A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.
A family of RNA-binding proteins that has specificity for MICRORNAS and SMALL INTERFERING RNA molecules. The proteins take part in RNA processing events as core components of RNA-induced silencing complex.
The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The study of the theory, philosophy, and doctrine of death.
The acquired form of infection by Toxoplasma gondii in animals and man.
A species of the fungus CRYPTOCOCCUS. Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella neoformans.
A mitosporic Leotiales fungal genus of plant pathogens. It has teleomorphs in the genus Botryotina.
The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Diseases of plants.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Ribonucleic acid in fungi having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.
Agreements between two or more parties, especially those that are written and enforceable by law (American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed). It is sometimes used to characterize the nature of the professional-patient relationship.
Outside services provided to an institution under a formal financial agreement.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group to the 5'-terminal hydroxyl groups of DNA and RNA. EC
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
A puncture or hole through the CORNEAL STROMA resulting from various diseases or trauma.
The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.
The study of microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, algae, archaea, and viruses.
Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.
The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
Furano-furano-benzopyrans that are produced by ASPERGILLUS from STERIGMATOCYSTIN. They are structurally related to COUMARINS and easily oxidized to an epoxide form to become ALKYLATING AGENTS. Members of the group include AFLATOXIN B1; aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1, aflatoxin G2; AFLATOXIN M1; and aflatoxin M2.
A genus of mitosporic fungi containing about 100 species and eleven different teleomorphs in the family Trichocomaceae.
A species of imperfect fungi which grows on peanuts and other plants and produces the carcinogenic substance aflatoxin. It is also used in the production of the antibiotic flavicin.
A potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic mycotoxin produced by the Aspergillus flavus group of fungi. It is also mutagenic, teratogenic, and causes immunosuppression in animals. It is found as a contaminant in peanuts, cottonseed meal, corn, and other grains. The mycotoxin requires epoxidation to aflatoxin B1 2,3-oxide for activation. Microsomal monooxygenases biotransform the toxin to the less toxic metabolites aflatoxin M1 and Q1.
Toxic compounds produced by FUNGI.
A carcinogenic mycotoxin produced in high yields by strains of the common molds, Aspergillus versicolor, A. nidulans, and an unidentified species of Bipolaris. It causes necrosis of the liver and kidney and has an inhibitory effect on orotic acid incorporation into nuclear RNA.
Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).
Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)
All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.
The motion of fluids, especially noncompressible liquids, under the influence of internal and external forces.
That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.
The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.
An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.
The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.
The study of the deformation and flow of matter, usually liquids or fluids, and of the plastic flow of solids. The concept covers consistency, dilatancy, liquefaction, resistance to flow, shearing, thixotrophy, and VISCOSITY.
The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.

Correlation between protein and mRNA abundance in yeast. (1/3478)

We have determined the relationship between mRNA and protein expression levels for selected genes expressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae growing at mid-log phase. The proteins contained in total yeast cell lysate were separated by high-resolution two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis. Over 150 protein spots were excised and identified by capillary liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Protein spots were quantified by metabolic labeling and scintillation counting. Corresponding mRNA levels were calculated from serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) frequency tables (V. E. Velculescu, L. Zhang, W. Zhou, J. Vogelstein, M. A. Basrai, D. E. Bassett, Jr., P. Hieter, B. Vogelstein, and K. W. Kinzler, Cell 88:243-251, 1997). We found that the correlation between mRNA and protein levels was insufficient to predict protein expression levels from quantitative mRNA data. Indeed, for some genes, while the mRNA levels were of the same value the protein levels varied by more than 20-fold. Conversely, invariant steady-state levels of certain proteins were observed with respective mRNA transcript levels that varied by as much as 30-fold. Another interesting observation is that codon bias is not a predictor of either protein or mRNA levels. Our results clearly delineate the technical boundaries of current approaches for quantitative analysis of protein expression and reveal that simple deduction from mRNA transcript analysis is insufficient.  (+info)

A novel genetic screen for snRNP assembly factors in yeast identifies a conserved protein, Sad1p, also required for pre-mRNA splicing. (2/3478)

The assembly pathway of spliceosomal snRNPs in yeast is poorly understood. We devised a screen to identify mutations blocking the assembly of newly synthesized U4 snRNA into a functional snRNP. Fifteen mutant strains failing either to accumulate the newly synthesized U4 snRNA or to assemble a U4/U6 particle were identified and categorized into 13 complementation groups. Thirteen previously identified splicing-defective prp mutants were also assayed for U4 snRNP assembly defects. Mutations in the U4/U6 snRNP components Prp3p, Prp4p, and Prp24p led to disassembly of the U4/U6 snRNP particle and degradation of the U6 snRNA, while prp17-1 and prp19-1 strains accumulated free U4 and U6 snRNA. A detailed analysis of a newly identified mutant, the sad1-1 mutant, is presented. In addition to having the snRNP assembly defect, the sad1-1 mutant is severely impaired in splicing at the restrictive temperature: the RP29 pre-mRNA strongly accumulates and splicing-dependent production of beta-galactosidase from reporter constructs is abolished, while extracts prepared from sad1-1 strains fail to splice pre-mRNA substrates in vitro. The sad1-1 mutant is the only splicing-defective mutant analyzed whose mutation preferentially affects assembly of newly synthesized U4 snRNA into the U4/U6 particle. SAD1 encodes a novel protein of 52 kDa which is essential for cell viability. Sad1p localizes to the nucleus and is not stably associated with any of the U snRNAs. Sad1p contains a putative zinc finger and is phylogenetically highly conserved, with homologues identified in human, Caenorhabditis elegans, Arabidospis, and Drosophila.  (+info)

Pseudouridine mapping in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae spliceosomal U small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) reveals that pseudouridine synthase pus1p exhibits a dual substrate specificity for U2 snRNA and tRNA. (3/3478)

Pseudouridine (Psi) residues were localized in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae spliceosomal U small nuclear RNAs (UsnRNAs) by using the chemical mapping method. In contrast to vertebrate UsnRNAs, S. cerevisiae UsnRNAs contain only a few Psi residues, which are located in segments involved in intermolecular RNA-RNA or RNA-protein interactions. At these positions, UsnRNAs are universally modified. When yeast mutants disrupted for one of the several pseudouridine synthase genes (PUS1, PUS2, PUS3, and PUS4) or depleted in rRNA-pseudouridine synthase Cbf5p were tested for UsnRNA Psi content, only the loss of the Pus1p activity was found to affect Psi formation in spliceosomal UsnRNAs. Indeed, Psi44 formation in U2 snRNA was abolished. By using purified Pus1p enzyme and in vitro-produced U2 snRNA, Pus1p is shown here to catalyze Psi44 formation in the S. cerevisiae U2 snRNA. Thus, Pus1p is the first UsnRNA pseudouridine synthase characterized so far which exhibits a dual substrate specificity, acting on both tRNAs and U2 snRNA. As depletion of rRNA-pseudouridine synthase Cbf5p had no effect on UsnRNA Psi content, formation of Psi residues in S. cerevisiae UsnRNAs is not dependent on the Cbf5p-snoRNA guided mechanism.  (+info)

NMD3 encodes an essential cytoplasmic protein required for stable 60S ribosomal subunits in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (4/3478)

A mutation in NMD3 was found to be lethal in the absence of XRN1, which encodes the major cytoplasmic exoribonuclease responsible for mRNA turnover. Molecular genetic analysis of NMD3 revealed that it is an essential gene required for stable 60S ribosomal subunits. Cells bearing a temperature-sensitive allele of NMD3 had decreased levels of 60S subunits at the nonpermissive temperature which resulted in the formation of half-mer polysomes. Pulse-chase analysis of rRNA biogenesis indicated that 25S rRNA was made and processed with kinetics similar to wild-type kinetics. However, the mature RNA was rapidly degraded, with a half-life of 4 min. Nmd3p fractionated as a cytoplasmic protein and sedimented in the position of free 60S subunits in sucrose gradients. These results suggest that Nmd3p is a cytoplasmic factor required for a late cytoplasmic assembly step of the 60S subunit but is not a ribosomal protein. Putative orthologs of Nmd3p exist in Drosophila, in nematodes, and in archaebacteria but not in eubacteria. The Nmd3 protein sequence does not contain readily recognizable motifs of known function. However, these proteins all have an amino-terminal domain containing four repeats of Cx2C, reminiscent of zinc-binding proteins, implicated in nucleic acid binding or protein oligomerization.  (+info)

Single atom modification (O-->S) of tRNA confers ribosome binding. (5/3478)

Escherichia coli tRNALysSUU, as well as human tRNALys3SUU, has 2-thiouridine derivatives at wobble position 34 (s2U*34). Unlike the native tRNALysSUU, the full-length, unmodified transcript of human tRNALys3UUU and the unmodified tRNALys3UUU anticodon stem/loop (ASLLys3UUU) did not bind AAA- or AAG-programmed ribosomes. In contrast, the completely unmodified yeast tRNAPhe anticodon stem/loop (ASLPheGAA) had an affinity (Kd = 136+/-49 nM) similar to that of native yeast tRNAPheGmAA (Kd = 103+/-19 nM). We have found that the single, site-specific substitution of s2U34 for U34 to produce the modified ASLLysSUU was sufficient to restore ribosomal binding. The modified ASLLysSUU bound the ribosome with an affinity (Kd = 176+/-62 nM) comparable to that of native tRNALysSUU (Kd = 70+/-7 nM). Furthermore, in binding to the ribosome, the modified ASLLys3SUU produced the same 16S P-site tRNA footprint as did native E. coli tRNALysSUU, yeast tRNAPheGmAA, and the unmodified ASLPheGAA. The unmodified ASLLys3UUU had no footprint at all. Investigations of thermal stability and structure monitored by UV spectroscopy and NMR showed that the dynamic conformation of the loop of modified ASLLys3SUU was different from that of the unmodified ASLLysUUU, whereas the stems were isomorphous. Based on these and other data, we conclude that s2U34 in tRNALysSUU and in other s2U34-containing tRNAs is critical for generating an anticodon conformation that leads to effective codon interaction in all organisms. This is the first example of a single atom substitution (U34-->s2U34) that confers the property of ribosomal binding on an otherwise inactive tRNA.  (+info)

Photocrosslinking of 4-thio uracil-containing RNAs supports a side-by-side arrangement of domains 5 and 6 of a group II intron. (6/3478)

Previous studies suggested that domains 5 and 6 (D5 and D6) of group II introns act together in splicing and that the two helical structures probably do not interact by helix stacking. Here, we characterized the major Mg2+ ion- and salt-dependent, long-wave UV light-induced, intramolecular crosslinks formed in 4-thiouridine-containing D56 RNA from intron 5gamma (aI5gamma) of the COXI gene of yeast mtDNA. Four major crosslinks were mapped and found to result from covalent bonds between nucleotides separating D5 from D6 [called J(56)] and residues of D6 near and including the branch nucleotide. These findings are extended by results of similar experiments using 4-thioU containing D56 RNAs from a mutant allele of aI5gamma and from the group IIA intron, aI1. Trans-splicing experiments show that the crosslinked wild-type aI5gamma D56 RNAs are active for both splicing reactions, including some first-step branching. An RNA containing the 3-nt J(56) sequence and D6 of aI5gamma yields one main crosslink that is identical to the most minor of the crosslinks obtained with D56 RNA, but in this case in a cation-independent fashion. We conclude that the interaction between J(56) and D6 is influenced by charge repulsion between the D5 and D6 helix backbones and that high concentrations of cations allow the helices to approach closely under self-splicing conditions. The interaction between J(56) and D6 appears to be a significant factor establishing a side-by-side (i.e., not stacked) orientation of the helices of the two domains.  (+info)

A computational screen for methylation guide snoRNAs in yeast. (7/3478)

Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) are required for ribose 2'-O-methylation of eukaryotic ribosomal RNA. Many of the genes for this snoRNA family have remained unidentified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, despite the availability of a complete genome sequence. Probabilistic modeling methods akin to those used in speech recognition and computational linguistics were used to computationally screen the yeast genome and identify 22 methylation guide snoRNAs, snR50 to snR71. Gene disruptions and other experimental characterization confirmed their methylation guide function. In total, 51 of the 55 ribose methylated sites in yeast ribosomal RNA were assigned to 41 different guide snoRNAs.  (+info)

An RNA switch at the 5' splice site requires ATP and the DEAD box protein Prp28p. (8/3478)

Pre-mRNA splicing requires dramatic RNA rearrangements hypothesized to be catalyzed by ATP-dependent RNA unwindases of the DExD/H box family. In a rearrangement critical for the fidelity of 5' splice site recognition, a base-pairing interaction between the 5' splice site and U1 snRNA must be switched for a mutually exclusive interaction between the 5' splice site and U6 snRNA. By lengthening the U1:5' splice site duplex, we impeded this switch in a temperature-dependent manner and prevented formation of the spliceosome's catalytic core. Using genetics, we identified the DExD/H box protein Prp28p as a potential mediator of the switch. In vitro, the switch requires both Prp28p and ATP. We propose that Prp28p directs isomerization of RNA at the 5' splice site and promotes fidelity in splicing.  (+info)

We explain DNA vs RNA with video tutorials and quizzes, using our Many Ways(TM) approach from multiple teachers.|p| This lesson will show the difference in structure between deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid.|/p|
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There are a few previous reports of discovering fragments that bind to RNA and their subsequent optimization; Ibis Therapeutics was particularly active in this field a few years back. In the current study, Fareed Aboul-ela and coworkers at Louisiana State University started by analyzing 120 known RNA-binding ligands and comparing these to known drugs and publicly available compounds. A variety of computationally derived physicochemical descriptors failed to differentiate the RNA binders from other molecules, but the authors note that ...
Hello Dave, These two tests (DNA PCR and RNA PCR) measure two different things and therefore you cannot compare one to the other as far as false-positive are concerned. In your particular case,...
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Subunit of both RNase MRP and nuclear RNase P; RNase MRP cleaves pre-rRNA, while nuclear RNase P cleaves tRNA precursors to generate mature 5 ends and facilitates turnover of nuclear RNAs; binds to the RPR1 RNA subunit in RNase P. Zygosity: Heterozygous strain ...
refers to tRNA(Arg-Asp) dimeric genes. **, Suppressors, as defined in MIPS annotations, supplemented by items from tables 8 and 10 in Hinnebusch and Liebmann, 1982. Note: Nomenclature of tRNA species generally follows earlier conventions; in some cases, new indices were assigned to those tRNA subspecies that had not unequivocally been numbered thus far or that were detected by sequencing. ...
Telomerase activity requires Est2p and TLC1, which together make up the catalytic core (Lingner et al., 1997b). We reasoned that overexpression of both moieties would be necessary to see the assembled complex. We therefore transformed the PGAL1‐GFP-EST2 fusion gene harboring strain YKF15 with a plasmid encoding TLC1 under the control of the GAL1 promoter and, as a control, with the empty plasmid pRS314. We observed no difference in growth when both strains were grown in galactose, showing that induction of both GFP-Est2p and TLC1 was not toxic. Direct observation of GFP-Est2p showed that the catalytic subunit was redistributed over the entire nucleus upon TLC1 overexpression (Figure 2A, compare panels 1 and 2). Mutants of TLC1 impaired for binding to Est2p (Livengood et al., 2002) did not mediate the relocalization of Est2p (Figure 2B, panels 1 and 2). Therefore, the redistribution was dependent on the specific interaction between Est2p and TLC1. TLC1 RNA localization remained unchanged under ...
Prosim, da v bodo e vpra anja postavljate bolj jasno. Kaj ne dela, slu alke ali mikrofon? Na ra unalniku je ve mest kamor lahko vklju ite slu alke in mikrofon. Kam ste jih vklju ili vi? S katerim programom ste preverili in ugotovili, da vam slu alke ne delujejo? ...
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Arthroderma benhamiae ATCC ® 16781™ Designation: CDC X797 [CBS 623.66, IMI 124768, NCPF 410] Application: Biomedical Research and Development Material
Bioconductor version: 2.8 A selection of RNA-Seq data from a yeast transcriptome experiment.. Author: James H. Bullard and Kasper D. Hansen Maintainer: J. Bullard ,bullard at stat.berkeley.edu, To install this package, start R and enter:. ...
This Histri was built automatically but not manually verified. As a consequence, the Histri can be incomplete or can contain errors ...
This Histri was built automatically but not manually verified. As a consequence, the Histri can be incomplete or can contain errors ...
Telomeres, the natural ends of linear eukaryotic chromosomes, are essential for chromosome stability. Because of the nature of DNA replication, telomeres require a specialized mechanism to ensure their complete duplication. Telomeres are also capable of silencing the transcription of genes that are located near them. In order to identify genes in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that are important for telomere function, a screen was conducted for genes that, when expressed in high amounts, would suppress telomeric silencing. This screen lead to the identification of the gene TLC1 (telomerase component 1). TLC1 encodes the template RNA of telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein required for telomere replication in a variety of organisms. The discovery of TLC1 confirms the existence of telomerase in S. cerevisiae and may facilitate both the analysis of this enzyme and an understanding of telomere structure and function. ...
Definition of saccharomycetaceae in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of saccharomycetaceae. What does saccharomycetaceae mean? Information and translations of saccharomycetaceae in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
Ohrt, T.; Odenwälder, P.; Dannenberg, J.; Prior , M.; Warkocki, Z.; Schmitzova, J.; Karaduman, R.; Gregor, I.; Enderlein, J.; Fabrizio, P. et al.; Lührmann, R.: Molecular dissection of step 2 catalysis of yeast pre-mRNA splicing investigated in a purified system. RNA 19 (7), pp. 902 - 915 (2013 ...
Nvm, začetne predpostavke so bolj kr neki, al kaj. A zdej ne smem imet mnenja proti vladi, če ni moja omiljena opcija al kaj. ...
Kensington 62833 Versatile Wrist Rest for Keyboards (two piece interlockable): Green - 13" Long x .75" High x 3" Wide. Double sided - use firm or soft support. Washable. Kensington 2 Year Limited Warranty
The VS ribozyme is one of the nucleolytic ribozymes, that catalyse the breakage of the phosphodiester bond at a particular site by a transesterification reaction in which the 2?-oxygen carries out a nucleophilic attack on the 3?-phosphorus. The reaction o
As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
A free platform for explaining your research in plain language, and managing how you communicate around it - so you can understand how best to increase its impact.
* found in: Rapid Fungal RNA Extraction Kit, EZ-10 Spin Column Plasmid DNA Mini-Preps Kits, RNase-Free DNase Set, Rapid Plant RNA Isolation Kit, EZ-10..
本會目前共有25個辦事處,分佈於低陸平原各市和3個海外辦事處。其中的華埠辦事處、列治文加愛中心 辦事處和三聯市辦事處屬於綜合服務中心,設有移民安頓服務、家庭及青少年服務、語言訓練、耆英和婦女服務等.. 聯繫我們 ...
Туристические гиды Кыргызской Республики получили сертификат международного образца, который был выдан им Всемирной федерацией ассоциаций туристических гидов (WFTGA), которая объединяет более 200 тыс. туристических гидов из 70 стран мира. При поддержке Агентства США по международному развитию (USAID) были организованы серии обучающих тренингов, по окончанию которых 31 туристических гидов получили сертификаты. Получение сертификации Всемирной федерации ассоциаций туристических гидов (WFTGA) позволит местным экскурсоводам предоставлять услуги на
1994ರಲ್ಲಿ ನಾರ್ತ್ ಅಮೇರಿಕನ್ ಫ್ರೀ ಟ್ರೇಡ್ ಅಗ್ರಿಮೆಂಟ್ (NAFTA) ಜಾರಿಗೆ ಬಂದ ನಂತರ, ಮೆಕ್ಸಿಕೊ ಆವಕಾಡೊಗಳನ್ನು USಗೆ ರಫ್ತು ಮಾಡಲು ಯತ್ನ ನಡೆಸಿತು. ಈ ರೀತಿಯ ವ್ಯಾಪಾರದಿಂದ ಹಣ್ಣಿನ ಜೊತೆ ಕ್ರಿಮಿಕೀಟಾದಿಗಳೂ ಪ್ರವೇಶಿಸಿ ಕ್ಯಾಲಿಫೋರ್ನಿಯಾದ ಬೆಳೆ ನಾಶವಾಗುತ್ತದೆ ಎಂದು ದೂರಿದ US ಸರಕಾರ ಈ ಕ್ರಮವನ್ನು ನಿರ್ಬಂಧಿಸಿತು. ಇದಕ್ಕೆ ಮೆಕ್ಸಿಕೊ ಸರಕಾರವು ಪ್ರತಿಕ್ರಿಯಿಸಿ U.S ಕೃಷಿ ವಿಭಾಗದ ತಪಾಸಣಾಅಧಿಕಾರಿಗಳನ್ನು ಮೆಕ್ಸಿಕೊಗೆ ಆಮಂತ್ರಿಸಿತು. ಆದರೆ ...
Variation of the expression of S. cerevisiae genes in single or in mixed culture with H. guilliermondii. The expression of each S. cerevisiae gene after 24, 48
S cerevisiae NOP58 protein: involved in pre-rRNA processing, 18S rRNA synthesis, and snoRNA synthesis; a component of the small subunit processome complex
Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells require two genes, CSG1/SUR1 and CSG2, for growth in 50 mM Ca2+, but not 50 mM Sr2+. CSG2 was… Expand ...
Hamdy4「緩解能藉由維持良好的飲食與規律的運動而延長》「. 患有二型糖尿病的人只要吃得正確3並持續保持身材就能讓此疾病保持在不需要藥物或是胰島素幫助治療的狀態》只是擁有計畫跟確實執行是完全不同的兩件事情》. Parrish4「我寫下每一個單一食物的熱量與碳水化合物的重量3並在一天的最後將它們加總起來》一旦我停下來作這件事情3我的體重就又開始增加》「. Hamdy 說3幹勁是能否長期成功的關鍵3而維持幹勁最好的方法就是設定可達到的目標》. 「當病患看到接近目標的成效便會被激勵》而當他們看到改善3他們甚至會變得更有幹勁》「. 以上是 Parrish ...
研究證實聽音樂或處在歡笑的情境下可能是另一種降低高血壓的方法》. 新研究指出中年男女或許能藉由多笑與聽他們喜歡的音樂來減少血壓計的讀數》 日本大阪大學的研究者們為了確定音樂與笑聲能否降低血壓3因此安排了兩種情況41. 聽到音樂或笑聲後立即測量》2. 在三個月期間內每週一次3讓參與者聽音樂或讓他們歡笑一個小時3並在結束後測量血壓》 科學家讓 79 位年齡在 40 ~ 74 歲的參與者隨機分成三組》32 位聽音樂 30 位是笑聲組3而最後的 17 位既不聽音樂也沒被安排到歡笑的情境》 在每種音樂或是歡笑情境的前後均會測量血壓》 ...
Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in vivo Prp8 splicing assay(A) Schematic representation of the two-step splicing pathway (SS, splice site; BS, branch site). Brie
1P-022 Saccharomyces cerevisiaeの糖代謝における転写制御ネットワークの予測(遺伝子工学,一般講演)1P-022 Saccharomyces cerevisiaeの糖代謝における転写制御ネットワークの予測(遺伝子工学,一般講演)AN10549378 ...
S cerevisiae DIM2 protein: a core constituent of the SSU RRP complex and conserved KH-domain containing protein, is required for pre-rRNA processing and is associated with early nucleolar and late cytoplasmic pre-rRNA species; has been sequenced
Kova su antsvoriu tikriausiai yra viena iš pačių seniausių moterų grumtynių. Ši sporto šaka ypatingai išpopuliarėja prieš šventes. O likus keletu
Fosfatidinska kiselina se sastoji od glicerolne osnove, sa u opštem slučaju zasićenom masnom kiselinom vezanom za ugljenik-1, nezasićenom masnom kiselinom na ugljeniku-2, i fosfatnom grupom na ugljeniku-3.[1][2] ...
Spectrum of fungal susceptibility[edit]. Cycloheximide has been used to isolate dermatophytes and inhibit the growth of fungi ... The ribosome-bound parts of RNA can then be sequenced. Cycloheximide has also been used for its antifungal properties to make ... Translation is halted via the addition of cycloheximide, and the DNA/RNA in the cell is then nuclease treated. ... Inhibition of protein synthesis is believed to be mediated through RNA translation arrest, as demonstrated in rat thymocytes. ...
"The evolution of novel fungal genes from non-retroviral RNA viruses". BMC Biology. 7: 88. doi:10.1186/1741-7007-7-88. Koonin, E ... Such fragments are usually not capable of producing infectious virus, but may express protein or RNA. EVEs have been identified ... 2010). "Taming of the shrewd: novel eukaryotic genes from RNA viruses". BMC Biology. 8: 2. doi:10.1186/1741-7007-8-2. ...
RNA silencing-based resistance is a powerful tool for engineering resistant crops. The advantage of RNAi as a novel gene ... Fungal, oomycete and nematode plant pathogens apparently express a few hundred effectors. So-called "core" effectors are ... As such, effectors offer examples of co-evolution (example: a fungal protein that functions outside of the fungus but inside of ... Expression of viral coat protein gene sequences conferred virus resistance via small RNAs. This proved to be a widely ...
subscription required) Ngô, H.; Tschudi, C.; Gull, K.; Ullu, E. (1998). "Double-stranded RNA induces mRNA degradation in ... Studies on the effect of griseofulvin on fungal growth and cytology (PhD thesis). London, Queen Elizabeth College. OCLC ...
DsRNA as well as ssRNA are assumed to be very ancient and presumably originated from the 'RNA world' as both types of RNA ... doi:10.1111/j.1744-7348.1991.tb05649.x. Buck, K. W. (1986). Fungal Virology- An overview', in K. Buck (ed.), Fungal Virology ( ... Many double stranded RNA elements that have been described in fungi do not fit this description, and in these cases they are ... According to Koonin, RNA viruses colonized eukaryotes first and subsequently co-evolved with their hosts. This concept fits ...
The genome has one open reading frame which encodes the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). The genome is associated with the ... 2020). "Narnaviruses: Novel players in fungal-bacterial symbioses". The ISME Journal. doi:10.1038/s41396-020-0638-y.CS1 maint: ... Replication follows the positive-strand RNA virus replication model. Positive-strand RNA virus transcription is the method of ... The genus has two species: Narnaviridae Narnavirus Saccharomyces 20S RNA narnavirus Saccharomyces 23S RNA narnavirus ICTV. " ...
Micro RNAs are involved in regulating the expression of many proteins. Med1 is targeted by miR-1, which is important in gene ... There are three fungal-specific components, referred to as Med2, Med3 and Med5. The subunits form at least three structurally ... Studies of Mediator-RNA Pol II contacts in budding yeast have emphasized the importance of TFIIB-Mediator contacts in the ... In addition to RNA polymerase II, mediator must also associate with transcription factors and DNA. A model of such interactions ...
The fungal disease has had a devastating economic and social impact on communities in the eastern United States. In the first ... The reduced infection was due to the presence of CHV1, an RNA virus that infects C. parasitica. CHV1 spread naturally ... However, in the early 1950s trees were identified in Italy that survived fungal infection. On these trees the fungus caused ... However, the virus was so efficient at attenuating fungal growth that it prevented spreading of the virus from an infected ...
Taylor, D. J.; J. Bruenn (2009). "The evolution of novel fungal genes from non-retroviral RNA viruses". BMC Biology. 7: 88. doi ... Viral fossils originating from non-retroviral RNA viruses have been termed Non-retroviral Integrated RNA Viruses or NIRVs. ... Koonin, E. (2010). "Taming of the shrewd: novel eukaryotic genes from RNA viruses". BMC Biology. 8: 2. doi:10.1186/1741-7007-8- ... The most surprising viral fossils originate from non-retroviral DNA and RNA viruses. Although there is no formal classification ...
Replication follows the double-stranded RNA virus replication model. Double-stranded RNA virus transcription is the method of ... Diseases associated with this genus include: hypovirulence of the fungal host. The name of the group derives from Ancient Greek ... Mycoreovirus is a genus of double-stranded RNA viruses in the family Reoviridae and subfamily Spinareovirinae. Fungi serve as ...
It is used as treatment for external fungal infections of aquarium fish. In an animal model, acriflavine has been shown to ... Acriflavine is used in biochemistry for fluorescently labeling high molecular weight RNA. ...
1990). Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. In: PCR Protocols: A Guide to ...
"Fungal negative-stranded RNA virus that is related to bornaviruses and nyaviruses". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... Mymonaviridae is a family of negative-strand RNA viruses in the order Mononegavirales. Fungi serve as natural hosts. The name ... This family was established to accommodate Sclerotinia sclerotiorum negative-stranded RNA virus 1 (SsNSRV-1) a novel virus ...
"Comparison of fungal mitochondrial introns reveals extensive homologies in RNA secondary structure". Biochimie. 64 (10): 867- ...
In RNA viruses a mutation would be a change to the genetic information that the RNA encodes. mycelium The "vegetative" ( ... decurrent Extending downward beyond the point of insertion, e.g. when the base of a leaf or a fungal gill is prolonged downward ... mycobiont The fungal component of a lichen. Compare photobiont. mycorrhiza One of several types of symbiotic association ... soredium In a lichen, a small groups of algal cells surrounded by fungal filaments that form in soralia, which break off and ...
Fischer WM, Palmer JD (September 2005). "Evidence from small-subunit ribosomal RNA sequences for a fungal origin of ... Liu YJ, Hodson MC, Hall BD (2006). "Loss of the flagellum happened only once in the fungal lineage: phylogenetic structure of ... The first described microsporidian genus, Nosema, was initially put by Nägeli in the fungal group Schizomycetes together with ... ISBN 978-2-9555841-0-1. Hawksworth, David (2001). "The magnitude of fungal diversity: The 1.5 million spices estimate revisited ...
Other interests include fungal and insect behavior and evolution, molecular biology and genomics of fungi, and mutualistic ... Leger, R.J (2010). "RNA binding proteins mediate the ability of a fungus to adapt to the cold". Environmental Microbiology. 12 ... Leger has published more than 150 scientific papers and book chapters on fungal pathogens of plants, animals and insects, and ... Leger, R.J (2011). "Local adaptation of an introduced transgenic insect fungal pathogen due to new beneficial mutations". ...
This species is part of the community of fungal successors of decaying wood. A Finnish study found that it fruited most ... "Phylogenetic classification of Antrodia and related genera based on ribosomal RNA internal transcribed spacer sequences". ... Yu, Chang-Jun; Zuo, Li; Dai, Yu-Cheng (2005). "Three polypores from Xizang new to China" (PDF). Fungal Science. 20 (3-4): 61-68 ... "Skeletocutis nothofagi Rajchenb". The Global Fungal Red List Initiative. IUCN. Retrieved 30 September 2016. Fries, Elias Magnus ...
It is part of the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme and plays a role in transcriptional elongation. The MYST family of HATs is named ... Rtt109 is a fungal-specific HAT that requires association with histone chaperone proteins for activity. The HAT activities of ... TFIIIC is one of the general transcription factors involved in RNA polymerase III-mediated transcription. Three components in ... Histone-modifying enzymes Histone deacetylase (HDAC) Histone methyltransferase (HMT) RNA polymerase control by chromatin ...
"Tomato immune receptor Ve1 recognizes effector of multiple fungal pathogens uncovered by genome and RNA sequencing". ... "Tomato immune receptor Ve1 recognizes effector of multiple fungal pathogens uncovered by genome and RNA sequencing". ... Avirulence on Ve1 is a protein first described from the fungal plant-pathogen, Verticillium dahliae, and is encoded by the Ave1 ...
Tavaborole inhibits an essential fungal enzyme, leucyl-transfer RNA synthetase, or LeuRS, required for protein synthesis. The ... Tavaborole is a topical antifungal drug for the treatment of onychomycosis, a fungal infection of the nail and nail bed. Anacor ... "FDA Approves Boron-based Drug to Treat Toenail Fungal Infections". ashp. Retrieved 7 October 2015. CS1 maint: discouraged ... inhibition of protein synthesis leads to termination of cell growth and cell death, eliminating the fungal infection. No ...
Xanthone messenger RNA and associated proteins are localized to the exodermis and Endodermis systems. Similar to other parts of ... It has also been found to actively treat fungal infections on human skin. Xanthone derivatives are being used to generate new ...
Additionally, 5S Clavams may have inhibitory effects on RNA synthesis, which is a common property of anti-fungal medications. ... Different molecules of the Clavam class have been shown to inhibit the action of several fungal species. 5S Clavams do not have ... Clavulanic acid is a broad-spectrum antibiotic and 5S clavams may have anti-fungal properties. They are similar to penams, but ...
Sulphur and phosphorus are macronutrients involved in the production of DNA, RNA and proteins in fungal species. It has been ... They have also been reported as allergens of other fungal species, and of species outside the kingdom Fungi. Curvularia ...
RNA may spread directly to other cells or nuclei by diffusion. A large amount of RNA and protein is contributed to the zygote ... For more details on this topic, see Fungal prions.. Prions are infectious forms of proteins. In general, proteins fold into ... Morris KL (2008). "Epigenetic Regulation of Gene Expression". RNA and the Regulation of Gene Expression: A Hidden Layer of ... RNA transcripts[edit]. Sometimes a gene, after being turned on, transcribes a product that (directly or indirectly) maintains ...
Cox, M.P.; Dong, T.; Shen, G.; Dalvi, Y.; Scott, D.B.; Ganley, A.R D. (2014). "An interspecific fungal hybrid reveals cross- ... Ganley, A.R.D.; Scott, D.B. (2002). "Concerted evolution in the ribosomal RNA genes of an Epichloë endophyte hybrid: comparison ... Campbell, M.A.; Ganley, A.R.D.; Gabaldón, T.; Cox, M.P. (2016). "The case of the missing ancient fungal polyploids". The ... As of 2016, Epichloë had the most known interspecific hybrids of any fungal genus. Epichloë hybrida was one of the first ...
The genomes of these fungal viruses only encode an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and have no structural proteins. The family has ... and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). The length of the genome is around 4800 nucleotides. The genomes of the other three ... Botourmiaviridae is a family of positive-strand RNA viruses which infect plants and fungi. The family includes four genera: ... Members of the family Botourmiaviridae have positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genomes. The genome of the genus Ourmiavirus ...
3 RNA-Viren *3.1 Doppelsträngige RNA-Viren (dsRNA, double stranded RNA). *3.2 Einzelstrang-RNA-Viren mit negativer Polarität ( ... Fungal Prions (Pilz-Prionen). Vorgeschlagene oder nicht-offizielle Virustaxa[Bearbeiten , Quelltext bearbeiten]. Die Virus- ... ss(−)RNA: negative single-stranded RNA). *3.3 Einzelstrang-RNA-Viren mit positiver Polarität (ss(+)RNA: positive single ... Einzelstrang-RNA-Viren mit negativer Polarität (ss(−)RNA: negative single-stranded RNA)[Bearbeiten , Quelltext bearbeiten]. ...
5,0 5,1 5,2 5,3 5,4 5,5 de Souza, P. M. et al., (2015). A biotechnology perspective of fungal proteases. Braz. J. Microbiol., ... mida kasutatakse DNA ja RNA eraldamiseks bioloogilisest materjalist[12][13] ja papaiin, mida kasutatakse rakkude isoleerimiseks ...
The peroxisome of plant cells is polarised when fighting fungal penetration. Infection causes a glucosinolate molecule to play ...
Atkins JF, Gesteland RF, Cech T (2006). The RNA world: the nature of modern RNA suggests a prebiotic RNA world. Plainview, N.Y ... of RNAs with molecular properties predicted for RNAs of the RNA World constitutes an additional argument supporting the RNA ... Properties of RNA[edit]. The properties of RNA make the idea of the RNA world hypothesis conceptually plausible, though its ... Although RNA is fragile, some ancient RNAs may have evolved the ability to methylate other RNAs to protect them.[10] ...
In fungal cells on the other hand microplipophagy constitutes the main pathway and is especially well studied in yeast ... detecting single stranded RNA. Following activation of the toll-like receptor, intracellular signaling cascades are initiated, ... Lipophagy is the degradation of lipids by autophagy,[31] a function which has been shown to exist in both animal and fungal ... "Subversion of cellular autophagosomal machinery by RNA viruses". PLoS Biology. 3 (5): e156. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0030156 ...
Once the virus has gained access to the host's cells, the virus' genetic material (RNA or DNA) must be introduced to the cell. ... Bacterial infections are treated with antibacterials (often called antibiotics) whereas fungal and viral infections are treated ... Most DNA viruses assemble in the nucleus while most RNA viruses develop solely in cytoplasm.[22][23] ...
RNA, etc.), or to complex macromolecular assemblies.[3] Finally, while aspects of the lab techniques applied to peptides versus ... fungal peptides, invertebrate peptides, amphibian/skin peptides, venom peptides, cancer/anticancer peptides, vaccine peptides ...
Recurrent bacterial and fungal infections and chronic inflammation of the gut and lungs are seen in chronic granulomatous ... it may be included in this group because the autoantigens are often ubiquitous t-RNA synthetases. ...
"Loss of the flagellum happened only once in the fungal lineage: phylogenetic structure of kingdom Fungi inferred from RNA ... Beckett, A., Heath, I. B., and Mclaughlin, D. J. (1974). An Atlas of Fungal Ultrastructure. Longman, Green, New York. ... For example, the word "protist pathogen" may be used to denote any disease-causing organism that is not plant, animal, fungal, ...
The lolines are insecticidal and insect-deterrent compounds that are produced in grasses infected by endophytic fungal ... and experimental genetic tests involving manipulation of selected LOL genes by RNA interference and gene knockout have directly ... Siegel, MR; Latch, GCM.; Bush, LP; Fannin, FF; Rowan, D.; Tapper, BA; Bacon, CW; Johnson, MC (1990). "Fungal endophyte-infected ... Wilkinson HH, Siegel MR, Blankenship JD, Mallory AC, Bush LP, Schardl CL (2000). "Contribution of fungal loline alkaloids to ...
These are geared towards lay readers, not readers who are technically proficient. Do not replace easy to understand lay variants (e.g. "smell") with difficult variants lay readers will not understand (e.g. "olfaction ...
"Types of Fungal Diseases , Fungal Diseases , CDC". www.cdc.gov. 2019-06-27. Retrieved 2019-12-09.. ... For example, humans can make neither RNA replicases nor reverse transcriptase, and the presence of these enzymes are ... An interesting fact that gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, 16S ribosomal RNA analysis, omics, and other advanced ...
RNA and protein-based approachesEdit. Metatranscriptomics studies have been performed to study the gene expression of microbial ... In mutualistic situations the plant often exchanges hexose sugars for inorganic phosphate from the fungal symbiont. It is ... Shi, Y.; Tyson, G. W.; Delong, E. F. (2009). "Metatranscriptomics reveals unique microbial small RNAs in the ocean's water ... the sequence of DNA which encodes the ribosomal RNA molecule).[47] Since ribosomes are present in all living organisms, using ...
"Loss of the flagellum happened only once in the fungal lineage: phylogenetic structure of kingdom Fungi inferred from RNA ... "Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B 21 (3): 258-66. PMID 9290240. doi:10.1006/fgbi.1997.0979.. ... 2006). "Assembling the Fungal Tree of Life: constructing the structural and biochemical database". Mycologia 98 (6): 850-59. ... Schüssler A; Schwarzott D; Walker C. (2001). "A new fungal phylum, the Glomeromycota: phylogeny and evolution". Mycological ...
positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • apoptotic process. • response to lipopolysaccharide. • ... As a membrane surface receptor, TLR2 recognizes many bacterial, fungal, viral, and certain endogenous substances. In general, ...
In the fungal mitochondrial ribosomes, 5S rRNA is replaced by LSU rRNA expansion sequences.[23] In kinetoplastids (euglenozoans ... The 5S ribosomal RNA (5S rRNA) is an approximately 120 nucleotide-long ribosomal RNA molecule with a mass of 40 kDa. It is a ... "A specific transcription factor that can bind either the 5S RNA gene or 5S RNA". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 77 (7): 4170-, ... doi:10.1261/rna.2170803. PMC 1370395. PMID 12592002.. *^ Bullerwell, CE; Burger, G; Gott, JM; Kourennaia, O; Schnare, MN; Gray ...
RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ... Fungal *Pneumocystis. *Parasitic. *noninfectious *Chemical/ ... RNA virus. HCV Hepatocellular carcinoma. Splenic marginal zone lymphoma. HTLV-I Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. ... RNA virus. MeV Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. LCV Lymphocytic choriomeningitis. Arbovirus encephalitis. Orthomyxoviridae ...
... pathways indicates that proteins required for RNA silencing have been lost independently from many fungal ... RNAs are the direct products of genes, and these small RNAs can direct enzyme complexes to degrade messenger RNA (mRNA) ... These processed RNAs are incorporated into the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which targets messenger RNA to prevent ... Two types of small ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules - microRNA (miRNA) and small interfering RNA (siRNA) - are central to RNA ...
Members of this family have been found to have anti-cancer, anti-bacterial and anti-fungal properties. One example isolated ... In 2007 one analysis based on comparisons of RNA and another based mainly on comparison of spicules concluded that demosponges ...
Neutropenia or lymphoma arising secondary to cyclophosphamide usage can predispose people to a variety of bacterial, fungal and ... It is believed to work by interfering with the duplication of DNA and the creation of RNA.[4] ...
Mechanism of RNA recombination in carmo- and tombusviruses: evidence for template switching by the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase ... Gene conversion has often been studied in fungal crosses[7] where the 4 products of individual meioses can be conveniently ... RNA virus recombinationEdit. Numerous RNA viruses are capable of genetic recombination when at least two viral genomes are ... When replicating its (+)ssRNA genome, the poliovirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) is able to carry out recombination. ...
In molecular biology, an amplicon is a piece of DNA or RNA that is the source and/or product of amplification or replication ... This works similarly in the fungal domain with the 18S rRNA gene. ... which is used to measure plasma viral load by amplifying a segment of the HIV RNA; and Transcription Mediated Amplification, ...
Infection by fungal pathogens is treated with anti-fungal medication. Fungal infections such as athlete's foot, jock itch, and ... They are composed solely of a short strand of circular, single-stranded RNA that has no protein coating. All known viroids are ... These internal infections can either be treated with anti-fungal creams or with oral medication. Common anti-fungal drugs for ... The typical fungal spore size is ,4.7 μm in length, but some spores may be larger.[13] ...
Anti-fungal foot soak. *Precursor for sodium perborate monohydrate that is used in detergents, as well as for boric acid and ... for polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of DNA and RNA, such as TBE buffer (borate buffered tris-hydroxymethylaminomethonium)[17 ... It is used to make buffer solutions in biochemistry, as a fire retardant, as an anti-fungal compound, in the manufacture of ...
Plant and fungal cells [ak] are also electrically excitable. The fundamental difference from animal action potentials is that ... If Xenopus neurons are grown in an environment with RNA synthesis or protein synthesis inhibitors that transition is prevented. ...
"Fungal Genetics and Biology. 49 (6): 455-469. doi:10.1016/j.fgb.2012.03.006. PMID 22503770.. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter ... based on restriction enzyme analysis of the 28S ribosomal RNA gene". Experimental Mycology. 19 (3): 223-233. doi:10.1006/emyc. ... 2002). "Consumption of fungal sporocarps by Yellowstone grizzly bears". Ursus. 13: 95-103. JSTOR 3873191.. CS1 maint: Uses ... Fungal Genetics and Biology. 48 (3): 252-265. doi:10.1016/j.fgb.2010.09.006. PMID 20888422.. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter ...
The photosynthetic cyanobacterium Hyella caespitosa (round shapes) with fungal hyphae (translucent threads) in the lichen ... RNA, proteins and metabolites, is utilised by the bacteria to achieve regulation of gene expression. In bacteria, the principal ...
Interactions between Ty1 Retrotransposon RNA and the T and D Regions of the tRNAiMet Primer Are Required for Initiation of ... RNA Recognition Motif 2 of Yeast Pab1p Is Required for Its Functional Interaction with Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor ...
Double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) are widespread in plant pathogenic fungi, but their functions in fungal hosts remain mostly ... Double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) are widespread in plant pathogenic fungi, but their functions in fungal hosts remain mostly ... Sequencing of several cDNA clones derived from 6.0-kbp dsRNA revealed the presence of a RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDRP) ... These results strongly suggest that 6.0-kbp dsRNA up regulates fungal virulence in N. radicicola. ...
RNA interference-based silencing of the alpha-amylase (amy1) gene in Aspergillus flavus decreases fungal growth and aflatoxin ... Power IL, Dang PM, Sobolev VS, Orner VA, Powell JL, Lamb MC, Arias RS (2017) Characterization of small RNA populations in non- ... Jonte Ellison and Darlene Downey isolated RNA and DNA, and Jonte Ellison conducted genotyping PCR of individual kernels and ... Majumdar R, Rajasekaran K, Cary JW (2017) RNA interference (RNAi) as a potential tool for control of mycotoxin contamination in ...
Total RNA can be purified from fresh or frozen plant tissues, plant cells or filamentous fungi samples using this kit. ... Kit provides a rapid method for the isolation and purification of total RNA from a wide range of plant and filamentous fungal ... Fungal RNA Isolation. Fungal RNA was isolated from 50 mg of wet fungi samples of Botrytis cinerea, Alternaria tenuissima, ... Figure 9. Resolution of fungal RNA on Agilent Bioanalyzer. Total RNA was isolated with Norgens Plant/Fungi RNA Purification ...
A gene involved in modifying transfer RNA is required for fungal pathogenicity and stress tolerance of Colletotrichum ... We conclude that APH1 is required for fungal infection in C. lagenarium. Aph1 showed a strong similarity to Saccharomyces ...
Here, we investigate one of these strategies, by studying the repertoire of Toxoplasma silencing small RNAs (sRNAs). In ... prompting a re-evaluation of our current views on RNA silencing in eukaryotes. ...
Fungal Small RNAs Suppress Plant Immunity by Hijacking Host RNA Interference Pathways ... Fungal Small RNAs Suppress Plant Immunity by Hijacking Host RNA Interference Pathways ... Fungal Small RNAs Suppress Plant Immunity by Hijacking Host RNA Interference Pathways ... Fungal Small RNAs Suppress Plant Immunity by Hijacking Host RNA Interference Pathways ...
RNA-Seq of Early-Infected Poplar Leaves by the Rust Pathogen Melampsora Larici-Populina Uncovers PtSultr3;5, a Fungal-Induced ... Poplar RNA-Seq data were validated by oligoarrays and quantitatively analysed, which revealed a highly stable transcriptome ...
Plant RNA Kit, the E.Z.N.A.® Fungal RNA Kit uses an improved buffer system that ... Fungal RNA Mini Kit R6840-00 Modified from the E.Z.N.A.® ... E.Z.N.A.® Fungal RNA Mini Kit. Catalog number. R6840-00 (5 ... Modified from the E.Z.N.A.® Plant RNA Kit, the E.Z.N.A.® Fungal RNA Kit uses an improved buffer system that is more efficient ... This kit provides convenient and rapid methods for the isolation of total RNA from a variety of fungal species. Rather, the ...
We have generated transcriptional profiles of young fungal sexual structures using a combination of LM and RNA-seq. This ... RNA-seq analysis of protoperithecia from the sterile mutant pro1 showed that many genes that are differentially regulated in ... The LM/RNA-seq approach will also be relevant to other eukaryotic systems in which multicellular development is investigated. ... However, little is known about the spatial distribution of gene expression in fungal development. Here, we used laser ...
Fungal RNA Kit. Purified total RNA from 100 mg fungal species was isolated with the E.Z.N.A.® Fungal RNA Kit. RNA was extracted ... E.Z.N.A.® Fungal RNA Kit. Products. , RNA Top Sellers. , Plant and Fungal. , E.Z.N.A.® Fungal RNA Kit. ... Modified from the E.Z.N.A.® Plant RNA Kit, the E.Z.N.A.® Fungal RNA Kit uses an improved buffer system that is more efficient ... Total RNA (10% of total purified RNA) was analyzed to demonstrate yield and quality of the RNA. ...
... ... Here we determined the cryo-EM structure at 3.7 Å resolution of Rosellinia necatrix quadrivirus 1 (RnQV1), a fungal double- ... Fungal virus evolution has tended to allocate enzyme activities to the virus capsid outer surface. ... Unlike their counterparts in bacterial and higher eukaryotic hosts, most fungal viruses are transmitted intracellularly and ...
free fungal rna of TSO, CICS, IMS Current. This free fungal rna is New computer. free fungal rna biology funny July 1, 1983. ... How make you be free fungal rna biology? Or what has free fungal rna find to you? s free fungal rna legal and relevant, or is ... free fungal and they once going guards? This free fungal rna biology my model about disrupting them. had an free fungal rna is ... D free fungal rna in Universal City, Calif. 22 Bell Letting contributions. After negotiating this free fungal rna. free fungal ...
Fungal tRNA ligase (Trl1) rectifies RNA breaks with 2,3-cyclic-PO4 and 5-OH termini. Trl1 consists of three catalytic ... Fungal tRNA ligase (Trl1) rectifies RNA breaks with 2,3-cyclic-PO4 and 5-OH termini. Trl1 consists of three catalytic ... Atomic structures of the RNA end-healing 5-OH kinase and 2,3-cyclic phosphodiesterase domains of fungal tRNA ligase: ... Trl1 enzymes found in all human fungal pathogens are untapped targets for antifungal drug discovery. Here we report a 1.9 Å ...
The project of the Unit RNA Biology of Fungal Pathogens deals with the study of the structure and plasticity of the ... Fungal infections have emerged over the past three decades as a considerable threat to human health. These deadly fungal ... In order to gain deeper insights into the distribution of introns in the C. neoformans genome, we have used RNA-Seq […] ... During the last decade, advances in the sequencing technologies have revealed a large set of new eukaryotic RNA molecules. For ...
RNA interference in the fungal pathogen Candida albicans Staab, Janet F. Seattle Biomedical Research Institute, Seattle, WA, ... RNA interference in the fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Staab, Janet F. / Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center. $173,000. ... RNA interference in the fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Staab, Janet F. / Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center. $22,605. ... RNA interference in the fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Staab, Janet F. / Seattle Biomedical Research Institute. $171,312. ...
RNA quality was checked by agarose gel electrophoresis, and total RNA concentration was measured at 260 nm for each sample and ... Fungal Strain and Growth. The N. parvum strain Np-Bt67 (Reis et al., 2016) isolated from Portuguese vineyards (Estremadura area ... RNA Extraction and qRT-PCR Analysis. Leaf samples from cuttings and shoots from plantlets were collected respectively at 4 days ... Möbius, N., and Hertweck, C. (2009). Fungal phytotoxins as mediators of virulence. Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 12, 390-398. doi: ...
Guilhem Janbon - RNA Biology of Fungal Pathogens. Human Fungal Pathogens; Cryptococcus neoformans; Intron Dependent Gene ... How the influenza virus achieves efficient viral RNA replication. *Human contact plays big role in spread of some hospital ... How the influenza virus achieves efficient viral RNA replication. *Human contact plays big role in spread of some hospital ... Airborne Bacterial Volatiles stimulate Fungal Growth. *Alexandre Yersin, the man who discovered the bacterium responsible for ...
Fungal and Yeast Nucleic Acids ATCC offers genomic DNA from a variety of fungi, including Geomyces destructans, the pathogen ...
... expression signatures in mice that are linked to Candida albicans bloodstream infections and can discern between these fungal ... This webinar will present a method for RNA-seq expression analysis of FFPE-derived RNA samples that are too degraded for ... research team has pinned down gene expression signatures in mice that coincide with bloodstream infections caused by the fungal ...
These play central roles in the synthesis of mycotoxins including aflatoxin and cyclopiazonic acid, and fungal development and ... These play central roles in the synthesis of mycotoxins including aflatoxin and cyclopiazonic acid, and fungal development and ... In summary, two global transcriptional regulators for fungal development, mycotoxin production, and seed pathogenicity of the A ... In summary, two global transcriptional regulators for fungal development, mycotoxin production, and seed pathogenicity of the A ...
For control mixes of RNA isolated from pure culture, 5 ng total RNA was analyzed, unless otherwise specified. Sample RNA was ... The ITS1 RNA counts were over 100-fold less abundant, suggesting that ITS1 RNA, which is processed from rRNA-containing RNAs, ... Profiling of Bacterial and Fungal Microbial Communities in Cystic Fibrosis Sputum Using RNA. Nora Grahl, Emily L. Dolben, Laura ... Here, we report an approach to detect diverse bacterial and fungal taxa in complex samples by direct analysis of community RNA ...
The synthesis of labeled target copy RNA (cRNA) used 5 μg of total RNA and was performed using the GeneChip One-Cycle Target ... Assessment of Fungal mRNA Accumulation. Fungal growth was assessed by quantifying the constitutively expressed P. pachyrhizi α- ... and RNA was extracted from approximately 200 mg using 1 mL of Tri Reagent (Molecular Research Center). RNA samples were further ... RNA concentration and quality were determined using a NanoDrop spectrophotometer (NanoDrop Technologies) and by RNA Nano ...
... 226484_155371_ ... Conclusions: We demonstrate the success of a novel method of incorporating RNA-seq data into GHMM fungal gene prediction. This ... CodingQuarry: Highly accurate hidden Markov model gene prediction in fungal genomes using RNA-seq transcripts. BMC Genomics. 16 ... improving gene prediction from these resources is of benefit to fungal researchers. While many pipelines now incorporate RNA- ...
DNA & RNA*BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool). *BLAST (Stand-alone). *E-Utilities ... Fungal, Bacterial, and Archaeal Diversity in the Digestive Tract of Several Beetle Larvae (Coleoptera).. Ziganshina EE1, ... Relative abundance of fungal phyla (based on ITS region) within larval gut samples. Abbreviations of samples in figure in ... Fungal, Bacterial, and Archaeal Diversity in the Digestive Tract of Several Beetle Larvae (Coleoptera) ...
RNA. Ribonucleic acid. RPB. Reciprocating plate bioreactor. rpm. Radians per minute (stirring speed) ... Baldrian P (2006) Fungal laccases-occurrence and properties. FEMS Microbiol Rev 30:215-242Google Scholar ... Papagianni M (2004) Fungal morphology and metabolite production in submerged mycelial processes. Biotechnol Adv 22:189-259 ... Kelly S, Grimm LH, Bendig C, Hampel DC, Krull R (2006) Effects of fluid dynamic induced shear stress on fungal growth and ...
RNA, Fungal. Grant support. *GM 20379/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/United States ... A rapid and simple method for preparation of RNA from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.. Schmitt ME1, Brown TA, Trumpower BL. ...
RNA Viral Infections, 178. Bibliography for Viral Infections, 179. Bacterial and Fungal Infections, 180 ...
... among which 16 and five were paralleled with the expression of their corresponding RNAs. Moreover, 13 of 50 DEPs were reported ... RNA Expression of DEPs in Rice in Response to Different Fungal Isolate Infection. The DEPs in rice in response to different ... Figure 4. RNA abundance of DEPs in CN-4b in response to GUY11 infection. (a) RNA and its protein expression abundance of 16 ... Figure 4. RNA abundance of DEPs in CN-4b in response to GUY11 infection. (a) RNA and its protein expression abundance of 16 ...
  • Trl1 enzymes found in all human fungal pathogens are untapped targets for antifungal drug discovery. (rcsb.org)
  • The project of the Unit RNA Biology of Fungal Pathogens deals with the study of the structure and plasticity of the transcriptomes of human fungal pathogens. (pasteur.fr)
  • Although the role of RNAi in the biology of C. albicans is unknown, the probability is high that novel gene regulatory mechanisms will be found that are common to other fungal pathogens. (grantome.com)
  • Because of the diversity of these hemibiotrophic fungal pathogens and their virulence characters, understanding the interactions that lead to the disease symptomatology is a major challenge in viticulture. (frontiersin.org)
  • These two genes may belong to a class of proteins specific for filamentous fungi and function as novel virulence factors in fungal pathogens. (plantcell.org)
  • Citrobacter species are unusual pathogens in peritonitis , and fungal peritonitis is a serious complication of bacterial peritonitis . (bvsalud.org)
  • Aggressive fungal pathogens such as Botrytis and Verticillium spp. (nctu.edu.tw)
  • In Plant Fungal Pathogens: Methods and Protocols , expert researchers in the field detail many of the methods which are now commonly used to study fungal plant pathogens. (springer.com)
  • Authoritative and practical, Plant Fungal Pathogens: Methods and Protocols seeks to aid scientists in the further study in current techniques that cover a wide-range of methods to study molecular aspects of pathogenesis. (springer.com)
  • The current volume is a unique collection of 41 chapters from a diverse group of scientists, researchers, and academics working on different aspects of the molecular basis of fungal pathogens and pathogenesis. (springer.com)
  • Dimorphic fungal pathogens including Blastomyces are the cause of major fungal diseases in North and South America. (prolekare.cz)
  • We investigate the trajectory of genome evolution of this group, characterizing the phylogenetic relationships of these species, a remarkable genome expansion that formed large isochore-like regions of low GC content in Blastomyces, and variation of gene content, related to host interaction, among the dimorphic fungal pathogens. (prolekare.cz)
  • The identification of key fungal genes involved in adaptation to the host suggests targets for further study and therapeutic intervention in Blastomyces and related dimorphic fungal pathogens. (prolekare.cz)
  • Blastomyces is part of a larger group of dimorphic fungal pathogens, including Histoplasma , Paracoccidioides , and Coccidioides , all belonging to the order Onygenales. (prolekare.cz)
  • Bats are also known to harbor and transmit nonviral zoonotic pathogens, including the fungal pathogen Histoplasma capsulatum, which causes histoplasmosis in humans ( 5 ). (cdc.gov)
  • An NGS-based diagnostic approach appeared to be suitable for the identification of fungal pathogens in patients suffering from fungemia as well as in patients with negative blood cultures. (mdpi.com)
  • The RNA is preferentially purified from other cellular components, such as proteins, without the use of phenol or chloroform. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • As these methods do not require sets of homologous proteins, improving gene prediction from these resources is of benefit to fungal researchers. (edu.au)
  • At 24 and 48 hpi of GUY11, 32 and 16 proteins in CN-4b were up-regulated, among which 16 and five were paralleled with the expression of their corresponding RNAs. (mdpi.com)
  • Gene Expression is the process by which a gene gets turned on in a cell to make RNA and proteins. (news-medical.net)
  • The N-terminal region of a number of fungal transcriptional regulatory proteins contains a Cys-rich motif that is involved in zinc-dependent binding of DNA. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Sm and Sm-like proteins (LSm) are evolutionarily conserved families that function broadly in the processing of RNA. (nature.com)
  • This mechanism is posttranscriptional and is proposed to involve the production of small RNA, so-called masiRNAs, by proteins homologous to those involved in RNA interference−silencing pathways in animals, fungi, and plants. (g3journal.org)
  • Separation of the RNA-binding role of PRC2 from its other activities - formation of the catalytically competent complex, recognition of histone tails, methyltransferase activity and interactions with accessory proteins - would greatly help to identify any PRC2 recruitment events that are dependent on RNA binding and to characterize RNA-mediated epigenetic silencing or inhibition of silencing. (elifesciences.org)
  • NEW YORK (GenomeWeb News) - A Duke University research team has pinned down gene expression signatures in mice that coincide with bloodstream infections caused by the fungal pathogen Candida albicans . (genomeweb.com)
  • In this work, we assess the use of the NanoString nCounter technology ( 15 ) to detect specific bacterial and fungal taxa in sputum samples from individuals with CF-related respiratory infections. (asm.org)
  • Evidence of noncandidal systemic fungal infections. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To compare the safety, tolerance and efficacy of fluconazole and amphotericin B as treatment for biopsy proven fungal infections in major organs, disseminated infection, suspected fungal infection and fungemia in adult neutropenic and non-neutropenic patients without AIDS, AIDS related complex (ARC), or extensive burns. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To study the effectiveness, safety, and tolerance of fluconazole versus clotrimazole troches (lozenges) as prophylaxis (preventive treatment) against fungal infections in patients enrolled in ACTG 081 (a study of prophylaxis against pneumocystosis, toxoplasmosis, and serious bacterial infection). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To compare the mortality rates due to fungal infections between two antifungal prophylactic treatments. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Secondarily, to assess the effect of prophylaxis on the incidence of severe fungal infections, defined as invasive infections and esophageal candidiasis and less severe mucocutaneous infection. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Serious fungal infections are significant complicating and life-threatening occurrences in patients with advanced HIV infection. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Once established, fungal infections in AIDS patients generally require continuous suppressive therapy because attempts at curing these infections are usually unsuccessful. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Fungal infections by Rhodotorula species are increasingly reported in the literature and consist of bloodstream infections, especially in patients with central venous catheters (CVC), as well as centr. (bioportfolio.com)
  • What broad spectrum anti-fungal drug is indicated for treatment of severe to life-threatening fungal infections? (brainscape.com)
  • Which Triazolole is a broad spectrum drug that is indicated for systemic fungal infections, as well as oral and esophageal candidiasis? (brainscape.com)
  • Molecular Methods for the Diagnosis of Fungal Infections. (routledge.com)
  • However, invasive fungal infections are often life-threatening, probably due to inefficient diagnostic methods and inappropriate initial antifungal therapies. (hindawi.com)
  • The dimorphic fungi collectively are the most common cause of invasive fungal disease worldwide and account for several million infections each year [ 8 ]. (prolekare.cz)
  • All sizes of RNA are purified, from large mRNA and ribosomal RNA down to microRNA (miRNA) and small interfering RNA (siRNA). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In this report, we identify a cellular RNA binding protein isolated from the ribosomal salt wash of uninfected HeLa cells that specifically binds to stem-loop IV, a domain located in the central part of the poliovirus IRES. (pnas.org)
  • Isolate cultures were confirmed as Citrobacter freundii by DNA sequencing of the 16s ribosomal ribonucleic acid ( RNA ). (bvsalud.org)
  • Common component of RNA polymerases I and III which synthesize ribosomal RNA precursors and small RNAs, such as 5S rRNA and tRNAs, respectively. (uniprot.org)
  • We tested for fungal ribosomal DNA (rDNA) in extracted total nucleic acid specimens by using the PCR protocol designed to amplify all rDNA from 4 major fungus phyla at the internal transcribed spacer 1 and 2 regions ( 8 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Norgen's Plant/Fungi Total RNA Purification Kit provides a rapid method for the isolation and purification of total RNA from a wide range of plant and filamentous fungal species. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In addition, Norgen's Plant/Fungi RNA Purification kit was also used to purify total RNA from various fungal species indicating the broad application diversity of the kit. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • This kit provides convenient and rapid methods for the isolation of total RNA from a variety of fungal species. (tebu-bio.com)
  • Purified total RNA from 100 mg fungal species was isolated with the E.Z.N.A.® Fungal RNA Kit. (omegabiotek.com)
  • RNA was extracted from fungal species as follows: sample 1 from E. edodes , sample 2 from V. volvacea , sample 3 from F. velutipes , sample 4 from H. erinaceum . (omegabiotek.com)
  • We designed rRNA-targeting probe sets to detect 42 bacterial and fungal genera or species common in cystic fibrosis (CF) sputum and demonstrated the taxon specificity of these probes, as well as a linear response over more than 3 logs of input RNA. (asm.org)
  • The main goal of this work was to characterize the gut microbiota in larvae of several Coleoptera species using sequencing of the bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes and fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. (nih.gov)
  • Sets of homologous protein sequences are rarely complete with respect to the fungal species of interest and are often small or unreliable, especially when closely related species have not been sequenced or annotated in detail. (edu.au)
  • This kit is designed for preparation of high quality total RNA from a wide range of fungal species. (thomassci.com)
  • This kit is designed for preparation of high quality total RNA from a wide variety of plant species and tissues types. (thomassci.com)
  • We have developed a web-based platform called FungiExp hosting fungal gene expression levels and alternative splicing profiles in 35,821 curated RNA-seq experiments from 220 species. (researchsquare.com)
  • Our survey also revealed that fungi lack canonical gene-body methylation, which distinguishes fungal epigenomes from certain insect and plant species. (nature.com)
  • However, some fungal species possess independently derived clusters of contiguous 5mC encompassing many genes. (nature.com)
  • Transcript contigs, protein sequences from multiple fungal species, and ab initio gene predictions were included as evidence sources in the Maker gene prediction pipeline, resulting in 6,992 consensus gene models. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Fungal mutualistic association with plant species has become one of the important emerging contemporary issues in biology. (springer.com)
  • The purpose of this review is to provide a brief overview on endophytic fungal studies carried out in different plant species, ecological perspectives, methods, and applications in different fields. (springer.com)
  • Here, we synthesize both genome sequencing of four isolates of Blastomyces and two species of Emmonsia as well as deep sequencing of Blastomyces RNA to draw major new insights into the evolution of this group and the pathogen response to infection. (prolekare.cz)
  • Fungal DNA barcoding is the process of identifying species of the biological kingdom Fungi through the amplification and sequencing of specific DNA sequences and their comparison with sequences deposited in a DNA barcode database such as the ISHAM reference database, or the Barcode of Life Data System (BOLD). (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, fungal species can comprise multiple strains that can vary in their morphology or in traits such as carbon- and nitrogen utilisation, which has often led to their description as different species, eventually producing long lists of synonyms. (wikipedia.org)
  • PRC2 has been shown to interact with thousands of RNA species in vivo, but understanding the physiological function of RNA binding has been hampered by the lack of separation-of-function mutants. (elifesciences.org)
  • Computational methods predict a bZIP intron with its characteristic RNA structure in 128 out of 156 species studied. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, only Norgen's kit was able to isolate the small RNA species (white box). (biocat.com)
  • Host-induced gene silencing, whereby the host crop produces siRNA molecules targeting crucial genes in the invading fungus and targeting the gene for degradation, has shown to be promising in its ability to inhibit fungal growth and decrease aflatoxin contamination. (springer.com)
  • RNA-seq analysis of protoperithecia from the sterile mutant pro1 showed that many genes that are differentially regulated in these structures are under the genetic control of transcription factor PRO1. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Moreover, silencing of fungal genes by exogenous target gene-specific double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) (spray-induced gene silencing, SIGS) is dependent on DCLs, AGOs, and QIP, but not on QDE3. (figshare.com)
  • From a biotechnological perspective, silencing of fungal genes by generating siRNAs in the host provides a novel strategy for the development of broad fungi-resistance strategies in plants and other organisms. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The generation of thousands of fungal genomes is leading to a better understanding of genes and genomic organization within the kingdom. (nature.com)
  • We recently discovered that Botrytis cinerea delivers small RNAs (Bc-sRNAs) into plant cells to silence host immunity genes. (nctu.edu.tw)
  • Here we show that expressing sRNAs that target Bc-DCL1 and Bc-DCL2 in Arabidopsis and tomato silences Bc-DCL genes and attenuates fungal pathogenicity and growth, exemplifying bidirectional cross-kingdom RNAi and sRNA trafficking between plants and fungi. (nctu.edu.tw)
  • We manually annotated genes with homologs in other fungal genomes that have known relevance to fungal virulence and life history. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In Neurospora crassa , the introduction of a transgene can lead to small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS) of homologous genes. (asm.org)
  • The bZIP intron RNA motif is an RNA structure guiding splicing of a non-canonical intron from bZIP-containing genes called HAC1 in yeast, XBP1 in Metazoa, Hxl1 or Cib1 in Basidiomycota and bZIP60 in plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sequencing of several cDNA clones derived from 6.0-kbp dsRNA revealed the presence of a RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDRP) gene. (apsnet.org)
  • DNA-dependent RNA polymerase catalyzes the transcription of DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside triphosphates as substrates. (uniprot.org)
  • A novel virus of the late blight pathogen, Phytophthora infestans, with two RNA segments and a supergroup 1 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. (semanticscholar.org)
  • RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity associated with the yeast viral p91/20S RNA ribonucleoprotein complex. (semanticscholar.org)
  • CoV RNA was detected by using nested reverse transcription PCR with the degenerated primers to amplify the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase ( RdRp ) gene ( 6 ). (cdc.gov)
  • These small RNAs are dependent on SAD-1, an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase necessary for meiotic silencing. (g3journal.org)
  • Expressing an RNAi construct in maize kernels that targets the gene for alpha-amylase in Aspergillus flavus resulted in suppression of alpha-amylase ( amy1 ) gene expression and decreased fungal growth during in situ infection resulting in decreased aflatoxin production. (springer.com)
  • We conclude that APH1 is required for fungal infection in C. lagenarium. (nih.gov)
  • After fungal infection of tomato or Arabidopsis leaves, the plant cells contained a suite of fungal-derived sRNAs. (sciencemag.org)
  • Treatments of intercurrent non-fungal infection. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Diagnosis or presumption of fungal infection under defined conditions. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Randomized Comparative Study of Fluconazole Versus Clotrimazole Troches in the Prevention of Serious Fungal Infection in Patients With AIDS or Advanced AIDS-Related Complex. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Evidence of non-candidal systemic fungal infection. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • How do you fight a fungal infection that is becoming increasingly resistant to medicine? (news-medical.net)
  • We present a case of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis peritonitis caused by Citrobacter freundii complicated by a fungal infection with abscess formation. (bvsalud.org)
  • Suspicion of a fungal infection combined with bacterial peritonitis will improve the prognosis of patients on peritoneal dialysis . (bvsalud.org)
  • Krings M, Taylor TN, Hass H et al (2007) Fungal endophytes in a 400-million-yr-old land plant: infection pathways, spatial distribution, and host responses. (springer.com)
  • Using RNA-Seq, we profile the response of Blastomyces to macrophage and mouse pulmonary infection, identifying key pathways and novel virulence factors. (prolekare.cz)
  • Blastomyces is a genus of a thermally dimorphic fungal pathogen, which is the etiological agent of blastomycosis, a lung infection that can become a systemic mycosis. (prolekare.cz)
  • In total, 22% ( n = 11) of patients suffered from a fungal infection. (mdpi.com)
  • Moreover, MR-proADM and IL-17A in plasma proved suitable for the identification of patients with a fungal infection. (mdpi.com)
  • Here, we demonstrate that maize inbred B104 expressing an RNAi construct targeting the A. flavus alpha-amylase gene amy1 effectively reduces amy1 gene expression resulting in decreased fungal colonization and aflatoxin accumulation in kernels. (springer.com)
  • The PTGS effect is achieved by the degradation of mRNA termed RNA interference (RNAi). (grantome.com)
  • In filamentous fungi, gene silencing through RNA interference (RNAi) shapes many biological processes, including pathogenicity. (figshare.com)
  • Analysis of trichothecenes mycotoxins in wheat kernels showed that the relative amount of deoxynivalenol (DON), calculated as [DON] per amount of fungal genomic DNA was reduced in all spikes infected with RNAi mutants, suggesting the possibility that the fungal RNAi pathways affect Fg's DON production. (figshare.com)
  • Together these data show that in F. graminearum, different key components of the RNAi machinery are crucial in different steps of fungal development and pathogenicity. (figshare.com)
  • Self-complementary RNA transcripts form a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) that triggers a sequence-specific mRNA degradation, in a process known as RNA interference (RNAi), leading to gene silencing. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The genetic interference phenomenon [RNA interference (RNAi)] was described in Caenorhabditis elegans in which double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) induces individual sequence-specific posttranscriptional gene silencing. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The expressed transcripts form a dsRNA that triggers a sequence-specific messenger (m)RNA degradation (RNAi). (beds.ac.uk)
  • We conclude that in Neurospora , siRNAs produced from the transgenic locus are used in the RNA-induced silencing complex-mediated PTGS pathway and do not communicate with an RNAi-induced initiation of transcriptional gene silencing complex to effect chromatin-based silencing. (asm.org)
  • Inactivation at the posttranscriptional level has been detected in plants, where it is called cosuppression ( 30 ), fungi, where it is called quelling ( 37 ), and animals, where it is called RNA interference (RNAi) and is triggered by the introduction of double-stranded RNA ( 16 ). (asm.org)
  • Biochemical analyses suggested that the 6.0-kbp dsRNA may regulate fungal virulence through signal-transduction pathways involving cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and protein kinase C. (apsnet.org)
  • Gene expression may be measured by looking at the RNA, or the protein made from the RNA, or what the protein does in a cell. (news-medical.net)
  • The protein was isolated by specific RNA affinity chromatography, and 55% of its sequence was determined by automated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. (pnas.org)
  • The sequence obtained matched that of poly(rC) binding protein 2 (PCBP2), previously identified as an RNA binding protein from human cells. (pnas.org)
  • RNA-Binding Protein Rnc1 Regulates Cell Length at Division and Acute Stress Response in Fission Yeast through Negative Feedback Modulation of the Stress-Activated Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathway. (uniprot.org)
  • Such fragments are usually not capable of producing infectious virus, but may express protein or RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • It may interfere with RNA and protein synthesis and metabolism. (medscape.com)
  • The 12,13-epoxytrichothecenes, a group of sesquiterpenoid fungal antibiotics, inhibit protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells but do not share a common mode of action. (mendeley.com)
  • Preferential binding of G-quadruplex RNA is conserved, surprisingly using different protein elements. (elifesciences.org)
  • The unusual nature of this protein-RNA interaction provides a paradigm for other epigenetic modifiers that bind RNA without canonical RNA-binding motifs. (elifesciences.org)
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  • RNA-seq has become a standard tool in biology and has produced large and diverse transcriptomic datasets for users to explore fungal expression regulation. (researchsquare.com)
  • These include methods and techniques for model systems such as Arabidopsis thaliana as well as crop plants, aspects of fungal biology, genome annotation, next-generation sequencing, and fungal transformation and molecular tools for disease and/or pathogen quantification that are critical for revealing the role for a fungal gene of interest in disease development. (springer.com)
  • Transcriptome analysis of the honey bee fungal pathogen, Ascosphaera apis: implications for host pathogenesis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Using Hypoviruses to Probe and Perturb Signal Transduction Processes Underlying Fungal Pathogenesis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Norgen's Plant/Fungi RNA Purification Kit provides an innovative and rapid method for the isolation and purification of total RNA, including small RNA from both plant and fungal cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Norgen's Plant/Fungi RNA Purification kit has been developed to specifically target the isolation of RNA and DNA from difficult plant materials. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Isolation & Purification, RNA, Bio Basic Inc. (thomassci.com)
  • This kit uses a reagent similar to TRIzol for rapid RNA isolation from animal tissue, cells, and some of the plant tissue. (thomassci.com)
  • Isolation of High Quality RNA, even from Difficult Samples. (biocat.com)
  • Norgen's kit allowed for the isolation of high-quality RNA from all the samples, including the difficult samples, while the competitor failed to isolate RNA from grape, pine needles and strawberry. (biocat.com)
  • EF1-a was detected from all samples, indicating that the RNA is of high quality and that the Plant/Fungi RNA Purification kit is highly sensitive for total RNA isolation. (biocat.com)
  • For the isolation of plant and fungal RNA from challenging samples using Norgen's Plant/Fungi RNA Purification Kit, see application notes (links below). (biocat.com)
  • Total RNA was isolated from 50 mg samples of apple (red), peach (green), pine needle (blue) and grape leaves (burgundy) using Norgen´s Plant/Fungi Total RNA Purification Kit. (biocat.com)
  • Candida albicans is the most important fungal opportunistic pathogen. (hindawi.com)
  • The soil is a heterogeneous environment that is densely populated with bacteria and fungi, and as such, represents an outstanding system in which to study the effects of bacterial-fungal interactions. (elifesciences.org)
  • Eight commonly used RNA markers were chosen including -actin, GAPDH, RPS29, 18S rRNA, 5S rRNA, U6 snRNA, miRNA-9 and miRNA-125b, and the expression levels were detected in brain tissue by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR. (bireme.br)
  • Moreover, the detection of multiple DEGs as the miRNA target site implies that a small RNA mediated gene silencing cascade may also be regulating gender differentiation in C. grandis. (bireme.br)
  • Unlike their counterparts in bacterial and higher eukaryotic hosts, most fungal viruses are transmitted intracellularly and lack an extracellular phase. (csic.es)
  • Here, we report an approach to detect diverse bacterial and fungal taxa in complex samples by direct analysis of community RNA in one step using NanoString probe sets. (asm.org)
  • Culture-based analyses correlated qualitatively with relative abundance data on bacterial and fungal taxa obtained by NanoString, and the analysis of serial samples demonstrated the use of this method to simultaneously detect bacteria and fungi and to detect microbes at low abundance without an amplification step. (asm.org)
  • Compared at the genus level, the relative abundances of bacterial taxa detected by analysis of RNA correlated with the relative abundances of the same taxa as measured by sequencing of the V4V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene amplified from community DNA from the same sample. (asm.org)
  • A rapid means to measure bacterial and fungal populations may aid in the study of host response to changes in microbial communities. (asm.org)
  • Fungal, Bacterial, and Archaeal Diversity in the Digestive Tract of Several Beetle Larvae (Coleoptera). (nih.gov)
  • It focuses on specific applications of NATs to human disease diagnosis and treatment, from viral, bacterial, fungal, and protozoan detection to genetic exploration by SNP determinations, patterns of RNA expression, and the growing relevance of epigenetic changes. (routledge.com)
  • To determine what fungal pathways are. (usda.gov)
  • Purified RNA can be used for many downstream applications such as RT-PCR, Northern Blotting, Poly A ₊(mRNA) purification, and differential display. (tebu-bio.com)
  • The recently described phenomenon of gene silencing termed post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) triggered by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) appears to be a conserved mechanism involved in resistance to viruses, protection of the genome from repetitive elements, developmental timing, and heterochromatin silencing. (grantome.com)
  • Stajich, J. E. Fungal genomes and insights into the evolution of the kingdom. (nature.com)
  • These results strongly suggest that 6.0-kbp dsRNA up regulates fungal virulence in N. radicicola . (apsnet.org)
  • This study demonstrates for the first time the in vivo interference phenomenon in the pathogenic fungus Fusarium verticillioides , in which expression of an individual fungal transgene was specifically abolished by inoculating mycelial cells in transgenic tobacco plants engineered to express siRNAs from a dsRNA corresponding to the particular transgene. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Poplar RNA-Seq data were validated by oligoarrays and quantitatively analysed, which revealed a highly stable transcriptome with a single transcript encoding a sulfate transporter (herein named PtSultr3;5, POPTR_0006s16150) showing a dramatic increase upon colonization by either virulent or avirulent M. larici-populina strains. (nih.gov)
  • Additionally, the fungal transcriptome was analyzed at 48 hours after inoculation in planta . (osti.gov)
  • All student submissions will be considered for awards given out by the Fungal Genetics Conference. (genetics-gsa.org)
  • At the same time, RNA was purified from plant leaf tissue using the leading market competitor's plant RNA purification kit according to the manufacturer's protocol and used in comparative experiments. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • These play central roles in the synthesis of mycotoxins including aflatoxin and cyclopiazonic acid, and fungal development and are consequently central to the pathogenicity of the aflatoxigenic A. flavus . (frontiersin.org)
  • In summary, two global transcriptional regulators for fungal development, mycotoxin production, and seed pathogenicity of the A. flavus system have been established. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, the analyses of RNA-seq datasets are made difficult by the heterogeneity of study design and complex bioinformatics approaches. (researchsquare.com)
  • Comprehensive analyses of these published datasets should contribute new insights into fungal expression regulation. (researchsquare.com)
  • Strain A was found to produce higher amounts of respirable fragments than strain B. Lung tissue, serum, and BAL fluid were collected at 24 and 48 hours after final exposure and processed for histology, flow cytometry, and RNA and proteomic analyses. (cdc.gov)
  • RNA is unstable when a biological sample is harvested, usually immediately frozen is required to preserve RNA from degradation. (thomassci.com)
  • We show that Lar7 has conserved RNA-recognition motifs, which bind telomerase RNA to protect it from exosomal degradation. (nature.com)
  • Fungal tRNA ligase (Trl1) rectifies RNA breaks with 2',3'-cyclic-PO4 and 5'-OH termini. (rcsb.org)
  • The LM/RNA-seq approach will also be relevant to other eukaryotic systems in which multicellular development is investigated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Rather, the method involves a simple and rapid precipitation step for removal of much of the polysaccharides and phenolic compounds commonly found in fungal tissues. (tebu-bio.com)
  • The kit is also used to isolate total RNA from plant tissue. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Plant RNA was isolated from 50 mg of plant leaf tissue (equivalent to ~5 x 10 6 plant cells) using Norgen's Plant/Fungi RNA Purification kit as per the provided protocol ( Figure 1 ). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In combination with HiBind ® RNA spin columns, this method permits purification of high-quality RNA from as much as 200 mg tissue. (tebu-bio.com)
  • The system is also efficient enough to purify total RNA from as little as 10 mg of tissue or 100 cells. (tebu-bio.com)
  • Correlation between RNA Expression Level and Early PMI in Human Brain Tissue]. (bireme.br)
  • METHODS: Twelve individuals with known PMI (range from 4.3 to 22.5 h) were selected and total RNA was extracted from brain tissue. (bireme.br)
  • Total RNA was isolated from 100 mg of Arabidopsis thaliana leaf tissue according to manufacturer's recommended protocols. (omegabiotek.com)
  • Clotrimazole is a broad-spectrum antifungal agent that inhibits yeast growth by altering cell-membrane permeability, causing death of fungal cells. (medscape.com)
  • Here, we used laser microdissection (LM) and RNA-seq to determine gene expression patterns in young fruiting bodies (protoperithecia) and non-reproductive mycelia of the ascomycete Sordaria macrospora . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Background: Stagonospora nodorum, a fungal ascomycete in the class dothideomycetes, is a damaging pathogen of wheat. (edu.au)
  • What is the fungal cell membrane made up of? (brainscape.com)
  • Ergosterol, analogous to cholesterol in animal cells, is the largest sterol component of the fungal cell membrane. (hindawi.com)
  • Econazole disrupts cell membrane permeability, causing death of fungal cells. (medscape.com)
  • RNA was extracted from 10 mg of fecal pellet by using the QIAamp Viral RNA Mini Kit (QIAGEN, Hilden, Germany). (cdc.gov)
  • A rapid and simple method for preparation of RNA from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (nih.gov)
  • Rice blast, which is caused by this heterothallic haploid fungus, is one of the most severe fungal diseases of rice throughout the world ( Valent, 1990 ). (plantcell.org)
  • This strategy can be adapted to simultaneously control multiple fungal diseases. (nctu.edu.tw)
  • We have generated transcriptional profiles of young fungal sexual structures using a combination of LM and RNA-seq. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Non-canonical RNA nucleotidyltransferases (NTases), including poly(A), poly(U) polymerases (PAPs/PUPs) and C/U-adding enzymes, modify 3′-ends of different transcripts affecting their functionality and stability. (waw.pl)
  • What elements within PRC2 bind RNA has been unclear, especially since none of the core PRC2 subunits has an RNA recognition motif (RRM). (elifesciences.org)
  • Total RNA can be purified from fresh or frozen plant tissues, plant cells or filamentous fungi samples using this kit. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Total RNA can be purified from fresh or frozen filamentous fungi samples using this kit. (thomassci.com)
  • In this application note, Norgen's Plant/Fungi RNA Purification Kit is used to isolate total RNA from various challenging plant samples, including grape and pine needles. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The avirulent isolate Hawaii 94-1 elicits hypersensitive cell death that limits fungal growth on Ankur and results in an incompatible response, while the virulent isolate Taiwan 80-2 grows extensively, sporulates profusely, and produces a compatible reaction. (plantphysiol.org)
  • An unusual RNA element was discovered in an isolate of the oomyceteous fungus Phytophthora infestans. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The EZ-10 Column Total RNA Mini-Prep Kit allows efficient purification of total RNA from various samples, total RNA is easily purified from animal or human cells and tissues using a simple spin format. (thomassci.com)