The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A process that changes the nucleotide sequence of mRNA from that of the DNA template encoding it. Some major classes of RNA editing are as follows: 1, the conversion of cytosine to uracil in mRNA; 2, the addition of variable number of guanines at pre-determined sites; and 3, the addition and deletion of uracils, templated by guide-RNAs (RNA, GUIDE).
The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.
The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.
RNA that has catalytic activity. The catalytic RNA sequence folds to form a complex surface that can function as an enzyme in reactions with itself and other molecules. It may function even in the absence of protein. There are numerous examples of RNA species that are acted upon by catalytic RNA, however the scope of this enzyme class is not limited to a particular type of substrate.
The processes of RNA tertiary structure formation.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.
Ribonucleic acid in fungi having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The extent to which an RNA molecule retains its structural integrity and resists degradation by RNASE, and base-catalyzed HYDROLYSIS, under changing in vivo or in vitro conditions.
RNA molecules which hybridize to complementary sequences in either RNA or DNA altering the function of the latter. Endogenous antisense RNAs function as regulators of gene expression by a variety of mechanisms. Synthetic antisense RNAs are used to effect the functioning of specific genes for investigative or therapeutic purposes.
A family of proteins that promote unwinding of RNA during splicing and translation.
Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.
The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.
Short chains of RNA (100-300 nucleotides long) that are abundant in the nucleus and usually complexed with proteins in snRNPs (RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL NUCLEAR). Many function in the processing of messenger RNA precursors. Others, the snoRNAs (RNA, SMALL NUCLEOLAR), are involved with the processing of ribosomal RNA precursors.
RNA transcripts of the DNA that are in some unfinished stage of post-transcriptional processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL) required for function. RNA precursors may undergo several steps of RNA SPLICING during which the phosphodiester bonds at exon-intron boundaries are cleaved and the introns are excised. Consequently a new bond is formed between the ends of the exons. Resulting mature RNAs can then be used; for example, mature mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER) is used as a template for protein production.
RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated RNAs they are not included in this scope.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Nucleic acid structures found on the 5' end of eukaryotic cellular and viral messenger RNA and some heterogeneous nuclear RNAs. These structures, which are positively charged, protect the above specified RNAs at their termini against attack by phosphatases and other nucleases and promote mRNA function at the level of initiation of translation. Analogs of the RNA caps (RNA CAP ANALOGS), which lack the positive charge, inhibit the initiation of protein synthesis.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Ribonucleic acid in protozoa having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
RNA present in neoplastic tissue.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of linear RNA to a circular form by the transfer of the 5'-phosphate to the 3'-hydroxyl terminus. It also catalyzes the covalent joining of two polyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage. EC 6.5.1.3.
A large family of RNA helicases that share a common protein motif with the single letter amino acid sequence D-E-A-D (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp). In addition to RNA helicase activity, members of the DEAD-box family participate in other aspects of RNA metabolism and regulation of RNA function.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure where it transcribes DNA into RNA. It has specific requirements for cations and salt and has shown an intermediate sensitivity to alpha-amanitin in comparison to RNA polymerase I and II. EC 2.7.7.6.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. The enzyme functions in the nucleolar structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salts than RNA polymerase II and III and is not inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.
RNA molecules found in the nucleus either associated with chromosomes or in the nucleoplasm.
Small kinetoplastid mitochondrial RNA that plays a major role in RNA EDITING. These molecules form perfect hybrids with edited mRNA sequences and possess nucleotide sequences at their 5'-ends that are complementary to the sequences of the mRNA's immediately downstream of the pre-edited regions.
Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 28S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
Constituent of 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 3200 nucleotides. 23S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The process of moving specific RNA molecules from one cellular compartment or region to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The small RNAs which provide spliced leader sequences, SL1, SL2, SL3, SL4 and SL5 (short sequences which are joined to the 5' ends of pre-mRNAs by TRANS-SPLICING). They are found primarily in primitive eukaryotes (protozoans and nematodes).
Small, linear single-stranded RNA molecules functionally acting as molecular parasites of certain RNA plant viruses. Satellite RNAs exhibit four characteristic traits: (1) they require helper viruses to replicate; (2) they are unnecessary for the replication of helper viruses; (3) they are encapsidated in the coat protein of the helper virus; (4) they have no extensive sequence homology to the helper virus. Thus they differ from SATELLITE VIRUSES which encode their own coat protein, and from the genomic RNA; (=RNA, VIRAL); of satellite viruses. (From Maramorosch, Viroids and Satellites, 1991, p143)
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Ribonucleic acid in archaea having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A group of ribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A reaction that severs one of the sugar-phosphate linkages of the phosphodiester backbone of RNA. It is catalyzed enzymatically, chemically, or by radiation. Cleavage may be exonucleolytic, or endonucleolytic.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Nuclear nonribosomal RNA larger than about 1000 nucleotides, the mass of which is rapidly synthesized and degraded within the cell nucleus. Some heterogeneous nuclear RNA may be a precursor to mRNA. However, the great bulk of total hnRNA hybridizes with nuclear DNA rather than with mRNA.
Small RNAs found in the cytoplasm usually complexed with proteins in scRNPs (RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL CYTOPLASMIC).
Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.
Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.
The steps that generate the 3' ends of mature RNA molecules. For most mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), 3' end processing referred to as POLYADENYLATION includes the addition of POLY A.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Short RNA, about 200 base pairs in length or shorter, that does not code for protein.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 5.8S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A class of untranslated RNA molecules that are typically greater than 200 nucleotides in length and do not code for proteins. Members of this class have been found to play roles in transcriptional regulation, post-transcriptional processing, CHROMATIN REMODELING, and in the epigenetic control of chromatin.
Small nuclear RNAs that are involved in the processing of pre-ribosomal RNA in the nucleolus. Box C/D containing snoRNAs (U14, U15, U16, U20, U21 and U24-U63) direct site-specific methylation of various ribose moieties. Box H/ACA containing snoRNAs (E2, E3, U19, U23, and U64-U72) direct the conversion of specific uridines to pseudouridine. Site-specific cleavages resulting in the mature ribosomal RNAs are directed by snoRNAs U3, U8, U14, U22 and the snoRNA components of RNase MRP and RNase P.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
RNA virus infections refer to diseases caused by viruses that have RNA as their genetic material, which includes a wide range of pathogens affecting humans, animals, and plants, manifesting in various clinical symptoms and potentially leading to significant morbidity and mortality.
Uridine is a nucleoside, specifically a derivative of pyrimidine, that is composed of a uracil molecule joined to a ribose sugar molecule through a β-N1 glycosidic bond, and has significant roles in RNA synthesis, energy transfer, and cell signaling.
Synthetic transcripts of a specific DNA molecule or fragment, made by an in vitro transcription system. This cRNA can be labeled with radioactive uracil and then used as a probe. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of RNA. It includes EC 3.1.26.-, EC 3.1.27.-, EC 3.1.30.-, and EC 3.1.31.-.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Ribonucleic acid in chloroplasts having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of single-stranded regions of DNA or RNA molecules while leaving the double-stranded regions intact. They are particularly useful in the laboratory for producing "blunt-ended" DNA molecules from DNA with single-stranded ends and for sensitive GENETIC TECHNIQUES such as NUCLEASE PROTECTION ASSAYS that involve the detection of single-stranded DNA and RNA.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Ribonucleic acid in helminths having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying phenylalanine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying lysine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying tyrosine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.

Mammalian staufen is a double-stranded-RNA- and tubulin-binding protein which localizes to the rough endoplasmic reticulum. (1/2793)

Staufen (Stau) is a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-binding protein involved in mRNA transport and localization in Drosophila. To understand the molecular mechanisms of mRNA transport in mammals, we cloned human (hStau) and mouse (mStau) staufen cDNAs. In humans, four transcripts arise by differential splicing of the Stau gene and code for two proteins with different N-terminal extremities. In vitro, hStau and mStau bind dsRNA via each of two full-length dsRNA-binding domains and tubulin via a region similar to the microtubule-binding domain of MAP-1B, suggesting that Stau cross-links cytoskeletal and RNA components. Immunofluorescent double labeling of transfected mammalian cells revealed that Stau is localized to the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), implicating this RNA-binding protein in mRNA targeting to the RER, perhaps via a multistep process involving microtubules. These results are the first demonstration of the association of an RNA-binding protein in addition to ribosomal proteins, with the RER, implicating this class of proteins in the transport of RNA to its site of translation.  (+info)

RNA binding by the novel helical domain of the influenza virus NS1 protein requires its dimer structure and a small number of specific basic amino acids. (2/2793)

The RNA-binding/dimerization domain of the NS1 protein of influenza A virus (73 amino acids in length) exhibits a novel dimeric six-helical fold. It is not known how this domain binds to its specific RNA targets, one of which is double-stranded RNA. To elucidate the mode of RNA binding, we introduced single alanine replacements into the NS1 RNA-binding domain at specific positions in the three-dimensional structure. Our results indicate that the dimer structure is essential for RNA binding, because any alanine replacement that causes disruption of the dimer also leads to the loss of RNA-binding activity. Surprisingly, the arginine side chain at position 38, which is in the second helix of each monomer, is the only amino-acid side chain that is absolutely required only for RNA binding and not for dimerization, indicating that this side chain probably interacts directly with the RNA target. This interaction is primarily electrostatic, because replacement of this arginine with lysine had no effect on RNA binding. A second basic amino acid, the lysine at position 41, which is also in helix 2, makes a strong contribution to the affinity of binding. We conclude that helix 2 and helix 2', which are antiparallel and next to each other in the dimer conformation, constitute the interaction face between the NS1 RNA-binding domain and its RNA targets, and that the arginine side chain at position 38 and possibly the lysine side chain at position 41 in each of these antiparallel helices contact the phosphate backbone of the RNA target.  (+info)

Maturation, activation, and protection of dendritic cells induced by double-stranded RNA. (3/2793)

The initiation of an immune response is critically dependent on the activation of dendritic cells (DCs). This process is triggered by surface receptors specific for inflammatory cytokines or for conserved patterns characteristic of infectious agents. Here we show that human DCs are activated by influenza virus infection and by double-stranded (ds)RNA. This activation results not only in increased antigen presentation and T cell stimulatory capacity, but also in resistance to the cytopathic effect of the virus, mediated by the production of type I interferon, and upregulation of MxA. Because dsRNA stimulates both maturation and resistance, DCs can serve as altruistic antigen-presenting cells capable of sustaining viral antigen production while acquiring the capacity to trigger naive T cells and drive polarized T helper cell type 1 responses.  (+info)

Activation of target-tissue immune-recognition molecules by double-stranded polynucleotides. (4/2793)

Abnormal expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and class II in various tissues is associated with autoimmune disease. Autoimmune responses can be triggered by viral infections or tissue injuries. We show that the ability of a virus or a tissue injury to increase MHC gene expression is duplicated by any fragment of double-stranded (ds) DNA or dsRNA introduced into the cytoplasm of nonimmune cells. Activation is sequence-independent, is induced by ds polynucleotides as small as 25 bp in length, and is not duplicated by single-stranded polynucleotides. In addition to causing abnormal MHC expression, the ds nucleic acids increase the expression of genes necessary for antigen processing and presentation: proteasome proteins (e.g., LMP2), transporters of antigen peptides; invariant chain, HLA-DM, and the costimulatory molecule B7.1. The mechanism is different from and additive to that of gamma-interferon (gammaIFN), i.e., ds polynucleotides increase class I much more than class II, whereas gammaIFN increases class II more than class I. The ds nucleic acids also induce or activate Stat1, Stat3, mitogen-activated protein kinase, NF-kappaB, the class II transactivator, RFX5, and the IFN regulatory factor 1 differently from gammaIFN. CpG residues are not responsible for this effect, and the action of the ds polynucleotides could be shown in a variety of cell types in addition to thyrocytes. We suggest that this phenomenon is a plausible mechanism that might explain how viral infection of tissues or tissue injury triggers autoimmune disease; it is potentially relevant to host immune responses induced during gene therapy.  (+info)

Molecular characterization of two endogenous double-stranded RNAs in rice and their inheritance by interspecific hybrids. (5/2793)

We completely sequenced 13,936 nucleotides (nt) of a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) of wild rice (W-dsRNA). A single long open reading frame (13,719 nt) containing the conserved motifs of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and RNA helicase was located in the coding strand. The identity between entire nucleotide sequence of W-dsRNA and that of the dsRNA of temperate japonica rice (J-dsRNA, 13,952 nt) was 75.5%. A site-specific discontinuity (nick) was identified at nt 1,197 from the 5' end of the coding strand of W-dsRNA. This nick is also located at nt 1,211 from the 5' end in the coding strand of J-dsRNA. The dsRNA copy number was increased more than 10-fold in pollen grains of both rice plants. This remarkable increase may be responsible for the highly efficient transmission of J-dsRNA via pollen that we already reported. J-dsRNA and W-dsRNA were also efficiently transmitted to interspecific F1 hybrids. Seed-mediated dsRNA transmission to F2 plants was also highly efficient when the maternal parent was wild rice. The efficiency of dsRNA transmission to F2 plants was reduced when the maternal parent was temperate japonica rice; however, the reduced rates in F2 plants were returned to high levels in F3 plants.  (+info)

Precise packaging of the three genomic segments of the double-stranded-RNA bacteriophage phi6. (6/2793)

Bacteriophage phi6 has a genome of three segments of double-stranded RNA. Each virus particle contains one each of the three segments. Packaging is effected by the acquisition, in a serially dependent manner, of the plus strands of the genomic segments into empty procapsids. The empty procapsids are compressed in shape and expand during packaging. The packaging program involves discrete steps that are determined by the amount of RNA inside the procapsid. The steps involve the exposure and concealment of binding sites on the outer surface of the procapsid for the plus strands of the three genomic segments. The plus strand of segment S can be packaged alone, while packaging of the plus strand of segment M depends upon prior packaging of S. Packaging of the plus strand of L depends upon the prior packaging of M. Minus-strand synthesis begins when the particle has a full complement of plus strands. Plus-strand synthesis commences upon the completion of minus-strand synthesis. All of the reactions of packaging, minus-strand synthesis, and plus-strand synthesis can be accomplished in vitro with isolated procapsids. Live-virus constructions that are in accord with the model have been prepared. Mutant virus with changes in the packaging program have been isolated and analyzed.  (+info)

The complete genome sequence of the major component of a mild citrus tristeza virus isolate. (7/2793)

The genome of the Spanish mild isolate T385 of citrus tristeza virus (CTV) was completely sequenced and compared with the genomes of the severe isolates T36 (Florida), VT (Israel) and SY568 (California). The genome of T385 was 19,259 nt in length, 37 nt shorter than the genome of T36, and 33 and 10 nt longer than those of VT and SY568, respectively, but their organization was identical. T385 had mean nucleotide identities of 81.3, 89.3 and 94% with T36, VT and SY568, respectively. The 3' UTR had over 97% identity in all isolates, whereas the 5' UTR of T385 had 67% identity with VT, 66.3% with SY568 and only 42.5% with T36. In the coding regions, the nucleotide differences between T385 and VT were evenly distributed along the genome (around 90% identity); this was not observed between T385 and the other isolates. T385 and T36 had nucleotide identities around 90% in the eight 3'-terminal ORFs of the genome, but only 72.3% in ORF 1a, a divergence pattern similar to that reported previously for T36 and VT. T385 and SY568 had nucleotide identities close to 90% in the 5'- and 3'-terminal regions of the genome, whereas the central region had over 99% identity. Our data suggest that the central region in the SY568 genome results from RNA recombination between two CTV genomes, one of which was almost identical to T385.  (+info)

New defective RNAs from citrus tristeza virus: evidence for a replicase-driven template switching mechanism in their generation. (8/2793)

Defective RNAs (D-RNAs) ranging in size from 1968 to 2759 nt were detected in four citrus tristeza virus (CTV) isolates by hybridization of electroblotted dsRNAs with two probes specific for the 5'- and 3'-terminal genomic regions. The RNAs that hybridized with both probes were eluted, cloned and sequenced. Comparison with the sequences of the corresponding genomic regions of the helper virus showed, in all cases, over 99% nucleotide identity and direct repeats of 4-5 nt flanking or in the vicinity of the junction sites. The presence of the repeats from two separate genome locations suggests a replicase-driven template switching mechanism for the generation of these CTV D-RNAs. Two of the CTV isolates that differed greatly in their pathogenicity contained an identical D-RNA, suggesting that it is unlikely that this D-RNA is involved in symptom modulation, which may be caused by another factor.  (+info)

Nucleic acid conformation refers to the three-dimensional structure that nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) adopt as a result of the bonding patterns between the atoms within the molecule. The primary structure of nucleic acids is determined by the sequence of nucleotides, while the conformation is influenced by factors such as the sugar-phosphate backbone, base stacking, and hydrogen bonding.

Two common conformations of DNA are the B-form and the A-form. The B-form is a right-handed helix with a diameter of about 20 Å and a pitch of 34 Å, while the A-form has a smaller diameter (about 18 Å) and a shorter pitch (about 25 Å). RNA typically adopts an A-form conformation.

The conformation of nucleic acids can have significant implications for their function, as it can affect their ability to interact with other molecules such as proteins or drugs. Understanding the conformational properties of nucleic acids is therefore an important area of research in molecular biology and medicine.

RNA (Ribonucleic Acid) is a single-stranded, linear polymer of ribonucleotides. It is a nucleic acid present in the cells of all living organisms and some viruses. RNAs play crucial roles in various biological processes such as protein synthesis, gene regulation, and cellular signaling. There are several types of RNA including messenger RNA (mRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), small nuclear RNA (snRNA), microRNA (miRNA), and long non-coding RNA (lncRNA). These RNAs differ in their structure, function, and location within the cell.

Small interfering RNA (siRNA) is a type of short, double-stranded RNA molecule that plays a role in the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway. The RNAi pathway is a natural cellular process that regulates gene expression by targeting and destroying specific messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules, thereby preventing the translation of those mRNAs into proteins.

SiRNAs are typically 20-25 base pairs in length and are generated from longer double-stranded RNA precursors called hairpin RNAs or dsRNAs by an enzyme called Dicer. Once generated, siRNAs associate with a protein complex called the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which uses one strand of the siRNA (the guide strand) to recognize and bind to complementary sequences in the target mRNA. The RISC then cleaves the target mRNA, leading to its degradation and the inhibition of protein synthesis.

SiRNAs have emerged as a powerful tool for studying gene function and have shown promise as therapeutic agents for a variety of diseases, including viral infections, cancer, and genetic disorders. However, their use as therapeutics is still in the early stages of development, and there are challenges associated with delivering siRNAs to specific cells and tissues in the body.

A viral RNA (ribonucleic acid) is the genetic material found in certain types of viruses, as opposed to viruses that contain DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). These viruses are known as RNA viruses. The RNA can be single-stranded or double-stranded and can exist as several different forms, such as positive-sense, negative-sense, or ambisense RNA. Upon infecting a host cell, the viral RNA uses the host's cellular machinery to translate the genetic information into proteins, leading to the production of new virus particles and the continuation of the viral life cycle. Examples of human diseases caused by RNA viruses include influenza, COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2), hepatitis C, and polio.

RNA editing is a process that alters the sequence of a transcribed RNA molecule after it has been synthesized from DNA, but before it is translated into protein. This can result in changes to the amino acid sequence of the resulting protein or to the regulation of gene expression. The most common type of RNA editing in mammals is the hydrolytic deamination of adenosine (A) to inosine (I), catalyzed by a family of enzymes called adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs). Inosine is recognized as guanosine (G) by the translation machinery, leading to A-to-G changes in the RNA sequence. Other types of RNA editing include cytidine (C) to uridine (U) deamination and insertion/deletion of nucleotides. RNA editing is a crucial mechanism for generating diversity in gene expression and has been implicated in various biological processes, including development, differentiation, and disease.

RNA splicing is a post-transcriptional modification process in which the non-coding sequences (introns) are removed and the coding sequences (exons) are joined together in a messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule. This results in a continuous mRNA sequence that can be translated into a single protein. Alternative splicing, where different combinations of exons are included or excluded, allows for the creation of multiple proteins from a single gene.

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is a type of RNA molecule that is a key component of ribosomes, which are the cellular structures where protein synthesis occurs in cells. In ribosomes, rRNA plays a crucial role in the process of translation, where genetic information from messenger RNA (mRNA) is translated into proteins.

Ribosomal RNA is synthesized in the nucleus and then transported to the cytoplasm, where it assembles with ribosomal proteins to form ribosomes. Within the ribosome, rRNA provides a structural framework for the assembly of the ribosome and also plays an active role in catalyzing the formation of peptide bonds between amino acids during protein synthesis.

There are several different types of rRNA molecules, including 5S, 5.8S, 18S, and 28S rRNA, which vary in size and function. These rRNA molecules are highly conserved across different species, indicating their essential role in protein synthesis and cellular function.

Bacterial RNA refers to the genetic material present in bacteria that is composed of ribonucleic acid (RNA). Unlike higher organisms, bacteria contain a single circular chromosome made up of DNA, along with smaller circular pieces of DNA called plasmids. These bacterial genetic materials contain the information necessary for the growth and reproduction of the organism.

Bacterial RNA can be divided into three main categories: messenger RNA (mRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA), and transfer RNA (tRNA). mRNA carries genetic information copied from DNA, which is then translated into proteins by the rRNA and tRNA molecules. rRNA is a structural component of the ribosome, where protein synthesis occurs, while tRNA acts as an adapter that brings amino acids to the ribosome during protein synthesis.

Bacterial RNA plays a crucial role in various cellular processes, including gene expression, protein synthesis, and regulation of metabolic pathways. Understanding the structure and function of bacterial RNA is essential for developing new antibiotics and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

DNA-directed RNA polymerases are enzymes that synthesize RNA molecules using a DNA template in a process called transcription. These enzymes read the sequence of nucleotides in a DNA molecule and use it as a blueprint to construct a complementary RNA strand.

The RNA polymerase moves along the DNA template, adding ribonucleotides one by one to the growing RNA chain. The synthesis is directional, starting at the promoter region of the DNA and moving towards the terminator region.

In bacteria, there is a single type of RNA polymerase that is responsible for transcribing all types of RNA (mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA). In eukaryotic cells, however, there are three different types of RNA polymerases: RNA polymerase I, II, and III. Each type is responsible for transcribing specific types of RNA.

RNA polymerases play a crucial role in gene expression, as they link the genetic information encoded in DNA to the production of functional proteins. Inhibition or mutation of these enzymes can have significant consequences for cellular function and survival.

RNA viruses are a type of virus that contain ribonucleic acid (RNA) as their genetic material, as opposed to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). RNA viruses replicate by using an enzyme called RNA-dependent RNA polymerase to transcribe and replicate their RNA genome.

There are several different groups of RNA viruses, including:

1. Negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses: These viruses have a genome that is complementary to the mRNA and must undergo transcription to produce mRNA before translation can occur. Examples include influenza virus, measles virus, and rabies virus.
2. Positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses: These viruses have a genome that can serve as mRNA and can be directly translated into protein after entry into the host cell. Examples include poliovirus, rhinoviruses, and coronaviruses.
3. Double-stranded RNA viruses: These viruses have a genome consisting of double-stranded RNA and use a complex replication strategy involving both transcription and reverse transcription. Examples include rotaviruses and reoviruses.

RNA viruses are known to cause a wide range of human diseases, ranging from the common cold to more severe illnesses such as hepatitis C, polio, and COVID-19. Due to their high mutation rates and ability to adapt quickly to new environments, RNA viruses can be difficult to control and treat with antiviral drugs or vaccines.

RNA interference (RNAi) is a biological process in which RNA molecules inhibit the expression of specific genes. This process is mediated by small RNA molecules, including microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), that bind to complementary sequences on messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules, leading to their degradation or translation inhibition.

RNAi plays a crucial role in regulating gene expression and defending against foreign genetic elements, such as viruses and transposons. It has also emerged as an important tool for studying gene function and developing therapeutic strategies for various diseases, including cancer and viral infections.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

I'm happy to help! However, it seems there might be a slight misunderstanding in your question. RNA, or ribonucleic acid, is typically single-stranded. Unlike DNA, which is double-stranded and forms a double helix, RNA usually exists as a single strand of nucleotides.

There are exceptions to this rule, such as certain types of RNA molecules that can form double-stranded structures in specific contexts. For example:

1. Double-Stranded RNA (dsRNA) viruses: These viruses have genomes made entirely of RNA, which is double-stranded throughout or partially double-stranded. The dsRNA viruses include important pathogens such as rotaviruses and reoviruses.
2. Hairpin loops in RNA structures: Some single-stranded RNA molecules can fold back on themselves to form short double-stranded regions, called hairpin loops, within their overall structure. These are often found in ribosomal RNA (rRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), and messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules.

So, while 'double-stranded RNA' is not a standard medical definition for RNA itself, there are specific instances where RNA can form double-stranded structures as described above.

A catalytic RNA, often referred to as a ribozyme, is a type of RNA molecule that has the ability to act as an enzyme and catalyze chemical reactions. These RNA molecules contain specific sequences and structures that allow them to bind to other molecules and accelerate chemical reactions without being consumed in the process.

Ribozymes play important roles in various biological processes, such as RNA splicing, translation regulation, and gene expression. One of the most well-known ribozymes is the self-splicing intron found in certain RNA molecules, which can excise itself from the host RNA and then ligase the flanking exons together.

The discovery of catalytic RNAs challenged the central dogma of molecular biology, which held that proteins were solely responsible for carrying out biological catalysis. The finding that RNA could also function as an enzyme opened up new avenues of research and expanded our understanding of the complexity and versatility of biological systems.

RNA folding, also known as RNA structure formation or RNA tertiary structure prediction, refers to the process by which an RNA molecule folds into a specific three-dimensional shape based on its primary sequence. This shape is determined by intramolecular interactions between nucleotides within the RNA chain, including base pairing (through hydrogen bonding) and stacking interactions. The folded structure of RNA plays a crucial role in its function, as it can create specific binding sites for proteins or other molecules, facilitate or inhibit enzymatic activity, or influence the stability and localization of the RNA within the cell.

RNA folding is a complex process that can be influenced by various factors such as temperature, ionic conditions, and molecular crowding. The folded structure of an RNA molecule can be predicted using computational methods, such as thermodynamic modeling and machine learning algorithms, which take into account the primary sequence and known patterns of base pairing and stacking interactions to generate a model of the three-dimensional structure. However, experimental techniques, such as chemical probing and crystallography, are often necessary to validate and refine these predictions.

RNA Polymerase II is a type of enzyme responsible for transcribing DNA into RNA in eukaryotic cells. It plays a crucial role in the process of gene expression, where the information stored in DNA is used to create proteins. Specifically, RNA Polymerase II transcribes protein-coding genes to produce precursor messenger RNA (pre-mRNA), which is then processed into mature mRNA. This mature mRNA serves as a template for protein synthesis during translation.

RNA Polymerase II has a complex structure, consisting of multiple subunits, and it requires the assistance of various transcription factors and coactivators to initiate and regulate transcription. The enzyme recognizes specific promoter sequences in DNA, unwinds the double-stranded DNA, and synthesizes a complementary RNA strand using one of the unwound DNA strands as a template. This process results in the formation of a nascent RNA molecule that is further processed into mature mRNA for protein synthesis or other functional RNAs involved in gene regulation.

Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a type of nucleic acid that plays a crucial role in the process of gene expression. There are several types of RNA molecules, including messenger RNA (mRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA), and transfer RNA (tRNA). These RNA molecules help to transcribe DNA into mRNA, which is then translated into proteins by the ribosomes.

Fungi are a group of eukaryotic organisms that include microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as larger organisms like mushrooms. Like other eukaryotes, fungi contain DNA and RNA as part of their genetic material. The RNA in fungi is similar to the RNA found in other organisms, including humans, and plays a role in gene expression and protein synthesis.

A specific medical definition of "RNA, fungal" does not exist, as RNA is a fundamental component of all living organisms, including fungi. However, RNA can be used as a target for antifungal drugs, as certain enzymes involved in RNA synthesis and processing are unique to fungi and can be inhibited by these drugs. For example, the antifungal drug flucytosine is converted into a toxic metabolite that inhibits fungal RNA and DNA synthesis.

RNA stability refers to the duration that a ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecule remains intact and functional within a cell before it is degraded or broken down into its component nucleotides. Various factors can influence RNA stability, including:

1. Primary sequence: Certain sequences in the RNA molecule may be more susceptible to degradation by ribonucleases (RNases), enzymes that break down RNA.
2. Secondary structure: The formation of stable secondary structures, such as hairpins or stem-loop structures, can protect RNA from degradation.
3. Presence of RNA-binding proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA can either stabilize or destabilize the RNA molecule, depending on the type and location of the protein-RNA interaction.
4. Chemical modifications: Modifications to the RNA nucleotides, such as methylation, can increase RNA stability by preventing degradation.
5. Subcellular localization: The subcellular location of an RNA molecule can affect its stability, with some locations providing more protection from ribonucleases than others.
6. Cellular conditions: Changes in cellular conditions, such as pH or temperature, can also impact RNA stability.

Understanding RNA stability is important for understanding gene regulation and the function of non-coding RNAs, as well as for developing RNA-based therapeutic strategies.

Antisense RNA is a type of RNA molecule that is complementary to another RNA called sense RNA. In the context of gene expression, sense RNA is the RNA transcribed from a protein-coding gene, which serves as a template for translation into a protein. Antisense RNA, on the other hand, is transcribed from the opposite strand of the DNA and is complementary to the sense RNA.

Antisense RNA can bind to its complementary sense RNA through base-pairing, forming a double-stranded RNA structure. This interaction can prevent the sense RNA from being translated into protein or can target it for degradation by cellular machinery, thereby reducing the amount of protein produced from the gene. Antisense RNA can be used as a tool in molecular biology to study gene function or as a therapeutic strategy to silence disease-causing genes.

RNA helicases are a class of enzymes that are capable of unwinding RNA secondary structures using the energy derived from ATP hydrolysis. They play crucial roles in various cellular processes involving RNA, such as transcription, splicing, translation, ribosome biogenesis, and RNA degradation. RNA helicases can be divided into several superfamilies based on their sequence and structural similarities, with the two largest being superfamily 1 (SF1) and superfamily 2 (SF2). These enzymes typically contain conserved motifs that are involved in ATP binding and hydrolysis, as well as RNA binding. By unwinding RNA structures, RNA helicases facilitate the access of other proteins to their target RNAs, thereby enabling the coordinated regulation of RNA metabolism.

Post-transcriptional RNA processing refers to the modifications and regulations that occur on RNA molecules after the transcription of DNA into RNA. This process includes several steps:

1. 5' capping: The addition of a cap structure, usually a methylated guanosine triphosphate (GTP), to the 5' end of the RNA molecule. This helps protect the RNA from degradation and plays a role in its transport, stability, and translation.
2. 3' polyadenylation: The addition of a string of adenosine residues (poly(A) tail) to the 3' end of the RNA molecule. This process is important for mRNA stability, export from the nucleus, and translation initiation.
3. Intron removal and exon ligation: Eukaryotic pre-messenger RNAs (pre-mRNAs) contain intronic sequences that do not code for proteins. These introns are removed by a process called splicing, where the flanking exons are joined together to form a continuous mRNA sequence. Alternative splicing can lead to different mature mRNAs from a single pre-mRNA, increasing transcriptomic and proteomic diversity.
4. RNA editing: Specific nucleotide changes in RNA molecules that alter the coding potential or regulatory functions of RNA. This process is catalyzed by enzymes like ADAR (Adenosine Deaminases Acting on RNA) and APOBEC (Apolipoprotein B mRNA Editing Catalytic Polypeptide-like).
5. Chemical modifications: Various chemical modifications can occur on RNA nucleotides, such as methylation, pseudouridination, and isomerization. These modifications can influence RNA stability, localization, and interaction with proteins or other RNAs.
6. Transport and localization: Mature mRNAs are transported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm for translation. In some cases, specific mRNAs are localized to particular cellular compartments to ensure local protein synthesis.
7. Degradation: RNA molecules have finite lifetimes and undergo degradation by various ribonucleases (RNases). The rate of degradation can be influenced by factors such as RNA structure, modifications, or interactions with proteins.

Transfer RNA (tRNA) is a type of RNA molecule that plays a crucial role in protein synthesis, the process by which cells create proteins. In protein synthesis, tRNAs serve as adaptors, translating the genetic code present in messenger RNA (mRNA) into the corresponding amino acids required to build a protein.

Each tRNA molecule has a distinct structure, consisting of approximately 70-90 nucleotides arranged in a cloverleaf shape with several loops and stems. The most important feature of a tRNA is its anticodon, a sequence of three nucleotides located in one of the loops. This anticodon base-pairs with a complementary codon on the mRNA during translation, ensuring that the correct amino acid is added to the growing polypeptide chain.

Before tRNAs can participate in protein synthesis, they must be charged with their specific amino acids through an enzymatic process involving aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. These enzymes recognize and bind to both the tRNA and its corresponding amino acid, forming a covalent bond between them. Once charged, the aminoacyl-tRNA complex is ready to engage in translation and contribute to protein formation.

In summary, transfer RNA (tRNA) is a small RNA molecule that facilitates protein synthesis by translating genetic information from messenger RNA into specific amino acids, ultimately leading to the creation of functional proteins within cells.

Small nuclear RNA (snRNA) are a type of RNA molecules that are typically around 100-300 nucleotides in length. They are found within the nucleus of eukaryotic cells and are components of small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs), which play important roles in various aspects of RNA processing, including splicing of pre-messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) and regulation of transcription.

There are several classes of snRNAs, each with a distinct function. The most well-studied class is the spliceosomal snRNAs, which include U1, U2, U4, U5, and U6 snRNAs. These snRNAs form complexes with proteins to form small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles (snRNPs) that recognize specific sequences in pre-mRNA and catalyze the removal of introns during splicing.

Other classes of snRNAs include signal recognition particle (SRP) RNA, which is involved in targeting proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum, and Ro60 RNA, which is associated with autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus.

Overall, small nuclear RNAs are essential components of the cellular machinery that regulates gene expression and protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells.

RNA precursors, also known as primary transcripts or pre-messenger RNAs (pre-mRNAs), refer to the initial RNA molecules that are synthesized during the transcription process in which DNA is copied into RNA. These precursor molecules still contain non-coding sequences and introns, which need to be removed through a process called splicing, before they can become mature and functional RNAs such as messenger RNAs (mRNAs), ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), or transfer RNAs (tRNAs).

Pre-mRNAs undergo several processing steps, including 5' capping, 3' polyadenylation, and splicing, to generate mature mRNA molecules that can be translated into proteins. The accurate and efficient production of RNA precursors and their subsequent processing are crucial for gene expression and regulation in cells.

Untranslated regions (UTRs) of RNA are the non-coding sequences that are present in mRNA (messenger RNA) molecules, which are located at both the 5' end (5' UTR) and the 3' end (3' UTR) of the mRNA, outside of the coding sequence (CDS). These regions do not get translated into proteins. They contain regulatory elements that play a role in the regulation of gene expression by affecting the stability, localization, and translation efficiency of the mRNA molecule. The 5' UTR typically contains the Shine-Dalgarno sequence in prokaryotes or the Kozak consensus sequence in eukaryotes, which are important for the initiation of translation. The 3' UTR often contains regulatory elements such as AU-rich elements (AREs) and microRNA (miRNA) binding sites that can affect mRNA stability and translation.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

RNA caps are structures found at the 5' end of RNA molecules, including messenger RNA (mRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA), and transfer RNA (tRNA). These caps consist of a modified guanine nucleotide (called 7-methylguanosine) that is linked to the first nucleotide of the RNA chain through a triphosphate bridge. The RNA cap plays several important roles in regulating RNA metabolism, including protecting the RNA from degradation by exonucleases, promoting the recognition and binding of the RNA by ribosomes during translation, and modulating the stability and transport of the RNA within the cell.

RNA Sequence Analysis is a branch of bioinformatics that involves the determination and analysis of the nucleotide sequence of Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) molecules. This process includes identifying and characterizing the individual RNA molecules, determining their functions, and studying their evolutionary relationships.

RNA Sequence Analysis typically involves the use of high-throughput sequencing technologies to generate large datasets of RNA sequences, which are then analyzed using computational methods. The analysis may include comparing the sequences to reference databases to identify known RNA molecules or discovering new ones, identifying patterns and features in the sequences, such as motifs or domains, and predicting the secondary and tertiary structures of the RNA molecules.

RNA Sequence Analysis has many applications in basic research, including understanding gene regulation, identifying novel non-coding RNAs, and studying evolutionary relationships between organisms. It also has practical applications in clinical settings, such as diagnosing and monitoring diseases, developing new therapies, and personalized medicine.

Ribonucleic acid (RNA) in plants refers to the long, single-stranded molecules that are essential for the translation of genetic information from deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) into proteins. RNA is a nucleic acid, like DNA, and it is composed of a ribose sugar backbone with attached nitrogenous bases (adenine, uracil, guanine, and cytosine).

In plants, there are several types of RNA that play specific roles in the gene expression process:

1. Messenger RNA (mRNA): This type of RNA carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a sequence of three-base code units called codons. These codons specify the order of amino acids in a protein.
2. Transfer RNA (tRNA): tRNAs are small RNA molecules that serve as adaptors between the mRNA and the amino acids during protein synthesis. Each tRNA has a specific anticodon sequence that base-pairs with a complementary codon on the mRNA, and it carries a specific amino acid that corresponds to that codon.
3. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA): rRNAs are structural components of ribosomes, which are large macromolecular complexes where protein synthesis occurs. In plants, there are several types of rRNAs, including the 18S, 5.8S, and 25S/28S rRNAs, that form the core of the ribosome and help catalyze peptide bond formation during protein synthesis.
4. Small nuclear RNA (snRNA): These are small RNA molecules that play a role in RNA processing, such as splicing, where introns (non-coding sequences) are removed from pre-mRNA and exons (coding sequences) are joined together to form mature mRNAs.
5. MicroRNA (miRNA): These are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression by binding to complementary sequences in target mRNAs, leading to their degradation or translation inhibition.

Overall, these different types of RNAs play crucial roles in various aspects of RNA metabolism, gene regulation, and protein synthesis in plants.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

I'd be happy to help! However, I believe there might be a slight confusion in your question. RNA stands for Ribonucleic Acid, which is a type of nucleic acid involved in various biological roles in the coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes. On the other hand, protozoan refers to a unicellular organism from the kingdom Protista, which includes a wide variety of simple eukaryotic organisms such as amoebas, paramecia, and plasmodium (the malaria-causing parasite).

There isn't a specific medical definition for "RNA, protozoan" since RNA is a molecule present in all living cells, including human cells, and protozoans are a group of organisms. However, I can tell you that RNA plays crucial roles in protozoan biology, such as acting as a messenger between DNA and ribosomes during protein synthesis or regulating gene expression.

If you have any further questions or need more specific information about RNA in protozoans, please let me know!

RNA (Ribonucleic acid) is a single-stranded molecule similar in structure to DNA, involved in the process of protein synthesis in the cell. It acts as a messenger carrying genetic information from DNA to the ribosomes, where proteins are produced.

A neoplasm, on the other hand, is an abnormal growth of cells, which can be benign or malignant. Benign neoplasms are not cancerous and do not invade nearby tissues or spread to other parts of the body. Malignant neoplasms, however, are cancerous and have the potential to invade surrounding tissues and spread to distant sites in the body through a process called metastasis.

Therefore, an 'RNA neoplasm' is not a recognized medical term as RNA is not a type of growth or tumor. However, there are certain types of cancer-causing viruses known as oncoviruses that contain RNA as their genetic material and can cause neoplasms. For example, human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are RNA viruses that can cause certain types of cancer in humans.

DEAD-box RNA helicases are a family of proteins that are involved in unwinding RNA secondary structures and displacing proteins bound to RNA molecules. They get their name from the conserved amino acid sequence motif "DEAD" (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) found within their catalytic core, which is responsible for ATP-dependent helicase activity. These enzymes play crucial roles in various aspects of RNA metabolism, including pre-mRNA splicing, ribosome biogenesis, translation initiation, and RNA decay. DEAD-box helicases are also implicated in a number of human diseases, such as cancer and neurological disorders.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

RNA Polymerase III is a type of enzyme that carries out the transcription of DNA into RNA, specifically functioning in the synthesis of small, stable RNAs. These RNAs include 5S rRNA, transfer RNAs (tRNAs), and other small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs). The enzyme recognizes specific promoter sequences in DNA and catalyzes the formation of phosphodiester bonds between ribonucleotides to create a complementary RNA strand. RNA Polymerase III is essential for protein synthesis and cell survival, and its activity is tightly regulated within the cell.

RNA Polymerase I is a type of enzyme that carries out the transcription of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes in eukaryotic cells. These enzymes are responsible for synthesizing the rRNA molecules, which are crucial components of ribosomes, the cellular structures where protein synthesis occurs. RNA Polymerase I is found in the nucleolus, a specialized region within the nucleus of eukaryotic cells, and it primarily transcribes the 5S, 18S, and 28S rRNA genes. The enzyme binds to the promoter regions of these genes and synthesizes the rRNA molecules by adding ribonucleotides in a template-directed manner, using DNA as a template. This process is essential for maintaining normal cellular function and for the production of proteins required for growth, development, and homeostasis.

'RNA, Nuclear' refers to Ribonucleic Acid that is located within the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell. It plays a crucial role in the process of gene expression, specifically in the transcription of DNA into messenger RNA (mRNA). During this process, a segment of DNA is copied into a complementary RNA strand, known as a primary transcript. This primary transcript then undergoes various processing steps within the nucleus, such as splicing and capping, to produce mature, functional mRNA. Nuclear RNA also includes other non-coding RNAs, such as ribosomal RNA (rRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), and small nuclear RNA (snRNA), which are involved in various cellular processes including protein synthesis and regulation of gene expression.

A guide RNA (gRNA) is not a type of RNA itself, but rather a term used to describe various types of RNAs that guide other molecules to specific target sites in the genome or transcriptome. The most well-known example of a guide RNA is the CRISPR RNA (crRNA) used in the CRISPR-Cas system for targeted gene editing.

The crRNA contains a sequence complementary to the target DNA or RNA, and it guides the Cas endonuclease to the correct location in the genome where cleavage and modification can occur. Other types of guide RNAs include small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs), which guide the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) to specific mRNA targets for degradation or translational repression.

Overall, guide RNAs play crucial roles in various cellular processes, including gene regulation, genome editing, and defense against foreign genetic elements.

28S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is a component of the large subunit of the eukaryotic ribosome, which is the site of protein synthesis in the cell. The ribosome is composed of two subunits, one large and one small, that come together around an mRNA molecule to translate it into a protein.

The 28S rRNA is a type of rRNA that is found in the large subunit of the eukaryotic ribosome, along with the 5S and 5.8S rRNAs. Together, these rRNAs make up the structural framework of the ribosome and play a crucial role in the process of translation.

The 28S rRNA is synthesized in the nucleolus as a precursor RNA (pre-rRNA) that undergoes several processing steps, including cleavage and modification, to produce the mature 28S rRNA molecule. The length of the 28S rRNA varies between species, but it is typically around 4700-5000 nucleotides long in humans.

Abnormalities in the structure or function of the 28S rRNA can lead to defects in protein synthesis and have been implicated in various diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders.

18S rRNA (ribosomal RNA) is the smaller subunit of the eukaryotic ribosome, which is the cellular organelle responsible for protein synthesis. The "18S" refers to the sedimentation coefficient of this rRNA molecule, which is a measure of its rate of sedimentation in a centrifuge and is expressed in Svedberg units (S).

The 18S rRNA is a component of the 40S subunit of the ribosome, and it plays a crucial role in the decoding of messenger RNA (mRNA) during protein synthesis. Specifically, the 18S rRNA helps to form the structure of the ribosome and contains several conserved regions that are involved in binding to mRNA and guiding the movement of transfer RNAs (tRNAs) during translation.

The 18S rRNA is also a commonly used molecular marker for evolutionary studies, as its sequence is highly conserved across different species and can be used to infer phylogenetic relationships between organisms. Additionally, the analysis of 18S rRNA gene sequences has been widely used in various fields such as ecology, environmental science, and medicine to study biodiversity, biogeography, and infectious diseases.

23S Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is a type of rRNA that is a component of the large ribosomal subunit in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. In prokaryotes, the large ribosomal subunit contains 50S, which consists of 23S rRNA, 5S rRNA, and around 33 proteins. The 23S rRNA plays a crucial role in the decoding of mRNA during protein synthesis and also participates in the formation of the peptidyl transferase center, where peptide bonds are formed between amino acids.

The 23S rRNA is a long RNA molecule that contains both coding and non-coding regions. It has a complex secondary structure, which includes several domains and subdomains, as well as numerous stem-loop structures. These structures are important for the proper functioning of the ribosome during protein synthesis.

In addition to its role in protein synthesis, 23S rRNA has been used as a target for antibiotics that inhibit bacterial growth. For example, certain antibiotics bind to specific regions of the 23S rRNA and interfere with the function of the ribosome, thereby preventing bacterial protein synthesis and growth. However, because eukaryotic cells do not have a 23S rRNA equivalent, these antibiotics are generally not toxic to human cells.

RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are a class of proteins that selectively interact with RNA molecules to form ribonucleoprotein complexes. These proteins play crucial roles in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression, including pre-mRNA processing, mRNA stability, transport, localization, and translation. RBPs recognize specific RNA sequences or structures through their modular RNA-binding domains, which can be highly degenerate and allow for the recognition of a wide range of RNA targets. The interaction between RBPs and RNA is often dynamic and can be regulated by various post-translational modifications of the proteins or by environmental stimuli, allowing for fine-tuning of gene expression in response to changing cellular needs. Dysregulation of RBP function has been implicated in various human diseases, including neurological disorders and cancer.

'Escherichia coli' (E. coli) is a type of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and one of the most well-studied prokaryotic model organisms in molecular biology.

While most E. coli strains are harmless and even beneficial to their hosts, some serotypes can cause various forms of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illnesses in humans and animals. These pathogenic strains possess virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage host tissues, leading to diseases such as diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis.

E. coli is a versatile organism with remarkable genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environmental niches. It can be found in water, soil, food, and various man-made environments, making it an essential indicator of fecal contamination and a common cause of foodborne illnesses. The study of E. coli has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes, including DNA replication, gene regulation, and protein synthesis.

RNA transport refers to the process by which messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules are transferred from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in eukaryotic cells. After being transcribed in the nucleus, mRNA molecules must be transported to the cytoplasm where they can be translated into proteins on ribosomes. This process is essential for gene expression and involves a complex network of proteins and RNA-binding factors that facilitate the recognition, packaging, and transport of mRNA through the nuclear pore complex.

The transport of mRNA is a highly regulated process that ensures the proper localization and translation of specific mRNAs in response to various cellular signals. Abnormalities in RNA transport have been implicated in several neurological disorders, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA).

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

"Spliced leader RNA (SL-RNA)" is a type of RNA molecule that is present in some single-celled eukaryotic organisms, such as trypanosomes and nematodes. In these organisms, spliced leader RNAs play a critical role in the process of gene expression by providing a "leader" sequence that is added to the beginning of messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules during the process of RNA splicing.

SL-RNAs are typically composed of two regions: a conserved 5' " leader" sequence, which is added to the beginning of mRNAs, and a variable 3' " trailer" sequence, which contains the sequences required for recognition and cleavage by the splicing machinery. During RNA splicing, the spliced leader RNA is joined to the target mRNA through a process called trans-splicing, in which the leader sequence of the SL-RNA is ligated to the 5' end of the target mRNA, replacing the original 5' exon.

The addition of the spliced leader sequence to mRNAs can have several important consequences for gene expression. For example, it can help ensure that all mRNAs produced from a given gene contain the same 5' end, even if the gene is transcribed from multiple promoters or undergoes alternative splicing. Additionally, the presence of the conserved leader sequence can serve as a recognition site for RNA-binding proteins, which can regulate mRNA stability, localization, and translation.

Overall, spliced leader RNAs are an important component of the gene expression machinery in many eukaryotic organisms, and their study has provided valuable insights into the mechanisms of RNA processing and regulation.

A satellite RNA is a type of non-coding RNA that does not encode proteins but instead plays a role in the regulation of gene expression. It is so named because it can exist as a separate, smaller molecule that "satellites" around a larger RNA molecule called the helper RNA. Satellite RNAs are often associated with viruses and can affect their replication and packaging. They can also be found in some eukaryotic cells, where they may play a role in regulating the expression of certain genes or in the development of diseases such as cancer.

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the genetic material present in the cells of organisms where it is responsible for the storage and transmission of hereditary information. DNA is a long molecule that consists of two strands coiled together to form a double helix. Each strand is made up of a series of four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - that are linked together by phosphate and sugar groups. The sequence of these bases along the length of the molecule encodes genetic information, with A always pairing with T and C always pairing with G. This base-pairing allows for the replication and transcription of DNA, which are essential processes in the functioning and reproduction of all living organisms.

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is a type of RNA that combines with proteins to form ribosomes, which are complex structures inside cells where protein synthesis occurs. The "16S" refers to the sedimentation coefficient of the rRNA molecule, which is a measure of its size and shape. In particular, 16S rRNA is a component of the smaller subunit of the prokaryotic ribosome (found in bacteria and archaea), and is often used as a molecular marker for identifying and classifying these organisms due to its relative stability and conservation among species. The sequence of 16S rRNA can be compared across different species to determine their evolutionary relationships and taxonomic positions.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Nucleic acid hybridization is a process in molecular biology where two single-stranded nucleic acids (DNA, RNA) with complementary sequences pair together to form a double-stranded molecule through hydrogen bonding. The strands can be from the same type of nucleic acid or different types (i.e., DNA-RNA or DNA-cDNA). This process is commonly used in various laboratory techniques, such as Southern blotting, Northern blotting, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and microarray analysis, to detect, isolate, and analyze specific nucleic acid sequences. The hybridization temperature and conditions are critical to ensure the specificity of the interaction between the two strands.

Protein biosynthesis is the process by which cells generate new proteins. It involves two major steps: transcription and translation. Transcription is the process of creating a complementary RNA copy of a sequence of DNA. This RNA copy, or messenger RNA (mRNA), carries the genetic information to the site of protein synthesis, the ribosome. During translation, the mRNA is read by transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules, which bring specific amino acids to the ribosome based on the sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA. The ribosome then links these amino acids together in the correct order to form a polypeptide chain, which may then fold into a functional protein. Protein biosynthesis is essential for the growth and maintenance of all living organisms.

Virus replication is the process by which a virus produces copies or reproduces itself inside a host cell. This involves several steps:

1. Attachment: The virus attaches to a specific receptor on the surface of the host cell.
2. Penetration: The viral genetic material enters the host cell, either by invagination of the cell membrane or endocytosis.
3. Uncoating: The viral genetic material is released from its protective coat (capsid) inside the host cell.
4. Replication: The viral genetic material uses the host cell's machinery to produce new viral components, such as proteins and nucleic acids.
5. Assembly: The newly synthesized viral components are assembled into new virus particles.
6. Release: The newly formed viruses are released from the host cell, often through lysis (breaking) of the cell membrane or by budding off the cell membrane.

The specific mechanisms and details of virus replication can vary depending on the type of virus. Some viruses, such as DNA viruses, use the host cell's DNA polymerase to replicate their genetic material, while others, such as RNA viruses, use their own RNA-dependent RNA polymerase or reverse transcriptase enzymes. Understanding the process of virus replication is important for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines.

Archaeal RNA refers to the Ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules that are present in archaea, which are a domain of single-celled microorganisms. RNA is a nucleic acid that plays a crucial role in various biological processes, such as protein synthesis, gene expression, and regulation of cellular activities.

Archaeal RNAs can be categorized into different types based on their functions, including:

1. Messenger RNA (mRNA): It carries genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where it is translated into proteins.
2. Transfer RNA (tRNA): It helps in translating the genetic code present in mRNA into specific amino acids during protein synthesis.
3. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA): It is a structural and functional component of ribosomes, where protein synthesis occurs.
4. Non-coding RNA: These are RNAs that do not code for proteins but have regulatory functions in gene expression and other cellular processes.

Archaeal RNAs share similarities with both bacterial and eukaryotic RNAs, but they also possess unique features that distinguish them from the other two domains of life. For example, archaeal rRNAs contain unique sequence motifs and secondary structures that are not found in bacteria or eukaryotes. These differences suggest that archaeal RNAs have evolved to adapt to the extreme environments where many archaea live.

Overall, understanding the structure, function, and evolution of archaeal RNA is essential for gaining insights into the biology of these unique microorganisms and their roles in various cellular processes.

Genetic transcription is the process by which the information in a strand of DNA is used to create a complementary RNA molecule. This process is the first step in gene expression, where the genetic code in DNA is converted into a form that can be used to produce proteins or functional RNAs.

During transcription, an enzyme called RNA polymerase binds to the DNA template strand and reads the sequence of nucleotide bases. As it moves along the template, it adds complementary RNA nucleotides to the growing RNA chain, creating a single-stranded RNA molecule that is complementary to the DNA template strand. Once transcription is complete, the RNA molecule may undergo further processing before it can be translated into protein or perform its functional role in the cell.

Transcription can be either "constitutive" or "regulated." Constitutive transcription occurs at a relatively constant rate and produces essential proteins that are required for basic cellular functions. Regulated transcription, on the other hand, is subject to control by various intracellular and extracellular signals, allowing cells to respond to changing environmental conditions or developmental cues.

In the context of medical and biological sciences, a "binding site" refers to a specific location on a protein, molecule, or cell where another molecule can attach or bind. This binding interaction can lead to various functional changes in the original protein or molecule. The other molecule that binds to the binding site is often referred to as a ligand, which can be a small molecule, ion, or even another protein.

The binding between a ligand and its target binding site can be specific and selective, meaning that only certain ligands can bind to particular binding sites with high affinity. This specificity plays a crucial role in various biological processes, such as signal transduction, enzyme catalysis, or drug action.

In the case of drug development, understanding the location and properties of binding sites on target proteins is essential for designing drugs that can selectively bind to these sites and modulate protein function. This knowledge can help create more effective and safer therapeutic options for various diseases.

Protein binding, in the context of medical and biological sciences, refers to the interaction between a protein and another molecule (known as the ligand) that results in a stable complex. This process is often reversible and can be influenced by various factors such as pH, temperature, and concentration of the involved molecules.

In clinical chemistry, protein binding is particularly important when it comes to drugs, as many of them bind to proteins (especially albumin) in the bloodstream. The degree of protein binding can affect a drug's distribution, metabolism, and excretion, which in turn influence its therapeutic effectiveness and potential side effects.

Protein-bound drugs may be less available for interaction with their target tissues, as only the unbound or "free" fraction of the drug is active. Therefore, understanding protein binding can help optimize dosing regimens and minimize adverse reactions.

Oligoribonucleotides are short, synthetic chains of ribonucleotides, which are the building blocks of RNA (ribonucleic acid). These chains typically contain fewer than 20 ribonucleotide units, and can be composed of all four types of nucleotides found in RNA: adenine (A), uracil (U), guanine (G), and cytosine (C). They are often used in research for various purposes, such as studying RNA function, regulating gene expression, or serving as potential therapeutic agents.

Molecular models are three-dimensional representations of molecular structures that are used in the field of molecular biology and chemistry to visualize and understand the spatial arrangement of atoms and bonds within a molecule. These models can be physical or computer-generated and allow researchers to study the shape, size, and behavior of molecules, which is crucial for understanding their function and interactions with other molecules.

Physical molecular models are often made up of balls (representing atoms) connected by rods or sticks (representing bonds). These models can be constructed manually using materials such as plastic or wooden balls and rods, or they can be created using 3D printing technology.

Computer-generated molecular models, on the other hand, are created using specialized software that allows researchers to visualize and manipulate molecular structures in three dimensions. These models can be used to simulate molecular interactions, predict molecular behavior, and design new drugs or chemicals with specific properties. Overall, molecular models play a critical role in advancing our understanding of molecular structures and their functions.

HeLa cells are a type of immortalized cell line used in scientific research. They are derived from a cancer that developed in the cervical tissue of Henrietta Lacks, an African-American woman, in 1951. After her death, cells taken from her tumor were found to be capable of continuous division and growth in a laboratory setting, making them an invaluable resource for medical research.

HeLa cells have been used in a wide range of scientific studies, including research on cancer, viruses, genetics, and drug development. They were the first human cell line to be successfully cloned and are able to grow rapidly in culture, doubling their population every 20-24 hours. This has made them an essential tool for many areas of biomedical research.

It is important to note that while HeLa cells have been instrumental in numerous scientific breakthroughs, the story of their origin raises ethical questions about informed consent and the use of human tissue in research.

RNA cleavage is a biological process in which RNA molecules are cut or split into smaller fragments by enzymes known as ribonucleases (RNases). This process can occur co-transcriptionally, during splicing, or as a means of regulation of RNA stability and function. Cleavage sites are often defined by specific sequences or structures within the RNA molecule. The cleavage products may have various fates, including degradation, further processing, or serving as functional RNA molecules.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Heterogeneous Nuclear RNA (hnRNA) is a type of RNA molecule found in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells during the early stages of gene expression. The term "heterogeneous" refers to the diverse range of sizes and structures that these RNAs exhibit, which can vary from several hundred to tens of thousands of nucleotides in length.

HnRNA is transcribed from DNA templates by the enzyme RNA polymerase II and includes both introns (non-coding sequences) and exons (coding sequences) that will eventually be spliced together to form mature mRNA molecules. HnRNA also contains additional sequences, such as 5' cap structures and 3' poly(A) tails, which are added during post-transcriptional processing.

Because hnRNA is a precursor to mature mRNA, it is often used as a marker for transcriptionally active genes. However, not all hnRNA molecules are ultimately processed into mRNA; some may be degraded or converted into other types of RNA, such as microRNAs or long non-coding RNAs.

Overall, hnRNA plays a critical role in the regulation and expression of genes in eukaryotic cells.

"Small cytoplasmic RNAs" (scRNAs) are a heterogeneous group of non-coding RNA molecules that are typically 100-300 nucleotides in length and are located within the cytoplasm of cells. They play various roles in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression, including serving as components of ribonucleoprotein complexes involved in mRNA splicing, stability, and translation.

Some specific types of scRNAs include small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs), which are involved in spliceosomal complexes that remove introns from pre-mRNA; small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs), which guide chemical modifications of other RNA molecules, such as ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs); and microRNAs (miRNAs), which bind to target mRNAs and inhibit their translation or promote their degradation.

It's worth noting that the term "small cytoplasmic RNA" is a broad category, and individual scRNAs can have distinct functions and characteristics.

A genetic template refers to the sequence of DNA or RNA that contains the instructions for the development and function of an organism or any of its components. These templates provide the code for the synthesis of proteins and other functional molecules, and determine many of the inherited traits and characteristics of an individual. In this sense, genetic templates serve as the blueprint for life and are passed down from one generation to the next through the process of reproduction.

In molecular biology, the term "template" is used to describe the strand of DNA or RNA that serves as a guide or pattern for the synthesis of a complementary strand during processes such as transcription and replication. During transcription, the template strand of DNA is transcribed into a complementary RNA molecule, while during replication, each parental DNA strand serves as a template for the synthesis of a new complementary strand.

In genetic engineering and synthetic biology, genetic templates can be manipulated and modified to introduce new functions or alter existing ones in organisms. This is achieved through techniques such as gene editing, where specific sequences in the genetic template are targeted and altered using tools like CRISPR-Cas9. Overall, genetic templates play a crucial role in shaping the structure, function, and evolution of all living organisms.

Ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) are complexes composed of ribonucleic acid (RNA) and proteins. They play crucial roles in various cellular processes, including gene expression, RNA processing, transport, stability, and degradation. Different types of RNPs exist, such as ribosomes, spliceosomes, and signal recognition particles, each having specific functions in the cell.

Ribosomes are large RNP complexes responsible for protein synthesis, where messenger RNA (mRNA) is translated into proteins. They consist of two subunits: a smaller subunit containing ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and proteins that recognize the start codon on mRNA, and a larger subunit with rRNA and proteins that facilitate peptide bond formation during translation.

Spliceosomes are dynamic RNP complexes involved in pre-messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) splicing, where introns (non-coding sequences) are removed, and exons (coding sequences) are joined together to form mature mRNA. Spliceosomes consist of five small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs), each containing a specific small nuclear RNA (snRNA) and several proteins, as well as numerous additional proteins.

Other RNP complexes include signal recognition particles (SRPs), which are responsible for targeting secretory and membrane proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum during translation, and telomerase, an enzyme that maintains the length of telomeres (the protective ends of chromosomes) by adding repetitive DNA sequences using its built-in RNA component.

In summary, ribonucleoproteins are essential complexes in the cell that participate in various aspects of RNA metabolism and protein synthesis.

Ribonucleases (RNases) are a group of enzymes that catalyze the degradation of ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules by hydrolyzing the phosphodiester bonds. These enzymes play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as RNA processing, turnover, and quality control. They can be classified into several types based on their specificities, mechanisms, and cellular localizations.

Some common classes of ribonucleases include:

1. Endoribonucleases: These enzymes cleave RNA internally, at specific sequences or structural motifs. Examples include RNase A, which targets single-stranded RNA; RNase III, which cuts double-stranded RNA at specific stem-loop structures; and RNase T1, which recognizes and cuts unpaired guanosine residues in RNA molecules.
2. Exoribonucleases: These enzymes remove nucleotides from the ends of RNA molecules. They can be further divided into 5'-3' exoribonucleases, which degrade RNA starting from the 5' end, and 3'-5' exoribonucleases, which start at the 3' end. Examples include Xrn1, a 5'-3' exoribonuclease involved in mRNA decay; and Dis3/RRP6, a 3'-5' exoribonuclease that participates in ribosomal RNA processing and degradation.
3. Specific ribonucleases: These enzymes target specific RNA molecules or regions with high precision. For example, RNase P is responsible for cleaving the 5' leader sequence of precursor tRNAs (pre-tRNAs) during their maturation; and RNase MRP is involved in the processing of ribosomal RNA and mitochondrial RNA molecules.

Dysregulation or mutations in ribonucleases have been implicated in various human diseases, such as neurological disorders, cancer, and viral infections. Therefore, understanding their functions and mechanisms is crucial for developing novel therapeutic strategies.

"RNA 3' end processing" refers to the post-transcriptional modifications that occur at the 3' end of RNA transcripts. While "RNA 3' end processing" is not a specific medical term, it is a fundamental biological process that has implications in various areas of medicine, such as gene regulation and disease pathogenesis.

During RNA 3' end processing, several enzymatic activities take place to generate a mature and functional RNA molecule. These modifications typically include the removal of unnecessary sequences, the addition of a poly(A) tail, and sometimes the incorporation of a specific nucleotide called a "cap."

1. Removal of unnecessary sequences: In many cases, the initial RNA transcript contains non-coding regions (introns) that need to be removed to generate a mature RNA molecule. This process is known as splicing, and it results in the formation of an mRNA (messenger RNA) or other types of functional RNAs, such as rRNA (ribosomal RNA), tRNA (transfer RNA), or snRNA (small nuclear RNA).
2. Addition of a poly(A) tail: After splicing, the 3' end of the RNA molecule is further processed by adding a string of adenine nucleotides, known as a poly(A) tail. This modification is catalyzed by an enzyme called poly(A) polymerase and plays a crucial role in stabilizing the RNA molecule, promoting its export from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, and facilitating translation.
3. Incorporation of a cap: At the 5' end of the RNA molecule, a special structure called a "cap" is added. This cap consists of a modified guanine nucleotide that is linked to the first nucleotide of the RNA via a triphosphate bridge. The cap helps protect the RNA from degradation and plays a role in translation initiation by recruiting ribosomes and other translation factors.

Dysregulation of RNA 3' end processing has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, neurological disorders, and viral infections. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes can provide valuable insights into disease pathogenesis and potential therapeutic targets.

A viral genome is the genetic material (DNA or RNA) that is present in a virus. It contains all the genetic information that a virus needs to replicate itself and infect its host. The size and complexity of viral genomes can vary greatly, ranging from a few thousand bases to hundreds of thousands of bases. Some viruses have linear genomes, while others have circular genomes. The genome of a virus also contains the information necessary for the virus to hijack the host cell's machinery and use it to produce new copies of the virus. Understanding the genetic makeup of viruses is important for developing vaccines and antiviral treatments.

Small untranslated region (UTR) of RNA refers to the non-coding sequences located at the 5' end (5' UTR) or 3' end (3' UTR) of an mRNA molecule that do not contain information for protein synthesis. These regions play a role in the regulation of translation, stability, and localization of the mRNA. The small untranslated regions are so named because they are typically shorter in length compared to other regulatory elements found within the mRNA.

Promoter regions in genetics refer to specific DNA sequences located near the transcription start site of a gene. They serve as binding sites for RNA polymerase and various transcription factors that regulate the initiation of gene transcription. These regulatory elements help control the rate of transcription and, therefore, the level of gene expression. Promoter regions can be composed of different types of sequences, such as the TATA box and CAAT box, and their organization and composition can vary between different genes and species.

"Poly A" is an abbreviation for "poly(A) tail" or "polyadenylation." It refers to the addition of multiple adenine (A) nucleotides to the 3' end of eukaryotic mRNA molecules during the process of transcription. This poly(A) tail plays a crucial role in various aspects of mRNA metabolism, including stability, transport, and translation. The length of the poly(A) tail can vary from around 50 to 250 nucleotides depending on the cell type and developmental stage.

A plasmid is a small, circular, double-stranded DNA molecule that is separate from the chromosomal DNA of a bacterium or other organism. Plasmids are typically not essential for the survival of the organism, but they can confer beneficial traits such as antibiotic resistance or the ability to degrade certain types of pollutants.

Plasmids are capable of replicating independently of the chromosomal DNA and can be transferred between bacteria through a process called conjugation. They often contain genes that provide resistance to antibiotics, heavy metals, and other environmental stressors. Plasmids have also been engineered for use in molecular biology as cloning vectors, allowing scientists to replicate and manipulate specific DNA sequences.

Plasmids are important tools in genetic engineering and biotechnology because they can be easily manipulated and transferred between organisms. They have been used to produce vaccines, diagnostic tests, and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for various applications, including agriculture, medicine, and industry.

5.8S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is a type of structural RNA molecule that is a component of the large subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. It is one of the several rRNA species that are present in the ribosome, which also include the 18S rRNA in the small subunit and the 28S and 5S rRNAs in the large subunit. The 5.8S rRNA plays a role in the translation process, where it helps in the decoding of messenger RNA (mRNA) during protein synthesis. It is transcribed from DNA as part of a larger precursor RNA molecule, which is then processed to produce the mature 5.8S rRNA. The length of the 5.8S rRNA varies slightly between species, but it is generally around 160 nucleotides long in humans.

"Saccharomyces cerevisiae" is not typically considered a medical term, but it is a scientific name used in the field of microbiology. It refers to a species of yeast that is commonly used in various industrial processes, such as baking and brewing. It's also widely used in scientific research due to its genetic tractability and eukaryotic cellular organization.

However, it does have some relevance to medical fields like medicine and nutrition. For example, certain strains of S. cerevisiae are used as probiotics, which can provide health benefits when consumed. They may help support gut health, enhance the immune system, and even assist in the digestion of certain nutrients.

In summary, "Saccharomyces cerevisiae" is a species of yeast with various industrial and potential medical applications.

The cell nucleus is a membrane-bound organelle found in the eukaryotic cells (cells with a true nucleus). It contains most of the cell's genetic material, organized as DNA molecules in complex with proteins, RNA molecules, and histones to form chromosomes.

The primary function of the cell nucleus is to regulate and control the activities of the cell, including growth, metabolism, protein synthesis, and reproduction. It also plays a crucial role in the process of mitosis (cell division) by separating and protecting the genetic material during this process. The nuclear membrane, or nuclear envelope, surrounding the nucleus is composed of two lipid bilayers with numerous pores that allow for the selective transport of molecules between the nucleoplasm (nucleus interior) and the cytoplasm (cell exterior).

The cell nucleus is a vital structure in eukaryotic cells, and its dysfunction can lead to various diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders.

Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) is a type of RNA molecule that is longer than 200 nucleotides and does not encode for proteins. They are involved in various cellular processes such as regulation of gene expression, chromosome remodeling, and modulation of protein function. LncRNAs can be located in the nucleus or cytoplasm and can interact with DNA, RNA, and proteins to bring about their functions. Dysregulation of lncRNAs has been implicated in various human diseases, including cancer.

Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) are a specific class of small RNA molecules that range in size from 60 to 300 nucleotides. They are primarily located in the dense granules of the nucleus called nucleoli, which are membrane-less organelles where ribosome biogenesis occurs.

SnoRNAs guide the chemical modification of other RNA molecules, mainly ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs). They function as guides for site-specific post-transcriptional modifications, such as 2'-O-methylation and pseudouridination, of their target RNAs. These modifications are essential for the stability, structure, and functionality of the target RNAs.

SnoRNAs can be classified into two main groups based on their secondary structures and sequence motifs:

1. C/D box snoRNAs: These snoRNAs contain conserved sequence motifs known as the C (RUGAUGA) and D (CUGA) boxes, which are located in the 5' and 3' ends of the snoRNA, respectively. They typically guide 2'-O-methylation of their target RNAs.
2. H/ACA box snoRNAs: These snoRNAs contain conserved sequence motifs known as the H (ANANNA) and ACA boxes, which are located in the 5' and 3' ends of the snoRNA, respectively. They typically guide pseudouridination of their target RNAs.

SnoRNAs are encoded by either host genes or as independent transcription units. In some cases, they can be found within introns of protein-coding or non-protein-coding genes and are processed from the primary transcript (pre-mRNA or intron lariat) during splicing.

In summary, small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) are a class of small RNA molecules that guide post-transcriptional modifications, mainly 2'-O-methylation and pseudouridination, of other RNA molecules such as ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs), and messenger RNAs (mRNAs).

DNA primers are short single-stranded DNA molecules that serve as a starting point for DNA synthesis. They are typically used in laboratory techniques such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. The primer binds to a complementary sequence on the DNA template through base pairing, providing a free 3'-hydroxyl group for the DNA polymerase enzyme to add nucleotides and synthesize a new strand of DNA. This allows for specific and targeted amplification or analysis of a particular region of interest within a larger DNA molecule.

RNA virus infections refer to diseases or conditions caused by the invasion and replication of RNA (Ribonucleic acid) viruses in host cells. These viruses use RNA as their genetic material, which is different from DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) viruses. Upon entering a host cell, the RNA virus releases its genetic material, which then uses the host cell's machinery to produce new viral components and replicate. This process can lead to various outcomes, depending on the specific virus and the host's immune response:

1. Asymptomatic infection: Some RNA virus infections may not cause any noticeable symptoms and may only be discovered through diagnostic testing.
2. Acute infection: Many RNA viruses cause acute infections, characterized by the rapid onset of symptoms that typically last for a short period (days to weeks). Examples include the common cold (caused by rhinoviruses), influenza (caused by orthomyxoviruses), and some gastrointestinal infections (caused by noroviruses or rotaviruses).
3. Chronic infection: A few RNA viruses can establish chronic infections, where the virus persists in the host for an extended period, sometimes leading to long-term health complications. Examples include HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus), HCV (Hepatitis C Virus), and HTLV-1 (Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1).
4. Latent infection: Some RNA viruses, like herpesviruses, can establish latency in the host, where they remain dormant for extended periods but can reactivate under certain conditions, causing recurrent symptoms or diseases.
5. Oncogenic potential: Certain RNA viruses have oncogenic properties and can contribute to the development of cancer. For example, retroviruses like HTLV-1 can cause leukemia and lymphoma by integrating their genetic material into the host cell's DNA and altering gene expression.

Treatment for RNA virus infections varies depending on the specific virus and the severity of the infection. Antiviral medications, immunotherapy, and supportive care are common treatment strategies. Vaccines are also available to prevent some RNA virus infections, such as measles, mumps, rubella, influenza, and hepatitis A and B.

Uridine is a nucleoside that consists of a pyrimidine base (uracil) linked to a pentose sugar (ribose). It is a component of RNA, where it pairs with adenine. Uridine can also be found in various foods such as beer, broccoli, yeast, and meat. In the body, uridine can be synthesized from orotate or from the breakdown of RNA. It has several functions, including acting as a building block for RNA, contributing to energy metabolism, and regulating cell growth and differentiation. Uridine is also available as a dietary supplement and has been studied for its potential benefits in various health conditions.

Complementary RNA refers to a single-stranded RNA molecule that is complementary to another RNA or DNA sequence in terms of base pairing. In other words, it is the nucleic acid strand that can form a double-stranded structure with another strand through hydrogen bonding between complementary bases (A-U and G-C). Complementary RNAs play crucial roles in various biological processes such as transcription, translation, and gene regulation. For example, during transcription, the DNA template strand serves as the template for the synthesis of a complementary RNA strand, known as the primary transcript or pre-mRNA. This pre-mRNA then undergoes processing to remove non-coding sequences and generate a mature mRNA that is complementary to the DNA template strand. Complementary RNAs are also involved in RNA interference (RNAi), where small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) or microRNAs (miRNAs) bind to complementary sequences in target mRNAs, leading to their degradation or translation inhibition.

Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to amplify and detect specific DNA sequences. This technique is particularly useful for the detection and quantification of RNA viruses, as well as for the analysis of gene expression.

The process involves two main steps: reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In the first step, reverse transcriptase enzyme is used to convert RNA into complementary DNA (cDNA) by reading the template provided by the RNA molecule. This cDNA then serves as a template for the PCR amplification step.

In the second step, the PCR reaction uses two primers that flank the target DNA sequence and a thermostable polymerase enzyme to repeatedly copy the targeted cDNA sequence. The reaction mixture is heated and cooled in cycles, allowing the primers to anneal to the template, and the polymerase to extend the new strand. This results in exponential amplification of the target DNA sequence, making it possible to detect even small amounts of RNA or cDNA.

RT-PCR is a sensitive and specific technique that has many applications in medical research and diagnostics, including the detection of viruses such as HIV, hepatitis C virus, and SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19). It can also be used to study gene expression, identify genetic mutations, and diagnose genetic disorders.

Transcription factors are proteins that play a crucial role in regulating gene expression by controlling the transcription of DNA to messenger RNA (mRNA). They function by binding to specific DNA sequences, known as response elements, located in the promoter region or enhancer regions of target genes. This binding can either activate or repress the initiation of transcription, depending on the properties and interactions of the particular transcription factor. Transcription factors often act as part of a complex network of regulatory proteins that determine the precise spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression during development, differentiation, and homeostasis in an organism.

Base pairing is a specific type of chemical bonding that occurs between complementary base pairs in the nucleic acid molecules DNA and RNA. In DNA, these bases are adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C). Adenine always pairs with thymine via two hydrogen bonds, while guanine always pairs with cytosine via three hydrogen bonds. This precise base pairing is crucial for the stability of the double helix structure of DNA and for the accurate replication and transcription of genetic information. In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine and pairs with adenine.

Endoribonucleases are enzymes that cleave RNA molecules internally, meaning they cut the phosphodiester bond between nucleotides within the RNA chain. These enzymes play crucial roles in various cellular processes, such as RNA processing, degradation, and quality control. Different endoribonucleases recognize specific sequences or structural features in RNA substrates, allowing them to target particular regions for cleavage. Some well-known examples of endoribonucleases include RNase III, RNase T1, and RNase A, each with distinct substrate preferences and functions.

'Gene expression regulation' refers to the processes that control whether, when, and where a particular gene is expressed, meaning the production of a specific protein or functional RNA encoded by that gene. This complex mechanism can be influenced by various factors such as transcription factors, chromatin remodeling, DNA methylation, non-coding RNAs, and post-transcriptional modifications, among others. Proper regulation of gene expression is crucial for normal cellular function, development, and maintaining homeostasis in living organisms. Dysregulation of gene expression can lead to various diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a laboratory technique used to amplify specific regions of DNA. It enables the production of thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence in a rapid and efficient manner, making it an essential tool in various fields such as molecular biology, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and research.

The PCR process involves repeated cycles of heating and cooling to separate the DNA strands, allow primers (short sequences of single-stranded DNA) to attach to the target regions, and extend these primers using an enzyme called Taq polymerase, resulting in the exponential amplification of the desired DNA segment.

In a medical context, PCR is often used for detecting and quantifying specific pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites) in clinical samples, identifying genetic mutations or polymorphisms associated with diseases, monitoring disease progression, and evaluating treatment effectiveness.

I'm happy to help! However, I believe there might be a slight confusion in your question. RNA and chloroplasts are two different biological concepts. Let me clarify:

1. RNA (Ribonucleic Acid): It is a type of nucleic acid that plays several crucial roles in the process of translation, decoding the genetic information stored in DNA into proteins. There are three main types of RNA: messenger RNA (mRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA), and transfer RNA (tRNA).

2. Chloroplasts: They are specialized organelles found in the cells of green plants, algae, and some protists. Chloroplasts are responsible for capturing sunlight's energy and converting it into chemical energy through photosynthesis, which is used to produce glucose and oxygen.

There is no medical definition directly related to 'RNA, chloroplast' as they are separate concepts in biology. However, RNA does play a role in the expression of genes found within the chloroplast genome during photosynthesis. If you have any further questions or need more information about either concept, please let me know!

Single-strand specific DNA and RNA endonucleases are enzymes that cleave or cut single-stranded DNA or RNA molecules at specific sites, leaving a free 3'-hydroxyl group and a 5'-phosphate group on the resulting fragments. These enzymes recognize and bind to particular nucleotide sequences or structural motifs in single-stranded nucleic acids, making them useful tools for various molecular biology techniques such as DNA and RNA mapping, sequencing, and manipulation.

Examples of single-strand specific endonucleases include S1 nuclease (specific to single-stranded DNA), mung bean nuclease (specific to single-stranded DNA with a preference for 3'-overhangs), and RNase A (specific to single-stranded RNA). These enzymes have distinct substrate specificities, cleavage patterns, and optimal reaction conditions, which should be carefully considered when selecting them for specific applications.

Sequence homology, amino acid, refers to the similarity in the order of amino acids in a protein or a portion of a protein between two or more species. This similarity can be used to infer evolutionary relationships and functional similarities between proteins. The higher the degree of sequence homology, the more likely it is that the proteins are related and have similar functions. Sequence homology can be determined through various methods such as pairwise alignment or multiple sequence alignment, which compare the sequences and calculate a score based on the number and type of matching amino acids.

Tertiary protein structure refers to the three-dimensional arrangement of all the elements (polypeptide chains) of a single protein molecule. It is the highest level of structural organization and results from interactions between various side chains (R groups) of the amino acids that make up the protein. These interactions, which include hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds, van der Waals forces, and disulfide bridges, give the protein its unique shape and stability, which in turn determines its function. The tertiary structure of a protein can be stabilized by various factors such as temperature, pH, and the presence of certain ions. Any changes in these factors can lead to denaturation, where the protein loses its tertiary structure and thus its function.

Oligonucleotides are short sequences of nucleotides, the building blocks of DNA and RNA. They typically contain fewer than 100 nucleotides, and can be synthesized chemically to have specific sequences. Oligonucleotides are used in a variety of applications in molecular biology, including as probes for detecting specific DNA or RNA sequences, as inhibitors of gene expression, and as components of diagnostic tests and therapies. They can also be used in the study of protein-nucleic acid interactions and in the development of new drugs.

Viral DNA refers to the genetic material present in viruses that consist of DNA as their core component. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is one of the two types of nucleic acids that are responsible for storing and transmitting genetic information in living organisms. Viruses are infectious agents much smaller than bacteria that can only replicate inside the cells of other organisms, called hosts.

Viral DNA can be double-stranded (dsDNA) or single-stranded (ssDNA), depending on the type of virus. Double-stranded DNA viruses have a genome made up of two complementary strands of DNA, while single-stranded DNA viruses contain only one strand of DNA.

Examples of dsDNA viruses include Adenoviruses, Herpesviruses, and Poxviruses, while ssDNA viruses include Parvoviruses and Circoviruses. Viral DNA plays a crucial role in the replication cycle of the virus, encoding for various proteins necessary for its multiplication and survival within the host cell.

A phenotype is the physical or biochemical expression of an organism's genes, or the observable traits and characteristics resulting from the interaction of its genetic constitution (genotype) with environmental factors. These characteristics can include appearance, development, behavior, and resistance to disease, among others. Phenotypes can vary widely, even among individuals with identical genotypes, due to differences in environmental influences, gene expression, and genetic interactions.

A plant virus is not defined in medical terms, as viruses are typically considered within the context of living organisms and plants are not classified as such. However, I can provide a general virology definition for you:

Plant viruses are small infectious agents that consist of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) enclosed in a protein coat. They infect various plant species, causing a wide range of symptoms and diseases, which can result in significant economic losses in agriculture and horticulture. Plant viruses lack the ability to replicate outside a host cell, and they rely on the host's metabolic machinery for their reproduction. They can be transmitted through various means, such as insect vectors, seeds, or mechanical contact.

RNA (Ribonucleic acid) is a single-stranded molecule that plays a crucial role in the process of gene expression. It acts as a messenger carrying genetic information copied from DNA to the ribosomes, where proteins are synthesized. RNA is also involved in catalyzing chemical reactions and regulating gene expression.

Helminths, on the other hand, refer to parasitic worms that infect humans and animals. They belong to various phyla, including Nematoda (roundworms), Platyhelminthes (flatworms), and Acanthocephala (spiny-headed worms). Helminth infections can cause a range of diseases and conditions, such as intestinal inflammation, anemia, stunted growth, and cognitive impairment.

There is no medical definition for "RNA, Helminth" since RNA is a type of molecule found in all living organisms, including helminths. However, researchers have studied the genetic material of various helminth species to better understand their biology, evolution, and pathogenesis. This includes sequencing and analyzing the RNA transcriptome of these parasites, which can provide insights into their gene expression patterns and help identify potential drug targets for developing new treatments.

Nucleic acid denaturation is the process of separating the two strands of a double-stranded DNA molecule, or unwinding the helical structure of an RNA molecule, by disrupting the hydrogen bonds that hold the strands together. This process is typically caused by exposure to high temperatures, changes in pH, or the presence of chemicals called denaturants.

Denaturation can also cause changes in the shape and function of nucleic acids. For example, it can disrupt the secondary and tertiary structures of RNA molecules, which can affect their ability to bind to other molecules and carry out their functions within the cell.

In molecular biology, nucleic acid denaturation is often used as a tool for studying the structure and function of nucleic acids. For example, it can be used to separate the two strands of a DNA molecule for sequencing or amplification, or to study the interactions between nucleic acids and other molecules.

It's important to note that denaturation is a reversible process, and under the right conditions, the double-stranded structure of DNA can be restored through a process called renaturation or annealing.

Northern blotting is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to detect and analyze specific RNA molecules (such as mRNA) in a mixture of total RNA extracted from cells or tissues. This technique is called "Northern" blotting because it is analogous to the Southern blotting method, which is used for DNA detection.

The Northern blotting procedure involves several steps:

1. Electrophoresis: The total RNA mixture is first separated based on size by running it through an agarose gel using electrical current. This separates the RNA molecules according to their length, with smaller RNA fragments migrating faster than larger ones.

2. Transfer: After electrophoresis, the RNA bands are denatured (made single-stranded) and transferred from the gel onto a nitrocellulose or nylon membrane using a technique called capillary transfer or vacuum blotting. This step ensures that the order and relative positions of the RNA fragments are preserved on the membrane, similar to how they appear in the gel.

3. Cross-linking: The RNA is then chemically cross-linked to the membrane using UV light or heat treatment, which helps to immobilize the RNA onto the membrane and prevent it from washing off during subsequent steps.

4. Prehybridization: Before adding the labeled probe, the membrane is prehybridized in a solution containing blocking agents (such as salmon sperm DNA or yeast tRNA) to minimize non-specific binding of the probe to the membrane.

5. Hybridization: A labeled nucleic acid probe, specific to the RNA of interest, is added to the prehybridization solution and allowed to hybridize (form base pairs) with its complementary RNA sequence on the membrane. The probe can be either a DNA or an RNA molecule, and it is typically labeled with a radioactive isotope (such as ³²P) or a non-radioactive label (such as digoxigenin).

6. Washing: After hybridization, the membrane is washed to remove unbound probe and reduce background noise. The washing conditions (temperature, salt concentration, and detergent concentration) are optimized based on the stringency required for specific hybridization.

7. Detection: The presence of the labeled probe is then detected using an appropriate method, depending on the type of label used. For radioactive probes, this typically involves exposing the membrane to X-ray film or a phosphorimager screen and analyzing the resulting image. For non-radioactive probes, detection can be performed using colorimetric, chemiluminescent, or fluorescent methods.

8. Data analysis: The intensity of the signal is quantified and compared to controls (such as housekeeping genes) to determine the relative expression level of the RNA of interest. This information can be used for various purposes, such as identifying differentially expressed genes in response to a specific treatment or comparing gene expression levels across different samples or conditions.

Transfection is a term used in molecular biology that refers to the process of deliberately introducing foreign genetic material (DNA, RNA or artificial gene constructs) into cells. This is typically done using chemical or physical methods, such as lipofection or electroporation. Transfection is widely used in research and medical settings for various purposes, including studying gene function, producing proteins, developing gene therapies, and creating genetically modified organisms. It's important to note that transfection is different from transduction, which is the process of introducing genetic material into cells using viruses as vectors.

The double-blind method is a study design commonly used in research, including clinical trials, to minimize bias and ensure the objectivity of results. In this approach, both the participants and the researchers are unaware of which group the participants are assigned to, whether it be the experimental group or the control group. This means that neither the participants nor the researchers know who is receiving a particular treatment or placebo, thus reducing the potential for bias in the evaluation of outcomes. The assignment of participants to groups is typically done by a third party not involved in the study, and the codes are only revealed after all data have been collected and analyzed.

Gene silencing is a process by which the expression of a gene is blocked or inhibited, preventing the production of its corresponding protein. This can occur naturally through various mechanisms such as RNA interference (RNAi), where small RNAs bind to and degrade specific mRNAs, or DNA methylation, where methyl groups are added to the DNA molecule, preventing transcription. Gene silencing can also be induced artificially using techniques such as RNAi-based therapies, antisense oligonucleotides, or CRISPR-Cas9 systems, which allow for targeted suppression of gene expression in research and therapeutic applications.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Site-directed mutagenesis is a molecular biology technique used to introduce specific and targeted changes to a specific DNA sequence. This process involves creating a new variant of a gene or a specific region of interest within a DNA molecule by introducing a planned, deliberate change, or mutation, at a predetermined site within the DNA sequence.

The methodology typically involves the use of molecular tools such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, and/or ligases to introduce the desired mutation(s) into a plasmid or other vector containing the target DNA sequence. The resulting modified DNA molecule can then be used to transform host cells, allowing for the production of large quantities of the mutated gene or protein for further study.

Site-directed mutagenesis is a valuable tool in basic research, drug discovery, and biotechnology applications where specific changes to a DNA sequence are required to understand gene function, investigate protein structure/function relationships, or engineer novel biological properties into existing genes or proteins.

Ribosomes are complex macromolecular structures composed of ribonucleic acid (RNA) and proteins that play a crucial role in protein synthesis within cells. They serve as the site for translation, where messenger RNA (mRNA) is translated into a specific sequence of amino acids to create a polypeptide chain, which eventually folds into a functional protein.

Ribosomes consist of two subunits: a smaller subunit and a larger subunit. These subunits are composed of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) molecules and proteins. In eukaryotic cells, the smaller subunit is denoted as the 40S subunit, while the larger subunit is referred to as the 60S subunit. In prokaryotic cells, these subunits are named the 30S and 50S subunits, respectively. The ribosome's overall structure resembles a "doughnut" or a "cotton reel," with grooves and binding sites for various factors involved in protein synthesis.

Ribosomes can be found floating freely within the cytoplasm of cells or attached to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, forming part of the rough ER. Membrane-bound ribosomes are responsible for synthesizing proteins that will be transported across the ER and ultimately secreted from the cell or inserted into the membrane. In contrast, cytoplasmic ribosomes synthesize proteins destined for use within the cytoplasm or organelles.

In summary, ribosomes are essential components of cells that facilitate protein synthesis by translating mRNA into functional polypeptide chains. They can be found in various cellular locations and exist as either free-floating entities or membrane-bound structures.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

Transfer RNA (tRNA) is a type of RNA molecule that helps translate genetic information from messenger RNA (mRNA) into proteins. Each tRNA carries a specific amino acid to the growing polypeptide chain during protein synthesis, based on the anticodon sequence in its variable loop region that recognizes and binds to a complementary codon sequence in the mRNA.

Phenylalanine (Phe) is one of the twenty standard amino acids found in proteins. It has a hydrophobic side chain, which means it tends to repel water and interact with other non-polar molecules. In tRNA, phenylalanine is attached to a specific tRNA molecule known as tRNAPhe. This tRNA recognizes the mRNA codons UUC and UUU, which specify phenylalanine during protein synthesis.

Gene expression is the process by which the information encoded in a gene is used to synthesize a functional gene product, such as a protein or RNA molecule. This process involves several steps: transcription, RNA processing, and translation. During transcription, the genetic information in DNA is copied into a complementary RNA molecule, known as messenger RNA (mRNA). The mRNA then undergoes RNA processing, which includes adding a cap and tail to the mRNA and splicing out non-coding regions called introns. The resulting mature mRNA is then translated into a protein on ribosomes in the cytoplasm through the process of translation.

The regulation of gene expression is a complex and highly controlled process that allows cells to respond to changes in their environment, such as growth factors, hormones, and stress signals. This regulation can occur at various stages of gene expression, including transcriptional activation or repression, RNA processing, mRNA stability, and translation. Dysregulation of gene expression has been implicated in many diseases, including cancer, genetic disorders, and neurological conditions.

Sequence homology in nucleic acids refers to the similarity or identity between the nucleotide sequences of two or more DNA or RNA molecules. It is often used as a measure of biological relationship between genes, organisms, or populations. High sequence homology suggests a recent common ancestry or functional constraint, while low sequence homology may indicate a more distant relationship or different functions.

Nucleic acid sequence homology can be determined by various methods such as pairwise alignment, multiple sequence alignment, and statistical analysis. The degree of homology is typically expressed as a percentage of identical or similar nucleotides in a given window of comparison.

It's important to note that the interpretation of sequence homology depends on the biological context and the evolutionary distance between the sequences compared. Therefore, functional and experimental validation is often necessary to confirm the significance of sequence homology.

Substrate specificity in the context of medical biochemistry and enzymology refers to the ability of an enzyme to selectively bind and catalyze a chemical reaction with a particular substrate (or a group of similar substrates) while discriminating against other molecules that are not substrates. This specificity arises from the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme, which has evolved to match the shape, charge distribution, and functional groups of its physiological substrate(s).

Substrate specificity is a fundamental property of enzymes that enables them to carry out highly selective chemical transformations in the complex cellular environment. The active site of an enzyme, where the catalysis takes place, has a unique conformation that complements the shape and charge distribution of its substrate(s). This ensures efficient recognition, binding, and conversion of the substrate into the desired product while minimizing unwanted side reactions with other molecules.

Substrate specificity can be categorized as:

1. Absolute specificity: An enzyme that can only act on a single substrate or a very narrow group of structurally related substrates, showing no activity towards any other molecule.
2. Group specificity: An enzyme that prefers to act on a particular functional group or class of compounds but can still accommodate minor structural variations within the substrate.
3. Broad or promiscuous specificity: An enzyme that can act on a wide range of structurally diverse substrates, albeit with varying catalytic efficiencies.

Understanding substrate specificity is crucial for elucidating enzymatic mechanisms, designing drugs that target specific enzymes or pathways, and developing biotechnological applications that rely on the controlled manipulation of enzyme activities.

Recombinant proteins are artificially created proteins produced through the use of recombinant DNA technology. This process involves combining DNA molecules from different sources to create a new set of genes that encode for a specific protein. The resulting recombinant protein can then be expressed, purified, and used for various applications in research, medicine, and industry.

Recombinant proteins are widely used in biomedical research to study protein function, structure, and interactions. They are also used in the development of diagnostic tests, vaccines, and therapeutic drugs. For example, recombinant insulin is a common treatment for diabetes, while recombinant human growth hormone is used to treat growth disorders.

The production of recombinant proteins typically involves the use of host cells, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells, which are engineered to express the desired protein. The host cells are transformed with a plasmid vector containing the gene of interest, along with regulatory elements that control its expression. Once the host cells are cultured and the protein is expressed, it can be purified using various chromatography techniques.

Overall, recombinant proteins have revolutionized many areas of biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study and manipulate proteins in ways that were previously impossible.

I'm happy to help! Here are the definitions for each of those terms:

1. RNA (Ribonucleic Acid): RNA is a nucleic acid that plays a crucial role in the process of gene expression. It carries genetic information from DNA to the ribosomes, where proteins are synthesized. RNA is made up of a long chain of nucleotides, just like DNA, but with some key differences in its structure and composition.
2. Transfer: In the context of biochemistry, "transfer" refers to the movement or transport of molecules from one location to another within a cell or between cells. This process is often facilitated by specific proteins or other molecular carriers.
3. Lys (Lysine): Lysine is an essential amino acid that cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained through diet. It plays important roles in various biological processes, including protein synthesis, enzyme function, hormone production, and energy metabolism. In molecular biology, lysine is often used as a marker for certain types of modifications to proteins or nucleic acids.

Therefore, "RNA, Transfer, Lys" could refer to the transfer RNA (tRNA) molecule that carries a specific amino acid, such as lysine, to the ribosome during protein synthesis. The tRNA molecule recognizes a specific codon on the messenger RNA (mRNA) and brings the corresponding amino acid to the growing polypeptide chain, allowing for the translation of genetic information into a functional protein.

Temperature, in a medical context, is a measure of the degree of hotness or coldness of a body or environment. It is usually measured using a thermometer and reported in degrees Celsius (°C), degrees Fahrenheit (°F), or kelvin (K). In the human body, normal core temperature ranges from about 36.5-37.5°C (97.7-99.5°F) when measured rectally, and can vary slightly depending on factors such as time of day, physical activity, and menstrual cycle. Elevated body temperature is a common sign of infection or inflammation, while abnormally low body temperature can indicate hypothermia or other medical conditions.

Nuclear proteins are a category of proteins that are primarily found in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell. They play crucial roles in various nuclear functions, such as DNA replication, transcription, repair, and RNA processing. This group includes structural proteins like lamins, which form the nuclear lamina, and regulatory proteins, such as histones and transcription factors, that are involved in gene expression. Nuclear localization signals (NLS) often help target these proteins to the nucleus by interacting with importin proteins during active transport across the nuclear membrane.

Complementary DNA (cDNA) is a type of DNA that is synthesized from a single-stranded RNA molecule through the process of reverse transcription. In this process, the enzyme reverse transcriptase uses an RNA molecule as a template to synthesize a complementary DNA strand. The resulting cDNA is therefore complementary to the original RNA molecule and is a copy of its coding sequence, but it does not contain non-coding regions such as introns that are present in genomic DNA.

Complementary DNA is often used in molecular biology research to study gene expression, protein function, and other genetic phenomena. For example, cDNA can be used to create cDNA libraries, which are collections of cloned cDNA fragments that represent the expressed genes in a particular cell type or tissue. These libraries can then be screened for specific genes or gene products of interest. Additionally, cDNA can be used to produce recombinant proteins in heterologous expression systems, allowing researchers to study the structure and function of proteins that may be difficult to express or purify from their native sources.

Untranslated regions (UTRs) are sections of an mRNA molecule that do not contain information for protein synthesis. There are two types of UTRs: 5' UTR, which is located at the 5' end of the mRNA molecule, and 3' UTR, which is located at the 3' end.

The 5' UTR typically contains regulatory elements that control the translation of the mRNA into protein. These elements can affect the efficiency and timing of translation, as well as the stability of the mRNA molecule. The 5' UTR may also contain upstream open reading frames (uORFs), which are short sequences that can be translated into small peptides and potentially regulate the translation of the main coding sequence.

The length and sequence composition of the 5' UTR can have significant impacts on gene expression, and variations in these regions have been associated with various diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders. Therefore, understanding the structure and function of 5' UTRs is an important area of research in molecular biology and genetics.

A gene is a specific sequence of nucleotides in DNA that carries genetic information. Genes are the fundamental units of heredity and are responsible for the development and function of all living organisms. They code for proteins or RNA molecules, which carry out various functions within cells and are essential for the structure, function, and regulation of the body's tissues and organs.

Each gene has a specific location on a chromosome, and each person inherits two copies of every gene, one from each parent. Variations in the sequence of nucleotides in a gene can lead to differences in traits between individuals, including physical characteristics, susceptibility to disease, and responses to environmental factors.

Medical genetics is the study of genes and their role in health and disease. It involves understanding how genes contribute to the development and progression of various medical conditions, as well as identifying genetic risk factors and developing strategies for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment.

A conserved sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to a pattern of nucleotides (in DNA or RNA) or amino acids (in proteins) that has remained relatively unchanged over evolutionary time. These sequences are often functionally important and are highly conserved across different species, indicating strong selection pressure against changes in these regions.

In the case of protein-coding genes, the corresponding amino acid sequence is deduced from the DNA sequence through the genetic code. Conserved sequences in proteins may indicate structurally or functionally important regions, such as active sites or binding sites, that are critical for the protein's activity. Similarly, conserved non-coding sequences in DNA may represent regulatory elements that control gene expression.

Identifying conserved sequences can be useful for inferring evolutionary relationships between species and for predicting the function of unknown genes or proteins.

Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins are the proteins that are produced by the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This organism is a single-celled eukaryote that has been widely used as a model organism in scientific research for many years due to its relatively simple genetic makeup and its similarity to higher eukaryotic cells.

The genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been fully sequenced, and it is estimated to contain approximately 6,000 genes that encode proteins. These proteins play a wide variety of roles in the cell, including catalyzing metabolic reactions, regulating gene expression, maintaining the structure of the cell, and responding to environmental stimuli.

Many Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins have human homologs and are involved in similar biological processes, making this organism a valuable tool for studying human disease. For example, many of the proteins involved in DNA replication, repair, and recombination in yeast have human counterparts that are associated with cancer and other diseases. By studying these proteins in yeast, researchers can gain insights into their function and regulation in humans, which may lead to new treatments for disease.

Viral genes refer to the genetic material present in viruses that contains the information necessary for their replication and the production of viral proteins. In DNA viruses, the genetic material is composed of double-stranded or single-stranded DNA, while in RNA viruses, it is composed of single-stranded or double-stranded RNA.

Viral genes can be classified into three categories: early, late, and structural. Early genes encode proteins involved in the replication of the viral genome, modulation of host cell processes, and regulation of viral gene expression. Late genes encode structural proteins that make up the viral capsid or envelope. Some viruses also have structural genes that are expressed throughout their replication cycle.

Understanding the genetic makeup of viruses is crucial for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines. By targeting specific viral genes, researchers can develop drugs that inhibit viral replication and reduce the severity of viral infections. Additionally, knowledge of viral gene sequences can inform the development of vaccines that stimulate an immune response to specific viral proteins.

Mutagenesis is the process by which the genetic material (DNA or RNA) of an organism is changed in a way that can alter its phenotype, or observable traits. These changes, known as mutations, can be caused by various factors such as chemicals, radiation, or viruses. Some mutations may have no effect on the organism, while others can cause harm, including diseases and cancer. Mutagenesis is a crucial area of study in genetics and molecular biology, with implications for understanding evolution, genetic disorders, and the development of new medical treatments.

3' Untranslated Regions (3' UTRs) are segments of messenger RNA (mRNA) that do not code for proteins. They are located after the last exon, which contains the coding sequence for a protein, and before the poly-A tail in eukaryotic mRNAs.

The 3' UTR plays several important roles in regulating gene expression, including:

1. Stability of mRNA: The 3' UTR contains sequences that can bind to proteins that either stabilize or destabilize the mRNA, thereby controlling its half-life and abundance.
2. Localization of mRNA: Some 3' UTRs contain sequences that direct the localization of the mRNA to specific cellular compartments, such as the synapse in neurons.
3. Translation efficiency: The 3' UTR can also contain regulatory elements that affect the translation efficiency of the mRNA into protein. For example, microRNAs (miRNAs) can bind to complementary sequences in the 3' UTR and inhibit translation or promote degradation of the mRNA.
4. Alternative polyadenylation: The 3' UTR can also contain multiple alternative polyadenylation sites, which can lead to different lengths of the 3' UTR and affect gene expression.

Overall, the 3' UTR plays a critical role in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression, and mutations or variations in the 3' UTR can contribute to human diseases.

Transfer RNA (tRNA) that specifically carries the amino acid tyrosine (Tyr) during protein synthesis. In genetic code, Tyr is coded by the codons UAC and UAU. The corresponding anticodon on the tRNA molecule is AUA, which pairs with the mRNA codons to bring tyrosine to the ribosome for incorporation into the growing polypeptide chain.

Electrophoresis, polyacrylamide gel (EPG) is a laboratory technique used to separate and analyze complex mixtures of proteins or nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) based on their size and electrical charge. This technique utilizes a matrix made of cross-linked polyacrylamide, a type of gel, which provides a stable and uniform environment for the separation of molecules.

In this process:

1. The polyacrylamide gel is prepared by mixing acrylamide monomers with a cross-linking agent (bis-acrylamide) and a catalyst (ammonium persulfate) in the presence of a buffer solution.
2. The gel is then poured into a mold and allowed to polymerize, forming a solid matrix with uniform pore sizes that depend on the concentration of acrylamide used. Higher concentrations result in smaller pores, providing better resolution for separating smaller molecules.
3. Once the gel has set, it is placed in an electrophoresis apparatus containing a buffer solution. Samples containing the mixture of proteins or nucleic acids are loaded into wells on the top of the gel.
4. An electric field is applied across the gel, causing the negatively charged molecules to migrate towards the positive electrode (anode) while positively charged molecules move toward the negative electrode (cathode). The rate of migration depends on the size, charge, and shape of the molecules.
5. Smaller molecules move faster through the gel matrix and will migrate farther from the origin compared to larger molecules, resulting in separation based on size. Proteins and nucleic acids can be selectively stained after electrophoresis to visualize the separated bands.

EPG is widely used in various research fields, including molecular biology, genetics, proteomics, and forensic science, for applications such as protein characterization, DNA fragment analysis, cloning, mutation detection, and quality control of nucleic acid or protein samples.

Cytoplasm is the material within a eukaryotic cell (a cell with a true nucleus) that lies between the nuclear membrane and the cell membrane. It is composed of an aqueous solution called cytosol, in which various organelles such as mitochondria, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, and vacuoles are suspended. Cytoplasm also contains a variety of dissolved nutrients, metabolites, ions, and enzymes that are involved in various cellular processes such as metabolism, signaling, and transport. It is where most of the cell's metabolic activities take place, and it plays a crucial role in maintaining the structure and function of the cell.

Genetic models are theoretical frameworks used in genetics to describe and explain the inheritance patterns and genetic architecture of traits, diseases, or phenomena. These models are based on mathematical equations and statistical methods that incorporate information about gene frequencies, modes of inheritance, and the effects of environmental factors. They can be used to predict the probability of certain genetic outcomes, to understand the genetic basis of complex traits, and to inform medical management and treatment decisions.

There are several types of genetic models, including:

1. Mendelian models: These models describe the inheritance patterns of simple genetic traits that follow Mendel's laws of segregation and independent assortment. Examples include autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, and X-linked inheritance.
2. Complex trait models: These models describe the inheritance patterns of complex traits that are influenced by multiple genes and environmental factors. Examples include heart disease, diabetes, and cancer.
3. Population genetics models: These models describe the distribution and frequency of genetic variants within populations over time. They can be used to study evolutionary processes, such as natural selection and genetic drift.
4. Quantitative genetics models: These models describe the relationship between genetic variation and phenotypic variation in continuous traits, such as height or IQ. They can be used to estimate heritability and to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that contribute to trait variation.
5. Statistical genetics models: These models use statistical methods to analyze genetic data and infer the presence of genetic associations or linkage. They can be used to identify genetic risk factors for diseases or traits.

Overall, genetic models are essential tools in genetics research and medical genetics, as they allow researchers to make predictions about genetic outcomes, test hypotheses about the genetic basis of traits and diseases, and develop strategies for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment.

HIV-1 (Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1) is a species of the retrovirus genus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). It is primarily transmitted through sexual contact, exposure to infected blood or blood products, and from mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding. HIV-1 infects vital cells in the human immune system, such as CD4+ T cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells, leading to a decline in their numbers and weakening of the immune response over time. This results in the individual becoming susceptible to various opportunistic infections and cancers that ultimately cause death if left untreated. HIV-1 is the most prevalent form of HIV worldwide and has been identified as the causative agent of the global AIDS pandemic.

... (dsRNA viruses) are a polyphyletic group of viruses that have double-stranded genomes made of ... The double-stranded genome is used as a template by the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) to transcribe a positive- ... The positive-strand RNA can also be replicated by the RdRp to create a new double-stranded viral genome. A distinguishing ... Viruses portal Animal virology List of viruses RNA virus TLR3 Virology Virus classification "Double-stranded RNA virus ...
... single-stranded RNA (−ssRNA) viruses. They have genomes made of RNA, which are single instead of double-stranded. Their genomes ... They are descended from a common ancestor that was a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus, and they are considered to be a sister ... Negative-strand RNA viruses (−ssRNA viruses) are a group of related viruses that have negative-sense, single-stranded genomes ... Kolakofsky D (April 2015). "A short biased history of RNA viruses". RNA. 21 (4): 667-669. doi:10.1261/rna.049916.115. PMC ...
... whose members are double-stranded RNA viruses that are descended from +ssRNA viruses. Double-stranded RNA virus Negative-strand ... All positive-strand RNA virus genomes encode RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, a viral protein that synthesizes RNA from an RNA ... The replication of the positive-sense RNA genome proceeds through double-stranded RNA intermediates, and the purpose of ... Positive-strand RNA viruses encode an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) which is used during replication of the genome to ...
Double-stranded RNA genome: Reoviridae. The Hepatitis D virus has not yet been assigned to a family, but is clearly distinct ... Partly double-stranded DNA viruses: Hepadnaviridae. These viruses are enveloped. One family of single-stranded DNA viruses ... Positive single-stranded RNA families: three non-enveloped (Astroviridae, Caliciviridae and Picornaviridae) and four enveloped ... Negative single-stranded RNA families: Arenaviridae, Bunyaviridae, Filoviridae, Orthomyxoviridae, ...
Its ligand is retroviral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), which activates the TRIF dependent signalling pathway. To explore the ... double-stranded RNA of viruses; or the unmethylated CpG islands of bacterial and viral DNA; and also of the CpG islands found ... TLR7 messenger RNA expression levels in dairy animals in a natural outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease have been reported. TLR4 ... in the promoters of eukaryotic DNA; as well as certain other RNA and DNA molecules. As TLR ligands are present in most ...
... double-stranded RNA viruses; (IV) positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses; (V) negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses; ( ... double-stranded DNA viruses that replicate through a single-stranded RNA intermediate. The greatest share of bat-associated ... double-stranded DNA viruses; (II) single-stranded DNA viruses; (III) ... VI) positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses that replicate through a DNA intermediate; and (VII) ...
It is an immunomodulatory double-stranded RNA drug similar to the prototypical RNA poly I:C, first synthesized in the 1970s and ... "Mismatched Double-Stranded RNA: Ampligen, Oragen, Polyi:Polyc12u." Drugs in R&D. February 1, 2002. Retrieved on February 26, ... Rintatolimod development evolved from a 1960s synthesis by Merck & Co., a double-stranded RNA compound of inosinic and ... "Mismatched double-stranded RNA: polyI:polyC12U". Drugs in R&D. 5 (5): 297-304. doi:10.2165/00126839-200405050-00006. PMC ...
... has 2 segments of double-stranded RNA, segment A and segment B. Segment A is 3097 base ... Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) is a double-stranded RNA virus from the family Birnaviridae, in the genus ... Lvov DK, Shchelkanov MY, Alkhovsky SV, Deryabin PG (January 2015). "Chapter 7 - Double-Stranded RNA Viruses". In Lvov DK, ... Infectious pancreatic necrosis disease virus (IPNV) is a bi-segmented, double-stranded RNA virus belonging to the ...
A double-stranded RNA-binding protein and substrate for the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase, PKR". Biochemistry. ... A double-stranded RNA-binding protein and substrate for the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase, PKR". Biochemistry. ... C5orf36 Small NF90/ILF3-associated RNAs (snaR) (~120 nucleotides long) and are known to interact with ILF3 double-stranded RNA- ... Patel RC, Vestal DJ, Xu Z, Bandyopadhyay S, Guo W, Erme SM, Williams BR, Sen GC (July 1999). "DRBP76, a double-stranded RNA- ...
... a double-stranded RNA binding protein. (DGCR8 is the name used in mammalian genetics, abbreviated from "DiGeorge syndrome ... DGCR8 recognizes the junctions between hairpin structures and single-stranded RNA and serves to orient Drosha to cleave around ... Michlewski G, Cáceres JF (January 2019). "Post-transcriptional control of miRNA biogenesis". RNA. 25 (1): 1-16. doi:10.1261/rna ... RNA. 22 (2): 175-83. doi:10.1261/rna.054684.115. PMC 4712668. PMID 26683315. Nguyen TA, Jo MH, Choi YG, Park J, Kwon SC, Hohng ...
... double-stranded RNA virus. The genome is segmented. Circoviruses are small single-stranded DNA viruses. There are two genera: ... It is a non-enveloped, positive strand, RNA virus. FMDV is a highly contagious virus. It enters the body through inhalation. ... African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a large double-stranded DNA virus which replicates in the cytoplasm of infected cells and ... Rhabdoviruses are a diverse family of single stranded, negative sense RNA viruses that infect a wide range of hosts, from ...
Replication follows the double-stranded RNA virus replication model. Double-stranded RNA virus transcription is the method of ... Genomes are linear double-stranded RNA which is around 12.5 kbp in length. The genome codes for four proteins. The genome has ... Alphachrysovirus is a genus of double-stranded RNA viruses. It is one of two genera in the family Chrysoviridae. They infect ... three double stranded RNA segments. All have extended highly conserved terminal sequences at both ends. Viral replication is ...
Most fungal viruses belong to double-stranded RNA viruses, but about 30% belong to positive-strand RNA virus. However, negative ... single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) genomes. However, negative single-stranded RNA viruses and single-stranded DNA viruses have also ... Many double-stranded RNA elements that have been described in fungi do not fit this description, and in these cases they are ... Vilches S, Castillo A (October 1997). "A double-stranded RNA mycovirus in Botrytis cinerea". FEMS Microbiology Letters. 155 (1 ...
"Ribonuclease III mechanisms of double-stranded RNA cleavage". Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: RNA. 5 (1): 31-48. doi:10.1002/ ... Inada, T.; Nakamura, Y. (1995). "Lethal double-stranded RNA processing activity of ribonuclease III in the absence of SuhB ... They process precursors to ribosomal RNA (rRNA), small nuclear RNA (snRNA) and small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA). The basic dsRNA ... They are ubiquitous compounds in the cell and play a major role in pathways such as RNA precursor synthesis, RNA Silencing, and ...
... where small interfering RNAs are produced from double-stranded RNA in order to create a sequence specific degradation pathway ... Hammond, Scott M.; Caudy, Amy A.; Hannon, Gregory J. (Feb 2001). "Post-transcriptional gene silencing by double-stranded RNA". ... The bacteria create a mechanism that burrows a hole and transfers the new T-DNA strand into the plant cell. The T-DNA moves ... Although it is not clear exactly how p19 works to suppress RNA silencing, studies have shown that transiently expressed ...
DOUBLE-STRANDED-RNA VIRUS IN COLLETOTRICHUM-LINDEMUTHIANUM. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 65, no. oct, ( ... uniformly sized particles that he identified as double-stranded RNA viruses in the extract of the α5 race of fungus. The α5 ...
XRV has the same morphology and high sequence identity as Nelson Bay virus (NBV), and a 10-segmented double-stranded RNA genome ... Reoviruses are non-enveloped, double-stranded RNA viruses. They have an icosahedral capsid (T-13) composed of an outer and ... Patton JT (editor). (2008). Segmented Double-stranded RNA Viruses: Structure and Molecular Biology. ISBN 978-1-904455-21-9. {{ ... Bat-borne virus Double-stranded RNA viruses Nelson Bay virus Oncolytic virus Orphan virus Du, L; Lu, Z; Fan, Y; Meng, K; Jiang ...
Replication follows the double-stranded RNA virus replication model. Double-stranded RNA virus transcription is the method of ... The genome is made of double-stranded RNA. It is linear and has twelve segments. Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into ... Cardoreovirus is a genus of double-stranded RNA viruses in the family Reoviridae and subfamily Sedoreovirinae. Crabs serve as ...
... of RNA. Lastly, the double stranded miRNAs/siRNAs separate into single strands; the antisense RNA strand of the two will ... a double stranded RNA, which, like DNA, is a double stranded series of nucleotides. If the mechanism didn't use dsRNAs, but ... RNA silencing may also be defined as sequence-specific regulation of gene expression triggered by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). ... demonstrating that double-stranded RNA could act as a trigger for gene silencing. Since then, various other classes of RNA ...
Its genome is composed of segmented double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), thus it is classified as a group III virus according to the ... protein λ3 serves as the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, full strands of positive sense single stranded RNA (mRNA) are ... positive sense RNAs serve as the template strand to make negative sense RNA. The positive and negative strands will base-pair ... Double-stranded RNA viruses Avian reovirus "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. "Virus Taxonomy: 2020 Release". ...
The overall structure of RNA and DNA are immensely similar-one strand of DNA and one of RNA can bind to form a double helical ... a strand of RNA that would make creating more strands of RNA easier). Relatively short RNA molecules with such abilities have ... Although RNA is fragile, some ancient RNAs may have evolved the ability to methylate other RNAs to protect them. If the RNA ... This forces an RNA double helix to change from a B-DNA structure to one more closely resembling A-DNA. RNA also uses a ...
Replication follows the double-stranded RNA virus replication model. Double-stranded RNA virus transcription is the method of ... The genome is composed of a monopartite, linear double-stranded RNA molecule of 4.6-6.7 kilobases. It contains two overlapping ... Totiviridae is a family of double-stranded RNA viruses. Giardia lamblia, leishmania, trichomonas vaginalis, and fungi serve as ... Viruses in the family Totiviridae are non-enveloped, double-stranded RNA viruses with icosahedral geometries, and T=2 symmetry ...
Replication follows the double-stranded RNA virus replication model. Double-stranded RNA virus transcription is the method of ... Oryzavirus is a genus of double-stranded RNA viruses in the family Reoviridae and subfamily Spinareovirinae. Member viruses ...
... is a family of double-stranded RNA viruses. Members of the family are called chrysoviruses. The capsid is about ...
Replication follows the double-stranded RNA virus replication model. Double-stranded RNA virus transcription is the method of ...
Double-stranded RNA viruses Oncolytic virus Orphan virus "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. Guglielmi, KM; Johnson, ... 2008). Segmented Double-stranded RNA Viruses: Structure and Molecular Biology. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-21-9. ... Sedoreoviridae (formerly Reoviridae) is a family of double-stranded RNA viruses. Member viruses have a wide host range, ... double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). Because of this, replication occurs exclusively in the cytoplasm, and the virus encodes several ...
Replication follows the double-stranded RNA virus replication model. Double-stranded rna virus transcription is the method of ...
Replication follows the double-stranded RNA virus replication model. Double-stranded RNA virus transcription is the method of ... victorivirus 1 Chalara elegans RNA Virus 1 Coniothyrium minitans RNA virus Epichloe festucae virus 1 Gremmeniella abietina RNA ... Translation takes place by RNA termination-reinitiation. The virus exits the host cell by cell to cell movement. Filamentous ... virus 1 Magnaporthe oryzae virus 2 Rosellinia necatrix victorivirus 1 Sphaeropsis sapinea RNA virus 1 Sphaeropsis sapinea RNA ...
... es have twelve segments of linear, double-stranded RNA. When the genome is processed with gel electrophoresis, the ... DNA viruses have genomes consisting of deoxyribonucleic acid (or DNA), while RNA viruses, like Coltivirus, have an RNA ( ... Reassortment of the RNA segments in progeny is common, and this plays a role in some of the genetic diversity between the ... When the virus replicates, the virion outer shell has to be removed in order for RNA polymerase to be activated to continue the ...
Liu, W; Chen, J (2009). "A double-stranded RNA as the genome of a potential virus infecting Vicia faba". Virus Genes. 39 (1): ... Amalgaviridae is a family of double-stranded RNA viruses. Member viruses infect plants and are transmitted vertically via seeds ... Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Articles with 'species' microformats, Double-stranded RNA ... been suggested that amalgaviruses have evolved via recombination between viruses with double-stranded and negative-strand RNA ...
Double-stranded RNA viruses (dsRNA viruses) are a polyphyletic group of viruses that have double-stranded genomes made of ... The double-stranded genome is used as a template by the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) to transcribe a positive- ... The positive-strand RNA can also be replicated by the RdRp to create a new double-stranded viral genome. A distinguishing ... Viruses portal Animal virology List of viruses RNA virus TLR3 Virology Virus classification "Double-stranded RNA virus ...
Double-stranded RNA viruses need to carry an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) inside their virion to the host in order to be ... Double-stranded RNA viruses need to carry an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) inside their virion to the host in order to be ... Double-stranded RNA viruses need to carry an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) inside their virion to the host in order to be ... Double-stranded RNA viruses need to carry an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) inside their virion to the host in order to be ...
The Double-Stranded RNA-Binding Protein Staufen Is Incorporated in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1: Evidence for a Role in ... Long Double-Stranded RNA Induces an Antiviral Response Independent of IFN Regulatory Factor 3, IFN-β Promoter Stimulator 1, and ... Class A Scavenger Receptor-Mediated Double-Stranded RNA Internalization Is Independent of Innate Antiviral Signaling and Does ... Discovery and Use of Long dsRNA Mediated RNA Interference to Stimulate Antiviral Protection in Interferon Competent Mammalian ...
title = "Non-target effects of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-derived double-stranded RNA (dsRNA-GFP) used in honey bee RNA ... T1 - Non-target effects of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-derived double-stranded RNA (dsRNA-GFP) used in honey bee RNA ... Non-target effects of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-derived double-stranded RNA (dsRNA-GFP) used in honey bee RNA ... Non-target effects of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-derived double-stranded RNA (dsRNA-GFP) used in honey bee RNA ...
Acikgoez S, Doeken MT, Degirmenci NF, Coutts RHA, Kozlakidis Z. A modified procedure for isolating double-stranded RNA: ... A modified procedure for isolating double-stranded RNA: Application to diagnosis of Amasya cherry disease. In: Journal of ... N2 - A novel method of isolating double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) from cherry leaves affected with Amasya cherry disease (ACD) using ... AB - A novel method of isolating double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) from cherry leaves affected with Amasya cherry disease (ACD) using ...
Green, S. R., Mathews, M. B. (December 1992) Two RNA-binding motifs in the double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase, DAI. ... Two RNA-binding motifs in the double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase, DAI ... Mutations that impair binding have similar effects on the binding of double-stranded RNAs of various lengths and of adenovirus ... The protein kinase DAI, the double-stranded RNA-activated inhibitor of translation, is an essential component of the interferon ...
enables double-stranded RNA binding IDA Inferred from Direct Assay. more info ... Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues. *Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals ... Model RNAs and proteins are also reported here.. Reference GRCh38.p14 Primary Assembly. Genomic * NC_000006.12 Reference GRCh38 ...
RNA interference (RNAi) induced by exogenous double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) has promise as a sustainable approach for managing ... Exogenous double-stranded RNA inhibits the infection physiology of rust fungi to reduce symptoms in planta ... Exogenous double-stranded RNA inhibits the infection physiology of rust fungi to reduce symptoms in planta. Molecular Plant ...
In: Double Stranded RNA Viruses. R.W. Compans and D.H.L. Bishop, editors. Elsevier, NY. 1983. p. 165.. 15. JENNINGS, M. and ... SANGER, D.V. and MERTENS, P.P.C. In: Double Stranded RNA Viruses. R.W. Compans and D.H.L. Bishop, editors. Elsevier, N.Y. 1983 ... HUISMANS, H. and BASSON, H.M. In: Double Stranded RNA Viruses. R.W. Compans and D.H.L. Bishop, editors. Elsevier, NY. 1983. p. ...
Double-stranded RNA. Reoviruses. Nelson Bay, Colorado tick fever*. Double-stranded DNA. ... Single-stranded RNA (ambisense). Arenaviruses. Guanarito, Junin, Lassa, Lujo, Machupo, Sabia, Dandenong,* lymphocytic ... Assessing the Epidemic Potential of RNA and DNA Viruses Mark E.J. Woolhouse. , Liam Brierley, Chris McCaffery, and Sam Lycett ... Assessing the Epidemic Potential of RNA and DNA Viruses. ... Single-stranded RNA (positive sense). Flaviviruses. Japanese ...
RNA double strand hybridization measured at the single molecule level. RNA double strand hybridization measured at the single ... RNA double strand hybridization is a hallmark for gene expression regulation. In this function, single stranded regulatory RNA ... In the presented work the dissociation constants of complementary equally sized RNA single strands were measured at the single ... The translational diffusion coefficients of RNA, measured at infinite dilution, could be accurately predicted applying the ...
Zinc-finger double domain. ENSSSCP00000004470. PF12171. 3.7e-11. zf-C2H2_jaz. Zinc-finger double-stranded RNA-binding. ...
Rotavirus is a double-stranded RNA virus of the family Reoviridae. The virus is composed of three concentric shells that ... based assays for stool samples that include the ability to detect rotavirus RNA are being increasingly used in clinical ... and children can have rotavirus RNA detected in serum. ... Reovirus (RNA). *VP7 and VP4 proteins define virus serotype and ...
... and form double-stranded RNA-like structures. The genes encoding EBER1 and EBER2 are separated by 161 nucleotides and ... EBV is a linear, double-stranded DNA virus and a member of herpesviridae family. EBV was described more than 50 years ago in ... Alongside cellular RNAs, these exosomes also contain viral RNAs, miRNAs, and proteins. Following the release of these EBV- ... 2018). Crosstalk between prognostic long noncoding RNAs and messenger RNAs as transcriptional hallmarks in gastric cancer. ...
RNA is very similar to DNA, though there are a few differences. While DNA has two strands (a double helix!), RNA only has one ... Once Cas9 (orange) gets to where it is supposed to go in the DNA, it makes a double-stranded cut. Then the cell stitches the ... CRISPR-Cas9 uses RNA like a homing guide. Basically a scientist makes a piece of RNA (or gets the cell to do it for them) that ... Scientific explanation of what happens in a cell after Cas9 makes a double-stranded cut. (Image: Wikimedia). ...
The agent is a double-stranded RNA virus of the genus Coltivirus in the family Reoviridae, the entire genome of which has been ... CHAPTER 5 - Viruses That Contain Double-Stranded RNA: Family Reoviridae. Viruses and Human Disease. Second. Academic Press; ... A different RNA virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family causes this tick-borne encephalitis and is transmitted by the ticks ...
RNAi is activated by introducing double-stranded RNA homologous to the target gene transcript. The exogenous RNA is digested ... RNA interference is a method of eliminating gene expression via post-transcriptional gene silencing. ... into small interfering RNAs (siRNA), which bind a nuclease complex to form an RNA-induced silencing complex. This complex ...
Endogenous double-stranded RNA as a trigger for inflammation in health and disease Dorrity, Tyler Johnathon 2024 Theses ... ImmunologyNeurosciencesDouble-stranded RNANervous system--DiseasesInflammationBrain--DiseasesNeurons 42. Energy-Efficient ...
Single-molecule conductance of double-stranded RNA oligonucleotides. 02/24/2022. Brain Research ... A rare population of tumor antigen-specific CD4+CD8+ double-positive αβ T lymphocytes uniquely provide CD8-independent TCR ...
HiCap RNA polymerase, which reduces unwanted double-stranded RNA contamination and increases mRNA capping efficiency. ... The Company expects to make its double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) ligase available to customers in 2024. As Codexis market entry ... manufactured strands of RNA.. *The Company plans to focus on a select group of highly differentiated enzymes engineered to ... including small interfering RNA (siRNA). With over 450 RNAi therapies currently in clinical development, including more than 40 ...
The ADAR gene provides instructions for making a protein called RNA-specific adenosine deaminase 1 (ADAR1). Learn about this ... 136 kDa double-stranded RNA-binding protein. *ADAR1. *adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1-A ... RNA), a chemical cousin of DNA. Specifically, it attaches (binds) to RNA and changes an RNA building block (nucleotide) called ... The role of RNA editing by ADAR1 in prevention of innate immune sensing of self-RNA. J Mol Med (Berl). 2016 Oct;94(10):1095- ...
2022). Nano-clay, layered-double hydroxide (LDH), improves the efficacy of double?stranded RNA in controlling postharvest decay ... Postharvest application of double-stranded RNA to controls pathogenic fungi.. Anthocyanin and phenylpropanoids role in fruit. ... 2021). Double-stranded RNA targeting fungal ergosterol biosynthesis pathway controls Botrytis cinerea and postharvest grey ... 2022). Double?stranded RNA targeting fungal ergosterol biosynthesis pathway controls Botrytis cinerea and postharvest grey ...
Modulation of double-stranded RNA pattern recognition receptor signaling in ovarian cancer cells promotes inflammatory queues ...
ADAR1 (adenosine deaminases acting on double-stranded RNA) inhibitor; inhibits leukemia stem cell self-renewal. ...
PubMed:Polymer-Coated Hydroxyapatite Nanocarrier for Double-Stranded RNA Delivery. PubMed:A High Barrier and Sustained Release ... PubMed:Biobased polymer composites derived from corn stover and feather meals as double-coating materials for controlled- ... PubMed:Preparation and properties of a double-coated slow-release and water-retention urea fertilizer. ...
The researchers injected a cocktail of double-stranded RNA into the beetle larvae to shut down the desired insulin pathway gene ...
mRNAs were pooled in equal amounts and reverse-transcribed into double-stranded cDNA by using the SuperScript2 kit (QIAGEN). ... RNA quality was measured using NanoDrop3000 and a bio-analyzer. RNA purification of MN mass culture, along with transfected ... 2010) RNA metabolism and the pathogenesis of motor neuron diseases. Trends Neurosci 33:249-258. doi:10.1016/j.tins.2010.02.003 ... 2017) ALS along the axons: expression of coding and noncoding RNA differs in axons of ALS models. Sci Rep 7:44500. doi:10.1038/ ...
februar 1998). »Potent and specific genetic interference by double-stranded RNA in Caenorhabditis elegans«. Nature. Zv. 391. ... da je ta oblika RNA izredno učinkovita pri RNA-interferenci. Odkritje sta objavila v odmevnem članku v reviji Nature leta 1998. ... Pojav sta pripisala komplementarni RNA, ki preprečuje prevajanje v beljakovine in ga poimenovala RNA-interferenca. Kmalu sta ... let soodkril RNA-interferenco, močno tehniko za preučevanje funkcije genov pri živalih, za kar sta s Craigom Mellom leta 2006 ...
d.50.1.1: Double-stranded RNA-binding domain (dsRBD) [54769] (4 proteins). ...
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous, evolutionarily conserved, small, double-stranded, noncoding RNAs measuring approximately 19- ... RNA isolation was performed on a total of 95 serum samples from the participants. Total RNA was extracted from 200 μL serum ... Reverse transcription was performed with a Takara SYBR PrimeScript miRNA RT-PCR Kit (MIR-x miRNA First-strand synthesis kit; ... RNA Isolation and Reverse Transcription-Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR). ...
  • Double-stranded RNA viruses (dsRNA viruses) are a polyphyletic group of viruses that have double-stranded genomes made of ribonucleic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • The two phyla do not share a common dsRNA virus ancestor, but evolved their double strands two separate times from positive-strand RNA viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Based on phylogenetic analysis of RdRp, the two clades do not share a common dsRNA ancestor but are instead separately descended from different positive-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The class Duplopiviricetes is the second clade of dsRNA viruses and is in the phylum Pisuviricota, which also contains positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • A novel method of isolating double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) from cherry leaves affected with Amasya cherry disease (ACD) using silica capture in combination with non-ionic cellulose was developed. (herts.ac.uk)
  • Unfractionated RNAs prepared using the new procedure and used to isolate dsRNA was cleaner in terms of contamination with proteins and phenolics when compared with preparations isolated with a phenol/chloroform method. (herts.ac.uk)
  • The virus is a double stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus with 11 segments. (bvsalud.org)
  • The double-stranded genome is used as a template by the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) to transcribe a positive-strand RNA functioning as messenger RNA (mRNA) for the host cell's ribosomes, which translate it into viral proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • and RNA polymerase II transcription regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding activity. (nih.gov)
  • Involved in positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II. (nih.gov)
  • By performing polymerase chain reaction and DNA enzyme immunoassay, HCV-RNA was detected with subsequent genotyping. (who.int)
  • The positive-strand RNA can also be replicated by the RdRp to create a new double-stranded viral genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Non-coding RNAs, mainly microRNAs (miRNAs), influence the host innate and adaptive immune responses, though long non-coding RNAs and viral miRNAs also alter these processes. (frontiersin.org)
  • TLR3 acts earlier in the pathway and recognizes double stranded viral RNA, while IRF7 is a transcription factor to initiate IFN production. (cdc.gov)
  • Hemispherx is developing an synthetic double-stranded RNA compound called rintatolimod - brand-named Ampligen - that the company says has potential for treating various viral diseases, including cancer. (technewslit.com)
  • Some viruses have an outer envelope consisting of protein and lipid, surrounding a protein capsid complex with genomic RNA or DNA and sometimes enzymes needed for the first steps of viral replication. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The virion core contains several enzymes needed for transcription and capping of viral RNA. (medscape.com)
  • Double-stranded RNA viruses are classified into two phyla, Duplornaviricota and Pisuviricota (specifically class Duplopiviricetes), in the kingdom Orthornavirae and realm Riboviria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Double-stranded RNA viruses include the rotaviruses, known globally as a common cause of gastroenteritis in young children, and bluetongue virus, an economically significant pathogen of cattle and sheep. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ADAR1 protein is also thought to inhibit the replication and spread of certain viruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C, by modifying their RNA. (medlineplus.gov)
  • RNA viruses that have their genetic material encoded in the form of double-stranded RNA. (bvsalud.org)
  • either DNA or RNA viruses may have single or double strands of genetic material. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Single-strand RNA viruses are further divided into those with (+) sense and (-) sense RNA. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Positive-sense RNA viruses possess a single-stranded RNA genome that can serve as messenger RNA (mRNA) that can be directly translated to produce an amino acid sequence. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Negative-sense RNA viruses possess a single-stranded negative-sense genome that first must synthesize a complementary positive-sense antigenome, which is then used to make genomic negative-sense RNA. (msdmanuals.com)
  • DNA viruses typically replicate in the host cell nucleus, and RNA viruses typically replicate in the cytoplasm. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Certain single-strand, (+) sense RNA viruses termed retroviruses use a very different method of replication. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Because RNA transcription does not involve the same error-checking mechanisms as DNA transcription, RNA viruses, particularly retroviruses, are particularly prone to mutation. (msdmanuals.com)
  • the genome of RNA viruses ranges from 3.5 kilobases (some retroviruses) to 27 kilobases (some reoviruses), and the genome of DNA viruses ranges from 5 kilobases (some parvoviruses) to 280 kilobases (some poxviruses). (msdmanuals.com)
  • This protein is involved in making changes to (editing) ribonucleic acid (RNA), a chemical cousin of DNA. (medlineplus.gov)
  • MicroRNA-34a is a short double strand of ribonucleic acid - a string of ribonucleic acids attached like the teeth of a zipper along the length of a sugar-phosphate chain. (worldpharmanews.com)
  • I am a lover of all things RNA currently interested in studying sub-cellular localization of mRNA molecules. (stanford.edu)
  • Combinatorial optimization of mRNA structure, stability, and translation for RNA-based therapeutics. (stanford.edu)
  • We develop an RNA sequencing-based platform called PERSIST-seq to systematically delineate in-cell mRNA stability, ribosome load, as well as in-solution stability of a library of diverse mRNAs. (stanford.edu)
  • RNA polymerases read the codes from specific areas of the DNA and transcribe the information into a mRNA copy of the DNA. (cdc.gov)
  • In this edition, we turn our spotlight to Anders Wittrup, a distinguished clinical WCMM fellow in the field of RNA therapeutics. (lu.se)
  • Anders explained us his and his groups' general interest into RNA-based cancer therapeutics by overcoming the challenge of delivery. (lu.se)
  • Anders provided examples of RNA therapeutics, including addressing genetic diseases such as amyloidosis by turning off the production of aberrant proteins by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). (lu.se)
  • Challenges in delivering RNA therapeutics to tumors are currently explored extensively and some of the reasons are poor circulation in the tumor and tight endothelial barriers preventing penetration. (lu.se)
  • Especially, if RNA therapeutics need to be delivered to the vast majority of tumor cells, the formulations require good penetration of the tumor tissue. (lu.se)
  • In addition, the ADAR1 protein controls the function of certain chemical messengers called neurotransmitters at particular sites in the body by modifying the RNA blueprint for receptor proteins that interact with the neurotransmitters. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Click on the protein counts, or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing ZnF_C2H2 domain in the selected taxonomic class. (embl.de)
  • Specialized cell structures called ribosomes are the cellular organelles that actually synthesize the proteins (RNA transcription). (cdc.gov)
  • The core is composed of 3 major (ie, lambda-1, lambda-2, sigma-2) and several minor proteins that surround 10 segments of double-stranded RNA. (medscape.com)
  • The aim of this thesis was to develop novel methods to study the process of endosomal escape and cytosolic delivery of RNA. (lu.se)
  • This thesis advances our understanding on the limiting step of endosomal escape and cytosolic entry of RNA during lipid-based delivery. (lu.se)
  • To tackle delivery, Anders mentions that endosomal escape of RNA is crucial. (lu.se)
  • Endosomal escape refers to the difficulty of releasing uptaken RNA molecules from the endosome into the cytosol. (lu.se)
  • RNA double strand hybridization is a hallmark for gene expression regulation . (bvsalud.org)
  • The researchers injected a cocktail of double-stranded RNA into the beetle larvae to shut down the desired insulin pathway gene. (sciencedaily.com)
  • The ADAR gene provides instructions for making a protein called RNA-specific adenosine deaminase 1 (ADAR1). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Knockdown of expression by injection of double stranded RNA for each gene produced varied effects in adults, ranging from the nondetectable (black1, yellow), to moderate decreases (pale, tan) and increases (black2, ebony) in darkness, to extremely dark and pervasive pigmentation (aaNAT). (usda.gov)
  • RNA interference is an evolutionary conserved gene regulatory mechanism that can be used by introducing exogenous synthetic double-stranded RNAs, so called small interfering RNA (siRNA). (lu.se)
  • The agent is a double-stranded RNA virus of the genus Coltivirus in the family Reoviridae, the entire genome of which has been sequenced. (medscape.com)
  • Genome-wide unbiased identification of double-stranded breaks enabled by sequencing (GUIDE-seq) is a sensitive, unbiased, genome-wide method for defining the activity of genome-editing nucleases in living cells. (stanford.edu)
  • Retroviruses use reverse transcription to create a double-stranded DNA copy (a provirus) of their RNA genome, which is inserted into the genome of their host cell. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The genome consists of double-stranded RNA in 10-12 discrete segments, with a total genome size of 16-27 kilobase pair (kbp), depending on the genus. (medscape.com)
  • The genome consists of 10 segments of double-stranded RNA. (medscape.com)
  • The mitochondrial genome is a 16569 base-pair closed circular loop of double-stranded DNA found in multiple copies within the mitochondrial matrix. (medscape.com)
  • In this function, single stranded regulatory RNA forms Watson-Crick base pairs with complementary messenger RNA . (bvsalud.org)
  • Instead, when unmodified parallel-stranded duplexes were mixed with their polypyrimidine target, an interstrand Watson-Crick duplex was formed. (hindawi.com)
  • Typically, triplexes are formed in homopurine-homopyrimidine sequences of duplex DNA by interaction with a single-stranded triplex-forming oligonucleotide, which binds to the major groove of Watson-Crick double-helical DNA, parallel or antiparallel to the homopurine strand, via Hoogsteen or reversed-Hoogsteen hydrogen bonding. (hindawi.com)
  • GUIDE-seq is based on the principle of efficient integration of an end-protected double-stranded oligodeoxynucleotide tag into sites of nuclease-induced DNA double-stranded breaks, followed by amplification of tag-containing genomic DNA molecules and high-throughput sequencing. (stanford.edu)
  • CPV exhibits striking capsid stability and is fully capable of endogenous RNA transcription and processing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specialized in Virology, he isolated an antiviral agent (Double Stranded RNA) with capacity to induce interferon (pH-labile and pH-stable) and modulate immune responses in vertebrates. (actrec.gov.in)
  • In 2017, we obtained 8 double-stranded RNA of the coatomer protein complex ( dsCOPB2 )-transgenic rose plants preventing scattering of the red spider mite Tetranychus urticae . (ishs.org)
  • It's a nanoplexed, double-stranded RNA that activates TLR3 and it also activates other inflammatory genes like RIG-1 and MDA5 . (medscape.com)
  • In particular, advanced high resolution microscopy techniques have been used to in detail characterize and determine the efficacy of lipid mediated delivery of RNA. (lu.se)
  • While the function of this protein in the skin is unknown, researchers suggest that incorrect RNA editing may result in pigment-producing cells (melanocytes) that are more or less active than normal, resulting in the skin spots that occur in this disorder. (medlineplus.gov)
  • BOSTON) - Nanotechnologists are using DNA, the genetic material present in living organisms, as well as its multifunctional cousin RNA, as the raw material in efforts to build miniscule devices that could potentially function as drug delivery vehicles, tiny nanofactories for the production of pharmaceuticals and chemicals, or highly sensitive elements of electric and optical technologies. (harvard.edu)
  • To obtain structural information, we synthesized single and double zinc finger peptides from the yeast transcription activator ADR1, and assessed the metal-binding and DNA-binding properties of these peptides, as well as the solution structure of the metal-stabilized domains, with the use of a variety of spectroscopic techniques. (embl.de)
  • The adenosine-to-inosine editing performed by ADAR1 is thought to change certain areas of the body's own RNA that the immune system might interpret as belonging to a virus that should be attacked. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The role of RNA editing by ADAR1 in prevention of innate immune sensing of self-RNA. (medlineplus.gov)
  • However, a key challenge in translating siRNA into the clinic is the inefficacy to deliver siRNA across the plasma membrane, but most importantly, to escape the endosomal system and reach the cytosol where they can interact with the RNA interference machinery. (lu.se)
  • As predicted by theoretical calculations parallel-stranded duplexes carrying 8-aminopurines did not bind to their target. (hindawi.com)
  • Like genetic DNA (and RNA) in nature, these engineered nanotechnological devices are also made up of strands that are comprised of the four bases known in shorthand as A, C, T, and G. Regions within those strands can spontaneously fold and bind to each other via short complementary base sequences in which As from one sequence specifically bind to Ts from another sequence, and Cs to Gs. (harvard.edu)
  • Earlier generations of larger-sized origami are composed of a central scaffold strand whose folding and stability requires more than two hundred short staple strands that bridge distant parts of the scaffold and fix them in space. (harvard.edu)
  • Another problem of RNA delivery is that such approaches require modifying the RNA for stability to avoid being broken down by RNAses and achieve prolonged therapeutic effects. (lu.se)
  • Besides stability of RNA, however, the delivery efficiency is another limitation. (lu.se)
  • Specifically, it attaches (binds) to RNA and changes an RNA building block (nucleotide) called adenosine to another nucleotide called inosine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In addition, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) encodes 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes necessary for the intramitochondrial synthesis of these 13 polypeptides. (medscape.com)
  • Genes control the functions of DNA and RNA. (topperlearning.com)
  • The proposed mechanism is based on the knowledge that transcription of mtDNA is polycistronic, which means that all genes encoded on the heavy and light strands are transcribed as 2 large precursor RNA strands. (medscape.com)
  • or by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a double-stranded DNA virus which has recently been associated with gastric cancer. (frontiersin.org)
  • Rotavirus is a double-stranded RNA virus of the family Reoviridae. (cdc.gov)
  • A different RNA virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family causes this tick-borne encephalitis and is transmitted by the ticks Ixodes persulcatus and Ixodes ricinus . (medscape.com)
  • Virus ARN que tienen su material genético codificado en forma de ARN bicatenario. (bvsalud.org)
  • The double-shelled particle is the complete infectious form of the virus. (medscape.com)
  • Bluetongue virus (BTV) is a segmented, double-stranded RNA virus transmitted by Culicoides biting midges. (cdc.gov)
  • Effects of Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome mutations predicted from ADAR-RNA structures. (medlineplus.gov)
  • However, the translation of these structures into medical and industrial applications is still challenging, partially because these multi-stranded systems are prone to local defects due to missing stands. (harvard.edu)
  • Now, a novel approach published in Science by a collaborative team of researchers from the Wyss Institute, Arizona State University, and Autodesk for the first time enables the design of complex single-stranded DNA and RNA origami that can autonomously fold into diverse, stable, user-defined structures. (harvard.edu)
  • In contrast to traditional scaffolded origamis, which are assembled from hundreds of components, our new approach allows us to reliably design and synthesize stable single-stranded and self-folding origami," said Wyss Institute Core Faculty member and corresponding author Peng Yin, Ph.D. "Our fundamentally new approach relies on single-strand folding, rather than multi-component assembly, to produce large nanostructures. (harvard.edu)
  • To first enable the production of single-stranded and stable DNA-based origami with distinct folding patterns, the team had to overcome several challenges. (harvard.edu)
  • Anders mentions how fast RNA is generally degraded: "You can modify the RNA so that it is very stable and not broken down by RNAses. (lu.se)
  • As a bonus, the fully modified microRNA-34a is invisible to the immune system, which would ordinarily attack double-stranded RNA introduced to the body. (worldpharmanews.com)
  • Both orthoreoviruses and orbiviruses contain 10 segments of double-stranded RNA. (medscape.com)
  • Anders highlights the general challenge of delivering nucleic acid-based drugs, such as DNA and RNA, due to inefficient escape from endosomes. (lu.se)
  • In contrast to the synthesis of multi-stranded nanostructures, these entirely new types of origami are folded from one single strand, which can be replicated in living cells, allowing their potential low-cost production at large scales and with high purities, opening entirely new opportunities for diverse applications such as drug delivery and nanofabrication. (harvard.edu)
  • A new cancer therapy developed by Purdue University researchers attacks tumors by tricking cancer cells into absorbing a snippet of RNA that naturally blocks cell division. (worldpharmanews.com)
  • The team modeled its modifications on an FDA-approved chemical structure that researchers at the biotechnology company Alnylam used on similar short interfering RNAs. (worldpharmanews.com)
  • To avoid this problem, we identified new design rules that we can use to cross DNA strands between different double-stranded regions and developed a web-based automated design tool that allows researchers to integrate many of these events into a folding path leading up to a large knot-free nanocomplex," said Dongran Han, Ph.D., the study's first author and a Postdoctoral Fellow on Yin's team. (harvard.edu)
  • The researchers found the addition of Ampligen doubled or quadrupled the number of antibodies against at least one of the four FluMist strains in 11 of the 12 trial participants, with 9 of the 12 participants exhibiting an 8-fold increase in at least one of the strains. (technewslit.com)
  • Anders emphasised the lab's focus on fine-tuning methods and developing techniques to visualize and understand the barriers and inefficiencies in the process of RNA delivery, rather than creating treatments directly. (lu.se)
  • RNA double strand hybridization measured at the single molecule level. (bvsalud.org)
  • In the presented work the dissociation constants of complementary equally sized RNA single strands were measured at the single molecule level applying fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). (bvsalud.org)
  • However, an interesting alternative approach will be to use duplexes (parallel or antiparallel clamps) containing the Hoogsteen or reverse Hoogsteen pairs and targeting a single stranded fragment of DNA or RNA [ 20 - 23 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In this animation, a long single-strand of DNA is self-folding into a highly programmable and complex origami nanostructure significantly larger than those created in previous attempts. (harvard.edu)
  • Single-stranded origami technology is based on design rules that can be used to cross DNA strands in and out of single stranded regions to build large nanostructures. (harvard.edu)
  • This, together with the ability to basically clone and multiply the single component strand in bacteria, presents a game-changing advance in DNA nanotechnology that greatly enhances single-stranded origami's potential for real-world applications. (harvard.edu)
  • This schematic shows how a single strand of DNA can be programmed to self-fold into a large nanostructure, like, for example, that of a heart. (harvard.edu)
  • Naturally occurring RNA breaks down rapidly, so to improve the durability of the therapy, the team stabilized microRNA-34a by adding several small clusters of atoms along the length of the strand. (worldpharmanews.com)
  • We then asked how tumors can be specifically targeted and Anders mentioned using RNA conjugated to cholesterol as a method to target rapidly dividing cells in tumors. (lu.se)
  • Thermostable reverse transcriptases are workhorse enzymes underlying nearly all modern techniques for RNA structure mapping and for the transcriptome-wide discovery of RNA chemical modifications. (stanford.edu)
  • An early-stage clinical trial shows an RNA agent being developed by Hemispherx Biopharma in Philadelphia extends the effectiveness of the standard nasal flu vaccine to cover pandemic influenza strains, like those found in Pacific Rim countries. (technewslit.com)
  • In a large DNA strand that goes through a complex folding process, many sequences need to accurately pair up with sequences that are far away from each other. (harvard.edu)
  • These subsequently cleave into separate RNA strands, including transfer RNA strands. (medscape.com)
  • RNA is very similar to DNA, though there are a few differences. (thetech.org)
  • The structure of G,T-parallel-stranded duplexes of DNA carrying similar amounts of adenine and guanine residues is studied by means of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and UV- and CD spectroscopies. (hindawi.com)