou, Ruey; Blumenthal, Thomas (1993-02-25). "Functional analysis of a C. elegans trans ... end of the primary transcript of a gene that is removed by a special form of RNA splicing during maturation of the final RNA ... located on a separate RNA molecule, the SL RNA. Moreover, the outron of the premature mRNA contains a branchpoint adenosine - ... Lei Q, Li C, Zuo Z, Huang C, Cheng H, Zhou R (March 2016). "Evolutionary Insights into RNA trans-Splicing in Vertebrates". ...
Control of Messenger RNA Stability. 1993. doi:10.1016/c2009-0-03269-3. ISBN 9780120847822. Zuker M (July 2003). "Mfold web ... Paz I, Kosti I, Ares M, Cline M, Mandel-Gutfreund Y (July 2014). "RBPmap: a web server for mapping binding sites of RNA-binding ... The dorsal horn shows considerable expression in the cervical spine of adult mouse (P56). RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) that bind ... Vandivier LE, Anderson SJ, Foley SW, Gregory BD (April 2016). "The Conservation and Function of RNA Secondary Structure in ...
Tan, Chorh Chuan (1992). Regulation of Erythropoietin Messenger RNA. National University of Singapore. Archived from the ... "Regulation of erythropoietin messenger RNA". Upon graduation in 1983, Tan started his medical career as a renal physician. From ...
Marotta CA, Wilson JT, Forget BG, Weissman SM (July 1977). "Human beta-globin messenger RNA. III. Nucleotide sequences derived ... Less than 5% of the human genome encodes proteins, and the rest is associated with non-coding RNA molecules, regulatory DNA ...
5 . - S. 321-338 . Spirin A.S., Belitsina N.V., Aitkhozhin M.A. (Spirin AS, Belitsina NV, Aitkhozhin MA). Messenger RNA in ... 6 . - S. 1062-1066 . Filimonov N.G., Aitkhozhin M.A., Gazaryan K.G. Poly (A) -containing RNA from germinating wheat germ // ... The group discovered classes of plant informosomes - free cytoplasmic, polysomal-linked, and nuclear, including RNA-binding ... Information RNA in early embryogenesis // Zh. total biol. - 1964. - T. 25, No. ...
Giorgi D, Bernard JP, Rouquier S, Iovanna J, Sarles H, Dagorn JC (1989). "Secretory pancreatic stone protein messenger RNA. ...
1977). "Human beta-globin messenger RNA. I. Nucleotide sequences derived from complementary RNA". J. Biol. Chem. 252 (14): 5019 ... Chabot B, Black DL, LeMaster DM, Steitz JA (1986). "The 3' splice site of pre-messenger RNA is recognized by a small nuclear ... Proudfoot NJ, Brownlee GG (1976). "3' non-coding region sequences in eukaryotic messenger RNA". Nature. 263 (5574): 211-4. doi: ...
Proudfoot NJ, Brownlee GG (September 1976). "3' non-coding region sequences in eukaryotic messenger RNA". Nature. 263 (5574): ... "Nucleotide sequences of human globin messenger RNA". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of ...
N6-methyladenosine modulates messenger RNA translation efficiency. Cell 2015, 161, 1388. "Xiao Wang - MIT Department of ... YTHDF3 facilitates translation and decay of N6-methyladenosine-modified RNA. Cell Research 2017, 27, 315. B S Zhao*, X Wang*, A ... She worked with Karl Deisseroth at Stanford and "developed comprehensive methods for analyzing RNA in intact tissues that merge ... from the University of Chicago where she worked with Chuan He on elucidating the cellular functions of RNA modifications. While ...
... methylation in mammalian messenger RNA (mRNA) in 2011. The existence of m6A in mRNA was discovered in 1974 in both eukaryotic ... "N6-methyladenosine modulates messenger RNA translation efficiency". Cell. 161 (6): 1388-1399. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2015.05.014. ... "N6-Methyladenosine-dependent regulation of messenger RNA stability". Nature. 505 (7481): 117-120. Bibcode:2014Natur.505..117W. ... He is best known for his work in discovering and deciphering reversible RNA methylation in post-transcriptional gene expression ...
van Hoof A, Parker R (2002). "Messenger RNA degradation: beginning at the end". Curr. Biol. 12 (8): R285-7. doi:10.1016/S0960- ... Its exact function is not known, however, it has been shown using a cell-free RNA decay system that the exosome is required for ...
messenger RNA. A large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome.. metabolism. ... in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA by the enzyme RNA polymerase. Both RNA and DNA are nucleic acids, which ... RNA. See ribonucleic acid.. RNA polymerase. A member of a family of enzymes that are essential to life: they are found in all ... One of the four main nitrogenous bases found in both DNA and RNA, along with adenine, guanine, thymine, and uracil (in RNA); it ...
Eastwood SL, Harrison PJ (Sep 1998). "Hippocampal and cortical growth-associated protein-43 messenger RNA in schizophrenia". ...
Messenger RNA cloning and expression in pancreatic diseases". J. Clin. Invest. 90 (6): 2284-91. doi:10.1172/JCI116115. PMC ...
In the case of genes encoding proteins, that RNA produced from this process is messenger RNA (mRNA), which then needs to be ... aided by small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) molecules, some of which are derived from spliced introns from messenger RNAs encoding ... After being produced in the nucleolus, ribosomes are exported to the cytoplasm where they translate messenger RNA. The nucleus ... Speckles are subnuclear structures that are enriched in pre-messenger RNA splicing factors and are located in the ...
In 2019, Researchers design an inhalable form of messenger RNA aerosol that could be administered directly to the lungs to help ... "Engineers create an inhalable form of messenger RNA". MIT News. 4 January 2019. Retrieved 9 January 2019. University of Warwick ... 22 February 2019). "Hachimoji DNA and RNA: A genetic system with eight building blocks (paywall)". Science. 363 (6429): 884-887 ...
Bienroth S, Keller W, Wahle E (1993). "Assembly of a processive messenger RNA polyadenylation complex". EMBO J. 12 (2): 585-94 ... 1996). "The RNA 3' cleavage factors CstF 64 kDa and CPSF 100 kDa are concentrated in nuclear domains closely associated with ... 2005). "Human Fip1 is a subunit of CPSF that binds to U-rich RNA elements and stimulates poly(A) polymerase". EMBO J. 23 (3): ... 1997). "The C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II couples mRNA processing to transcription". Nature. 385 (6614): 357-61. doi: ...
Researchers design an inhalable form of messenger RNA aerosol that could be administered directly to the lungs to help treat ... "Engineers create an inhalable form of messenger RNA". MIT News. 4 January 2019. Retrieved 9 January 2019. "Scientists inch ... 16 September Biochemists report that "RNA-DNA chimeras" (complex mixtures of RNA molecules and DNA molecules) may be a more ... Scientists in Japan use single-cell RNA analysis to find that supercentenarians have an excess of cytotoxic CD4 T-cells, a type ...
1974). "Nucleotide sequences of human globin messenger RNA". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 71 (6): 2300-4. Bibcode:1974PNAS... ... non-coding region sequences in eukaryotic messenger RNA". Nature. 263 (5574): 211-4. Bibcode:1976Natur.263..211P. doi:10.1038/ ...
1985). "Rat hepatic cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP). Structures of the protein, messenger RNA, and gene". J. ...
Meyer S, Temme C, Wahle E (2004). "Messenger RNA turnover in eukaryotes: pathways and enzymes". Crit. Rev. Biochem. Mol. Biol. ... Moraes KC, Wilusz CJ, Wilusz J (June 2006). "CUG-BP binds to RNA substrates and recruits PARN deadenylase". RNA. 12 (6): 1084- ... 2004). "Altered expression of CUG binding protein 1 mRNA in myotonic dystrophy 1: possible RNA-RNA interaction". Neurosci. Res ... CUG triplet repeat, RNA binding protein 1, also known as CUGBP1, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CUGBP1 gene. ...
Characterization of the protein and its messenger RNA". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 262 (3): 1206-12. PMID 2948954. " ... Lu J, O'Hara EB, Trieselmann BA, Romano PR, Dever TE (November 1999). "The interferon-induced double-stranded RNA-activated ... "Translational regulation by the interferon-induced double-stranded-RNA-activated 68-kDa protein kinase". Proceedings of the ...
Munro, A. J.; Korner, A. (1963). "Lack of Messenger RNA in Reticulocyte Cell-sap". Nature. 198 (4883): 891-892. doi:10.1038/ ...
positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • حمل أنثوي. • positive regulation of cell proliferation ... "Human follicle-stimulating hormone beta-subunit gene encodes multiple messenger ribonucleic acids". Mol. Endocrinol. 2 (9): 806 ...
RNA editing. Octopuses and other coleoid cephalopods are capable of greater RNA editing (which involves changes to the nucleic ... Hanlon, R. T.; Messenger, J. B. (1998). Cephalopod Behaviour. Cambridge University Press. pp. 80-81. ISBN 978-0-521-64583-6.. ... Coleoids rely mostly on ADAR enzymes for RNA editing, which requires large double-stranded RNA structures to flank to the ... High levels of RNA editing do not appear to be present in more basal cephalopods or other molluscs.[118][119] ...
There transcription takes place, resulting in formation of messenger RNA that is translated by ribosomes to produce specific ... RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • transcriptional activator activity, RNA ... RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific DNA binding. • steroid hormone receptor activity. • steroid ... transcription initiation from RNA polymerase II promoter. • signal transduction. • steroid hormone mediated signaling pathway. ...
RNA polymerase (RNAP) in action. It is building a messenger RNA molecule from a DNA helix. Part of the enzyme was made ... Non-coding RNA or "RNA genes". These are a broad class of genes that encode RNA which is not translated into protein. The most ... RNA polymerase IV synthesizes siRNA in plants.[5]. *RNA polymerase V synthesizes RNAs involved in siRNA-directed ... With the help of some other molecules, it makes messenger RNA from a strand of a DNA. This is its main function, but it does ...
"MESSENGER Gains Critical Gravity Assist for Mercury Orbital Observations". MESSENGER Mission News. September 30, 2009. Archived ... American biochemist who discovered transfer RNA (tRNA) (b. 1921). 6 October - Ruth L. Kirschstein, American pathologist and ... 29 September - NASA's MESSENGER spacecraft makes its final flyby of Mercury, decreasing velocity enough for its orbital capture ...
... and are able to initiate translation in the middle of a messenger RNA. The viral particle binds to cell surface receptors. Cell ... strand RNA genome is replicated through a double-stranded RNA intermediate that is formed using viral RDRP (RNA-Dependent RNA ... The mRNA encodes RNA dependent RNA polymerase. This polymerase makes complementary minus strands of RNA, then uses them as ... Genomic RNAs of picornaviruses possess multiple RNA elements and they are required for both negative and plus strand RNA ...
... and that the splicing of messenger RNA to delete those introns can occur in different ways, yielding different proteins from ... Normal way exons are joined during RNA processing. A group of RNA and protein subunits, called a spliceosome, removes introns ... Another enzyme called a 'ligase' sticks the pieces of RNA together. The end product now has a changed function. ... were split into segments that were combined later in RNA processing. ...
... messenger RNA - metabolism - metastasis - MHC - microbes - microbicide - Microsporidiosis - mitochondria - mitochondrial ... RNA) - ribosome - RNA - route of administration - RT-PCR - RTI - Ryan White C.A.R.E. act ...
Messenger AM, Barnes AN, Gray GC (2014). "Reverse zoonotic disease transmission (zooanthroponosis): a systematic review of ... but there is increasing evidence from DNA and RNA sequencing, that measles, smallpox, influenza, HIV, and diphtheria came to ...
... bearing AU-rich messenger RNA instability sequences, and homologous to a herpesvirus saimiri gene". J. Immunol. 150 (12): 5445- ...
RNA silencing mechanisms are also important in the plant systemic response, as they can block virus replication.[40] The ... SAR involves the production of chemical messengers, such as salicylic acid or jasmonic acid. Some of these travel through the ... Baulcombe D (September 2004). "RNA silencing in plants". Nature. 431 (7006): 356-63. Bibcode:2004Natur.431..356B. doi:10.1038/ ... For example, the Influenza A virus produces NS1 protein, which can bind to host and viral RNA, interact with immune signaling ...
... is an important technique used in many biochemical experiments that involve DNA, RNA, and protein isolation, ... RNA, and proteins. Qualitative analysis can be used and spectrophotometers are used to record spectra of compounds by scanning ...
... meaning that they are in the same sense orientation as messenger RNA but 10% have -ssRNA, meaning they must be converted to + ... Instead, the naked viral RNA may alter the function of the cells through a mechanism similar to RNA interference, in which the ... The RNA carries genetic information to code for the production of new infectious particles. More recently virus research has ... Some viruses (e.g. tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)) have RNA sequences that contain a "leaky" stop codon. In TMV 95% of the time the ...
PrP messenger RNA contains a pseudoknot structure (prion pseudoknot), which is thought to be involved in regulation of PrP ... "Circadian regulation of prion protein messenger RNA in the rat forebrain: a widespread and synchronous rhythm". Neuroscience. ...
Protein synthesis RNAs[change , change source]. Messenger RNA[change , change source]. The structure of a mature eukaryotic ... They are transfer RNA (tRNA) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA).. tRNA[change , change source]. Transfer RNA (tRNA) is a short molecule ... RNA is physically different from DNA: DNA contains two intercoiled strands, but RNA only contains one single strand. RNA also ... This is done by messenger RNA (mRNA). A single strand of DNA is the blueprint for the mRNA which is transcribed from that DNA ...
Each miRNA expressed in a cell may target about 100 to 200 messenger RNAs that it downregulates.[66] Most of the downregulation ... RNA may spread directly to other cells or nuclei by diffusion. A large amount of RNA and protein is contributed to the zygote ... Morris KL (2008). "Epigenetic Regulation of Gene Expression". RNA and the Regulation of Gene Expression: A Hidden Layer of ... RNA transcripts[edit]. Sometimes a gene, after being turned on, transcribes a product that (directly or indirectly) maintains ...
... messenger RNA (mRNA) by proteins such as RNA polymerase. Most organisms then process the pre-mRNA (also known as a primary ... Proteins make up half the dry weight of an Escherichia coli cell, whereas other macromolecules such as DNA and RNA make up only ... With the exception of certain types of RNA, most other biological molecules are relatively inert elements upon which proteins ... ribosome and is read three nucleotides at a time by matching each codon to its base pairing anticodon located on a transfer RNA ...
... thus preventing transcription of the genes into messenger RNA. An RNA-binding repressor binds to the mRNA and prevents ... The lac operon: 1: RNA Polymerase, 2: lac repressor, 3: Promoter, 4: Operator, 5: Lactose, 6: lacZ, 7: lacY, 8: lacA.. Top: The ... In molecular genetics, a repressor is a DNA- or RNA-binding protein that inhibits the expression of one or more genes by ... RNA polymerase then can transcribe the message (expressing the gene). A corepressor is a molecule that can bind to repressor ...
Their major toxic mechanism is the inhibition of RNA polymerase II, a vital enzyme in the synthesis of messenger RNA (mRNA), ... it also stimulates DNA-dependent RNA polymerases, leading to an increase in RNA synthesis.[83][84][85] According to one report[ ... Horgen, Paul A.; Vaisius, Allan C.; Ammirati, Joseph F. (1978). "The insensitivity of mushroom nuclear RNA polymerase activity ... The RNA polymerase of Amanita phalloides is insensitive to the effects of amatoxins, so the mushroom does not poison itself.[66 ...
An important step was later realization (in 1960) that the messenger RNA was not the same as the ribosomal RNA. None of this, ... a "messenger" RNA molecule to carry the instructions for making one protein to the cytoplasm ... adaptor molecules ("they might contain nucleotides") to match short sequences of nucleotides in the RNA messenger molecules to ... ribonucleic-protein complexes that catalyse the assembly of amino acids into proteins according to the messenger RNA ...
The RNAS took to strategic bombing in a bigger way than the RFC, who were focused on supporting the infantry actions of the ... Messenger, Charles. "Bomber" Harris and the Strategic Bombing Offensive, 1939-1945 (1984), defends Harris ... The first effective strategic bombing was pioneered by the Royal Naval Air Service (RNAS) in 1914.[17][18] The mission was to ... At first the RNAS attacked the German submarines in their moorings and then steelworks further in targeting the origin of the ...
Woo TU, Walsh JP, Benes FM (July 2004). "Density of glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 messenger RNA-containing neurons that ...
... within ribosome binding site affecting messenger RNA translatability and method to direct ribosomes to single messenger RNA ...
The Ca2+ can in turn function as a second messenger in various signaling pathways. However, the NMDA receptor cation channel is ... The detailed time course of this switch in the human cerebellum has been estimated using expression microarray and RNA seq and ...
... and transduces the signal through a G-protein-activated second messenger system. Knockout studies in mice suggested that this ... RNA expression pattern. More reference expression data. Gene ontology. Molecular function. • C-X-C chemokine receptor activity ...
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small endogenous RNAs that pair with sequences in messenger RNAs to direct post-transcriptional ... CpG islands also occur frequently in promoters for functional noncoding RNAs such as microRNAs.[17] ...
... (mRNA) is a molecule of RNA encoding a chemical "blueprint" for a protein product. mRNA is transcribed from a DNA ... This process requires two other types of RNA: transfer RNA (tRNA) mediates recognition of the codon and provides the ... corresponding amino acid, while ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is the central component of the ribosomes protein manufacturing machinery ...
... m-RNA*)* A single-stranded RNA [1] molecule that is responsible for the transmission to the ribosomes [2] of the genetic ... messenger-RNA (m-RNA) A single-stranded RNA molecule that is responsible for the transmission to the ribosomes of the genetic ... messenger-RNA (m-RNA) A single-stranded RNA molecule that is responsible for the transmission to the ribosomes of the genetic ... messenger-RNA (m-RNA) A single-stranded RNA molecule that is responsible for the transmission to the ribosomes of the genetic ...
... The ribonucleic acid (RNA) that is directly involved in the transcription of the pattern of bases from the DNA ... The sequence of bases on a segment of DNA called a gene is copied to a strand of RNA with the assistance of RNA polymerase. ... to provide a blueprint for the construction of proteins is called messenger RNA or typically mRNA. ... synthesis is then read and translated into the language of amino acids for protein construction with the help of transfer RNA ...
Messenger RNA (mRNA), molecule in cells that carries codes from the DNA in the nucleus to the sites of protein synthesis in the ... nucleic acid: Messenger RNA (mRNA). Messenger RNA (mRNA) delivers the information encoded in one or more genes from the DNA to ... More About Messenger RNA. 22 references found in Britannica articles. Assorted References. *classification of RNA* In nucleic ... a type of RNA called messenger RNA (mRNA), so named because it carries a genetic message from the gene on a nuclear chromosome ...
In contrast to DNA, messenger RNA (mRNA) in complex substrata is rarely analyzed, in large part because labile RNA molecules ... Messenger RNA, transcripts, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, decay fungi. Related Search. *Enzymology and molecular biology of ... Messenger RNA transcripts. Biodiversity of fungi : inventory and monitoring methods. Amsterdam : Elsevier Academic Press, 2004 ... In the case of beaded oligo (dT) chains, polyadenylated [Poly (A)] RNA, which is a suitable template for reverse-transcription- ...
Messenger RNA degradation in eukaryotes.. Sachs AB1.. Author information. 1. Division of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, ...
... a single-stranded molecule of RNA that is synthesized in the nucleus from a DNA template and then enters the cytoplasm, where ... messenger RNA. noun 1. (biochem) a form of RNA, transcribed from a single strand of DNA, that carries genetic information ... a single-stranded molecule of RNA that is synthesized in the nucleus from a DNA template and then enters the cytoplasm, where ... British Dictionary definitions for messenger RNA Expand. ... messenger RNA in Medicine Expand. messenger RNA mes·sen·ger RNA ...
The intracellular localization of messenger RNAs.. St Johnston D1.. Author information. 1. Wellcome Trust/Cancer Research ...
... and messenger RNA (mRNA) drug discovery and development company, today announced a partnership for the manufacture of RNA ... including the companys new messenger RNA (mRNA) therapeutics pipeline, at two upcoming healthcare conferences. ... Arcturus Therapeutics Inc., developing the next wave of RNA medicines, today announced that Joseph Payne, President and Chief ... Precision NanoSystems, Arcturus Therapeutics partner to develop RNA medicines Precision NanoSystems, a leader in the ...
A 5 cap (also termed an RNA cap, an RNA 7-methylguanosine cap or an RNA m7G cap) is a modified guanine nucleotide that has ... Messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) is a class of ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules that serve as chemical "blueprints" for the ... Messenger RNA is synthesized on a DNA template in a process known as DNA transcription. In mRNA, as in DNA, genetic information ... Polyadenylation is the covalent linkage of a polyadenylyl moiety to a messenger RNA molecule. In eukaryotic organisms, most ...
Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they ... A 5 cap (also termed an RNA cap, an RNA 7-methylguanosine cap, or an RNA m7G cap) is a modified guanine nucleotide that has ... MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNAs that typically are partially complementary to sequences in metazoan messenger RNAs.[32] ... that are targeted to specific messenger RNAs by a combination of cis-regulatory sequences on the RNA and trans-acting RNA- ...
... modification present in the messenger RNA of all higher eukaryotes. Although essential to cell viability and development, the ... N6-methyladenosine-dependent regulation of messenger RNA stability Nature. 2014 Jan 2;505(7481):117-20. doi: 10.1038/ ... N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) is the most prevalent internal (non-cap) modification present in the messenger RNA of all higher ... We identified over 3,000 cellular RNA targets of YTHDF2, most of which are mRNAs, but which also include non-coding RNAs, with ...
Key differences between DNA and RNA: RNA has a single-stranded structure./DNA has a double helix structure. RNA is temporary - ... RNA: The messenger molecule. DNA is present in almost all living cells in all living things. Its main task is to act as an ... RNA contains the sugar ribose./DNA has the sugar deoxyribose. RNA has base pairs Adenine, Uracil, Guanine, and Cytosine./DNA ... In this respect, DNA could be thought of as a book, and RNA as a photocopied page that describes a specific piece of ...
It has also been proposed7,8,9,10,11,12 that certain messenger RNAs might use allosteric mechanisms to mediate regulatory ... RNA can also serve in these capacities. For example, RNA has sufficient structural plasticity to form ribozyme1,2 and receptor3 ... Thiamine derivatives bind messenger RNAs directly to regulate bacterial gene expression. *Wade Winkler1. , ... It has also been proposed7,8,9,10,11,12 that certain messenger RNAs might use allosteric mechanisms to mediate regulatory ...
Messenger ribonucleic acids (mRNAs) are moleculesthat represent the intermediate step in the conversion of genetic information ... Messenger RNAs are required for converting the genetic information in the DNA into functional proteins. ... Messenger RNA in Prokaryotes. Sidney R Kushner, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA ... Dunn JJ and Studier FW (1975) Effect of RNAase III, cleavage on translation of bacteriophage T7 messenger RNAs. Journal of ...
Brown J.P., Rose T.M., Plowman G.D. (1985) Purification of Messenger RNA by Polysome Isolation with Monoclonal Antibodies. In: ... Kraus, J. P., and Rosenberg, L. E., 1982, Purification of low-abundance messenger RNAs from rat liver by polysome ... Expedient techniques for the isolation of undegraded polysomes and messenger ribonucleic acid, Biochemistry 13:3606-3615.PubMed ...
Messenger RNA-based therapies are attractive because, unlike DNA, mRNA does not need to enter the nucleus, and so does not ... Systemic delivery of factor IX messenger RNA for protein replacement therapy Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ... The delivery of messenger RNA to host cells also ensures accurate translation and posttranslational modifications of the target ... Systemic delivery of factor IX messenger RNA for protein replacement therapy. Suvasini Ramaswamy, Nina Tonnu, Kiyoshi Tachikawa ...
Biology-online is a completely free and open Biology dictionary with over 60,000 biology terms. It uses the wiki concept, so that anyone can make a contribution.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNAs that typically are partially complementary to sequences in metazoan messenger RNAs. Binding ... A 5 cap (also termed an RNA cap, an RNA 7-methylguanosine cap, or an RNA m7G cap) is a modified guanine nucleotide that has ... that are targeted to specific messenger RNAs by a combination of cis-regulatory sequences on the RNA and trans-acting RNA- ... In molecular biology, messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) is a single-stranded molecule of RNA that corresponds to the genetic ...
Prokaryotes have one type of RNA polymerase, eukaryotes on the other hand have many. ... The transcription enzyme RNA polymerase joins RNA nucleotides according to the base sequence in DNA. ... What RNA enzyme breaks down the DNA molecule to form messenger RNA. ?. Asked by Wiki User ... What RNA enzyme breaks down the DNA molecule to form messenger RNA? ...
Tarazona, S., Garcia-Alcalde, F., Dopazo, J., Ferrer, A., and Conesa, A., Differential expression in RNA-seq: a matter of depth ... Matboli, M., Eissa, S., and Said, H., Evaluation of histidine- rich glycoprotein tissue RNA and serum protein as novel markers ...
... is the most abundant modification in mammalian mRNA and long non-coding RNA. First discovered in the 1970s, m(6)A modification ... N6-methyl-adenosine modification in messenger and long non-coding RNA Trends Biochem Sci. 2013 Apr;38(4):204-9. doi: 10.1016/j. ... N6-methyl-adenosine (m(6)A) is the most abundant modification in mammalian mRNA and long non-coding RNA. First discovered in ... controls cellular energy homeostasis and is the first enzyme discovered that reverses an RNA modification. m(6)A Sequencing ...
It synthesizes messenger RNA molecules as the therapies themselves. These messenger RNA molecules carry the instructions for ... The Cambridge, MA-based biotech startup, which is attempting to make injectable messenger RNA molecules that trigger production ... RNA interference, and microRNA therapy that seek to precisely alter disease processes at the molecular level. The RNA category ... A third class of RNA-based treatments has stirred excitement over the past 10-20 years, with specific technologies like ...
Modulation of messenger RNA stability is usually mediated by stabilizing or destabilizing RNA-binding proteins (RNA-BP) that ... Failure of such mechanisms, in particular misexpression of RNA-BP, has been linked to several human diseases. In the adrenal ... Failure of such mechanisms, in particular misexpression of RNA-BP, has been linked to several human diseases. In the adrenal ... RNA-BP) that bind to the 3-untranslated region (3UTR) regulatory motifs, such as AU-rich elements (AREs). Destabilizing ARE- ...
Mature messenger RNA, often abbreviated as mature mRNA is a eukaryotic RNA transcript that has been spliced and processed and ... Unlike the eukaryotic RNA immediately after transcription known as precursor messenger RNA, mature mRNA consists exclusively of ... RNA splicing removes the non-coding RNA introns leaving behind the exons, which are then spliced and joined together to form ... ", "mature RNA" or "mRNA". The production of a mature mRNA molecule occurs in 3 steps: During capping, a 7-methylguanosine ...
As messenger RNA (mRNA) is transcribed from DNA to carry genetic information out of the nucleus, segments that dont code for ... Messenger RNA-associated protein drives multiple paths in T-cell development. University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine ... PHILADELPHIA - RNA is both the bridge between DNA and the production of proteins that carry out the functions of life and what ... The team demonstrated that the expression of an RNA binding protein called CELF2 is increased in response to T-cell stimulation ...
Neutrophils alter the inflammatory milieu by signal-dependent translation of constitutive messenger RNAs. Stephan W. Lindemann ... Neutrophils alter the inflammatory milieu by signal-dependent translation of constitutive messenger RNAs ... Neutrophils alter the inflammatory milieu by signal-dependent translation of constitutive messenger RNAs ... Neutrophils alter the inflammatory milieu by signal-dependent translation of constitutive messenger RNAs ...
RNA localization, mRNA turn-over as well as translation. Given their diverse functions, cells express a variety of RNA-binding ... In this review we focus on the effect of alcohol on different RNA-binding proteins and their possible contribution to alcohol- ... We further discuss the conventional methods and newer techniques that are employed to identify RNA-binding proteins. ... RNA in cells is always associated with RNA-binding proteins that regulate all aspects of RNA metabolism including RNA splicing ...
The study published in eLife shows that Puf5p therefore sends the messenger RNAs to a cell organelle where their fate is sealed ... it stores certain messenger RNAs in order to prolong its life. As a research group at the Biozentrum of the University of Basel ... the protein Puf5p determines whether individual messenger RNAs will be stored or degraded when sugar levels are low. ... If a cell runs low on sugar, it stores certain messenger RNAs in order to prolong its life. As a research group at the ...
The form of RNA that mediates the transfer of genetic information from the cell nucleus to ribosomes in the cytoplasm, where it ... RNA. that encodes and carries. information. from DNA. during transcription. to sites of protein synthesis. to undergo ... noun The form of RNA that mediates the transfer of genetic information from the cell nucleus to ribosomes in the cytoplasm, ...
  • The stability of mRNAs may be controlled by the 5' UTR and/or 3' UTR due to varying affinity for RNA degrading enzymes called ribonucleases and for ancillary proteins that can promote or inhibit RNA degradation. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • We identified over 3,000 cellular RNA targets of YTHDF2, most of which are mRNAs, but which also include non-coding RNAs, with a conserved core motif of G(m(6)A)C. We further establish the role of YTHDF2 in RNA metabolism, showing that binding of YTHDF2 results in the localization of bound mRNA from the translatable pool to mRNA decay sites, such as processing bodies. (nih.gov)
  • Messenger ribonucleic acids (mRNAs) are molecules that represent the intermediate step in the conversion of genetic information carried in a cell's DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) into functional proteins. (els.net)
  • The translation and stability of many mRNAs is regulated by small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs). (els.net)
  • RNA-binding proteins (RBP) are involved in ( 1 ) splicing and alternative splicing of hnRNA, resulting in the formation of mRNAs. (mdpi.com)
  • The team discovered that so-called P-bodies, small cellular organelles, play an important role in these processes: They not only, as it was previously assumed, degrade the messenger RNAs (mRNAs), which are of no use to the cell in the respective situation, but also ensure that the mRNAs that are required are stored. (unibas.ch)
  • A lot is known about how mRNAs are made, but much less is understood about the mechanisms that control their destruction," said Michael Bender, Ph.D., who oversees RNA processing grants at the National Institutes of Health's National Institute of General Medical Sciences. (eurekalert.org)
  • mRNAs coexpressed with pleiotropic miRNAs were enriched for RNA metabolism (miR-505-5p), ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolism (miR-197-3p, miR-328) and chromatin assembly (miR-328). (harvard.edu)
  • One is nonsense‐mediated mRNA decay (NMD), an RNA surveillance mechanism that rapidly degrades mRNAs harboring premature termination codons (PTCs). (embopress.org)
  • A*STAR researchers have developed a rapid, high-throughput screening procedure that can detect RNA aptamers-special messenger RNA molecules (mRNAs) able to sense and respond to particular cellular chemicals-in a sea of normal mRNA extracted from cells. (phys.org)
  • While modifications are best characterized in short, noncoding RNAs such as tRNAs, growing evidence indicates that mRNAs and long noncoding RNAs ( lncRNAs ) are likewise modified. (plantcell.org)
  • We find this type of modifications primarily within uncapped, degrading mRNAs and lncRNAs , suggesting they are the cause or consequence of RNA turnover. (plantcell.org)
  • PURPOSE: To determine the temporal and spatial localization of the messenger RNAs (mRNAs) for the two collagen alpha 1(IX) isoforms during early development of the embryonic chicken eye. (arvojournals.org)
  • We investigated differential expression between paired carcinoma and normal colorectal mucosa of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and miRNAs using RNA-Seq and Agilent Human miRNA Microarray V19.0 data, respectively, using a negative binomial mixed effects model to test 122 JAK-STAT-signaling genes in 217 colorectal cancer (CRC) cases. (impactjournals.com)
  • The ribonucleic acid ( RNA ) that is directly involved in the transcription of the pattern of bases from the DNA to provide a blueprint for the construction of proteins is called messenger RNA or typically mRNA. (gsu.edu)
  • Messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) is a class of ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules that serve as chemical "blueprints" for the production of proteins , carrying the coding information from a DNA template to the ribosomes , where the transcription into proteins takes place. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • A molecule of eukaryotic mRNA and the proteins surrounding it are together called a messenger RNP . (wikipedia.org)
  • Although proteins fulfil most of the requirements that biology has for structural and functional components such as enzymes and receptors, RNA can also serve in these capacities. (nature.com)
  • Messenger RNAs are required for converting the genetic information in the DNA into functional proteins. (els.net)
  • Messenger RNA, which can induce cells to produce therapeutic proteins, holds great promise for treating a variety of diseases. (lifeboat.com)
  • These messenger RNA molecules carry the instructions for making proteins, which can take the form of enzymes, growth factors and other 3-D molecules that carry out most human bodily functions. (xconomy.com)
  • Modulation of messenger RNA stability is usually mediated by stabilizing or destabilizing RNA-binding proteins (RNA-BP) that bind to the 3′-untranslated region regulatory motifs, such as AU-rich elements (AREs). (frontiersin.org)
  • In particular, acute changes in gene expression are now recognized to be controlled by RNA-binding proteins (RNA-BP) and microRNAs through their binding to target transcripts and their positive or negative regulation of mRNA turnover. (frontiersin.org)
  • PHILADELPHIA - RNA is both the bridge between DNA and the production of proteins that carry out the functions of life and what guides which and how much protein gets made. (eurekalert.org)
  • As messenger RNA (mRNA) is transcribed from DNA to carry genetic information out of the nucleus, segments that don't code for actual proteins need to be removed from the RNA strand and the remaining pieces spliced together. (eurekalert.org)
  • RNA in cells is always associated with RNA-binding proteins that regulate all aspects of RNA metabolism including RNA splicing, export from the nucleus, RNA localization, mRNA turn-over as well as translation. (mdpi.com)
  • Given their diverse functions, cells express a variety of RNA-binding proteins, which play important roles in the pathologies of a number of diseases. (mdpi.com)
  • In this review we focus on the effect of alcohol on different RNA-binding proteins and their possible contribution to alcohol-related disorders, and discuss the role of these proteins in the development of neurological diseases and cancer. (mdpi.com)
  • We further discuss the conventional methods and newer techniques that are employed to identify RNA-binding proteins. (mdpi.com)
  • In this review we provide a succinct overview of the role of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) in regulating gene expression. (mdpi.com)
  • We have divided the review into subheadings under which we discuss the effect of alcohol on RNA-binding proteins, RNA-binding proteins in neurological diseases and cancer, and finally the methods employed to identify RBPs and/or ligands of a RBP. (mdpi.com)
  • For this process the RNA is associated with nuclear proteins that aid in splicing and nuclear export [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • As mRNA molecules emerge from the nucleus, bound nuclear proteins are often replaced with a new set of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). (mdpi.com)
  • RNA-binding proteins and their role in RNA metabolism: Genomic DNA is transcribed in the nucleus resulting in generation of hnRNA. (mdpi.com)
  • Unlike traditional vaccines, which use live viruses, dead ones, or bits of the shells that viruses come cloaked in to train the body's immune system, the new shots use messenger RNA-the short-lived middleman molecule that, in our cells, conveys copies of genes to where they can guide the making of proteins. (technologyreview.com)
  • Also, recent literature has stated that mRNA is rarely unbound in the cytosol, instead existing as a complex under physiological conditions with proteins or other RNA molecule types. (wyzant.com)
  • Moderna is pioneering messenger RNA Therapeutics ™, an entirely new in vivo drug modality that produces human proteins or antibodies inside patient cells, which are in turn secreted or active intracellularly. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • At the cell level, proteins are synthesized through a process in which DNA information is transcripted by messenger RNA and then spliced by the spliceosome, whose role is to unite the codifying parts of the genetic code to the precursor molecule, therefore shaping the protein to its functional form. (medicalxpress.com)
  • According to Verônica Saia-Cereda, Unicamp doctoral student and first author of the article, malfunctioning of the messenger RNA processing machinery could mean that certain proteins are not translated correctly and that their expression is altered throughout the organism with unknown consequences. (medicalxpress.com)
  • In another study, postdoctoral student Mariana Fioramonte is working to identify the proteins that partner with hnRNPs to process messenger RNA. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV1) Rev has been reported to act by inducing the nucleocytoplasmic transport of unspliced and singly spliced RNAs that encode viral structural proteins. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The messenger activity of total RNA from normal and 8-azaguanine-treated Bacillus cereus cultures was measured by the stimulation of amino acid incorporation into proteins in the preincubated S-30 Escherichia coli system. (aspetjournals.org)
  • RNA from 8-azaguanine-treated cells enhanced the incorporation of various amino acids into proteins to a greater extent than did RNA from normal cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Moderna's unique approach uses proprietary messenger RNA containing naturally occurring nucleotide analogues, which are designed to stimulate the body's natural ability to produce intracellular and secreted therapeutic proteins without triggering an innate immune response. (astrazeneca.com)
  • Using messenger RNA also has the potential advantage of dramatically reducing the time and expense associated with creating therapeutic proteins using current recombinant technologies. (astrazeneca.com)
  • Messenger RNA ( mRNA ) is a molecule of RNA encoding a chemical "blueprint" for a protein product. (princeton.edu)
  • messenger-RNA ( m-RNA ) A single-stranded RNA molecule that is responsible for the transmission to the ribosomes of the genetic information contained in the nuclear DNA . (encyclopedia.com)
  • Messenger RNA (mRNA) , molecule in cells that carries codes from the DNA in the nucleus to the sites of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm (the ribosomes ). (britannica.com)
  • Eukaryotic mRNA molecules are usually composed of small segments of the original gene and are generated by a process of cleavage and rejoining from an original precursor RNA (pre-mRNA) molecule, which is an exact copy of the gene. (britannica.com)
  • a single-stranded molecule of RNA that is synthesized in the nucleus from a DNA template and then enters the cytoplasm, where its genetic code specifies the amino acid sequence for protein synthesis. (dictionary.com)
  • Polyadenylation is the covalent linkage of a polyadenylyl moiety to a messenger RNA molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA decay in bacteria is carried out by a series of nucleases that can initiate the degradation of the RNA molecule by cleaving at internal sites or by removing one nucleotide at a time from either the 5′ or 3′ terminus. (els.net)
  • What RNA enzyme breaks down the DNA molecule to form messenger RNA? (answers.com)
  • In molecular biology, messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) is a single-stranded molecule of RNA that corresponds to the genetic sequence of a gene, and is read by a ribosome in the process of synthesizing a protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a molecule of RNA that encodes a chemical 'blueprint' for a protein product. (translatum.gr)
  • In this Commentary, we highlight how single molecule imaging and particle tracking can yield further insight into the dynamics of RNA particles in living cells. (biologists.org)
  • transfer RNA (tRNA) mediates recognition of the codon and provides the corresponding amino acid, while ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is the central component of the ribosome's protein manufacturing machinery. (princeton.edu)
  • ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and transfer RNA (tRNA). (britannica.com)
  • The translation of codons into amino acids requires two other types of RNA: transfer RNA, which recognizes the codon and provides the corresponding amino acid, and ribosomal RNA (rRNA), the central component of the ribosome's protein-manufacturing machinery. (wikipedia.org)
  • the other two are transfer RNA ( tRNA ) and ribosomal RNA ( rRNA ). (biology-online.org)
  • The canonical translation initiation pathway begins with cap-dependent attachment of the small ribosomal subunit (SSU) to the messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) followed by an energy-dependent, sequential 'scanning' of the 5′ untranslated regions (UTRs). (mdpi.com)
  • Two types are known: those that cleave mRNA codons at the ribosomal A-site and those that cleave any RNA site-specifically. (bl.uk)
  • Two genes were found to be synthetic sick with tmRNA: the tatC gene, which encodes an essential component of the twin- ariginine translocation complex and the dksA gene, which encode a transcription factor responsible for regulation of ribosomal RNA promoters. (bl.uk)
  • In the RNA from analog-treated cells, however, an appreciably greater proportion of this activity was associated with the ribosomal RNA fraction and extended to particles of 23 S and greater. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The greater total messenger activity in vitro of analog-treated RNA is discussed in relation to the accumulation of precursors of ribosomal RNA with changed secondary structure and having template activity in vitro for amino acid incorporation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In the case of beaded oligo (dT) chains, polyadenylated [Poly (A)] RNA, which is a suitable template for reverse-transcription-coupled PCR (RT-PCR), is obtained. (usda.gov)
  • Messenger RNA is synthesized on a DNA template in a process known as DNA transcription . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • A 5' cap (also termed an RNA cap, an RNA 7-methylguanosine cap or an RNA m 7 G cap) is a modified guanine nucleotide that has been added to the "front" or 5' end of a eukaryotic messenger RNA shortly after the start of transcription. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Transcription is when RNA is made from DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • During transcription, RNA polymerase makes a copy of a gene from the DNA to mRNA as needed. (wikipedia.org)
  • One notable difference, however, is that eukaryotic RNA polymerase associates with mRNA-processing enzymes during transcription so that processing can proceed quickly after the start of transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • Shortly after the start of transcription, the 5' end of the mRNA being synthesized is bound by a cap-synthesizing complex associated with RNA polymerase . (wikipedia.org)
  • Polyadenylation occurs during and/or immediately after transcription of DNA into RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are synthesised by the enzyme RNA polymerase, which recognises specific sequences in the DNA (promoters) to initiate the process called transcription. (els.net)
  • The transcription enzyme RNA polymerase joins RNA nucleotides according to the base sequence in DNA. (answers.com)
  • This process is slightly different in eukaryotes and prokaryotes, including that prokaryotic RNA polymerase associates with DNA-processing enzymes during transcription so that processing can proceed during transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA is created during the process of transcription, where an enzyme (RNA polymerase) converts the gene into primary transcript mRNA (also known as pre-mRNA). (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike the eukaryotic RNA immediately after transcription known as precursor messenger RNA, mature mRNA consists exclusively of exons and has all introns removed. (wikipedia.org)
  • noun biochemistry RNA that encodes and carries information from DNA during transcription to sites of protein synthesis to undergo translation in order to yield a protein . (wordnik.com)
  • After transcription has been terminated, the mRNA chain is cleaved through the action of an endonuclease complex associated with RNA polymerase. (wikidoc.org)
  • RNA was extracted from 129 untreated, resected tumors and KIF14 expression was quantified by real-time reverse transcription-PCR. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The cytoplasmic nuclease domain of Ire1 cleaves the messenger RNA (mRNA) encoding XBP-1 (X-box-binding protein 1), enabling splicing and production of this active transcription factor. (rupress.org)
  • Epidermal RNA was analyzed following stimulation with contact sensitizers or controls for IL-18 mRNA expression by semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCR. (jimmunol.org)
  • The RNA life cycle from transcription, through the processing of nascent RNA, to the regulatory function of non-coding RNA and cytoplasmic translation of messenger RNA has been studied extensively using biochemical and molecular biology techniques. (biologists.org)
  • Messenger RNA (mRNA) delivers the information encoded in one or more genes from the DNA to the ribosome, a specialized structure, or organelle, where that information is decoded into a protein. (britannica.com)
  • Messenger RNA ( mRNA ) is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome , where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression . (wikipedia.org)
  • Nou, X. & Kadner, R. J. Adenosylcobalamin inhibits ribosome binding to btuB RNA. (nature.com)
  • Mature mRNA is then read by the ribosome, and, utilising amino acids carried by transfer RNA, the ribosome creates the protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • This common model was that the gene was making this messenger RNA, coming through the ribosome and that the control of the expression of the gene was at the level of the production of messenger RNA. (dnalc.org)
  • Messenger RNA ( mRNA ) is a muckle faimily o RNA molecules that convey genetic information frae DNA tae the ribosome , whaur thay specify the amino acid sequence o the protein products o gene expression . (wikipedia.org)
  • 2I2V: Crystal Structure of Ribosome with messenger RNA and the Anticodon stem-loop of P-site tRNA. (rcsb.org)
  • 1JGO: The Path of Messenger RNA Through the Ribosome. (rcsb.org)
  • Messenger RNA degradation in eukaryotes. (nih.gov)
  • In fact RBPs are involved in every step of the RNA lifecycle, e.g., transport of mRNA to the site of translation, storage and mRNA degradation ( Figure 1 ) [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • In one degradation pathway, the first step is cap removal by the pyrophosphatase complex Dcp1/Dcp2 , and then the RNA chain is hydrolyzed in the 5′-to-3′ (front to back) direction by the exonuclease Xrn1 . (asbmb.org)
  • Furthermore, ml induced degradation of several different model RNAs were observed in vivo. (bl.uk)
  • The pattern for protein synthesis is then read and translated into the language of amino acids for protein construction with the help of transfer RNA or tRNA . (gsu.edu)
  • The base triplets of transfer RNA (tRNA) pair with those of mRNA and at the same time deposit their amino acids on the growing protein chain. (britannica.com)
  • Therefore, this causes the new mRNA strand to become double-stranded by producing a complementary strand known as the transfer RNA (tRNA) strand. (wikipedia.org)
  • noun The form of RNA that mediates the transfer of genetic information from the cell nucleus to ribosomes in the cytoplasm, where it serves as a template for protein synthesis. (wordnik.com)
  • The vaccines, icy concoctions of fatty spheres and genetic instructions , used a previously unproven technology based on messenger RNA and had been built and tested in under a year, thanks to discoveries the pair made starting 20 years earlier. (technologyreview.com)
  • Many genetic diseases are linked to mutations that can cause mis-regulation of RNA destruction so it's important to know the when, where and how the cell normally controls the process of mRNA decay," said Dr. Coller. (eurekalert.org)
  • The studies presented provide an insight into molecular and genetic aspects of messenger RNA. (springer.com)
  • However, the direct delivery of nucleic acids to correct a genetic disorder has numerous limitations owing to the inability of naked nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) to traverse the cell membrane. (rsc.org)
  • We have discovered that substances called ribonucleic acids (RNA), which carry the genetic instructions for the production of telomerase, can be used to overcome this problem and stimulate a strong immune response in cancer patients. (bioportfolio.com)
  • We examined associations of mRNA and miRNA levels with 6 CM traits: body mass index, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides, fasting glucose, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures through cross-sectional analysis of 2812 Framingham Heart Study who had whole blood collection for RNA isolation for mRNA and miRNA expression studies and who consented to genetic research. (harvard.edu)
  • Despite the advantages over DNA and viral vectors, RNA-based therapeutics have been plagued by problems of poor translatability, stability, and adverse immune reactions. (pnas.org)
  • The work is a collaboration between the Verma lab and Arcturus Therapeutics, a local biotech company that developed a system of encapsulating messenger RNA within lipid (fatty acid) nanoparticles. (salk.edu)
  • Strategic research and clinical partnership will advance state-of-the-art discoveries on the use of messenger RNA (mRNA) Therapeutics™ to treat serious diseases. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • CAMBRIDGE, Mass. and STOCKHOLM, Sweden, October 16, 2014-Moderna Therapeutics today announced a strategic, long-term collaboration with Karolinska Institutet (KI) and Karolinska University Hospital (KUH) for the discovery and development of innovative drugs using Moderna's messenger RNA (mRNA) Therapeutics™ technology. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • Moderna, Inc., (Nasdaq: MRNA) a clinical stage biotechnology company pioneering messenger RNA (mRNA) therapeutics and vaccines to create a new generation of transformative medicines for patients, today announced positive data in the first analysis of safety and activity in its Phase 1 study evaluating escalating doses of mRNA-1944 administered via intravenous infusion in healthy adults. (barrons.com)
  • AstraZeneca today announced an exclusive agreement with Moderna Therapeutics to discover, develop and commercialise pioneering messenger RNA therapeutics™ for the treatment of serious cardiovascular, metabolic and renal diseases as well as cancer. (astrazeneca.com)
  • Messenger RNA therapeutics™ are an entirely new treatment approach that enables the body to produce therapeutic protein in vivo, opening up new treatment options for a wide range of diseases that cannot be addressed today using existing technologies. (astrazeneca.com)
  • AstraZeneca will lead the preclinical, clinical development and commercialisation of therapeutics resulting from the agreement and Moderna will be responsible for designing and manufacturing the messenger RNA against selected targets. (astrazeneca.com)
  • Prokaryotes have one type of RNA polymerase, eukaryotes on the other hand have many. (answers.com)
  • Genome-wide identification of natural RNA aptamers in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, Nature Communications (2018). (phys.org)
  • N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) is the most prevalent internal (non-cap) modification present in the messenger RNA of all higher eukaryotes. (nih.gov)
  • Messenger RNA (mRNA) then travels to the ribosomes in the cell cytoplasm, where protein synthesis occurs (Figure 3). (britannica.com)
  • Mature messenger RNA, often abbreviated as mature mRNA is a eukaryotic RNA transcript that has been spliced and processed and is ready for translation in the course of protein synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Francis Crick describes RNA and its role and Paul Zamecnick explains protein synthesis. (dnalc.org)
  • Scanning through the 5′UTR requires the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent RNA helicase eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4A and its efficiency contributes to the specific rate of protein synthesis. (mdpi.com)
  • Miranda-Rios, J., Navarro, M. & Soberón, M. A conserved RNA structure ( thi box) is involved in regulation of thiamin biosynthetic gene expression in bacteria. (nature.com)
  • The team demonstrated that the expression of an RNA binding protein called CELF2 is increased in response to T-cell stimulation such as occurs in response to circulating antigens from foreign microbes or tumors. (eurekalert.org)
  • CLEVELAND - August 23, 2009 -Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine assistant professor in the Center for RNA Molecular Biology, Jeff Coller, Ph.D., and his team discovered that messenger RNA (mRNA) predominately degrade on ribosomes, fundamentally altering a common understanding of how gene expression is controlled within the cell. (eurekalert.org)
  • An important control point in gene expression is at the level of messenger RNA (mRNA) stability. (sciencemag.org)
  • KIF14 messenger RNA expression is independently prognostic for outcome in lung cancer. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In this study, we investigate for the first time the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels of both MAOA and MAOB in 246 cortical brain samples obtained at autopsy from 62 AD patients and 61 normal controls. (diva-portal.org)
  • We previously reported that gadolinium chloride (GdCl), an agent that depletes the liver of phagocytically active Kupffer cells, enhances hepatic expression of TNF messenger RNA (mRNA) and promotes liver regeneration after subsequent PH. (wiley.com)
  • To examine the expression of guanylyl cyclase C messenger RNA (mRNA) in lymph nodes of patients with node-negative colorectal cancer who did and did not have recurrent disease. (annals.org)
  • Induction of CD69 surface antigen, its relationship to messenger RNA expression, and promotion of cellular viability. (harvard.edu)
  • Synthetic Messenger RNA and Cell Metabolism Modulation: Methods and Protocols covers the typical main methods, such as mRNA synthesis, modifications, and delivery. (foyles.co.uk)
  • Authoritative and easily accessible, Synthetic Messenger RNA and Cell Metabolism Modulation: Methods and Protocols will be of interest to researchers, clinicians, and biotech companies interested in mRNA-mediated cell reprogramming. (foyles.co.uk)
  • Soukup, G. A. & Breaker, R. R. Relationship between internucleotide linkage geometry and the stability of RNA. (nature.com)
  • Incremental improvements (5′ caps, codon optimization, use of optimized 5′ and 3′ UTRs, poly(A) modifications, modified nucleosides like 5-methyl cytosine (5MC), pseudouridine and 2 thio-UTP, etc.) have substantially improved the stability and translatability of RNAs while also making them immunologically silent. (pnas.org)
  • Posttranscriptional chemical modification of RNA bases is a widespread and physiologically relevant regulator of RNA maturation, stability, and function. (plantcell.org)
  • The intracellular localization of messenger RNAs. (nih.gov)
  • The carboxy-terminal domain of YTHDF2 selectively binds to m(6)A-containing mRNA, whereas the amino-terminal domain is responsible for the localization of the YTHDF2-mRNA complex to cellular RNA decay sites. (nih.gov)
  • Differential localization of collagen type IX isoform messenger RNAs during early ocular development. (arvojournals.org)
  • Moderna is taking a different spin on RNA-based therapy. (xconomy.com)
  • Whereas traditional vaccine development involves inoculation with an attenuated form of the virus or with a noninfectious antigen derived from a viral protein, two groups, Moderna (in collaboration with the National Institutes of Health) and BioNTech (in collaboration with Pfizer) are taking a novel approach: directly administering to patients messenger RNA, or mRNA, that encodes viral antigens. (asbmb.org)
  • Scientists at Moderna, a biotech specializing in messenger RNA, were able to design a vaccine on paper in 48 hours, 11 days before the US even had its first recorded case. (technologyreview.com)
  • Moderna is advancing messenger RNA (mRNA) science to create a new class of transformative medicines for patients. (pharmiweb.com)
  • The m(6)A demethylase fat mass and obesity associated protein (FTO) controls cellular energy homeostasis and is the first enzyme discovered that reverses an RNA modification. (nih.gov)
  • The rates of RNA synthesis and destruction determine the overall levels of mRNA. (eurekalert.org)
  • Special attention was paid by the authors to the molecular organization of mRNA species, to the processing of mRNA molecules, and to the different strategies employed by DNA and RNA viruses in the synthesis of their mRNA. (springer.com)
  • The differences between, and similarities of, the strategies of mRNA synthesis devised by various DNA and RNA viruses are described herein. (springer.com)
  • Beyond potentially ending the pandemic, the vaccine breakthrough is showing how messenger RNA may offer a new approach to building drugs. (technologyreview.com)
  • The nucleotide sequence of the gene from which messenger RNA mole- cules are transcribed is in a form that can be translated by cellular ribosomes into the amino acid sequence of a particular polypeptide, the product of the gene. (springer.com)
  • RNA, which contains uracil (U) instead of thymine, carries the code to protein-making sites in the cell. (britannica.com)
  • RNA is distinguished from DNA by the presence of ribose instead of deoxyribose and uracil instead of thymine. (els.net)
  • These are removed in the process of RNA splicing, leaving only exons, regions that will encode the protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The extensive processing of eukaryotic pre-mRNA that leads to the mature mRNA is the RNA splicing, a mechanism by which introns or outrons (non-coding regions) are removed and exons (coding regions) are joined together. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNA splicing removes the non-coding RNA introns leaving behind the exons, which are then spliced and joined together to form the final mRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Splicing is usually performed by an RNA-protein complex called the spliceosome , but some RNA molecules are also capable of catalyzing their own splicing ( see ribozymes ). (wikidoc.org)
  • The DED1 gene, which encodes a putative RNA helicase, has been implicated in nuclear pre-messenger RNA splicing in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae . (sciencemag.org)
  • Messenger RNAs are then transported from nucleus into the cytoplasm ( 2 ). (mdpi.com)
  • As a messenger, RNA transported the information from the nucleus to the protein-making machinery in the cell. (dnalc.org)
  • Also, there is "loop r-RNA" which can attach to the outside of the nucleus. (lifeissues.net)
  • New messenger RNA vaccines to fight the coronavirus are based on a technology that could transform medicine. (technologyreview.com)
  • Drew Weissman's work with messenger RNA led to successful covid-19 vaccines. (technologyreview.com)
  • Data Published in Nature Biotechnology Show Messenger (m)RNA Prophylactic Vaccines Based on. (freerepublic.com)
  • TUEBINGEN, Germany , Nov. 25, 2012 /PRNewswire/ -- CureVac GmbH, a clinical stage biopharmaceutical company developing a new class of therapies and vaccines based on mRNA, and the German Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute (FLI), Germany , today announced that mRNA vaccines (RNActive) based on the company's RNA technology platform have the potential to provide effective protection against infectious diseases. (freerepublic.com)
  • The confusion concerning the current genetically engineered messenger-RNA vaccines for COVID gets worse by the day. (lifeissues.net)
  • Are there scientific concerns re FDA's VRBPAC report on m-RNA vaccines? (lifeissues.net)
  • Messenger RNA vaccines - also called mRNA vaccines - are the first COVID-19 vaccines authorized for use in the United States. (lifeissues.net)
  • To understand the current genetically engineered messenger-RNA vaccines for COVID, there's a real need to realize the differences among various RNA's. (lifeissues.net)
  • BRUCE: a program for the detection of transfer-messenger RNA genes in nucleotide sequences. (diva-portal.org)
  • Before this information can be relayed to the cytoplasm, the nascent RNA undergoes extensive post-transcriptional processing before arriving at its final destination in cells. (mdpi.com)
  • The transcribed RNA now represents information required to direct cellular function to maintain cell homeostasis. (mdpi.com)
  • This volume is devoted to current studies in the field of cellular and viral messenger RNA. (springer.com)
  • Aliquots containing 5 μg of total cellular RNA were reverse transcribed, and first-strand cDNA was used as a template in polymerase chain reaction (PCR). (ahajournals.org)
  • Several of the TA loci encode messenger RNA interferases (mls) that inhibit translation by cleaving mRNA. (bl.uk)
  • In the past few years, a variety of bright and photo-stable labelling techniques have been developed to generate sufficient contrast for imaging of single endogenous RNAs in vivo . (biologists.org)
  • Although the concepts presented are applicable to all types of RNA, we showcase here the wealth of information gained from in vivo imaging of single particles by discussing studies investigating dynamics of intranuclear trafficking, nuclear pore transport and cytoplasmic transport of endogenous messenger RNA. (biologists.org)
  • Blot hybridization of poly(A)+RNA resulted in the visualization of a weak angiotensinogen mRNA signal for a glioma cell line and a glioma-neuroblastoma hybrid line. (ahajournals.org)
  • Messenger RNA in the cytoskeletal framework: analysis by in situ hybridization. (rupress.org)
  • The approach was to extract the follicle cells with Triton X-100 and determine whether mRNA persisted in the insoluble residue by two methods, in situ hybridization with poly(U) and actin DNA probes and the incorporation of radioactive isotopes into RNA. (rupress.org)
  • To examine the consequences of nigrostriatal denervation and L-dopa treatment on the basal ganglia output system, we analyzed, by quantitative in situ hybridization, the messenger RNA coding for glutamic acid decarboxylase (Mr 67,000) (GAD67 mRNA) in pallidal cells from patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), monkeys rendered parkinsonian by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) receiving or not receiving L-dopa, and their respective control subjects. (cun.es)
  • RNA polymerase transcribes primary transcript mRNA (known as pre-mRNA ) into processed, mature mRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Cambridge, MA-based biotech startup, which is attempting to make injectable messenger RNA molecules that trigger production of protein drugs in the body, has raised a whopping $110 million in new equity financing. (xconomy.com)
  • Unlike most biotech drugs, RNA is not made in fermenters or living cells-it's produced inside plastic bags of chemicals and enzymes. (technologyreview.com)
  • The presence of angiotensinogen messenger RNA (mRNA) was assessed in total RNA extracted from hepatoma, glioma, neuroblastoma, and glioma-neuroblastoma hybrid cell lines. (ahajournals.org)
  • Total RNA from 1 X 10(7) cells was extracted, transferred to a membrane, and hybridized with a 32P-labeled, full-length (1650-base pair) rat angiotensinogen complementary DNA (cDNA). (ahajournals.org)
  • Steroids failed to induce detectable levels of angiotensinogen mRNA in total RNA from the other cell lines. (ahajournals.org)
  • Triton X-100 extraction of follicle cells yielded a filamentous CF containing approximately 70% of the total poly (A) but only 9% of the total lipid, 23% of the total protein, and 28% of the total RNA. (rupress.org)
  • Total RNA was extracted from liver grafts using RNAzol (Cinna/Biotecx) and quantitated spectropho-tometrically. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 2004. Messenger RNA transcripts. (usda.gov)
  • Angiotensinogen RNA sequences could be definitively detected only in hepatoma cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • The discovery of messenger RNA more than twenty years ago led to a series of studies on its organization and function in cells in the presence of infecting viruses. (springer.com)
  • While it was known that the messenger RNA molecules associated with the cancerous cells were shorter than those with healthy cells, the mechanism by which this occurred was not understood. (science20.com)
  • The research team discovered that a protein called CFIm25 is critical to keeping messenger RNA long in healthy cells and that its reduction promotes tumor growth. (science20.com)
  • That's short for messenger RNA, which is how your DNA sends blueprints to the protein-assembly factories of your cells. (salk.edu)
  • BACKGROUND: The complexity of messenger RNA processing is now being uncovered by experimental techniques that are capable of detecting individual copies of mRNA in cells, and by quantitative real-time observations that reveal the kinetics. (cnrs.fr)
  • RNA molecules carry out widely diverse functions in numerous different physiological processes in living cells. (biologists.org)
  • Five micrograms of RNA was reverse transcribed into cDNA and l- μ g aliquots subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification for 25 cycles using 32 P-labeled primers specific for rat cytokines and glyeeraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PD), a housekeeping gene. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • That the RNA was intact was ensured by hybridizing duplicate Northern blots to a 32P-labeled actin cDNA. (ahajournals.org)
  • Here, transfer RNAs (tRNAs) bind on one end to specific codons (three-base region) in the mRNA and bind on the other end to the amino acids specified by that codon, and thus place the amino acids in the correct sequence in the growing polypeptide according to the template (sequence of nucleotides) provided by the mRNA (Alberts et al. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • A third class of RNA-based treatments has stirred excitement over the past 10-20 years, with specific technologies like antisense, RNA interference , and microRNA therapy that seek to precisely alter disease processes at the molecular level. (xconomy.com)
  • In a different section of this work, a new synthetic lethal screen was developed using antisense RNA regulated R1 plasmids. (bl.uk)
  • Soukup, G. A. & Breaker, R. R. Engineering precision RNA molecular switches. (nature.com)
  • The RNA category is thought to be exciting, in part, because of its potential to hit molecular targets that are "undruggable" with existing small molecules or larger protein drugs. (xconomy.com)
  • Appropriately called messenger RNA, these molecules take the information inside genes and use it to make body tissues. (science20.com)
  • Poly (A) + messenger RNA (mRNA) was extracted from rat and chick brains, and injected into oocytes of Xenopus laevis . (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • To make RNA, DNA pairs its bases with those of the "free" nucleotides (Figure 2). (britannica.com)
  • A type of RNA that carries the code or chemical blueprint for a specific protein . (biology-online.org)