A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A process that changes the nucleotide sequence of mRNA from that of the DNA template encoding it. Some major classes of RNA editing are as follows: 1, the conversion of cytosine to uracil in mRNA; 2, the addition of variable number of guanines at pre-determined sites; and 3, the addition and deletion of uracils, templated by guide-RNAs (RNA, GUIDE).
The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.
The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.
RNA that has catalytic activity. The catalytic RNA sequence folds to form a complex surface that can function as an enzyme in reactions with itself and other molecules. It may function even in the absence of protein. There are numerous examples of RNA species that are acted upon by catalytic RNA, however the scope of this enzyme class is not limited to a particular type of substrate.
The processes of RNA tertiary structure formation.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC
Ribonucleic acid in fungi having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The extent to which an RNA molecule retains its structural integrity and resists degradation by RNASE, and base-catalyzed HYDROLYSIS, under changing in vivo or in vitro conditions.
A family of proteins that promote unwinding of RNA during splicing and translation.
RNA molecules which hybridize to complementary sequences in either RNA or DNA altering the function of the latter. Endogenous antisense RNAs function as regulators of gene expression by a variety of mechanisms. Synthetic antisense RNAs are used to effect the functioning of specific genes for investigative or therapeutic purposes.
Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.
The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.
Short chains of RNA (100-300 nucleotides long) that are abundant in the nucleus and usually complexed with proteins in snRNPs (RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL NUCLEAR). Many function in the processing of messenger RNA precursors. Others, the snoRNAs (RNA, SMALL NUCLEOLAR), are involved with the processing of ribosomal RNA precursors.
RNA transcripts of the DNA that are in some unfinished stage of post-transcriptional processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL) required for function. RNA precursors may undergo several steps of RNA SPLICING during which the phosphodiester bonds at exon-intron boundaries are cleaved and the introns are excised. Consequently a new bond is formed between the ends of the exons. Resulting mature RNAs can then be used; for example, mature mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER) is used as a template for protein production.
RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated RNAs they are not included in this scope.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Nucleic acid structures found on the 5' end of eukaryotic cellular and viral messenger RNA and some heterogeneous nuclear RNAs. These structures, which are positively charged, protect the above specified RNAs at their termini against attack by phosphatases and other nucleases and promote mRNA function at the level of initiation of translation. Analogs of the RNA caps (RNA CAP ANALOGS), which lack the positive charge, inhibit the initiation of protein synthesis.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Ribonucleic acid in protozoa having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
RNA present in neoplastic tissue.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of linear RNA to a circular form by the transfer of the 5'-phosphate to the 3'-hydroxyl terminus. It also catalyzes the covalent joining of two polyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage. EC
A large family of RNA helicases that share a common protein motif with the single letter amino acid sequence D-E-A-D (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp). In addition to RNA helicase activity, members of the DEAD-box family participate in other aspects of RNA metabolism and regulation of RNA function.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure where it transcribes DNA into RNA. It has specific requirements for cations and salt and has shown an intermediate sensitivity to alpha-amanitin in comparison to RNA polymerase I and II. EC
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. The enzyme functions in the nucleolar structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salts than RNA polymerase II and III and is not inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC
RNA molecules found in the nucleus either associated with chromosomes or in the nucleoplasm.
Small kinetoplastid mitochondrial RNA that plays a major role in RNA EDITING. These molecules form perfect hybrids with edited mRNA sequences and possess nucleotide sequences at their 5'-ends that are complementary to the sequences of the mRNA's immediately downstream of the pre-edited regions.
Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 28S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
Constituent of 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 3200 nucleotides. 23S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
The process of moving specific RNA molecules from one cellular compartment or region to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms.
The small RNAs which provide spliced leader sequences, SL1, SL2, SL3, SL4 and SL5 (short sequences which are joined to the 5' ends of pre-mRNAs by TRANS-SPLICING). They are found primarily in primitive eukaryotes (protozoans and nematodes).
Small, linear single-stranded RNA molecules functionally acting as molecular parasites of certain RNA plant viruses. Satellite RNAs exhibit four characteristic traits: (1) they require helper viruses to replicate; (2) they are unnecessary for the replication of helper viruses; (3) they are encapsidated in the coat protein of the helper virus; (4) they have no extensive sequence homology to the helper virus. Thus they differ from SATELLITE VIRUSES which encode their own coat protein, and from the genomic RNA; (=RNA, VIRAL); of satellite viruses. (From Maramorosch, Viroids and Satellites, 1991, p143)
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Ribonucleic acid in archaea having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A reaction that severs one of the sugar-phosphate linkages of the phosphodiester backbone of RNA. It is catalyzed enzymatically, chemically, or by radiation. Cleavage may be exonucleolytic, or endonucleolytic.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A group of ribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
Nuclear nonribosomal RNA larger than about 1000 nucleotides, the mass of which is rapidly synthesized and degraded within the cell nucleus. Some heterogeneous nuclear RNA may be a precursor to mRNA. However, the great bulk of total hnRNA hybridizes with nuclear DNA rather than with mRNA.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Small RNAs found in the cytoplasm usually complexed with proteins in scRNPs (RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL CYTOPLASMIC).
The steps that generate the 3' ends of mature RNA molecules. For most mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), 3' end processing referred to as POLYADENYLATION includes the addition of POLY A.
Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.
Short RNA, about 200 base pairs in length or shorter, that does not code for protein.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.
A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 5.8S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A class of untranslated RNA molecules that are typically greater than 200 nucleotides in length and do not code for proteins. Members of this class have been found to play roles in transcriptional regulation, post-transcriptional processing, CHROMATIN REMODELING, and in the epigenetic control of chromatin.
Small nuclear RNAs that are involved in the processing of pre-ribosomal RNA in the nucleolus. Box C/D containing snoRNAs (U14, U15, U16, U20, U21 and U24-U63) direct site-specific methylation of various ribose moieties. Box H/ACA containing snoRNAs (E2, E3, U19, U23, and U64-U72) direct the conversion of specific uridines to pseudouridine. Site-specific cleavages resulting in the mature ribosomal RNAs are directed by snoRNAs U3, U8, U14, U22 and the snoRNA components of RNase MRP and RNase P.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Synthetic transcripts of a specific DNA molecule or fragment, made by an in vitro transcription system. This cRNA can be labeled with radioactive uracil and then used as a probe. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of RNA. It includes EC 3.1.26.-, EC 3.1.27.-, EC 3.1.30.-, and EC 3.1.31.-.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Ribonucleic acid in chloroplasts having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of single-stranded regions of DNA or RNA molecules while leaving the double-stranded regions intact. They are particularly useful in the laboratory for producing "blunt-ended" DNA molecules from DNA with single-stranded ends and for sensitive GENETIC TECHNIQUES such as NUCLEASE PROTECTION ASSAYS that involve the detection of single-stranded DNA and RNA.
Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.
Ribonucleic acid in helminths having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying phenylalanine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying lysine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying tyrosine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.
Cyclic peptides extracted from carpophores of various mushroom species. They are potent inhibitors of RNA polymerases in most eukaryotic species, blocking the production of mRNA and protein synthesis. These peptides are important in the study of transcription. Alpha-amanitin is the main toxin from the species Amanitia phalloides, poisonous if ingested by humans or animals.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
An enzyme catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of RNA at the 3'-position of a guanylate residue. EC
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Within most types of eukaryotic CELL NUCLEUS, a distinct region, not delimited by a membrane, in which some species of rRNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) are synthesized and assembled into ribonucleoprotein subunits of ribosomes. In the nucleolus rRNA is transcribed from a nucleolar organizer, i.e., a group of tandemly repeated chromosomal genes which encode rRNA and which are transcribed by RNA polymerase I. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology & Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
Intermediates in protein biosynthesis. The compounds are formed from amino acids, ATP and transfer RNA, a reaction catalyzed by aminoacyl tRNA synthetase. They are key compounds in the genetic translation process.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
Nucleotide sequences located at the ends of EXONS and recognized in pre-messenger RNA by SPLICEOSOMES. They are joined during the RNA SPLICING reaction, forming the junctions between exons.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying alanine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS which is the causal agent of POLIOMYELITIS in humans. Three serotypes (strains) exist. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route, pharyngeal secretions, or mechanical vector (flies). Vaccines with both inactivated and live attenuated virus have proven effective in immunizing against the infection.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
An RNA-containing enzyme that plays an essential role in tRNA processing by catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of TRANSFER RNA precursors. It removes the extra 5'-nucleotides from tRNA precursors to generate mature tRNA molecules.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC
A compound composed of a two CYCLIC PEPTIDES attached to a phenoxazine that is derived from STREPTOMYCES parvullus. It binds to DNA and inhibits RNA synthesis (transcription), with chain elongation more sensitive than initiation, termination, or release. As a result of impaired mRNA production, protein synthesis also declines after dactinomycin therapy. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1993, p2015)
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying aspartic acid to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying methionine to sites on the ribosomes. During initiation of protein synthesis, tRNA(f)Met in prokaryotic cells and tRNA(i)Met in eukaryotic cells binds to the start codon (CODON, INITIATOR).
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A genus of tripartite plant viruses in the family BROMOVIRIDAE. Transmission is by beetles. Brome mosaic virus is the type species.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A ribonuclease that specifically cleaves the RNA moiety of RNA:DNA hybrids. It has been isolated from a wide variety of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms as well as RETROVIRUSES.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Sequences within RNA that regulate the processing, stability (RNA STABILITY) or translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of RNA.
A multiribosomal structure representing a linear array of RIBOSOMES held together by messenger RNA; (RNA, MESSENGER); They represent the active complexes in cellular protein synthesis and are able to incorporate amino acids into polypeptides both in vivo and in vitro. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the exonucleolytic cleavage of RNA. It includes EC 3.1.13.-, EC 3.1.14.-, EC 3.1.15.-, and EC 3.1.16.-. EC 3.1.-
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying glycine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying histidine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying valine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
A group of uridine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each uridine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
A family of RNA viruses infecting insects and fish. There are two genera: Alphanodavirus and Betanodavirus.
Use for nucleic acid precursors in general or for which there is no specific heading.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying arginine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
Ribonucleic acid in algae having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A family of ribonucleoproteins that were originally found as proteins bound to nascent RNA transcripts in the form of ribonucleoprotein particles. Although considered ribonucleoproteins they are primarily classified by their protein component. They are involved in a variety of processes such as packaging of RNA and RNA TRANSPORT within the nucleus. A subset of heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoproteins are involved in additional functions such as nucleocytoplasmic transport (ACTIVE TRANSPORT, CELL NUCLEUS) of RNA and mRNA stability in the CYTOPLASM.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Highly conserved nuclear RNA-protein complexes that function in RNA processing in the nucleus, including pre-mRNA splicing and pre-mRNA 3'-end processing in the nucleoplasm, and pre-rRNA processing in the nucleolus (see RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL NUCLEOLAR).
A defective virus, containing particles of RNA nucleoprotein in virion-like form, present in patients with acute hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis. It requires the presence of a hepadnavirus for full replication. This is the lone species in the genus Deltavirus.
Proteins found in ribosomes. They are believed to have a catalytic function in reconstituting biologically active ribosomal subunits.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying tryptophan to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
DNA sequences recognized as signals to end GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
A bacteriophage genus of the family LEVIVIRIDAE, whose viruses contain the short version of the genome and have a separate gene for cell lysis.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes nagana in domestic and game animals in Africa. It apparently does not infect humans. It is transmitted by bites of tsetse flies (Glossina).
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A genus of plant viruses that infects ANGIOSPERMS. Transmission occurs mechanically and through soil, with one species transmitted via a fungal vector. The type species is Tomato bushy stunt virus.
A purine nucleoside that has guanine linked by its N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is a component of ribonucleic acid and its nucleotides play important roles in metabolism. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The addition of a tail of polyadenylic acid (POLY A) to the 3' end of mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). Polyadenylation involves recognizing the processing site signal, (AAUAAA), and cleaving of the mRNA to create a 3' OH terminal end to which poly A polymerase (POLYNUCLEOTIDE ADENYLYLTRANSFERASE) adds 60-200 adenylate residues. The 3' end processing of some messenger RNAs, such as histone mRNA, is carried out by a different process that does not include the addition of poly A as described here.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying leucine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)

A novel nucleotide incorporation activity implicated in the editing of mitochondrial transfer RNAs in Acanthamoeba castellanii. (1/1357)

In Acanthamoeba castellanii, most of the mtDNA-encoded tRNAs are edited by a process that replaces one or more of the first three nucleotides at their 5' ends. As a result, base pairing potential is restored at acceptor stem positions (1:72, 2:71, and/or 3:70, in standard tRNA nomenclature) that are mismatched according to the corresponding tRNA gene sequence. Here we describe a novel nucleotide incorporation activity, partially purified from A. castellanii mitochondria, that has properties implicating it in mitochondrial tRNA editing in this organism. This activity is able to replace nucleotides at the first three positions of a tRNA (positions 1, 2, and 3), matching the newly incorporated residues through canonical base pairing to the respective partner nucleotide in the 3' half of the acceptor stem. Labeling experiments with natural (Escherichia coli tRNATyr) and synthetic (run-off transcripts corresponding to A. castellanii mitochondrial tRNALeu1) substrates suggest that the nucleotide incorporation activity consists of at least two components, a 5' exonuclease or endonuclease and a template-directed 3'-to-5' nucleotidyltransferase. The nucleotidyltransferase component displays an ATP requirement and generates 5' pppN... termini in vitro. The development of an accurate and efficient in vitro system opens the way for detailed studies of the biochemical properties of this novel activity and its relationship to mitochondrial tRNA editing in A. castellanii. In addition, the system will allow delineation of the structural features in a tRNA that identify it as a substrate for the labeling activity.  (+info)

A cis-acting A-U sequence element induces kinetoplastid U-insertions. (2/1357)

A 34-nucleotide A-U sequence located immediately upstream of the editing sites of the Leishmania tarentolae cytochrome b mRNA induces a mitochondrial extract to insert U nucleotides independent of guide RNA. Insertions are localized to positions immediately 5' and 3' of the A-U sequence. When placed within an unedited mammalian transcript, the A-U sequence is sufficient to induce U-insertions. The sequence has a high degree of similarity with the templating nucleotides of a cytochrome b guide RNA and with a sequence adjacent to the editing sites in ND7 mRNA, the other characterized kinetoplastid mRNA supporting guide RNA-independent U-insertions. At least one protein specifically interacts with the A-U sequence. The reaction is consistent with a mechanism proposed for guide RNA-directed editing.  (+info)

The RNA-editing enzyme ADAR1 is localized to the nascent ribonucleoprotein matrix on Xenopus lampbrush chromosomes but specifically associates with an atypical loop. (3/1357)

Double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminase (ADAR1, dsRAD, DRADA) converts adenosines to inosines in double-stranded RNAs. Few candidate substrates for ADAR1 editing are known at this point and it is not known how substrate recognition is achieved. In some cases editing sites are defined by basepaired regions formed between intronic and exonic sequences, suggesting that the enzyme might function cotranscriptionally. We have isolated two variants of Xenopus laevis ADAR1 for which no editing substrates are currently known. We demonstrate that both variants of the enzyme are associated with transcriptionally active chromosome loops suggesting that the enzyme acts cotranscriptionally. The widespread distribution of the protein along the entire chromosome indicates that ADAR1 associates with the RNP matrix in a substrate-independent manner. Inhibition of splicing, another cotranscriptional process, does not affect the chromosomal localization of ADAR1. Furthermore, we can show that the enzyme is dramatically enriched on a special RNA-containing loop that seems transcriptionally silent. Detailed analysis of this loop suggests that it might represent a site of ADAR1 storage or a site where active RNA editing is taking place. Finally, mutational analysis of ADAR1 demonstrates that a putative Z-DNA binding domain present in ADAR1 is not required for chromosomal targeting of the protein.  (+info)

The involvement of gRNA-binding protein gBP21 in RNA editing-an in vitro and in vivo analysis. (4/1357)

RNA editing in the parasitic organism Trypanosoma brucei is characterised by the insertion and deletion of uridylate residues into otherwise incomplete primary transcripts. The processing reaction is a required pathway for the expression of most mitochondrial genes and proceeds by a cascade of enzyme-catalysed steps. RNA editing involves one or more macromolecular ribonucleoprotein complexes which are likely to interact with additional components as the reaction proceeds. Here we examined the involvement of the gRNA-binding polypeptide gBP21, a protein which has been demonstrated to be associated with active RNA editing complexes. We show that in vitro RNA editing can be suppressed by the addition of a gBP21-specific antibody or by immunodepletion of the protein. By creating a gBP21 knockout mutant we analysed the requirement for the protein in vivo. gBP21(-) trypanosomes are viable as bloodstream stage cells and contain edited mRNAs. However, the knockout mutant is not capable of differentiating from the bloodstream to the insect life cycle stage in vitro. Moreover, mutant cells are characterised by a low mitochondrial transcript abundance. Together, these data establish that gBP21 contributes a non-essential function to the RNA editing reaction and further suggest that the protein is involved in additional mitochondrial processes which impact a larger pool of mitochondrial transcripts.  (+info)

RNA determinants for translational editing. Mischarging a minihelix substrate by a tRNA synthetase. (5/1357)

The fidelity of protein synthesis requires efficient discrimination of amino acid substrates by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. Accurate discrimination of the structurally similar amino acids, valine and isoleucine, by isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase (IleRS) results, in part, from a hydrolytic editing reaction, which prevents misactivated valine from being stably joined to tRNAIle. The editing reaction is dependent on the presence of tRNAIle, which contains discrete D-loop nucleotides that are necessary to promote editing of misactivated valine. RNA minihelices comprised of just the acceptor-TPsiC helix of tRNAIle are substrates for specific aminoacylation by IleRS. These substrates lack the aforementioned D-loop nucleotides. Because minihelices contain determinants for aminoacylation, we thought that they might also play a role in editing that has not previously been recognized. Here we show that, in contrast to tRNAIle, minihelixIle is unable to trigger the hydrolysis of misactivated valine and, in fact, is mischarged with valine. In addition, mutations in minihelixIle that enhance or suppress charging with isoleucine do the same with valine. Thus, minihelixIle contains signals for charging (by IleRS) that are independent of the amino acid and, by itself, minihelixIle provides no determinants for editing. An RNA hairpin that mimics the D-stem/loop of tRNAIle is also unable to induce the hydrolysis of misactivated valine, both by itself and in combination with minihelixIle. Thus, the native tertiary fold of tRNAIle is required to promote efficient editing. Considering that the minihelix is thought to be the more ancestral part of the tRNA structure, these results are consistent with the idea that, during the development of the genetic code, RNA determinants for editing were added after the establishment of an aminoacylation system.  (+info)

RNA editing of the human serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine 2C receptor silences constitutive activity. (6/1357)

RNA transcripts encoding the serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine 2C (5-HT2C) receptor (5-HT2CR) undergo adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing events at up to five specific sites. Compared with rat brain, human brain samples expressed higher levels of RNA transcripts encoding the amino acids valine-serine-valine (5-HT2C-VSV) and valine-glycine-valine (5-HT2C-VGV) at positions 156, 158, and 160, respectively. Agonist stimulation of the nonedited human receptor (5-HT2C-INI) and the edited 5-HT2C-VSV and 5-HT2C-VGV receptor variants stably expressed in NIH-3T3 fibroblasts demonstrated that serotonergic agonists were less potent at the edited receptors. Competition binding experiments revealed a guanine nucleotide-sensitive serotonin high affinity state only for the 5-HT2C-INI receptor; the loss of high affinity agonist binding to the edited receptor demonstrates that RNA editing generates unique 5-HT2CRs that couple less efficiently to G proteins. This reduced G protein coupling for the edited isoforms is primarily due to silencing of the constitutive activity of the nonedited 5-HT2CR. The distinctions in agonist potency and constitutive activity suggest that different edited 5-HT2CRs exhibit distinct responses to serotonergic ligands and further imply that RNA editing represents a novel mechanism for controlling physiological signaling at serotonergic synapses.  (+info)

Mutational analysis of apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme (APOBEC1). structure-function relationships of RNA editing and dimerization. (7/1357)

APOBEC1 is the catalytic subunit of an enzyme complex that mediates apolipoprotein (apo) B mRNA editing. It dimerizes in vitro and requires complementation factor(s) for its editing activity. We have performed a systematic analysis of the structure-functional relationship of APOBEC1 by targeted mutagenesis of various sequence motifs within the protein. Using in vitro RNA editing assay, we found that basic amino acid clusters at the amino-terminal region R15R16R17 and R33K34, are essential for apoB mRNA editing. Mutation of R15R16R17 to K15K16K17 and mutation of R33K34 simultaneously to A33A34 almost completely abolished in vitro editing activity. The carboxy-terminal region of APOBEC1 contains a leucine-rich motif. Deletion analysis of this region indicates that residues 181 to 210 are important for in vitro apoB mRNA editing. Single amino acid substitutions demonstrate that L182, I185, and L189 are important residues required for normal editing function. Furthermore, the double mutant P190A/P191A also lost >90% of editing activity which suggests that a beta turn in this region of the molecule may be essential for proper functioning of APOBEC1. It was suggested that dimerization of APOBEC1 creates an active structure for deamination of apoB mRNA. When we examined the dimerization potential of truncated APOBEC1s using both amino and carboxy termini deletion mutants, we found that amino-terminal deletions up to residue A117 did not impair dimerization activity whereas carboxy-terminal deletions showed diminished dimerization. The systematic and extensive mutagenesis experiments in this study provide information on the role of various sequence motifs identified in APOBEC1 in enzyme catalysis and dimerization.  (+info)

The reversible change of GluR2 RNA editing in gerbil hippocampus in course of ischemic tolerance. (8/1357)

The ischemic tolerance is known to show protective effects on the neurons and the restricted Ca2+ influx through Ca2+ channels might be involved. In alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptor, ribonucleic acid (RNA) editing of the GluR2 subunit determines receptor desensitization and Ca2+ permeability. The authors investigated the effect of ischemic tolerance on the messenger RNA editing of Q/R and R/G sites of GluR2 subunit in hippocampus. It was found that the rate of RNA editing in Q/R site showed no change (100% edited), whereas that in R/G site decreased significantly (83.3% normal editing level to 60.4%) at day 3 (preconditioning period) and returned to normal level at day 14 (after preconditioning period). Further investigation revealed that the decrease of editing rate in ischemic tolerance resulted mainly from the decrease of editing in CA1 area.  (+info)

论文信息:Zhuyun Bian, Yajia Ni, Jin-Rong Xu, Huiquan Liu*.A-to-I mRNA editing in fungi: occurrence, function, and evolution. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences (2019) 76:329-340.. JCR分区Q1,中科院大类分区二区,IF=6.721. 论文摘要: A-to-I RNA editing is an important post-transcriptional modification that converts adenosine (A) to inosine (I) in RNA molecules via hydrolytic deamination. Although editing of mRNAs catalyzed by adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism in metazoans, organisms outside the animal kingdom lacking ADAR orthologs were thought to lack A-to-I mRNA editing. However, recent discoveries of genome-wide A-to-I mRNA editing during the sexual stage of the wheat scab fungus Fusarium graminearum, model filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa, Sordaria macrospora, and an early diverging filamentous ascomycete Pyronema confluens indicated that A-to-I mRNA editing is likely an evolutionarily conserved feature in ...
High-throughput sequencing (HTS) provides a powerful solution for the genome-wide identification of RNA-editing sites. However, it remains a great challenge to distinguish RNA-editing sites from genetic variants and technical artifacts caused by sequencing or read-mapping errors. Here we present RES-Scanner, a flexible and efficient software package that detects and annotates RNA-editing sites using matching RNA-seq and DNA-seq data from the same individuals or samples. RES-Scanner allows the use of both raw HTS reads and pre-aligned reads in BAM format as inputs. When inputs are HTS reads, RES-Scanner can invoke the BWA mapper to align reads to the reference genome automatically. To rigorously identify potential false positives resulting from genetic variants, we have equipped RES-Scanner with sophisticated statistical models to infer the reliability of homozygous genotypes called from DNA-seq data. These models are applicable to samples from either single individuals or a pool of multiple individuals
The complete nucleotide sequence of the P gene of simian virus 41 (SV41) was determined. The gene was found to be 1406 nucleotides long and to contain a relatively small open reading frame encoding a cysteine-rich V protein with a calculated M r of 24076. We have demonstrated that RNA-editing events occur in SV41 P gene transcripts and that the ratio of edited mRNAs to faithfully copied mRNA (P-mRNA: V-mRNA) is about 1:5 at either 24 or 40 h post-infection. The mRNA with two G insertions was capable of encoding a P protein of 395 amino acids with a predicted M r of 41992. A kinetic study of P and V proteins by Western blot analysis showed that in virus-infected cells the amounts of both proteins were almost equal although the V-mRNA was considerably more abundant than the P-mRNA. Alignment of the SV41 P and V proteins with those of nine other paramyxoviruses demonstrated that irregular gaps were present around the RNA-editing sites.
A tripartite motif located in the centre of the 7.5kb exon 26 of apolipoprotein B (apoB) mRNA directs editosome assembly and site-specific cytidine-to-uridine editing at nucleotide 6666. apoB mRNA editing is a post-transcriptional event, occurring primarily at the time exon 26 is spliced or at a time after splicing, but before nuclear export. We show, through reporter RNA constructs, that RNA splice sites suppress editing of precursor RNAs when placed proximal or distal to the editing site. Processed RNAs were edited more efficiently than precursor RNAs. Mutation of both the splice donor and acceptor sites was necessary for RNAs to be edited efficiently. The results suggested that commitment of pre-mRNA to the splicing and/or nuclear-export pathways may play a role in regulating editing-site utilization. The HIV-1 Rev-Rev response element (RRE) interaction was utilized to uncouple the commitment of precursor RNAs to the spliceosome assembly pathway and associated nuclear-export pathway. Under ...
Ocean Acoustic Tomography requires deep-ocean moorings whose horizontal excursions are either small or accurately measured. The present study rigorously investigates the former case: the design of stiff moorings to meet any particular horizontal excursion goal (e.g., 25 meters) under two typical ocean current-versus-depth profiles. Moorings are considered for tomographic transmitters and receivers at depths ranging from one thousand to four thousand meters. Mooring components considered include steel sphere, glass ball, and syntactic foam buoyancy; jacketed 3 x 19 wire and electromagnetic cable; and a realistic (large) battery pack for the acoustic transmitter. Kevlar mooring line was considered and rejected. The basic tool of this study is a well-verified computer program that simulates mooring motion. Many runs of this program have yielded enough data to make plots showing mooring cost as a function of excursion, depth, and mooring type. It has been found that cost and excursion are very sensitive to
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Line number RuleID ViolationType Message Line #------------ #------------ # Validation for #430725 annotations in 430768 lines #------------ #Line number RuleID ViolationType Message Line #------------ # GO_AR:0000014 Valid GO term ID Error count: 212 3146 GO_AR:0000014 Error The relation has_direct_input in the c16 annotation extension is an obsolete relation MGI MGI:1917115 A1cf GO:0016556 MGI:MGI:4943819,PMID:20541607 IGI MGI:MGI:104663 P APOBEC1 complementation factor 1810073H04Rik,ACF,apobec-1 complementation factor protein taxon:10090 20140709 MGI has_direct_input(MGI:MGI:88052),occurs_in(EMAPA:16900) 9354 GO_AR:0000014 Error The relation has_direct_input in the c16 annotation extension is an obsolete relation MGI MGI:105377 Adam19 GO:0006509 MGI:MGI:3625788,PMID:11116142 IMP P a disintegrin and metallopeptidase domain 19 (meltrin beta) Mltnb protein taxon:10090 20150513 MGI ...
we used RNA-Seq to quantify the RNA editing level at more than 8,000 previously annotated exonic A-to-I RNA editing sites in two brain regions - prefrontal cortex and cerebellum - of humans, chimpanzees and rhesus macaques. We observed substantial conservation of RNA editing levels between the brain regions, as well as among the three primate species. Evolutionary changes in RNA editing were nonetheless evident among the species. Across lifespan, we observed an increase of the RNA editing level with advanced age in both brain regions of all three primate species.
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Zhenqiu Huang, Drahomíra Faktorová, Adéla Křížová, Lucie Kafková, Laurie K Read, Julius Lukeš, Hassan Hashimi].
I have been trying for over 6 months to purchase 5 mooring bits as pictured, to replace my 3 rather small mooring cleats on my CM32 CC Aft Cabin Ketch. First I
Both miRNAs and A-to-I RNA editing, a widespread nucleotide modification mechanism, have recently emerged as key players in cancer pathophysiology. However, the functional impact of RNA editing of miRNAs in cancer remains largely unexplored. Here, we focused on an ADAR2-catalyzed RNA editing site within the miR-379-5p seed region. This site was under-edited in tumors relative to normal tissues, with a high editing level being correlated with better patient survival times across cancer types. We demonstrated that in contrast to wild-type miRNA, edited miR-379-5p inhibited cell proliferation and promoted apoptosis in diverse tumor contexts in vitro, which was due to the ability of edited but not wild-type miR-379-5p to target CD97. Importantly, through nanoliposomal delivery, edited miR-379-5p mimics significantly inhibited tumor growth and extended survival of mice. Our study indicates a role of RNA editing in diversifying miRNA function during cancer progression and highlights the translational ...
Both miRNAs and A-to-I RNA editing, a widespread nucleotide modification mechanism, have recently emerged as key players in cancer pathophysiology. However, the functional impact of RNA editing of miRNAs in cancer remains largely unexplored. Here, we focused on an ADAR2-catalyzed RNA editing site within the miR-379-5p seed region. This site was under-edited in tumors relative to normal tissues, with a high editing level being correlated with better patient survival times across cancer types. We demonstrated that in contrast to wild-type miRNA, edited miR-379-5p inhibited cell proliferation and promoted apoptosis in diverse tumor contexts in vitro, which was due to the ability of edited but not wild-type miR-379-5p to target CD97. Importantly, through nanoliposomal delivery, edited miR-379-5p mimics significantly inhibited tumor growth and extended survival of mice. Our study indicates a role of RNA editing in diversifying miRNA function during cancer progression and highlights the translational ...
This annual meeting is one of a series seeking to improve and where possible standardise QA and QC across the Moorings sub-facilities through common techniques, procedures and tools.
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Market Study Report, LLC, now has a research study on Offshore Mooring Systems market which delivers a precise summary of the industry estimates, SWOT analysis, industry size, profit estimation and regional outlook of the business. The report offer...
Plasmid pUC119-gRNA from Dr. Jen Sheens lab contains the insert guide RNA targeting AtPDS3 and is published in Nat Biotechnol. 2013 Aug;31(8):688-91. doi: 10.1038/nbt.2654. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
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Double-stranded RNA-specific adenosine deaminase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ADAR gene (which stands for adenosine deaminase acting on RNA). Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADAR) are enzymes responsible for binding to double stranded RNA (dsRNA) and converting adenosine (A) to inosine (I) by deamination. ADAR protein is a RNA-binding protein, which functions in RNA-editing through post-transcriptional modification of mRNA transcripts by changing the nucleotide content of the RNA. The conversion from A to I in the RNA disrupt the normal A:U pairing which makes the RNA unstable. Inosine is structurally similar to that of guanine (G) which leads to I to cytosine (C) binding. In RNA I functions the same as G in both translation and replication. Codon changes can arise from editing which may lead to changes in the coding sequences for proteins and their functions. Most editing site are found in noncoding regions of RNA such as untranslated regions (UTRs), Alu elements and long ...
A-to-I RNA-editing mediated by ADAR (adenosine deaminase acting on RNA) enzymes that converts adenosine to inosine in RNA sequence can generate mutations and alter gene regulation in metazoans. Previous studies have shown that A-to-I RNA-editing plays vital roles in mouse embryogenesis. However, the RNA-editing activities in early human embryonic development have not been investigated. Here, we characterized genome-wide A-to-I RNA-editing activities during human early embryogenesis by profiling 68 single cells from 29 human embryos spanning from oocyte to morula stages. We demonstrate dynamic changes in genome-wide RNA-editing during early human embryogenesis in a stage-specific fashion. In parallel with ADAR expression level changes, the genome-wide A-to-I RNA-editing levels in cells remained relatively stable until 4-cell stage, but dramatically decreased at 8-cell stage, continually decreased at morula stage. We detected 37 non-synonymously RNA-edited genes, of which 5 were frequently found in cells
RNA editing by deamination of adenosine to inosine is an evolutionarily conserved process involved in many cellular pathways, from alternative splicing to miRNA targeting. In humans, it is carried out by no less than three major adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs): ADAR1-p150, ADAR1-p110, and ADAR2. However, the first two derive from alternative splicing, so that it is currently impossible to delete ADAR1-p110 without also knocking out ADAR1-p150 expression. Furthermore, the expression levels of ADARs varies wildly among cell types, and no study has systematically explored the effect of each of these isoforms on the cell transcriptome. In this study, RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP)-sequencing on overexpressed ADAR isoforms tagged with green fluorescent protein (GFP) shows that each ADAR is associated with a specific set of differentially expressed genes, and that they each bind to distinct set of RNA targets. Our results show a good overlap with known edited transcripts, establishing RIP-seq as a
Background: Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA deaminate adenosines to inosines in structured regions of RNAs. The RNA-editing process occurs in millions of sites in the human transcriptome. As inosines are interpreted as guanosines during translation, this RNA-editing process can alter codons and therefore lead to the formation of proteins that are not encoded in the genome. A prominent adenosine to inosine deamination event is found in the mRNA encoding filamin A, an abundant actin crosslinking protein that links the cellular cortex and transmembrane proteins with the cytoskeleton. Changes in the editing pattern of the filamin A mRNA lead to the expression of altered filamin A which causes high blood pressure but also causes gastrointestinal inflammatory disorders. To understand the molecular consequences of the editing-induced amino acid exchange, the affected domain will be studied by structural and biophysical means.. Thesis description: We are looking for a highly motivated and dedicated ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - ADAR2 regulates RNA stability by modifying access of decay-promoting RNA-binding proteins. AU - Anantharaman, Aparna. AU - Tripathi, Vidisha. AU - Khan, Abid. AU - Yoon, Je Hyun. AU - Singh, Deepak K.. AU - Gholamalamdari, Omid. AU - Guang, Shuomeng. AU - Ohlson, Johan. AU - Wahlstedt, Helene. AU - Öhman, Marie. AU - Jantsch, Michael F.. AU - Conrad, Nicholas K.. AU - Ma, Jian. AU - Gorospe, Myriam. AU - Prasanth, Supriya G.. AU - Prasanth, Kannanganattu V.. PY - 2017/4/20. Y1 - 2017/4/20. N2 - Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) catalyze the editing of adenosine residues to inosine (A-to-I) within RNA sequences, mostly in the introns and UTRs (un-translated regions). The significance of editing within non-coding regions of RNA is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that association of ADAR2 with RNA stabilizes a subset of transcripts. ADAR2 interacts with and edits the 3Î.,UTR of nuclear-retained Cat2 transcribed nuclear RNA (Ctn RNA). In absence of ADAR2, the ...
A growing number of studies have focused on investigating circRNAs as crucial regulators in the progression of multiple cancer types. Nevertheless, the biological effects and underlying mechanisms of circRNAs in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remain unclear. Differentially expressed circRNAs between cancerous tissue and adjacent normal tissues were identified by RNA sequencing in PDAC. Subsequently, in vitro and in vivo functional experiments were performed to investigate the functional roles of circNEIL3 in PDAC tumour growth and metastasis. Furthermore, RNA pull-down, dual-luciferase reporter assays, RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) assays, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and Sanger sequencing assays were performed to examine the circular interaction among circNEIL3, miR-432-5p and adenosine deaminases acting on RNA 1 (ADAR1). CircNEIL3 was upregulated in PDAC and promoted the progression of PDAC cells both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, circNEIL3 was shown to regulate the
Background: Adenosine deaminase acting on RNA-2 (ADAR2) enzyme catalyzes adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing of mRNAs and microRNAs and controls brain development. However, the role of endothelial cell ADAR2 in vascular biology and inflammation has not been described so far.. Methods and Results: ADAR2 is expressed in human and murine endothelial cells and is 2-fold induced by hypoxia or hind limb ischemia in mice (P,0.05 for all). ADAR2 deficiency resulted in 73±12% impairment of leukocyte infiltration, in 53±4% reduced neovascularization, and a 40±6% decreased blood-flow recovery of ischemic muscle tissues in a hindlimb ischemia mouse model (P,0.001 for all). Mechanistically, among the highly ADAR2-regulated transcripts was interleukin-6 signal transducer (IL6ST or gp130), the receptor of interleukin-6 (IL-6). Silencing of ADAR2 resulted in a downregulation of gp130 mRNA and protein expression in endothelial cells by 65±5% and 50±5%, respectively (P,0.001 for both). Similarly, the ...
Abstract: RNA editing by the adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) enzymes has been associated with many human neurological diseases including: epilepsy; suicidal depression; autism; pediatric glioblastoma; and ALS (Lou Gehrigs disease). RNA editing is ubiquitous in the animal kingdom. ADAR deaminates the RNA base adenosine (A) to inosine (I) in dsRNA molecules. Inosine is recognized by all cellular machineries as guanosine (G). ADAR specifically edits, recodes, a small number of adenosines in messenger RNA (mRNA) to such Gs. However, hyper editing acts more generally on perfect or nearly perfect double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). Within long dsRNA (,30bp), over 40% of adenosine residues are modified on both strands, generating numerous I-U mismatch pairs, and structurally destabilizing dsRNA. Dicer is an enzyme that cleaves near perfect long dsRNAs, and thus competes with ADAR. As a consequence, ADARs hyper editing has downstream consequences on Dicer products including gene expression ...
The posttranscriptional modification of messenger RNA precursors (pre-mRNAs) by base deamination can profoundly alter the physiological function of the encoded proteins. The recent identification of tRNA-specific adenosine deaminases (ADATs) has led to the suggestion that these enzymes, as well as the cytidine and adenosine deaminases acting on pre-mRNAs (CDARs and ADARs), belong to a superfamily of RNA-dependent deaminases. This superfamily might have evolved from an ancient cytidine deaminase. This article reviews the reactions catalysed by these enzymes and discusses their evolutionary relationships.. ...
Both TAR DNA binding protein of 43kDa (TDP-43) pathology and failure of RNA editing at the glutamine/arginine (Q/R) site of GluA2, a subunit of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptor, are the characteristic etiology-linked molecular abnormalities that concomitantly occur in the motor neurons of the majority of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), the most common adult-onset fatal motor neuron disease. Adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 2 (ADAR2) specifically catalyzes RNA editing at the Q/R site of GluA2, and conditional ADAR2 knockout mice (ADAR2flox/flox/VAChT-Cre.Fast ; AR2 mice) exhibit a progressive ALS phenotype with TDP-43 pathology-like TDP-43 mislocalization in the ADAR2-lacking motor neurons. Because Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptor-mediated mechanism underlies death of motor neurons in the AR2 mice, amelioration of exaggerated Ca2+ influx by AMPA receptor antagonists may be a potential ALS therapy. Here we showed that oral perampanel, a selective
The molecular drivers of human progenitor reprogramming into self-renewing leukemia stem cells (LSC) has remained elusive. Although DNA sequencing has uncovered gene mutations that promote abnormal RNA processing and leukemic transformation, gene product diversity also may be generated by RNA editing mediated by adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) enzymes that regulate stem cell maintenance. In this study, RNA-sequencing studies reveal high levels of expression of inflammatory mediators in human blast crisis CML progenitors and in BCR-ABL transduced normal cord blood stem cells. Moreover, expression of the inflammation-responsive form of ADAR1 (p150) correlated with generation of an abnormally spliced GSK3β gene product that has been previously linked to LSC self-renewal. Together, we have demonstrated that ADAR1 drives hematopoietic cell fate by skewing cell differentiation - a trend which occurs during normal bone marrow aging - and promotes LSC self-renewal through alternative splicing ...
8-Azaadenosine is a potent ADAR1 (adenosine deaminases acting on double-stranded RNA) inhibitor. 8-Azaadenosine reduces A-to-I editing activity in a leukemia cell line, restores let-7 and inhibits leukemia stem cells self-renewal in vitro. - Mechanism of Action & Protocol.
BACKGROUND: Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) editing is a site-selective post-transcriptional alteration of double-stranded RNA by ADAR deaminases that is crucial for homeostasis and development. Recently the Mouse Genomes Project generated genome sequences for 17 laboratory mouse strains and rich catalogues of variants. We also generated RNA-seq data from whole brain RNA from 15 of the sequenced strains. RESULTS: Here we present a computational approach that takes an initial set of transcriptome/genome mismatch sites and filters these calls taking into account systematic biases in alignment, single nucleotide variant calling, and sequencing depth to identify RNA editing sites with high accuracy. We applied this approach to our panel of mouse strain transcriptomes identifying 7,389 editing sites with an estimated false-discovery rate of between 2.9 and 10.5%. The overwhelming majority of these edits were of the A-to-I type, with less than 2.4% not of this class, and only three of these edits could not be
BACKGROUND: Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) editing is a site-selective post-transcriptional alteration of double-stranded RNA by ADAR deaminases that is crucial for homeostasis and development. Recently the Mouse Genomes Project generated genome sequences for 17 laboratory mouse strains and rich catalogues of variants. We also generated RNA-seq data from whole brain RNA from 15 of the sequenced strains. RESULTS: Here we present a computational approach that takes an initial set of transcriptome/genome mismatch sites and filters these calls taking into account systematic biases in alignment, single nucleotide variant calling, and sequencing depth to identify RNA editing sites with high accuracy. We applied this approach to our panel of mouse strain transcriptomes identifying 7,389 editing sites with an estimated false-discovery rate of between 2.9 and 10.5%. The overwhelming majority of these edits were of the A-to-I type, with less than 2.4% not of this class, and only three of these edits could not be
Array ( [0] => 30 [1] => 31 [2] => 32 [3] => 34 [4] => 33 [5] => 49 ) Array ( [1513164984] => Array ( [timeid] => 1513164984 [id] => 14978 [title] => Applications of stimuli-responsive nanoscale drug delivery systems in translational research. (Drug Discov Today, Nov 2017) [time] => 13 December 2017 11:36:24 [postcat] => 30 ) [1511955285] => Array ( [timeid] => 1511955285 [id] => 14880 [title] => CSI Deputy Director, Prof Chng Wee Joo, Appointed Provosts Chair at NUSMed [time] => 29 November 2017 11:34:45 [postcat] => 31 ) [1511286152] => Array ( [timeid] => 1511286152 [id] => 14843 [title] => Triple negative breast cancer in Asia: An insiders view. (Cancer Treat Rev, Nov 2017) [time] => 21 November 2017 17:42:32 [postcat] => 30 ) [1510763331] => Array ( [timeid] => 1510763331 [id] => 14808 [title] => CSI Research Scientist Awarded the ASH Abstract Achievement Award! [time] => 15 November 2017 16:28:51 [postcat] => 31 ) [1510588491] => Array ( [timeid] => 1510588491 [id] => 14803 [title] => ...
Abstract: Mitochondrial mRNAs in kinetoplastids require extensive U-insertion/deletion editing that progresses 3-to-5 in small blocks, each directed by a guide RNA (gRNA), and exhibits substrate and developmental stage-specificity by unsolved mechanisms. Here, we address compositionally related factors, collectively known as the mitochondrial RNA-binding complex 1 (MRB1) or gRNA-binding complex (GRBC), that contain gRNA, have a dynamic protein composition, and transiently associate with several mitochondrial factors including RNA editing core complexes (RECC) and ribosomes. MRB1 controls editing by still unknown mechanisms. We performed the first next-generation sequencing study of native subcomplexes of MRB1, immunoselected via either RNA helicase 2 (REH2), that binds RNA and associates with unwinding activity, or MRB3010, that affects an early editing step. The particles contain either REH2 or MRB3010 but share the core GAP1 and other proteins detected by RNA photo-crosslinking. Analyses of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Elucidation of the RNA Recognition Code for Pentatricopeptide Repeat Proteins Involved in Organelle RNA Editing in Plants. AU - Yagi, Yusuke. AU - Hayashi, Shimpei. AU - Kobayashi, Keiko. AU - Hirayama, Takashi. AU - Nakamura, Takahiro. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2013 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2013/3/5. Y1 - 2013/3/5. N2 - Pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins are eukaryotic RNA-binding proteins that are commonly found in plants. Organelle transcript processing and stability are mediated by PPR proteins in a gene-specific manner through recognition by tandem arrays of degenerate 35-amino-acid repeating units, the PPR motifs. However, the sequence-specific RNA recognition mechanism of the PPR protein remains largely unknown. Here, we show the principle underlying RNA recognition for PPR proteins involved in RNA editing. The distance between the PPR-RNA alignment and the editable C was shown to be conserved. Amino acid variation at 3 particular positions within the ...
Background The post-transcriptional processing of pre-mRNAs by RNA editing contributes significantly to the complexity of the mammalian transcriptome. RNA editing by site-selective A-to-I modification also regulates protein function through recoding of genomically specified sequences. The adenosine deaminase ADAR2 is the main enzyme responsible for recoding editing and loss of ADAR2 function in mice leads to a phenotype of epilepsy and premature death. Although A-to-I RNA editing is known to be subject to developmental and cell-type specific regulation, there is little knowledge regarding the mechanisms that regulate RNA editing in vivo. Therefore, the characterization of ADAR expression and identification of alternative ADAR variants is an important prerequisite for understanding the mechanisms for regulation of RNA editing and the causes for deregulation in disease. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we present evidence for a new ADAR2 splice variant that extends the open reading frame of ADAR2 by
abstract = {Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing is a conserved post-transcriptional mechanism mediated by ADAR enzymes that diversifies the transcriptome by altering selected nucleotides in RNA molecules1. Although many editing sites have recently been discovered2,3,4,5,6,7, the extent to which most sites are edited and how the editing is regulated in different biological contexts are not fully understood8,9,10. Here we report dynamic spatiotemporal patterns and new regulators of RNA editing, discovered through an extensive profiling of A-to-I RNA editing in 8,551 human samples (representing 53 body sites from 552 individuals) from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project and in hundreds of other primate and mouse samples. We show that editing levels in non-repetitive coding regions vary more between tissues than editing levels in repetitive regions. Globally, ADAR1 is the primary editor of repetitive sites and ADAR2 is the primary editor of non-repetitive coding sites, whereas the ...
Double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminase (ADAR1) is an ubiquitous enzyme in metazoa that edits pre-mRNA changing adenosine to inosine in regions of double-stranded RNA. Zalpha, an N-terminal domain of human ADAR1 encompassing 76 amino acid residues, shows apparent specificity for the left-handed Z-DN …
Source: NIH.gov. A set of proteins involved in the bodys natural defences produces a large number of mutations in human DNA, according to a study led by researchers at the National Institutes of Health. The findings suggest that these naturally produced mutations are just as powerful as known cancer-causing agents in producing tumors.. The proteins are part of a group called apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like (APOBEC) cytidine deaminases. The investigators found that APOBEC mutations can outnumber all other mutations in some cancers, accounting for over two-thirds in some bladder, cervical, breast, head and neck, and lung tumours.. The scientists published their findings online July 14 in the journal Nature Genetics. Dmitry Gordenin, Ph.D., is corresponding author of the paper and a senior associate scientist at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), part of NIH. He said scientists knew the main functions of APOBEC cytosine deaminases were ...
Has A-to-I RNA editing activity on extended dsRNA: edits RNA-binding protein Rnp4F. A-to-I editing of pre-mRNAs acts predominantly through nervous system targets to affect adult nervous system integrity, function and behavior. Essential for adaptation to environmental stresses, such as oxygen deprivation, and for the prevention of premature neuronal degeneration, through the editing of ion channels as targets.
To investigate whether the JAK-STAT (Janus kinase-signal transducers and activators of transcription) pathway participates in the regulation of APOBEC3G (Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3G) gene transcription and to study the molecular mechanisms of interferon resistance in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), changes in APOBEC3G and STAT-1 expression levels in HepG2.2.15 cells after treatment with various concentrations of IFN-a, were detected using real-time RT-PCR and Western-blot. In addition, the differences in STAT-1 and APOBEC3G expression in liver tissues were also observed in patients with different anti-viral responses to IFN-a. It is found that IFN-a suppressed HBV replication and expression markedly in HepG2.2.15 cells, and simultaneously enhanced APOBEC3G expression in a dose- or time-dependent manner within a certain range. Moreover, a corresponding gradual increase in STAT-1 expression levels was also observed. The expression levels of STAT-1 and
FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] This gene encodes a member of the double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminase family of RNA-editing enzymes and may play a regulatory role in RNA editing. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
The most significant finding of this study is that the expression and activity of the RNA editase ADAR1 is upregulated in lungs subjected to endotoxin-induced microvascular injury and in alveolar macrophages stimulated with endotoxin, live bacteria, or IFN. These findings implicate for the first time RNA editing as a possible inflammatory event. Specifically, the data suggest that A-to-I RNA editing is involved in the pathogenic mechanisms that lead to acute lung injury. Another significant finding is that ADAR1 is expressed in sham mouse lungs, which was previously demonstrated only in the rat.8 The sequence of early production of IFN, a known inducer of ADAR1,12 followed by ADAR1 expression and development of microvascular lung injury, suggests that A-to-I RNA editing may be a proximal event in the inflammatory cascade involved in the pathogenesis of microvascular lung injury. Furthermore, it is conceivable that early induction of pulmonary IFN during the inflammatory process could be the ...
RNA editing is a regulatory mechanism in which nucleotides are altered posttranscriptionally and most frequently involves conversion of adenosine to inosine, which is recognized as a guanosine during translation. Chen and colleagues performed RNA sequencing analysis to identify molecular changes in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) samples that might contribute to disease progression, and they detected elevated adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing of antizyme inhibitor 1 (AZIN1) in HCC samples compared with adjacent normal tissues. The frequency of AZIN1 editing increased during HCC progression and was correlated with liver cirrhosis, tumor recurrence, and poor prognosis, suggesting that this recoding event may promote HCC pathogenesis. AZIN1 RNA modification was mediated by the p110 isoform of adenosine deaminase, RNA-specific (ADAR1), but not by other ADAR family members, and resulted in substitution of glycine for serine at residue 367 in the AZIN1 protein, which was predicted to induce a ...
The current research, which involved 13 patients with lupus and eight healthy participants, was based on Laxminarayanas earlier findings that 150-kDa ADAR1, one of the three enzymes involved in editing gene messages, is higher in the T cells of lupus patients compared to those without lupus. ADARs are ademosine deaminases that act on RNA.. Laxminarayana made the initial finding about 150-kDa ADAR1 levels in 2002 and has been working to solve the mystery of how it is related to the development of lupus. In the current study, Laxminarayana found that the higher levels of 150-kDa ADAR1 alters the editing induced by two other ADAR enzymes and may cause an imbalance of proteins. Editing by the two other ADAR enzymes is a normal cellular process; it is 150-kDa ADAR1 that causes normal editing to go awry.. The process is complicated and took Laxminarayana years to uncover. The current studies demonstrate that, essentially, too much 150-kDa ADAR1 results in an increase in the gene message of ...
While most discussions about big data typically focus on the massive size of data, a better discussion might be about what big data is really providing: objective information about peoples behavior - uncensored, unfiltered, unedited. This Harvard Business Review paper, Predicting Customers (Unedited) Behavior explores how the analysis of big data is increasingly about finding the connections between peoples behavior and outcomes. ...
While most discussions about big data typically focus on the massive size of data, a better discussion might be about what big data is really providing: objective information about peoples behavior - uncensored, unfiltered, unedited. This Harvard Business Review paper, Predicting Customers (Unedited) Behavior explores how the analysis of big data is increasingly about finding the connections between peoples behavior and outcomes. ...
Spatial/temporal control of Cas9 guide RNA expression could considerably expand the utility of CRISPR-based technologies. Current approaches based on tRNA processing offer a promising strategy but suffer from high background. Here, to address this limitation, we present a screening platform which allows simultaneous measurements of the promoter strength, 5, and 3 processing efficiencies across a library of tRNA variants. This analysis reveals that the sequence determinants underlying these activities, while overlapping, are dissociable. Rational design based on the ensuing principles allowed us to engineer an improved tRNA scaffold that enables highly specific guide RNA production from a Pol-II promoter. When benchmarked against other reported systems this tRNA scaffold is superior to most alternatives, and is equivalent in function to an optimized version of the Csy4-based guide RNA release system. The results and methods described in this manuscript enable avenues of research both in genome
The moorings are in a well-sheltered anchorage.. Farmers Cay Yacht Club announced in January 2016 that its nine moorings in the Harbour have been redone with all new stainless steel chain and line.. Also, the dock has been re-planked and braced. The restaurant is open from 9 am to midnight.. Other moorings close to the Little Harbour are owned by other businesses on the Cay and it can be tricky to find out which one to pay as the mooring balls are poorly marked.. The tidal current is swift and the bottom well scoured, so unless your draft allows anchoring in the sand to the east of the channel, it is best to use a mooring.. See comments from cruisers at bottom of page re. condition of moorings.. Last updated July 2017.. Note that Guana Hideaways Marina on Great Guana Cay is not operational (February 2017) and has been removed from Noonsite listings.. ...
The tenth meeting of the Local Mooring Strategy Steering Group took place on 11th October at Wiltshire Council offices, Chippenham. Brian has taken over from Kev as one of the representatives of unaffiliated boaters. The agenda was as follows: finalising maps; enforcement and defining neighbourhoods. K and A Manager Mark Stephens chaired the meeting in the absence of Project Manager Damian Kemp. Sally Ash, the original BW Chair, had already informed the group that her presence appeared to be not conducive to progress.. Panda, for unaffiliated boaters, asked for the IWAs resignation from the group due to statements its representatives made in emails over the summer including that the numbers of liveaboard boaters should be reduced within 5 years (forcing boat dwellers to give up their homes). The Chair declined to ask the IWA to resign, however Mark Stephens assured the meeting that the Mooring Strategy Steering Group was not going to come up with a strategy that displaces people.. Some minor ...
MOORING MASTER 08 June, 2021 tandem and CALM buoy mooring and loading of export tanker Reporting to: OIM NOTE: The responsibilities include the main Gener...
Explore Paraty, Brazil, while sailing around on a brand new yacht model, the Moorings 413. Get your friends or family together for the trip of a lifetime.
This gene encodes a member of the AID/APOBEC family of polynucleotide (deoxy)cytidine deaminases, which convert cytidine to uridine. Other AID/APOBEC family members are involved in mRNA editing, somatic hypermutation and recombination of immunoglobulin genes, and innate immunity to retroviral infection. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Bujnicki lab. Our group is involved in theoretical and experimental research on nucleic acids and proteins. The current focus is on RNA sequence-structure-function relationships (in particular 3D modeling), RNA-protein complexes, and enzymes acting on RNA.
Bujnicki lab. Our group is involved in theoretical and experimental research on nucleic acids and proteins. The current focus is on RNA sequence-structure-function relationships (in particular 3D modeling), RNA-protein complexes, and enzymes acting on RNA.
P/s: Suggestions to improve this translation will be highly appreciated and I do not guarantee the accuracy of my translation Translated by: Empress || ARNRBKM - Demon King-sama and His New Guards [Part 7] (Unedited) Novel Raw: 魔王様と新しい護衛たち 其の七 || Manga: Im a Villainous Daughter, so Im going to keep the Last Boss || Manga Raw:…
Current Research and Scholarly Interests The Li Lab is primarily interested in RNA editing mediated by ADAR enzymes. We co-discovered that the major function of RNA editing is to label endogenous dsRNAs as self to avoid being recognized as non-self by MDA5, a host innate immune dsRNA sensor, leading us to pursue therapeutic applications in cancer, autoimmune diseases, and viral infection. The other major direction of the lab is to develop technologies to harness endogenous ADAR enzymes for site-specific transcriptome engineering. ...
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stability and fatigue of analysis mooring system and which software is better for solve it?Sorry i dont know dat but i wanna know the th emooring te...
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Kegunaan tali mooring kapal memang sangat bermanfaat bagi semua pihak di areal dermaga. Tidak hanya akan mempermudah dalam segi penambat yang aman dan
CSA-dependent degradation of CSB by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway establishes a link between complementation factors of the Cockayne syndrome ...
Upon binding with guide RNA, the two structural lobes of Cas9 reorient so that the two nucleic acid binding clefts face each other, forming a central DNA binding channel that interfaces with target DNA.
CRISPR-Cpf1 Bound to Target DNA and Guide RNA (U6M63VBSL) by caseysteffen on Shapeways. Learn more before you buy, or discover other cool products in Mathematical Art.
Happy Monday!!! Tomorrow is my birthday!!! WOoHoO- for those who care Ill be 25 years old. Go Me. Last week I had my query critique. It went better than I could ever expected. It has since then been revised and Ive tested the waters now. Thats right Ive dived into the querying world. And Ive been cupcaked (also known as rejected but those are hurtful and harsh words and arent used here. I was given the word my fabulous blogger friend Karen Amanda Hooper). Its not always a negative (its a cupcake for junk sake, cupcakes rock). When I received my first one I was actually excited. My husband and I celebrated. Its like a rite of passage. Something you have to do to realize youre one step closer to that agent. There is an agent out for you. YOUR work is good enough. Dont give up. Just take each rejection with a grain of salt. Appreciate each company for even bothering to take a look. They dont have too. They look at thousands. So the next time you get a cupcake look at it as a positive. ...
This is the non-edited Straight Out Of the Camera (SOOC) shot that I took on a dreary overcast day when Jocelyn was already getting sick. It took me, Jaina, and Jayces therapist to get her to smile even this 1/2 smile. The newly put up Christmas tree was totally blocking my light (what little light I had at 4 PM on an overcast day) from the window. I am hoping to salvage this picture in GIMP and make it match the other 11 monthly pictures so I can print them in a collage frame next month ...
Methods. int :: Int -, repr h IntSource. add :: repr h Int -, repr h Int -, repr h IntSource. z :: repr (a, h) aSource. s :: repr h a -, repr (any, h) aSource. lam :: repr (a, h) b -, repr h (a -, b)Source. app :: repr h (a -, b) -, repr h a -, repr h bSource ...
We demonstrate that by altering the length of Cas9-associated guide RNA (gRNA) we were able to control Cas9 nuclease activity and simultaneously perform genome editing and transcriptional regulation with a single Cas9 protein. We exploited these principles to engineer mammalian synthetic circuits wi …
The pre-mRNA of the ARL6IP4 gene product is subject to RNA Editing. A to I RNA editing is catalyzed by a family of adenosine ... "Screening of human SNP database identifies recoding sites of A-to-I RNA editing". RNA. 14 (10): 2074-85. doi:10.1261/rna.816908 ... The region that base pairs with the editing region is known as an Editing Complementary Sequence (ECS). Editing occurs at a K/R ... editing is unusual as the RNA fold back structure is made up off exonic sequence only. Editing at this site results in a codon ...
Lev-Maor G, Sorek R, Levanon EY, Paz N, Eisenberg E, Ast G (2007). "RNA-editing-mediated exon evolution". Genome Biology. 8 (2 ... including one with a novel exon that is generated by RNA editing. NARF has been shown to interact with LMNA. GRCh38: Ensembl ...
Some of these differences should be regarded as pseudo-changes in the genetic code due to the phenomenon of RNA editing, which ... Hiesel R, Wissinger B, Schuster W, Brennicke A (December 1989). "RNA editing in plant mitochondria". Science. 246 (4937): 1632- ... In higher plants, it was thought that CGG encoded for tryptophan and not arginine; however, the codon in the processed RNA was ... The mitochondrial genome codes for some RNAs of ribosomes, and the 22 tRNAs necessary for the translation of mRNAs into protein ...
Bjork, Glenn; Rasmusen, Torgny (1998). Modification and Editing of RNA. New York: ASM Press. p. 480. Whereas bacteria can ... Bjork, Glenn; Rasmusen, Torgny (1998). Modification and Editing of RNA. New York: ASM Press. p. 480. Whereas bacteria can ... Because queuosine in dietary or gut-bacterial RNA can be salvaged and converted to queuine by the human body, queuosine could ...
The firm's RNA editing technology, called Axiomer can make targeted single nucleotide changes to RNA. The company's ultimate ... Van Zuidam, Joanne (22 September 2017). "The Art of Editing RNA". Drug Discovery Trends. Retrieved 4 April 2018. Let's Chat ... Adams, Ben (8 September 2021). "Eli Lilly follows up MiNA pact with a 2nd $1B-plus RNA collab, this time with ProQR". ... The substance acts by binding the mutated RNA region which will allow the formation of a normal CEP290 protein. Netherlands ...
"RNA editing with CRISPR-Cas13". Science. 358 (6366): 1019-1027. Bibcode:2017Sci...358.1019C. doi:10.1126/science.aaq0180. PMC ... "Human embryos edited to stop disease". BBC News. 2 August 2017. Retrieved 2 August 2017. "Early gene-editing success holds ... The first gene editing of human embryos in the USA is reported to have taken place, using CRISPR. 27 July Astronomers announce ... "Human embryo gene editing has taken place in US, claims report". New Scientist. 27 July 2017. Retrieved 27 July 2017. Connor, ...
"RNA Editing". Gordon Research Conferences. Retrieved 1 June 2014. L Chan (22 May 1994). "Apolipoprotein B Messenger RNA editing ... In 2008, he edited a book for Wiley and Sons on RNA and DNA Editing that brought together the next generation of scientists ... "The APOBEC1 Paradigm for Mammilian Cytidine Deaminases that Edit DNA and RNA." DNA and RNA Modifications Enzymes: Structure, ... Smith, Harold C. "RNA Editing" Encyclopedia of Life Sciences. : Macmillan Reference Ltd, Stockton Press, 2000. Smith, H.C. ...
RNA editing is the insertion, deletion, and substitution of nucleotides in a mRNA transcript prior to translation to protein. ... Tillich M, Krause K (July 2010). "The ins and outs of editing and splicing of plastid RNAs: lessons from parasitic plants". New ... Hundreds of different PPR proteins from the nuclear genome are involved in the RNA editing process. These proteins consist of ... Parasitic plants such as Epifagus virginiana show a loss of RNA editing resulting in a loss of function for photosynthesis ...
Editing of the Q/R site is thought to reduce the permeability of the channel to Ca2+ RNA editing of the Q/R site can effect ... A to I RNA editing is catalyzed by a family of adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) that specifically recognize ... Therefore, editing can also alter protein function. A to I editing occurs in a noncoding RNA sequences such as introns, ... The double-stranded regions of RNA are formed by base-pairing between residues in the close to region of the editing site, with ...
RNA editing, additional ribosomal proteins beyond the core, the emergence of long-noncoding RNA from junk DNA, and so forth. In ... 1993). "On the evolution of RNA editing". Trends in Genetics. 9 (8): 265-268. doi:10.1016/0168-9525(93)90011-6. PMID 8379005. ... Lamech, Lilian T.; Mallam, Anna L.; Lambowitz, Alan M. (2014-12-23). Herschlag, Daniel (ed.). "Evolution of RNA-Protein ... Palazzo, Alexander F.; Koonin, Eugene V. (2020-11-25). "Functional Long Non-coding RNAs Evolve from Junk Transcripts". Cell. ...
If RNA editing sites and mutation rate lined up, then Cucurbita pepo would have a lower mutation rate and more RNA editing ... However the mutation rate is four times higher than Citrullus lanatus and they have a similar number of RNA editing sites. ... 1993). "On the evolution of RNA editing". Trends in Genetics. 9 (8): 265-268. doi:10.1016/0168-9525(93)90011-6. PMID 8379005. ... how pervasive pan-RNA editing may have arisen in Trypanosoma brucei, how functional lncRNAs have likely arisen from ...
"Specificity of ADAR-mediated RNA editing in newly identified targets". RNA. 14 (6): 1110-8. doi:10.1261/rna.923308. PMC 2390793 ... It has been shown that ADAR1 does not edit the sites in 5' UTR but ADAR2 edits 5b and 5c sites.Y/c is edited by both and edits ... A to I RNA editing is catalyzed by a family of adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) that specifically recognize ... The region that base pairs with the editing region is known as an Editing Complementary Sequence (ECS). The editing sites are ...
The type of RNA editing that occurs in the pre-mRNA of the 5HT2CR is Adenosine to Inosine (A to I) editing. A to I RNA editing ... Editing also occurs in the mouse. The initial demonstration of RNA editing in rat. The predominant isoform in rat brain is VNV ... Therefore, editing can also alter protein function. A to I editing occurs in a non coding RNA sequences such as introns, ... Some studies have noted that there is an increase in RNA editing at site A in depressed suicide victims. E site editing was ...
MicroRNA Meng Y, Chen D, Jin Y, Mao C, Wu P, Chen M (December 2010). "RNA editing of nuclear transcripts in Arabidopsis ... In molecular biology mir-854 microRNA is a short RNA molecule. MicroRNAs function to regulate the expression levels of other ...
RNA editing in the mRNA has been reported. Kainate receptor GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000163873 - Ensembl, May 2017 ... a high-affinity kainate receptor with novel potential RNA editing sites". Recept. Channels. 2 (4): 315-26. PMID 7719709. Roche ...
TEs also serve to generate repeating sequences that can form dsRNA to act as a substrate for the action of ADAR in RNA editing ... Jin Y, Zhang W, Li Q (June 2009). "Origins and evolution of ADAR‐mediated RNA editing". IUBMB Life. 61 (6): 572-578. doi: ... they are transcribed from DNA to RNA, and the RNA produced is then reverse transcribed to DNA. This copied DNA is then inserted ... For example, after the conversion of retroviral RNA into DNA inside a host cell, the newly produced retroviral DNA is ...
"RNA-targeting and gene editing therapies for transthyretin amyloidosis". Nature Reviews. Cardiology. doi:10.1038/s41569-022- ... It is a small interfering RNA (siRNA) that interferes with the expression of the transthyretin (TTR) gene. Vutrisiran was ... RNA interference, All stub articles, Nervous system drug stubs). ...
Substitutions can occur on the level of both the DNA and RNA. RNA editing-dependent amino acid substitutions can produce ... Yablonovitch AL, Deng P, Jacobson D, Li JB (November 2017). "The evolution and adaptation of A-to-I RNA editing". PLOS Genetics ... Meier JC, Kankowski S, Krestel H, Hetsch F (2016). "RNA Editing-Systemic Relevance and Clue to Disease Mechanisms?". Frontiers ... Such selective substitutions of uridine for cytidine, and inosine for adenosine in RNA editing can produce differential ...
"Entrez Gene: USP40 ubiquitin specific peptidase 40". Bass BL (2002). "RNA editing by adenosine deaminases that act on RNA". ...
Bass BL (2002). "RNA editing by adenosine deaminases that act on RNA". Annu. Rev. Biochem. 71: 817-846. doi:10.1146/annurev. ...
As with alternative splicing of the gene RNA editing increases the number of isoforms of this protein. Editing is tissue ... The region where editing occurs like that of other editing sites, e.g., ApoB mRNA editing is conserved. Mice, rats and humans ... RNA editing results in an alternative amino acid being translated. The changes in amino acid occur in a region identified as a ... Editing shown to be restricted in testis and kidney in the rat. Editing of this gene product has been found to occur in mice ...
May 2001). "RNA editing of the human serotonin 5-HT2C receptor. alterations in suicide and implications for serotonergic ...
Interactive drawing and editing of the RNA secondary structure". Bioinformatics. 25 (15): 1974-1975. doi:10.1093/bioinformatics ... a new staphylococcal family of highly transcribed non-coding RNA". RNA Biol. 7 (2): 116-119. doi:10.4161/rna.7.2.10925. PMID ... RsaOG (an acronym for RNA S. aureus Orsay G) is a non-coding RNA that was discovered in the pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus ... Rsa RNA Pathogenicity island Bacterial small RNA Darty K, Denise A, Ponty Y (August 2009). "VARNA: ...
Jiang W, Bikard D, Cox D, Zhang F, Marraffini LA (March 2013). "RNA-guided editing of bacterial genomes using CRISPR-Cas ... "Orthogonal Cas9 proteins for RNA-guided gene regulation and editing" (PDF). Nature Methods. 10 (11): 1116-21. doi:10.1038/nmeth ... Small interfering RNAs can originate from inside the cell or can be exogenously introduced into the cell. Once introduced into ... RNA interference is a very useful research tool, allowing investigators to carry out large genetic screens in an effort to ...
"Octopuses, Squid, and Cuttlefish: RNA Editing Instead of Genome Evolution? , DNA Science Blog". DNA Science Blog. 2017-04-06. ... "Comparative Genomics Shows Squid Optimize DNA 'Blueprint' Through RNA Editing". Science 2.0. 2015-03-20. Retrieved 2018-04-30 ...
Jiang W, Bikard D, Cox D, Zhang F, Marraffini LA (March 2013). "RNA-guided editing of bacterial genomes using CRISPR-Cas ... Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Genome editing, Repetitive DNA sequences, Non-coding RNA) ... It has been suggested that this is due to the activity of helicase, which unwinds the RNA:DNA heteroduplex ahead of RNA pol II ... sgRNA is a chimeric noncoding RNA that can be subdivided into three regions: a 20 nt base-pairing sequence, a 42 nt dCas9- ...
Guide RNAs can transport Cas9 to any locus in the genome for gene editing, but no editing can occur at any site other than one ... In genome editing applications, a short oligonucleotide known as a guide RNA (gRNA) is synthesized to perform the function of ... "Orthogonal Cas9 proteins for RNA-guided gene regulation and editing". Nature Methods. 10 (11): 1116-1123. doi:10.1038/nmeth. ... RNA Biology. 10 (5): 891-899. doi:10.4161/rna.23764. PMC 3737346. PMID 23403393. Mojica FJ, Díez-Villaseñor C, García-Martínez ...
... dependent RNA polymerization before retro- transposition of edited CSP-RNA variants, has been proposed in moths [11]. In ... Molecular evidence of RNA editing in Bombyx chemosensory protein family. PLoS ONE 2014; 9: e86932. 10. Xuan N, Rajashekar B, ... DNA and RNA-dependent polymerization in editing of Bombyx chemosensory protein (CSP) gene family. Agri Gene 2019; 12: 100087. ... CSPs are characterized by RNA editing and/or post-translational modifications as discovered in the silkworm moth, B. mori [9-14 ...
RNA editing in the free-living bodonid Bodo saltans. Nucleic Acids Research Vol. 26, no. 5 1205-1213. Dolezel, D; M. Jirku, D.A ... Phylogenetic analysis of the mitochondrial RNA editing process and inferred protein sequences in B. saltans appear to show that ...
An example Neumann-Held gives of this is RNA editing. Depending on the environmental and developmental state of the organism ...
Modelling-based methods[edit]. ab initio modeling[edit]. This approach uses protein sequence data and the chemical and physical ... the part of a gene that is likely to contain the sequence for the messenger RNA and protein, to be cloned and expressed as ... Thermotogo maritima proteome[edit]. One current goal of the Joint Center for Structural Genomics (JCSG), a part of the Protein ... Mycobacterium tuberculosis proteome[edit]. The goal of the TB Structural Genomics Consortium is to determine the structures of ...
Type 1 immunity[edit]. Type 1 immunity makes use of the type 1 subset for each of these cell types. By secreting interferon ... Synopsis[edit]. Cellular immunity protects the body through: *T-cell mediated immunity or T-cell immunity: activating antigen- ... Further reading[edit]. *Cell-Mediated Immunity. Murphy. *Cell-mediated immunity: How T cells recognize and respond to foreign ... History[edit]. In the late 19th century Hippocratic tradition medicine system, the immune system was imagined into two branches ...
Function[edit]. Immune system[edit]. IL-6 is secreted by macrophages in response to specific microbial molecules, referred to ... positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II. *glucagon secretion. *cellular response to hydrogen peroxide ... Diseases[edit]. Enterovirus 71[edit]. High IL-6 levels are associated with the development of encephalitis in children and ... Role in diagnosis[edit]. Pediatric acute appendicitis[edit]. interleukin-6 has been shown to be elevated in paediatric patients ...
17th-19th centuries[edit]. Diagram of the castle and gun battery, depicted in 1901. Key: A - 16th-century castle and adjacent ... Further information: RNAS Calshot and RAF Calshot. The first-floor barracks in the keep, restored to their 1910 appearance[23] ... Bibliography[edit]. *. Chapple, Nick (2014). "A History of the National Collection: Volume Seven, 1953-1970". Research Report ... Architecture[edit]. Calshot Castle is a three-storey, circular fortification, comprising a keep, gatehouse and curtain wall, ...
Nonplanetary lifeEdit. Dusty plasma-basedEdit. See also: Dusty plasma. In 2007, Vadim N. Tsytovich and colleagues proposed that ... The genetic code may have evolved during the transition from the RNA world to a protein world.[85] The Alanine World Hypothesis ... Other speculationsEdit. Non-green photosynthesizersEdit. Physicists have noted that, although photosynthesis on Earth generally ... Hydrogen sulfideEdit. Hydrogen sulfide is the closest chemical analog to water,[71] but is less polar and is a weaker inorganic ...
RNA interference screens[edit]. RNA interference (RNAi) screens (repression of individual proteins between transcription and ... Examples[edit]. Electron transfer proteins[edit]. In many metabolic reactions, a protein that acts as an electron carrier binds ... Genomic Context Methods[edit]. The Rosetta Stone or Domain Fusion method is based on the hypothesis that interacting proteins ... Role of water[edit]. Water molecules play a significant role in the interactions between proteins.[14][15] The crystal ...
HistoryEdit. Classical formsEdit. Main article: Aristotle's biology. In his biology, Aristotle used the term γένος (génos) to ... As a rule of thumb, microbiologists have assumed that members of Bacteria or Archaea with 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences more ... ChronospeciesEdit. A chronospecies is defined in a single lineage (solid line) whose morphology changes with time. At some ... Taxonomy and namingEdit. A cougar, mountain lion, panther, or puma, among other common names: its scientific name is Puma ...
Expansion[edit]. In 1912, the college opened its Ranger School in Wanakena, New York, in the Adirondacks. The college began ... Mark Marquisee, in the seminal 1965 'Science' paper describing the structure of alanine transfer RNA, linking DNA and protein ... Research[edit]. ESF is classified as a "Carnegie R2 Doctoral Universities: High Research Activity" institution.[56] The first ... Athletics[edit]. The SUNY ESF athletic teams are called the Mighty Oaks. The college is a member the United States Collegiate ...
External links[edit]. *. "Burkholderia pseudomallei genomes and related information". PATRIC. NIAID. Archived from the original ... "Suitability of partial 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence analysis for the identification of dangerous bacterial pathogens" ... Identification[edit]. Burkholderia pseudomallei is not fastidious and grows on a large variety of culture media (blood agar, ... Transformation[edit]. Burkholderia pseudomoallei can go through transformation. The bacteria is able to uptake a free plasmid ...
Alternative systemsEdit. In jawless vertebratesEdit. Main article: Adaptive immunity in jawless vertebrates ... Last one is piRNA where small RNA binds to the Piwi protein family and controls transposones and other mobile elements.[21] ... Immunological diversityEdit. An antibody is made up of two heavy chains and two light chains. The unique variable region allows ... Exogenous antigensEdit. Antigen presentation stimulates T cells to become either "cytotoxic" CD8+ cells or "helper" CD4+ cells. ...
Procedure[edit]. A general blotting procedure[5] starts with extraction of total RNA from a homogenized tissue sample or from ... The RNA samples are most commonly separated on agarose gels containing formaldehyde as a denaturing agent for the RNA to limit ... which could cause RNA degradation.[10] Once the RNA has been transferred to the membrane, it is immobilized through covalent ... RNA, or oligonucleotides with a minimum of 25 complementary bases to the target sequence.[5] RNA probes (riboprobes) that are ...
See also[edit]. *Environmental issues with coral reefs. References[edit]. .mw-parser-output .reflist{font-size:90%;margin- ... The Australian zoologist John Veron and his co-workers analyzed ribosomal RNA in 1996 to obtain similar results to Romano and ... Evolutionary history[edit]. Palaeozoic rugose corals with calcite skeletons, like this Grewingkia canadensis, are doubtfully ... Soft parts[edit]. Stony corals are members of the class Anthozoa and like other members of the group, do not have a medusa ...
HistoryEdit. Founded in 1978,[2] Rhino was originally a novelty and reissue label during the 1970s and 1980s. It released ... These albums were released on the main Rhino label and on subsidiary labels such as RNA (Rhino New Artists) and Forward. ... This page was last edited on 15 June 2022, at 15:18 (UTC). ...
SlimeEdit. An Atlantic hagfish (Myxine glutinosa) using its slime to get away from a kitefin shark (Dalatias licha) and an ... Stock, D. W.; Whitt, G. S. (1992). "Evidence from 18S ribosomal RNA that lampreys and hagfishes form a natural group". Science ... FeedingEdit. Two Pacific hagfish feeding on a dead sharpchin rockfish, Sebastes zacentrus, while one remains in a curled ... ClassificationEdit. Originally, Myxine was included by Linnaeus (1758) in Vermes. The fossil hagfish Myxinikela siroka from the ...
In: Human Evolutionary Biology, edited by M. Muehlenbein. New York: Cambridge University Press "Archived copy" (PDF)। ২০১২-০৪- ... "An RNA gene expressed during cortical development evolved rapidly in humans"। Nature। 443 (7108): 167-72। ডিওআই:10.1038/ ...
Books[edit]. *with Charles Van Loan: Matrix Computations (= Johns Hopkins Series in the Mathematical Sciences. 3). Johns ... analysis of genome-scale data by using pseudoinverse projection predicts novel correlation between DNA replication and RNA ... Personal life[edit]. Born in Chicago, he was educated at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, receiving his B.S. ( ... Recognition[edit]. Golub was awarded the B. Bolzano Gold Medal for Merits in the Field of Mathematical Sciences and was one of ...
Gallipoli[edit]. Background[edit]. By the end of 1914, the fighting on the Western Front had reached a stalemate, the opposing ... RNAS) and the Royal Air Force, both as aircrew and ground crew.[69] A number of the flying personnel ended up commanding ... Hundred Days Offensive[edit]. The advance of the New Zealand Division - part of the Third Army's IV Corps - during the 100 Days ... Transfer to Europe[edit]. Infantry from the 2nd Battalion, Auckland Regiment, New Zealand Division in the Switch Line near ...
RNA, etc). Un tipical esempli de biologjie moleocolâr al é il studi da la maniere cun cui il DNA al é trascrit in RNA e al é ... iOS app edit. Link a pagina di disambiguazione. meta spam id. Modifica da app Android. Modifica da mobile avanzata. Modifica ...
... occurs in aw organisms, primarily in amino acids (an sicweys proteins) an in the nucleic acids (DNA an RNA). The human ... edit. , references. Nitrogen is a common element in the universe, estimatit at aboot seivent in tot abundance in the galaxy an ...
Edit Alternative splicing allows DNA to code for more than one protein. It varies the exon make-up of the messenger RNA. ... messenger RNA produced by transcription are reconnected in different ways during RNA splicing. ... Source of diversityEdit. Alternative splicing (the re-combination of different exons) is a major source of genetic diversity in ... This produces different mature messenger RNAs from the same gene. They get translated into different proteins. Thus, a single ...
External links[edit]. *Human ACE2 genome location and ACE2 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. ... In a study done during the SARS outbreak, SARS virus RNA was ascertained in the autopsy of heart specimens in 35% of the ... Location within the human body[edit]. mACE2 is attached to the cell membrane of mainly enterocytes of the small intestine and ... Recombinant human ACE2[edit]. Recombinant human ACE2 (rhACE2) is surmised to be a novel therapy for acute lung injury, and ...
Synthesis[edit]. Transcription factors (like all proteins) are transcribed from a gene on a chromosome into RNA, and then the ... transcription - the process of making messenger RNA (mRNA) from a DNA template by RNA polymerase ... the recruitment of RNA polymerase (the enzyme that performs the transcription of genetic information from DNA to RNA) to ... Structure[edit]. Schematic diagram of the amino acid sequence (amino terminus to the left and carboxylic acid terminus to the ...
Plant examplesEdit. SorghumEdit. The plant sorghum is well established model organism and can adapt in hot and dry environments ... Sorghum contains seedlings that express a glycine-rich RNA-binding protein, SbGRBP. This particular protein can be modulated by ... Interaction with microbesEdit. Nodule formationEdit. Ca2+ plays a significantly important role in nodule formation in legumes. ... Role in plantsEdit. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable ...
UsesEdit. Commercially, the chief use for the metal is as an alloying agent to make aluminium-magnesium alloys, sometimes ... The ions play a major role in manipulating important biological polyphosphate compounds like ATP, DNA, and RNA. Hundreds of ...
Inyandiko zafatiwekoEdit. *↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 "Ebola virus disease Fact sheet N°103". World Health ... Mu kwemeza inyishu, ibipimo vy'amaraso birasubirwamwo gusuzumwa ku vyerekeye utugera tw'abasoda b'umubiri, utugera twa RNA, ... Izindi mbugaEdit. *ViralZone: Ebola-like viruses - Virological repository from the Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics ...
Joyce, Gerald F. (July 11, 2002). "The antiquity of RNA-based evolution". Nature. 418 (6894): 214-221. Bibcode:2002Natur.418.. ...
RNAEdit. *Nuclear run-on. *Ribosome profiling. Cell counting, viability, proliferation or cytotoxicity assaysEdit. A cell- ... PetrochemistryEdit. *Crude oil assay. VirologyEdit. The HPCE-based viral titer assay uses a proprietary, high-performance ... Assay types based on the targets being measuredEdit. DNAEdit. Assays for studying interactions of proteins with DNA include: * ... Assay types based on the nature of the assay processEdit. Time and number of measurements takenEdit. Depending on whether an ...
Both the H2N2 and H3N2 pandemic strains contained avian flu virus RNA segments. "While the pandemic human influenza viruses of ... Last edited on 24 avqust 2022, at 13:46 * Bu səhifə sonuncu dəfə 24 avqust 2022 13:46 tarixində redaktə edilib. ...
NameEdit. In February 2020, the World Health Organization announced they had chosen a name for the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 ... Both the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines are messenger RNA vaccines they teach the body to recognize the virus. They say mRNA ... MedicinesEdit. The virus that causes COVID-19 is new to humans. This means that there are no medicines that can stop people ... More readingEdit. *. Wang D, Hu B, Hu C, et al. (2020-02-07). "Clinical Characteristics of 138 Hospitalized Patients With 2019 ...
This page was last edited on 26 November 2022, at 22:48 (UTC). ... NS5B RNA polymerase inhibitors (-buvir). *Beclabuvir†. * ...
A big advantage of RNA editing-over DNA editing, for example-is that changes to RNA are only temporary, since RNA has a short ... edit on RNA using ADARs, a short accessory strand of RNA-called a guide RNA-is needed to guide ADARs to the target and make the ... Life sciences/Biochemistry/Biomolecules/Nucleic acids/RNA/RNA editing * /Applied sciences and engineering/Technology/Genetic ... Paper: "Robust in vitro and in vivo RNA editing via recruitment of endogenous ADARs using circular guide RNAs." Co-authors ...
A previously unrecognized regulation and role of ADAR1p150-mediated A-to-I RNA editing in post-transcriptional control in RA ... Upregulation of the expression and/or activity of the RNA editing machinery were associated with a higher expression of edited ... RNA editing of Alu retroelements is a primate-specific mechanism mediated by adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) that ... Increased adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing in rheumatoid arthritis J Autoimmun. 2020 Jan;106:102329. doi: 10.1016/j.jaut. ...
CRISPR is a new, affordable genome editing tool enabling access to genome editing for all. ... Purified RNA-only guide RNA. *Ready-to-use gRNAs in a purified RNA format suitable for microinjection or cell culture. ... Hwang WY, Fu Y, Reyon D, Maeder ML, Tsai SQ, Sander JD, Peterson RT, Yeh JJ, Joung JK. 2013. Efficient genome editing in ... Mali P, Yang L, Esvelt KM, Aach J, Guell M, DiCarlo JE, Norville JE, Church GM. 2013. RNA-Guided Human Genome Engineering via ...
Genetic variants that reduce the editing levels of double-stranded RNA are associated with autoimmune and immune-mediated ... Deficient RNA Editing Implicated in Inflammatory Disease Genetic variants that reduce the editing levels of double-stranded RNA ... If we now know that RNA editing is important, she says, it will likely not be so difficult to develop clinical tests for RNA ... "In Editing RNA, Researchers See Endless Possibilities". The main achievement of the authors was to establish a link between RNA ...
Swiss researchers have found that expression of an RNA-binding protein helps tumors to evade the immune system. ... CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing links RNA-binding protein to immunotherapy resistance. By Nick Paul Taylor, The Science Advisory Board ... November 21, 2022 -- Using CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing, Swiss researchers have provided evidence that expression of an RNA-binding ... Using CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing, the researchers knocked out the gene that encodes the protein, FMR1, and used the resulting ...
Gene Editing Gene Editing show/hide subitems Explore Gene Editing CRISPR guide RNA Cas9 nucleases Controls Custom guide RNA ... Editing Guaranteed with Predesigned Edit R Guide RNAs. Use CRISPR with Confidence! Reagents you can trust for your gene editing ... If the Edit-R positive control worked and your gene-specific guide RNA does not yield an edit, the guide will be replaced. ... RNA Interference show/hide subitems Explore RNA Interference siRNA Self-delivering siRNA shRNA microRNA Noncoding RNA ...
RNA-DNA or RNA-RNA). In practice, JACUSA shows higher recall and comparable precision in detecting A→I sites from RNA-DNA ... Even more surprising, condition-specific editing events, which would show up as differences in RNA-RNA comparisons (RRDs) and ... we performed whole genome and RNA sequencing of HEK-293 cells on samples with lowered activity of candidate RNA editing enzymes ... The most common RNA editing modification is the single base substitution (A→I) that is catalyzed by the members of the ...
Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing, a process mediated by adenosine deaminases that act on the RNA (ADAR) gene family, ... Moreover, AZIN1 RNA editing status could be used as a clinically relevant prognostic indicator in CRC patients. ... High levels of AZIN1 RNA editing emerged as a prognostic factor for overall survival and disease-free survival and were an ... AZIN1 RNA editing confers cancer stemness and enhances oncogenic potential in colorectal cancer. ...
At least 32 edits showed significant (≧20%) differential editing between leaf and floral tissues. Finally, RNA editing in trnM ... To sensitively and extensively examine the plastid RNA editing status of moth orchid, RNA-Seq was used to investigate the ... Whole plastid transcriptomes reveal abundant RNA editing sites and differential editing status in Phalaenopsis aphrodite subsp ... Whole plastid transcriptomes reveal abundant RNA editing sites and differential editing status in Phalaenopsis aphrodite subsp ...
Both molecules are heavily involved in A-to-I editing, which is crucial for appropriate animal behavior. As the regulators ... MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) are gaining increasing recognition for their key role in orchestrating ... The objective of this research project was to investigate the involvement of RNA-mediated post-transcriptional regulation in ...
Selection of guide RNA by ChIP. Diagenodes iDeal ChIP-seq Kit for Transcription Factors provides a robust workflow to ... Thank you for your interest in our RNA-seq solutions. Kindly leave your details below before proceeding to the white paper ... Check out our detailed protocol for the selection of guide RNA. Selection of products. *CRISPR/Cas9 polyclonal antibody ...
In this first comprehensive analysis of RNA editing events in pediatric cancer, we found that the RNA editing profile of each ... Tumor-specific RNA editing events were not identified indicating that successful immunotherapeutic targeting of RNA-edited ... Nearly all editing sites represented the canonical A-to-I (n = 706) or C-to-U sites (n = 14). RNA editing was enriched in brain ... Using RNA-Seq data mapped by a pipeline designed to minimize mapping ambiguity, we investigated RNA editing in 711 pediatric ...
Chloroplast RNA editing is much more abundant in early-branching than in widely investigated model flowering plants. RNA ... We investigated the evolution of CRR28 and RARE1, two known Arabidopsis RNA editing factors responsible for cp editing events ... proteins are key editing factors expected to coevolve with their cognate RNA editing sites in the organelles. With an extensive ... Some 30-50 sites of C-to-U RNA editing exist in chloroplasts of flowering plant models like Arabidopsis, rice or tobacco. We ...
Our approach expands the toolkit for studying adenosine-to-inosine editing and can be further extended to investigate other RNA ... Direct identification of A-to-I editing sites with nanopore native RNA sequencing. ... Inosine is a prevalent RNA modification in animals and is formed when an adenosine is deaminated by the ADAR family of enzymes ... Here, we show that Oxford Nanopore direct RNA sequencing can be used to identify inosine-containing sites in native ...
Without RNA editing, protein folding will not occur properly, thus affecting gene expression. We suggest that RNA editing may ... RNA editing can convert codons for hydrophilic to hydrophobic amino acids. Hence, only the edited form of an mRNA can be ... The role and origin of RNA editing in plant organelles remain to be elucidated. Here we study the relationship between amino ... We have performed a novel analysis of the location of residues affected by RNA editing in proteins in plant organelles. This ...
An RNA editing fingerprint of cancer stem cell reprogramming.: ... An RNA editing fingerprint of cancer stem cell reprogramming.. ...
Title : Dimeric CRISPR RNA-guided FokI nucleases for highly specific genome editing Personal Author(s) : Tsai, Shengdar Q.; ... CRISPR RNA-guided activation of endogenous human genes Cite CITE. Title : CRISPR RNA-guided activation of endogenous human ... Here we describe dimeric RNA-guided FokI nucleases (RFNs) that can recognize extended sequences and edit endogenous genes with ... Short guide RNAs (gRNAs) can direct catalytically inactive CRISPR-associated 9 nuclease (dCas9) to repress endogenous genes in ...
Pentatricopeptide repeat proteins with the DYW motif have distinct molecular functions in RNA editing and RNA cleavage in ... Pentatricopeptide repeat proteins with the DYW motif have distinct molecular functions in RNA editing and RNA cleavage in ...
RNA editing of the IQ domain in cav1.3 channels modulates their ca2+-dependent inactivation ... RNA editing of the IQ domain in cav1.3 channels modulates their ca2+-dependent inactivation Huang, H., Tan, B. Z., Shen, Y., ... 2012). RNA editing of the IQ domain in cav1.3 channels modulates their ca2+-dependent inactivation. Neuron, 73(2), 304-316. doi ... Alternative Title : RNA editing of the IQ domain in cav1.3 channels modulates their ca2+-dependent inactivation ...
... induction in erythroid progeny after base editing or nuclease editing was similar. A single therapeutic base edit of the BCL11A ... these results demonstrate the potential of RNP base editing of human HSPCs as a feasible alternative to nuclease editing for ... Finally, base edits could be produced in multilineage-repopulating self-renewing human HSCs with high frequency as assayed in ... Moreover, efficient multiplex editing could be achieved with combined disruption of the BCL11A erythroid enhancer and ...
Although fungi lack adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) enzymes, adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing was reported ... This study comprehensively analyzed A-to-I editing in N. crassa and showed that RNA editing is stage-specific and generally ... Although fungi lack adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) enzymes, adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing was reported ... and approximately half of them displayed stage-specific editing or editing levels at different sexual stages. RNA-sequencing ...
... of standing sequence variability of HCV and other RNA viruses; RNA editing may therefore represent a potent driver of RNA virus ... potentially driven by an APOBEC-like RNA editing process. The current study investigated whether this phenomenon could be ... potentially reflecting the documented structure dependence of APOBEC-mediated RNA editing. Using the association index metric, ... This study describes an additional potent factor that contributes to the evolution of RNA infecting mammals, the deliberate ...
Yuxuan Zheng, Claire Lorenzo, Peter A. Beal; DNA editing in DNA/RNA hybrids by adenosine deaminases that act on RNA. Nucleic ... "Recognition of duplex RNA by the deaminase domain of the RNA editing enzyme ADAR2", Nucl. Acids. Res., 2015,(43)(1), 1123-1132 ... RNA Editing Brinkman, H.F.; Matos, V.J.; Mendoza, H.G.; Doherty, E.E.; Beal, P.A. Nucleoside analogs in ADAR guide strands ... "RNA editing changes the lesion specificity for the DNA repair enzyme NEIL1" Jongchan Yeo, Rena A. Goodman, Nicole T. Schirle, ...
This leads to a "state of the art" compendium of our current knowledge on RNA editing.. RNA Editing. Author: Publisher: ... Download RNA Editing PDF full book. Access full book title RNA Editing by Brenda Bass. Download full books in PDF and EPUB ... One means of achieving protein diversity is through RNA editing. A diverse array of editing events has been characterized, ... RNA Editing. Author: Brenda Bass. Publisher: Oxford University Press. ISBN: 9780199638147. Category : Science. Languages : en. ...
... We have conducted a survey of RNA editing in human brain by comparing sequences of ... All edits were adenosine to inosine (A-\ensuremath,I) and were predominantly in intronic and in intergenic RNAs. No edits were ... stranded RNA with an inverted copy underlies most A-\ensuremath,I editing. The likelihood of editing is increased by the ... In the RNA sample from which the library was constructed, -1:2000 nucleotides were edited out of \ensuremath,3 Mb surveyed. ...
This adaptive immunity system, which uses a library of small noncoding RNAs as a potent weapon against fast-evolving viruses, ... when these sequences are transcribed and precisely processed into small RNAs, they guide a multifunctional protein complex (Cas ... CRISPR/Cas: a novel way of RNA-guided genome editing].. *Jun Li, Yi Zhang, +4 authors. Caixia Gao ... CRISPR RNA maturation by trans-encoded small RNA and host factor RNase III. *E. Deltcheva, Krzysztof Chylinski, +6 authors. E. ...
RNA editing underlies genetic risk of common inflammatory diseases cis-RNA editing quantitative trait loci, which are ... Dynamic landscape and regulation of RNA editing in mammals Using the GTEx data and others, a comprehensive analysis of ... Transcriptome-wide off-target RNA editing induced by CRISPR-guided DNA base editors CRISPR DNA base editors induce ... A combination of five assays is used to produce a catalogue of RNA elements to which RNA-binding proteins bind in human cells. ...
  • The new RNA editing technology holds promise as a gene therapy for treating genetic diseases. (eurekalert.org)
  • I'm hopeful that this work opens the door even more for RNA editing as another gene therapy tool," said Mali. (eurekalert.org)
  • A previously unrecognized regulation and role of ADAR1p150-mediated A-to-I RNA editing in post-transcriptional control in RA underpins therapeutic response and fuels inflammatory gene expression, thus representing an interesting therapeutic target. (nih.gov)
  • She adds that she found it "really striking" how important RNA editing appears to be for inflammatory diseases, compared to gene expression or splicing . (the-scientist.com)
  • The variants affecting RNA editing appeared to have stronger associations with those diseases compared to variants affecting gene expression or splicing, which have also been linked to immune-related diseases. (the-scientist.com)
  • November 21, 2022 -- Using CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing, Swiss researchers have provided evidence that expression of an RNA-binding protein helps tumors to evade the immune system. (scienceboard.net)
  • Using CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing, the researchers knocked out the gene that encodes the protein, FMR1, and used the resulting cell line to establish tumors in immunodeficient and immunocompetent mice. (scienceboard.net)
  • Reagents you can trust for your gene editing experiments. (horizondiscovery.com)
  • All p redesigned Edit-R™ guide RNAs are fully guaranteed to edit the gene they target, ensuring the highest likelihood of a successful knockout experiment. (horizondiscovery.com)
  • If the Edit-R positive control worked and your gene-specific guide RNA does not yield an edit, the guide will be replaced. (horizondiscovery.com)
  • Gene editing occurs when CRISPR-Cas9 reagents cause a double stranded break and the cell imperfectly repairs that double strand break to cause insertions and deletions which can disrupt protein function. (horizondiscovery.com)
  • This algorithm designs guide RNAs that are highly specific to minimize off-target cutting events, while simultaneously targeting regions that efficiently produce functional gene knockouts, not just an indel at the target site. (horizondiscovery.com)
  • Using guide RNAs that have been designed to focus on highly-gene specific, functional protein knockout allows researchers to apply editing techniques with confidence. (horizondiscovery.com)
  • Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing, a process mediated by adenosine deaminases that act on the RNA (ADAR) gene family, is a recently discovered epigenetic modification dysregulated in human cancers. (jci.org)
  • RNA editing is a process of post-transcriptional level of gene regulation by nucleotide modification. (altmetric.com)
  • RNA editing occurred in non-protein-coding transcripts such as tRNA, introns and untranslated regulatory regions could affect the formation and stability of secondary structure, which might play an important role in the regulation of gene expression. (altmetric.com)
  • Without RNA editing, protein folding will not occur properly, thus affecting gene expression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A diverse array of editing events has been characterized, affecting gene expression in organisms from viruses and single cell parasites to humans and plants. (thefashionjournal.net)
  • Successful introduction of gRNA and Cas9 protein into the cell is key to any gene-editing experiment to ensure efficiency. (perkinelmer.com)
  • 12. Tahir T, Ali Q, Rashid MS, Malik A. The journey of crispr-cas9 from bacterial defense mechanism to a gene editing tool in both animals and plants. (jabonline.in)
  • The CRISPR/Cas9 system produces specific and homozygous targeted gene editing in rice in one generation. (jabonline.in)
  • Over the last few years, as CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing tech became the AK47 of academic labs - a handy, powerful weapon that could be pointed at multiple targets - there has been a growing chorus of skeptics pointing to what they see as severe limitations to the technology. (endpts.com)
  • Prime Editing to #Radically Change #CRISPR #Gene-Editing. (apaari.org)
  • How Gene-Editing is Impacting Consumers in Developing Countries? (apaari.org)
  • Agriculture and #Health Challenges can #Resolved, Thanks to #Gene Editing. (apaari.org)
  • USDA Classifies #Gene Edited HOLL #Soybean as #Unregulated. (apaari.org)
  • How Gene editing is different from Genetic Engineering? (apaari.org)
  • More papers have been published on unintended outcomes and risks of gene editing in medical research on human and animal cells and laboratory animals, compared with plants. (gmwatch.org)
  • These results have implications for the gene editing of farm animals. (gmwatch.org)
  • Moreover, the problems found with human and animal gene editing are increasingly being confirmed in plant gene editing. (gmwatch.org)
  • The unintended mutational (DNA damaging) outcomes summarized below occur after the gene-editing tool has completed its task of creating a double-strand DNA break. (gmwatch.org)
  • So even if scientists eventually succeed in avoiding off-target mutations, most of the unintended mutations described can still occur at the intended gene-editing site. (gmwatch.org)
  • This lack of full control of the gene-editing procedure, as well as gaps in our knowledge of outcomes, point to the need for strict regulation of gene editing in food crops and farm animals. (gmwatch.org)
  • Regulation must start from consideration of the genetic engineering process used to create the gene-edited organism ("process-based regulation"), so that regulators know where things can go wrong and what to look for. (gmwatch.org)
  • Gene editing makes the whole genome accessible for changes - unlike naturally occurring genetic changes. (gmwatch.org)
  • Below is a selection of studies showing different types of unintended mutations resulting from gene editing that can affect the functioning of multiple gene systems. (gmwatch.org)
  • Large deletions and rearrangements of the plant's genome, which can involve thousands of base units of DNA, have been observed following CRISPR gene editing. (gmwatch.org)
  • A new gene editing technique called prime editing, tested in human and mouse cells, rewrites DNA by only cutting a single strand to add, remove, or replace base pairs. (the-scientist.com)
  • Emma Haapaniemi , a group leader at the Center for Molecular Medicine Norway who studies gene editing to treat rare diseases and wasn't part of the work to develop prime editing, tells The Scientist that the approach is "innovative and novel," though of course, the technique is "still a prototype" and will need to be refined. (the-scientist.com)
  • The CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing system has been known to produce extra cuts in wrong sections of DNA, which can interrupt cell function. (the-scientist.com)
  • Another type of gene editing that doesn't rely on DNA breaks and was thought to minimize inaccuracy is base editing , in which an enzyme can trade one DNA nuclease for another, but this strategy offers limited options as it can only make four of the 12 possible base pair changes, and some recent work has suggested it's not as precise as scientists first thought. (the-scientist.com)
  • Nonetheless, he's excited by the new tool and "enamored" of some aspects of the new technology, such as its potential ability to edit a greater diversity of targets than other gene editing methods can. (the-scientist.com)
  • Finally, gene editing via CRISPR/Cas9,[2] as well as RNA-interference-based therapy,[3] has shown benefit in mouse models of this disease and may represent a powerful therapeutic strategy in the future. (medscape.com)
  • As a Simons' fellow in Feng lab, he aims to develop and test the effectiveness of Cas13-based RNA editing in mice as a means for gene therapy targeting Rett Syndrome. (mit.edu)
  • P protein is encoded by an unedited transcript of the P gene, whereas the V and W protein are the results of RNA editing event in which one and two G residues are inserted at a conserved editing site within the P gene mRNA resulting in V and W transcripts, respectively. (who.int)
  • P gene edited products are known for its anti-apoptotic property in homologous host. (who.int)
  • In the present study, NDV P gene and its RNA edited products were amplified, cloned, sequenced and in vitro expression was done in HeLa cells. (who.int)
  • Gene editing sounds super scary but its potential to improve our lives is immense. (zmescience.com)
  • CRISPR is a highly precise new method of gene-editing. (zmescience.com)
  • Films such as these often portray gene editing as the next big Frankenstein's monster of biology, which is hardly a positive portrayal. (zmescience.com)
  • The world of gene editing is a lot more complex than that. (zmescience.com)
  • gene editing is quickly becoming a reality. (zmescience.com)
  • That's due in no small part to the fact that gene editing is a lot more accessible today than in decades past. (zmescience.com)
  • Today, accessibility and gene editing often mean one tool in particular - CRISPR. (zmescience.com)
  • This almost certainly doesn't clear up for you what this actually is or does, however, so let's take a closer look at one of the leading gene editing tools in the toolbox and how it can be put to work to benefit us. (zmescience.com)
  • For those not in the know, CRISPR is a gene-editing tool that is developed from a natural means by which microbial bacteria edit out pieces of DNA. (zmescience.com)
  • With a technique such as CRISPR gene editing, and the almost infinite choice of Crispr-Cas9 lentivirus vectors , we could in theory snip out the damaged or dangerous DNA strands and replace them with "healthy" sequences. (zmescience.com)
  • Plasmids expressing Cas9 and a custom sgRNA can be used for gene editing in many situations, particularly for C. elegans [2]. (wormbook.org)
  • Although satisfactory sites can usually be found for gene knockouts, they might not be available for site-specific editing. (wormbook.org)
  • A mixture of Cas9, mouse SLC guide RNA and a PCR fragment from the SLC gene were digested at 37°C for 1 hour. (wormbook.org)
  • Thus, home-made Cas9 has high efficiency and allows rapid and inexpensive gene editing. (wormbook.org)
  • If the desired target lacks a nearby 3'-GGnGG, TALENs can be used for precise gene editing. (wormbook.org)
  • Data Mining by Pluralistic Approach on CRISPR Gene Editing in Plants. (cocites.com)
  • Additional protocols for an assortment of techniques related to CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing are available for free at protocols.io . (innovativegenomics.org)
  • CRISPR Technology in Gene-Editing-Based Detection and Treatment of SARS-CoV-2. (cdc.gov)
  • A review of COVID-19: Treatment Strategies and CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technology approaches to the coronavirus disease. (cdc.gov)
  • CRISPR/Cas: a Nobel Prize award-winning precise genome editing technology for gene therapy and crop improvement. (cdc.gov)
  • For example, the discovery of small RNAs and their regulatory role in gene expression has paved the way for new therapeutic interventions in many human diseases. (ceitec.eu)
  • Similarly, emerging genome editing technologies are based on a ribonucleoprotein complex in which a designed RNA molecule permits programming of the CRISPR-Cas9 particle for precise targeting of the desired gene. (ceitec.eu)
  • Remarkable progress in science and technology has led to the development of powerful tools for genome sequencing and editing increasing ability to study gene expression and function at multiple levels from cells to populations. (cdc.gov)
  • therefore, gene editing using CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas9 is often carried out through ribonucleoprotein (RNP) electroporation. (slas-discovery.org)
  • Therefore, to enable the screening of as many genes as possible in primary cells, this protocol has reduced the cell number and reagent required per gene electroporation, whilst ensuring the maintenance of CRISPR editing efficiency. (slas-discovery.org)
  • Other gene silencing methods such small interfering-RNA (siRNA) can also be powerful tools in drug discovery when looking at essential genes, or where complete knock-out is not required. (slas-discovery.org)
  • We conducted an intensive transcriptome analysis of P. waltl using RNA-sequencing to build and annotate gene models. (elsevier.com)
  • To create such a tool, the endogenous CRISPR pathway was reduced to two principal components: the Cas9 nuclease and a guide RNA (gRNA) 1-7 . (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • This guarantee has no restrictions on the format or source of your Cas9 nuclease , what type of analysis you perform, or how many guide RNAs you purchase. (horizondiscovery.com)
  • Highly efficient genome editing of murine and human hematopoietic progenitor cells by CRISPR/Cas9. (nature.com)
  • It is demonstrated that the Cas protein Cas9 of Francisella novicida uses a unique, small, CRISPR/Cas-associated RNA (scaRNA) to repress an endogenous transcript encoding a bacterial lipoprotein. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Genome editing through efficient and versatile bacterial immunity based CRISPR Cas9 system has revolutionized the molecular biology. (microbiologyjournal.org)
  • It is expected from this review that it will provide recent updates on the CRISPR-Cas9 system and will help users involved in applied researches in plant biology to make them exploit the full potential of this genome editing tool. (microbiologyjournal.org)
  • These genome editing tools includes meganucleases 2, zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) 3,4, transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) 5,6, and most recently the RNA-guided clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) Cas9 nuclease (Cas stands for C RISPR- as sociated) 7,8. (microbiologyjournal.org)
  • Among these genome editing tools meganucleases, ZFNs and TALENs recognize specific DNA sequence via protein-DNA interactions whereas CRISPR-Cas9 nuclease recognizes by RNA-DNA interactions 9. (microbiologyjournal.org)
  • The newly discovered CRISPR-Cas9 nuclease is guided by short guide RNA that pair via Watson-Crick base pairing with its target DNA sequence and it overcomes the challenges of previously used nucleases. (microbiologyjournal.org)
  • The ease of cas-9 targeting, efficient site specificity and ability for multiple editing made the CRISPR-Cas9 system more popular and helped in opening a wide range of practical applications in the medical and crop improvement research field 13-16. (microbiologyjournal.org)
  • CRISPR/Cas9 system is one of the most advance technologies for efficient genome editing in plants. (jabonline.in)
  • 10. Barman A, Deb B, Chakraborty S. A glance at genome editing with CRISPR-Cas9 technology. (jabonline.in)
  • The method may allow researchers to edit more types of genetic mutations than existing genome-editing approaches such as CRISPR-Cas9, researchers report today (October 21) in Nature . (the-scientist.com)
  • The discovery that CRISPR-Cas9 could be harnessed and used to edit animal and human genes ushered in a new era of genetic research over the past several years. (the-scientist.com)
  • So building on what the two knew about base editing and CRISPR-Cas9, they began working on a new technique to cut just one strand of DNA, leaving the other intact. (the-scientist.com)
  • It uses the same Cas9 nuclease as frequently deployed in the CRISPR system but combines the enzyme with two new reagents: a guide RNA called pegRNA, which leads Cas9 to the desired spot in the genome, and a reverse transcriptase that initiates the addition of a new sequence or base into the genome. (the-scientist.com)
  • In order to compare its accuracy to CRISPR-Cas9, the team used its technology to edit four genetic mutations. (the-scientist.com)
  • Prime editing only altered three of these loci, suggesting it is more precise than CRISPR-Cas9. (the-scientist.com)
  • CRISPR-Cas9 relies on one pairing step: the guide RNA must pair with the target DNA. (the-scientist.com)
  • The mutations were changed back to healthy DNA sequences with 35-55 percent efficiency, similar to rates that would likely be achieved with CRISPR-Cas9 editing. (the-scientist.com)
  • Use the control primer mixes below with the Alt-R Genome Editing Detection Kit to determine editing efficiency in samples transfected with Alt-R CRISPR HPRT Positive Control crRNAs [available for the Alt-R CRISPR-Cas9 System and Alt-R CRISPR-Cas12a (Cpf1) System]. (idtdna.com)
  • For both the Alt-R CRISPR-Cas9 System and the Alt-R CRISPR-Cas12a (Cpf1) System, we offer recommended products and sequences for guide RNA positive controls that target HPRT in human, mouse, and rat cells. (idtdna.com)
  • The Alt-R CRISPR-Cas9 RNA oligonucleotides (30 nM) were introduced by lipofection into HEK-293 cells that stably express Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9. (idtdna.com)
  • The guide RNAs, corresponding to the targeted viral sequences embedded in a viral genome, attract CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9), which then cuts the viral genome and destroys it so it can't produce new virus. (medscape.com)
  • Learn more about how Cas9 acts as a genetic editing tool. (medscape.com)
  • When a virus infects bacteria, it injects DNA or RNA into the cell, which responds by releasing a form of nuclease (Cas9) to take a snippet of the DNA or RNA sequence and store something equivalent to a genetic memory of the infection. (zmescience.com)
  • Genome editing with CRISPR/Cas9 or TALENs has become an essential tool for working with nematodes [3,4,5]. (wormbook.org)
  • Furthermore, some edits will be difficult if a good Cas9 target is not located nearby.Our approach is to use Cas9 protein complexes for injections [4] when Cas9 target sites are available, and TALENs for other situations [5]. (wormbook.org)
  • If possible, we use the native CRISPR/Cas9 system, which relies on Cas9 protein with both a universal RNA (tracrRNA) and a specific guide RNA (crRNA). (wormbook.org)
  • 2015) Dramatic enhancement of genome editing by CRISPR-Cas9 through improved guide RNA design. (wormbook.org)
  • 4] Paix A, Kolkmann A, Rasoloson D, and Seydoux G. (2015) High efficiency, homology-directed genome editing in Caenorhabditis elegans using CRISPR-Cas9 ribonucleoprotein complexes. (wormbook.org)
  • A Robust CRISPR/Cas9 System for Convenient, High-Efficiency Multiplex Genome Editing in Monocot and Dicot Plants. (cocites.com)
  • Check out our detailed JoVE protocol and accompanying video walkthrough for genome editing with CRISPR-Cas9 RNPs in primary human HSPCs and T cells, Caenorhabditis elegans , and Parhyale hawaiensis . (innovativegenomics.org)
  • Contains a variety of protocols for genome manipulation with Cas9, including genome editing, troubleshooting in specific organisms, how to detect editing, guide RNA library construction, and CRISPR inhibition or activation screening. (innovativegenomics.org)
  • It consists of 2 components - a guide RNA and a non-specific CRISPR-associated endonuclease called Cas9. (galaxyproject.org)
  • The guide RNA is a short synthetic RNA composed of a scaffold sequence necessary for Cas9-binding and ~20 nucleotide spacer sequence that binds to the genomic target. (galaxyproject.org)
  • Cells expressing the Cas9 enzyme are transduced with the guide RNAs at a low Multiplicity of Infection (MOI), aiming for a minimum starting representation of 300 for each guide, and puromycin is used to remove cells without guides. (galaxyproject.org)
  • Here we study the relationship between amino acid residues encoded by edited codons and the structural characteristics of these residues within proteins, e.g., in protein-protein interfaces, elements of secondary structure, or protein structural cores. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have performed a novel analysis of the location of residues affected by RNA editing in proteins in plant organelles. (biomedcentral.com)
  • RNA editing often increases the percent identity of the encoded amino acid sequence to the homologous sequences, implying an important role for RNA editing in the function of encoded proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Base editing by nucleotide deaminases linked to programmable DNA-binding proteins represents a promising approach to permanently remedy blood disorders, although its application in engrafting hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) remains unexplored. (nature.com)
  • Fifty pseudogenes harbor premature stop codons that require A-to-I editing to encode full-length proteins. (researcher-app.com)
  • The UV induced protein-RNA cross-liking approach was utilized to investigate RNA binding regions in single (recombinant) Cas proteins such as the archaeal and bacterial Cas6b proteins and the Cas7 family proteins from four different organisms, and these structural studies were extended to multi-subunit crRNP complexes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A team led by Soumya Kannan, Han Altae-Tran, and core institute member Feng Zhang has now identified and characterized an "ultrasmall" family of Cas13b proteins, dubbed Cas13bt, that can be used to generate compact versions of RNA editors. (broadinstitute.org)
  • Here, we describe CellREADR (Cell access through RNA sensing by Endogenous ADAR), a programmable RNA sensing technology that leverages RNA editing mediated by ADAR (adenosine deaminase acting on RNA) for coupling the detection of cell-defining RNAs with translation of effector proteins. (duke.edu)
  • This trade-off between genome evolution and transcriptome plasticity highlights the importance of RNA recoding as a strategy for diversifying proteins, particularly those associated with neural function. (genewhisperer.com)
  • In kinetoplasts, maxicircles play an important role in encoding ribosomal RNAs as well as various proteins involved in bioenergetic processes within the mitochondria. (microscopemaster.com)
  • NDV has a single stranded negative sense RNA genome, which is 15,186 nucleotide long and consists of six genes, which codes for eight proteins. (who.int)
  • The objective of this research project was to investigate the involvement of RNA-mediated post-transcriptional regulation in ASD. (nlmfoundation.org)
  • RNA-editing, a post-transcriptional process, falls in the category of RNAi. (genewhisperer.com)
  • Adenosine−to−inosine RNA editing is crucial for generating molecular diversity, and serves to regulate protein function through recoding of genomic information. (mpg.de)
  • A survey of RNA editing in human brain We have conducted a survey of RNA editing in human brain by comparing sequences of clones from a human brain cDNA library to the reference human genome sequence and to genomic DNA from the same individual. (icr.ac.uk)
  • Recent advances in CRISPR/Cas system provide an improved method for genome editing, showing robust and specific RNA-guided endonuclease activity at targeted endogenous genomic loci. (semanticscholar.org)
  • From CRISPR and RNAi libraries for high-throughput functional genomic screening to automated image platforms and cellular assays, we offer all the tools and technologies to help you edit with confidence and maximize your chance of success. (perkinelmer.com)
  • RNA-editing allows diversification of proteomes beyond "the genomic blueprint. (genewhisperer.com)
  • The genomic sequence that flanks editing sites is highly conserved -- suggesting that the process confers a selective advantage. (genewhisperer.com)
  • Due to the large number of RNA-editing sites, the surrounding conservation greatly decreases the number of mutations and genomic polymorphisms in protein-coding regions. (genewhisperer.com)
  • Carefully optimize PCR conditions and confirm by electrophoresis that a single PCR product is amplified from genomic DNA prior to editing. (idtdna.com)
  • To estimate editing efficiency, genomic DNA samples from the transfected cells were tested using the Alt-R Genome Editing Detection Kit (dark blue bars), which provides reagents needed to run T7EI assays. (idtdna.com)
  • Design gRNAs and accompanying primers for gRNA cloning, expression, and validating genomic edits. (innovativegenomics.org)
  • Cells from the timepoints of interest are collected, genomic DNA is extracted, and the guide RNA region is amplified by PCR, followed by sequencing. (galaxyproject.org)
  • They bind to RNA and convert some of the adenosine (A) bases to inosine (I), which is read by the cell's translation machinery as guanosine (G). (eurekalert.org)
  • Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing of Alu retroelements is a primate-specific mechanism mediated by adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) that diversifies transcriptome by changing selected nucleotides in RNA molecules. (nih.gov)
  • One of the most common edits, which new research shows plays an important role in the onset of inflammatory disease, is the transformation of the nucleotide adenosine into inosine within a double-stranded RNA. (the-scientist.com)
  • The transformation of adenosine into inosine is catalyzed by adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) enzymes. (the-scientist.com)
  • These previous findings revealed that ADAR-dependent RNA editing of adenosine into inosine is necessary to avoid drawing the attention of MDA5. (the-scientist.com)
  • Inosine is a prevalent RNA modification in animals and is formed when an adenosine is deaminated by the ADAR family of enzymes. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • Here, we show that Oxford Nanopore direct RNA sequencing can be used to identify inosine-containing sites in native transcriptomes with high accuracy. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • We trained convolutional neural network models to distinguish inosine from adenosine and guanosine, and to estimate the modification rate at each editing site. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • Our approach expands the toolkit for studying adenosine-to-inosine editing and can be further extended to investigate other RNA modifications. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • Although fungi lack adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) enzymes, adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing was reported recently in Fusarium graminearum during sexual reproduction. (researcher-app.com)
  • F ollowing transcription, RNA molecules can undergo modifications. (the-scientist.com)
  • The authors propose that a sensor protein likely mistakes these less-edited RNAs for foreign molecules, triggering an inflammatory response. (the-scientist.com)
  • Both molecules are heavily involved in A-to-I editing, which is crucial for appropriate animal behavior. (nlmfoundation.org)
  • RNA Modification, Volume 41, examines the powerful ability to regulate the function of RNA molecules or modify the message transmitted by RNA molecules. (thefashionjournal.net)
  • This volume presents some of the most recent advances in the identification and function of enzymes involved in modifying RNA molecules. (thefashionjournal.net)
  • Their editing is particularly enriched in the nervous system, affecting molecules pertinent for excitability and neuronal morphology. (genewhisperer.com)
  • What's special about the technology is that it makes efficient use of RNA editing enzymes that naturally occur in the body's cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • These enzymes are called adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs). (eurekalert.org)
  • being circular makes them resistant to the cell's RNA-degrading enzymes. (eurekalert.org)
  • This so called "genome editing" by one or more APOBEC enzymes leads to characteristic C->U mutations that damage the virus's ability to replicate. (ox.ac.uk)
  • This field has recently seen a very rapid progress in our understanding of the mechanism and enzymes involved in RNA modification. (thefashionjournal.net)
  • Subsequent research found that mutations that affect the editing capacity of ADAR or increase the sensitivity of the MDA5 sensor can lead to rare autoimmune diseases, such as Aicardi-Goutières syndrome and other neurological conditions , in humans. (the-scientist.com)
  • Computational analyses of these variants suggest that they affect the binding strength between ADAR and the RNAs. (the-scientist.com)
  • Moreover, the effect of the RNA editing variants was clearly directional: They were associated with reduced, not increased, editing levels, reinforcing the idea that a lack of ADAR-mediated editing is detrimental to one's health. (the-scientist.com)
  • Beal, P.A. ADAR activation by inducing a syn conformation at guanosine adjacent to editing site. (ucdavis.edu)
  • Beal, P. A., Selective Recognition of RNA Substrates by ADAR Deaminase Domains. (ucdavis.edu)
  • The fatal outcome, however, was prevented by deleting another protein, MDA5, a vigilant molecule that recognizes foreign invaders through their double-stranded RNA and triggers an inflammatory response. (the-scientist.com)
  • could editing deficiencies not due to these known protein mutations be at fault in more common diseases? (the-scientist.com)
  • The effectiveness of a functional protein knockout for your genes of interest depends greatly on the editing efficiency of your guide RNAs. (horizondiscovery.com)
  • formosana was determined, and 44 RNA editing sites were identified from 24 plastid protein-coding transcripts of leaf tissue via RT-PCR and then conventional Sanger sequencing. (altmetric.com)
  • As well, 79 edits were involved in protein-coding transcripts, and the 58 nucleotide conversions caused the non-synonymous substitution. (altmetric.com)
  • The consequence of RNA editing in protein-coding transcripts mainly cause the amino acid change and tend to increase the hydrophobicity as well as conservation among plant phylogeny. (altmetric.com)
  • We find that the residues encoded by edited codons are significantly biased toward involvement in helices and protein structural cores. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Hence, only the edited form of an mRNA can be translated into a polypeptide with helix-preferring and core-forming residues at the appropriate positions, which is often required for a protein to form a functional three-dimensional (3D) structure. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We suggest that RNA editing may have conferring evolutionary advantage by acting as a mechanism to reduce susceptibility to DNA damage by allowing the increase in GC content in DNA while maintaining RNA codons essential to encode residues required for protein folding and activity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The majority of conversion editing events in plant organelles occur within protein-coding regions of mRNAs, and involve cytidine-to-uridine (C-U) and sometimes uridine-to-cytidine (U-C) conversion [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Earlier analysis [ 15 ] of the location of RNA targets within transcripts did not detect any rules to explain why particular residues within a protein sequence were affected by codon changes while other residues were not altered. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In wheat mitochondrion ORF240, equivalent to cytochrome c biosynthesis protein, RNA editing converts a codon for one of the heme-binding residues to encode an amino acid appropriate for the heme interaction [ 18 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Edited CaV1.3 protein is detected both in brain tissue and within the surface membrane of primary neurons. (mpg.de)
  • One means of achieving protein diversity is through RNA editing. (thefashionjournal.net)
  • RNA editing impacts RNA splicing and protein translation. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Effect of RNA editing at protein level. (springeropen.com)
  • Upregulation of the expression and/or activity of the RNA editing machinery were associated with a higher expression of edited Alu-enriched genes including cathepsin S and TNF receptor-associated factors 1,2,3 and 5. (nih.gov)
  • We have systematically and comprehensively investigated the significance of the expression status of ADAR1 and of the RNA editing levels of antizyme inhibitor 1 (AZIN1), one of the most frequently edited genes in cancers, in 392 colorectal tissues from multiple independent CRC patient cohorts. (jci.org)
  • Many genes involved in RNA silencing, DNA methylation, and histone modifications had extensive recoding, including sad -1, sms -3, qde -1, and dim -2. (researcher-app.com)
  • Two unknown genes with editing sites conserved between Neurospora and Fusarium were experimentally shown to be important for ascosporogenesis. (researcher-app.com)
  • Applications of these genome editing tools helped in understanding the function of unknown genes and regulatory elements. (microbiologyjournal.org)
  • When postdoc and lead author of the study Andrew Anzalone joined David Liu 's lab at the Broad Institute, which previously developed the technique for base editing, he was especially excited by the possibility of editing genes without using DNA breaks. (the-scientist.com)
  • Liu and his team used prime editing to target genes underlying Tay-Sachs disease and sickle cell anemia. (the-scientist.com)
  • The Broad Institute has licensed the technique to Prime Medicine, a company cofounded by Liu, under the institute's " inclusive innovation " model, which allows Prime to exclusively use the technology to aim at certain targets, but offers other companies the opportunity to apply to license it for editing other genes. (the-scientist.com)
  • With a positive screen, few cells survive the treatment and we are interested in identifying genes whose guide RNAs increase (are enriched), indicating knockout of those genes leads to resistance. (galaxyproject.org)
  • In that case, we are interested in identifying genes whose guide RNAs decrease (are depleted) compared to a control e.g. vehicle, indicating knockout of those genes increases sensitivity to the treatment. (galaxyproject.org)
  • The variety of editing mechanisms has required the development of many different experimental approaches, many of which are likely to be broadly applicable, particularly given the interplay between editing and other cellular processes, including transcription, splicing, and RNA silencing. (thefashionjournal.net)
  • The guide RNAs (gRNAs) 20 bp long were designed using the online platform CRISPR-P v2.0 for the rice transcription factor OsMADS26. (jabonline.in)
  • In Escherichia coli , the control of RNA polymerase backtracking by transcription elongation factors impairs DNA break repair by affecting RecBCD resection and consequently RecA loading at sites far removed from the original DNA break. (natureasia.com)
  • In vitro T7 transcription is the synthesis of RNAs using a T7 promoter and purified enzyme. (openwetware.org)
  • Modified nucleotides containing isotopes like 32 P or detectable epitopes like DIG can be integrated into the RNA via T7 transcription. (openwetware.org)
  • For a detailed description of PCR-based attachment of T7 promoters see Making RNA probes with T7 transcription . (openwetware.org)
  • Live-seq, a single-cell transcriptome profiling approach that preserves cell viability during RNA extraction using fluidic force microscopy, can address a range of biological questions by transforming scRNA-seq from an end-point to a temporal analysis approach. (nature.com)
  • Despite advances in RNA sequencing and massive accumulation of transcriptome datasets across life sciences, the dearth of technologies that leverage RNAs to observe and manipulate cell types remains a prohibitive bottleneck in biology and medicine. (duke.edu)
  • Re-infection triggers the complementary mature CRISPR RNA (crRNA) to find a matching sequence - which provides the CRISPR-associated (Cas) nuclease the specificity to form a double-strand break at specific "foreign" DNA sequences. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • To sensitively and extensively examine the plastid RNA editing status of moth orchid, RNA-Seq was used to investigate the editing status of whole-plastid transcripts from leaf and floral tissues by mapping the sequence reads to the corresponding cpDNA template. (altmetric.com)
  • With the threshold of at least 5% C-to-U or U-to-C conversion events observed in sequence reads considered as RNA editing sites. (altmetric.com)
  • Besides fungal-specific sequence and secondary structure preference, 63.5% of A-to-I editing sites were in the coding regions and 81.3% of them resulted in nonsynonymous recoding, resulting in a significant increase in the proteome complexity. (researcher-app.com)
  • While both the identities and sites of mutations are typically modelled as being random, recent investigations of sequence diversity of SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have identified a preponderance of C->U transitions, potentially driven by an APOBEC-like RNA editing process. (ox.ac.uk)
  • RNA editing may therefore represent a potent driver of RNA virus sequence diversification and longer term evolution. (ox.ac.uk)
  • APOBEC-driven mutations accounted for 15-20% of standing sequence variability of RNA virus groups, representing a potent driver of RNA virus sequence diversification. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The likelihood of editing is increased by the presence of two inverted copies of a sequence within the same intron, proximity of the two sequences to each other (preferably within 2 kb), and by a high density of inverted copies in the vicinity. (icr.ac.uk)
  • Editing exhibits sequence preferences and is less likely at an adenosine 3' to a guanosine and more likely at an adenosine 5 to a guanosine. (icr.ac.uk)
  • These sequence-specific genome editing nucleases bring out DSB (double strand break) at specific desired location in the genome. (microbiologyjournal.org)
  • However, the common RNA imaging techniques fail to provide the sequence specificity and sensitivity required for the analysis of RNA editing. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Added more control for deletion editing (see DEL_TYPE) - Added ALIGN_AMENDED option to do a global sequence of the amended consensus using the HMM profile. (cdc.gov)
  • MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) are gaining increasing recognition for their key role in orchestrating complex brain development. (nlmfoundation.org)
  • Individual nucleotide analysis revealed that A-to-I RNA editing rate was also significantly increased in RA patients. (nih.gov)
  • By binding to a double-stranded RNA and converting the selected nucleotide, the enzyme alters the base pairings within the RNA, thereby also changing its conformation. (the-scientist.com)
  • In plant organelles, specific messenger RNAs (mRNAs) are subjected to conversion editing, a process that often converts the first or second nucleotide of a codon and hence the encoded amino acid. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We will close the methodological gap and develop fluorogenic oligonucleotide probes that afford fluorescent signals upon hybridisation with matched (e.g. edited) mRNA but not upon hybridisation with single nucleotide mismatched (e.g. unedited) mRNA. (hu-berlin.de)
  • To enable unambiguous nucleotide calls upon the RNA editing state two competing, differently coloured FIT probes will be designed. (hu-berlin.de)
  • 2'-O-Methyl modified guide RNA promotes the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discrimination ability of CRISPR-Cas12a systems. (cdc.gov)
  • Edited by Doudna JA and Mali P. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press (2016). (innovativegenomics.org)
  • In December 2016, the NCCR RNA and Disease offered me a Doctoral Mobility grant to support my research in the lab abroad, covering accommodation and travel expenses. (nccr-rna-and-disease.ch)
  • Subjects were interviewed using a questionnaire edited and adapted from the CAP questionnaire developed by WHO in 2016. (bvsalud.org)
  • A variety of plasmids and pooled guide RNA libraries for CRISPR-mediated genome manipulation generated by IGI member labs and others can be acquired through Addgene . (innovativegenomics.org)
  • Various guide RNA libraries are available and can be purchased. (galaxyproject.org)
  • Beal, P. A., Chapter Seven - Adenosine Deaminases That Act on RNA (ADARs). (ucdavis.edu)
  • DNA editing in DNA/RNA hybrids by adenosine deaminases that act on RNA. (ucdavis.edu)
  • Researchers have been exploring RNA editing approaches with ADARs to correct the G-to-A mutation behind genetic disorders such as cystic fibrosis, Rett syndrome and Hurler syndrome. (eurekalert.org)
  • To make a targeted A-to-I (or essentially, an A-to-G) edit on RNA using ADARs, a short accessory strand of RNA-called a guide RNA-is needed to guide ADARs to the target and make the desired change there. (eurekalert.org)
  • A big challenge with this approach is that traditional guide RNAs are not efficient at using native ADARs in the cell, so they require external ADARs to be brought into the cell to work, explained Prashant Mali, a bioengineering professor at the UC San Diego Jacobs School of Engineering. (eurekalert.org)
  • To overcome these issues, Mali and colleagues engineered a new kind of guide RNA-one that is extremely effective at recruiting the cell's own ADARs to make edits at a precise target RNA region. (eurekalert.org)
  • Paper: "Robust in vitro and in vivo RNA editing via recruitment of endogenous ADARs using circular guide RNAs. (eurekalert.org)
  • The editing turns out to require RNA adenosine deaminase ADAR2, whose variable activity could underlie a spatially diverse pattern of CaV1.3 editing seen across the brain. (mpg.de)
  • cis -RNA editing quantitative trait loci, which are associated with immunogenic double-stranded RNAs, underlie genome-wide association study variants in common autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. (nature.com)
  • CaSilico: A versatile CRISPR package for in silico CRISPR RNA designing for Cas12, Cas13, and Cas14. (cdc.gov)
  • Genetic variants that reduce the editing levels of double-stranded RNA are associated with autoimmune and immune-mediated conditions, a study finds. (the-scientist.com)
  • But he says he and his colleagues wondered, "what happens to many of these double-stranded RNAs that may not be properly edited? (the-scientist.com)
  • However, because A:U matches in double-stranded RNA are more common than all mismatches, overall the likely effect of editing is to increase the number of mismatches in double- stranded RNA. (icr.ac.uk)
  • This study describes an additional potent factor that contributes to the evolution of RNA infecting mammals, the deliberate mutation of the viral genome by host antiviral pathways active within the cell when it becomes infected. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In vitro transcribed RNAs like those from T7 or similar viral promoters like T3 and SP6 are important components for many molecular biology experiments. (openwetware.org)
  • Synthesis can be scaled up for microinjection, viral RNA infection studies, in vitro translation, and binding experiments. (openwetware.org)
  • Therapeutic potentials of CRISPR-Cas genome editing technology in human viral infections. (cdc.gov)
  • Genome Editing Technologies as Cellular Defense Against Viral Pathogens. (cdc.gov)
  • In a proof of concept, UC San Diego researchers showed that the technology can treat a mouse model of Hurler syndrome, a rare genetic disease, by correcting its disease-causing mutation in RNA. (eurekalert.org)
  • To test their hypothesis, Li and his colleagues first identified genetic variants that affect RNA editing. (the-scientist.com)
  • Doing so revealed that the genetic variants linked to reduced RNA editing were common among variants previously associated with multiple autoimmune or immune-related conditions, such as lupus, multiple sclerosis, and coronary artery disease. (the-scientist.com)
  • The rapid evolution of RNA viruses is thought to arise from high mutation frequencies during replication and the rapid accumulation of genetic changes over time in response to its changing environments. (ox.ac.uk)
  • RNAs are the central and universal mediator of genetic information underlying the diversity of cell types and cell states, which together shape tissue organization and organismal function across species and life spans. (duke.edu)
  • Once the new genetic material is incorporated into the cut strand of DNA, the prime editor nicks the unedited strand, signaling to the cell to rebuild it to match the edited strand. (the-scientist.com)
  • The guide RNA is a two component system consisting of the crRNA and tracrRNA. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Early experiments succeeded in creating a chimeric single guide RNA, or sgRNA, that combines the crRNA and tracrRNA into a single RNA strand rather than the duplex found in nature. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The tool then ranks predesigned guide RNAs based on a functionality score to provide you with the best opportunity to produce a functional knockout. (horizondiscovery.com)
  • However, the clinical significance and the functional role of RNA editing in colorectal cancer (CRC) remain unclear. (jci.org)
  • In this study, we profiled the A-to-I editing landscape and characterized its functional and adaptive properties in the model filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa . (researcher-app.com)
  • Ultimately, this will enable single cell functional studies on the regulation of the RNA editing machinery. (hu-berlin.de)
  • This process is regulated by guide RNAs produced by minicircles to form functional open reading frames. (microscopemaster.com)
  • Coronavirus drug target, a Cas13 for RNA editing, immune hubs in tumors, and more. (broadinstitute.org)
  • RNA editing using CRISPR-Cas13 systems is a promising therapeutic strategy that allows for installation of temporary, non-heritable edits. (broadinstitute.org)
  • In Feng lab, I aim to develop therapeutics targeting Rett syndrome by using the CRSIPR/Cas13 platform that can edit RNA. (mit.edu)
  • Later on, genome editing tools were developed which revolutionised the field of molecular biology. (microbiologyjournal.org)
  • CellREADR thus highlights the potential for RNA-based monitoring and editing of animal cells in ways that are specific, versatile, easy, and generalizable across organ systems and species, with broad applications in biology, biotechnology, and programmable RNA medicine. (duke.edu)
  • Edited by Hatada I. Methods in Molecular Biology (2017). (innovativegenomics.org)
  • While RNA biology is a flourishing field with a great potential for fundamental discoveries, it is also becoming more interdisciplinary and attracts researchers from different disciplines. (ceitec.eu)
  • Solving important questions in the RNA field requires the combination of multiple approaches, ranging from traditional molecular biology, bioinformatics, advanced imaging, biophysics, to structural biology. (ceitec.eu)
  • A Seattle-based biotechnology startup co-founded by Mali, called Shape Therapeutics, is working to translate this and several other RNA editing technologies developed in Mali's lab into the clinic. (eurekalert.org)
  • Ionis was founded by Dr Crooke over 30 years ago, who is credited with being the pioneer of RNA-targeted therapeutics. (pharmafile.com)
  • Dr Crooke has received numerous honours and awards for his pioneering work in RNA-targeted therapeutics including the prestigious Massry Prize, the Oligonucleotide Therapeutics Society Lifetime Achievement Award, the American Chemical Society's E.B. Hershberg Award for Important Discoveries in Medicinally Active Substances, the Prix Galien Best Biotechnology Award for Spinraza, the Scrip Lifetime Achievement Award, and BIO's Helix Award for the most important innovation. (pharmafile.com)
  • To avoid these limitations of DNA nucleases, approaches that instead directly target RNA would be highly desirable, as these would enable tunability, reversibility, and importantly no off-target mutations would be permanent. (mit.edu)
  • Probing RNA recognition by human ADAR2 using a high-throughput mutagenesis method. (ucdavis.edu)
  • The recent progress in high-throughput RNA sequencing has revealed an increasing number of mRNA editing sites. (hu-berlin.de)
  • CRISPR uses "guide RNAs" to selectively target specific DNA sequences. (medscape.com)
  • Guide RNAs can be designed to add, replace, or remove specific DNA sequences. (medscape.com)
  • The current study investigated whether this phenomenon could be observed in the more genetically diverse datasets of other RNA viruses. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Fetal hemoglobin (HbF) induction in erythroid progeny after base editing or nuclease editing was similar. (nature.com)
  • Together, these results demonstrate the potential of RNP base editing of human HSPCs as a feasible alternative to nuclease editing for HSC-targeted therapeutic genome modification. (nature.com)
  • They can be used to generate (antisense) RNA probes for blot hybridisation and nuclease protection assays that are more sensitive than randomly primed DNA probes. (openwetware.org)
  • Both ADAR1 expression and AZIN1 RNA editing levels were significantly elevated in CRC tissues when compared with corresponding normal mucosa. (jci.org)
  • The T7 endonuclease I (T7EI) mismatch cleavage assay detects on-target genome editing and estimates genome editing efficiency in CRISPR-treated cells. (idtdna.com)
  • However, the RNA editing status of whole-plastid transcripts in leaf and other distinct tissue types in moth orchids has not been addressed. (altmetric.com)
  • In total, 137 edits with 126 C-to-U and 11 U-to-C conversions, including 93 newly discovered edits, were identified in plastid transcripts, representing an average of 0.09% of the nucleotides examined in moth orchid. (altmetric.com)
  • We identified 137 edits in plastid transcripts of moth orchid, the highest number reported so far in monocots. (altmetric.com)
  • Here, some of the transcripts of RNA may later be modified through the insertion or deletion of uridine residues. (microscopemaster.com)
  • In such kinetoplastids as T. brucei , the RNA transcripts produced by maxicircles contain many editing sites. (microscopemaster.com)
  • For this reason, kinetoplasts contain high amounts of minicircles that produce guide RNAs required for this process (editing maxicircle transcripts). (microscopemaster.com)
  • The information encoded in DNA is conveyed to the rest of the cell in a molecule called RNA. (thefashionjournal.net)
  • Emeson, R.B. Regulation of RNA editing by intracellular acidification. (ucdavis.edu)
  • PDF] CRISPR-Cas systems in bacteria and archaea: versatile small RNAs for adaptive defense and regulation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Little is known about the dynamics of mRNA editing in single cells, the types of cells that undergo mRNA editing, the regulation of mRNA editing and the effect of editing on RNA localisation. (hu-berlin.de)
  • The AMPLIPREP COBAS TaqMan HCV Test is an in vitro nucleic acid amplification test for the quantitation of Hepatitis C Virus RNA in human serum or plasma performed on the COBAS AMPLIPREP Instrument and the COBAS TaqMan 48 Analyzer. (cdc.gov)
  • The team tested prime editing in vitro in four different types of human cell and mouse neurons. (the-scientist.com)
  • My contribution to this project is to define an RNA signature and assess the spreading abilities of each of these dipeptide repeats and to investigate the efficacy of the immunotherapy in vitro. (nccr-rna-and-disease.ch)
  • Beal, P.A., RNA binding candidates for human ADAR3 from substrates of a gain of function mutant expressed in neuronal cells. (ucdavis.edu)
  • In the mitochondrion of Arabidopsis thaliana , at least 441 nucleotides in mRNAs are subjected to RNA editing [ 13 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • By editing the RNAs, minicircles are involved in the formation of functions mRNAs. (microscopemaster.com)
  • It is the standard method of making up to several mg of RNAs longer than about 20nts with relatively high quality as compared to solid phase synthesis. (openwetware.org)
  • First, the gRNA requires 17-21 bases of RNA-to-DNA homology, which is called the protospacer. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • One potential novel T. brucei drug target is RNA editing ligase 1 ( Tb REL1), a critical component of a unique mitochondrial RNA-editing complex called the editosome [ 5 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is thus the aim of the proposed research to obtain information about the dynamics and possible neuron type specificity of editing of the mRNA coding for GlyR. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Interfering RNA and antisense oligonucleotide treatments currently available in France: an update]. (cdc.gov)
  • We have demonstrated that edited AZIN1 functions as an oncogene and a potential therapeutic target in CRC. (jci.org)
  • A single therapeutic base edit of the BCL11A enhancer prevented sickling and ameliorated globin chain imbalance in erythroid progeny from sickle cell disease and β-thalassemia patient-derived HSPCs, respectively. (nature.com)
  • Fig. 2: Therapeutic base editing in SCD patient CD34 + HSPCs. (nature.com)
  • Fig. 3: Therapeutic and multiplex base editing in β-thalassemia patient CD34 + HSPCs. (nature.com)
  • The C→U RNA editing event studied in this research project confers a gain-of-function of the neurotransmitter receptor for glycine (GlyR) and, if up-regulated as in hippocampectomies of patients with epilepsy, may contribute to cognitive dysfunction and anxiety. (hu-berlin.de)
  • The main achievement of the authors was to establish a link between RNA editing variants and immune-related and common inflammatory diseases, says Yi Xing , a computational biologist at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia who did not participate in this study. (the-scientist.com)
  • and 3, the addition and deletion of uracils, templated by guide-RNAs (RNA, GUIDE). (bvsalud.org)
  • Added DEL_T_DEPTH, the minimum deletion coverage depth, that allows deletion editing given DEL_T (frequency minimum) is also satisfied. (cdc.gov)
  • We can simply deliver just a small piece of RNA inside the cell and repair mutations in vivo . (eurekalert.org)
  • Finally, base edits could be produced in multilineage-repopulating self-renewing human HSCs with high frequency as assayed in primary and secondary recipient animals resulting in potent HbF induction in vivo. (nature.com)
  • New research led by bioengineers at the University of California San Diego could make it much simpler to repair disease-causing mutations in RNA without compromising precision or efficiency. (eurekalert.org)
  • Here, we review the some of the important advancements in methods to increase its efficiency in site-specific genome editing and achievements in crop improvement researches. (microbiologyjournal.org)
  • We have also designed and tested companion PCR primers for use with the Alt-R Genome Editing Detection Kit, which can be used to analyze editing efficiency in the positive control samples. (idtdna.com)
  • The Alt-R Genome Editing Detection Kit, a T7EI mismatch endonuclease assay, provides a good estimate of genome editing efficiency. (idtdna.com)
  • However, because T7EI endonuclease does not recognize single-base insertions or deletions, this method underestimates editing efficiency when compared to next generation sequencing (NGS). (idtdna.com)
  • T7EI mismatch endonuclease assays provide a good estimate of genome editing efficiency, but underestimate efficiency when compared to next generation sequencing (NGS) results. (idtdna.com)
  • Traditionally, inosines are identified indirectly as variants from Illumina RNA-sequencing data because they are interpreted as guanosines by cellular machineries. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • Initially we will investigate fixed primary neurons that ectopically express epitope tagged versions (HA and MS2 or BOTO) of edited and unedited GlyR. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Beal, P.A. Rational Design of RNA Editing Guide Strands: Cytidine Analogs at the Orphan Position. (ucdavis.edu)
  • The type of CRISPR we employ works in a similar fashion, snipping out DNA and RNA strands that we wish to use for a given purpose and replacing them with a DNA strand that we would prefer to have in its place. (zmescience.com)
  • C->U transitions showed a favoured 5' U upstream context consistent with previous analyses of APOBEC-mediated RNA targeting. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Bioinformatic analyses of RNA expression identified AHR as a regulator of the cellular response to infection. (broadinstitute.org)
  • We here use a recently developed computer program called AutoGrow to add interacting molecular fragments to S5 , a known inhibitor of the validated T. brucei drug target RNA editing ligase 1, in order to improve its predicted binding affinity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Edit-R ™ CRISPR guide RNA are available in pools or as individual reagents, as predefined CRISPR knockout libraries, or a library can be designed using the cherry-pick library tool. (perkinelmer.com)