Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.
DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.
A plant genus of the family MORACEAE. Members contain PYRROLIDINES.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.
Collections of facts, assumptions, beliefs, and heuristics that are used in combination with databases to achieve desired results, such as a diagnosis, an interpretation, or a solution to a problem (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed).
The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.
Intentional falsification of scientific data by presentation of fraudulent or incomplete or uncorroborated findings as scientific fact.
Inherited conditions characterized by a loss of MYELIN in the central nervous system.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure where it transcribes DNA into RNA. It has specific requirements for cations and salt and has shown an intermediate sensitivity to alpha-amanitin in comparison to RNA polymerase I and II. EC 2.7.7.6.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Catalytically active enzymes that are formed by the combination of an apoenzyme (APOENZYMES) and its appropriate cofactors and prosthetic groups.
A large protein complex which acts as a signaling adaptor protein that allows communication between the various regulatory and functional components of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION including DNA POLYMERASE II; GENERAL TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that are bound to upstream ENHANCER ELEMENTS. The mediator complex was originally studied in YEAST where at least 21 subunits were identified. Many of the yeast subunits are homologs to proteins in higher organisms that are found associated with specific nuclear receptors such as THYROID HORMONE RECEPTORS and VITAMIN D RECEPTORS.
A CYCLIN C dependent kinase that is an important component of the mediator complex. The enzyme is activated by its interaction with CYCLIN C and plays a role in transcriptional regulation by phosphorylating RNA POLYMERASE II.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
The process of finding chemicals for potential therapeutic use.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.

Telomerase reverse transcriptase gene is a direct target of c-Myc but is not functionally equivalent in cellular transformation. (1/2663)

The telomerase reverse transcriptase component (TERT) is not expressed in most primary somatic human cells and tissues, but is upregulated in the majority of immortalized cell lines and tumors. Here, we identify the c-Myc transcription factor as a direct mediator of telomerase activation in primary human fibroblasts through its ability to specifically induce TERT gene expression. Through the use of a hormone inducible form of c-Myc (c-Myc-ER), we demonstrate that Myc-induced activation of the hTERT promoter requires an evolutionarily conserved E-box and that c-Myc-ER-induced accumulation of hTERT mRNA takes place in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. These findings demonstrate that the TERT gene is a direct transcriptional target of c-Myc. Since telomerase activation frequently correlates with immortalization and telomerase functions to stabilize telomers in cycling cells, we tested whether Myc-induced activation of TERT gene expression represents an important mechanism through which c-Myc acts to immortalize cells. Employing the rat embryo fibroblast cooperation assay, we show that TERT is unable to substitute for c-Myc in the transformation of primary rodent fibroblasts, suggesting that the transforming activities of Myc extend beyond its ability to activate TERT gene expression and hence telomerase activity.  (+info)

Evolutionary dynamics of Ty1-copia group retrotransposons in grass shown by reverse transcriptase domain analysis. (2/2663)

The evolutionary dynamics of Ty1-copia group retrotransposons in grass were examined by reverse transcriptase (RT) domain analysis. Twenty-three rice RT sequences were newly determined for this report. Phylogenetic analysis of 177 RT sequences, mostly derived from wheat, rice, and, maize, showed four distinct families, which were designated G1, G2, G3, and G4. Three of these families have elements obtained from distantly related species, indicative of origins prior to the radiation of grass species. Results of Southern hybridization and detailed comparisons between the wheat and rice sequences indicated that each of the families had undergone a distinct pattern of evolution. Multiple families appear to have evolved in parallel in a host species. Analyses of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitutions suggested that there is a low percentage of elements carrying functional RT domains in the G4 family, indicating that the production of new G4 elements has been controlled by a small number of elements carrying functional RT domains.  (+info)

Cellular localization and evolution of prolactin receptor mRNA in ovine endometrium during pregnancy. (3/2663)

In this study, we have investigated the expression of the prolactin receptor gene in ovine endometrium during oestrus cycle and pregnancy. Using reverse transcription-PCR analysis, we provided evidence that the prolactin receptor gene is specifically transcribed in this tissue. As shown by Northern blot analysis, the level of the prolactin receptor transcripts increased dramatically during late pregnancy. In situ hybridization experiments revealed that prolactin receptor mRNA was specifically expressed in the glandular compartment and confirmed the dramatic increase of its expression that occurs at the end of pregnancy. Taken together, these findings are consistent with a putative role of prolactin and/or related molecules in the regulation of the proliferation of the glandular compartment and/or in the control of the secretory activity of the endometrium.  (+info)

Two types of HTLV-1 particles are released from MT-2 cells. (4/2663)

The MT-2 cell line transformed by human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) contains one complete provirus and seven defective proviruses. Four defective genomes have an identical structure (LTR-MA-deltaCA-pX-LTR) with an open reading frame that spans from MA to pX, giving rise to a 3.4-kb (24S) RNA transcript encoding a chimeric Gag-pX protein, p28. MT-2 cells release two distinct types of virions. The major "classic" type of particle has a buoyant density of 1.155-1.16 g/cm3 and contains the standard HTLV-I structural proteins and reverse transcriptase (RT). In addition, about 5% of particles are "light," approximately 1.12 g/cm3, and contain p28, RT activity, and the 3.4-kb RNA transcript. RT-PCR and in vitro translation indicate that some of the classic HTLV-1 particles package 3.4-kb RNA as well as full-length 8.5-kb RNA. In addition to matrix features, the p28 protein has a motif resembling a zinc finger at the C-terminal, pX0 region, which may play a role in the assembly of the defective light virions.  (+info)

Natural selection of the Pol gene of bovine immunodeficiency virus. (5/2663)

Genetic variability is a salient feature of lentiviruses, contributing to the pathogenesis of these viruses by enabling them to persist in the host and to resist anti-retroviral treatment. Bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV), a lentivirus of unknown pathology, infects cattle in the United States and worldwide. Genetic diversity of BIV that is associated with naturally infected cattle is not well studied. We examined the genetic diversity and natural selection of a segment of the BIV pol gene amplified from the leukocyte DNA of naturally infected cattle. A portion of the reverse transcriptase domain (183 bp) of the pol region was targeted for amplification by PCR. PCR products were sequenced directly and aligned. When compared to the sequences of BIV R29-127, a molecular clone of the original BIV R29 isolate, all isolates were greater than 91% identical in nucleotide sequences and 77% identical in amino acid sequences. Pol genotypes were polymorphic at 14% of the nucleotide sites. The ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous nucleotide substitutions (relative to the number of respective sites, Ka/Ks) was 0.16, indicating that this region of the BIV genome, like that of HIV-1, is subject to purifying selection. Based on the McDonald-Kreitman analysis, this region also was under positive Darwinian selection as HIV-1 and BIV diverged from a common progenitor. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that genotypes were geographically distinct, possibly indicating a common source of infection for animals within a herd.  (+info)

Expression of mutated Paramecium telomerase RNAs in vivo leads to templating errors that resemble those made by retroviral reverse transcriptase. (6/2663)

Telomeric DNA consists of short, tandemly repeated sequences at the ends of chromosomes. Telomeric DNA in the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia is synthesized by an error-prone telomerase with an RNA template specific for GGGGTT repeats. We have previously shown that misincorporation of TTP residues at the telomerase RNA templating nucleotide C52 accounts for the 30% GGGTTT repeats randomly distributed in wild-type telomeres. To more completely characterize variable repeat synthesis in P. tetraurelia, telomerase RNA genes mutated at C52 (A, U, and G) were expressed in vivo. De novo telomeric repeats from transformants indicate that the predominant TTP misincorporation error seen in the wild-type telomerase is dependent on the presence of a C residue at template position 52. Paradoxically, the effects of various other telomerase RNA template and alignment region mutations on de novo telomeres include significant changes in fidelity, as well as the synthesis of aberrant, 5-nucleotide telomeric repeats. The occurrence of deletion errors and the altered fidelity of mutated P. tetraurelia telomerase, in conjunction with misincorporation by the wild-type enzyme, suggest that the telomerase RNA template domain may be analogous to homopolymeric mutational hot spots that lead to similar errors by the human immunodeficiency virus proofreading-deficient reverse transcriptase.  (+info)

Functional analysis of mutations conferring lamivudine resistance on hepatitis B virus. (7/2663)

Two patterns of mutation are commonly observed in the polymerase gene of lamivudine [(-)2'-deoxy-3'-thiacytidine]-resistant hepatitis B virus (HBV). The M539I substitution in the conserved YMDD motif occurs independently of other changes, whereas the M539V substitution is associated with an additional upstream change (L515M). These mutations were introduced into a common background and their effects on HBV DNA replication and lamivudine resistance studied. The L515M and M539V mutations provided only partial resistance while the M539I mutation conferred a high degree of lamivudine resistance. The combination of the L515M and M539V mutations gave an intermediate level of replication competence, compared with either mutation alone, and increased resistance to lamivudine. This probably accounts for these two mutations always being observed together. The M539I mutation reduced replication competence.  (+info)

Properties of monoclonal antibodies directed against hepatitis B virus polymerase protein. (8/2663)

Hepadnavirus polymerases are multifunctional enzymes that play critical roles during the viral life cycle but have been difficult to study due to a lack of a well-defined panel of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). We have used recombinant human hepatitis B virus (HBV) polymerase (Pol) expressed in and purified from baculovirus-infected insect cells to generate a panel of six MAbs directed against HBV Pol protein. Such MAbs were subsequently characterized with respect to their isotypes and functions in analytical and preparative assays. Using these MAbs as probes together with various deletion mutants of Pol expressed in insect cells, we mapped the B-cell epitopes of Pol recognized by these MAbs to amino acids (aa) 8 to 20 and 20 to 30 in the terminal protein (TP) region of Pol, to aa 225 to 250 in the spacer region, and to aa 800 to 832 in the RNase H domain. Confocal microscopy and immunocytochemical studies using various Pol-specific MAbs revealed that the protein itself appears to be exclusively localized to the cytoplasm. Finally, MAbs specific for the TP domain, but not MAbs specific for the spacer or RNase H regions of Pol, appeared to inhibit Pol function in the in vitro priming assay, suggesting that antibody-mediated interference with TP may now be assessed in the context of HBV replication.  (+info)

NEB offers several reagents for cDNA synthesis upstream of applications such as qPCR and qRT-PCR, including reverse transcriptase.
After getting into the body, the virus enters into the macrophages and converts its RNA genome into DNA with the help of a reverse transcriptase enzyme. The viral DNA takes and directs the infected cells to produce more virus particles i.e., the infected macrophages act like an HIV factory. Simultaneously, the HIV attack the T- lymphocytes and replicate and produce more viruses. Then they are released into the blood and attack other T-lymphocytes.. This will lead to a decrease in the number of T-lymphocytes and the patient begins to show the symptoms such as fever, diarrhea, weight loss etc. Subsequently, his immune system weakens and becomes more prone to infections of bacteria (like Mycobacterium), viruses, fungi and even parasites like Toxoplasma. Finally, he is unable to protect himself.. Question 12. ...
HIV is a single-stranded retrovirus, and thus it is extremely prone to mutation - a mutation in its only strand of RNA instantly affects the fenotype. Furthermore (if I recall correctly), the reverse transcriptase enzyme does not have proof-reading ability, further increasing the mutation rate. Whilst many mutated viruses naturally become completely inactive, there are always those who manage to slightly alter the antigens used in vaccines and this allows them to avoid the immune system triggered by that antigen. The mutation rate also makes it quite resistant to antiviral drugs, and in order to avoid almost immediate resistance, combination treatment of at least three different drugs must be used (so if a mutant is resistant to one or two drugs, the third is still able to inactivate it). Despite this, eventually, resistant strains emerge ...
An antifungal foot cream called Ciclopirox shows abilities to STOP and ERADICATE HIV. It inhibits the expression of its genes, blocks mitochondrial function and activates the cell suicide pathway. This spares the unaffected healthy cells. HIV couldnt bounce back even after Ciclopirox was removed.It is also perfectly safe for human use.This completely destroys HIV-1. But, there are many other mutants out there. We must somehow use an irreversible inhibitor on the reverse transcriptase enzyme ...
To address the urgent need for better treatment and diagnostic testing of HIV infected people in resource-limited settings, we propose in this Phase II SBIR to...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhibition of the RNase H activity of HIV reverse transcriptase by azidothymidylate. AU - Tan, Cheng Keat. AU - Civil, Rigal. AU - Mohsin Mian, A.. AU - So, Antero G.. AU - Downey, Kathleen M.. PY - 1991/12/1. Y1 - 1991/12/1. N2 - The effects of AZTMP and other nucleoside 5′-monophosphates on the RNA-dependent DNA polymerase and RNase H activities of a recombinant HIV reverse transcriptase have been investigated. Both activities are sensitive to inhibition by millimolar concentrations of AZTMP with MgCl2 as divalent cation activator. Substitution of Mn2+ for Mg2+ markedly potentiates the inhibition of RNase H activity by AZTMP, reducing the IC50 from 5 to 0.05 mM. In contrast, Mn2+ does not alter the sensitivity of the RNA-dependent DNA polymerase activity to inhibition by AZTMP. The inhibition of RNase H activity by AZTMP can be reversed by increasing concentrations of the substrate poly(A)/poly(dT), suggesting that AZTMP may compete with the substrate for binding at the ...
Audit research has generally concluded that auditors primarily organize their memory of financial statement errors by audit objective rather than transaction cycle. Although this stream of research has typically used the cue sorting method, the concept of primary organizing dimension is believed to be sufficiently general to obtain consistent results with other experimental methods (e.g., Nelson et al. 1995). The purpose of this study is to determine if the finding that auditor knowledge of financial statement errors is organized primarily around audit objectives can be replicated with a priming/reaction time method. The priming/reaction time method is widely used in knowledge structure research and appears consistent with the concept of primary organizing dimension discussed in the audit literature. We conducted a study with sorting and priming/reaction time phases. Consistent with prior research, the sorting phase found that audit objective was the primary organizing dimension for both managers and
DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase: DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair. EC 2.7.7.7.
Transcriptase: …an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (transcriptase), which must first catalyze the synthesis of complementary mRNA from the virion genomic RNA before viral protein synthesis can occur. These variations in the nucleic acids of viruses form one central criterion for classification of all viruses.
A Computational Model for Predicting RNase H Domain of Retrovirus. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
A new assay for HIV reverse transcriptase activity inhibiting antibodies (RTI-ab) was used for the analysis of a large collection of sera sampled before and after confirmation of HIV infection. In this assay HIV-RT was preincubated with diluted serum, after which residual RT activity was determined by a technique using a template coupled to macrobeads and 125I-lodo-deoxyuridine-triphosphate as the tracer-substrate. Of the 936 sera analysed, 818 were found positive for RTI-ab, and 824 were positive in Western blot (Wb). The prevalence of RTI-ab compared to Wb was therefore 99.3%. The corresponding figure for 930 sera analysed for envelope-ab, i.e., gp41-ab, was 823 positive, and of these 930 sera 815 were Wb positive, giving a comparative prevalence of 101%. In contrast, only 678 samples of 993 analyzed for core ab, i.e., p24, were positive, giving a prevalence of 77.0% as 880 of these samples were Wb positive. Thus, RTI-ab was as prevalent as gp41-ab, and although the analyses of RTI-ab amounts ...
Reverse transcriptases can synthesize a complementary DNA strand initiating from a primer using RNA (cDNA synthesis) or single-stranded DNA as a template.
Regarding HIV following statement not TRUE DNA retrovirus The genome of HIV is diploid, composed of 2 identical single stranded positive sense RNA copies. In association with viral RNA is the reverse transcriptase enzyme which is the characteristic
Regarding HIV following statement not TRUE DNA retrovirus The genome of HIV is diploid, composed of 2 identical single stranded positive sense RNA copies. In association with viral RNA is the reverse transcriptase enzyme which is the characteristic
Different reverse transcriptases have different characteristics, and some are more well suited to specific applications than others. This article provides guidelines on how to choose between reverse transcriptases, comparing the properties of common RT enzymes such as AMV, MMLV and GoScript.
strong-stop DNA: first species made during viral DNA synthesis containing sequences representing both the 5- & 3- end of the viral genome; initiated near the 3-end of the genome & copies 3 & 5 genomic sequences from (-) DNA
Looking for online definition of DNA-dependent DNA polymerase in the Medical Dictionary? DNA-dependent DNA polymerase explanation free. What is DNA-dependent DNA polymerase? Meaning of DNA-dependent DNA polymerase medical term. What does DNA-dependent DNA polymerase mean?
The benign cells of malignant tumors / G. Barry Pierce -- Mechanisms underlying tumor transformation and tumor reversal Crown-Gall, a neoplastic disease at higher plants / Frederick Meins, Jr. -- Cell contact and cell division / LaRoy N. Castor -- The cell cycle and the neoplastic transformation / Jung-Chung Lin and Renato Baserga -- Neoplasia and differentiation as translational functions / Henry C. Pitot -- Observations on the mobility of protein components of the plasma membrane / Michael Edidin -- Alteration of protein components of transformed cell membranes in two virus-cell systems / Boyce W. Burge, H. Sakiyama and Gary Wickus -- Virus mediated transformation of mammalian cells / Fred Rapp -- RNA-directed DNA polymerase activity in uninfected cells / Howard M. Temin and Chil-Yong Kang -- Endogenous viruses in normal and transformed cells / George J. Todaro -- Development and differentiation of lymphocytes / Martin C. Raff -- Embryonic and fetal antigens in cancer cells / Joseph H. Coggin ...
The HIV-1 genomic RNA reverse transcription is an essential step in the virus cycle carried out by the viral-coded reverse transcriptase (RT), which has two associated functions: the RNA- and DNA-dependent DNA polymerase (RDDP and DDDP) function and the ribonuclease H (RNase H) function. The RNase H function catalyzes the selective hydrolysis of the RNA strand of the RNA:DNA heteroduplex replication intermediate. The RT associated activities are both essential for HIV-1 replication and validated targets for drug development, but only the polymerase function has been widely investigated as drug target. In fact, either nucleoside or non-nucleoside RT inhibitors currently used in therapy act on the polymerase associated activity. In this review, we describe the compounds, reported up to today, which inhibit the HIV-1 RNase H function, their chemical structures, the structure-activity relationships and the mechanism of action ...
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) performs an essential function during viral replication. It is responsible for the conversion of the single stranded viral RNA to double stranded DNA that is subsequently incorporated into the host genome. My thesis focuses primarily on understanding the process of reverse transcription in two parts.;In the first part of my thesis, we investigated the role of the Lys66 residue in two specific aspects of polymerase fidelity namely: misinsertion and mispair extension. Four Lys66 substitution mutants were tested for their efficiency in nucleotide misinsertion or mispair extension under steady-state conditions. Conservative substitutions at position 66 did not affect the efficiency of misinsertion or mispair extension, while non-conservative substitutions led to decreases in misinsertion and mispair extension efficiency ranging from 3 to 23-fold and 4 to 6-fold respectively. These differences were not due to the effects of the ...
This is new I think. Structural and Inhibition Studies of the RNase H Function of XMRV Reverse Transcriptase Karen A. Kirby1,2, Bruno...
Telomerase is an RNA-dependent DNA polymerase that uses an RNA component to add telomeric repeat sequences at the ends of chromosomes. Besides the RNA component which serves as the template that specifies the telomeric repeat, the telomerase complex contains a reverse transcriptase protein (TRT) and various accessory proteins including the telomerase-associated protein 1 (TP1). Telomerase activity is low in most somatic cells, causing the gradual shortening of telomeres which can ultimately lead to telomere fusion and cell death. High levels of telomerase activity are widely seen in cancerous cells and while recent experiments have suggested that telomerase may be a viable target in cancer therapy, expression levels of TP1 do not correlate with malignancy. At least two isoforms of TP1 are known to exist ...
can someone help me with this problem 8. The first step in using glucose as a source of energy is a priming reaction that consumes ATP: alpha-D-glucose...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
A peptide which stabilizes RT dimers and displays potent antiviral activity in vitro has also been described. Since PAW appears to interact with a site not overlapping the NNRTI binding CHIR99021 GSK-3 pocket, it points to another potential target site for enhancers of Gag Pol dimer stabilization. However, PAW has so far only been reported to interact with the dimeric forms of RT. it Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries remains to be investi gated whether this peptide or compounds targeting the same binding site on RT could also promote Gag Pol dimer formation. Conclusion In summary, the results presented here are consistent with the following model, which we propose as a work ing hypothesis as a basis for further investigation cer tain NNRTIs can increase intracellular Gag Pol dimer concentration upon binding to the RT domain of Gag Pol and thereby stimulate intracellular PR activity.. Enhanced activation of PR reduces virion formation through Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries depletion of the ...
At least two people are dead as a result of a deadly mouse-borne virus spotted at Yosemite National Park in California and feared to have spread across the world.
4I2P: A comparison of the ability of rilpivirine (TMC278) and selected analogues to inhibit clinically relevant HIV-1 reverse transcriptase mutants.
In this article we demonstrate the high quality and robustness of the GoScript™ Reverse Transcriptase and support its use for highly sensitive gene expression analysis.
[115 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Reverse Transcriptase Market Professional Survey Report 2017 report by QYResearch Group. This report studies Reverse Transcriptase in Global market, especially in...
Listing of all Polbase results with context for Reference: Lansdon EB2010, Polymerase: HIV RT, Property: Incorporation of non-standard nucleotides
Rosok, Mae Joanne, Dissociation and isolation of the subunits of avian myeloblastosis virus RNA-directed DNA polymerase (1977). Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers. 6828 ...
In addition to neoplasias caused in chickens by helper viruses of the avian myeloblastosis virus (AMV) complex, acute myeloblastic leukemia is induced by a defective leukemogenic component. To...
Avian myeloblastosis ATCC ® VR-1542AS-Gt™ Designation: antiserum against AMV RT [NCI HE 599] Application: goat antiserum against the Avian Myeloblastosis Virus (AMV) Reverse Transcriptase (RT)
Members of this protein family are multifunctional proteins encoded in most examples of bacterial group II introns. These group II introns are mobile selfish genetic elements, often with multiple highly identical copies per genome. Member proteins have an N-terminal reverse transcriptase (RNA-directed DNA polymerase) domain (PF00078) followed by an RNA-binding maturase domain (PF08388). Some members of this family may have an additional C-terminal DNA endonuclease domain that this model does not cover. A region of the group II intron ribozyme structure should be detectable nearby on the genome by Rfam model RF00029 ...
Both mature and immature additionalcellular virus particles had been seen in thin-section electron micrographs of mounted, pelleted cellular materials; every so often, typical kind C budding virus particles had been seen. No type of intracellular virus particle has been seen. Mature particles had been 100-110 nm in diameter, consisted of an electron-dense core surrounded by an outer membrane separated by an electron-lucent area, banded at a density of 1.16 g/ml on a steady 25-65% sucrose gradient, and contained 70S RNA and a DNA polymerase exercise typical of viral reverse transcriptase (RT; RNA-dependent DNA nucleotidyltransferase). Under sure circumstances of assay, HTLV(CR) RT confirmed cation desire for Mg(2+) over Mn(2+), distinct from the traits of cellular DNA polymerases purified from human lymphocytes and the RT from most kind C viruses ...
Numerous significant hits to DNA polymerase I sequences; e.g. residues 3-284 are 38% similar to (X98575) DNA-dependent DNA polymerase of Anaerocellum thermophilum; residues 3-286 are 34% similar to (U78771) DNA polymerase I (PolI) of Lactococcus lactis; and residues 2-285 are 32% similar to DP01_STRPN ...
[ Reverse Transcriptase Synthesizes A Dna Molecule From An Rna Template ] - Mga2 08 04,Reverse Transcriptase Process Of Making A Double Stranded,Chapter 17 Gene Technology Ppt Download
Alu transposons are found only in primate genomes and have accumulated in large numbers since primates diverged from other mammals. Human chromosomes contain more than one million Alu copies, equaling about 10% of the genome by mass. This accumulation was made possible by a transposition mechanism that reverse transcribes Alu mRNAs into mobile DNA copies. Another transposon, the long interspersed element (LINE) L1, supplies a specialized reverse transcriptase enzyme needed for Alu to jump. Hence, Alu and L1 exist in a sort of molecular symbiosis. ...
Introduction: The poor fidelity of the HIV reverse transcriptase enzyme leads to a significant sequence diversity across infected individuals. Although this com...
Title: Alabel-free and enzyme-free signal amplification strategy for a sensitive RNase Hactivity assay Author: Chang Yeol Lee,‡Hyowon Jang,‡ Ki Soo Park* and Hyun Gyu Park* (‡: equal contribution) Journal: Nanoscale 2017, 9, 16149-16153 Abstra
Title: Alabel-free and enzyme-free signal amplification strategy for a sensitive RNase Hactivity assay Author: Chang Yeol Lee,‡Hyowon Jang,‡ Ki Soo Park* and Hyun Gyu Park* (‡: equal contribution) Journal: Nanoscale 2017, 9, 16149-16153 Abstra
4I2P: A comparison of the ability of rilpivirine (TMC278) and selected analogues to inhibit clinically relevant HIV-1 reverse transcriptase mutants.
Thermo Scientific™ RevertAid™ Reverse Transcriptase 200U/μL (for 50 reactions of 20μL) Thermo Scientific™ RevertAid™ Reverse...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Protein-Primed Terminal Transferase Activity of Hepatitis B Virus Polymerase. AU - Jones, Scott A.. AU - Hu, Jianming. PY - 2013/10/29. Y1 - 2013/10/29. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84886245844&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84886245844&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1128/JVI.02516-13. DO - 10.1128/JVI.02516-13. M3 - Comment/debate. AN - SCOPUS:84886245844. VL - 87. JO - Journal of Virology. JF - Journal of Virology. SN - 0022-538X. IS - 22. ER - ...
Poly(adenylic acid), poly(2-O-methyladenylic acid), and poly(2-O-ethyladenylic acid) moderately inhibit the synthesis of Moloney murine leukemia virus in cultured JLS-V9 cells. Moreover, they are potent inhibitors of spleen focus formation by Friend murine leukemia virus in mice. Both in cell cultures and in the animal system, the order of inhibitory potency observed is poly(2-O-ethyladenylic acid) , poly(2-O-methyladenylic acid) , poly(adenylic acid). This order is identical with the one we have noted for inhibition of the RNA-directed DNA polymerases of these two viruses. While the molecular basis of inhibition of viral replication is not yet known, our results are compatible with the notion that RNA-directed DNA polymerase may he a drug target in vivo.. ...
Journal Article: Structural Basis for the Inhibition of RNase H Activity of HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase by RNase H Active Site-Directed Inhibitors ...
Fu et al. demonstrate a requirement for the heterochromatin factors CMT and DDM1 in RNA-directed DNA methylation in maize. Plant Cell https://doi.org/10.1105/
A novel HIV-1 inhibitor, 6-(tert-butyl)-4-phenyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)-1H,3H-1,3,5-triazin-2-one (compound 1), was identified from a compound library screened for the ability to inhibit HIV-1 replication. EC50 values of compound 1 were found to range from 107.9 to 145.4 nm against primary HIV-1 clinical isolates. In in vitro assays, HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) activity was inhibited by compound 1 with an EC50 of 4.3 μm. An assay for resistance to compound 1 selected a variant of HIV-1 with a RT mutation (RT(L100I) ); this frequently identified mutation confers mild resistance to non-nucleoside RT inhibitors (NNRTIs). A recombinant HIV-1 bearing RT(L100I) exhibited a 41-fold greater resistance to compound 1 than the wild-type virus. Compound 1 was also effective against HIV-1 with RT(K103N) , one of the major mutations that confers substantial resistance to NNRTIs. Computer-assisted docking simulations indicated that compound 1 binds to the RT NNRTI binding pocket in a manner similar to that ...
The regional metabolism of high-molecular-weight RNA in the developing female rat brain was investigated after the intracranial injection of [32P]P1. The synthesis of polyadenylated RNA relative to high-molecular-weight RNA was determined after oligo(dT)-cellulose chromatography of total cellular high-molecular-weight RNA labelled after 4h. In both hypothalamus and cortex this synthesis was significantly higher during the first 10 days post partum than at subsequent ages. In both regions apparently more mRNA is synthesized in the young. The ratio of the specific radioactivity of cytoplasmic high-molecular-weight RNA relative to that of the nucleus, measured after a 48 h period of labelling, was considered to be an index of the nucleocytoplasmic transport of newly synthesized RNA [Berthold & Lim (1976) Biochem. J. 154, 529-539]. In the cortex, nucleo-cytoplasmic RNA transport in rats aged up to 20 days was significantly higher than in older rats, with the maximal value being attained between 16 ...
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Inhibition of HIV protease (HIVPR) or HIV reverse transcriptase (HIVRT) are two approaches to block viral replication. HIVPR is an aspartic acid protease that cleaves newly synthesized polyproteins at the appropriate places to create the mature protein components of an infectious HIV virion. Inhibition of its activity disrupts HIVs ability to replicate and infect additional cells. HIVRT is an RNA-dependent DNA polymerase that catalyzes the conversion/transcription of single-stranded RNA into DNA. Normal transcription involves the synthesis of RNA from DNA; hence, reverse transcription is the reverse of this. Discovery of small molecule inhibitors of these targets is facilitated by the use of ligand and receptor based screening using two different targeted libraries available from Life Chemicals available:. ...
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In this review, we summarise the function and structure of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) in humans, including its regulation. The dysregulat
DNA-directed DNA polymerase. I/A γ. θ. ν. T7. Taq. II/B α. δ. ε. ζ. Pfu. III/C. IV/X β. λ. μ. TDT. V/Y η. ι. κ. RNA-directed ... Template-directed. RNA polymerase I. II. III. IV. V. ssRNAP POLRMT. Primase 1. 2. PrimPol. RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. ... Polymerase. DNA polymerase. ...
Polymerase. DNA polymerase. DNA-directed DNA polymerase. I. II. III. IV. V. RNA-directed DNA polymerase. Reverse transcriptase ... RNA polymerase/DNA-directed RNA polymerase. RNA polymerase I. II. III. IV. V. Primase. RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. PNPase. ...
DNA-directed DNA polymerase. I/A γ. θ. ν. T7. Taq. II/B α. δ. ε. ζ. Pfu. III/C. IV/X β. λ. μ. TDT. V/Y η. ι. κ. RNA-directed ... Template-directed. RNA polymerase I. II. III. IV. V. ssRNAP POLRMT. Primase 1. 2. PrimPol. RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. ... the RNA-polymerization activity of PNPase was initially believed to be responsible for DNA-dependent synthesis of messenger RNA ... terminal oligonucleotide polymerase activity.[2] That is, it dismantles the RNA chain starting at the 3' end and working toward ...
Polymerase. DNA polymerase. DNA-directed DNA polymerase. I. II. III. IV. V. POLRMT. RNA-directed DNA polymerase. Reverse ... RNA polymerase/DNA-directed RNA polymerase. RNA polymerase I. II. III. IV. V. Primase. RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. PNPase. ...
Polymerase. DNA polymerase. DNA-directed DNA polymerase. I. II. III. IV. V. RNA-directed DNA polymerase. Reverse transcriptase ... RNA polymerase/DNA-directed RNA polymerase. RNA polymerase I. II. III. IV. V. Primase. RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. PNPase. ...
DNA-directed RNA polymerase, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLRMT gene. This gene encodes a ... "Entrez Gene: POLRMT polymerase (RNA) mitochondrial (DNA directed)". Hillen, HS; Morozov, YI; Sarfallah, A; Temiakov, D; Cramer ... Although this polypeptide has the same function as the three nuclear DNA-directed RNA polymerases, it is more closely related ... Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: O00411 (Human DNA-directed RNA polymerase, ...
Some large viruses have their own DNA-directed RNA polymerase. Transfers of "infectious" nuclei have been documented in many ... In 2006, researchers suggested that the transition from RNA to DNA genomes first occurred in the viral world. A DNA-based virus ... Forterre P (March 2006). "Three RNA cells for ribosomal lineages and three DNA viruses to replicate their genomes: a hypothesis ... In the original paper it was also an RNA cell at the origin of eukaryotes, but eventually more complex, featuring RNA ...
Polymerase (RNA) III (DNA directed) polypeptide G (32kD) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the POLR3G gene. Model ... "Entrez Gene: Polymerase (RNA) III (DNA directed) polypeptide G (32kD)". Retrieved 2014-04-01. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter ... Chiu, Y. H.; MacMillan, J. B.; Chen, Z. J. (2009). "RNA polymerase III detects cytosolic DNA and induces type I interferons ... "Characterization of human RNA polymerase III identifies orthologues for Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA polymerase III subunits". ...
DNA-directed RNA polymerase III subunit RPC4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLR3D gene. This gene complements a ... "Entrez Gene: POLR3D polymerase (RNA) III (DNA directed) polypeptide D, 44kDa". Jang KL, Collins MK, Latchman DS (1992). "The ... "Characterization of human RNA polymerase III identifies orthologues for Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA polymerase III subunits" ( ... Jackson AJ, Ittmann M, Pugh BF (1995). "The BN51 protein is a polymerase (Pol)-specific subunit of RNA Pol III which reveals a ...
DNA-directed RNA polymerase III subunit RPC5 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLR3E gene. POLR3E has been shown ... "Entrez Gene: POLR3E polymerase (RNA) III (DNA directed) polypeptide E (80kD)". Hu, Ping; Wu Si; Sun Yuling; Yuan Chih-Chi; ... 2002). "Characterization of Human RNA Polymerase III Identifies Orthologues for Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA Polymerase III ... "Characterization of Human RNA Polymerase III Identifies Orthologues for Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA Polymerase III Subunits" ( ...
DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLR2B gene. This gene encodes the ... "Entrez Gene: POLR2B polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide B, 140kDa". Acker, J; de Graaff M; Cheynel I; Khazak V; ... second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, the polymerase responsible for synthesizing messenger RNA in eukaryotes. This ... "Specific binding of RNA polymerase II to the human immunodeficiency virus trans-activating region RNA is regulated by cellular ...
DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLR2C gene. This gene encodes the ... "Entrez Gene: POLR2C polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide C, 33kDa". De Angelis R, Iezzi S, Bruno T, Corbi N, Di ... third largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, the polymerase responsible for synthesizing messenger RNA in eukaryotes. The ... "Specific binding of RNA polymerase II to the human immunodeficiency virus trans-activating region RNA is regulated by cellular ...
DNA-directed RNA polymerases I, II, and III subunit RPABC1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the POLR2E gene. This gene ... "Entrez Gene: POLR2E polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide E, 25kDa". Bertolotti, A; Melot T; Acker J; Vigneron M; ... This subunit is shared by the other two DNA-directed RNA polymerases and is present in two-fold molar excess over the other ... and RNA polymerase subunit 5, which contributes to the association between TFIIF and RNA polymerase II". J. Biol. Chem. United ...
DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB1, also known as RPB1, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLR2A gene. ... "Entrez Gene: POLR2A polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide A, 220kDa". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Krum SA ... This gene encodes the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, the polymerase responsible for synthesizing messenger RNA in ... forms the DNA-binding domain of the polymerase, a groove in which the DNA template is transcribed into RNA. POLR2A has been ...
DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB9 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLR2I gene. This gene encodes a ... "Entrez Gene: POLR2I polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide I, 14.5kDa". Jeang KT (1998). "Tat, Tat-associated kinase, ... forms the DNA binding domain of the polymerase, a groove in which the DNA template is transcribed into RNA. The product of this ... subunit of RNA polymerase II, the polymerase responsible for synthesizing messenger RNA in eukaryotes. This subunit, in ...
DNA-directed RNA polymerases I, II, and III subunit RPABC5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the POLR2L gene. This gene ... "Entrez Gene: POLR2L polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide L, 7.6kDa". Acker J, de Graaff M, Cheynel I, Khazak V, ... Like its counterpart in yeast, this subunit may be shared by the other two DNA-directed RNA polymerases. POLR2L has been shown ... encodes a subunit of RNA polymerase II, the polymerase responsible for synthesizing messenger RNA in eukaryotes. The product of ...
DNA-directed RNA polymerase III subunit RPC6 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLR3F gene. The protein encoded by ... "Entrez Gene: POLR3F polymerase (RNA) III (DNA directed) polypeptide F, 39 kDa". Gerdin AK (2010). "The Sanger Mouse Genetics ... "Characterization of human RNA polymerase III identifies orthologues for Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA polymerase III subunits" ( ... "Isolation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies directed against subunits of human RNA polymerases I, II, and III". ...
DNA-directed RNA polymerases I, II, and III subunit RPABC4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the POLR2K gene. This gene ... "Entrez Gene: POLR2K polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide K, 7.0kDa". Acker J, de Graaff M, Cheynel I, Khazak V, ... This subunit is shared by the other two DNA-directed RNA polymerases. POLR2K has been shown to interact with POLR2C. GRCh38: ... encodes one of the smallest subunits of RNA polymerase II, the polymerase responsible for synthesizing messenger RNA in ...
DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB11-a is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLR2J gene. This gene encodes a ... "Entrez Gene: POLR2J polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide J, 13.3kDa". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) ... interacts in vitro with a novel variant of DNA-directed RNA polymerase II, subunit 11". Genomics. 79 (6): 809-17. doi:10.1006/ ... subunit of RNA polymerase II, the polymerase responsible for synthesizing messenger RNA in eukaryotes. The product of this gene ...
... one of the essential subunits of RNA polymerase II that is shared by the other two eukaryotic DNA-directed RNA polymerases, I ... DNA-directed RNA polymerases I, II, and III subunit RPABC3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the POLR2H gene. This gene ... "Entrez Gene: POLR2H polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide H". Acker, J; de Graaff M; Cheynel I; Khazak V; Kedinger C; ... "Specific binding of RNA polymerase II to the human immunodeficiency virus trans-activating region RNA is regulated by cellular ...
DNA-directed RNA polymerase III subunit RPC10 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLR3K gene. This gene encodes a ... "Entrez Gene: POLR3K polymerase (RNA) III (DNA directed) polypeptide K, 12.3 kDa". Jang KL, Collins MK, Latchman DS (1992). "The ... 2002). "Characterization of human RNA polymerase III identifies orthologues for Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA polymerase III ... Chedin S, Riva M, Schultz P, Sentenac A, Carles C (Jan 1999). "The RNA cleavage activity of RNA polymerase III is mediated by ...
DNA directed RNA polymerase II polypeptide J, has been shown to encode a subunit of RNA polymerase II, the polymerase ... DNA directed RNA polymerase II polypeptide J-related gene, also known as POLR2J2, is a human gene. This gene is a member of the ... "Entrez Gene: POLR2J2 DNA directed RNA polymerase II polypeptide J-related gene". Shpakovskii DG, Shematorova EK, Shpakovskii GV ... interacts in vitro with a novel variant of DNA-directed RNA polymerase II, subunit 11". Genomics. 79 (6): 809-817. doi:10.1006/ ...
POLR3K: encoding enzyme DNA-directed RNA polymerase III subunit RPC10. *PRR35: encoding protein Proline rich 35 ... Chromosome 16 spans about 90 million base pairs (the building material of DNA) and represents just under 3% of the total DNA in ... SNORD71: encoding protein Small nucleolar RNA, C/D box 71. *SPSB3: encoding protein SplA/ryanodine receptor domain and SOCS box ... LINC00273 encoding protein Long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 273. *LOC124220: encoding protein Zymogen granule protein 16 ...
POLR3F: encoding enzyme DNA-directed RNA polymerase III subunit RPC6. *PRIC285:. *PRNP: prion protein (p27-30) (Creutzfeldt- ... 2001). "The DNA sequence and comparative analysis of human chromosome 20". Nature. 414 (6866): 865-871. doi:10.1038/414865a. ... Chromosome 20 spans around 63 million base pairs (the building material of DNA) and represents between 2 and 2.5 percent of the ... of the euchromatic DNA.[5] Since then, due to sequencing improvements and fixes, the length of chromosome 20 has been updated ...
... of the DNA directed RNA polymerase III. This subunit includes the catalytic site of RNA polymerase III.[citation needed] ...
"RPO132 - DNA-directed RNA polymerase 132 kDa polypeptide - Ectromelia virus (strain Moscow) (ECTV) - RPO132 gene & protein". ... Since GVA is a disease that affects the RNA of the plant, new RNA is added to the sample and it combines with the infected RNA ... A reading frame begins with a start codon (codon that begins the translation to RNA from the DNA strand) and ends with a stop ... This is the protein that helps the DNA or RNA connect with amino acids. Even further research of the genomes of GVA traced ...
In the EC system of classification, the accepted name for RNA polymerase is DNA-directed RNA polymerase. Described primarily ... end of an existing DNA molecule. Terminal transferase is one of the few DNA polymerases that can function without an RNA primer ... For example, RNA polymerase is the modern common name for what was formerly known as RNA nucleotidyltransferase, a kind of ... a DNA methyltransferase is a transferase that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group to a DNA acceptor. In practice, many ...
"A Single Subunit from Avian Myeloblastosis Virus with Both RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase and Ribonuclease H Activity". ... Chedd, Graham (1971). "RNA to DNA: a revolution in reverse". New Scientist. Retrieved July 17, 2016 - via Google Books. " ... He coupled this basic research to the effort to detect RNA tumor viruses in human cancer. Tremendous effort was directed to the ... Green, Maurice; Fujinaga, K (1966). "The mechanism of viral carcinogenesis by DNA mammalian viruses: viral-specific RNA in ...
The Bordetella phages of this genus contains an RNA-directed DNA polymerase which plays a role in tropism. Viral replication is ... Dna templated transcription is the method of transcription. Bacteria serve as the natural host. Transmission routes are passive ...
Hurwitz, J. and J. Leis (1972). "Directing influence of DNA in the reaction". RNA-dependent DNA polymerase activity of RNA ...
December 1999). "Identification of Ebola virus sequences present as RNA or DNA in organs of terrestrial small mammals of the ... detecting the viral RNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)[6][23] and detecting proteins by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ( ... The virus spreads through direct contact with body fluids, such as blood from infected humans or other animals.[1] Spread may ... The viral RNA polymerase, encoded by the L gene, partially uncoats the nucleocapsid and transcribes the genes into positive- ...
... which is related to RNA polymerases found in bacteria. Chloroplasts also contain a mysterious second RNA polymerase that is ... Huang CY, Ayliffe MA, Timmis JN (March 2003). "Direct measurement of the transfer rate of chloroplast DNA into the nucleus". ... and four RNA polymerase subunits,[22][23] involved in protein synthesis. For photosynthesis, the chloroplast DNA includes genes ... The two RNA polymerases may recognize and bind to different kinds of promoters within the chloroplast genome.[35] The ribosomes ...
Herr A.J. et al (2005). "RNA polymerase IV directs silencing of endogenous DNA". Science 308 (5718): 118-20. doi:10.1126/ ... RNA polymerase IV synthesizes siRNA in plants.[5]. *RNA polymerase V synthesizes RNAs involved in siRNA-directed ... RNA polymerase (RNAP) in action. It is building a messenger RNA molecule from a DNA helix. Part of the enzyme was made ... X-ray crystallography of DNA and RNA polymerases show that, other than having a Mg2+ ion at the catalytic site, they are ...
negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • proteolysis. • regulation of synaptic plasticity. • ... cellular response to DNA damage stimulus. • heart looping. • blood vessel development. • membrane protein ectodomain ... Stahl B, Diehlmann A, Südhof TC (April 1999). "Direct interaction of Alzheimer's disease-related presenilin 1 with armadillo ... positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • heart development. • negative regulation of axonogenesis. • embryonic ...
DNA binding. • DNA-dependent ATPase activity. • recombinase activity. • chromatin binding. • DNA polymerase binding. • protein ... "Direct imaging of human Rad51 nucleoprotein dynamics on individual DNA molecules". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... messenger RNA. [13]. Breast cancer (progesteron receptor negative). Over-expression. -. messenger RNA. [16]. ... DNA repair. • response to X-ray. • response to drug. • DNA unwinding involved in DNA replication. • cellular response to ...
The mRNA encodes RNA dependent RNA polymerase. This polymerase makes complementary minus strands of RNA, then uses them as ... and a poliovirus clone was the first infectious DNA clone made of an RNA virus in animals. Along with rhinovirus, poliovirus ... "Sequence Requirements for Viral RNA Replication and VPg Uridylylation Directed by the Internal cis-Acting Replication Element ( ... the RNA polymerase). Genomic RNAs of picornaviruses possess multiple RNA elements and they are required for both negative and ...
... directing the binding of the RNA polymerase to a gene's promoter.[144] However, other archaeal transcription factors are closer ... For example, thermostable DNA polymerases, such as the Pfu DNA polymerase from Pyrococcus furiosus, revolutionized molecular ... Werner F (September 2007). "Structure and function of archaeal RNA polymerases". Mol. Microbiol. 65 (6): 1395-404. doi:10.1111/ ... Defenses against these viruses may involve RNA interference from repetitive DNA sequences that are related to the genes of the ...
Li J, Moazed D, Gygi SP (Dec 2002). "Association of the histone methyltransferase Set2 with RNA polymerase II plays a role in ... DNA damage[edit]. Marking sites of DNA damage is an important function for histone modifications. It also protects DNA from ... "Histone H3 methylation by Set2 directs deacetylation of coding regions by Rpd3S to suppress spurious intragenic transcription ... Compacting DNA strands[edit]. Histones act as spools around which DNA winds. This enables the compaction necessary to fit the ...
2005). "RNA polymerase IV directs silencing of endogenous DNA". Science. 308 (5718): 118-20. doi:10.1126/science.1106910. PMID ... RNA polymerase IV synthesizes siRNA in plants.[5]. *RNA polymerase V synthesizes RNAs involved in siRNA-directed ... RNA polymerase (RNAP) in action. It is building a messenger RNA molecule from a DNA helix. Part of the enzyme was made ... RNA polymerase. class of enzymes that synthesize RNA from a DNA template ...
"Phylogenetic analysis of Aquaspirillum magnetotacticum using polymerase chain reaction-amplified 16S rRNA-specific DNA". ... Schmidt TM, Relman DA (1994). Phylogenetic identification of uncultured pathogens using ribosomal RNA sequences. Methods in ... "Biology Direct 10 (35): 35. PMC 4496867. PMID 26156036. doi:10.1186/s13062-015-0065-6.. ... "Primers, 16S ribosomal DNA - François Lutzoni's Lab". lutzonilab.net. Arquivado dende o orixinal o 2012-12-27.. ...
"Induction of direct repeat recombination by psoralen-DNA adducts in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: defects in DNA repair increase ... One inaccurate process for repairing psoralen crosslinks appears to employ a DNA polymerase to fill in the gap formed in the ... Research on psoralen has historically focused on interactions with DNA and RNA (in particular, ICL formation). Psoralen, ... Repair of psoralen DNA adducts[edit]. PUVA treatment produces both DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs) and monoadducts. The ICLs ...
Werner F (2007). "Structure and function of archaeal RNA polymerases". Mol. Microbiol. 65 (6): 1395-404. PMID 17697097. doi: ... Rosenshine I, Tchelet R, Mevarech M. (1989). "The mechanism of DNA transfer in the mating system of an archaebacterium". ... Direct 1: 7. PMC 1462988. PMID 16545108. doi:10.1186/1745-6150-1-7.. ... "UV-inducible DNA exchange in hyperthermophilic archaea mediated by type IV pili". Mol Microbiol (82(4)): 807-17. PMID 21999488 ...
Main articles: RNA and DNA. The major difference between RNA and DNA is the presence of a hydroxyl group at the 2'-position of ... synthesized RNA strand, this allowed the team to isolate successful polymerases. The isolated RNA polymerases were again used ... There are hypotheses that are in direct conflict to the RNA world hypothesis. The relative chemical complexity of the ... The RNA world hypothesis is supported by RNA's ability to store, transmit, and duplicate genetic information, as DNA does. RNA ...
DNA 중합효소(DNA polymerase) 등이 그 예이다. 동일한 화학 반응을 촉해하는 서로 다른 효소들을 동질효소라고 한다.[2] ... 효소는 5,000가지 이상의 생화학 반응 유형들을 촉매하는 것으로 알려져 있다.[5] 대부분의 효소들은 단백질이지만, 일부 효소들은 촉매 기능을 가지고 있는 RNA 분자이다. 촉매 기능을 가지고 있는 RNA를 리보자임이라고 한다 ... Jaeger KE, Eggert T (August 2004). "Enantioselective biocatalysis optimized by directed evolution". 》Current Opinion in ... 여기서 DNA 중합효소와 같은 효소는 첫 번째 단계에서 반응을 촉매한 다음, 두 번째 단계에서 생성물이 올바른지를 확인한다.[32] 이러한 두 단계 반응은 높은 정확도를 가지고 있는 포유류의 DNA 중합효소에서 평균적으로 1억 ...
transcription initiation from RNA polymerase II promoter. • G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle. • negative regulation of ... 1993). "Direct binding of cyclin D to the retinoblastoma gene product (pRb) and pRb phosphorylation by the cyclin D-dependent ... "Cyclin-dependent kinases are inactivated by a combination of p21 and Thr-14/Tyr-15 phosphorylation after UV-induced DNA damage ... "C/EBPalpha arrests cell proliferation through direct inhibition of Cdk2 and Cdk4". Mol. Cell. 8 (4): 817-28. doi:10.1016/S1097- ...
positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • ... thus excluding direct interactions with intracellular adaptor proteins. ... negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor ... transcription regulatory region DNA binding. • protein binding. • protease binding. • tumor necrosis factor receptor binding. • ...
3% require a reverse transcriptase enzyme to convert between RNA and DNA. 17% of plant viruses are ssDNA and very few are dsDNA ... In TMV, this extra sequence of polypeptide is an RNA polymerase that replicates its genome. Some viruses use the production of ... Ding, S. W.; Voinnet, O. (2007). "Antiviral Immunity Directed by Small RNAs". Cell. 130 (3): 413-426. doi:10.1016/j.cell. ... Instead, the naked viral RNA may alter the function of the cells through a mechanism similar to RNA interference, in which the ...
Integration occurs following production of the double-stranded viral DNA by the viral RNA/DNA-dependent DNA polymerase reverse ... Human chromatin-associated protein LEDGF, which tightly binds HIV IN and directs HIV PIC towards highly expressed genes for ... The main function of IN is to insert the viral DNA into the host chromosomal DNA, a step that is essential for HIV replication ... ends of the viral DNA to expose the invariant CA dinucleotides at both 3'-ends of the viral DNA. the strand transfer reaction, ...
Most DNA viruses assemble in the nucleus while most RNA viruses develop solely in cytoplasm.[22][23] ... Polymerase chain reaction[edit]. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays are the most commonly used molecular technique to ... Direct contact - Touching an infected host, including sexual contact. *Indirect contact - Touching a contaminated surface ... Once the virus has gained access to the host's cells, the virus' genetic material (RNA or DNA) must be introduced to the cell. ...
Because of the absence of RNA proofreading enzymes, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase that copies the viral genome makes an ... Influenza produces direct costs due to lost productivity and associated medical treatment, as well as indirect costs of ... The sequencing of the influenza genome and recombinant DNA technology may accelerate the generation of new vaccine strains by ... The viral RNA (vRNA) molecules, accessory proteins and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase are then released into the cytoplasm (Stage ...
The mechanism in which CTCF binds to these regions is currently unknown, but could include either a direct DNA-CTCF interaction ... negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • osteoblast differentiation. • in utero embryonic ... positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • positive regulation of insulin receptor signaling ... Neidhart, M (2016). DNA Methylation and Complex Human Disease (1st ed.). San Diego: Academic Press. p. 22.. ISBN 978-0124201941 ...
Generally this is achieved through the use of reverse transcription of the RNA followed by polymerase chain reaction. RNA-based ... Both the DNA and RNA based tests require that a pathologist examine the bone marrow to determine which leukaemic specific ... are helpful for directing treatment and preventing relapse. A single remaining leukemic cell can be fatal, as malignant cells ... However, RNA is a much less stable target for diagnostics than DNA and requires careful handling and processing. ...
Leonhardt H, Page AW, Weier HU, Bestor TH (November 1992). "A targeting sequence directs DNA methyltransferase to sites of DNA ... RNA signalling includes differential recruitment of a hierarchy of generic chromatin modifying complexes and DNA ... ribose polymerase) and its product poly(ADP)-ribose (PAR) accumulate at sites of DNA damage as part of a repair process.[32] ... Bacteria also use DNA adenine methylation (rather than DNA cytosine methylation) as an epigenetic signal. DNA adenine ...
For fundamental discoveries in DNA replication and protein biochemistry; for visionary leadership in directing national and ... Pioneering studies on eukaryotic RNA polymerases and the general transcriptional machinery, which opened gene expression in ... Discoveries that revealed an unanticipated world of tiny RNAs that regulate gene function in plants and animals.[32] ... For discoveries concerning the DNA-damage response-a fundamental mechanism that protects the genomes of all living organisms.[ ...
Inside this capsid the genome is converted from RNA to pdsDNA through activity of the polymerase as an RNA-dependent-DNA- ... The shorter strand overlaps this divide and is connected to the longer strand on either side of the split through a direct ... This enzyme is unique among viral polymerases in that it has reverse transcriptase activity to convert RNA into DNA to ... called covalently-closed-circular DNA or cccDNA). The genome then undergoes transcription by the host cell RNA polymerase and ...
Genes encoded in DNA are first transcribed into pre-messenger RNA (mRNA) by proteins such as RNA polymerase. Most organisms ... Methods commonly used to study protein structure and function include immunohistochemistry, site-directed mutagenesis, X-ray ... Proteins make up half the dry weight of an Escherichia coli cell, whereas other macromolecules such as DNA and RNA make up only ... as well as manipulating DNA in processes such as DNA replication, DNA repair, and transcription. Some enzymes act on other ...
... random primers and DNA polymerase from bacteriophage phi29. In 30 degree isothermal reaction, DNA is amplified with included ... To target larger non-poly(A) RNAs, such as long non-coding mRNA, histone mRNA, circular RNA, and enhancer RNA, size selection ... sequencing also offers a route for direct methylation sequencing without fragmentation or modification to the original DNA. ... as well as the limited amount of DNA extracted from a single cell. Due to scant amounts of DNA, accurate analysis of DNA poses ...
Transcription is when RNA is made from DNA. During transcription, RNA polymerase makes a copy of a gene from the DNA to mRNA as ... The primary challenges of RNA therapy center on delivering the RNA to directed cells, more even than determining what sequence ... Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they ... A 5' cap (also termed an RNA cap, an RNA 7-methylguanosine cap, or an RNA m7G cap) is a modified guanine nucleotide that has ...
regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • DNA damage response, signal transduction by p53 class mediator ... "Direct interaction between Nrf2 and p21(Cip1/WAF1) upregulates the Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response". Mol. Cell. 34 (6): 663 ... a DNA polymerase accessory factor, and plays a regulatory role in S phase DNA replication and DNA damage repair.[17][18][19] ... transcription initiation from RNA polymerase II promoter. • G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle. • cytokine-mediated ...
GO:0006351 transcription, DNA-templated Molecular Function. GO:0003677 DNA binding GO:0003899 DNA-directed 5-3 RNA polymerase ... DNA-directed RNA polymerase, subunit N/Rpb10 (IPR000268). Short name: RNAP_N/Rpb10 ... Evolution of Complex RNA Polymerases: The Complete Archaeal RNA Polymerase Structure.. PLoS Biol. 7 e102 2009 ... three different forms of DNA-dependent RNA polymerases (EC:2.7.7.6) transcribing different sets of genes. Each class of RNA ...
DNA-directed RNA polymerases EC:2.7.7.6 (also known as DNA-dependent RNA polymerases) are responsible for the polymerisation of ... GO:0006351 transcription, DNA-templated Molecular Function. GO:0003677 DNA binding GO:0003899 DNA-directed 5-3 RNA polymerase ... there are three different forms of DNA-directed RNA polymerases transcribing different sets of genes. Most RNA polymerases are ... Eukaryotic nuclei contain three distinct types of RNA polymerases that differ in the RNA they synthesise: *RNA polymerase I: ...
Part of the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase which catalyzes the transcription of viral DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside ... Part of the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase which catalyzes the transcription of viral DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside ... DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunitUniRule annotation. Automatic assertion according to rulesi ... DNA-directed RNA polymeraseUniRule annotation. Automatic assertion according to rulesi ...
RNA polymerase III type 2 promoter sequence-specific DNA binding. *polymerase III regulatory region sequence-specific DNA ... Complex: DNA-directed RNA polymerase III complex Macromolecular complex annotations are imported from the Complex Portal. These ... 2013) Yeast RNA polymerase III transcription factors and effectors. Biochim Biophys Acta 1829(3-4):283-95 PMID: 23063749 *SGD ... DNA-directed 5-3 RNA polymerase activity. * ... transcription initiation from RNA polymerase III promoter. ...
Part of the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase which catalyzes the transcription of viral DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside ... Part of the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase which catalyzes the transcription of viral DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside ... DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunitUniRule annotation. Automatic assertion according to rulesi ... DNA-directed RNA polymeraseUniRule annotation. Automatic assertion according to rulesi ...
Promotes RNA polymerase assembly. Latches the N- and C-terminal regions of the beta subunit thereby facilitating its ...
DNA-dependent RNA polymerase catalyzes the transcription of DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside triphosphates as ...
DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit delta. NP_720573.3. *Best Blastp Hit: dbj,BAB07512.1, (AP001520) DNA-directed RNA ... RNA polymerase, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG) RNA polymerase, organism-specific biosystem. RNA polymerase ... RNA polymerase, conserved biosystem (from KEGG) RNA polymerase, conserved biosystem. RNA polymerase ... DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit delta. Locus tag. SMU_96. Gene type. protein coding. RefSeq status. PROVISIONAL. Organism. ...
DNA-directed RNA polymerase III subunit C4. DNA-directed RNA polymerase III subunit D. RNA polymerase III subunit C4. NP_ ... Polr3d polymerase (RNA) III (DNA directed) polypeptide D [Mus musculus] Polr3d polymerase (RNA) III (DNA directed) polypeptide ... polymerase (RNA) III (DNA directed) polypeptide Dprovided by MGI. Primary source. MGI:MGI:1914315 See related. Ensembl: ... Polr3d polymerase (RNA) III (DNA directed) polypeptide D [ Mus musculus (house mouse) ] Gene ID: 67065, updated on 23-Jun-2021 ...
View mouse Polr3f Chr2:144527745-144541779 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
DNA-directed RNA polymerase III subunit G-like, DNA-directed RNA polymerase III subunit RPC7-like, MGC3200, RNA polymerase III ... POLR3GL - polymerase (RNA) III (DNA directed).... Homo sapiens. Synonyms: ...
Synonyms: B150, DNA-directed RNA polymerase II 140 kDa polypeptide, DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB2, RNA polymerase ... RNA polymerase II subunit RPB10 is essential for yeast cell viability. Woychik, N.A., Young, R.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed ... RNA polymerase II gene (RPB2) encoding the second largest protein subunit in Phaeosphaeria nodorum and P. avenaria. Malkus, A ... RNA polymerase II subunit RPB9 is required for accurate start site selection. Hull, M.W., McKune, K., Woychik, N.A. Genes Dev. ...
DNA directed RNA polymerase II 14.4 kda polypeptide , DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit F , DNA-directed RNA polymerases I ... Target Polymerase (RNA) II (DNA Directed) Polypeptide F (POLR2F) * Polymerase (RNA) II (DNA Directed) Polypeptide F (POLR2F) ... anti-Polymerase (RNA) II (DNA Directed) Polypeptide E, 25kDa Antibodies * anti-Polymerase (RNA) II (DNA Directed) Polypeptide D ... anti-Polymerase (RNA) II (DNA Directed) Polypeptide C, 33kDa Antibodies * anti-Polymerase (RNA) II (DNA Directed) Polypeptide B ...
... it - Gentaur.com - Product info ... Recombinant DNA directed RNA polymerase subunit alpha rpoA DNA directed RNA polymerase subunit alpha rpoA Suppplier: ... Methylibium petroleiphilum DNA directed RNA polymerase subunit. Methylibium petroleiphilum DNA directed RNA polymerase subunit ... Halobacterium salinarum DNA directed RNA polymerase subunit A rpoA2 Suppplier: MBS Recombinant. Price: 2 340.51 USD ...
Chicken Anti-Human DNA-directed RNA Polymerase II 7.6 Kd Polypeptide (POLR2L Polyclonal AntibodyOther ELISA, Western Blot, ... Chicken Anti-Human DNA-directed RNA Polymerase II 7.6 Kd Polypeptide (POLR2L) Polyclonal Antibody, Unconjugated from Lifespan ... Chicken Anti-Human DNA-directed RNA Polymerase II 7.6 Kd Polypeptide (POLR2L Polyclonal AntibodyOther Sub-Family: not assigned- ... Chicken Anti-Polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide L Antibody, Unconjugated from CHEMICON. 9. Chicken Anti-Rab GDP ...
Plants encode subunits for a fourth RNA polymerase (Pol IV) in addition to the well-known DNA-dependent RNA polymerases I, II, ... features of RNA polymerases suggests that Pol IV is an active RNA polymerase with important differences from RNA polymerases I ... IV silences certain transposons and repetitive DNA in a short interfering RNA pathway involving RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 2 ... RNA polymerase subunit families from plants, worms, and yeast. I to IV on the right of each tree indicates RNA polymerase ...
Plants encode subunits for a fourth RNA polymerase (Pol IV) in addition to the well-known DNA-dependent RNA polymerases I, II, ... IV silences certain transposons and repetitive DNA in a short interfering RNA pathway involving RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 2 ... A newly described polymerase found only in plants is required for small RNAs to silence transgenes and a retroelement in ... A newly described polymerase found only in plants is required for small RNAs to silence transgenes and a retroelement in ...
... the polymerase responsible for synthesizing transfer and small ribosomal RNAs in eukaryotes. The carboxy-terminal domain of ... this subunit shares a high degree of sequence similarity to the carboxy-terminal domain of an RNA polymerase II elongation ... This gene encodes a small essential subunit of RNA polymerase III, ... DNA directed RNA polymerase III subunit K; DNA directed RNA polymerase III subunit RPC10; DNA directed RNA polymerases III 12.5 ...
HCA RNA Cell Line for DNA-directed RNA polymerase III subunit RPC5. ... DNA-dependent RNA polymerase catalyzes the transcription of DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside triphosphates as ... RNA Polymerase III Transcription Initiation From Type 1 Promoter 28 RNA Polymerase III Transcription Initiation From Type 2 ... The non-self RNA polymerase III transcripts, such as Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNAs (EBERs) induce type I interferon and NF- ...
... polr2i rna polymerase ii 14 5 subunit rna polymerase ii subunit b9 rpb14 5 dna di ... dna directed rna polymerase ii subunit i dna directed rna polymerase ii subunit rpb9 ... RNA pol. DNA-directed RNA polymerase I largest subunit,DNA-directed RNA polymerase I subunit A,DNA-directed RNA polymerase I ... RNA-di. DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit A,DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB1,DNA-directed RNA polymerase III ...
We have developed an activity-based selection method to evolve DNA polymerases with RNA polymerase activity. The Stoffel ... of Thermus aquaticus DNA polymerase I is displayed on a filamentous phage by fusing it to a pIII coat protein, and the ... Phage particles displaying SF polymerases, which are able to extend the attached oligonucleotide primer by incorporating ... substrate DNA template/primer duplexes are attached to other adjacent pIII coat proteins. ...
2010) An RNA polymerase II- and AGO4-associated protein acts in RNA-directed DNA methylation. Nature 465: 106-109. doi:10.1038/ ... An RNA polymerase II-and AGO4-associated protein acts in RNA-directed DNA methylation. ... An RNA polymerase II-and AGO4-associated protein acts in RNA-directed DNA methylation. ... is a component of RNA polymerases IV and V and is required for RNA-directed DNA methylation. ...
"RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase" by people in this website by year, and whether "RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase" was a major or minor ... RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase*RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase. *RNA Directed DNA Polymerase ... "RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ... Below are the most recent publications written about "RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase" by people in Profiles. ...
Acyrthosiphon pisum DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit beta(rpoB) ,partial. It is produced in Yeast. High purity. Good price. ... DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit beta Short name= RNAP subunit beta EC= 2.7.7.6 Alternative name(s): RNA polymerase subunit ... DNA-dependent RNA polymerase catalyzes the transcription of DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside triphosphates as ... Acyrthosiphon pisum DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit beta(rpoB) ,partial. Recombinant Buchnera aphidicola subsp. ...
RNA Polymerase I, RNA Polymerase III, and Mitochondrial Transcription 113 RNA Polymerase III Abortive And Retractive Initiation ... HCA RNA Cell Line for DNA-directed RNA polymerase III subunit RPC3. ... DNA-dependent RNA polymerase catalyzes the transcription of DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside triphosphates as ... Specific core component of RNA polymerase III which synthesizes small RNAs, such as 5S rRNA and tRNAs. May direct with other ...
DNA-directed RNA polymerase, etc ; Orthomyxoviridae; RNA; RNA-directed RNA polymerase; gene expression; influenza; ... You searched for: Subject DNA-directed RNA polymerase Remove constraint Subject: DNA-directed RNA polymerase Start Over ... DNA-directed RNA polymerase, etc ; Escherichia coli; RNA; nucleotides; Show all 4 Subjects. Abstract:. ... RNA polymerase can ... DNA-directed RNA polymerase, etc ; DNA replication; DNA topoisomerase; cell nucleolus; genes; loci; ribosomal DNA; ...
RNA) II (DNA directed) Polypeptide H from Prospec cat# pro-1443. ProteoGenix provides you the best Recombinant proteins.Shop ... Buy Recombinant Human Polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) Polypeptide H Protein now. Add to cart ... More info about Recombinant Human Polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) Polypeptide H Protein. Brand: Prospec. ... Proteins>Recombinant proteins>Recombinant Human Polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) Polypeptide H Protein ...
DNA-dependent RNA polymerase catalyzes the transcription of DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside triphosphates as ... DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit beta - Also known as RPOB_STAAR, rpoB. ... DNA-dependent RNA polymerase catalyzes the transcription of DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside triphosphates as ... DNA-dependent RNA polymerase catalyzes the transcription of DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside triphosphates as ...
DNA-dependent RNA polymerase catalyzes the transcription of DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside triphosphates as ... DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit beta - Also known as RPOC_ACTP2, rpoC. ... DNA-dependent RNA polymerase catalyzes the transcription of DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside triphosphates as ... DNA-dependent RNA polymerase catalyzes the transcription of DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside triphosphates as ...
You searched for: Subject DNA-directed RNA polymerase Remove constraint Subject: DNA-directed RNA polymerase Subject DNA ... DNA-directed RNA polymerase, etc ; DNA; DNA-directed DNA polymerase; cellular microenvironment; dielectric properties; ... DNA-directed RNA polymerase, etc ; DNA; RNA; biogenesis; enzyme activity; genomics; transcription initiation; Show all 7 ... DNA-directed RNA polymerase, etc ; Archaea; DNA; RNA; bacteria; bacteriophages; eukaryotic cells; protein subunits; virion; ...
  • 19 Polymerase (RNA) II (DNA Directed) Polypeptide F (POLR2F) Antibodies from 6 manufacturers are available on www.antibodies-online.com. (antibodies-online.com)
  • A section of DNA containing the codons for the amino acids which make a polypeptide chain is called a gene. (abpischools.org.uk)
  • The transgene contains a tyrosinase gene under the control of a polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide A (Polr2a) promoter. (jax.org)
  • Although this polypeptide has the same function as the three nuclear DNA-directed RNA polymerases, it is more closely related to RNA polymerases of bacteriophage (including T7 RNA polymerase), mitochondrial polymerases of lower eukaryotes as well as chloroplastic RpoT polymerases. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene encodes a small essential subunit of RNA polymerase III, the polymerase responsible for synthesizing transfer and small ribosomal RNAs in eukaryotes. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Using contextual information from domain architectures and gene-neighborhoods we present evidence that they are likely to possess both primase and DNA polymerase activity, comparable to the previously reported prim-pol proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • RNA polymerase activity dependent on DNA- or RNA-templates additionally evolved in the double-psi-beta-barrel fold, respectively represented by the primary enzymes of cellular transcription and polymerases involved in eukaryotic gene silencing (and their phage relatives) [ 7 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include transcription coactivator activity and DNA-directed 5'-3' RNA polymerase activity . (genecards.org)
  • Mediator functions as a bridge to convey information from gene-specific regulatory proteins to the basal RNA polymerase II transcription machinery. (genecards.org)
  • A transgenic construct containing a tyrosinase gene under the control of an RNA polymerase II 1 promoter, was introduced into FVB/N fertilized mouse eggs and founder animals obtained. (jax.org)
  • AT1b DNA-directed RNA polymerase III (rpoB) gene, partial cds. (atcc.org)
  • AT1b small subunit ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence. (atcc.org)
  • Hippocampal RNA samples from BTBR, En2 −/− and respective control (C57Bl/6J and En2 +/+ ) adult mice were assessed for differential gene expression using microarrays. (frontiersin.org)
  • also known as EC: 2.7.7.6, DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit A, DNA-directed RNA polymerase III largest subunit, is encoded by the POLR2A (also known as POLR2) gene (Gene ID: 5430) in human. (fishersci.com)
  • RNA polymerase II is a specific RNA polymerase that usually is the key part of the catalysis process that produces each RNA from the DNA gene or isoform to ultimately make a protein. (wikiversity.org)
  • DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLR2A gene. (wikiversity.org)
  • RNA polymerase II subunit B4 (RPB4) encoded by the POLR2D gene [7] is the fourth largest subunit and may have a stress protective role. (wikiversity.org)
  • Gene-specific synthetic DNA template designed to give a positive real-time PCR result when used with the corresponding primer assay. (bio-rad.com)
  • These DNA primer pairs were designed by prioritizing the gene regions most commonly found in transcript variants. (bio-rad.com)
  • Reference genes are used in relative gene expression analysis to normalize for variation in the amount of input messenger RNA (mRNA) among samples. (bio-rad.com)
  • RNA polymerase IV (or RNAP IV) is an enzyme that synthesizes small interfering RNA (siRNA) in plants, which silence gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Panday A, Gupta A, Srinivasa K, Xiao L, Smith MD, Grove A. DNA damage regulates direct association of TOR kinase with the RNA polymerase II-transcribed HMO1 gene. (harvard.edu)
  • The Regulation of rRNA Gene Transcription during Directed Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells. (harvard.edu)
  • DNA-directed RNA polymerase, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLRMT gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene encodes a mitochondrial DNA-directed RNA polymerase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene product is responsible for mitochondrial gene expression as well as for providing RNA primers for initiation of replication of the mitochondrial genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Halobacterial S9 operon contains two genes encoding proteins homologous to subunits shared by eukaryotic RNA polymerases I, II, and III. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Most RNA polymerases are multimeric enzymes and are composed of a variable number of subunits. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The core RNA polymerase complex consists of five subunits (two alpha, one beta, one beta-prime and one omega) and is sufficient for transcription elongation and termination but is unable to initiate transcription. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Eukaryotic RNA polymerases, whose molecular masses vary in size from 500 to 700 kDa, contain two non-identical large (>100 kDa) subunits and an array of up to 12 different small (less than 50 kDa) subunits. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • This family includes RNA polymerase III subunit RPC8, and archaeal RNA polymerase subunits RpoE and RpoE1. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Plants encode subunits for a fourth RNA polymerase (Pol IV) in addition to the well-known DNA-dependent RNA polymerases I, II, and III. (sciencemag.org)
  • By mutation of the two largest subunits (NRPD1a and NRPD2), we show that Pol IV silences certain transposons and repetitive DNA in a short interfering RNA pathway involving RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 2 and Dicer-like 3. (sciencemag.org)
  • We describe here how SDE4 encodes the largest subunit of a putative RNA polymerase that is distinct from eukaryotic RNA polymerases I, II, and III (whose subunits in Arabidopsis are designated by the prefix NRPA, NRPB , or NRPC , respectively). (sciencemag.org)
  • May be involved either in the recruitment and stabilization of the subcomplex within RNA polymerase III, or in stimulating catalytic functions of other subunits during initiation. (nih.gov)
  • Non-canonical multisubunit DNA-dependent RNA-polymerases (RNAP) form a new group of the main transcription enzymes, which have only distinct homology to the catalytic subunits of canonical RNAPs of bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes. (usda.gov)
  • Component of the RNA polymerase III (Pol III) complex consisting of 17 subunits. (icr.ac.uk)
  • Component of the Pol II(G) complex, which contains the RNA polymerase II (Pol II) core complex subunits and Polr2m and appears to be an abundant form of Pol II. (rcsb.org)
  • RNA polymerase II of Saccharomyces cerevisiae consisting of all 12 subunits. (wikiversity.org)
  • In combination with several other polymerase subunits, it forms the DNA binding domain of the polymerase, a groove in which the DNA template is transcribed into RNA. (wikiversity.org)
  • RPB2 (POLR2B) is the second largest subunit which in combination with at least two other polymerase subunits forms a structure within the polymerase that maintains contact in the active site of the enzyme between the DNA template and the newly synthesized RNA. (wikiversity.org)
  • RPB6 (POLR2F) forms a structure with at least two other subunits that stabilizes the transcribing polymerase on the DNA template. (wikiversity.org)
  • Such an evolutionary pathway is supported by the fact that RNAP IV is composed of 12 protein subunits that are either similar or identical to RNA polymerase II, and is specific to plant genomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNAP IVa was specified to be RNAP IV while RNAP IVb became known as RNAP V. RNA Polymerase IV is composed of 12 protein subunits that are either similar or identical to the 12 subunits composing RNA Polymerase II. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only four subunits distinguish RNAP IV structure from RNAP II and RNAP V. RNA Polymerase V differs from RNAP II by six subunits, indicating that both RNAP IV and RNAP V evolved from RNAP II in plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • The largest subunit is encoded by NRPD1 (formerly NRPD1a), while the second largest subunit is encoded by NRPD2 and is shared with RNAP V. These subunits contain carboxyl-terminal domains (CTDs) which are necessary for the production of 20-30% of the siRNAs produced by RNA Polymerase IV, yet are not required for DNA methylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Model RNAs and proteins are also reported here. (nih.gov)
  • POLR3K has direct interactions with proteins and molecules. (creativebiomart.net)
  • The Stoffel fragment (SF) of Thermus aquaticus DNA polymerase I is displayed on a filamentous phage by fusing it to a pIII coat protein, and the substrate DNA template/primer duplexes are attached to other adjacent pIII coat proteins. (semanticscholar.org)
  • More recently we showed that archaeo-eukaryotic type primases (and prim-pol proteins with both primase and DNA polymerase activity) also contain a derived version of this fold, which is further related to DNA-binding domains of certain viral replication initiation proteins and the catalytic domain of rolling circle replicator tyrosine recombinases [ 5 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Networks representing this contextual information also suggest that different families of DNA polymerases, primases, helicases and associated replication proteins frequently displace each other in different genomes or mobile elements, thereby reinforcing their functional equivalence (Fig. 1A ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mediator is recruited to promoters by direct interactions with regulatory proteins and serves as a scaffold for the assembly of a functional preinitiation complex with RNA polymerase II and the general transcription factors. (genecards.org)
  • Due to its role in DNA repair in association with the other ERCC proteins, it is possible ERCC5 plays a role in human ageing. (senescence.info)
  • Kelleher, R. J. 3rd, Flanagan, P. M. & Kornberg, R. D. A novel mediator between activator proteins and the RNA polymerase II transcription apparatus. (nature.com)
  • In keeping with the convention of naming RNA polymerases, we henceforth refer to this enzyme as RNA polymerase IV (Pol IV) and the largest subunit encoded at SDE4 as NRPD1a. (sciencemag.org)
  • C ) Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA purified from the same tissues as in (B), digested with the methylation-sensitive enzyme Sau96I, and probed for GFP. (sciencemag.org)
  • An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. (rush.edu)
  • As part of a biochemical search for a virus in melanomas preliminary kinetic studies with RNA directed DNA polymerase from avian myeloblastosis virus showed that thymidine labeled triphosphate (TTP) stimulates the enzyme. (elsevier.com)
  • Enzyme involved in the transcription of DNA and the production of mRNA. (abpischools.org.uk)
  • The enzyme is involved in the breakdown of the hydrogen bonds between the two strands of DNA in the formation of mRNA, and the build up of the mRNA strand from 5-3 end. (abpischools.org.uk)
  • The breakdown of the hydrogen bonds between the two strands of DNA is catalysed by the enzyme DNA-directed RNA polymerase (RNA polymerase). (abpischools.org.uk)
  • In biochemistry , a reverse transcriptase , also known as RNA-dependent DNA polymerase , is a DNA polymerase enzyme that transcribes single-stranded RNA into single-stranded DNA . (bionity.com)
  • Reverse-transcribing RNA viruses , such as retroviruses , use the enzyme to reverse-transcribe their RNA genomes into DNA, which is then integrated into the host genome and replicated along with it. (bionity.com)
  • Specifically, it interacts with bacterial RNA polymerase but does not inhibit the mammalian enzyme. (drugbank.ca)
  • Part of the enzyme was made transparent so the RNA and DNA can be seen. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNA polymerase (RNAP) is the enzyme which does transcription .The 2006 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to Roger D. Kornberg for creating detailed molecular images of RNA polymerase during various stages of the transcription process. (wikipedia.org)
  • Next, DICER-Like Protein 3 (DLP3), an enzyme which slices double stranded RNA substrates, cleaves the double stranded precursor into siRNAs that are each 24 nucleotides long. (wikipedia.org)
  • The top 10 genes from the 303 aberrantly expressed genes of interest included ubiquitin conjugating enzyme E2 variant 2, small ubiquitin‑related modifier 1, small RNA binding exonuclease protection factor La, Finkel‑Biskis‑Reilly murine sarcoma virus (FBR‑MuSV) ubiquitously expressed, centrosomal protein 290 kDa, DNA‑directed RNA polymerase II subunit K, cullin‑4B, matrin‑3 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The enzyme functions in the nucleolar structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. (harvard.edu)
  • Transcription initiation from promoter elements requires a sixth, dissociable subunit called a sigma factor, which reversibly associates with the core RNA polymerase complex to form a holoenzyme [ PMID: 3052291 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • RNA synthesis follows after the attachment of RNA polymerase to a specific site, the promoter, on the template DNA strand. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • This crucial step triggers RNA polymerase II release from promoter-proximal pausing and expression of DNA damage response genes. (usda.gov)
  • Biochemical studies have suggested that stimuli predominantly affect the rates of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) recruitment and polymerase release from promoter-proximal pausing. (usda.gov)
  • Transcription initiation can be reconstituted from highly purified general transcription factors (GTFs), RNA polymerase II (pol II), and promoter DNA. (usda.gov)
  • At the start of transcription, a single-stranded DNA template strand of the promoter is positioned within the central active site cleft of Pol II. (rcsb.org)
  • We determined early viral changes (12 weeks) in YMDD mutants (rtM204I [YIDD sequence], rtM204V [YVDD]) and rtL180M in all 39 patients as well as amino acid changes in the polymerase reverse transcriptase (rt) region and precore/core promoter mutations in 15 patients who received long-term treatment (more than 1 year). (nih.gov)
  • The relative locations of the catalytic site and a specific promoter recognition residue allow the orientation of the polymerase on the template to be defined. (nih.gov)
  • In eukaryotes, there are three different forms of DNA-dependent RNA polymerases ( EC:2.7.7.6 ) transcribing different sets of genes. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • A multiplicity of factors contributes to selective RNA polymerase III occupancy of a subset of RNA polymerase III genes in mouse liver. (nih.gov)
  • Genes occupy a fixed position, called a locus, on a particular DNA molecule. (abpischools.org.uk)
  • The encoded protein interacts with the human RNA polymerase II holoenzyme and is involved in transcriptional regulation of RNA polymerase II transcribed genes. (genecards.org)
  • Component of the Mediator complex, a coactivator involved in the regulated transcription of nearly all RNA polymerase II-dependent genes. (genecards.org)
  • These are a broad class of genes that encode RNA which is not translated into protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most important RNA genes are transfer RNA (tRNA) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA), both of which are involved in the process of translation. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, since the late 1990s, many new RNA genes have been found, and thus RNA genes may play a much more significant role than previously thought. (wikipedia.org)
  • The core regulated genes are involved predominantly in cell cycle/apoptosis and DNA synthesis in response to HDAC inhibitors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Discovered via phylogenetic studies of land plants, genes of RNAP IV are thought to have resulted from multistep evolution processes that occurred in RNA Polymerase II phylogenies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yeast RNA polymerase III transcription factors and effectors. (yeastgenome.org)
  • Thompson, C. M., Koleske, A. J., Chao, D. M. & Young, R. A. A multisubunit complex associated with the RNA polymerase II CTD and TATA-binding protein in yeast. (nature.com)
  • The RNA synthesis process continues until a termination sequence is reached. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • DNA polymerase of reticuloendotheliosis virus: inability to detect endogenous RNA-directed DNA synthesis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Here it lines up on the surface of a ribosome and directs the synthesis of a protein based on the original DNA code. (abpischools.org.uk)
  • Rifapentine acts via the inhibition of DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, leading to a suppression of RNA synthesis and cell death. (drugbank.ca)
  • Eukaryotes have various RNAPs in their nuclei , each to synthesis a type of RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Via its synthesis of siRNA, RNAP IV is involved in regulation of heterochromatin formation in a process known as RNA directed DNA Methylation (RdDM). (wikipedia.org)
  • Spt6 Is Essential for rRNA Synthesis by RNA Polymerase I. Mol Cell Biol. (harvard.edu)
  • Regulation of ribosomal RNA synthesis in T cells: requirement for GTP and Ebp1. (harvard.edu)
  • RNA polymerase I: located in the nucleoli, synthesises precursors of most ribosomal RNAs. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • RNA polymerase II: occurs in the nucleoplasm, synthesises mRNA precursors. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • RNA polymerase III: also occurs in the nucleoplasm, synthesises the precursors of 5S ribosomal RNA, the tRNAs, and a variety of other small nuclear and cytosolic RNAs. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Largest and catalytic component of RNA polymerase II which synthesizes mRNA precursors and many functional non-coding RNAs. (rcsb.org)
  • Largest and catalytic core component of RNA polymerase I which synthesizes ribosomal RNA precursors. (uniprot.org)
  • Pol II synthesizes mRNA precursors and many functional non-coding RNAs and is the central component of the basal RNA polymerase II transcription machinery. (rcsb.org)
  • Common component of RNA polymerases I, II and III which synthesize ribosomal RNA precursors, mRNA precursors and many functional non-coding RNAs, and small RNAs, such as 5S rRNA and tRNAs, respectively. (uniprot.org)
  • RNA polymerase II synthesizes precursors of mRNAs and most snRNA and microRNAs . (wikipedia.org)
  • Structure-function analysis of hRPC62 provides insights into RNA polymerase III transcription initiation. (nih.gov)
  • Here we describe a useful approach to study the dynamics of initiation and early elongation, comprising an in vitro transcription system in which complexes are assembled on immobilized DNA templates and analyzed by quantitative mass spectrometry. (usda.gov)
  • EMDB-3375: Transcription initiation complex structures elucidate DNA opening. (pdbj.org)
  • Forms the polymerase active center together with the second largest subunit. (rcsb.org)
  • RPB1 is the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II. (wikiversity.org)
  • We prepared polyclonal antibodies to YSATLRY from human sera to immunoprecipitate the native antigen, which was identified as the carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) of DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB1. (biomedcentral.com)
  • RPB1 is part of the core element with the central large cleft, the clamp element that moves to open and close the cleft and the jaws that are thought to grab the incoming DNA template. (rcsb.org)
  • A bridging helix emanates from RPB1 and crosses the cleft near the catalytic site and is thought to promote translocation of Pol II by acting as a ratchet that moves the RNA-DNA hybrid through the active site by switching from straight to bent conformations at each step of nucleotide addition. (rcsb.org)
  • RNA_pol_Rpb1_1. (univ-lyon1.fr)
  • RNA_pol_Rpb1_3. (univ-lyon1.fr)
  • RNA_pol_Rpb1_6. (univ-lyon1.fr)
  • RNA_pol_Rpb1_7. (univ-lyon1.fr)
  • No. 05-952-I, is a mouse monoclonal antibody that detects DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB1 and has been tested for use in Dot Blot, Chromatin Immunoprecipitation, Immunoprecipitation, Inhibition assay, and Western Blotting. (fishersci.com)
  • Clone 8WG16 specifically detects DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB1. (fishersci.com)
  • The groove in which the DNA template is transcribed into RNA is composed of RPB9 (POLR2I) and RPB1. (wikiversity.org)
  • DNA-directed RNA polymerases EC:2.7.7.6 (also known as DNA-dependent RNA polymerases) are responsible for the polymerisation of ribonucleotides into a sequence complementary to the template DNA. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The carboxy-terminal domain of this subunit shares a high degree of sequence similarity to the carboxy-terminal domain of an RNA polymerase II elongation factor. (creativebiomart.net)
  • 2019) analyze the role of the length and sequence complexity of the RNA polymerase II unstructured C-terminal domain in animal viability, development, and the dynamics of RNA polymerase II in vivo. (usda.gov)
  • Sequence of bases in a DNA molecule which codes for the sequence of amino acids in a protein. (abpischools.org.uk)
  • A group of three bases within the DNA molecule which code for a specific amino acid or for the beginning or ending of a transcription sequence. (abpischools.org.uk)
  • The genetic code is held within the sequence of bases in the DNA double helix. (abpischools.org.uk)
  • The mRNA which is built up has the same base sequence as the 3'strand of DNA, with thymine replaced with uracil. (abpischools.org.uk)
  • Using sequence profile methods and structural comparisons we characterize a previously unknown family of nucleic acid polymerases in a group of mobile elements from genomes of diverse bacteria, an algal plastid and certain DNA viruses, including the recently reported Sputnik virus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Download DNA or protein sequence, view genomic context and coordinates. (yeastgenome.org)
  • The commercial availability of reverse transcriptase greatly improved knowledge in the area of molecular biology as, along with other enzymes, it allowed scientists to clone, sequence and characterise DNA. (bionity.com)
  • Eukaryotic cells are also known to contain separate mitochondrial and chloroplast RNA polymerases. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • One line led to the modern DNA polymerases and reverse transcriptases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inhibitor or Reverse Transcriptases or of RNA-dIrected DNA polymerase. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Although RNA is a single stranded molecule it is found in three very different forms which enable it to carry out three very different functions. (abpischools.org.uk)
  • RNA polymerase (RNAP) in action. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNAP IV belongs to a family of enzymes that catalyze the process of transcription known as RNA Polymerases, which synthesize RNA from DNA templates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Later experiments have shown that what was once thought to be two forms of RNAP IV are actually two structurally and functionally distinct polymerases. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is evidence that RNA Polymerase IV (RNAP IV) is responsible for producing heterochromatin, as dysfunction of either RNAP IV catalytic subunit (NRPD1 and NRPD2) disrupts the formation of heterochromatin. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the first step of heterochromatin formation, RNAP IV couples with an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase known as RDR2 to make a double stranded precursor to siRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, the Northern analysis of wild-type and nrpd1a-1 flowers showed that increased accumulation of GFP mRNA (4.5-fold) and PVX-GFP RNA in nrpd1a-1 corresponded to a sixfold reduction of 21- to 24-nucleotide (nt) GFP siRNAs ( Fig. 1B ) relative to wild type. (sciencemag.org)
  • Human placental extracts contain a specific inhibitor of mammalian retroviral RNA-directed DNA polymerase (deoxynucleosidetriphosphate:DNA deoxynucleotidyltransferase, EC 2.7.7.7) activity. (elsevier.com)
  • Specific peripheric component of RNA polymerase III which synthesizes small RNAs, such as 5S rRNA and tRNAs. (nih.gov)
  • POLR3G is a specific peripheric component of RNA polymerase III which synthesizes small RNAs, such as 5S rRNA and tRNAs. (absave.com)
  • Eight commonly used RNA markers were chosen including -actin, GAPDH, RPS29, 18S rRNA, 5S rRNA, U6 snRNA, miRNA-9 and miRNA-125b, and the expression levels were detected in brain tissue by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR. (bireme.br)
  • RNA polymerase I synthesizes a pre- rRNA which will form the major RNA sections of the ribosome . (wikipedia.org)
  • RNA polymerase III synthesizes tRNAs , rRNA 5S and other small RNAs found in the nucleus and cytosol . (wikipedia.org)
  • RNA polymerase IV synthesizes siRNA in plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNA polymerase V synthesizes RNAs involved in siRNA -directed heterochromatin formation in plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Belongs to the archaeal rpoH/eukaryotic RPB5 RNA polymerase subunit family. (abcam.com)
  • Results from comparative genomics have shown that, unlike their cellular counterparts, the universe of selfish elements comprised of viruses, plasmids and certain replicative transposons show an enormous diversity of nucleic acid polymerases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The other line led to all modern cellular RNA polymerases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Functional divergence of eukaryotic RNA polymerases: unique properties of RNA polymerase I suit its cellular role. (harvard.edu)
  • Crystal structure of Thermus aquaticus core RNA polymerase at 3.3 A resolution. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • POLR3K has several biochemical functions, for example, DNA binding, DNA-directed RNA polymerase activity, contributes_to RNA polymerase III activity. (creativebiomart.net)
  • An area with three bases on a tRNA molecule which binds to the corresponding three bases on the messenger RNA attached to a ribosome. (abpischools.org.uk)
  • Messenger RNA (mRNA) is the molecule which transcribes the DNA code and carries it out of the nucleus through the pores in the nuclear membrane into the cytoplasm of the cell. (abpischools.org.uk)
  • It is building a messenger RNA molecule from a DNA helix. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the help of some other molecules, it makes messenger RNA from a strand of a DNA . (wikipedia.org)
  • Messenger RNA (mRNA). (wikipedia.org)
  • It contains a carboxy terminal domain (CTD) composed of heptapeptide repeats that are essential for polymerase activity. (wikiversity.org)
  • We have developed an activity-based selection method to evolve DNA polymerases with RNA polymerase activity. (semanticscholar.org)
  • DNA Polymerase Activity Assay Using Near-infrared Fluorescent Labeled DNA Visualized by Acrylamide Gel Electrophoresis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This stimulatory effect was used as an additional probe in detecting RNA directed DNA polymerase activity in Greene hamster melanoma in vivo. (elsevier.com)
  • The inhibitor can be removed from these particles by salt extraction, which leads to the recovery of the polymerase activity. (elsevier.com)
  • Thus, the inhibitor does not irreversibly inactivate the particle-associated RNA-directed DNA polymerase activity. (elsevier.com)
  • Thus, they provide a framework to understand the emergence of both DNA and RNA polymerization activity in this class of enzymes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity in susceptible cells. (drugbank.ca)
  • Rifapentine is an antibiotic that inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity in susceptible cells. (drugbank.ca)
  • CATALYTIC ACTIVITY: Nucleoside triphosphate + RNA(n) = diphosphate CC + RNA(n+1). (univ-lyon1.fr)
  • Predicted to contribute to DNA-directed 5'-3' RNA polymerase activity. (mcw.edu)
  • Distinct evolutionary solutions to the priming problem and multiple independent transitions to DNA-template utilizing enzymes appear to have played a key role in the origin of nucleic acid polymerases in these different folds [ 5 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The sde4 mutant plants were also defective for small interfering RNA (siRNA) production and methylation of the SINE retroelement AtSN1 ( 2 ) in a pathway that was subsequently associated with RDR2, Dicer-like 3 (DCL3), and other endogenous siRNAs ( 3 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • It is likely that this silencing pathway is related to the RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated heterochromatinization in Schizosaccharomyces pombe that is also dependent on siRNA, Dicer, and an RDR ( 4 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) is associated with silencing in plants and is likely mediated by an siRNA-guided effector complex. (sciencemag.org)
  • A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. (harvard.edu)
  • These newly identified polymerases help in defining the minimal functional core of superfamily A DNA polymerases and related RNA polymerases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Gentaur Molecular Products can provide you with a wide variety of RNA-related products. (clonagen.com)
  • This preparation of high molecular weight DNA is appropriate for use in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)* process and other molecular biology applications. (atcc.org)
  • Acts as nuclear and cytosolic DNA sensor involved in innate immune response. (nih.gov)
  • RNA polymerase III detects cytosolic DNA and induces type I interferons through the RIG-I pathway. (nih.gov)
  • POLR3G acts as nuclear and cytosolic DNA sensor involved in innate immune response. (absave.com)
  • It plays a key role in sensing and limiting infection by intracellular bacteria and DNA viruses and acts as nuclear and cytosolic DNA sensor involved in innate immune response. (abcam.com)
  • POLR2G encodes RPB7 that may play a role in regulating polymerase function. (wikiversity.org)
  • The existence of this distinct silencing polymerase may explain the paradoxical involvement of an RNA silencing pathway in maintenance of transcriptional silencing. (sciencemag.org)
  • We previously identified an Arabidopsis sde4 mutant that exhibited partial loss of a transgene-silencing pathway that is otherwise dependent on RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 6 (RDR6) ( 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • The non-self RNA polymerase III transcripts, such as Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNAs (EBERs) induce type I interferon and NF- Kappa-B through the RIG-I pathway (By similarity). (nih.gov)
  • Plays a key role in sensing and limiting infection by intracellular bacteria and DNA viruses. (nih.gov)
  • POLR3G plays a key role in sensing and limiting infection by intracellular bacteria and DNA viruses. (absave.com)
  • X-ray crystallography of DNA and RNA polymerases show that, other than having a Mg 2+ ion at the catalytic site, they are virtually unrelated to each other. (wikipedia.org)
  • Essential for efficient transcription from both the type 2 VAI and type 3 U6 RNA polymerase III promoters. (nih.gov)
  • Genomic DNA from Exiguobacterium sp. (atcc.org)
  • Genomic_DNA. (univ-lyon1.fr)
  • Minimal primer dimer formation and genomic DNA cross reactivity. (bio-rad.com)
  • Use the PrimePCR DNA contamination control assay to determine if genomic DNA (gDNA) is present in a sample at a level that may affect PCR results. (bio-rad.com)
  • Consistent with RdDM at the GFP locus in GxA plants, GFP DNA methylation is lost in flowers of rdr6 and sgs3 mutants along with GFP siRNAs ( 1 ) ( Fig. 1C ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Locus info will direct to Tuberculist page while Quickview opens corresponding page in an overlay window to provide a galnce of the TUberculist page. (systemsbiology.net)
  • Chromosome 16 spans about 90 million base pairs (the building material of DNA) and represents just under 3% of the total DNA in cells . (wikipedia.org)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "RNA Polymerase I" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "RNA Polymerase I" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)
  • The global impact of the delta subunit RpoE of the RNA polymerase on the proteome of Streptococcus mutans. (nih.gov)
  • The delta subunit of RNA polymerase, RpoE, is a global modulator of Streptococcus mutans environmental adaptation. (nih.gov)
  • Pol II is the central component of the basal RNA polymerase II transcription machinery. (rcsb.org)
  • Appears to be stable component of the Pol II(G) complex form of RNA polymerase II. (rcsb.org)
  • Telomerase is composed of an RNA component and reverse transcriptase. (bireme.br)
  • The core RNA polymerase complex forms a "crab claw"-like structure with an internal channel running along the full length [ PMID: 10499798 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • A portion (approximately 45%) of the molecule displays extensive structural homology to the polymerase domain of Klenow fragment and more limited homology to the human immunodeficiency virus HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. (nih.gov)
  • However DNA is a very large molecule and it cannot get out of the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. (abpischools.org.uk)
  • The crystal structure of T7 RNA polymerase reveals a molecule organized around a cleft that can accommodate a double-stranded DNA template. (nih.gov)
  • Human placentas contain a specific inhibitor of RNA-directed DNA polymerase. (elsevier.com)
  • May direct with other members of the subcomplex RNA Pol III binding to the TFIIIB-DNA complex via the interactions between TFIIIB and POLR3F. (nih.gov)
  • STRING is a database of known and predicted protein interactions.The interactions include direct (physical) and indirect (functional) associations. (systemsbiology.net)
  • It may direct with other members of the RPC3/POLR3C-RPC6/POLR3F-RPC7/POLR3G subcomplex RNA Pol III binding to the TFIIIB-DNA complex via the interactions between TFIIIB and POLR3F. (absave.com)
  • The encoded protein functions as a scaffolding protein and plays roles in ubiquitination and transcription, in part though interactions with the RNA polymerase II subunit RPB5. (genecards.org)
  • Human Argonaute 2 Is Tethered to Ribosomal RNA through MicroRNA Interactions. (harvard.edu)
  • The Mediator complex directs signals from DNA-binding transcription factors to RNA polymerase II (Pol II). (nature.com)