A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.
A process that changes the nucleotide sequence of mRNA from that of the DNA template encoding it. Some major classes of RNA editing are as follows: 1, the conversion of cytosine to uracil in mRNA; 2, the addition of variable number of guanines at pre-determined sites; and 3, the addition and deletion of uracils, templated by guide-RNAs (RNA, GUIDE).
The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
RNA molecules which hybridize to complementary sequences in either RNA or DNA altering the function of the latter. Endogenous antisense RNAs function as regulators of gene expression by a variety of mechanisms. Synthetic antisense RNAs are used to effect the functioning of specific genes for investigative or therapeutic purposes.
The extent to which an RNA molecule retains its structural integrity and resists degradation by RNASE, and base-catalyzed HYDROLYSIS, under changing in vivo or in vitro conditions.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
RNA that has catalytic activity. The catalytic RNA sequence folds to form a complex surface that can function as an enzyme in reactions with itself and other molecules. It may function even in the absence of protein. There are numerous examples of RNA species that are acted upon by catalytic RNA, however the scope of this enzyme class is not limited to a particular type of substrate.
A family of proteins that promote unwinding of RNA during splicing and translation.
The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.
Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.
RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated RNAs they are not included in this scope.
An endoribonuclease that is specific for double-stranded RNA. It plays a role in POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL RNA PROCESSING of pre-RIBOSOMAL RNA and a variety of other RNA structures that contain double-stranded regions.
The science and application of a double-beam transmission interference microscope in which the illuminating light beam is split into two paths. One beam passes through the specimen while the other beam reflects off a reference mirror before joining and interfering with the other. The observed optical path difference between the two beams can be measured and used to discriminate minute differences in thickness and refraction of non-stained transparent specimens, such as living cells in culture.
Ribonucleic acid in fungi having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The processes of RNA tertiary structure formation.
A multicomponent, ribonucleoprotein complex comprised of one of the family of ARGONAUTE PROTEINS and the "guide strand" of the one of the 20- to 30-nucleotide small RNAs. RISC cleaves specific RNAs, which are targeted for degradation by homology to these small RNAs. Functions in regulating gene expression are determined by the specific argonaute protein and small RNA including siRNA (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING), miRNA (MICRORNA), or piRNA (PIWI-INTERACTING RNA).
A family of RNA-binding proteins that has specificity for MICRORNAS and SMALL INTERFERING RNA molecules. The proteins take part in RNA processing events as core components of RNA-induced silencing complex.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.
Ribonucleic acid in protozoa having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
RNA transcripts of the DNA that are in some unfinished stage of post-transcriptional processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL) required for function. RNA precursors may undergo several steps of RNA SPLICING during which the phosphodiester bonds at exon-intron boundaries are cleaved and the introns are excised. Consequently a new bond is formed between the ends of the exons. Resulting mature RNAs can then be used; for example, mature mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER) is used as a template for protein production.
Short chains of RNA (100-300 nucleotides long) that are abundant in the nucleus and usually complexed with proteins in snRNPs (RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL NUCLEAR). Many function in the processing of messenger RNA precursors. Others, the snoRNAs (RNA, SMALL NUCLEOLAR), are involved with the processing of ribosomal RNA precursors.
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Ribonucleic acid in helminths having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A large family of RNA helicases that share a common protein motif with the single letter amino acid sequence D-E-A-D (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp). In addition to RNA helicase activity, members of the DEAD-box family participate in other aspects of RNA metabolism and regulation of RNA function.
A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes nagana in domestic and game animals in Africa. It apparently does not infect humans. It is transmitted by bites of tsetse flies (Glossina).
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of non-oncogenic retroviruses that produce multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection. Lentiviruses are unique in that they contain open reading frames (ORFs) between the pol and env genes and in the 3' env region. Five serogroups are recognized, reflecting the mammalian hosts with which they are associated. HIV-1 is the type species.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Nucleic acid structures found on the 5' end of eukaryotic cellular and viral messenger RNA and some heterogeneous nuclear RNAs. These structures, which are positively charged, protect the above specified RNAs at their termini against attack by phosphatases and other nucleases and promote mRNA function at the level of initiation of translation. Analogs of the RNA caps (RNA CAP ANALOGS), which lack the positive charge, inhibit the initiation of protein synthesis.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
RNA present in neoplastic tissue.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Small kinetoplastid mitochondrial RNA that plays a major role in RNA EDITING. These molecules form perfect hybrids with edited mRNA sequences and possess nucleotide sequences at their 5'-ends that are complementary to the sequences of the mRNA's immediately downstream of the pre-edited regions.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure where it transcribes DNA into RNA. It has specific requirements for cations and salt and has shown an intermediate sensitivity to alpha-amanitin in comparison to RNA polymerase I and II. EC 2.7.7.6.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The process of moving specific RNA molecules from one cellular compartment or region to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms.
The functional hereditary units of HELMINTHS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of linear RNA to a circular form by the transfer of the 5'-phosphate to the 3'-hydroxyl terminus. It also catalyzes the covalent joining of two polyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage. EC 6.5.1.3.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of RNA. It includes EC 3.1.26.-, EC 3.1.27.-, EC 3.1.30.-, and EC 3.1.31.-.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. The enzyme functions in the nucleolar structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salts than RNA polymerase II and III and is not inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
RNA molecules found in the nucleus either associated with chromosomes or in the nucleoplasm.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 28S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
The small RNAs which provide spliced leader sequences, SL1, SL2, SL3, SL4 and SL5 (short sequences which are joined to the 5' ends of pre-mRNAs by TRANS-SPLICING). They are found primarily in primitive eukaryotes (protozoans and nematodes).
A reaction that severs one of the sugar-phosphate linkages of the phosphodiester backbone of RNA. It is catalyzed enzymatically, chemically, or by radiation. Cleavage may be exonucleolytic, or endonucleolytic.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A family of RNA viruses infecting insects and fish. There are two genera: Alphanodavirus and Betanodavirus.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
The integration of exogenous DNA into the genome of an organism at sites where its expression can be suitably controlled. This integration occurs as a result of homologous recombination.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Chromosomal, biochemical, intracellular, and other methods used in the study of genetics.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Proteins found in any species of helminth.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.
Constituent of 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 3200 nucleotides. 23S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.
Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Small, linear single-stranded RNA molecules functionally acting as molecular parasites of certain RNA plant viruses. Satellite RNAs exhibit four characteristic traits: (1) they require helper viruses to replicate; (2) they are unnecessary for the replication of helper viruses; (3) they are encapsidated in the coat protein of the helper virus; (4) they have no extensive sequence homology to the helper virus. Thus they differ from SATELLITE VIRUSES which encode their own coat protein, and from the genomic RNA; (=RNA, VIRAL); of satellite viruses. (From Maramorosch, Viroids and Satellites, 1991, p143)
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
A genus of small beetles of the family Tenebrionidae; T. confusum is the "confused flour beetle".
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Ribonucleic acid in archaea having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.
A group of ribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Short RNA, about 200 base pairs in length or shorter, that does not code for protein.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
A class of untranslated RNA molecules that are typically greater than 200 nucleotides in length and do not code for proteins. Members of this class have been found to play roles in transcriptional regulation, post-transcriptional processing, CHROMATIN REMODELING, and in the epigenetic control of chromatin.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
A technique in which electric pulses of intensity in kilovolts per centimeter and of microsecond-to-millisecond duration cause a temporary loss of the semipermeability of CELL MEMBRANES, thus leading to ion leakage, escape of metabolites, and increased uptake by cells of drugs, molecular probes, and DNA.
Small nuclear RNAs that are involved in the processing of pre-ribosomal RNA in the nucleolus. Box C/D containing snoRNAs (U14, U15, U16, U20, U21 and U24-U63) direct site-specific methylation of various ribose moieties. Box H/ACA containing snoRNAs (E2, E3, U19, U23, and U64-U72) direct the conversion of specific uridines to pseudouridine. Site-specific cleavages resulting in the mature ribosomal RNAs are directed by snoRNAs U3, U8, U14, U22 and the snoRNA components of RNase MRP and RNase P.
Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.
A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the exonucleolytic cleavage of RNA. It includes EC 3.1.13.-, EC 3.1.14.-, EC 3.1.15.-, and EC 3.1.16.-. EC 3.1.-
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Nonparasitic free-living flatworms of the class Turbellaria. The most common genera are Dugesia, formerly Planaria, which lives in water, and Bipalium, which lives on land. Geoplana occurs in South America and California.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
Small RNAs found in the cytoplasm usually complexed with proteins in scRNPs (RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL CYTOPLASMIC).
Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Peptide initiation factors from eukaryotic organisms. Over twelve factors are involved in PEPTIDE CHAIN INITIATION, TRANSLATIONAL in eukaryotic cells. Many of these factors play a role in controlling the rate of MRNA TRANSLATION.
Nuclear nonribosomal RNA larger than about 1000 nucleotides, the mass of which is rapidly synthesized and degraded within the cell nucleus. Some heterogeneous nuclear RNA may be a precursor to mRNA. However, the great bulk of total hnRNA hybridizes with nuclear DNA rather than with mRNA.
Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.

Exon skipping in IVD RNA processing in isovaleric acidemia caused by point mutations in the coding region of the IVD gene. (1/17357)

Isovaleric acidemia (IVA) is a recessive disorder caused by a deficiency of isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase (IVD). We have reported elsewhere nine point mutations in the IVD gene in fibroblasts of patients with IVA, which lead to abnormalities in IVD protein processing and activity. In this report, we describe eight IVD gene mutations identified in seven IVA patients that result in abnormal splicing of IVD RNA. Four mutations in the coding region lead to aberrantly spliced mRNA species in patient fibroblasts. Three of these are amino acid altering point mutations, whereas one is a single-base insertion that leads to a shift in the reading frame of the mRNA. Two of the coding mutations strengthen pre-existing cryptic splice acceptors adjacent to the natural splice junctions and apparently interfere with exon recognition, resulting in exon skipping. This mechanism for missplicing has not been reported elsewhere. Four other mutations alter either the conserved gt or ag dinucleotide splice sites in the IVD gene. Exon skipping and cryptic splicing were confirmed by transfection of these mutations into a Cos-7 cell line model splicing system. Several of the mutations were predicted by individual information analysis to inactivate or significantly weaken adjacent donor or acceptor sites. The high frequency of splicing mutations identified in these patients is unusual, as is the finding of missplicing associated with missense mutations in exons. These results may lead to a better understanding of the phenotypic complexity of IVA, as well as provide insight into those factors important in defining intron/exon boundaries in vivo.  (+info)

Characterisation and expression of a PP1 serine/threonine protein phosphatase (PfPP1) from the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum: demonstration of its essential role using RNA interference. (2/17357)

BACKGROUND: Reversible protein phosphorylation is relatively unexplored in the intracellular protozoa of the Apicomplexa family that includes the genus Plasmodium, to which belong the causative agents of malaria. Members of the PP1 family represent the most highly conserved protein phosphatase sequences in phylogeny and play essential regulatory roles in various cellular pathways. Previous evidence suggested a PP1-like activity in Plasmodium falciparum, not yet identified at the molecular level. RESULTS: We have identified a PP1 catalytic subunit from P. falciparum and named it PfPP1. The predicted primary structure of the 304-amino acid long protein was highly similar to PP1 sequences of other species, and showed conservation of all the signature motifs. The purified recombinant protein exhibited potent phosphatase activity in vitro. Its sensitivity to specific phosphatase inhibitors was characteristic of the PP1 class. The authenticity of the PfPP1 cDNA was further confirmed by mutational analysis of strategic amino acid residues important in catalysis. The protein was expressed in all erythrocytic stages of the parasite. Abrogation of PP1 expression by synthetic short interfering RNA (siRNA) led to inhibition of parasite DNA synthesis. CONCLUSIONS: The high sequence similarity of PfPP1 with other PP1 members suggests conservation of function. Phenotypic gene knockdown studies using siRNA confirmed its essential role in the parasite. Detailed studies of PfPP1 and its regulation may unravel the role of reversible protein phosphorylation in the signalling pathways of the parasite, including glucose metabolism and parasitic cell division. The use of siRNA could be an important tool in the functional analysis of Apicomplexan genes.  (+info)

Frequent germline mutations and somatic repeat instability in DNA mismatch-repair-deficient Caenorhabditis elegans. (3/17357)

Mismatch-repair-deficient mutants were initially recognized as mutation-prone derivatives of bacteria, and later mismatch repair deficiency was found to predispose humans to colon cancers (HNPCC). We generated mismatch-repair-deficient Caenorhabditis elegans by deleting the msh-6 gene and analyzed the fidelity of transmission of genetic information to subsequent generations. msh-6-defective animals show an elevated level of spontaneous mutants in both the male and female germline; also repeated DNA tracts are unstable. To monitor DNA repeat instability in somatic tissue, we developed a sensitive system, making use of heat-shock promoter-driven lacZ transgenes, but with a repeat that puts this reporter gene out of frame. In genetic msh-6-deficient animals lacZ+ patches are observed as a result of somatic repeat instability. RNA interference by feeding wild-type animals dsRNA homologous to msh-2 or msh-6 also resulted in somatic DNA instability, as well as in germline mutagenesis, indicating that one can use C. elegans as a model system to discover genes involved in maintaining DNA stability by large-scale RNAi screens.  (+info)

The dynamic localisation of the Drosophila APC/C: evidence for the existence of multiple complexes that perform distinct functions and are differentially localised. (4/17357)

In Drosophila cells, the destruction of cyclin B is spatially regulated. In cellularised embryos, cyclin B is initially degraded on the mitotic spindle and is then degraded in the cytoplasm. In syncytial embryos, only the spindle-associated cyclin B is degraded at the end of mitosis. The anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) targets cyclin B for destruction, but its subcellular localisation remains controversial. We constructed GFP fusions of two core APC/C subunits, Cdc16 and Cdc27. These fusion proteins were incorporated into the endogenous APC/C and were largely localised in the cytoplasm during interphase in living syncytial embryos. Both fusion proteins rapidly accumulated in the nucleus prior to nuclear envelope breakdown but only weakly associated with mitotic spindles throughout mitosis. Thus, the global activation of a spatially restricted APC/C cannot explain the spatially regulated destruction of cyclin B. Instead, different subpopulations of the APC/C must be activated at different times to degrade cyclin B. Surprisingly, we noticed that GFP-Cdc27 associated with mitotic chromosomes, whereas GFP-Cdc16 did not. Moreover, reducing the levels of Cdc16 or Cdc27 by >90% in tissue culture cells led to a transient mitotic arrest that was both biochemically and morphologically distinct. Taken together, our results raise the intriguing possibility that there could be multiple forms of the APC/C that are differentially localised and perform distinct functions.  (+info)

A novel linker histone-like protein is associated with cytoplasmic filaments in Caenorhabditis elegans. (5/17357)

The histone H1 complement of Caenorhabditis elegans contains a single unusual protein, H1.X. Although H1.X possesses the globular domain and the canonical three-domain structure of linker histones, the amino acid composition of H1.X is distinctly different from conventional linker histones in both terminal domains. We have characterized H1.X in C. elegans by antibody labeling, green fluorescent protein fusion protein expression and RNA interference. Unlike normal linker histones, H1.X is a cytoplasmic as well as a nuclear protein and is not associated with chromosomes. H1.X is most prominently expressed in the marginal cells of the pharynx and is associated with a peculiar cytoplasmic cytoskeletal structure therein, the tonofilaments. Additionally H1.X::GFP is expressed in the cytoplasm of body and vulva muscle cells, neurons, excretory cells and in the nucleoli of embryonic blastomeres and adult gut cells. RNA interference with H1.X results in uncoordinated and egg laying defective animals, as well as in a longitudinally enlarged pharynx. These phenotypes indicate a cytoplasmic role of H1.X in muscle growth and muscle function.  (+info)

Cathepsin B expression and down-regulation by gene silencing and antisense DNA in human chondrocytes. (6/17357)

Cathepsin B, a marker of the dedifferentiated chondrocyte phenotype, contributes to cartilage destruction in osteoarthritis and pathological proteolysis in rheumatoid arthritis and cancer. In search of possible means for neutralizing the action of this enzyme, we compared its expression, biosynthesis and distribution in articular chondrocytes and two lines of immortalized human chondrocytes. Native articular chondrocytes in primary culture and the polyclonal T/C-28a2 chondrocyte cell line were similar with respect to the number of endosomes and lysosomes, the distribution of three alternatively spliced cathepsin B mRNA forms, and the cathepsin B activity. In contrast, the clonal C-28/I2 cell line contained four times higher levels of intracellular cathepsin B activity, slightly higher numbers of endosomes and lysosomes, and uniform distribution of all three cathepsin B transcripts and thus resembled subcultured chondrocytes at an early stage of dedifferentiation. Transfection of T/C-28a2 chondrocytes with double-stranded cathepsin B mRNA resulted in inhibition of cathepsin B biosynthesis by up to 70% due to RNA interference, and single-stranded antisense DNAs of various sizes decreased cathepsin B biosynthesis by up to 78%. An antisense oligonucleotide designed to hybridize to the end of cathepsin B's exons 1 and the beginning of exon 3 was successful in specifically inhibiting the mRNA splice variant lacking exon 2. These results indicate that cathepsin B expression and activity may be targeted for gene silencing by RNA interference and antisense DNA in chondrocytes. Furthermore, the differential expression and distribution of cathepsin B and presence of the necessary molecular apparatus for gene silencing in the immortalized human chondrocyte cell lines indicate that they may serve as a useful model for studying the function of relevant enzymes in cartilage pathologies.  (+info)

Inscuteable-independent apicobasally oriented asymmetric divisions in the Drosophila embryonic CNS. (7/17357)

Inscuteable is the founding member of a protein complex localised to the apical cortex of Drosophila neural progenitors that controls their asymmetric division. Aspects of asymmetric divisions of all identified apicobasally oriented neural progenitors characterised to date, in both the central and peripheral nervous systems, require inscuteable. Here we examine the generality of this requirement. We show that many identified neuroblast lineages, in fact, do not require inscuteable for normal morphological development. To elucidate the requirements for apicobasal asymmetric divisions in a context where inscuteable is not essential, we focused on the MP2 > dMP2 + vMP2 division. We show that for MP2 divisions, asymmetric localisation and segregation of Numb and the specification of distinct dMP2 and vMP2 identities require bazooka but not inscuteable. We conclude that inscuteable is not required for all apicobasally oriented asymmetric divisions and that, in some cellular contexts, bazooka can mediate apicobasal asymmetric divisions without inscuteable.  (+info)

Requirements of high levels of Hedgehog signaling activity for medial-region cell fate determination in Drosophila legs: identification of pxb, a putative Hedgehog signaling attenuator gene repressed along the anterior-posterior compartment boundary. (8/17357)

We show that high levels of Hedgehog signaling activity are essential for medial-region patterning in Drosophila legs. In mid-to-late third instar leg discs, high levels of Hedgehog signals repress the transcription of pxb, a newly identified gene encoding a transmembrane protein expressed specifically in the anterior compartment. Misexpression experiments indicate that Pxb may serve as a Hedgehog signaling attenuator capable of acting prior to Hedgehog-Patched interactions, suggesting that Hedgehog signaling in leg discs includes a pxb-repression-mediated positive feedback loop. RNA interference and clonal analysis show that neither Wingless nor Decapentaplegic signaling is required for pxb repression but high levels of Wingless signaling activity are essential for patterning in the leg ventral medial region.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - RNA interference technology used for the study of aquatic virus infections. AU - Reshi, Mohammad Latif. AU - Wu, Jen Leih. AU - Wang, Hao Ven. AU - Hong, Jiann Ruey. N1 - Funding Information: This work was supported by grants NSC 97-2313-B-006-004-MY3 and NCS 102-3011-P-006-002 , awarded to Dr. Jiann-Ruey Hong from the National Science Council, Taiwan, Republic of China.. PY - 2014/9. Y1 - 2014/9. N2 - Aquaculture is one of the most important economic activities in Asia and is presently the fastest growing sector of food production in the world. Explosive increases in global fish farming have been accompanied by an increase in viral diseases. Viral infections are responsible for huge economic losses in fish farming, and control of these viral diseases in aquaculture remains a serious challenge. Recent advances in biotechnology have had a significant impact on disease reduction in aquaculture. RNAi is one of the most important technological breakthroughs in modern biology, ...
Author Summary RNA interference is a gene regulatory system in which small RNA molecules turn off genes that have similar sequences to the small RNAs. This has become a powerful tool because a researcher can use RNA interference to turn off any gene of interest in order to test its function. There is great interest in identifying the genes required for the RNA interference pathway, and one approach to identifying such genes has been to use RNA interference to turn off potential RNA interference genes and to ask whether RNA interference still functions when these genes are turned off. The goal of our report is to ask how it is possible for RNA interference to turn itself off, using a mathematical model of the system. The results show that RNA interference cannot turn itself off if the RNA interference pathway is too effective to start with, so that experiments in which RNA interference acts on itself will only work in systems having a low efficiency. The results of our model suggest possible ways to
Home , Papers , [EXPRESS] RNA interference-based functional knockdown of the voltage gated potassium channel Kv7.2 in dorsal root ganglion neurons after in vitro and in vivo gene transfer by adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors. ...
The African trypanosome, Trypanosoma brucei possesses a large and unique intraflagellar structure called the paraflagellar rod (PFR). The PFR is composed of 2 major proteins, PFRA and PFRC. We have generated an inducible mutant trypanosome cell line (snl-2) that expresses linked inverted copies of a PFRA gene, capable of forming a PFRA double-stranded (ds) RNA. When expression of this dsRNA was induced, new PFRA RNA and PFRA protein quickly disappeared and PFR construction was affected, resulting in cell paralysis. This inducible RNA interference (RNAi) effect was fast-acting, heritable and reversible. It allowed us to demonstrate that PFR proteins are able to enter both mature and growing flagella but appear to concentrate differentially in new flagella because of the construction process. The PFR is constructed by a polar assembly process at the distal end of the flagellum resulting in a stable cytoskeletal structure with low turn-over. The inducible RNAi approach will have widespread applicability in
The African trypanosome, Trypanosoma brucei possesses a large and unique intraflagellar structure called the paraflagellar rod (PFR). The PFR is composed of 2 major proteins, PFRA and PFRC. We have generated an inducible mutant trypanosome cell line (snl-2) that expresses linked inverted copies of a PFRA gene, capable of forming a PFRA double-stranded (ds) RNA. When expression of this dsRNA was induced, new PFRA RNA and PFRA protein quickly disappeared and PFR construction was affected, resulting in cell paralysis. This inducible RNA interference (RNAi) effect was fast-acting, heritable and reversible. It allowed us to demonstrate that PFR proteins are able to enter both mature and growing flagella but appear to concentrate differentially in new flagella because of the construction process. The PFR is constructed by a polar assembly process at the distal end of the flagellum resulting in a stable cytoskeletal structure with low turn-over. The inducible RNAi approach will have widespread ...
Histone modifications influence gene expression in complex ways. The RNA interference (RNAi) machinery can repress transcription by recruiting histone-modifying enzymes to chromatin, although it is not clear whether this is a general mechanism for gene silencing or whether it requires repeated sequences such as long terminal repeats (LTRs). We analyzed the global effects of the Clr3 and Clr6 histone deacetylases, the Clr4 methyltransferase, the zinc finger protein Clr1, and the RNA, proteins Dicer, RdRP, and Argonaute on the transcriptome of Schizosaccharomyces pombe (fission yeast). The clr mutants derepressed similar subsets of genes, many of which also became transcriptionally activated in cells that were exposed to environmental stresses such as nitrogen starvation. Many genes that were repressed by the Clr proteins clustered in extended regions close to the telomeres. Surprisingly few genes were repressed by both the silencing and RNAi machineries, with transcripts from centromeric repeats ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Targeting L1 cell adhesion molecule using lentivirus-mediated short hairpin RNA interference reverses aggressiveness of oral squamous cell carcinoma. AU - Hung, Shiao Chen. AU - Wu, I. Hui. AU - Hsue, Shui Sang. AU - Liao, Chia Hui. AU - Wang, Hsien Chi. AU - Chuang, Pei Hsin. AU - Sung, Shian Ying. AU - Hsieh, Chia Ling. PY - 2010/12/6. Y1 - 2010/12/6. N2 - The L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) has been implicated in tumor progression of many types of cancers, but its role in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has not been investigated. In the present study, we demonstrated overexpression of L1CAM in OSCC cells, but not in normal keratinocytes, using both clinical specimens and cell lines. This overexpression demonstrated a strong correlation with less differentiation and a higher invasion potential of cancer cells, supporting the significance of L1CAM in human OSCC tumor progression. Targeting L1CAM gene expression in SCC4 cells overexpressing L1CAM using a lentivirus-mediated ...
AMSTERDAM, The Netherlands, December 5, 2012 /PRNewswire/ --. uniQure B.V., a leader in the field of human gene therapy, today announced a non-exclusive cross-licensing agreement with Benitec Biopharma Ltd. (ASX: BLT) giving uniQure access to Benitecs proprietary DNA-directed RNA interference (ddRNAi) technology in Huntingtons disease. In return, uniQure granted Benitec non-exclusive access to the Companys AAV5 delivery technology for the development of a ddRNAi therapy for Hepatitis B.. The cross-licensing agreement with Benitec fully capitalizes on the strength of our advanced AAV platform and our proven ability to deliver therapeutic genes to target cells with high accuracy and efficacy, says Jörn Aldag, CEO of uniQure. The agreement with Benitec opens up promising new avenues to develop therapies for high unmet medical needs such as Huntingtons disease. While our current programs focus on delivering fully functioning therapeutic genes to remedy faulty or malfunctioning genes, ...
Goodwin Procter associate Daniel Wilson looks into patenting strategies for a powerful new tool for treating disease as well as for creating models of disease.
Background Neurogenesis in the brain of adult mammals occurs throughout life in two locations: the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus. RNA interference mechanisms have emerged as critical regulators of neuronal differentiation. However, to date, little is known about its function in adult neurogenesis. Results Here we show that the RNA interference machinery regulates Doublecortin levels and is associated with chromatin in differentiating adult neural progenitors. Deletion of Dicer causes abnormal higher levels of Doublecortin. The microRNA pathway plays an important role in Doublecortin regulation. In particular miRNA-128 overexpression can reduce Doublecortin levels in differentiating adult neural progenitors. Conclusions We conclude that the RNA interference components play an important role, even through chromatin association, in regulating neuron-specific gene expression programs. ...
Hypercapnia, elevated partial pressure of CO2 in blood and tissue, develops in many patients with chronic severe obstructive pulmonary disease and other advanced lung disorders. Patients with advanced disease frequently develop bacterial lung infections, and hypercapnia is a risk factor for mortality in such individuals. We previously demonstrated that hypercapnia suppresses induction of NF-κB-regulated innate immune response genes required for host defense in human, mouse, and Drosophila cells, and it increases mortality from bacterial infections in both mice and Drosophila. However, the molecular mediators of hypercapnic immune suppression are undefined. In this study, we report a genome-wide RNA interference screen in Drosophila S2* cells stimulated with bacterial peptidoglycan. The screen identified 16 genes with human orthologs whose knockdown reduced hypercapnic suppression of the gene encoding the antimicrobial peptide Diptericin (Dipt), but did not increase Dipt mRNA levels in air. In ...
Article A novel and quick method to avoid H|sub|2|/sub|O|sub|2|/sub| interference on COD measurement in Fenton system by Na|sub|2|/sub|SO|sub|3|/sub| reduction and O|sub|2|/sub| oxidation. Hydrogen peroxide interference on chemical oxygen demand (COD...
From the abstract: Hypercapnia, elevated partial pressure of CO2 in blood and tissue, develops in many patients with chronic severe obstructive pulmonary disease and other advanced lung disorders. Patients with advanced disease frequently develop bacterial lung infections ... We previously demonstrated that hypercapnia suppresses induction of NF-κB-regulated innate immune response genes ... However, the molecular mediators of hypercapnic immune suppression are undefined. In this study, we report a genome-wide RNA interference screen in Drosophila S2* cells stimulated with bacterial peptidoglycan. The screen identified 16 genes with human orthologs whose knockdown reduced hypercapnic suppression of the gene encoding the antimicrobial peptide Diptericin (Dipt), but did not increase Dipt mRNA levels in air. In vivo tests of one of the strongest screen hits, zinc finger homeodomain 2 (Zfh2; mammalian orthologs ZFHX3/ATBF1 and ZFHX4), demonstrate that reducing zfh2 function using a mutation or RNA ...
RNA interference (RNAi) is a post-transcriptional process triggered by the introduction of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) which leads to gene silencing in a sequence-specific manner. The first evidence that dsRNA could achieve efficient gene silencing through RNAi came from studies on the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Further analyses in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster have contributed greatly toward understanding the biochemical nature of the RNAi pathway. Long dsRNAs are cleaved by the RNase III family member, Dicer, into 19-23 nucleotides (nt) fragments with 5 phosphorylated ends and 2-nt unpaired and unphosphorylated 3 ends.
In the present study, a genome-wide RNA interference screen was combined with an extensive biochemical analysis and quantitative proteomics to better understand the regulation of the heat-shock response (HSR) upon thermal stress. The usage of an endoribon...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A genome-wide loss-of-function screen identifies SLC26A2 as a novel mediator of TRAIL resistance. AU - Dimberg, Lina Y.. AU - Towers, Christina G.. AU - Behbakht, Kian. AU - Hotz, Taylor J.. AU - Kim, Jihye. AU - Fosmire, Susan. AU - Porter, Christopher C.. AU - Tan, Aik-Choon. AU - Thorburn, Andrew. AU - Ford, Heide L.. PY - 2017/4/1. Y1 - 2017/4/1. N2 - TRAIL is a potent death-inducing ligand that mediates apoptosis through the extrinsic pathway and serves as an important endogenous tumor suppressor mechanism. Because tumor cells are often killed by TRAIL and normal cells are not, drugs that activate the TRAIL pathway have been thought to have potential clinical value. However, to date, most TRAIL-related clinical trials have largely failed due to the tumor cells having intrinsic or acquired resistance to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Previous studies to identify resistance mechanisms have focused on targeted analysis of the canonical apoptosis pathway and other known regulators of ...
Australia s Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization said last week that it has signed an agreement to provide Bayer CropScience with a worldwide (except Australia) license to use its RNAi technology in developing and selling selected crop plant varieties.... Subscribers: click headline for more
Shop Systemic RNA interference defective protein ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Systemic RNA interference defective protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Synthetic lethality is an attractive strategy for the design of novel therapies for cancer. Using this approach we have previously demonstrated that inhibition of the DNA repair protein, PARP1, is synthetically lethal with deficiency of either of the breast cancer susceptibility proteins, BRCA1 and …
RNA interference (RNAi) is an incredible revolution in the field of functional genomics, a breakthrough in plant molecular genetics. This technology will generate enormous potential for engineering control of gene expres-sion. The success of managing biotic stress using RNAi technology will prove to be biologically and environmentally safe. It is therapeutic in approach as the resistance induced by RNAi is triggered by ds RNA that results in silencing of specific genes before being translated in a homology dependent manner. Over the time, RNAi is significantly proving it as one of the most promiscent management strategy which eliminates certain risks associated with the development of transgenic plants. This review gives an insight into the probability of management of plant diseases caused by various biotic agents viz. fungi, bacteria and viruses using RNA interference technique and host-pathogen related targeted sites ...
ポストゲノム時代におけるRNA 干渉法の役割 [in Japanese] The role of RNA interference on post-genomic era [in Japanese] ...
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with an NPM1 mutation (NPMc+) has a distinct gene expression signature and displays molecular abnormalities similar to mixed lineage leukemia (MLL), including aberrant expression of the PBX3 and HOXA gene cluster. However, it is unclear if the aberrant expression of PBX3 and HOXA is essential for the survival of NPM1-mutated leukemic cells. Methods: Using the gene expression profiling of TCGA and E-MTAB-3444 datasets, we screened for high co-expression of PBX3 and HOXA9 in NPMc+ leukemia patients. We performed NPMc+ depletion and overexpression experiments to examine aberrant H3K79 methylation through epigenetic regulation. Through RNA interference technology and small-molecule inhibitor treatment, we evaluated the effect of methyl-modified H3K79 on cell survival and explored the possible underlying mechanism. Results: We showed that NPMc+ increased the expression of PBX3 and HOXA9, which are both poor prognosis indicators in AML. High PBX3 and HOXA9 expression was ...
For commonly studied genes, where there is only 1 RNAi line in the VDRC GD or KK collection at present, we aim to add a further functional RNAi line to facilitate verification of phenotypes. We chose to use the short hairpin RNAi technology as it is a simpler and more cost-effective method of creating lines than by using long double-stranded RNA. Short hairpins RNAs (shRNAs), containing a 21bp targeting sequence embedded into a micro-RNA (miR-1) backbone, have been shown to be very effective for gene knockdown in both the germline and somatic tissues (Ni et al., 2011). This technology has been used extensively by the Transgenic RNAi Project (TRiP).. To avoid direct duplication of community resources, the VDRC has collaborated with the TRiP team during shRNA design to ensure that the new VDRC lines are as distinct as possible from the TRiP resource. We have used the WALIUM20 vector (for triggering RNAi in soma and germline) in combination with the attP40 landing site, meaning that both the ...
For commonly studied genes, where there is only 1 RNAi line in the VDRC GD or KK collection at present, we aim to add a further functional RNAi line to facilitate verification of phenotypes. We chose to use the short hairpin RNAi technology as it is a simpler and more cost-effective method of creating lines than by using long double-stranded RNA. Short hairpins RNAs (shRNAs), containing a 21bp targeting sequence embedded into a micro-RNA (miR-1) backbone, have been shown to be very effective for gene knockdown in both the germline and somatic tissues (Ni et al., 2011). This technology has been used extensively by the Transgenic RNAi Project (TRiP).. To avoid direct duplication of community resources, the VDRC has collaborated with the TRiP team during shRNA design to ensure that the new VDRC lines are as distinct as possible from the TRiP resource. We have used the WALIUM20 vector (for triggering RNAi in soma and germline) in combination with the attP40 landing site, meaning that both the ...
Meacham, C. E., Lawton, L. N., Soto-Feliciano, Y. M., Pritchard, J. R., Joughin, B. A., Ehrenberger, T., Fenouille, N., Zuber, J., Williams, R. T., Young, R. A., Hemann, M. T. (March 2015) A genome-scale in vivo loss-of-function screen identifies Phf6 as a lineage-specific regulator of leukemia cell growth. Genes & Development, 29 (5). pp. 483-8. ISSN 0890-9369 Huang, C. H., Lujambio, A., Zuber, J., Tschaharganeh, D. F., Doran, M. G., Evans, M. J., Kitzing, T., Zhu, N., de Stanchina, E., Sawyers, C. L., Armstrong, S. A., Lewis, J. S., Sherr, C. J., Lowe, S. W. (August 2014) CDK9-mediated transcription elongation is required for MYC addiction in hepatocellular carcinoma. Genes and Development, 28 (16). pp. 1800-1814. ISSN 15495477 (ISSN) Zaiss, A. K., Zuber, J., Chu, C., Machado, H. B., Jiao, J., Catapang, A. B., Ishikawa, T. O., Gil, J. S., Lowe, S. W., Herschman, H. R. (July 2014) Reversible Suppression of Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) Expression In Vivo by Inducible RNA Interference. PLoS One, 9 ...
Title:Therapy for Dominant Inherited Diseases by Allele-Specific RNA Interference: Successes and Pitfalls. VOLUME: 15 ISSUE: 5. Author(s):Delphine Trochet, Bernard Prudhon, Stéphane Vassilopoulos and Marc Bitoun. Affiliation:Inserm/UPMC UMR_S974, CNRS FRE3617, Institut de Myologie, Paris, France.. Keywords:Allele-specific silencing, Dominant inherited diseases, Pitfalls, RNA interference, Single nucleotide substitution, Gene-based therapy.. Abstract:RNA interference (RNAi) is a conserved mechanism for post-transcriptional gene silencing mediated by messenger RNA (mRNA) degradation. RNAi is commonly induced by synthetic siRNA or shRNA which recognizes the targeted mRNA by base pairing and leads to target-mRNA degradation. RNAi may discriminate between two sequences only differing by one nucleotide conferring a high specificity of RNAi for its target mRNA. This property was used to develop a particular therapeutic strategy called allele-specific-RNA interference devoted to silence the mutated ...
The use of small interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules in animals to achieve double-stranded RNA-mediated interference (RNAi) has recently emerged as a powerful method of sequence-specific gene knockdown. As DNA-based expression of short hairpin RNA (shRNA) for RNAi may offer some advantages over chemical and in vitro synthesised siRNA, a number of vectors for expression of shRNA have been developed. These often feature polymerase III (pol. III) promoters of either mouse or human origin. To develop a shRNA expression vector specifically for bovine RNAi applications, we identified and characterised a novel bovine U6 small nuclear RNA (snRNA) promoter from bovine sequence data. This promoter is the putative bovine homologue of the human U6-8 snRNA promoter, and features a number of functional sequence elements that are characteristic of these types of pol. III promoters. A PCR based cloning strategy was used to incorporate this promoter sequence into plasmid vectors along with shRNA sequences for RNAi. The
Article describing an optimized protocol for generating short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) or hairpin siRNAs in vitro using T7 RNA Polymerase and annealed DNA oligonucleotide templates. Two RNA interference studies in different mammalian model systems demonstrate the functionality of the synthesized siRNAs.
Examining the knockdown Once cells have been infected, it will be necessary to remove any contaminating uninfected cells. In general, there are two ways to purify and then to analyze RNAi-mediated gene knockdown in cells: one in which the whole population of infected cells are examined, and in the second approach a selected number of individual clonal cell lines are examined. Determining which strategy to perform depends on the nature of the experiment. If the entire population is to be analyzed, either flow cytometric sorting (when GFP-expressing virus is used) or drug selection (when the virus contains an antibiotic-resistance marker) may be used. If a constitutively-expressing small hairpin RNAi vector is used, it will be important to monitor the viability/growth of the cells throughout the procedure. Some gene knockdowns produce slow-growing or lethal phenotypes. This can be difficult to assess when drug selection of the infected cells is used, in which case a GFP marker may be preferred ...
We have led the way in the development of what has been hailed as a major breakthrough in molecular biology: silencing gene expression by RNA interference (RNAi). CSIROs RNAi gene silencing technology is enabling researchers around the world to protect plants and animals from diseases, and to develop new plant varieties with beneficial attributes.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Gene silencing using a heat-inducible RNAi system in Arabidopsis. AU - Masclaux, Frédéric. AU - Charpenteau, Martine. AU - Takahashi, Taku. AU - Pont-Lezica, Rafael. AU - Galaud, Jean Philippe. PY - 2004/8/20. Y1 - 2004/8/20. N2 - Controlling gene expression during plant development is an efficient tool to explore gene function. In this paper, we describe a gene expression system driven by a heat-shock gene promoter (HSP18.2), to trigger the expression of an intron-containing inverted-repeat. RNA interference became a powerful way for gene functional analysis by reverse genetic approaches. However, constitutive gene silencing cannot be used with genes involved in fundamental processes such as embryo viability. Inducible promoters provide an alternative approach for temporal and spatial gene expression control and we described here a new system, complementary to those using chemical gene inducers. To evaluate the efficiency of this system, RNA corresponding to the phytoene ...
Gene inactivation through RNA interference (RNAi) has proven to be a valuable tool for studying gene function in C. elegans. When combined with tissue-specific gene inactivation methods, RNAi has the potential to shed light on the function of a gene in distinct tissues. In this study we characterize …
Data Availability StatementThe writers declare that the info helping the results of the scholarly research can be found within this article. tumor size. The TCGA data also demonstrated how the B7-H6 mRNA manifestation level was considerably negatively correlated with the survival of HCC patients. Next, to investigate the functions of B7-H6 in HCC, we successfully constructed B7-H6 knockdown expression human HCC cell lines using the RNA interference technology. Our studies showed that reduced expression of B7-H6 in HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells significantly attenuated cell proliferation as well as cell migration and invasion. Besides, depletion of B7-H6 greatly induced cell cycle arrest at G1 phase. And also B7-H6 knockdown in HCC cell order GSK343 lines dramatically decreased the C-myc, C-fos and Cyclin-D1 expression. Conclusions Our present findings suggested that B7-H6 played an important role in oncogenesis of HCC on cellular level, and B7-H6 could be employed to develop immunotherapeutic ...
Cholesterol levels in the blood are one of the main risk factors for cardiovascular disease. They are controlled by the amount of cholesterol that cells can take in - thus removing it from the blood - and metabolise. The researchers used RNA interference to test the function of each of the genes within 56 regions previously identified by GWAS as being linked with cardiovascular disease. They selectively decreased their action and measured what, if any, changes this induced in cholesterol metabolism. From this they could deduce which of the genes are most likely to be involved in the onset of the disease.. This is the first wide-scale RNA interference study that follows up on GWAS. It has proven its potential by narrowing down a large list of candidate genes to the few with an important function that we can now focus on in future in-depth studies, explains Rainer Pepperkok at EMBL, who co-led the study with Heiko Runz at the University of Heidelberg. In principle, our approach can be applied ...
Many invading viruses and transposons replicate and transpose through RNA intermediates. These intermediates can be detected by the host cell RNA interference machinery in plants and insects and used to generate small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), critical intermediates in silencing, which can then neutralize the invader. Lecellier et al. (see the news story by Couzin) now show that mammalian cells can also use the RNA silencing machinery to help neutralize an invading mammalian virus. Curiously, rather than siRNAs derived from the viral genome being the effector molecules that target the invader for silencing, a host microRNA tags the virus. The importance of the pathway in host defense is supported by the presence of a viral protein that can suppress the silencing effect.. C.-H. Lecellier, P. Dunoyer, K. Arar, J. Lehmann-Che, S. Eyquem, C. Himber, A. Saïb, O. Voinnet, A cellular microRNA mediates antiviral defense in human cells. Science 308, 557-560 (2005). [Abstract] [Full Text]. J. Couzin, ...
Three years ago Mark Kay MD PhD published the first results showing...Now with three human RNAi gene therapy trials under way Kays initia... Just like any other new drug it is just going to mean that we need t...In traditional gene therapy the inserted DNA produces a gene to replac...With key genes shut off viruses such as hepatitis B hepatitis C or H...,For,Stanford,scientists,,RNAi,gene,therapy,takes,two,steps,forward,,one,step,back,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
MK-1775 is a potent and selective inhibitor of the WEE1 kinase. As of this publication, it is the only WEE1 inhibitor that the authors are aware of currently undergoing evaluation as an anticancer agent in combination with chemotherapy in early-stage clinical trials (19, 20, 28). Previous studies using MK-1775 have shown its potentiation of DNA damage-based therapeutics by forcing unscheduled mitosis and ultimately resulting in apoptosis or mitotic catastrophe (4, 18, 29-32). However, the potential therapeutic effects of WEE1 inhibition in the absence of chemotherapies have not been widely explored. RNA interference knockdown of WEE1 is known to inhibit proliferation of cancer cell lines (13, 33), and more recently, it was shown that MK-1775 alone can induce apoptosis in sarcoma cell lines treated in vitro (34). Our results similarly highlight a requirement for WEE1 activity to maintain cellular viability and genomic stability. Furthermore, we provide the first demonstration of TGI with MK-1775 ...
MK-1775 is a potent and selective inhibitor of the WEE1 kinase. As of this publication, it is the only WEE1 inhibitor that the authors are aware of currently undergoing evaluation as an anticancer agent in combination with chemotherapy in early-stage clinical trials (19, 20, 28). Previous studies using MK-1775 have shown its potentiation of DNA damage-based therapeutics by forcing unscheduled mitosis and ultimately resulting in apoptosis or mitotic catastrophe (4, 18, 29-32). However, the potential therapeutic effects of WEE1 inhibition in the absence of chemotherapies have not been widely explored. RNA interference knockdown of WEE1 is known to inhibit proliferation of cancer cell lines (13, 33), and more recently, it was shown that MK-1775 alone can induce apoptosis in sarcoma cell lines treated in vitro (34). Our results similarly highlight a requirement for WEE1 activity to maintain cellular viability and genomic stability. Furthermore, we provide the first demonstration of TGI with MK-1775 ...
F. Leulier, P. S Ribeiro, E. Palmer, T. Tenev, K. Takahashi, D. Robertson, A. Zachariou, F. Pichaud, R. Ueda, and P. Meier (2006) Cell Death Differ, 13(10):1663-74.. ...
How to interpret the nature of biological processes, which, when perturbed, cause certain phenotypes, such as human disease, is a major challenge. The completion of sequencing of many model organisms has made reverse genetic approaches [1] efficient and comprehensive ways to identify causal genes for a given phenotype under investigation. For instance, genome-wide knockout strains are now available for Saccharomyces cerevisiae [2, 3], and diverse high throughput RNA interference knockdown experiments have been performed, or are under development, for higher organisms, including C. elegans [4], D. melanogaster [5] and mammals [6, 7].. Compared to the direct genotype-phenotype correlation observed in the above experiments, what is less obvious is how genetic perturbation leads to the change of phenotypes in the complex of biological systems. That is, we might perceive the cell or organism as a dynamic system composed of interacting functional modules that are defined as discrete entities whose ...
Who says you cant be smart, witty, or say anything of substance in 140 characters or less? Alnylam Pharmaceuticals CEO John Maraganore had a zinger ready
Distinct roles for RDE-1 and RDE-4 during RNA interference in Caenorhabditis elegans.: RNA interference (RNAi) is a cellular defense mechanism that uses double-
Plants and fungi can use conserved RNA interference machinery to regulate each others gene expression-and scientists think they can make use of this phenomenon to create a new generation of pesticides.. 6 Comments. ...
Plants and fungi can use conserved RNA interference machinery to regulate each others gene expression-and scientists think they can make use of this phenomenon to create a new generation of pesticides.. 6 Comments. ...
Aberrant acetylation has been strongly linked to tumorigenesis, and the modulation of acetylation through targeting histone deacetylases (HDACs) is gathering increasing pace as a viable therapeutic strategy. A genome-wide loss-of-function screen identified HR23B, which shuttles ubiquitinated cargo proteins to the proteasome, as a sensitivity determinant for HDAC inhibitor-induced apoptosis. HR23B also governs tumor cell sensitivity to drugs that act directly on the proteasome. The level of HR23B influences the response of tumor cells to HDAC inhibitors, and HR23B is found at high levels in cutaneous T cell lymphoma in situ, a malignancy that responds favorably to HDAC inhibitor-based therapy. These results suggest that deregulated proteasome activity contributes to the anticancer activity of HDAC inhibitors.
Autophagy plays a critical role in cancer formation and therapeutic resistance. However, little is known about how autophagy is regulated in cancer and how it mediates therapeutic resistance. Here we elect to use chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) as a cancer model to study autophagy in that it is driven by a single onco-protein BCR-ABL, whose activity can be selectively blocked by imatinib a front-line treatment for CML. Moreover, imatinib resistance frequently occurs in CML patients. Thus, unraveling autophagy regulation in CML and its role in overcoming imatinib resistance has substantial therapeutic benefits not only for CML but also for other cancers that can be treated by imatinib. In this report, we performed a genome-wide RNA interference screen in K562 human CML cells using monodansylcadaverine (MDC) that marks autolysosomes followed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting to label and isolate autophagic cells. We have identified 336 candidate genes, knockdown of which significantly ...
To elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-induced defense responses in potato (Solanum tuberosum), the role of the signaling compounds salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) was analyzed. Pep-13, a PAMP from Phytophthora, induces the accumulation of SA, JA and hydrogen peroxide, as well as the activation of defense genes and hypersensitive-like cell death. We have previously shown that SA is required for Pep-13-induced defense responses. To assess the importance of JA, RNA interference constructs targeted at the JA biosynthetic genes, allene oxide cyclase and 12- oxophytodienoic acid reductase, were expressed in transgenic potato plants. In addition, expression of the F-box protein COI1 was reduced by RNA interference. Plants expressing the RNA interference constructs failed to accumulate the respective transcripts in response to wounding or Pep-13 treatment, neither did they contain significant amounts of JA after elicitation. In response ...
Identification of components of the intracellular transport machinery of acylated proteins by a genome-wide RNAi screen [Elektronische Ressource] / presented by Julia Ritzerfeld : IDENTIFICATIO N O F CO M PO NENTS O F TH E INTRACELLU LAR TRANSPO RT M ACH INERY O F ACYLATED PRO TEINS BY A GENO M E‐W IDE RNAI SCREEN DISSERTATIO N submitted to the Combined Faculties for the Natural Sciences and for Mathematics of the Ruperto Caro la University of Heidelberg, Germany for the degree of Doctor of Natural Sciences Julia Ritzerfeld
TY - CHAP. T1 - Short hairpin RNA-mediated gene silencing. AU - Lambeth, Luke S. AU - Smith, Craig A.. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - Since thefirst application of RNA interference (RNAi) in mammalian cells, the expression of short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) for targeted gene silencing has become a benchmark technology. Using plasmid and viral vectoring systems, the transcription of shRNA precursors that are effectively processed by the RNAi pathway can lead to potent gene knockdown. The past decade has seen continual advancement and improvement to the various strategies that can be used for shRNA delivery, and the use of shRNAs for clinical applications is well underway. Driving these developments has been the many benefits afforded by shRNA technologies, including the stable integration of expression constructs for long-term expression, infection of difficultto-target cell lines and tissues using viral vectors, and the temporal control of shRNA transcription by inducible promoters. The use of different ...
RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful tool to study the intracellular membrane transport and membrane organelle behavior in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. This model organism has gained popularity in the trafficking field because of its relative simplicity, yet being multicellular. C. elegans is fully sequenced and has an annotated genome, it is easy to maintain, and a growing number of transgenic strains bearing markers for different membrane compartments are available. C. elegans is particularly well suited for protein downregulation by RNAi because of the simple but efficient methods of dsRNA delivery. The phenomenon of systemic RNAi in the worm further facilitates this approach. In this chapter we describe methods and applications of RNAi in the field of membrane traffic. We summarize the fluorescent markers used as a readout for the effects of gene knockdown in different cells and tissues and give details for data acquisition and analysis ...
RNA interference (RNAi) is a gene-silencing mechanism by which a ribonucleoprotein complex, the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) and a double-stranded (ds) short-interfering RNA (siRNA), targets a complementary mRNA for site-specific cleavage and subsequent degradation. While longer dsRNA are endogenously processed into 21- to 24-nucleotide (nt) siRNAs or miRNAs to induce gene silencing, RNAi studies in human cells typically use synthetic 19- to 20-nt siRNA duplexes with 2-nt overhangs at the 3-end of both strands. Here, we report that systematic synthesis and analysis of siRNAs with deletions at the passenger and/or guide strand revealed a short RNAi trigger, 16-nt siRNA, which induces potent RNAi in human cells. Our results indicate that the minimal requirement for dsRNA to trigger RNAi is an approximately 42 A A-form helix with approximately 1.5 helical turns. The 16-nt siRNA more effectively knocked down mRNA and protein levels than 19-nt siRNA when targeting the endogenous CDK9 gene,
DasGupta et al. [3] developed a high-throughput assay based on the known ability of canonical Wnt signaling to activate transcription of luciferase reporter constructs in transfected cells. Improving on the widely used construct TOP-Flash [13], they generated two new reporters each containing multiple TCF-binding sites upstream of a different minimal promoter. Because only the TCF sites were common between the reporters, off-target effects unrelated to β-catenin/TCF signaling were minimized. Reporters with mutated TCF-binding sites also served as specificity controls. The authors first validated the behavior of these reporters in transfection assays of Drosophila cell lines. Then they scaled up the transfections to incorporate approximately 22,000 double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs), so as to induce RNAi [3], and tested the individual effects on Wingless-induced signaling. The library of dsRNA sequences, previously used in other high-throughput RNAi screens, is directed at all known open reading ...
RNAi is an RNA-dependent gene silencing process that is controlled by the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) and is initiated by short double-stranded RNA molecules in a cells cytoplasm, where they interact with the catalytic RISC component argonaute.[5] When the dsRNA is exogenous (coming from infection by a virus with an RNA genome or laboratory manipulations), the RNA is imported directly into the cytoplasm and cleaved to short fragments by Dicer. The initiating dsRNA can also be endogenous (originating in the cell), as in pre-microRNAs expressed from RNA-coding genes in the genome. The primary transcripts from such genes are first processed to form the characteristic stem-loop structure of pre-miRNA in the nucleus, then exported to the cytoplasm. Thus, the two dsRNA pathways, exogenous and endogenous, converge at the RISC.[6] Exogenous dsRNA initiates RNAi by activating the ribonuclease protein Dicer,[7] which binds and cleaves double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) in plants, or short hairpin ...
RNA interference (RNAi) is a naturally occurring phenomenon that results in the suppression of a target RNA sequence utilizing a variety of possible methods and pathways. To dissect the factors that result in effective siRNA sequences a regression kernel Support Vector Machine (SVM) approach was used to quantitatively model RNA interference activities. Eight overall feature mapping methods were compared in their abilities to build SVM regression models that predict published siRNA activities. The primary factors in predictive SVM models are position specific nucleotide compositions. The secondary factors are position independent sequence motifs (N-grams) and guide strand to passenger strand sequence thermodynamics. Finally, the factors that are least contributory but are still predictive of efficacy are measures of intramolecular guide strand secondary structure and target strand secondary structure. Of these, the site of the 5 most base of the guide strand is the most informative. The capacity of
The Drosophila immune system discriminates between different classes of infectious microbes and responds with pathogen-specific defense reactions via the selective activation of the Toll and the immune deficiency (Imd) signaling pathways. The Toll pathway mediates most defenses against Gram-positive bacteria and fungi, whereas the Imd pathway is required to resist Gram-negative bacterial infection. Microbial recognition is achieved through peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs); Gram-positive bacteria activate the Toll pathway through a circulating PGRP (PGRP-SA), and Gram-negative bacteria activate the Imd pathway via PGRP-LC, a putative transmembrane receptor, and PGRP-LE. Gram-negative binding proteins (GNBPs) were originally identified in Bombyx mori for their capacity to bind various microbial compounds. Three GNBPs and two related proteins are encoded in the Drosophila genome, but their function is not known. Using inducible expression of GNBP1 double-stranded RNA, we now demonstrate ...
Researchers at the Medical University of South Carolina show in a new report that the RNA interference machinery, normally thought to reside in the nucleus or cytoplasm, predominantly localizes to these apical junctions and influences cell biology in the colon.
RNA interference has revolutionized our ability to study the effects of altering the expression of single genes in mammalian (and other) cells through targeted knockdown of gene expression. In this report we describe a web-based computational tool, siRNA Information Resource (sIR), which consists of a new open source database that contains validation information about published siRNA sequences and also provides a user-friendly interface to design and analyze siRNA sequences against a chosen target sequence. The siRNA design tool described in this paper employs empirically determined rules derived from a meta-analysis of the published data; it uses a weighted scoring system that determines the optimal sequence within a target mRNA and thus aids in the rational selection of siRNA sequences. This scoring system shows a non-linear correlation with the knockdown efficiency of siRNAs. sIR provides a fast, customized BLAST output for all selected siRNA sequences against a variety of databases so that the user
Ryan uses primary cell models (donated healthy live cells) and tissue samples from patients to investigate the cellular genetic workings of blood disorders and cancer. He tends to collect the RNA produced when genes are switched on and off, using cutting edge techniques to collect the sequences of these genes or uses microarray technologies to profile them. From this information he can identify key genes in a disease and use RNA interference technologies to switch variations of these genes off, inhibiting the production of controlling proteins for potential treatments in that disease.. As these RNA and protein molecules change in diseases we can use these changes to diagnose and help in clinical prognosis. Ryan has worked on novel sensor technologies to make such systems clinically acceptable, quicker and more sensitive.. Examples of disease work:. Manipulating gene switching in Sickle Cell Anaemia as a potential treatment; Dr D Carter, NCRNA and Chromatin Research Group, Oxford Brookes ...
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an immune-susceptible malignancy, as demonstrated by its responsiveness to allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT). However, by employing inhibitory signaling pathways, including PD-1/PD-L1, leukemia cells suppress T cell-mediated immune attack. Notably, impressive clinical efficacy has been obtained with PD-1/PD-L1 blocking antibodies in cancer patients. Yet, these systemic treatments are often accompanied by severe toxicity, especially after alloSCT. Here, we investigated RNA interference technology as an alternative strategy to locally interfere with PD-1/PD-L1 signaling in AML. We demonstrated efficient siRNA-mediated PD-L1 silencing in HL-60 and patients AML cells. Importantly, WT1-antigen T cell receptor(+) PD-1(+) 2D3 cells showed increased activation toward PD-L1 silenced WT1(+) AML. Moreover, PD-L1 silenced AML cells significantly enhanced the activation, degranulation, and IFN-γ production of minor histocompatibility antigen-specific CD8(+) T ...
Previous works in the budding yeast S. cerevisiae and the fission yeast S. pombe have revealed that aslncRNAs are globally low abundant as they are extensively degraded by RNA surveillance machineries. For instance, the nuclear exosome targets a class of lncRNAs referred to as CUTs (Wyers et al, 2005; Neil et al, 2009; Xu et al, 2009), whereas the cytoplasmic 5′-3′ exoribonuclease Xrn1 degrades the so-called XUTs (Van Dijk et al, 2011), both types of transcripts being mainly antisense to protein-coding genes. However, this classification into CUTs and XUTs is not exclusive, some aslncRNAs being cooperatively targeted by the two RNA decay pathways. In fission yeast, an additional class of aslncRNAs (DUTs) was recently identified. DUTs accumulate in the absence of the ribonuclease III Dicer (Atkinson et al, 2018), highlighting the role of Dicer and RNAi in the control of aslncRNAs expression in fission yeast. This class of transcripts is absent in S. cerevisiae, which has lost the RNAi system ...
In plants, RNA- based gene silencing mediated by small RNAs functions at the transcriptional or post-transcriptional level to negatively regulate target genes, repetitive sequences, viral RNAs and/or transposon elements. Post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) or the RNA interference (RNAi) approach has been achieved in a wide range of plant species for inhibiting the expression of target genes by generating double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). However, to our knowledge, successful RNAi-application to knock-down endogenous genes has not been reported in the important staple food crop banana ...
As the portfolio of RNAi methods continues to expand, options become available for even the most complex systems being studied. Until recently, synthetic siRNA was the RNAi vehicle most broadly applicable to a wide variety of systems and applications. With commercial suppliers designing and producing synthetic siRNAs, little manipulation is required for the consumer. This format is amenable to any scale of research being performed provided the system is easily transfected (e.g., standard transformed cell lines). However, obstacles for using synthetic siRNAs include being a non-renewable resource, the transient nature of silencing, and the difficulty faced in transfecting primary cells and non-dividing cell lines such as neurons, lymphocytes, and macrophages. In addition, in vivo knockdown studies are particularly cumbersome.. For those facing the above hurdles, DNA vector-based shRNA methods provide the necessary solutions. shRNA expression vectors may be propagated in Escherichia coli and, ...
Control of metabolic flux, the flow of metabolites through a complex metabolic network, is of importance to understand how an organism is sensing, and responding to, nutrient changes in its environment. Metabolic flux control can be measured for, and a control coefficient assigned to, each enzyme in a pathway. Measuring metabolic flux control in multicellular organisms is complicated by the fact that nutrient sensing and metabolic flux control may vary by tissue type. Major effects should be detectable in genomic information, as enzymes with high control coefficients will exhibit genetic patterns of adaptation when the pathway is under selection pressure. I used genetic variation within and among populations of Drosophila melanogaster, as well as divergence between D. melanogaster and the closely related D. simulans, to identify candidate genes for experimental study. I then conducted experiments with candidate genes using tissue specific RNA interference knockdown, focusing on two enzymes ...
The discovery of double-stranded RNA-mediated gene silencing has rapidly led to its use as a method of choice for blocking a gene, and has turned it into one of the most discussed topics in cell biology. Although still in its infancy, the field of RNA interference has already produced a vast array of results, mainly in Caenorhabditis elegans, but recently also in mammalian systems. Micro-RNAs are short hairpins of RNA capable of blocking translation, which are transcribed from genomic DNA and are implicated in several aspects from development to cell signaling. The present review discusses the main methods used for gene silencing in cell culture and animal models, including the selection of target sequences, delivery methods and strategies for a successful silencing. Expected developments are briefly discussed, ranging from reverse genetics to therapeutics. Thus, the development of the new paradigm of RNA-mediated gene silencing has produced two important advances: knowledge of a basic cellular ...
Bahiagrass is one of the most important warm season forage grasses. In Florida alone it is grown on more than 5 million acres. Howeve r, the high lignin content in the bahiagrass biomass significantly reduces its forage qual i ty. A key enzyme in the lignin biosynthetic pathway is th e 4coumarate CoA ligase (4CL); it catalyzes the formation of CoA thiol esters of 4 coumarate and other hydr oxycinn amates. We cloned four 4CL cDNA s from tetraploi d ba hiagrass cv. Argentine and an RNAi construct targeting a highly conserved domain was constructed using 200 bp of the coding sequences. The 4CL RNAi construct was intr o duced to bahiagrass callus by b iolistic gene transfer under transcriptional control of three alternative promoters: the constitutive e35S promoter, OsC4H promoter for xylem specific expression and the ZmdJ1 promoter for expre s sion in the green tissue. Following regeneration of plants their transgenic nature was confirmed using PCR and Southern blot analysis. Significant reduction ...
Many species, across a wide phylogenetic range, respond to aberrant/foreign RNA by degrading endogenous mRNA in a sequence-specific manner (1). This phenomenon, broadly referred to as posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS), can be triggered by the introduction of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) [RNA interference (RNAi)], transformation with sense transgenes (cosuppression/quelling), or viral infection (2). RNAi acts as a cellular defense against parasitic nucleic acids and provides a fortuitous technique for biologists to reduce or eliminate a gene activity (3). RNAi-like mechanisms are also involved in the production of small noncoding RNAs that control developmental timing (4, 5). A better understanding of RNAi may then shed light on genome defense and endogenous developmental pathways.. The molecular mechanisms underlying RNAi are beginning to be elucidated. dsRNA is processed into small double-stranded fragments of 21-25 nucleotides, called small interfering RNA (siRNA; refs. 6-8), by the ...
Supplemental Figure 2 - Fig. S2. Quantification of effects on cells after CAP-D2 RNAi. (A) Growth curve showing the number of cells at different time points after CAP-D2 dsRNA treatment. Cells grew more slowly, plateaued at 72 hours, and did not change significantly after that time. (B) The percentage of mitotic cells in control and CAP-D2 RNAi cells. The percentage of mitotic cells increased two- to threefold in the CAP-D2 RNAi between 36 and 72 hours (6.7% versus 2.2% at 48 hours). (C) The percentage of abnormal mitotic cells in control and CAP-D2 RNAi cells. The majority of mitotic cells are abnormal 36 hours and later after dsRNAi treatment. (D) Histogram showing the percentage of cells in prometaphase after staining for Cyclin B/P-H3/a-tubulin in control and CAP-D2 RNAi cells. Cells delay in prometaphase in the CAP-D2-depleted cells. (E) Histogram showing the percentage of cells in anaphase after staining for Cyclin B/P-H3/a-tubulin, in control and CAP-D2 RNAi cells. The anaphase index in ...
https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.4817 Aleksandra A. Pandyra, Peter J. Mullen, Carolyn A. Goard, Elke Ericson, Piyush Sharma, Manpreet Kalkat, Rosemary Yu, Janice T. Pong, Kevin R. Brown, Traver...
The success of siRNA-based therapeutics highly depends on a safe and efficient delivery of siRNA into the cytosol. In this study, we post-modified the primary amines on dendritic polyglycerolamine (dPG-NH2) with different ratios of two relevant amino acids, namely, arginine (Arg) and histidine (His). To investigate the effects from introducing Arg and His to dPG, the resulting polyplexes of amino acid functionalized dPG-NH2s (AAdPGs)/siRNA were evaluated regarding cytotoxicity, transfection efficiency, and cellular uptake. Among AAdPGs, an optimal vector with (1:3) Arg to His ratio, showed efficient siRNA transfection with minimal cytotoxicity (cell viability ≥ 90%) in NIH 3T3 cells line. We also demonstrated that the cytotoxicity of dPG-NH2 decreased as a result of amino acid functionalization. While the incorporation of both cationic (Arg) and pH-responsive residues (His) are important for safe and efficient siRNA transfection, this study indicates that AAdPGs containing higher degrees of ...
The pSUPER.retro (Oligoengine) RNA interference system was used to achieve stable expression of siRNAs. Oligonucleotides targeted to calpain 2 or PTP1B mRNA as well as a nonsilencing control were synthesized by Integrated DNA Technologies, annealed, and cloned into the pSUPER.retro.puro vector according to manufacturers instructions. Retroviral transfection was performed as described previously (Franco et al., 2004a). Wild-type MTLn3 cells were infected at 32°C for 6 h and allowed to recover in growth medium for 24 h before selection with 1 μg/ml puromycin for 4-5 d. Target sequences for calpain 2 in MTLn3 cells: control, 5′-TTCTCCGAACGTGTCACGT-3′; Capn2 si-A, 5′-AGGCCTATGCCAAGATCAA-3′; and Capn2 si-B, 5′-GAATGGCGATTTCTGCATC-3′. Target sequences for PTP1B in MTLn3 cells: PTP1B si-A, 5′-GCTGACACTGATCTCTGAA-3′; and PTP1Bsi-B, 5′-CAGGAGGAGCCTTGGTGTC-3′. Target sequences for human calpain 2 have been described previously (Su et al., 2006). Target sequences for cortactin: ...
Background: While genetic knockdown of RAS in mouse tumor models has substantiated it as a therapeutic target, there is no effective means of targeting RAS currently available in the clinic today. Numerous RNA interference-based studies targeting RAS have demonstrated therapeutic effects, however, effective delivery has been a major obstacle that has impeded this approach.. U1 Adaptors are a novel technology for oligonucleotide-mediated gene silencing that act by selectively interfering with polyadenylation of messenger RNA (mRNA) inside the cell nucleus. Polyadenosine (PolyA) tail addition is an obligatory step in mRNA maturation and function, and its failure results in rapid degradation of the nascent message by endogenous nucleases. The eukaryotic U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein complex (U1 snRNP) is best known for its role as a pre-mRNA splicing factor, but also acts naturally to silence some genes by suppressing polyadenylation.. U1 Adaptors are synthetic oligonucleotides that enable the ...
Ola R, Dubrac A, Han J, Zhang F, Fang JS, Larrivée B, Lee M, Urarte AA, Kraehling JR, Genet G, Hirschi KK, Sessa WC, Canals FV, Graupera M, Yan M, Young LH, Oh PS, Eichmann A: PI3 kinase inhibition improves vascular malformations in mouse models of hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia. Nat Commun. 2016 Nov 29; 2016 Nov 29. PMID: 27897192 Zhang F, Prahst C, Mathivet T, Pibouin-Fragner L, Zhang J, Genet G, Tong R, Dubrac A, Eichmann A: The Robo4 cytoplasmic domain is dispensable for vascular permeability and neovascularization. Nat Commun. 2016 Nov 24; 2016 Nov 24. PMID: 27882935 Kraehling JR, Chidlow JH, Rajagopal C, Sugiyama MG, Fowler JW, Lee MY, Zhang X, Ramírez CM, Park EJ, Tao B, Chen K, Kuruvilla L, Larriveé B, Folta-Stogniew E, Ola R, Rotllan N, Zhou W, Nagle MW, Herz J, Williams KJ, Eichmann A, Lee WL, Fernández-Hernando C, Sessa WC: Genome-wide RNAi screen reveals ALK1 mediates LDL uptake and transcytosis in endothelial cells. Nat Commun. 2016 Nov 21; 2016 Nov 21. PMID: 27869117 ...
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In this paper, we describe the results of a knockdown screen in mouse ES cells to identify factors required for differentiation. Grouping of the identified genes into functional pathways shows that multiple hits are involved in Ras-Mek-Erk signaling. EphB4 receptors can regulate the activity of the Ras family of GTPases, including H-Ras and R-Ras (Zou et al., 1999; Miao et al., 2001; Wang et al., 2006). When Ptpn11 (also called Shp-2), another hit from our screen, was prevented from interacting with a mutated gp130 receptor that failed to activate ERKs, this led to self-renewal (Burdon et al., 1999). These data show that our unbiased, genome-wide knockdown approach identified several factors that were previously identified to be important in self-renewal of ES cells and validate our screening strategy. An shRNA against Capn10 was found in ∼50% of the sequences and, when tested individually, this shRNA showed strong ES colony outgrowth during the first 2 wk after removal of LIF. During the 3rd ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - RNAi as a potential new therapy for HIV infection. AU - Wheeler, Lee A.. AU - Dykxhoorn, Derek M.. PY - 2008/12/1. Y1 - 2008/12/1. N2 - Controlling HIV infection continues to be a major clinical and scientific challenge. Despite the therapeutic benefits associated with HAART, the need for novel treatment approaches to combat HIV-1 remains. Effective inhibition of HIV-1 infection has been achieved by harnessing the endogenous RNAi pathway in a variety of cell types, including primary T cells and macrophages. Here we discuss the opportunities and challenges associated with translating these findings into clinically relevant therapeutic approaches.. AB - Controlling HIV infection continues to be a major clinical and scientific challenge. Despite the therapeutic benefits associated with HAART, the need for novel treatment approaches to combat HIV-1 remains. Effective inhibition of HIV-1 infection has been achieved by harnessing the endogenous RNAi pathway in a variety of cell types, ...
The field of RNA-based gene regulation has been attracting increasing interest over the past couple of years, and the regulation of gene expression by small dsRNAs is being studied intensively. Such interference can be mediated by siRNAs, which cleave a sequence-specific target mRNA, or by micro-RNAs, which inhibit translation of a target mRNA. Noncoding RNAs have also been found to play important roles in the regulation of gene expression, for example, in gene silencing by methylation of DNA or histones. Small interfering RNAs are expected to have medical application in human therapy as drugs with high specificity for their molecular targets.. A number of studies on synthetic siRNAs or DNA vector-derived small hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) in cell culture systems have been published, and there are also several animal studies (15, 16, 17, 18, 19) . McCaffrey et al. (15) cotransfected the firefly luciferase gene along with synthetic siRNAs or a shRNA expression vector into mice by hydrodynamic injection ...
RNAi is a convenient, widely used tool for screening for genes of interest. We have recently used this technology to screen roughly 750 candidate genes, in C. elegans, for potential roles in regulating muscle protein degradation in vivo. To maximize confidence and assess reproducibility, we have only used previously validated RNAi constructs and have included time courses and replicates. To maximize mechanistic understanding, we have examined multiple sub-cellular phenotypes in multiple compartments in muscle. We have also tested knockdowns of putative regulators of degradation in the context of mutations or drugs that were previously shown to inhibit protein degradation by diverse mechanisms. Here we discuss how assaying multiple phenotypes, multiplexing RNAi screens with use of mutations and drugs, and use of bioinformatics can provide more data on rates of potential false positives and negatives as well as more mechanistic insight than simple RNAi screening.
RNAi is a convenient, widely used tool for screening for genes of interest. We have recently used this technology to screen roughly 750 candidate genes, in C. elegans, for potential roles in regulating muscle protein degradation in vivo. To maximize confidence and assess reproducibility, we have only used previously validated RNAi constructs and have included time courses and replicates. To maximize mechanistic understanding, we have examined multiple sub-cellular phenotypes in multiple compartments in muscle. We have also tested knockdowns of putative regulators of degradation in the context of mutations or drugs that were previously shown to inhibit protein degradation by diverse mechanisms. Here we discuss how assaying multiple phenotypes, multiplexing RNAi screens with use of mutations and drugs, and use of bioinformatics can provide more data on rates of potential false positives and negatives as well as more mechanistic insight than simple RNAi screening.
Both ATM and ATR display a preference for phosphorylating SQ/TQ motifs in their substrates (Kim et al., 1999; Traven and Heierhorst, 2005; Shiloh, 2006). ATR is predominantly activated by UV light and stalled replication forks, whereas ATM is specifically activated by DSBs of DNA, as seen after irradiation, etoposide, or oxidative stress (Abraham, 2001; Shiloh, 2006). In contrast, treatment with the ATP-competitive kinase inhibitor, staurosporine, does not activate ATM or affect the phosphorylation status of ATM-dependent substrates (Kamer et al., 2005). We show here that DNA-damaging agents, such as IR and etoposide, trigger MEF2D phosphorylation. Moreover, MEF2D phosphorylation only increased after etoposide exposure in wt-ATM cells but not in ATM-deficient cells. These results suggest that ATM mediates MEF2D phosphorylation in response to DSBs in DNA.. Furthermore, in the present study, RNA interference-mediated knockdown experiments in cerebellar granule cells indicate that endogenous MEF2D ...
RNA interference (RNAi) is an important pathway that is used in many different organisms to regulate gene expression. This animation introduces the principles of RNAi involving small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs). We take you on an audio-visual journey through the steps of gene expression and show you an up-to-date view of how RNAi can silence specific mRNAs in the cytoplasm.. ...
Qiang Zhang is the author of this article in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: DNA Vector-based RNA Interference to Study Gene Function in Cancer
RNA interference involves the targeted knockdown of mRNA triggered by complementary dsRNA molecules applied to an experimental organism. Although this technique has been successfully used in honeybees
RNA interference (RNAi) therapeutics (siRNA, miRNA, etc.) represent an emerging medicinal remedy for a variety of ailments. However, their low serum stability and low cellular uptake signi cantly restrict their clinical applications. Exosomes are biologically derived nanodimensional vesicle ranging from a few nanometers to a hundred. In the last few years, several reports have been published demonstrating the emerging applications of these exogenous membrane vesicles, particularly in carrying different RNAi ther- apeutics to adjacent or distant targeted cells. In this report, we explored the numerous aspects of exosomes from structure to clinical implications with special emphasis on their application in delivering RNAi-based therapeutics. siRNA and miRNA have attracted great interest in recent years due to their speci c applica- tion in treating many complex diseases including cancer. We highlight strategies to obviate the challenges of their low bioavailability for gene therapy ...
The implementation of decisions affecting cell viability and proliferation is dependant on prompt detection of the problem to become addressed, formulation and transmission of the correct group of instructions and fidelity in the execution of orders. nearing mitosis might encounter, presenting the effect of post-translational adjustments (PTMs) on the right and timely working of pathways fixing errors or harm before chromosome segregation. We conclude this article having a perspective on the existing position of mitotic signaling pathway inhibitors 154235-83-3 IC50 and their potential make use of in malignancy therapy. (Mazzarello, 1999). The main occasions characterizing changeover through the cell routine are cell development, where means cells boost their size and the amount of organelles, and duplication of hereditary materials in S-phase. If not really perturbed, upon conclusion of DNA replication cells enter mitosis, a term that originally explained nuclear department (Mazzarello, 1999). ...
The most enjoyable part in following RNAi Therapeutics is to look at the rich stream of scientific data and determine the absolute maturity and competitive position of the technologies and companies involved, as well as getting a glimpse at relationship dynamics. I therefore thought to share today two examples of this that I picked up recently. One is a paper by Sirna Therapeutics/Merck shedding some light on their approach towards RNAi pharmacology and RNAi trigger design. The other is some intriguing evidence that Silence Therapeutics most important gene target, PKN3, is gaining traction in the pharmaceutical space. Studying the pharmacology of siRNA delivery. Pei and colleagues from Merck published in RNA a nice paper on better understanding the pharmacology of siRNA delivery [Pei et al. (2010). Quantitative evaluation of siRNA delivery in vivo]. Unlike small molecules or even antibodies, the pharmacology of RNAi Therapeutics is more complex as simply measuring the raw tissue abundance of an ...
Keywords: placenta, cancer of the colon, endothelium, VEGF, immunohistochemistry, angiogenesis Vascular endothelial development element A (VEFG-A), probably the most prominent person in the VEGF family, is one of the key regulators of angiogenesis in general, including the promotion of tumor progression and metastasis (Kim et al. 1993; Ferrara et al. 2003). The important role of this growth factor in different areas of biological sciences makes it therefore an interesting target in many immunohistochemical studies. At present, at least nine different primary anti-VEGF antibodies are commercially available that can be applied to formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue samples (Table 1). Considering the literature on VEGF IHC applications, there is surprisingly little discussion about the selection of the applied VEGF antibody, and no consensus on which VEGF antibody is most reliable. In an attempt to validate five VEGF antibodies, Zhang et al. (1998) reported the R and D Systems mouse ...
Caenorhabditis elegans have many benefits for genetic manipulation and research. One of the most beneficial features is that it is transparent. This is great for microscopy because it makes it easier for us to see what is different with the worms reproductive system when comparing it to the normal, not treated worm. For the experiments I perform for the microscopy element, we repeat the RNAi interference experiments with strains with fluorescent markers. GFPs are green fluorescent proteins that can stain a particular part of a cell; like a cell wall and RFP are red fluorescent protein can stain the chromosomes within the nucleus of the cell. With the strain I am working with, AJ740, I can utilize the GFP and RFP to see what is happening to the shape and overall placement of the eggs within the affect mother worm treated through RNA interference along with what is going on with the chromosomes. I have several questions. General questions like: are the eggs going to the right place and are there ...
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TOPICS-I. 1-Regulatory RNA, 2- RNA interference and micro RNA, 3-Retroviruses, 4-Transposons and Retroposons, 5-Promoters and Enhancers , 6-Activating Transcription, 7-RNA Splicing and Processing, 8-Chromosomes-Nucleosomes, 9-Controlling Chromatin Remodeling and Structure. Slideshow 6603499 by angelica-figueroa
One siRNA sequence, many cell lines - posted in siRNA, microRNA and RNAi: Hi all, Im new to process of siRNA transfection and I was wondering: Will one siRNA sequence (previously validated in the lab) be good enough to transfect multiple other cell lines from the same organism? I understand that the actual process of transfection will be different for each cell line, but I am curious as to whether I need to also worry about the sequence itself. Thanks!
Press release - Allied Market Research - RNA Interference (RNAi) Drug Delivery Market Statistics (2019-2026): Hyper Growth Recorded in the Future - published on openPR.com
The antisense RNA approach is an alternative to the RNA interference approach. RNA interference. During this period, the ... Antisense Oligonucleotidesand Antisense RNA:Weiss' laboratory made discoveries on: 1) The role of calmodulin in neuronal ... Weiss and his group, assisted by Genoveva Uzunova (Davidkova), who carried out a significant part of the antisense RNA studies ... 6) The studies laid the foundation for the therapeutic use of antisense oligonucleotides and antisense RNA in a variety of ...
Hannon, Gregory J. (July 2002). "RNA interference". Nature. 418 (6894): 244-251. doi:10.1038/418244a. ISSN 1476-4687. Protocols ... RNA interference Bisulfite sequencing DNA sequencing Expression cloning Fluorescence in situ hybridization Lab-on-a-chip ... Nucleic acid methods are the techniques used to study nucleic acids: DNA and RNA. DNA extraction Phenol-chloroform extraction ... as seen in list of RNA structure prediction software CSH Protocols Current Protocols Tang, Wei; Hu, Shichao; Wang, Huaming; ...
subscription required) Gregory Hannon publications from Europe PubMed Central Hannon, Gregory J. (2002). "RNA interference". ... which led to an understanding of the biochemical mechanisms and biological functions of RNA interference (RNAi). He has ... "Role for a bidentate ribonuclease in the initiation step of RNA interference". Nature. 409 (6818): 363-366. Bibcode:2001Natur. ... Hannon is known for his contributions to small RNA biology, cancer biology, and mammalian genomics. He has a history in ...
2012.] "RNA Interference (RNAi)". Adapt. Mary Muers, Simon Fenwick, Louisa Flintoft, and Kerri Smith. Prod. James Butcher, ... By directing gene silencing, siRNAs act as RNA interference, effectively inhibiting expression of a gene in question. Since the ...
"Light-dependent RNA interference with nucleobase-caged siRNAs". RNA. 13 (12): 2341-2347. doi:10.1261/rna.753407. PMC 2080613. ... For example, RNA interference can be controlled using light and also patterning of gene expression has been performed in cell ... Shah, Samit; Rangarajan, Subhashree; Friedman, Simon H. (2005). "Light‐Activated RNA Interference". Angewandte Chemie ... "Activation and Deactivation of Antisense and RNA Interference Function with Light A. From Nucleic Acids Sequences to Molecular ...
"Advanced Information: RNA interference". The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2006. Retrieved 25 January 2007. "No. 59090 ... Dalmay, T.; Hamilton, A.; Rudd, S.; Angell, S.; Baulcombe, D. (2000). "An RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene in Arabidopsis is ... With Andrew Hamilton he discovered the small interfering RNA that is the specificity determinant in RNA-mediated gene silencing ... Hamilton, A.; Voinnet, O.; Chappell, L.; Baulcombe, D. (2002). "Two classes of short interfering RNA in RNA silencing". The ...
It has been suggested based on phylogenetic analysis that the key components of RNA interference based on exogenous substrates ... Wilson RC, Doudna JA (2013). "Molecular mechanisms of RNA interference". Annual Review of Biophysics. 42: 217-39. doi:10.1146/ ... Michlewski G, Cáceres JF (January 2019). "Post-transcriptional control of miRNA biogenesis". RNA. 25 (1): 1-16. doi:10.1261/rna ... and RNA interference (RNAi) in animal cells. The complex is minimally composed of the ribonuclease enzyme Drosha and the ...
RNA interference (RNAi) was discovered in C elegans and could be induced by simply feeding them bacteria modified to express ... Conte D, MacNeil LT, Walhout AJ, Mello CC (January 2015). RNA Interference in Caenorhabditis elegans. Current Protocols in ... The genetic modification is an RNA molecule that prevents the virus reproduction by mimicking the region of the flu virus ... doi:10.1111/j.1541-4337.2007.00013.x. Ebert MS, Sharp PA (November 2010). "MicroRNA sponges: progress and possibilities". RNA. ...
RNA interference (RNAi) was discovered in C. elegans and could be induced by simply feeding them bacteria modified to express ... doi:10.1038/news061002-2. Conte D, MacNeil LT, Walhout AJ, Mello CC (January 2015). "RNA Interference in Caenorhabditis elegans ... doi:10.1261/rna.2414110. PMC 2957044. PMID 20855538. Berg P, Baltimore D, Brenner S, Roblin RO, Singer MF (June 1975). "Summary ... doi:10.1111/j.1541-4337.2007.00013.x. Ebert MS, Sharp PA (November 2010). "MicroRNA sponges: progress and possibilities". RNA. ...
2002: RNA interference. *2003: Dark energy. *2004: Spirit rover. *2005: Evolution in action ... To target larger non-poly(A) RNAs, such as long non-coding mRNA, histone mRNA, circular RNA, and enhancer RNA, size selection ... Standard methods such as microarrays and bulk RNA-seq analysis analyze the expression of RNAs from large populations of cells. ... Current scRNA-seq protocols involve isolating single cells and their RNA, and then following the same steps as bulk RNA-seq: ...
RNA interference. Awards. Wiley Prize (2003). NAS Award in Molecular Biology (2003). Massry Prize (2005). Gairdner Foundation ... Potent and specific genetic interference by double-stranded RNA in Caenorhabditis elegans, in Nature, via University of ... "Potent and specific genetic interference by double-stranded RNA in Caenorhabditis elegans". Nature. 391 (6669): 806-811. ... for the discovery of RNA interference. This research was conducted at the University of Massachusetts Medical School and ...
2002: RNA interference. *2003: Dark energy. *2004: Spirit rover. *2005: Evolution in action ... Board Of Patent Appeals and Interferences. The Foundation For Taxpayer & Consumer Rights, Requester And Appellant V. Patent Of ... 913 patent to the USPTO's Board of Patent Appeals and Interferences (BPAI) which granted the appeal, and in 2010 the BPAI ...
2002: RNA interference. *2003: Dark energy. *2004: Spirit rover. *2005: Evolution in action ...
2002: RNA interference. *2003: Dark energy. *2004: Spirit rover. *2005: Evolution in action ... A functional, or non-synonymous, SNP is one that affects some factor such as gene splicing or messenger RNA, and so causes a ... While earlier studies focused on the relationship between DNA variation and RNA expression, more recent efforts are ... "Integrative analysis of RNA, translation, and protein levels reveals distinct regulatory variation across humans". Genome ...
2002: RNA interference. *2003: Dark energy. *2004: Spirit rover. *2005: Evolution in action ...
2002: RNA interference. *2003: Dark energy. *2004: Spirit rover. *2005: Evolution in action ...
By the year 2000, RNA interference (RNAi) technology had emerged as a fast, simple, and inexpensive technique for targeted gene ... Agrawal N, Dasaradhi PV, Mohmmed A, Malhotra P, Bhatnagar RK, Mukherjee SK (December 2003). "RNA interference: biology, ... "Potent and specific genetic interference by double-stranded RNA in Caenorhabditis elegans". Nature. 391 (6669): 806-11. Bibcode ... By using a single guide RNA (sgRNA), the endonuclease Cas9 can be delivered to a specific DNA sequence where it cleaves the ...
RNA interference) screens; Genetic maps, markers and polymorphisms; The C. elegans physical map; Gene expression profiles ( ... They may be pseudogenes of coding genes or of non-coding RNA and may be whole or fragments of a gene and may or may not express ... There are several classes of non-coding RNA gene classes in WormBase: tRNA genes are predicted by the program 'tRNAscan-SE'. ... or can express one or more non-coding RNA genes (ncRNA) or protein-coding sequences (CDS). Pseudogenes are genes that do not ...
Ribonucleases and the RNA interference pathway are conserved across all eukaryotes, and are thought to play a role in the ... Stram Y, Kuzntzova L (June 2006). "Inhibition of viruses by RNA interference". Virus Genes. 32 (3): 299-306. doi:10.1007/s11262 ... which allows them to block virus replication through a form of RNA interference. Prokaryotes also possess other defense ... RNA silencing mechanisms are particularly important in this systemic response as they can block virus replication. Evolution of ...
Duggan NM, Tang ZI (2010). "The Formation of Heterochromatin and RNA interference". Nature Education. 3 (9): 5. Griffiths A ( ... RNA is subdivided into many categories, including messenger RNA (mRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), long non- ... Some types of RNA show clear quaternary structure that is essential for function, whereas other types of RNA function as single ... Even though tertiary structure is variant and essential for all types of RNAs, RNA oligimerization is relatively rare. ...
Nakamura T, Mito T, Bando T, Ohuchi H, Noji S (January 2008). "Dissecting insect leg regeneration through RNA interference". ...
RNA interference (RNAi) mediated silencing of the CDK5 gene has been proposed as a novel therapeutic strategy against tau ...
Trafton, Anne (4 June 2012). "Researchers achieve RNA interference, in a lighter package". MIT News. Retrieved 22 September ... RNA nanotechnology: Guo, Peixuan (2010). "The Emerging Field of RNA Nanotechnology". Nature Nanotechnology. 5 (12): 833-842. ... A DNA tetrahedron was used to deliver RNA Interference (RNAi) in a mouse model, reported a team of researchers in MIT. Delivery ... The DNA nanostructure created by the team consists of six strands of DNA to form a tetrahedron, with one strand of RNA affixed ...
was a San Francisco, California based biotechnology company that explored the use of RNA interference in human disease therapy ... Sah, D (2006). "Therapeutic potential of RNA interference for neurological disorders". Life Sci. 79 (19): 1773-80. doi:10.1016/ ... Sirna's development pipeline included several small interfering RNA (siRNA) drugs, thought to stably silence the expression of ...
Cre-lox-regulated conditional RNA interference from transgenes. PNAS (101):10380-10385. Tyler Jacks' lab at MIT Koch Institute ...
It is theorized that through evolution, cells developed a defense system called RNA interference (RNAi) to stop the production ... The DNA within the nucleus is transcribed by tRNA, and the transcriptions of the DNA become RNA. The RNA (ribonucleic acid) ... "RNA interference and its role in cancer therapy". Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 4 (4): 313-21. doi:10.5681/apb.2014.046. ... The ribosomes then take the RNA messages and turn them into proteins that build cells. When a virus enters a cell and inserts ...
The mechanism of action of ranpirnase has been attributed to the RNA interference pathway, potentially through cleaving siRNA ... "The cytotoxic ribonuclease onconase targets RNA interference (siRNA)". Cell Cycle. 7 (20): 3258-61. doi:10.4161/cc.7.20.6855. ... molecules; to cleavage of transfer RNA; and to interference with the NF-κB pathway. Currently (as of March 2020) Ranpirnase is ... protein superfamily and degrades RNA substrates with a sequence preference for uracil and guanine nucleotides. Along with ...
TKM-Ebola is an RNA interference drug candidate; a Phase II trial started on 11 March 2015, and stopped enrolling new subjects ... Brown, Troy (1 September 2016). "Medscape: Ebola Virus RNA Evident in Semen for a year or longer". Medscape. Retrieved 1 ...
Guggenberger C, Ilgen D, Adamski J (May 2007). "Functional analysis of cholesterol biosynthesis by RNA interference". J. ...
Guggenberger C, Ilgen D, Adamski J (2007). "Functional analysis of cholesterol biosynthesis by RNA interference". J. Steroid ...
Finding the virus, viral RNA, or antibodies in blood[1]. Differential diagnosis. Malaria, cholera, typhoid fever, meningitis, ... The VP24 and VP35 structural proteins of EBOV play a key role in this interference. When a cell is infected with EBOV, ... Ebolaviruses contain single-stranded, non-infectious RNA genomes.[46] Ebolavirus genomes contain seven genes including 3'-UTR- ... The specific diagnosis of EVD is confirmed by isolating the virus, detecting its RNA or proteins, or detecting antibodies ...
Defenses against these viruses may involve RNA interference from repetitive DNA sequences that are related to the genes of the ... Archaea were split off as a third domain because of the large differences in their ribosomal RNA structure. The particular RNA ... "A putative RNA-interference-based immune system in prokaryotes: computational analysis of the predicted enzymatic machinery, ... although there are many introns in their transfer RNA and ribosomal RNA genes,[146] and introns may occur in a few protein- ...
... the TATA box is found at RNA polymerase II promoter regions, although some in vitro studies have demonstrated that RNA ... Interference of PG2 Tata Box Region with the Serum PG2 Level in Gastric Cancer". Digestive and Liver Disease. 49: e182-e183. ... "RNA polymerase III accurately initiates transcription from RNA polymerase II promoters in vitro". The Journal of Biological ... TATA-binding protein (TBP) can be recruited in two ways, by SAGA, a cofactor for RNA polymerase II, or by TFIID.[11] When ...
RNA interference (RNAi) and small-RNA biology; DNA replication; RNA splicing; signal transduction; genome structure; non-coding ... Gregory Hannon (currently at CRUK Cambridge Institute), research on RNA interference, Member of the National Academy of ... Adrian Krainer, studies RNA splicing and developed nusinersen for treatment of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). ... In 2002, Gregory Hannon's team develops technology to generate libraries of short-hairpin RNAs (shRNAs), giving researchers the ...
... the importance of Ral was provided when cortical neurons were depleted of endogenous RalA and RalB isoforms by RNA interference ...
"for their discovery of catalytic properties of RNA"[۳۳] ۱۹۹۲ رادولف مارکوس[۱] United States "for his contributions to the ... "for his method of reproducing colours photographically based on the phenomenon of interference"[۸۳] ... "for his discovery of آران‌ای سرکوبگر - gene silencing by double-stranded RNA"[۷۹] ...
RNA interference (z angl., česky doslova „rušení RNA"), zkratka RNAi, je relativně nedávno objasněný proces, kterým je ... Animace znázorňující RNA-interfernci z nakladatelství NATURE REVIEWS. *Objev RNA Interference (vyžaduje Flash), z Howard Hughes ... V tomto článku byl použit překlad textu z článku RNA interference na anglické Wikipedii. ... že RNA interference je významnou formou posttranskripčního genového silencingu, při kterém dvoušroubovice RNA indukuje ...
"A putative RNA-interference-based immune system in prokaryotes: computational analysis of the predicted enzymatic machinery, ... Werner F (2007). "Structure and function of archaeal RNA polymerases". Mol. Microbiol. 65 (6): 1395-404. PMID 17697097. doi: ...
RNA interference has been used to silence the expression of individual efflux transporters, either transiently[9] or long-term. ... "Investigation of the involvement of P-gp and MRP2 in the efflux of ximelagatran and its metabolites by using short hairpin RNA ... the breast cancer resistance protein expression and function in Caco-2 cells using lentiviral vector-based short hairpin RNA". ...
Such enzyme targeting is also responsible for gene down regulation though RNA interference (RNAi), where an enzyme-associated ... Atkins JF, Gesteland RF, Cech T (2006). The RNA world: the nature of modern RNA suggests a prebiotic RNA world. Plainview, N.Y ... of RNAs with molecular properties predicted for RNAs of the RNA World constitutes an additional argument supporting the RNA ... Properties of RNA[edit]. The properties of RNA make the idea of the RNA world hypothesis conceptually plausible, though its ...
However, pentamidine is suspected to work through various methods of interference of critical functions in DNA, RNA, ...
Martínez, edited by Miguel Angel (2010). RNA interference and viruses : current innovations and future trends. Norfolk: Caister ...
Instead, the naked viral RNA may alter the function of the cells through a mechanism similar to RNA interference, in which the ... The RNA carries genetic information to code for the production of new infectious particles. More recently virus research has ... Some viruses (e.g. tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)) have RNA sequences that contain a "leaky" stop codon. In TMV 95% of the time the ... This protein will act on the rest of the genome producing negative strand sub-genomic RNAs then act upon these to form positive ...
Briefly, ncRNAs are involved in signaling cascades with epigenetic marking enzymes such as HMTs, and/or with RNA interference( ... significantly increases SMN2 RNA/protein levels in spinal muscular atrophy cells". primary. Human Genetics. 120 (1): 101-10. ... non-coding RNA (ncRNA) function. Briefly, histone-mediated transcriptional control occurs by the wrapping of DNA around a ... Other common molecular features in ALS patients are altered RNA metabolism[43] and general histone hypoacetylation.[44] ...
This is called RNA interference.[5][6][7]. siRNA[change , change source]. Small interfering RNAs (sometimes called silencing ... RNA Interference. [1]. *↑ Lee R.C. & Ambros V. 2001. An extensive class of small RNAs in Caenorhabditis elegans. Science 294, ... They are transfer RNA (tRNA) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA).. tRNA[change , change source]. Transfer RNA (tRNA) is a short molecule ... RNA is physically different from DNA: DNA contains two intercoiled strands, but RNA only contains one single strand. RNA also ...
The mechanism is not fully understood; it does not seem to be due to direct interference by the extra X with expression of Y ... Non-coding RNA genes Pseudogenes Source Release date CCDS. 63. -. - [2]. 2016-09-08 ...
Hidetada Hirakawa, Haruyoshi Tomita: Interference of bacterial cell-to-cell communication: A new concept of antimicrobial ... "New target for inhibition of bacterial RNA polymerase: 'switch region'". Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 14 (5): 532-43. PMC 3196380 ...
Folic acid is essential for the body to make DNA, RNA, and metabolise amino acids, which are required for cell division. Not ... possibly by interference with folate transport.[58] ... RNA transcription and subsequent protein synthesis are less ... Folate is necessary for the production and maintenance of new cells, for DNA synthesis and RNA synthesis through methylation, ... with abundant cytoplasm capable of RNA and protein synthesis, but with clumping and fragmentation of nuclear chromatin. Some of ...
A protein is created by ribosomes that "read" RNA that is encoded by codons in the gene and assemble the requisite amino acid ... This interference can be carried out in a different number of ways. These heavy metals can form a complex with the functional ... Nucleic acids (including RNA and DNA) are nucleotide polymers synthesized by polymerase enzymes during either transcription or ... "Denaturing Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis of DNA & RNA". Electrophoresis. National Diagnostics. Retrieved 13 October 2016. ...
... it may be included in this group because the autoantigens are often ubiquitous t-RNA synthetases. ... but may include secretion of anti-inflammatory agents or interference with the host immune signaling. ...
Interference with auxin transport (with high auxin concentrations). *Inhibits shoot growth and stomatal closing except in some ...
Many of them have a similar structure to the building blocks of DNA and RNA. The building blocks are nucleotides; a molecule ... some patients still develop diseases because of this interference with bone marrow.[citation needed] ... Actinomycin is a complex molecule that intercalates DNA and prevents RNA synthesis.[58] ... Anti-metabolites are a group of molecules that impede DNA and RNA synthesis. ...
... and experimental genetic tests involving manipulation of selected LOL genes by RNA interference and gene knockout have directly ...
"RNA interference improves motor and neuropathological abnormalities in a Huntington's disease mouse model". Proc. Natl. Acad. ...
Further HeLa cells have also been used to define cancer markers in RNA, and have been used to establish an RNAi Based ... Identification System and Interference of Specific Cancer Cells.[34] HeLa was shown in 2014 to be viable cell line for tumor ...
interference. ವ್ತತೀಕರಣೊ. ಭೌತಶಾಸ್ತ್ರ (Physics). ಧ್ರುವೀಕರಣ. Polarization (waves). ದ್ರುವೀಕರಣೊ. ಭೌತಶಾಸ್ತ್ರ (Physics). ಕ್ವಾಂಟಾ. ... RNA. ಜೀವಶಾಸ್ತ್ರ (Biology). kn:ಅಡ್ರೀನಲ್ ಗ್ರಂಥಿ. Adrenal gland. ಜೀವಶಾಸ್ತ್ರ (Biology). kn:ಮೆದುಳು. Brain. ...
RNA interference - RNAi) - stišavanja gena (engl. gene silencing) dvostrukom RNK. ...
... are central to RNA interference. RNAs are the direct products of genes, and these small RNAs can direct enzyme complexes to ... "Transgene-Induced RNA Interference as a Tool for Plant Functional Genomics". RNA Interference. Methods in Enzymology. 392. pp. ... RNA interference (RNAi) is a biological process in which RNA molecules inhibit gene expression or translation, by neutralizing ... Wall NR, Shi Y (October 2003). "Small RNA: can RNA interference be exploited for therapy?". Lancet. 362 (9393): 1401-3. doi: ...
... (RNAi) is a post-transcriptional gene silencing method reproducing a naturally occurring phenomena. RNAi is ... RNA interference (RNAi) is a post-transcriptional gene silencing method reproducing a naturally occurring phenomena. RNAi is ... short interfering RNAs (siRNAs). These native siRNA duplexes are then incorporated into a protein complex called RNA-induced ... short interfering RNAs (siRNAs). These native siRNA duplexes are then incorporated into a protein complex called RNA-induced ...
Any RNA, including endogenous mRNAs or viral RNAs, can be silenced by designing constructs to express double-stranded RNA ... DNA-directed RNA interference (ddRNAi) is a gene-silencing technique that utilizes DNA constructs to activate an animal cells ... Zou, W.; Song, Z.; Guo, Q.; Liu, C.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, Y. (2011). "Intrathecal Lentiviral-Mediated RNA Interference Targeting ... endogenous RNA interference (RNAi) pathways. DNA constructs are designed to express self-complementary double-stranded RNAs, ...
... of some of a cells messenger RNA (mRNA) sequences is prevented, because of the presence of (and consequent destruction of) ... RNA Interference RNA interference [1] is a process in which translation ... RNA Interference Genetics Copyright Genetics Society of America. RNA Interference. RNA interference is a process in which ... Research Uses of RNA Interference. Because of its ability to turn off individual gene expression, RNA interference provides a ...
The ability of interfering RNA to silence genes was discovered in the 1990s by ... RNA interference (RNAi), regulatory system occurring within eukaryotic cells (cells with a clearly defined nucleus) that ... RNA interferenceRNA interference (RNAi) is a genetic regulatory system that functions to silence the activity of specific genes ... Mello, Fire helped discover RNA interference (RNAi), a mechanism in which genes are silenced by double-stranded RNA. Naturally ...
RNA interference (RNAI) is now the "it" technology for drug development. RNAI works by destroying strands of messenger RNA ...
Mello for their discovery of RNA interference (RNAi). RNAi is a biological process in which RNA molecules can silence (inhibit ... Overview of Gene Silencing by RNA Interference. Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry. Daniel H. Kim, John J. Rossi ... Overview of Gene Silencing by RNA Interference Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry. Daniel H. Kim, John J. Rossi ... Small Silencing RNAs and Gene Therapy eLS. Dirk Grimm. RNAi Screening: New Approaches, Understandings, and Organisms WIREs RNA ...
Rna interference definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it ... Words nearby RNA interference. rms, RMSF, RMT, Rn, RNA, RNA interference, RNA polymerase, R.N.A.S., RNase, RNA splicing, RNA ... As far above the interference of man as is the government of the external universe, is that designated the covenant, as ... This time there was no interference, and Ney so severely wounded his adversary that he was unable to continue his profession. ...
RNA interference is a gene regulatory mechanism in which the expression of specific genes is downregulated by endogenous ... RNA interference machinery influences epithelial cell biology Epithelial cells are held together and connected by several ... Researchers examine SARS-CoV-2 RNA interactome A new study focuses on the identification of RNA-binding protein by mass ... Interfering RNA nanoparticles could be a potential COVID-19 therapy Study shows lipid nanoparticle-based siRNA is potent in ...
RNA interference is a rapidly developing method of gene silencing. It is used to genetically engineer plants against stress, ... RNA interference can be used to create male sterility, which is important in the industry of hybrid seeds. It can be used to ... RNA interference offers a unique opportunity to enhance the quality and nutritional value of various crops. It can also be used ... RNA interference utilizes a virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) system to improve resistance to viral diseases in plants. This ...
Pioneers of RNA interference win Nobel prize. QUICK off the mark or what? Its less than 10 years since the latest winners of ... RNA interference (RNAi), as the technique is known, has revolutionised molecular biology. ... "They were the first to really describe the fact that this was a double-stranded RNA mediated phenomenon," says John Rossi of ... the medicine Nobel discovered how to "silence" genes with RNA. Now they are walking away with gold medals and a share of & ...
RNA Interference, Springer: 1-19. *↑ Elbashir, S. M., et al. (2001). "Duplexes of 21-nucleotide RNAs mediate RNA interference ... RNA Interference, InTech *↑ Singh, D., et al. (2016). RNA Interference Technology-Applications and Limitations. RNA ... Short review: RNA interference in cells[edit]. Figure 2. Cells can trim double stranded RNA to form small inhibitory RNA (siRNA ... most siRNAs are generated by RNA-dependent RNA polymerase [1]. Single strand RNA transcripts: ssRNA. RNA interference requires ...
Video animation: RNA interference. 16 Dec 2011 , 16:35 GMT. , Posted by Brian Owens , Category: Biology & Biotechnology ... RNA interference (RNAi) is an important pathway that is used in many different organisms to regulate gene expression. This ... Our colleagues over at Nature Reviews Genetics have put together this very cool animation of RNA interference. Check it out. ... animation introduces the principles of RNAi involving small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs). We take you on an ...
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There are two types of RNA that are involved in RNA interference - siRNA (small interfering RNA) and miRNA (micro RNA)... ... RNA interference is a biological process that involves the inhibition of gene expression with the help of an RNA molecule only ... 9 - RECALL What are small nuclear RNAs?Ch. 9 - RECALL What are micro RNAs?Ch. 9 - RECALL Why do we say that micro RNAs are ... 9 - RECALL What is RNA interference?Ch. 9 - REFLECT AND APPLY Would you expect tRNA or mRNA to...Ch. 9 - REFLECT AND APPLY The ...
Structural insights into RNA interference.. Sashital DG1, Doudna JA.. Author information. 1. Department of Molecular and Cell ... in understanding how regulatory RNAs are produced and how they trigger specific destruction of mRNAs during RNA interference ( ... forming a rigid RNA-binding platform that causes a sharp kink in the dsRNA target. The RNA binding surfaces on the dsRBDs are ... d) Alternatively, the 22 bp RNA can be modeled to stretch between the two PAZ domains of Dicer and Ago, each of which could ...
It is our central hypothesis that an optimized small interference RNA (siRNA), combined with proper delivery tools will be able ... Hoxb13 Gene Silencing by Small Interference RNA. Grant Winners. *Ling Li, Ph.D. - College of Dental Medicine ... It is our central hypothesis that an optimized small interference RNA (siRNA), combined with proper delivery tools will be able ...
Another strategy is to use RNA interference (RNAi) to selectively turn off critical genes of the target organism. This strategy ... Clone silencing RNAs into double-stranded RNA expressing bacteria that zebra mussels can feed on. ... Methods for deliberate RNA-induced gene silencing were developed in the early 1990s, and this molecular tool has since been ... We aim to develop a control tool for eliminating zebra mussels that exploits natural gene regulation mechanisms (RNA-induced ...
Specialized ribonucleases and RNA-binding proteins govern the production and action of small regulatory RNAs. After initial ... Small RNA molecules regulate eukaryotic gene expression during development and in response to stresses including viral ... Molecular mechanisms of RNA interference Annu Rev Biophys. 2013;42:217-39. doi: 10.1146/annurev-biophys-083012-130404. ... Specialized ribonucleases and RNA-binding proteins govern the production and action of small regulatory RNAs. After initial ...
... are central to RNA interference. RNAs are the direct products of genes, and these small RNAs can direct enzyme complexes to ... "Transgene-Induced RNA Interference as a Tool for Plant Functional Genomics". RNA Interference. Methods in Enzymology. 392. pp. ... RNA interference (RNAi) is a biological process in which RNA molecules inhibit gene expression or translation, by neutralizing ... Wall NR, Shi Y (October 2003). "Small RNA: can RNA interference be exploited for therapy?". Lancet. 362 (9393): 1401-3. doi: ...
... and functional aspects of DNA and RNA research. ... Branched RNA: A New Architecture for RNA Interference. Anna ... N. Abe, H. Abe, and Y. Ito, "Dumbbell-shaped nanocircular RNAs for RNA interference," Journal of the American Chemical Society ... D. A. Braasch, S. Jensen, Y. Liu et al., "RNA interference in mammalian cells by chemically-modified RNA," Biochemistry, vol. ... In order to prepare branched RNA for RNA interference, the potential steric hindrance of the branching unit with RISC must be ...
Unlike conventional RNA interference techniques, CRISPR interference allows any number of individual genes to be silenced at ... "The horse has already left the barn with RNA interference, in the sense that the RNA message already has been transcribed from ... Another methodology, RNA interference, blocks the messenger RNA that drives protein protection based on the blueprint contained ... "In addition, it acts more crisply, if you will, by not turning off untargeted genes the way RNA interference techniques do." ...
... such genes has been to use RNA interference to turn off potential RNA interference genes and to ask whether RNA interference ... The results show that RNA interference cannot turn itself off if the RNA interference pathway is too effective to start with, ... The goal of our report is to ask how it is possible for RNA interference to turn itself off, using a mathematical model of the ... This has become a powerful tool because a researcher can use RNA interference to turn off any gene of interest in order to test ...
Richard William Carthew; Henry Stewart Talks (Firm)] -- A talk and slideshow presentation on RNA interference functions and ... interference> # RNA Interference a schema:Intangible ;. schema:name "RNA Interference"@en ;. . ... RNA interference functions and mechanisms in animals schema:issn "2056-452X" ;. schema:name "RNA Interference," ;. . ... RNA Interference, schema:name "RNA interference functions and mechanisms in animals"@en ;. schema:productID "1008882746" ;. ...
double-stranded RNA;. RNAi,. RNA interference;. siRNA,. small interfering RNA;. PTGS,. posttranscriptional gene silencing;. ... can be triggered by the introduction of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) [RNA interference (RNAi)], transformation with sense ... ARGONAUTE1 is required for efficient RNA interference in Drosophila embryos Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ... ARGONAUTE1 is required for efficient RNA interference in Drosophila embryos. Robert W. Williams and Gerald M. Rubin ...
RNA interference (RNAi) occurs naturally in plant and animal cells as a means for modulating gene expression. This process has ... Optimization of feline immunodeficiency virus vectors for RNA interference.. Harper SQ1, Staber PD, Beck CR, Fineberg SK, Stein ... A polyadenylation signal (AATAAA), required to terminate the FIV RNA genome, is located in the R region of the 3′ LTR. Ψ ... Ten- to 30-nucleotide RNA size standards are indicated. + Cont, positive control DNA oligonucleotide at 0.1 (left) and 1 pmol ( ...
RNA interference, a process in which the presence of double-stranded RNA homologous to a gene of interest results in specific ... If the observed acapsular phenotype of CAP59i-1 resulted from RNA interference, the levels of CAP59 RNA in those cells should ... neoformans is double-stranded RNA interference (RNAi). In this process double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) induces the specific ... 2000 Specific interference with gene function by double-stranded RNA in early mouse development. Nat. Cell Biol. 2: 70-75. ...
RNA interference is the newest kid on the genetic block. By allowing scientists to selectively turn off genes it promises to ... The basis of RNA interference dates from the 1950s when scientists first discovered that RNA can also exist in a double ... RNA interference is the newest kid on the genetic block. By allowing scientists to selectively turn off genes it promises to ... Nevertheless, this study is not an isolated example of investigating how RNA interference and the silencing of genes could ...
RNA interference (RNAi) has emerged as a powerful tool to downregulate the expression of specific genes. Drug-inducible systems ... Tuning silence: conditional systems for RNA interference Nat Methods. 2006 Sep;3(9):682-8. doi: 10.1038/nmeth914. ... RNA interference (RNAi) has emerged as a powerful tool to downregulate the expression of specific genes. Drug-inducible systems ...
The scientific community has heard the buzz about RNA Interference (RNAi) -- a clever trick that allows scientists to silence ... RNA Interference Has Gone Too Far. June 28th, 2006 Nicholas Genes Reproductive Medicine ... The scientific community has heard the buzz about RNA Interference (RNAi) - a clever trick that allows scientists to silence ...
  • RNA interference (RNAi) is a post-transcriptional gene silencing method reproducing a naturally occurring phenomena. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • RNAi is the process whereby double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) induces the sequence-specific degradation of homologous mRNA. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The mechanisms by which RNAi works is initiated by a progressive cleavage of dsRNA into 21 to 23 nucleotide (nt) short interfering RNAs (siRNAs). (ebi.ac.uk)
  • DNA-directed RNA interference (ddRNAi) is a gene-silencing technique that utilizes DNA constructs to activate an animal cell's endogenous RNA interference (RNAi) pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNA interference (RNAi) , regulatory system occurring within eukaryotic cells (cells with a clearly defined nucleus ) that controls the activity of genes . (britannica.com)
  • RNA interference RNA interference (RNAi) is a genetic regulatory system that functions to silence the activity of specific genes. (britannica.com)
  • RNAi occurs naturally, through the production of nuclear-encoded pre-microRNA (pre-miRNA), and can be induced experimentally, using short segments of synthetic double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). (britannica.com)
  • Although Fire and Mello's work involved the experimental introduction of interfering RNA into cells, gene silencing by RNAi is a natural genetic mechanism in eukaryotes that takes place following transcription (the synthesis of mRNA from DNA ). (britannica.com)
  • RNAi plays an important role not only in regulating genes but also in mediating cellular defense against infection by RNA viruses, including influenza viruses and rhabdoviruses , a group that contains the causative agent of rabies . (britannica.com)
  • In fact, a number of plants and animals have evolved antiviral RNAi genes that encode short segments of RNA molecules with sequences that are complementary to viral sequences. (britannica.com)
  • Business 2.0) - Discovered just six years ago, RNA interference (RNAI) is now the "it" technology for drug development. (cnn.com)
  • RNAI works by destroying strands of messenger RNA responsible for producing harmful proteins. (cnn.com)
  • The 2006 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to Andrew Z. Fire and Craig C. Mello for their discovery of RNA interference (RNAi). (wiley.com)
  • RNAi is a biological process in which RNA molecules can silence (inhibit) or up- or down-regulate gene expression, typically by causing the destruction of specific messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules. (wiley.com)
  • RNA interference (RNAi) is a rapidly developing and potent method of gene silencing. (news-medical.net)
  • RNAi is a fundamental and potent phenomenon in which a short double-strand RNA (dsRNA) deters the specific gene expression by creating disintegration in the chain sequence of particular target messenger RNA in the cytoplasm. (news-medical.net)
  • In RNAi, the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) initiates homologous mRNAs to hinder the transcription and translation of susceptibility genes, deactivating them. (news-medical.net)
  • RNA interference (RNAi), as the technique is known, has revolutionised molecular biology. (newscientist.com)
  • This section and the next few sections briefly introduce RNA interference (RNAi) and will orient you towards the activities . (wikiversity.org)
  • RNA interference (RNAi) is an important pathway that is used in many different organisms to regulate gene expression. (nature.com)
  • This animation introduces the principles of RNAi involving small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs). (nature.com)
  • The process of RNAi (ribonucleic acid interference) was a breakthrough in the year 2002 and the phenomenon was published in Science magazine. (bartleby.com)
  • Here we review exciting recent progress in understanding how regulatory RNAs are produced and how they trigger specific destruction of mRNAs during RNA interference (RNAi). (nih.gov)
  • Another strategy is to use RNA interference (RNAi) to selectively turn off critical genes of the target organism. (usgs.gov)
  • RNA interference ( RNAi ) is a biological process in which RNA molecules inhibit gene expression or translation, by neutralizing targeted mRNA molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • The RNAi pathway is found in many eukaryotes , including animals, and is initiated by the enzyme Dicer , which cleaves long double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) molecules into short double-stranded fragments of ~21 nucleotide siRNAs . (wikipedia.org)
  • RNAi is an RNA-dependent gene silencing process that is controlled by the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) and is initiated by short double-stranded RNA molecules in a cell's cytoplasm, where they interact with the catalytic RISC component argonaute . (wikipedia.org)
  • Exogenous dsRNA initiates RNAi by activating the ribonuclease protein Dicer, [8] which binds and cleaves double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) in plants, or short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) in humans, to produce double-stranded fragments of 20-25 base pairs with a 2-nucleotide overhang at the 3' end. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNA interference (RNAi) is a biological process in which RNA molecules are involved in sequence-specific suppression of gene expression by double-stranded RNA, through translation or transcriptional repression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) triggers homology-dependent posttranscriptional gene interference (RNAi) in a diverse range of eukaryotic organisms, in a process mechanistically related to viral and transgene-mediated cosuppression. (pnas.org)
  • RNAi is characterized by the conversion of long dsRNA into ≈21-25-nt small interfering RNAs (siRNA) that guide the degradation of homologous mRNA. (pnas.org)
  • This phenomenon, broadly referred to as posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS), can be triggered by the introduction of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) [RNA interference (RNAi)], transformation with sense transgenes (cosuppression/quelling), or viral infection ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • RNAi-like mechanisms are also involved in the production of small noncoding RNAs that control developmental timing ( 4 , 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • RNA interference (RNAi) occurs naturally in plant and animal cells as a means for modulating gene expression. (nih.gov)
  • One recently developed method for downregulating gene function that may facilitate studies in C. neoformans is double-stranded RNA interference (RNAi). (genetics.org)
  • The RNAi genes could be delivered to vulnerable cells using modified viruses, or just injected into specific cells as naked RNA. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • RNA interference (RNAi) has emerged as a powerful tool to downregulate the expression of specific genes. (nih.gov)
  • The scientific community has heard the buzz about RNA Interference (RNAi) - a clever trick that allows scientists to silence certain genes in certain locations. (medgadget.com)
  • The Global market size of RNA Interference (RNAi) Drug Delivery Market was $XX million in 2019 with XX CAGR, and it is expected to reach $XX million by the end of 2026 with a CAGR of XX% from 2019 to 2026. (openpr.com)
  • This comprehensive volume collects a repertoire of techniques for the adoption and exploitation of RNA interference (RNAi) as a fertile strategy to develop the bio-drugs of future in the vital field of cancer research. (springer.com)
  • Authoritative and essential, RNA Interference and Cancer Therapy: Methods and Protocols provides the necessary guidance for both novice and professional researchers who intend to discover and innovate newer means of using RNAi technology to combat cancer, one of the greatest scourges of human health. (springer.com)
  • RNA interference (also called "RNA-mediated interference", abbreviated RNAi) is a mechanism for RNA-guided regulation of gene expression in which double-stranded ribonucleic acid inhibits the expression of genes with complementary nucleotide sequences. (bionity.com)
  • RNA interference ( RNAi ) is a process in living cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • We investigated the potential of double-stranded RNA interference (RNAi) with gene activity in Arabidopsis thaliana . (pnas.org)
  • In situ hybridization revealed a correlation between a declining AG mRNA accumulation and increasingly severe phenotypes in AG ( RNAi ) mutants, suggesting that endogenous mRNA is the target of double-stranded RNA-mediated genetic interference. (pnas.org)
  • Although the mechanism of RNA interference (RNAi) is not well understood, it seems to provide an effective way to discover gene function in many organisms ( 24 - 26 ). (pnas.org)
  • Since its relatively recent discovery, RNA interference (RNAi) has emerged as a potent, specific and ubiquitous means of gene regulation. (nature.com)
  • RNA interference ( RNAi ) is a system within living cells that helps to control which genes are active and how active they are. (phys.org)
  • This RNA intereference assay is designed to monitor knockdown of RNAi target sequences efficiently and easily, using a no-cell-lysis protocol. (clontech.com)
  • Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y., Tues., Aug. 1, 2006 - The current issue of Cold Spring Harbor Protocols, published online today, features new, freely available methods for using RNA interference (RNAi) in mice and Drosophila. (cshlpress.com)
  • RNA interference ( RNAi ) is a relatively new technology that is revolutionizing the way that researchers study mammalian gene expression. (thermofisher.com)
  • RNA Interference (RNAi) is one of the most important technological breakthroughs in modern biology, allowing us to directly observe the effects of the loss of function of specific genes in mammalian systems. (thermofisher.com)
  • RNAi technology takes advantage of the cell's natural machinery, facilitated by short interfering RNA molecules, to effectively knock down expression of a gene of interest. (thermofisher.com)
  • This accomplishment will now allow biologists to fully exploit RNA interference (RNAi), a natural cellular mechanism that has already been co-opted by scientists for myriad purposes such as hunting for cancer genes, stopping viral infections and more recently, treating diseases in clinical trials. (redorbit.com)
  • For every gene, depending on the size of its protein-coding RNA, there are potentially 500 to 5000 different small RNAs that can trigger RNAi," explains Hannon. (redorbit.com)
  • Based on an idea by Hannon, a pioneer in RNAi technology, and using molecular tools developed in the Lowe laboratory, the team designed an assay that tests thousands of short hairpin RNA (shRNA) molecules at a time for their ability to shut down genes of interest in cells and identifies the most potent RNAi triggers. (redorbit.com)
  • ShRNAs that were inefficient at triggering RNAi failed to spur the destruction of their target (or sensor) genes' RNA and that of the fluorescent marker. (redorbit.com)
  • But shRNAs that were potent RNAi triggers caused the efficient destruction of the target gene's RNA and that of the fluorescent marker as well. (redorbit.com)
  • The scientists' analysis of the 20,000 small hairpin RNAs, and especially those recovered from cells in which the target gene had been efficiently shut off has revealed new insights into this process and drastically improved the recipe for creating a potent RNAi trigger. (redorbit.com)
  • To gain more insight into the biological function of this protein, we monitored the changes in the expression profiles of SH-SY5Y cells, a dopaminergic neuroblastoma cell line, induced by a depletion of LRRK2 levels by RNA interference (RNAi) with Affymetrix U133 Plus 2.0 microarrays. (springer.com)
  • in 1998 initially found that exogenous double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) can silence the homolog endogenous mRNA in organisms, which is called RNA interference (RNAi). (mdpi.com)
  • RNA interference (RNAi) was recently suggested as a promising strategy for controlling insect pests, including those that serve as important vectors for plant pathogens. (mdpi.com)
  • Abstract RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful gene silencing mechanism that if properly harnessed has the potential to revolutionize medical interventions. (omicsonline.org)
  • Now, scientists from the Max Planck Institutes of Molecular Plant Physiology in Potsdam-Golm and Chemical Ecology in Jena have shown that potato plants can be protected from herbivory using RNA interference (RNAi). (biologynews.net)
  • RNA interference (RNAi) is a type of gene regulation that naturally occurs in eukaryotes. (biologynews.net)
  • Replication of viral RNA leads to high amounts of dsRNA which is recognized by the host's RNAi system and chopped up into smaller RNA fragments, called siRNAs (small interfering RNAs). (biologynews.net)
  • But the RNAi mechanism can also be exploited to knock down any desired gene, by tailoring dsRNA to target the gene's messenger RNA (mRNA). (biologynews.net)
  • RNA interference (RNAi) is an effective gene silencing mechanism through specific degradation of target messenger RNAs (mRNAs). (aiche.org)
  • This report analyzes the worldwide markets for RNA Interference (RNAi) in US$ Million by the following Application Areas: Drug Discovery and Target Validation, Reagents, and siRNA Synthesis. (marketpublishers.com)
  • RNA interference (RNAi) is a process in which a small non-coding RNA molecule blocks the expression of a gene by binding to its messenger RNA (mRNA) transcript, preventing the protein from being translated. (jove.com)
  • RNA interference (RNAi) involves delivering RNA molecules to specific regions within the body in an attempt to reconfigure which proteins are being produced. (nationwidechildrens.org)
  • This discovery was called RNA interference or RNAi. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • RNA interference (RNAi) is one of the most exciting discoveries of the past decade in functional genomics. (invivogen.com)
  • RNA interference (RNAi) is a post-transcriptional process triggered by the introduction of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) which leads to gene silencing in a sequence-specific manner. (invivogen.com)
  • Intradigm Corp., a leading developer of targeted, systemic RNA interference (RNAi) therapeutics, and Agilent Technologies Inc. ( NYSE: A ) today announced that Intradigm has selected Agilent to manufacture the active small interfering RNA (siRNA) component of its RNAi therapeutic. (webwire.com)
  • Scientists see RNA interference (RNAi) as a way to turn off specific disease-causing genes. (nanowerk.com)
  • One way to deliver RNAi is to package siRNA (short interfering RNA) inside nanoparticles that can deliver it directly to the target cell. (nanowerk.com)
  • Human nuclear RNAi-defective 2 (NRDE2) is an essential RNA splicing factor. (harvard.edu)
  • We have taken advantage of recent advances in RNA interference (RNAi) technology to determine whether it can be used to selectively silence the expression of these receptor subtypes. (ahajournals.org)
  • Gene silencing through RNA interference (RNAi) has revolutionized the study of gene function, particularly in non-model insects. (wur.nl)
  • Seeing potential for its so-called packaging RNA technology with other therapeutic RNA molecules, Kylin Therapeutics is exploring the use of the technology in conjunction with aptamers, a company official told RNAi New s this week. (genomeweb.com)
  • In the present study, RNA interference (RNAi) [9] was employed to construct a vector expressing TF which was then transfected into human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to silence TF expression. (scirp.org)
  • RNA interference (RNAi) is a highly conserved post-transcriptional gene silencing process triggered by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) in eukaryotic cells. (bl.uk)
  • The efficient gene silencing achieved by these short hairpin RNA (shRNA) molecules and the cumulative understanding of the RNAi pathway has prompted the development of hairpin expression vectors capable of mediating stable gene silencing in vitro and in vivo. (bl.uk)
  • RNA interference (RNAi) is the process whereby double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) induces the sequence-specific degradation of homologous messenger RNA (mRNA).4 This process is mediated by 21 to 23 nucleotides, called small interfering RNAs (siRNA), cleaved from dsRNA. (natap.org)
  • RNA interference (RNAi) is the process of sequence-specific gene silencing, initiated by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) that is homologous in sequence to the target gene. (natap.org)
  • Because it has been shown that RNAi can be accomplished in cultured mammalian cells by introducing small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), much effort has been invested in exploiting this phenomenon for experimental and therapeutic means. (natap.org)
  • A research team based at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) has identified 80 new genes essential to the process of RNA interference (RNAi), a powerful new research tool for inactivating genes in plants or animals. (bio-medicine.org)
  • They then used RNAi to inactivate every one of the worms' 19,000 genes by feeding the worms bacteria that produce double-stranded RNA for each gene. (bio-medicine.org)
  • These new steps indicate there is more to RNAi than RNA destruction," says Kim. (bio-medicine.org)
  • in 1998 ( 1 ), RNA interference (RNAi) is a cellular response whereby introduction of long, perfect double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) into cells results in the posttranscriptional inhibition of endogenous mRNAs that are perfectly complementary to the dsRNAs. (asm.org)
  • RNAi could of course be used to regulate host cell gene expression, and in fact, it soon became clear that genomically encoded small RNAs very similar to siRNAs, called microRNAs (miRNAs), are present in the cells of all metazoan species. (asm.org)
  • US researchers have developed an innovative technique that uses stem cells to deliver an RNA interference ( RNAi ) based therapeutic for Huntington's disease. (phgfoundation.org)
  • Herein, to investigate the phenotypic and molecular features of SSP deficiency transgenic rice plants suppressing all glutelins, prolamins, and globulin were generated using RNA interference (RNAi). (frontiersin.org)
  • Here, we describe the application of RNA interference (RNAi) to the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita for the knock-down of two genes expressed in the subventral esophageal glands of the nematode and potentially involved in parasitism, the calreticulin ( Mi-crt ) and the polygalacturonase ( Mi-pg-1 ) genes. (apsnet.org)
  • The discovery of an evolutionarily conserved mechanism of RNA-interference (RNAi) accentuates this objective. (ukessays.com)
  • RNAi is an effective post-transcriptional mechanism involving direct messenger-RNA (mRNA) degradation or inhibition of protein translation via double-stranded RNA in a sequence specific manner. (ukessays.com)
  • It is believed that the process of RNAi evolved over time as a cellular defence mechanism against foreign invaders like RNA viruses, which temporarily exist in the host cell in a double-stranded form once replicated. (ukessays.com)
  • Nevertheless, the actual discovery of RNAi was fairly accidental, when the American scientists Andrew Fire and Craig Mello were performing experiments on the anti-sense RNA. (ukessays.com)
  • MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and the small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are most vital in the process of RNAi. (ukessays.com)
  • double stranded RNA or dsRNA is actively involves in RNAi. (ukessays.com)
  • RNA interference (RNAi) is an ancient antiviral response that processes dsRNA and associates it into a nuclease complex that identifies RNA with sequence homology and specifically cleaves it. (jimmunol.org)
  • Ribonucleic acid interference (RNAi) 3 is an ancient and conserved activity that controls viral infection and the expression of transposable elements and repetitive sequences ( 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Cells harboring proviral HIV, such as reservoirs or acutely infected cells that have progressed past proviral integration, can also be targeted by RNAi-mediated inhibition of viral replication by targeting viral RNA transcripts produced from the provirus. (jimmunol.org)
  • These native siRNA duplexes are then incorporated into a protein complex called RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Unlike small interfering RNA (siRNA) therapeutics that turn over within a cell and consequently only silence genes transiently, DNA constructs are continually transcribed, replenishing the cellular 'dose' of shRNA, thereby enabling long-term silencing of targeted genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The synthetic dsRNA employed is typically either a small hairpin RNA (shRNA) or a short interfering RNA (siRNA). (britannica.com)
  • The miRNA or siRNA then binds to an enzyme-containing molecule known as RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). (britannica.com)
  • Cells can trim double stranded RNA to form small inhibitory RNA (siRNA). (wikiversity.org)
  • An siRNA can be processed to the single strand anti-sense RNA and used to target mRNAs for destruction. (wikiversity.org)
  • The sense and antisense RNA strands form double strand RNA (Figure 2, top) that is processed to small (about 20 base pairs long) inhibitory RNA (siRNA). (wikiversity.org)
  • The siRNA can form a molecular complex with proteins that first strip away the sense strand of RNA, making the antisense inhibitory RNA (iRNA) available for base pairing with messenger RNA (mRNA). (wikiversity.org)
  • There are two types of RNA that are involved in RNA interference - siRNA (small interfering RNA) and miRNA (micro RNA). (bartleby.com)
  • It is our central hypothesis that an optimized small interference RNA (siRNA), combined with proper delivery tools will be able to reduce Hoxb13 gene expression, thus reducing scar formation. (nova.edu)
  • Two types of small ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules - microRNA (miRNA) and small interfering RNA ( siRNA ) - are central to RNA interference. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, transcription can be inhibited via the pre-transcriptional silencing mechanism of RNA interference, through which an enzyme complex catalyzes DNA methylation at genomic positions complementary to complexed siRNA or miRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each siRNA is unwound into two single-stranded RNAs (ssRNAs), the passenger strand and the guide strand. (wikipedia.org)
  • Branched RNAs are considered novel structures for siRNA technology, and they provide an innovative tool for specific gene inhibition. (hindawi.com)
  • As the method described here is compatible with most RNA modifications described to date, these compounds may be further functionalized to obtain more potent siRNA derivatives and can be attached to suitable delivery systems. (hindawi.com)
  • In addition to the canonical siRNA architecture of 21-nt antiparallel, double-strand RNA with 2-nt 3′-overhangs [ 12 ], several forms of siRNA have been described. (hindawi.com)
  • Moreover, functional siRNA can also be formed by one single RNA strand. (hindawi.com)
  • Another architecture not yet explored in siRNA is the branched RNA structure obtained from a central building unit and several branching points that enable the strand growth. (hindawi.com)
  • R2D2 carries tandem double-stranded RNA-binding domains to recognize the thermodynamically stable terminus of siRNA duplexes, whereas Dicer-2 the other less stable extremity. (wikipedia.org)
  • These siRNA are then incorporated into a protein complex, called RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which degrades homologous mRNA ( 8 , 12 ). (pnas.org)
  • The siRNA signal can also be amplified, possibly by an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase ( 13 , 14 ). (pnas.org)
  • The highly efficient delivery of short-interfering RNA (siRNA, shown in red) is illustrated. (mdanderson.org)
  • Two types of small RNA molecules - microRNA (miRNA) and small interfering RNA (siRNA) - do the work. (wikipedia.org)
  • Small interfering RNA (siRNA) technology prevents production of specific proteins by binding to associated messenger RNA molecules and preventing their translation. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • Because the technique requires extreme precision in developing the right siRNA molecule and delivering it to the correct cellular location, the MGH team collaborated with Alnylam scientists who are experts in RNA-interference-based therapeutics and with MIT investigators Robert Langer, ScD, and Daniel Anderson, PhD, who have developed a nanoparticle-based system for delivering molecules to specific cellular compartments. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • In mammalian cells, short pieces of dsRNA, short interfering RNA (siRNA), initiate the specific degradation of a targeted cellular mRNA. (thermofisher.com)
  • In this process the antisense strand of the siRNA duplex becomes part of a multi-protein complex, or RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which then identifies the corresponding mRNA and cleaves it at a specific site. (thermofisher.com)
  • MCF-7 cells became insensitive to C75-induced cytotoxicity when the expression of FAS was specifically suppressed by targeted knock-down with small interfering RNA (siRNA), whereas they partially retained their sensitivity to cerulenin. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Different types of double-stranded RNA can be used, including short interfering RNA (siRNA) and small hairpin RNA (shRNA). (jove.com)
  • shRNA is one strand of RNA that is folded over-creating a double-stranded RNA with a hairpin loop on one side-and is a precursor of siRNA. (jove.com)
  • The siRNA then binds to an enzyme called Argonaute, which is part of a complex called RISC (RNA-induced silencing complex). (jove.com)
  • The present study was to investigate the feasibility of adenovirus-mediated small interference RNA (siRNA) targeting Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) gene in ameliorating lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced acute lung injury (ALI). (hindawi.com)
  • The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. (harvard.edu)
  • One strand of the siRNA duplex is then essentially randomly loaded into the RNA-induced silencing complex RISC, where it serves as a guide RNA to direct RISC to complementary mRNA targets. (asm.org)
  • A nanoparticle drug delivery vehicle for small interfering RNA molecules (siRNA), that is already being tested in human clinical trials, now shows promise for the treatment of head and neck cancer. (nanotech-now.com)
  • Molecular model of the p19 protein (yellow) from a Tombusvirus, suppressing a double-stranded, small interfering RNA (siRNA) molecule (red and blue). (sciencephoto.com)
  • It is an endoribonuclease belongs to family of RNase III that functions in cleaving the dsRNA and pre miRNA into short dsRNA of 20-25 bp long fragments of 2-nt overhang on 3'end which are known as small interfering RNA (siRNA). (ukessays.com)
  • Small interference RNA (siRNA) can induce specific suppression of in vitro and in vivo gene expression. (jimmunol.org)
  • In addition, gene silencing using synthetic small interfering RNA (siRNA) has emerged as a powerful tool in the suppression of target gene expression ( 8 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Anderson and his colleagues believe the best way to do that is to wrap short interfering RNA (siRNA) in a layer of fat-like molecules called lipidoids, which can cross cells' fatty outer membrane. (healthcanal.com)
  • Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), in which two complementary strands pair up, is normally present only in circumstances that pose a threat to the cell. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Though the RNA copies are single-stranded, most transposons have sequences at their ends that, when transcribed into RNA, can fold back on themselves to form dsRNA. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Fire and Mello successfully inhibited the expression of specific genes by introducing short double-stranded RNA ( dsRNA ) segments into the cells of nematodes ( Caenorhabditis elegans ). (britannica.com)
  • The dsRNA segments underwent enzymatic processing that enabled them to attach to molecules of messenger RNA (mRNA) possessing complementary nucleotide sequences. (britannica.com)
  • The normal function of RNA interference inside cells depends on the production of double stranded RNA (dsRNA). (wikiversity.org)
  • The two dsRBDs pack against a C-terminal α-helix (blue), forming a rigid RNA-binding platform that causes a sharp kink in the dsRNA target. (nih.gov)
  • [6] When the dsRNA is exogenous (coming from infection by a virus with an RNA genome or laboratory manipulations), the RNA is imported directly into the cytoplasm and cleaved to short fragments by Dicer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The initiating dsRNA can also be endogenous (originating in the cell), as in pre-microRNAs expressed from RNA-coding genes in the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The basis of RNA interference dates from the 1950s when scientists first discovered that RNA can also exist in a double stranded form (dsRNA) a bit like its relative, DNA. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • Together these enzymes initiate the interference process by locating the dsRNA and slicing it up, so that the gene it represents cannot be translated into a protein sequence, effectively "silencing" the gene. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-mediated interference with expression of specific genes has been observed in a number of organisms including Caenorhabditis elegans ( 13 - 17 ), plants ( 18 , 19 ), Drosophila ( 20 , 21 ), Trypanosoma brucei ( 22 ), and a planarian ( 23 ). (pnas.org)
  • To investigate the potential of dsRNA interference with gene activity in A. thaliana , we introduced dsRNA-expressing constructs of selected genes with previously defined functions into plants. (pnas.org)
  • In addition to high specificity and heritability, a phenotypic series (weak, intermediate, and strong) was obtained from dsRNA interference. (pnas.org)
  • Thus, specific and inheritable dsRNA interference may offer a useful alternative to classical reverse genetic screening of mutants in A. thaliana . (pnas.org)
  • During infection, many viral pathogens transfer their genetic information into the host cells as double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). (biologynews.net)
  • RNA interference involves the targeted knockdown of mRNA triggered by complementary dsRNA molecules applied to an experimental organism. (springer.com)
  • 2 The later studies in C. elegans provided breakthrough experiments that clearly established that double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) interfered with gene function. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Key rules and parameters for use of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) less than 30 base pairs (bp) were developed that allow use of these dsRNA in mammalian cells 4 without triggering the cell's antiviral response mechanism. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Even though dsRNA were shown to induce gene-specific interference in early mouse embryos [3] , preliminary attempts to use dsRNA in mammalian systems were not conclusive. (invivogen.com)
  • 11 Thus, our objective in this study was to determine whether we could identify a double stranded RNA (dsRNA) sequence that is highly effective and selective for the AT 1a R subtype. (ahajournals.org)
  • We now know that the injected dsRNAs are processed by the cytoplasmic RNase III enzyme Dicer into ∼22-bp dsRNA duplexes, called small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) ( 2 ). (asm.org)
  • Importantly, all RNA viruses except retroviruses generate long, perfect dsRNA intermediates during replication of their RNA genome, and even dsDNA viruses generate high levels of perfect dsRNAs due to convergent transcription of both strands of their DNA genome. (asm.org)
  • Because they most commonly arise from viral dsRNA replication intermediates, viral siRNAs should derive essentially equally from the viral RNA sense and antisense strands ( 6 ). (asm.org)
  • Complementary base pairings of two strands of single stranded RNA results in formation of dsRNA. (ukessays.com)
  • b) c-terminal dsRBD (double stranded RNA binding domain): it binds the dsRNA but specific site of binding is not defined. (ukessays.com)
  • dicer enzyme produced the fragments of small interfering RNA of about 20-25 nt long by cleaving the dsRNA. (ukessays.com)
  • Any RNA, including endogenous mRNAs or viral RNAs, can be silenced by designing constructs to express double-stranded RNA complementary to the desired mRNA target. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNA interference is a process in which translation of some of a cell's messenger RNA (mRNA) sequences is prevented, because of the presence of (and consequent destruction of) matching double-stranded RNA sequences. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Interference" refers to the interruption of the cell's translation of its own mRNA. (encyclopedia.com)
  • RNA interference is also called posttranscriptional gene silencing, since its effect on gene expression occurs after the creation of the mRNA during transcription. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The attachment of the two RNAs inhibited the translation of the mRNA molecules into proteins . (britannica.com)
  • Diagram showing how the anti-sense RNA (the yellow strand in this diagram) of the RISC complex targets destruction of complementary mRNA. (wikiversity.org)
  • RNAs are the direct products of genes, and these small RNAs can direct enzyme complexes to degrade messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules and thus decrease their activity by preventing translation, via post-transcriptional gene silencing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many species, across a wide phylogenetic range, respond to aberrant/foreign RNA by degrading endogenous mRNA in a sequence-specific manner ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • We have shown that expression of double-stranded RNA corresponding to portions of the cryptococcal CAP59 and ADE2 genes results in reduced mRNA levels for those genes, with phenotypic consequences similar to that of gene disruption. (genetics.org)
  • Use of RNA interference in Cryptococcus should allow manipulation of mRNA levels for functional analysis of genes of interest and enable efficient exploration of genes discovered by genome sequencing. (genetics.org)
  • Law360 (May 10, 2005, 12:00 AM EDT) -- RNA interference technology initiates degradation of specific messenger RNA (mRNA) and prevents production of the protein which the mRNA encodes. (law360.com)
  • These small RNAs bind to normal messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules and increase or decrease their activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). (harvard.edu)
  • Micro RNAs can block the activity of gene by destructing its homologus mRNA in animals and plants. (ukessays.com)
  • DNA constructs are designed to express self-complementary double-stranded RNAs, typically short-hairpin RNAs (shRNA), that once processed bring about silencing of a target gene or genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • This construct was designed to express three therapeutic RNAs, one of which was a shRNA, thereby combating HIV replication in three different ways: shRNA, that silences the tat and rev genes of the HIV genome CCR5 ribozyme, inhibiting viral cell entry TAR decoy RNA, inhibiting initiation of viral transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of its ability to turn off individual gene expression, RNA interference provides a remarkably precise tool for studying the effects of individual genes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The ability of interfering RNA to silence genes was discovered in the 1990s by American scientists Andrew Z. Fire and Craig C. Mello , who shared the 2006 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for their work. (britannica.com)
  • A process in which the introduction of double-stranded RNA into a cell inhibits the expression of genes. (dictionary.com)
  • RNA interference is a gene regulatory mechanism in which the expression of specific genes is downregulated by endogenous microRNAs or by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). (news-medical.net)
  • RNA interference involves specific tissue gene silencing with suitable promoters to simultaneously deactivate numerous genes, which enhances crop protection against detrimental pathogens. (news-medical.net)
  • It's less than 10 years since the latest winners of the medicine Nobel discovered how to "silence" genes with RNA. (newscientist.com)
  • Base pair-complementary RNA strands (ssRNA) can be produced by transcription of both template DNA strands of some genes (Figure 1). (wikiversity.org)
  • We target unique genetic sequences of zebra mussels that do not occur in other species for critical genes provide the instructions (silencing RNA) to turn off those genes. (usgs.gov)
  • Unlike conventional RNA interference techniques, CRISPR interference allows any number of individual genes to be silenced at the same time, he continued. (genengnews.com)
  • In addition, it acts more crisply, if you will, by not turning off untargeted genes the way RNA interference techniques do. (genengnews.com)
  • The two genes could also be subjected to simultaneous interference through expression of chimeric double-stranded RNA. (genetics.org)
  • The causes of the widespread differential expression of non-coding RNAs in malignant cells, as compared to normal cells, can be explained by the location of these genes in cancer-associated genomic regions, by epigenetic mechanisms and by alterations in the processing machinery. (mdanderson.org)
  • In addition, profiling has been exploited to identify non-coding RNAs that may represent downstream targets of activated oncogenic pathways or are targeting protein coding genes involved in cancer. (mdanderson.org)
  • Recent studies have demonstrated that miRNAs and non-coding ultraconserved genes are main candidates for the elusive class of cancer predisposing genes and that other types of non-coding RNAs participate in the genetic puzzle giving rise to the malignant phenotype. (mdanderson.org)
  • When introduced into the genome of A. thaliana by Agrobacterium -mediated transformation, double-stranded RNA-expressing constructs corresponding to four genes, AGAMOUS ( AG ), CLAVATA3 , APETALA1 , and PERIANTHIA , caused specific and heritable genetic interference. (pnas.org)
  • RNAs are the direct products of genes, and these small RNAs can bind to specific other RNAs and either increase or decrease their activity, for example by preventing a messenger RNA from producing a protein. (phys.org)
  • RNA interference has an important role in defending cells against parasitic genes - viruses and transposons - but also in directing development as well as gene expression in general. (phys.org)
  • The last decade has witnessed a dramatic increase in the functional analysis of insect genes, especially those whose silencing results in mortality or interference with pathogen transmission. (mdpi.com)
  • They genetically modified plants to enable their chloroplasts to accumulate double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) targeted against essential beetle genes. (biologynews.net)
  • Researchers can take advantage of this mechanism by introducing synthetic RNAs to selectively deactivate specific genes for research or therapeutic purposes. (jove.com)
  • In the last 15 years, scientists have realized that short pieces of double-stranded RNA, called silencing-RNA, use a pathway that is normally used by cells to regulate genes. (innovations-report.com)
  • RNA interference is a natural process that affects the level of activity of genes in animals and plants. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Agricultural scientists have, however, successfully devised artificial "interfering RNAs" that target genes in insect pests, slowing their growth or killing them. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Some of the identified genes ?many of which have human counterparts ?code for proteins involved with the packaging and processing of RNA, but others may be involved with the regulation of DNA itself, including the repair of DNA damage. (bio-medicine.org)
  • We used genome-wide RNA interference to identify genes that, when suppressed, resulted in the premature appearance of protein aggregates. (rug.nl)
  • The substrate specificity of Drosha found in this study will facilitate the prediction of miRNA genes and the design of small hairpin RNAs for RNA interference applications. (libpubmedia.co.uk)
  • There are different classes of RNA which are involved in method of silencing of genes. (ukessays.com)
  • On Monday, Andrew Fire from Stanford University in California and Craig Mello from the University of Massachusetts in Worcester won their laurels for working out how to use double-stranded RNA molecules to control the flow of genetic information. (newscientist.com)
  • Virtually all animals and plants utilize small RNA molecules to control protein expression during different developmental stages and in response to viral infection. (nih.gov)
  • Small RNA molecules regulate eukaryotic gene expression during development and in response to stresses including viral infection. (nih.gov)
  • Single-stranded RNA molecules of 21-23 nucleotides in length, which regulate gene expression. (citizendium.org)
  • A research team led by scientists at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL) has developed a powerful method that allows them to sift through thousands of candidate hairpin-shaped RNA molecules at a time and pull out only those RNAs that potently shut down the activity of a target gene. (redorbit.com)
  • Now, the MIT/Alnylam team has developed a library of new molecules that successfully delivered RNA interference agents in several animals, including mice, rats and cynomolgus monkeys. (nanowerk.com)
  • Imagine short, double-stranded RNA molecules that could be synthesized quickly and inexpensively to silence a single gene. (bio-medicine.org)
  • RNA interference is a biological process whereby RNA molecules inhibit gene expression or translation. (mscience.com.au)
  • Advances in this technology have led to highly specific and highly functional RNA molecules available for both common species such as Human and Mouse but also for other model organisms such as zebra fish, dog, pig, mosquito and cow just to name a few. (mscience.com.au)
  • However, in plants, most siRNAs are generated by RNA-dependent RNA polymerase [1] . (wikiversity.org)
  • After initial processing in the nucleus by Drosha, precursor microRNAs (pre-miRNAs) are transported to the cytoplasm, where Dicer cleavage generates mature microRNAs (miRNAs) and short interfering RNAs (siRNAs). (nih.gov)
  • [10] These short double-stranded fragments are called small interfering RNAs ( siRNAs ). (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell then uses siRNAs to detect and destroy the foreign RNA. (biologynews.net)
  • These small dsRNAs are called small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). (invivogen.com)
  • Recently, a new vector system called pSUPER (suppression of endogenous RNA), which directs the synthesis of siRNAs and persistently suppresses gene expression in mammalian cells, has been developed. (natap.org)
  • Arabidopsis AGO4 binds 24-nt siRNAs, which are most likely generated in the nucleus by DCL3 in the RNA polymerase IV (RNAPIV) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 2 (RDR2)-dependent pathway (for review, see Wendte and Pikaard, 2017 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • In considering whether mammalian cells are also able to process viral dsRNAs into antiviral siRNAs, it is important to take into account the defining characteristics of such siRNAs in other systems, especially insects, to ensure that viral RNA degradation products are not erroneously described as siRNAs. (asm.org)
  • The antisense species processed from the shRNA can bind to the target RNA and specify its degradation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Natural sequence variations can render a single shRNA-target site unrecognizable preventing RNA degradation. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is the case in small hairpin RNA (shRNA), where the two strands are linked by a single loop [ 15 ], or RNA dumbbells [ 16 ], made by closing the open end of the hairpin. (hindawi.com)
  • ① Plasmid-expressed short hairpin RNA (shRNA) requires the activity of endogenous Exportin 5 for nuclear export [10] . (invivogen.com)
  • a) Primary miRNA transcripts form hairpin structures that are recognized by the double-stranded RNA binding protein (dsRBP) DGCR8 and cleaved 11 bp away from the base of the stem by the RNase III enzyme Drosha. (nih.gov)
  • All we had to do then was to sort these cells out, pull out each cell's genetic material and sequence the short hairpin RNA," explains graduate student Christof Fellman, who together with post-doctoral fellow Johannes Zuber led these efforts. (redorbit.com)
  • These synthetic forms of miRNA, termed short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs), are expressed from pol II or pol III promoters. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • psiRNA is an RNA polymerase III-based plasmid that produces short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs). (invivogen.com)
  • short hairpin RNAs or shRNAs are 19-29 nucleotides longer RNAs which are synthetically manufactured. (ukessays.com)
  • The recognition process also lends further credence to the belief that RNA interference is a protective mechanism. (encyclopedia.com)
  • RNA interference was discovered as a mechanism used by cells for regulating gene expression . (wikiversity.org)
  • This strategy takes advantage of the natural gene regulation mechanism of RNA-induced gene silencing. (usgs.gov)
  • Lentiviral delivery of designed shRNAs and the mechanism of RNA interference in mammalian cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • To determine whether the up-regulation of TP53 following exposure to cerulenin or C75 was solely due to inhibition of endogenous fatty acid metabolism, we first evaluated the cytotoxic response to chemical FAS blockers on MCF-7 cells in which FAS gene expression was previously silenced by using the highly sequence-specific mechanism of RNA interference. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Delivery of inhibitory RNAs to target tissues needs to be safe, efficient, and for many diseases, long-lasting, in order to exploit this endogenous mechanism for therapeutic purposes. (omicsonline.org)
  • RNA interference is a mechanism for controlling normal gene expression which has recently begun to be employed as a potential therapeutic agent for a wide range of disorders, including cancer, infectious diseases and metabolic disorders. (medsci.org)
  • This dissertation aims to elucidate the primary mechanism of RNA interference and discusses its potential in therapeutic sector by addressing specific examples of a few significant diseases. (ukessays.com)
  • Indeed, it was this process that led to the discovery of RNA interference: Scientists found that introducing double-stranded RNA reduced, rather than increased, production of the encoded protein. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A new study focuses on the identification of RNA-binding protein by mass spectrometry (ChIRP-M/S) approach. (news-medical.net)
  • The protein-containing complex was named "RNA-induced silencing complex", RISC. (wikiversity.org)
  • In other cases, the protein-coding RNA sense strand might be produced by a virus and the antisense RNA strand produced by the host cell. (wikiversity.org)
  • RNA interference can be used to selectively reduce the level of expression of a specific protein. (wikiversity.org)
  • Another methodology, RNA interference, blocks the messenger RNA that drives protein protection based on the blueprint contained within a gene's DNA sequence. (genengnews.com)
  • By preventing protein production, RNA interference may be used to get around the problem of difficult-to-target proteins, a frequent challenge in drug development. (genengnews.com)
  • But CRISPR interference acts one step earlier in the cell's protein manufacturing process, said Jonathan Weissman, Ph.D., a Howard Hughes Medical Investigator and a UCSF professor of cellular and molecular pharmacology, who is another senior author on the work. (genengnews.com)
  • Dr. Qi and colleagues used a protein from this system, called Cas9, as a chassis into which they can insert any specific RNA partner molecule. (genengnews.com)
  • Specific modulation of protein expression through introduction of double-stranded RNA thus operates in C. neoformans , which is the first demonstration of this technique in a fungal organism. (genetics.org)
  • In the early 1990s, a number of scientists observed independently that RNA inhibited protein expression in plants and fungi (Figure 1). (thermofisher.com)
  • The trigger is a tiny piece of RNA, which, by attaching to a matching piece of the target gene's RNA, spurs its destruction, thereby shutting down the production of protein from that gene. (redorbit.com)
  • By varying the length and position of the anti-sense RNAs or the double-stranded RNAs expressed under the control of strong constitutive type II promoters, 10% to 80% gene silencing levels were achieved for green fluorescence protein (GFP). (aiche.org)
  • The messenger-RNA is moved to a structure in the cell called a ribosome, which links amino acids together in the order specified by the RNA sequence to create the protein. (innovations-report.com)
  • Vaccine makers and other pharmaceutical manufacturers using yeast protein-expression systems are taking note of a discovery this week by a team of researchers who have found RNA interference in Saccharomyces castellii. (pharmtech.com)
  • MicroRNAs (miRNA) are a recently discovered family of short non-protein-coding RNAs with diverse functions, including regulation of cellular differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. (libpubmedia.co.uk)
  • A method of silencing or blocking the function of a gene by introducing the short sequenced RNA resulting in transcriptional inhibition or no protein production. (ukessays.com)
  • Since the 1998 discovery of RNA interference - the naturally occurring phenomenon in which the flow of genetic information from a cell's nucleus to the protein-building machinery of the cell is disrupted - scientists have been pursuing the tantalizing ability to shut off any gene in the body. (healthcanal.com)
  • The mature miRNA molecule then binds to an RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which contains multiple proteins, including a ribonuclease enzyme. (britannica.com)
  • f,g) The activated RISC can then go on to target mRNAs, acting through separate mechanisms depending on the type of guide RNA. (nih.gov)
  • The passenger strand is degraded and the guide strand is incorporated into the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). (wikipedia.org)
  • The most well-studied outcome is post-transcriptional gene silencing, which occurs when the guide strand pairs with a complementary sequence in a messenger RNA molecule and induces cleavage by Argonaute 2 (Ago2), the catalytic component of the RISC . (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the two strands of each fragment, known as the guide strand , is then incorporated into the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). (phys.org)
  • Once unwound, the guide strand is incorporated into the RNA Interference Specificity Complex (RISC), while the passenger strand is released. (invivogen.com)
  • ⑥ The "guide strand" is integrated in the active RNA Interference Specificity Complex (RISC) that contains different argonautes and argonaute-associated proteins [16] . (invivogen.com)
  • Molecular structures of Dicer and Argonaute proteins, and of RNA-bound complexes, have offered exciting insights into the mechanisms operating at the heart of RNA-silencing pathways. (nih.gov)
  • These RNAs are encoded in host genome and then processed by the Dicer which is an endonuclease enzyme. (ukessays.com)
  • Structural and mechanistic studies have begun to illuminate three fundamental aspects of these pathways: small RNA biogenesis, formation of RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs), and targeting of complementary mRNAs. (nih.gov)
  • RNA interference requires that two base pair-complementary strands of RNA to come together to form double stranded RNA [2] . (wikiversity.org)
  • Branched RNAs with two and four strands were synthesized. (hindawi.com)
  • The delivery system also proved effective with another type of RNA interference, which involves disrupting microRNA (very short strands of RNA that help control gene expression). (nanowerk.com)
  • In contrast, the prevalence of viral RNA breakdown products will correlate with the level of the viral RNA of origin, e.g., there are far more sense strands than antisense strands expressed in cells infected with plus-strand RNA viruses. (asm.org)
  • The key to success with RNA interference is finding a safe and effective way to deliver the short strands of RNA that can bind with and destroy messenger RNA, which carries instructions from the nucleus. (healthcanal.com)
  • Bologna, N. G. & Voinnet, O. The diversity, biogenesis, and activities of endogenous silencing small RNAs in Arabidopsis . (nature.com)
  • psiRNA is used to insert a DNA fragment of approximately 50 mer designed in such a way that after transcription from the human 7SK RNA polymerase III promoter it will generate shRNAs. (invivogen.com)
  • Through a number of pathways that are conserved in eukaryotes from yeast to humans, small noncoding RNAs direct molecular machinery to silence gene expression. (nature.com)
  • The technology of RNA interference emerged in its earliest form following a 1998 study in Caenorhabditis elegans 1 and has since rapidly evolved to its current form as a revolutionary tool for studying gene function, biological pathways, and the physiology of disease. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Ever since, there have been numerous experiments on plants and mammalian cell cultures involving the implementation of exogenous double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs). (ukessays.com)
  • Fire and Mello won the 2006 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discovery of RNA interference. (thermofisher.com)
  • It may also explain some or most of the gene-silencing effect of "antisense" RNA, as discussed elsewhere in this encyclopedia. (encyclopedia.com)
  • [2] However, antisense RNA produced intracellularly by an expression vector may be developed and find utility as novel therapeutic agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • To construct transformation vectors that produce RNAs capable of duplex formation, gene-specific sequences in the sense and antisense orientations were linked and placed under the control of a strong viral promoter. (pnas.org)
  • Most constructs that are designed to produce only antisense or only sense RNA do not induce interference. (pnas.org)
  • Lee, R.C., Feinbaum, R.L. & Ambros, V. The C. elegans heterochronic gene lin-4 encodes small RNAs with antisense complementarity to lin-14. (nature.com)
  • These findings suggest that TLR4 may serve as a potential target in the treatment of ALI and RNA interfering targeting TLR4 expression represents a therapeutic strategy. (hindawi.com)
  • RNA interference is considered a new and promising therapeutic approach, but the ethical issues of this method have not been greatly discussed, so this article analyses these issues using the bioethical theory of principles of the American bioethicists, Tom L. Beauchamp and James F. Childress. (medsci.org)
  • Under most circumstances, RNA in a cell is present as a single-stranded molecule only. (encyclopedia.com)
  • RNA interference is a biological process that involves the inhibition of gene expression with the help of an RNA molecule only. (bartleby.com)
  • In 1989, Sidney Altman and Thomas Cech received a Nobel Prize in Chemistry for the discovery of RNA as a biocatalyst, in addition to being the molecule of heredity. (ukessays.com)
  • This discovery has quickly resulted in the widespread use of artificial interfering RNAs as an important laboratory research technique for altering the amount of specific proteins inside cells. (wikiversity.org)
  • Several proteins (colored ovals) are required for efficient RNA interference. (wikiversity.org)
  • Specialized ribonucleases and RNA-binding proteins govern the production and action of small regulatory RNAs. (nih.gov)
  • The process interrupts the usual transfer of instructions from double-stranded DNA, through single-stranded messenger RNA and finally into proteins. (bio-medicine.org)
  • A primary transcript of the HIV provirus serves as the genomic RNA for future generations of HIV and is processed to ensure efficient translation of viral proteins. (jimmunol.org)
  • Oligonucleotide arrays in which LNA capture probes are used for the detection of the full complement of human/mouse miRNAs were developed and tested in combination with various total RNA and miRNA labeling techniques. (libpubmedia.co.uk)
  • Methods for deliberate RNA-induced gene silencing were developed in the early 1990's, and this molecular tool has since been widely used to discover complex gene functions that could not be studied before. (usgs.gov)
  • Building upon their initial worm work, the two scientists then slowly pieced together the molecular machinery behind this "RNA-interference" process, revealing as they did so what looks set to become one of the most powerful instruments in the molecular biologist's toolkit. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • Our short-term ojective is to build on existing clinical research at MD Anderson Cancer Center through collaborations and membership to the RNA Center to create a ncRNA-centric effort to drive discovery of molecular markers of cancer by evaluating, co-developing, facilitating and disseminating novel ncRNA technologies. (mdanderson.org)
  • Wilson, R.C. & Doudna, J.A. Molecular mechanisms of RNA interference. (nature.com)
  • In the study appearing in Molecular Therapy , Dr. Harper and colleagues at Nationwide Children's used RNA interference to reduce DUX4 expression. (nationwidechildrens.org)
  • First, double-stranded RNA with a sequence complementary to the targeted gene is synthesized. (jove.com)
  • Short, double-stranded pieces of RNA bind to the complementary messenger RNA segments, shutting down gene expression. (bio-medicine.org)
  • micro RNA or mi-RNAs are single stranded RNAs of short nucleotides (19-25 nt) which are present in all eukaryotes. (ukessays.com)
  • This inactivates the RNA, so that it cannot be used to carry out the viral replication cycle or be reinserted into the genome (in the case of a transposon), thus protecting the cell from its harmful effects. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The new technology developed by the team of UCSF and UC Berkeley researchers is called CRISPR interference, which "is a simple approach for selectively perturbing gene expression on a genome-wide scale," noted said Lei Stanley Qi, Ph.D., a UCSF systems biology bellow who was the lead author of the Cell study. (genengnews.com)
  • The selected RNA serves as an adaptor that determines the target anywhere within the genome. (genengnews.com)
  • A polyadenylation signal (AATAAA), required to terminate the FIV RNA genome, is located in the R region of the 3′ LTR. (nih.gov)
  • The question of whether any mammalian cells are able to mount an effective RNA interference-mediated antiviral innate immune response has remained highly controversial. (asm.org)
  • Our mission is to identify, engineer and accelerate breakthroughs in non-coding RNA (ncRNA) discoveries leading to cancer biomarkers and therapeutics. (mdanderson.org)
  • But the ethical issues in RNA interference therapeutics not only include a risk-benefit analysis, but also considerations about respecting the autonomy of the patient and considerations about justice with regard to the inclusion criteria for participation in clinical trials and health care allocation. (medsci.org)
  • RNA interference is the newest kid on the genetic block. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • They were injecting worms with a short piece of RNA that was the genetic mirror image of a muscle gene called unc-22. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • Potent and specific genetic interference by double-stranded RNA in Caenorhabditis elegans . (nature.com)
  • A team of Vanderbilt researchers have demonstrated for the first time that a new type of gene therapy, called RNA interference, can heal a genetic disorder in a live animal. (innovations-report.com)
  • The safety concern, as with other types of genetic modification and with pesticides generally, is that the artificial interfering RNAs will also harm desirable insects or other animals. (bio-medicine.org)
  • So too with a vaccine that provokes a specific immune response aimed at a specific RNA sequence. (dictionary.com)
  • RNA is depicted with thick lines where blue represents the guide strand sequence, green represents the passenger strand sequence, and black represents sequence that is cleaved off by RNase III enzymes. (nih.gov)
  • Voinnet, O., Vain, P., Angell, S. & Baulcombe, D. C. Systemic spread of sequence-specific transgene RNA degradation in plants is initiated by localized introduction of ectopic promoterless DNA. (nature.com)
  • To determine the functional role of TP53 on breast cancer cell survival after FAS blockade, we evaluated FAS inhibitor-mediated apoptosis in MCF-7 cells transiently transfected with a pool of sequence-specific double-stranded RNA oligonucleotides targeting TP53 gene. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • RNA interference has an important role in defending cells against parasitic nucleotide sequences - viruses and transposons . (wikipedia.org)
  • RNA interference defends cells against foreign nucleotide sequences - viruses and transposons . (wikipedia.org)
  • Zeng, Y. & Cullen, B.R. Efficient processing of primary microRNA hairpins by Drosha requires flanking nonstructured RNA sequences. (nature.com)
  • RNA interference utilizes a virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) system to improve resistance to viral diseases in plants. (news-medical.net)
  • RNA interference is also known by other names, like co-suppression, post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) and quelling. (bartleby.com)
  • Historically, RNA interference was known by other names, including post transcriptional gene silencing, and quelling. (phys.org)
  • RNA interference, a process in which the presence of double-stranded RNA homologous to a gene of interest results in specific degradation of the corresponding message, may help solve this problem. (genetics.org)
  • RNA interference is believed to protect the cell against viruses and other threats. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This complementarity enables interfering RNA produced by the cell to bind to and inactivate specific RNA viruses. (britannica.com)
  • Functions of RNA interference in the field biotechnology include managing pests and diseases caused by bacteria, fungi, and viruses, for improving crop yield, and to generate plants with novel traits (PNTs). (news-medical.net)
  • An important aspect of RNA interference is its role in protecting organisms from some deleterious effects of viruses [8] . (wikiversity.org)
  • RNA viruses show the highest mutation rates in nature ( 6 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • The double-stranded RNA is then introduced into cells by methods such as injection or delivery by vectors, such as modified viruses. (jove.com)
  • RNA interference, or RNA silencing, has developed in plants as a defence against viruses. (sciencephoto.com)
  • In their report receiving early online publication in Nature Biotechnology, the investigators describe using small interfering RNA technology to silence the biochemical signals that attract a particular group of inflammatory cells to areas of tissue damage. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • There are certain short stretches of RNA (20-30 nucleotides) that are found to have enormous control over the expression of a gene. (bartleby.com)
  • However, it was only in 1998 that experiments were described showing the unexpected power of double stranded RNA to block gene expression [6] . (wikiversity.org)
  • Andrew Fire and Craig C. Mello shared the 2006 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their work on RNA interference in the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans , which they published in 1998. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hence, the application of RNA interference has successfully controlled many plant diseases. (news-medical.net)
  • We have developed small interfering RNAs to selectively inhibit the expression of the AT 1a receptor (AT 1a R) subtype. (ahajournals.org)
  • The inhibition occurred at two points in the viral life cycle, after fusion and before reverse transcription and during transcription of viral RNA from integrated provirus. (jimmunol.org)
  • A talk and slideshow presentation on RNA interference functions and mechanisms in animals. (worldcat.org)
  • In this Review, we focus on mechanisms and structures that govern RNA silencing in higher organisms. (nature.com)
  • This allowed the Patton lab to create a specific silencing-RNA, designed to bind uniquely with the defective messenger-RNA. (innovations-report.com)
  • The two dsRBPs bind a 16 base pair stretch of the RNA simultaneously on two sides of the helix. (nih.gov)
  • Our colleagues over at Nature Reviews Genetics have put together this very cool animation of RNA interference. (nature.com)
  • Optimization of feline immunodeficiency virus vectors for RNA interference. (nih.gov)
  • These results suggested that steric factors, including RNA structure and recruitment of competing transcriptional machinery, may affect gene expression from FIV vectors. (nih.gov)
  • RNA interference has been found in plants, fungi, and a variety of animals, including the roundworm ( Caenorhabditis elegans ), fruit fly ( Drosophila melanogaster ), zebrafish, and mouse. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Also, RNA-dependent RNA polymerases have been implicated in PTGS in plants ( 25 ), Neurospora ( 26 ), and C. elegans ( 27 ). (pnas.org)
  • The rde-1 gene, RNA interference and transposon silencing in C. elegans. (nii.ac.jp)
  • MicroRNA and other short or long non-coding RNAs alterations are involved in the initiation, progression and metastases of human cancer. (mdanderson.org)
  • Expression profiling of microRNA and other short or long non-coding RNAs in human tumors has identified signatures associated with diagnosis, staging, progression, prognosis and response to treatment. (mdanderson.org)
  • The authors of the article, Jonathan G. Lundgren and Jian J. Duan of the USDA Agricultural Research Service, argue that pesticides and insect-resistant crops based on RNA interference, now in exploratory development, may have to be tested under elaborate procedures that assess effects on animals' whole life cycles, rather than by methods that look for short-term toxicity. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Inside the cell, the DNA is transported to the nucleus where transcription machinery continually manufactures the encoded RNAs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Castel, S.E. & Martienssen, R.A. RNA interference in the nucleus: roles for small RNAs in transcription, epigenetics and beyond. (nature.com)
  • Together, the studies reviewed herein reveal the versatility and programmability of RNA-induced silencing complexes and emphasize the importance of both upstream biogenesis and downstream silencing factors. (nature.com)
  • There is still very little that is known about small RNA biogenesis," says Hannon. (redorbit.com)