A reaction that severs one of the sugar-phosphate linkages of the phosphodiester backbone of RNA. It is catalyzed enzymatically, chemically, or by radiation. Cleavage may be exonucleolytic, or endonucleolytic.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A family of enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of RNA. It includes EC 3.1.26.-, EC 3.1.27.-, EC 3.1.30.-, and EC 3.1.31.-.
RNA that has catalytic activity. The catalytic RNA sequence folds to form a complex surface that can function as an enzyme in reactions with itself and other molecules. It may function even in the absence of protein. There are numerous examples of RNA species that are acted upon by catalytic RNA, however the scope of this enzyme class is not limited to a particular type of substrate.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.
The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Molecules of DNA that possess enzymatic activity.
A multicomponent, ribonucleoprotein complex comprised of one of the family of ARGONAUTE PROTEINS and the "guide strand" of the one of the 20- to 30-nucleotide small RNAs. RISC cleaves specific RNAs, which are targeted for degradation by homology to these small RNAs. Functions in regulating gene expression are determined by the specific argonaute protein and small RNA including siRNA (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING), miRNA (MICRORNA), or piRNA (PIWI-INTERACTING RNA).
The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.
A process that changes the nucleotide sequence of mRNA from that of the DNA template encoding it. Some major classes of RNA editing are as follows: 1, the conversion of cytosine to uracil in mRNA; 2, the addition of variable number of guanines at pre-determined sites; and 3, the addition and deletion of uracils, templated by guide-RNAs (RNA, GUIDE).
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
A ribonuclease that specifically cleaves the RNA moiety of RNA:DNA hybrids. It has been isolated from a wide variety of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms as well as RETROVIRUSES.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The extent to which an RNA molecule retains its structural integrity and resists degradation by RNASE, and base-catalyzed HYDROLYSIS, under changing in vivo or in vitro conditions.
An endoribonuclease that is specific for double-stranded RNA. It plays a role in POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL RNA PROCESSING of pre-RIBOSOMAL RNA and a variety of other RNA structures that contain double-stranded regions.
An enzyme that catalyzes the endonucleolytic cleavage of pancreatic ribonucleic acids to 3'-phosphomono- and oligonucleotides ending in cytidylic or uridylic acids with 2',3'-cyclic phosphate intermediates. EC 3.1.27.5.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.
A group of ribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
RNA transcripts of the DNA that are in some unfinished stage of post-transcriptional processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL) required for function. RNA precursors may undergo several steps of RNA SPLICING during which the phosphodiester bonds at exon-intron boundaries are cleaved and the introns are excised. Consequently a new bond is formed between the ends of the exons. Resulting mature RNAs can then be used; for example, mature mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER) is used as a template for protein production.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Ribonucleic acid in fungi having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 28S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Transcription factors that form transcription initiation complexes on DNA, bind to specific DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASES and are required to initiate transcription. Although their binding may be localized to distinct sequence and structural motifs within the DNA they are considered non-specific with regard to the specific gene being transcribed.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A family of RNA-binding proteins that has specificity for MICRORNAS and SMALL INTERFERING RNA molecules. The proteins take part in RNA processing events as core components of RNA-induced silencing complex.
Transcription factors whose primary function is to regulate the rate in which RNA is transcribed.
A reaction that severs one of the covalent sugar-phosphate linkages between NUCLEOTIDES that compose the sugar phosphate backbone of DNA. It is catalyzed enzymatically, chemically or by radiation. Cleavage may be exonucleolytic - removing the end nucleotide, or endonucleolytic - splitting the strand in two.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.
A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
The processes of RNA tertiary structure formation.
Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
The earliest developmental stage of a fertilized ovum (ZYGOTE) during which there are several mitotic divisions within the ZONA PELLUCIDA. Each cleavage or segmentation yields two BLASTOMERES of about half size of the parent cell. This cleavage stage generally covers the period up to 16-cell MORULA.
A family of proteins that promote unwinding of RNA during splicing and translation.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
RNA molecules which hybridize to complementary sequences in either RNA or DNA altering the function of the latter. Endogenous antisense RNAs function as regulators of gene expression by a variety of mechanisms. Synthetic antisense RNAs are used to effect the functioning of specific genes for investigative or therapeutic purposes.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Short chains of RNA (100-300 nucleotides long) that are abundant in the nucleus and usually complexed with proteins in snRNPs (RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL NUCLEAR). Many function in the processing of messenger RNA precursors. Others, the snoRNAs (RNA, SMALL NUCLEOLAR), are involved with the processing of ribosomal RNA precursors.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated RNAs they are not included in this scope.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
Nucleic acid structures found on the 5' end of eukaryotic cellular and viral messenger RNA and some heterogeneous nuclear RNAs. These structures, which are positively charged, protect the above specified RNAs at their termini against attack by phosphatases and other nucleases and promote mRNA function at the level of initiation of translation. Analogs of the RNA caps (RNA CAP ANALOGS), which lack the positive charge, inhibit the initiation of protein synthesis.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
Ribonucleic acid in protozoa having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of linear RNA to a circular form by the transfer of the 5'-phosphate to the 3'-hydroxyl terminus. It also catalyzes the covalent joining of two polyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage. EC 6.5.1.3.
RNA present in neoplastic tissue.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
A large family of RNA helicases that share a common protein motif with the single letter amino acid sequence D-E-A-D (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp). In addition to RNA helicase activity, members of the DEAD-box family participate in other aspects of RNA metabolism and regulation of RNA function.
Small kinetoplastid mitochondrial RNA that plays a major role in RNA EDITING. These molecules form perfect hybrids with edited mRNA sequences and possess nucleotide sequences at their 5'-ends that are complementary to the sequences of the mRNA's immediately downstream of the pre-edited regions.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure where it transcribes DNA into RNA. It has specific requirements for cations and salt and has shown an intermediate sensitivity to alpha-amanitin in comparison to RNA polymerase I and II. EC 2.7.7.6.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Factors that are involved in directing the cleavage and POLYADENYLATION of the of MESSENGER RNA near the site of the RNA 3' POLYADENYLATION SIGNALS.
Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. The enzyme functions in the nucleolar structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salts than RNA polymerase II and III and is not inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.
RNA molecules found in the nucleus either associated with chromosomes or in the nucleoplasm.
A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A proprotein convertase with specificity for the proproteins of PROALBUMIN; COMPLEMENT 3C; and VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR. It has specificity for cleavage near paired ARGININE residues that are separated by two amino acids.
Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.
Constituent of 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 3200 nucleotides. 23S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
The steps that generate the 3' ends of mature RNA molecules. For most mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), 3' end processing referred to as POLYADENYLATION includes the addition of POLY A.
ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.
A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.
Small, linear single-stranded RNA molecules functionally acting as molecular parasites of certain RNA plant viruses. Satellite RNAs exhibit four characteristic traits: (1) they require helper viruses to replicate; (2) they are unnecessary for the replication of helper viruses; (3) they are encapsidated in the coat protein of the helper virus; (4) they have no extensive sequence homology to the helper virus. Thus they differ from SATELLITE VIRUSES which encode their own coat protein, and from the genomic RNA; (=RNA, VIRAL); of satellite viruses. (From Maramorosch, Viroids and Satellites, 1991, p143)
The process of moving specific RNA molecules from one cellular compartment or region to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.
The small RNAs which provide spliced leader sequences, SL1, SL2, SL3, SL4 and SL5 (short sequences which are joined to the 5' ends of pre-mRNAs by TRANS-SPLICING). They are found primarily in primitive eukaryotes (protozoans and nematodes).
Ribonucleic acid in archaea having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Cleavage of proteins into smaller peptides or amino acids either by PROTEASES or non-enzymatically (e.g., Hydrolysis). It does not include Protein Processing, Post-Translational.
A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.
A family of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES isolated from Bacillus subtilis. EC 3.4.21.-
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).
Endopeptidases that are specific for AMYLOID PROTEIN PRECURSOR. Three secretase subtypes referred to as alpha, beta, and gamma have been identified based upon the region of amyloid protein precursor they cleave.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the internal bonds and thereby the formation of polynucleotides or oligonucleotides from ribo- or deoxyribonucleotide chains. EC 3.1.-.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of single-stranded regions of DNA or RNA molecules while leaving the double-stranded regions intact. They are particularly useful in the laboratory for producing "blunt-ended" DNA molecules from DNA with single-stranded ends and for sensitive GENETIC TECHNIQUES such as NUCLEASE PROTECTION ASSAYS that involve the detection of single-stranded DNA and RNA.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Nuclear nonribosomal RNA larger than about 1000 nucleotides, the mass of which is rapidly synthesized and degraded within the cell nucleus. Some heterogeneous nuclear RNA may be a precursor to mRNA. However, the great bulk of total hnRNA hybridizes with nuclear DNA rather than with mRNA.
Small nuclear RNAs that are involved in the processing of pre-ribosomal RNA in the nucleolus. Box C/D containing snoRNAs (U14, U15, U16, U20, U21 and U24-U63) direct site-specific methylation of various ribose moieties. Box H/ACA containing snoRNAs (E2, E3, U19, U23, and U64-U72) direct the conversion of specific uridines to pseudouridine. Site-specific cleavages resulting in the mature ribosomal RNAs are directed by snoRNAs U3, U8, U14, U22 and the snoRNA components of RNase MRP and RNase P.
Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 5.8S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
A sub-subclass of endopeptidases that depend on an ASPARTIC ACID residue for their activity.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
ENDOPEPTIDASES which use a metal such as ZINC in the catalytic mechanism.
Short RNA, about 200 base pairs in length or shorter, that does not code for protein.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Small RNAs found in the cytoplasm usually complexed with proteins in scRNPs (RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL CYTOPLASMIC).
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
An RNA-containing enzyme that plays an essential role in tRNA processing by catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of TRANSFER RNA precursors. It removes the extra 5'-nucleotides from tRNA precursors to generate mature tRNA molecules.

Exposure of neurons to excitotoxic levels of glutamate induces cleavage of the RNA editing enzyme, adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 2, and loss of GLUR2 editing. (1/95)

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Identification of an hepatitis delta virus-like ribozyme at the mRNA 5'-end of the L1Tc retrotransposon from Trypanosoma cruzi. (2/95)

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Structural and functional basis for RNA cleavage by Ire1. (3/95)

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Cleavage of rRNA ensures translational cessation in sperm at fertilization. (4/95)

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Ribonuclease P. (5/95)

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Use of a coenzyme by the glmS ribozyme-riboswitch suggests primordial expansion of RNA chemistry by small molecules. (6/95)

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Transcriptional activity regulates alternative cleavage and polyadenylation. (7/95)

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miRNA-dependent gene silencing involving Ago2-mediated cleavage of a circular antisense RNA. (8/95)

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Caged antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (asODNs) are synthesized by linking two ends of linear oligodeoxynucleotides using a photocleavable linker. Two of them (H30 and H40) have hairpin-like structures which show a large difference in thermal stability (delta T(m) = 17.5 degrees C and 11.6 degrees C) comparing to uncaged ones. The other three (C20, C30 and C40) without stable secondary structures have the middle 20 deoxynucleotides complementary to 40-mer RNA. All caged asODNs have restricted opening which provides control over RNA/asODN interaction. RNase H assay results showed that 40-mer RNA digestion could be photo-modulated 2- to 3-fold upon light-activation with H30, H40, C30 and C40, while with C20, RNA digestion was almost not detectable; however, photo-activation triggered > 20-fold increase of RNA digestion. And gel shift assays showed that it needed > 0.04 mu M H40 and 0.5 mu M H30 to completely bind 0.02 mu M 40-mer RNA, and for C40 and C30, it needed > 0.2 mu M and 0.5 mu M for 0.02 ...
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If you have an undergraduate degree, we generally would consider you for entry into the MSc program; however, students with A- average can be considered for direct entry. Once there, you can reclassify (transfer) into the PhD program. If you have an MSc degree from a Canadian University, you may be accepted directly into the PhD program. Direct entry PhD students are required to pass a qualifying exam within the first 18 months of enrollment.. How can I find out the status of my application? ...
AcademicsNG limited is a non-governmental and non-political agency (private owned). It was established basically to cover various sections of the educational sector of Nigeria; to assist students even after schooling to pursue their career. ...
植物 miRNA 與 mRNA 完全或接近完全的配對結合後, 會引起目標基因在配對的第十位核酸上發生剪切,進行基因表達的調控。 伴隨第二代定序的進步,利用 PARE* (Parallel Analysis of RNA Ends) 方法, 以降解組定序(Degradome Sequencing)測出剪切位點, 被剪切的 3 片段以 RNA 連接酶連接上 5 adaptor 後, 經反轉錄形成雙股 cDNA, 再以 EcoP 15I** 酵素切位接上 3 adaptor 後往下進行定序分析。 目前此方法已成功應用於阿拉伯芥,水稻等植物的降解組定序上 ...
Residential for sale: Attention first time buyers or investors! Move-in ready end unit with extra street parking in the side. Located in the Saddle Ridge complex, this unit has a single attached garage with direct entry, 3 bedrooms and 2 bathrooms...
2019 Admission Requirements - The compulsory WAEC and JAMB subject combinations for Mechantronics Engineering; Which is also applicable to NECO and GCE. You will also find out Direct Entry, IJBM, JUPEB, CAMBRIDGE, NABTEB requirement for this course,
OLEVEL Requirements: Candidate must possess the WASC/NECO/GCE (O/L) with a minimum of 5 credit passes in one sitting or 6 credit passes in two sittings. The credit passes to include English Language, Mathematics, Chemistry, Biology and Physics.. DIRECT ENTRY Requirements: National Diploma with at least Upper Credit in relevant programmes. NCE with minimum of Merit passes in two (2) teaching subjects.. ...
The Pharmacy Technician - Direct Entry Certificate provides students with the knowledge, skills, and abilities needed to prepare for a career as a certified pharmacy technician. The program will prepare the graduate to assume an entry-level pharmacy technician position in a variety of contemporary settings, including, but not limited to, community, hospital, home care and long-term care settings. Students learn various duties a technician may perform, as well as communication skills and aspects of assisting the pharmacist. Students will also perform 135 hours of externship at a local pharmacy to get practical instruction in this field. ...
Pre-mRNA cleavage/polyadenylation (C/P) defines the 3end of a mature transcript. Over half of the human genes have multiple C/P sites (pAs), resulting in mRNA...
Am I eligible to apply? Minimum qualification requirements To be considered for the AFP Graduate Program you must have completed your university degree within the last five years. This is a minimum of a Bachelor degree, but many of our candidates also have postgraduate qualifications. If you have received recognition of prior learning for direct entry into a postgraduate
Students with the state High School Diploma (Devlet Lise Diplomasi) may be considered for entry to Year 1 (of 4) of undergraduate degrees at the University of Strathclyde on a case by case basis, where they have achieved scores of over 85% overall in Grade 12 and in relevant subjects for their proposed degree course.. Devlet Lise Diplomasi holders may also enter Strathclyde via our Undergraduate Foundation Programme - students that successfully pass the Foundation programme may progress directly to Yr2 of their Strathclyde undergraduate programme, meaning that the total length of their degree is still just four years.. Students with IB, A-Levels or the American High School Diploma may be considered for direct entry.. ...
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ALL SKATERS must reach a minimal TES score for both the SP and the FS. They must be in a qualified ISU competition in 2009-2010 or 2010-11 but can be earned on separate competitions. For the men that is 20.00 in the SP and 35.00 in the FS. The ISU has put in a qualifying round, but not all have to skate it. The federations will be given one direct entry into the SP for each skate they had in the Top 18 in last years Worlds. All other entries will have to qualify for the final 12 spots for
Our visit to Wolfson hospital today to see how Chrakhan was progressing was a happy occasion. She was sitting up in bed, but still being monitored. The chest drain tube remained. Intravenous fluid was still being circulated throughout her body in order to keep her hydrated, provide medication, and give access in the case of emergency; intravenous medication acts quicker, because of its direct entry into the blood stream and hence to the target organ. The bluing cyanosis in her lips and tongue had lessened considerably. She was peripherally warm, looked comfortable, and was not in any pain at rest. The chest tube can be quite painful. Chrakhan was on three types of pain relief to keep her fairly pain free. Speaking to an ICU doctor about Chrakhans progress, he mentioned pleural fluid on the opposite site to the chest tube that needed aspirating, which will reduce the likelihood of infection. Her mother looked quite relaxed, sitting beside her daughter. Before I said goodbye I sang to her a ...
Students identified as gifted through the IPRC Process will have a direct entry to the AP program but are required to complete the application ...
EBSU Post UTME / DE Screening Form 2020/2021 Session: Ebonyi State University, EBSU Post-UTME and Direct Entry screening: EBSU Admission Exercise for the 2020/2021 Academic Session would be conducted on Central Admission Processing System (CAPS). See the requirements and how to apply for EBSU post UTME form below.
There are a range of options if you do not meet the academic or English Language requirements for direct entry onto programmes at the University of Leeds.
Applicants without traditional A levels e.g. those with Access or BTEC qualifications may be asked to complete a chemistry test at the University during the summer. Information concerning the content of the chemistry test will be made available to such applicants. A-Level General Studies and Critical Thinking are not accepted. If you do not meet the academic and/or English requirements for direct entry our partner, INTO University of East Anglia offers guaranteed progression on to this undergraduate degree upon successful completion of a preparation programme. Depending on your interests, and your qualifications you can take a variety of routes to this degree: International Foundation in Pharmacy Health and Life Science. DISCLOSURE AND BARRING SERVICE (DBS) AND OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH CHECK. During your first semester, we ask that you apply for a DBS (Disclosure and Barring Service) check. In addition to your DBS check, if you have lived outside of the UK for a continuous period of 4 months or more ...
Major Professor: Dr. Hong Li. Structure and Function of the Cmr Ribonucleoprotein Complex in CRISPR RNA-Mediated RNA Cleavage. ...
University of Wollongong in Dubai (UOWD) is aligning all degrees with the UOW Australia campus, implementing a truly global university degree. This new alignment offers prospective students who have excelled academically at school and meet UOW direct entry requirements, by allowing students to finish their bachelor degrees in three years, instead of the existing four-year programs.. Graduates will be issued an international degree from UOW Australia, which is recognised internationally and accredited by the UAEs Ministry of Education.. Students who have excelled academically in certain high school curricula such as CBSE, GCE A level, IB Diploma, American high school diploma and other recognised international curricula, can qualify for a three-year bachelors degree.. The three-year direct entry admission requirements are applicable to all UOWD bachelor degrees excluding Bachelor of Engineering degrees, which are four-year honours degrees.. In alignment with our home campus in Australia, any ...
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an incurable neurodegenerative disorder affecting motoneurons. Mutations in angiogenin, encoding a member of the pancreatic RNase A superfamily, segregate with ALS. We previously demonstrated that angiogenin administration shows promise as a neuroprotective therapeutic in studies using transgenic ALS mice and primary motoneuron cultures. Its mechanism of action and target cells in the spinal cord, however, are largely unknown. Using mixed motoneuron cultures, motoneuron-like NSC34 cells, and primary astroglia cultures as model systems, we here demonstrate that angiogenin is a neuronally secreted factor that is endocytosed by astroglia and mediates neuroprotection in paracrine. We show that wild-type angiogenin acts unidirectionally to induce RNA cleavage in astroglia, while the ALS-associated K40I mutant is also secreted and endocytosed, but fails to induce RNA cleavage. Angiogenin uptake into astroglia requires heparan sulfate proteoglycans, and engages ...
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Our Professional Masters degrees represent a wide range of medical and health related fields to prepare students for direct entry into the work force or for further graduate study. Watch the GMS video...
At the University of Reading we offer a range of foundation programmes to students not eligible for direct entry onto an undergraduate degree course.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
MicroRNAs play an important role in abiotic stress responses in higher plants and animals, but their role in stress adaptation in algae remains unknown. In this study, the expression of identified and putative miRNAs in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was assessed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction; some of the miRNAs (Cre-miR906-3p) were up-regulated, whereas others (Cre-miR910) were downregulated when the species was subjected to multiple abiotic stresses. With degradome sequencing data, we also identified ATP4 (the d-subunit of ATP synthase) and NCR2 (NADPH: cytochrome P450 reductase) as one of the several targets of Cre-miR906-3p and Cre-miR910, respectively. Q-PCR data indicated that ATP4, which was expressed inversely in relation to Cre-miR906-3p under stress conditions. Overexpressing of Cre-miR906-3p enhanced resistance to multiple stresses; conversely, overexpressing of ATP4 produced the opposite effect. These data of Q-PCR, degradome sequencing and adaptation of overexpressing ...
The PhD program emphasizes the development of analytical technologies, the application of basic research techniques in biochemistry, cell biology, clinical biochemistry, experimental pathology, genetics, immunology, and molecular biology to the study of mechanisms of cell and tissue injury and the pathogenesis of disease. The program also emphasizes the nature, mechanisms, therapy, and prevention of microbial diseases in humans, as well as the processes by which pathogenic microbes are spread.. Applicants may enter the PhD program via one of three routes: 1) following completion of an MSc degree; 2) transfer from the University of Toronto MSc program; or 3) direct entry following completion of a BSc degree.. A limited number of selected students may enter the combined degree program in Medicine, Doctor of /Doctor of Philosophy (MD/PhD) subject to admission into both the departmental PhD program and the MD program.. ...
Not sufficient for entry onto an undergraduate SEF course. Applicants can use the SAT route to show that they are eligible to be considered for direct entry onto an undergraduate SEF course (with standard English language requirements). Alternatively, applicants can first do a Foundation programme, e.g. the QM International Foundation Programme in Humanities and Social Sciences ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Role of Divalent Metal Ions in the Hammerhead RNA Cleavage Reaction. AU - Dahm, Sue Ann C. AU - Uhlenbeck, Olke C.. PY - 1991/10/1. Y1 - 1991/10/1. N2 - A hammerhead self-cleaving domain composed of two oligoribonucleotides was used to study the role of divalent metal ions in the cleavage reaction. Cleavage rates were measured as a function of MgCl2, MnCl2, and CaCl2 concentration in the absence or presence of spermine. In the presence of spermine, the rate vs metal ion concentration curves are broader, and lower concentrations of divalent ions are necessary for catalytic activity. This suggests that spermine can promote proper folding of the hammerhead and one or more divalent ions are required for the reaction. Six additional divalent ions were tested for their ability to support hammerhead cleavage. In the absence of spermine, rapid cleavage was observed with Co2+ while very slow cleavage occurred with Sr2+ and Ba2+. No detectable specific cleavage was observed with Cd2+, ...
Citing the changing demands of health care, Columbia University School of Nursing has instituted a new 15-month masters program. The Masters Direct Entry program will replace a 12-month Entry to Practice program for non-nurse college graduates. The school no longer will offer a bachelors degree in nursing ...
Cas9/Csn1 | CRISPR-associated endonuclease, anti-Cas9/Csn1, anti-Cas9, anti-Csn1 | CRISPR-associated endonuclease antibody, AS16 3690
Ribonuclease, Ribonuclease Iii, mRNA, Ribose, RNA, RNA Cleavage, Gene, Gene Expression, Report, Distance, Family, Hydroxyl, Micrornas, miRNA, Mirnas, Pre-mirna, Rnase, Rnase Iii, Seed, Concentrations
DI-fusion, le Dépôt institutionnel numérique de lULB, est loutil de référencementde la production scientifique de lULB.Linterface de recherche DI-fusion permet de consulter les publications des chercheurs de lULB et les thèses qui y ont été défendues.
RNA degradation is important for the regulation of gene expression. Despite the identification of proteins and sequences related to deadenylation-dependent RNA degradation in plants, endonucleolytic cleavage-dependent RNA degradation has not been studied in detail. Here, we developed truncated RNA end sequencing in Arabidopsis thaliana to identify cleavage sites and evaluate the efficiency of cleavage at each site. Although several features are related to RNA cleavage efficiency, the effect of each feature on cleavage efficiency has not been evaluated by considering multiple putative determinants in A. thaliana. Cleavage site information was acquired from a previous study, and cleavage efficiency at the site level (CSsite value), which indicates the number of reads at each cleavage site normalized to RNA abundance, was calculated. To identify features related to cleavage efficiency at the site level, multiple putative determinants (features) were used to perform feature selection using the Least
A toxin-antitoxin system is a set of two or more closely linked genes that together encode both a protein poison and a corresponding antidote. When these systems are contained on plasmids - transferable genetic elements - they ensure that only the daughter cells that inherit the plasmid survive after cell division. If the plasmid is absent in a daughter cell, the unstable antitoxin is degraded and the stable toxic protein kills the new cell; this is known as post-segregational killing (PSK). Toxin-antitoxin systems are widely distributed in prokaryotes, and organisms often have them in multiple copies. Toxin-antitoxin systems are typically classified according to how the antitoxin neutralises the toxin. In a Type I toxin-antitoxin system, the translation of messenger RNA (mRNA) that encodes the toxin is inhibited by the binding of a small non-coding RNA antitoxin to the mRNA. The protein toxin in a type II system is inhibited post-translationally by the binding of another protein ...
Los Angeles, United State: Complete study of the global CRISPR And CRISPR-Associated (Cas) Genes market is carried out by the analysts in this report, taking into consideration key factors like drivers, challenges, recent trends, opportunities, advancements, and competitive landscape. This report offers a clear understanding of the present as well as future scenario of the global CRISPR And CRISPR-Associated (Cas) Genes industry. Research techniques like PESTLE and Porters Five Forces analysis have been deployed by the researchers. They have also provided accurate data on CRISPR And CRISPR-Associated (Cas) Genes production, capacity, price, cost, margin, and revenue to help the players gain a clear understanding into the overall existing and future market situation.. The research study includes great insights about critical market dynamics, including drivers, restraints, trends, and opportunities. It also includes various types of market analysis such as competitive analysis, manufacturing cost ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
Things I learned from this paper and the associated preview include: You can predict whether an Argonaute protein will have RNA cleavage activity based on the conservation of three amino acid residues (two aspartic acids and a hisitidine); in an uncommon twist, humans actually have less of a protein class than other organisms, 8 AGOs as opposed to 27 in worms and 10 in mustard plants (flies have 5, so we are still superior to flies), ~50 in the Argonautika; multiple RNAi (endo- and exo-) pathways feed into the second (SAGO) step in the worm such that the availability of SAGOs can be a limiting factor, and increasing or decreasing the activity of one of the competing pathways can affect the efficiency of the other; worms have an endo-RNAi pathway that is somehow distinguishable from their miRNA pathway, though Im not sure what the distinction is just yet. My understanding was that I could call endogenously produced small interfering RNAs microRNAs. From their model, it looks like the endo-RNAi ...
Please note: Your browser does not support the features used on Addgenes website. You may not be able to create an account or request plasmids through this website until you upgrade your browser. Learn more ...
The Dissertation is a piece of academic writing of approximately 12,000 words and represents a substantial original work. The Dissertation serves two different purposes in a students progress through a Masters degree program, being a way for a student to study an area of interest in depth, or as a path to further research. Students seeking progress into a research higher degree, such as a doctoral program, are required to complete an empirical study, drawing on primary data. Note that for direct entry into a doctoral degree, an average of at least 80% across the Masters degree is needed. Students not intending to progress to a higher research degree may choose from a range of types of study. The Dissertation must incorporate an appropriate form of critical analysis and have as its basis a clearly structured conceptual framework. It is recommended that students complete a Research Methods unit of study prior to undertaking the Dissertation, which will support the proposal development. This unit ...
The major in Computer Science and Information Security offers the computing, quantitative and analytical expertise public and private organizations need to advance the practice of digital forensics and cybersecurity. The program provides the broad background in computing that is needed to thwart the abuse and misuse of computers, data networks, information systems and information infrastructures, in the environment of ever advancing digital technology. The courses in the Computer Science and Information Security major prepare students for direct entry into the profession as well as entry into graduate and professional programs that rely on computing and quantitative methods, especially in areas related to digital forensics and cybersecurity. Students in the major are supported through John Jays college-wide Cybersecurity Initiative, which offers co-curricular and extracurricular programming and career support. Learning Outcomes. Students will:. ...
Semenova, E, Jore MM, Datsenko KA, Semenova A, Westra ER, Wanner B, van der Oost J, Brouns SJ, K. S. 2011. Interference by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) RNA is governed by a seed sequence.. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A.. 108(25):10098-103. ...
Adını sıklıkla duyacağınız cas, CRISPR-associated sözcüklerinden türetilmiş bir kısaltmadır. Cas gen bölgesi, cas genleri denilen, nükleazlar, helikazlar, polimerazlar ve polinükleotit-bağlayıcı proteinler gibi, biribirine benzemeyen genlerin bir araya getirildiği bir (operon) gen bölgesidir. Çoğunlukla cas genlerine bitişik olarak duran CRISPR gen bölgesi, son derece değişkenlik gösteren spacer adı verilen nükleotit dizileri ile bitişik halde bulunması engellenmiş çok sayıda (palindromik) tekrar dizileridir (Haft ve ark. 2005 ...
Program requirements are reviewed and approved by Faculty Council and Senate. Normally, Undergraduate Certificates will be completed concurrently with an undergraduate degree program and are differentiated from a degree program by a higher GPA requirement (the 4.00 specified above is a lower limit) or a more focused selection of courses. However, direct-entry, stand-alone certificate programs are available and are primarily intended to meet the need for specific professional preparation. Such direct entry certificate programs will generally be in the nature of either career-entry or mid-career development, and candidates will normally already hold a degree or have significant post-secondary education. While most certificate programs (except for the Certificate of Proficiency) will require close to the minimum 24 credits, thereby differentiating a certificate from major requirements within a degree program, it is expected that some Professional Certificate programs will justify lower or higher ...
Recent studies have revealed that endonucleolytic cleavage is a fundamental aspect of nonsense-mediated mRNA decay in eukaryotes (Stevens et al. 2002; Gatfield and Tzaurralde 2004) and trans-translation in prokaryotes (Sunohara et al. 2004). In these cases, the presence of a stop codon somehow promotes endonucleolytic cleavages of mRNA. Similarly, RNase LS in E. coli was suggested to cleave mRNA, depending on a stop codon to accelerate mRNA degradation (Kai and Yonesaki 2002). In this study, we investigated the stop codon-dependent cleavage of T4 soc mRNA by RNase LS and found several characteristic features of the cleavage. First, any stop codon, amber, ochre, or opal, was effective for inducing cleavage at NE. Second, the initiation of translation was required for cleavage, which did not occur when the Shine-Dalgarno sequence was eliminated. Third, cleavage depending on an amber codon was significantly reduced by the presence of amber-codon-suppressing tRNA. All of these results strongly ...
Plasmon ruler RNase A cleavage assay. (A) The RNA plasmon rulers are bound to the surface of a glass flow chamber using a BSA (bovin serum albumin)-Biotin-NeutrAvidin surface chemistry. Upon addition of RNase A, the RNA tether is cleaved, and the dimer converted into a monomer. (B) Single RNA plasmon ruler cleavage trajectory (recorded at 96 Hz). (I) The plasmon ruler is first incubated in buffer containing spermidine at defined concentrations (0 -5 mM), (II) the buffer is exchanged with a 1 nM RNase A solution, causing (III) a strong drop in intensity upon RNA cleavage. Inset: Number of cleavage events for flushing with/without enzyme. ∆tcl is defined as the time between enzyme addition and cleavage. For more information, refer to: L.R. Skewis & B.M. Reinhard, Nano Lett., 8, 214 (2008 ...
If youve perused the photos in the last two links above, youve almost certainly just thrown up in your mouth a bit. Now steel yourselves: with recent advances in gene editing, grand new vistas of bodily augmentation are now on the table. Stalking Cat was still a biologically ordinary human being weighted with silicone and scars; tomorrows equivalent might be, in the most literal sense, a person who chose to become inhuman.. Well begin with CRISPR, which Scientific American explains for lay readers as such:. First discovered in bacteria, Crispr (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) is a genome-editing tool that can target specific genes in any organism based on RNA-DNA base pairing and then precisely cut the gene through the activities of the enzyme known as Crispr-associated protein 9 or Cas9.. Dont be put off by the daunting prose, and instead pay heed to its implication. While no streamlined explanation can do this complex subject justice, the short version might go ...
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) protein 9 system provides a robust and multiplexable genome editing tool, enabling researchers to precisely manipulate specific genomic elements, and facilitating the elucidation of target gene function in...
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) protein 9 system provides a robust and multiplexable genome editing tool, enabling researchers to precisely manipulate specific genomic elements, and facilitating the elucidation of target gene function in...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
MKTKPVSHKTENTYRFLTFAERLGNVNIDIIHRIDRTASYEEEVETYFFEGLLKWRELNLTEHFGKFYKE 1 - 70 VIDKCQSFNQLVYHQNEIVQSLKTHLQVKNSFAYQPLLDLVVQLARDLQMDFYPHFPEFFLTITSILETQ 71 - 140 DTELLEWAFTSLSYLYKYLWRLMVKDMSSIYSMYSTLLAHKKLHIRNFAAESFTFLMRKVSDKNALFNLM 141 - 210 FLDLDKHPEKVEGVGQLLFEMCKGVRNMFHSCTGQAVKLILRKLGPVTETETQLPWMLIGETLKNMVKST 211 - 280 VSYISKEHFGTFFECLQESLLDLHTKVTKTNCCESSEQIKRLLETYLILVKHGSGTKIPTPADVCKVLSQ 281 - 350 TLQVASLSTSCWETLLDVISALILGENVSLPETLIKETIEKIFESRFEKRLIFSFSEVMFAMKQFEQLFL 351 - 420 PSFLSYIVNCFLIDDAVVKDEALAILAKLILNKAAPPTAGSMAIEKYPLVFSPQMVGFYIKQKKTRSKGR 421 - 490 NEQFPVLDHLLSIIKLPPNKDTTYLSQSWAALVVLPHIRPLEKEKVIPLVTGFIEALFMTVDKGSFGKGN 491 - 560 LFVLCQAVNTLLSLEESSELLHLVPVERVKNLVLTFPLEPSVLLLTDLYYQRLALCGCKGPLSQEALMEL 561 - 630 FPKLQANISTGVSKIRLLTIRILNHFDVQLPESMEDDGLSERQSVFAILRQAELVPATVNDYREKLLHLR 631 - 700 KLRHDVVQTAVPDGPLQEVPLRYLLGMLYINFSALWDPVIELISSHAHEMENKQFWKVYYEHLEKAATHA 701 - 770 EKELQNDMTDEKSVGDESWEQTQEGDVGALYHEQLALKTDCQERLDHTNFRFLLWRALTKFPERVEPRSR 771 - 840 ...
... to cleavage of transfer RNA; and to interference with the NF-κB pathway. Currently (as of March 2020) Ranpirnase is in clinical ... The mechanism of action of ranpirnase has been attributed to the RNA interference pathway, potentially through cleaving siRNA ... Zhao H, Ardelt B, Ardelt W, Shogen K, Darzynkiewicz Z (October 2008). "The cytotoxic ribonuclease onconase targets RNA ... protein superfamily and degrades RNA substrates with a sequence preference for uracil and guanine nucleotides. Along with ...
Removal of 3´ and 5´ extensions from DNA or RNA termini. Transcriptional mapping. Cleavage of hairpin loops. Excision of gene ... double-stranded RNA, or DNA / RNA hybrids. Mung Bean Nuclease catalyzes the specific degradation of single-stranded DNA or RNA ... An excess of the enzyme is required to degrade double-stranded DNA or RNA and DNA-RNA hybrids, and in this case, AT-rich ... Cleavage of single-basepair mismatches, as a replacement for CEL 1 Nuclease in TILLING. Unidirectional deletion of large DNA ( ...
There are no RNA binding motifs or actinin type actin binding motifs. There are no N-myristoylation pattern or prenylation ... Cleavage motifs were not found. There are no ER membrane retention signals, nor peroxisomal targeting signal. SKL2 is not ...
While the cleavage of DNA by RNA-bound Cas9 has been shown to be relatively rapid (k ≥ 700 s−1), the release of the cleavage ... Native Cas9 requires a guide RNA composed of two disparate RNAs that associate - the CRISPR RNA (crRNA), and the trans- ... has been shown to be capable of RNA-independent DNA cleavage. The kinetics of DNA cleavage by Cas9 have been of great interest ... Sundaresan R, Parameshwaran HP, Yogesha SD, Keilbarth MW, Rajan R (December 2017). "RNA-Independent DNA Cleavage Activities of ...
They process precursors to ribosomal RNA, small nuclear RNA (snRNA) and small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA). The basic dsRNA cleavage ... They process precursors to ribosomal RNA, small nuclear RNA (snRNA) and small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) Yeast nucleases with the ... "Ribonuclease III mechanisms of double-stranded RNA cleavage". Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: RNA. 5 (1): 31-48. doi:10.1002/ ... They are ubiquitous compounds in the cell and play a major role in pathways such as RNA precursor synthesis, RNA Silencing, and ...
Davies, Julian E.; Schindler, Daniel G. (1977-04-01). "Specific cleavage of ribosomal RNA caused by alpha sarcin". Nucleic ... This cleavage leads to cell death by apoptosis. However, since they are extracellular proteins, they must first enter the cells ... Ribotoxins cleave RNA following a general acid-base mechanism shared by all the extracellular fungal RNases so far ... doi:10.1007/978-94-007-6728-7_16-3. ISBN 978-94-007-6728-7. Tsurugi, K.; Endo, Y. (1987-06-15). "RNA N-glycosidase activity of ...
The granzymes bind directly to the nucleic acids DNA and RNA; this enhances their cleavage of nucleic acid binding proteins. ... June 2014). "Leukocyte protease binding to nucleic acids promotes nuclear localization and cleavage of nucleic acid binding ... December 2011). "Granzyme B inhibits vaccinia virus production through proteolytic cleavage of eukaryotic initiation factor 4 ...
The protein encoded by this gene is one subunit of the cleavage factor Im complex required for 3' RNA cleavage and ... Awasthi S, Alwine JC (2003). "Association of polyadenylation cleavage factor I with U1 snRNP". RNA. 9 (11): 1400-9. doi:10.1261 ... 2005). "Distinct sequence motifs within the 68-kDa subunit of cleavage factor Im mediate RNA binding, protein-protein ... 2000). "Human pre-mRNA cleavage factor IIm contains homologs of yeast proteins and bridges two other cleavage factors". EMBO J ...
Propeptide cleavage site was predicted at R417 while an acetylation was predicted on S2. As of June 2020, SNAP47 is conserved ... Rep is involved in the transcription and replication of viral RNAs. An alternative name is the ORF1ab polyprotein. It contains ... the polyprotein cleavage proteinases. The optimum pH for the proteinase activity is 7.0. Pp1ab is known to be cleaved in 15 ...
This type of probing assay uses the structure dependent cleavage of RNA; single stranded regions are more flexible and unstable ... RNA chemical probing uses chemicals that react with RNAs. Importantly, their reactivity depends on local RNA structure e.g. ... This indicates a functionally important nucleotide, as cleavage of the phosphorothioate by iodine results in an RNA that is ... These reagents would form a covalent adduct on the RNA at the site of reaction. When the RNA is reverse transcribed using a ...
"Single-stranded antisense siRNAs guide target RNA cleavage in RNAi". Cell. 110 (5): 563-74. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(02)00908-X. ... Doi N, Zenno S, Ueda R, Ohki-Hamazaki H, Ui-Tei K, Saigo K (Jan 2003). "Short-interfering-RNA-mediated gene silencing in ... This gene encodes a member of the Argonaute family of proteins which play a role in RNA interference. The encoded protein is ... It may interact with dicer1 and play a role in short-interfering-RNA-mediated gene silencing. This gene is located on ...
Meister G, Landthaler M, Patkaniowska A, Dorsett Y, Teng G, Tuschl T (Jul 2004). "Human Argonaute2 mediates RNA cleavage ... Argonaute Piwi siRNA RNA interference RNA-induced silencing complex RNA-dependent RNA polymerase Tabara, H.; Sarkissian, M.; ... The primary Argonaute complex recruits an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) to generate secondary siRNAs, triggering an ... However, RDE-1 has not been implicated in mRNA-cleavage activity. Instead, RDE-1 with mutations in the conserved DDH motif ...
ATXN1 is involved in binding RNA in vitro and may be involved in RNA metabolism. ATF7IP is a recruiter protein that couples ... No predicted Signal Peptide or signal peptide cleavage. Interacting Proteins: ATXN1, Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 protein, and ...
Keiper, Sonja; Vyle, Joseph S. (2006-05-12). "Reversible Photocontrol of Deoxyribozyme-Catalyzed RNA Cleavage under Multiple- ...
"RNA methylation by Dnmt2 protects transfer RNAs against stress-induced cleavage". Genes & Development. 24 (15): 1590-5. doi: ... RNA. 14 (8): 1663-70. doi:10.1261/rna.970408. PMC 2491481. PMID 18567810. Schaefer M, Pollex T, Hanna K, Tuorto F, Meusburger M ...
2003). "Single-stranded antisense siRNAs guide target RNA cleavage in RNAi". Cell. 110 (5): 563-74. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(02) ... RNA. 10 (3): 387-94. doi:10.1261/rna.5181104. PMC 1370934. PMID 14970384. Liu J, Carmell MA, Rivas FV, et al. (2004). " ... RNA. 10 (3): 387-94. doi:10.1261/rna.5181104. PMC 1370934. PMID 14970384. Mourelatos Z, Dostie J, Paushkin S, Sharma A, ... RNA. 12 (1): 163-76. doi:10.1261/rna.2150806. PMC 1370895. PMID 16301602. Maniataki E, Mourelatos Z (2006). "A human, ATP- ...
... most part of a newly produced RNA and polyadenylates the end produced by this cleavage. The cleavage is catalysed by the enzyme ... The 3′ end is also where the poly(A) tail is found on polyadenylated RNAs. Messenger RNA (mRNA) is RNA that has a coding region ... But, for many long noncoding RNAs - a seemingly large group of regulatory RNAs that, for example, includes the RNA Xist, which ... For further information, see RNA and Messenger RNA RNAs are a type of large biological molecules, whose individual building ...
"RNA methylation by Dnmt2 protects transfer RNAs against stress-induced cleavage". Genes & Development. 24 (15): 1590-5. doi: ... RNA phase transitions driven in part by intermolecular RNA-RNA interactions may play a role in stress granule formation. ... There is also evidence that RNA within stress granules is more compacted compared to RNA in the cytoplasm and that the RNA is ... Thus, some hypothesize that RNA aggregation facilitated by intermolecular RNA-RNA interactions plays a role in stress granule ...
"RNA-guided RNA cleavage by a CRISPR RNA-Cas protein complex". Cell. 139 (5): 945-956. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2009.07.040. PMC ... Sashital DG, Jinek M, Doudna JA (June 2011). "An RNA-induced conformational change required for CRISPR RNA cleavage by the ... Cas13 is an RNA-guided RNA endonuclease, which means that it does not cleave DNA, but only single-stranded RNA. Cas13 is guided ... coli cut the CRISPR RNA precursor within the repeats into mature spacer-containing RNA molecules called CRISPR RNA (crRNA), ...
Other ribotoxins also cleave the RNA of the ribosomes, however there are many more points of cleavage- indicating much less ... "Linkage between substrate recognition and catalysis during cleavage of sarcin/ricin loop RNA by restrictocin". Biochemistry. 46 ... The cleavage rate for an unfolded ssRNA containing the GA sequence is three times less than the full and folded SRL sequence. ... The SRL region of the RNA was named after the alpha-sarcin toxin that targets it. The targeted bond is located within the GAGA ...
"Entrez Gene: CSTF1 cleavage stimulation factor, 3' pre-RNA, subunit 1, 50kDa". Kleiman FE, Manley JL (September 1999). " ... Cleavage stimulation factor 50 kDa subunit is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CSTF1 gene. This gene encodes one of ... Rüegsegger U, Beyer K, Keller W (March 1996). "Purification and characterization of human cleavage factor Im involved in the 3 ... Murthy KG, Manley JL (November 1995). "The 160-kD subunit of human cleavage-polyadenylation specificity factor coordinates pre- ...
The twister ribozyme is a catalytic RNA structure capable of self-cleavage. The nucleolytic activity of this ribozyme has been ... Replacements of the pro-S nonbridging oxygen of the scissile phosphate with a thiol group leads to reduced self-cleavage rates ... In contrast to in vitro selection methods, which have aided in identifying several classes of catalytic RNA motifs, the twister ... Eiler, Daniel; Wang, Jimin; Steitz, Thomas A. (2014-09-09). "Structural basis for the fast self-cleavage reaction catalyzed by ...
Nuclear cleavage occurs in the single strand region linking these two domains. Guo P (2002). Structure and function of phi29 ... Guo PX, Erickson S, Anderson D (1987). "A small viral RNA is required for in vitro packaging of bacteriophage phi 29 DNA". ... In some bacteriophage, an RNA (pRNA) molecule is a vital component of this motor. Structural analyses of the packaging motor ... "Phylogenetic analysis and secondary structure of the Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage RNA required for DNA packaging". J. Biol. ...
Chu J, Dolnick BJ (2002). "Natural antisense (rTSalpha) RNA induces site-specific cleavage of thymidylate synthase mRNA". ...
The cleavage site of leadzyme is located within a four-nucleotide long asymmetric internal loop that also consists of RNA ... Ohmichi, T.; Sugimoto, N. (1997). "Role of Nd3+ and Pb2+ on the RNA Cleavage Reaction by a Small Ribozyme†". Biochemistry. 36: ... Ohmichi, T.; Sugimoto, N. (1997). "Role of Nd3+ and Pb2+ on the RNA Cleavage Reaction by a Small Ribozyme†". Biochemistry. 36: ... Leadzyme is a small ribozyme (catalytic RNA), which catalyzes the cleavage of a specific phosphodiester bond. It was discovered ...
The pistol ribozyme is an RNA structure that catalyzes its own cleavage at a specific site. In other words, it is a self- ... Harris KA, Lünse CE, Li S, Brewer KI, Breaker RR (2015). "Biochemical analysis of pistol self-cleaving ribozymes". RNA. 21 (11 ... 1852-8. doi:10.1261/rna.052514.115. PMC 4604425. PMID 26385507. Ren A, Vušurović N, Gebetsberger J, Gao P, Juen M, Kreutz C, ... Micura R, Patel DJ (2016). "Pistol ribozyme adopts a pseudoknot fold facilitating site-specific in-line cleavage". Nat. Chem. ...
1996). "The RNA 3' cleavage factors CstF 64 kDa and CPSF 100 kDa are concentrated in nuclear domains closely associated with ... "Entrez Gene: CSTF2 cleavage stimulation factor, 3' pre-RNA, subunit 2, 64kDa". Takagaki, Y; Manley J L (March 2000). "Complex ... This gene encodes a nuclear protein with an RRM (RNA recognition motif) domain. The protein is a member of the cleavage ... Cleavage stimulation factor 64 kDa subunit is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CSTF2 gene. ...
"Exogenous control of mammalian gene expression through modulation of RNA self-cleavage". Nature. 431 (7007): 471-6. Bibcode: ... RNA. 10 (10): 1653-61. doi:10.1261/rna.7810204. PMC 1370650. PMID 15383681. Penn AC, Balik A, Greger IH (January 2013). "Steric ... binding to a target sequence within an RNA, inhibiting molecules that might otherwise interact with the RNA. Morpholino oligos ... The figure compares the structures of the two strands depicted there, one of RNA and the other of a Morpholino. Replacement of ...
"Entrez Gene: CSTF3 cleavage stimulation factor, 3' pre-RNA, subunit 3, 77kDa". Takagaki, Y; Manley J L (March 2000). "Complex ... cleavage stimulation factors that combine to form the cleavage stimulation factor complex (CSTF). This complex is involved in ... Cleavage stimulation factor 77 kDa subunit is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CSTF3 gene. The protein encoded by ... 2005). "Human Fip1 is a subunit of CPSF that binds to U-rich RNA elements and stimulates poly(A) polymerase". EMBO J. 23 (3): ...
Regarding the catalytic activity of LNAzymes, a more efficient cleavage of phosphodiester bonds in RNA substrates has been ... LNA nucleotides can be mixed with DNA or RNA residues in the oligonucleotide, in effect hybridizing with DNA or RNA according ... Incorporation of LNA-Type Monomers into DNAzymes Markedly Increases RNA Cleavage". Journal of the American Chemical Society. ... A locked nucleic acid (LNA), also known as bridged nucleic acid (BNA), and often referred to as inaccessible RNA, is a modified ...
RNA editing. Octopuses and other coleoid cephalopods are capable of greater RNA editing (which involves changes to the nucleic ... The eggs have large yolks; cleavage (division) is superficial and a germinal disc develops at the pole. During gastrulation, ... Coleoids rely mostly on ADAR enzymes for RNA editing, which requires large double-stranded RNA structures to flank to the ... High levels of RNA editing do not appear to be present in more basal cephalopods or other molluscs.[118][119] ...
... the cleavage by gamma-cleavage of the transmembrane domain of APP was abolished. A 5-fold drop of amyloid peptide was observed ... negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • proteolysis. • regulation of synaptic plasticity. • ... They showed that cleavage by alpha- and beta- secretase was still normal without the presence of presenilin-1. Meanwhile, ... Also, it is thought that the presenilins are involved in the cleavage of the Notch receptor, such that they either directly ...
Other cleavage products include 3B (VPg), 2C (an ATPase) and 3D (the RNA polymerase). Genomic RNAs of picornaviruses possess ... strand RNA genome is replicated through a double-stranded RNA intermediate that is formed using viral RDRP (RNA-Dependent RNA ... The mRNA encodes RNA dependent RNA polymerase. This polymerase makes complementary minus strands of RNA, then uses them as ... The genome RNA is unusual because it has a protein on the 5' end that is used as a primer for transcription by RNA polymerase. ...
"tRNA / transfer RNA". Learn Science at Scitable.. *^ "Myoclonic epilepsy with ragged-red fibers". Genetics Home Reference. U.S ... Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme. *Steroid 11-beta-hydroxylase. *Aldosterone synthase. *Frataxin ... Mitochondrially encoded tRNA isoleucine also known as MT-TI is a transfer RNA which in humans is encoded by the mitochondrial ... MT-TI is a small 69 nucleotide RNA (human mitochondrial map position 4263-4331) that transfers the amino acid isoleucine to a ...
Patzke H, Tsai LH (2002). "Calpain-mediated cleavage of the cyclin-dependent kinase-5 activator p39 to p29". J. Biol. Chem. 277 ... RNA expression pattern. More reference expression data. Gene ontology. Molecular function. • cyclin-dependent protein kinase 5 ...
Research on psoralen has historically focused on interactions with DNA and RNA (in particular, ICL formation). Psoralen, ... and cleavage is postulated to be initiated by a radical reaction.[19] ... and therefore have been used extensively for the analysis of interactions and structures for both DNA and RNA.[26][27] ... "RNA Duplex Map in Living Cells Reveals Higher-Order Transcriptome Structure". Cell. 165 (5): 1267-1279. doi:10.1016/j.cell. ...
Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ... RNA expression pattern. More reference expression data. Gene ontology. Molecular function. • receptor binding. • neurotrophin ...
RNA: consists of a dimer RNA. It has a cap at the 5' end and a poly(A) tail at the 3' end. The RNA genome also has terminal ... It functions in proteolytic cleavages during virion maturation to make mature gag and pol proteins. ... These inserts are transcribed by enzymes of the host into new RNA molecules that enter the cytosol. Next, some of these RNA ... In most viruses, DNA is transcribed into RNA, and then RNA is translated into protein. However, retroviruses function ...
RefSeq RNA ID: NM_052931, NM_001184714, NM_001184715, NM_001184716, XM_017000215, XM_017000216, XM_017000217 ... "Signal peptide prediction based on analysis of experimentally verified cleavage sites". Protein Sci. 13 (10): 2819-24. PMC ...
Forster AC, Symons RH (Apr 1987). "Self-cleavage of plus and minus RNAs of a virusoid and a structural model for the active ... Atkins JF, Gesteland RF, Cech T (2006). The RNA world: the nature of modern RNA suggests a prebiotic RNA world. Plainview, N.Y ... of RNAs with molecular properties predicted for RNAs of the RNA World constitutes an additional argument supporting the RNA ... Properties of RNA[edit]. The properties of RNA make the idea of the RNA world hypothesis conceptually plausible, though its ...
RNA, ((2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro)C-Gm-Gm-A-A-(2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro)U-(2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro)C-Am-Gm-(2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro)U-Gm-Am-Am-(2'- ... Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ...
negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor ... is released via proteolytic cleavage by the metalloprotease TNF alpha converting enzyme (TACE, also called ADAM17).[26] The ... positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • positive regulation of leukocyte adhesion to arterial ...
The central core contains the viral RNA genome and other viral proteins that package and protect this RNA. RNA tends to be ... For instance, part of the process that allows influenza viruses to invade cells is the cleavage of the viral hemagglutinin ... Because of the absence of RNA proofreading enzymes, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase that copies the viral genome makes an ... The viral RNA (vRNA) molecules, accessory proteins and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase are then released into the cytoplasm (Stage ...
Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ... negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • osteoblast differentiation. • in utero embryonic ... positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • positive regulation of insulin receptor signaling ...
DNA or RNA may be tethered in either single-stranded or double-stranded form, or entire structural motifs can be tethered, such ... and restriction enzyme cleavage.[17] A more recent application of magnetic tweezers is seen in single-complex studies. With the ...
Its preferred cleavage site (after the arginine in the sequence Ile-Glu/Asp-Gly-Arg, IEGR or IDGR) can easily be engineered ... RNA expression pattern. More reference expression data. Gene ontology. Molecular function. • calcium ion binding. • peptidase ...
P450scc catalyzes the first step of steroidogenesis that is cleavage of the side-chain of cholesterol. ACTH also stimulates ... "Mitochondrial-genome-encoded RNAs: differential regulation by corticotropin in bovine adrenocortical cells". Proceedings of ... As indicated above, ACTH is a cleavage product of the pro-hormone, proopiomelanocortin (POMC), which also produces other ...
Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ... RNA expression pattern. More reference expression data. Gene ontology. Molecular function. • transmembrane-ephrin receptor ...
After the mRNA has been cleaved, around 250 adenosine residues are added to the free 3' end at the cleavage site. This reaction ... A 5' cap (also termed an RNA cap, an RNA 7-methylguanosine cap, or an RNA m7G cap) is a modified guanine nucleotide that has ... Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they ... Small interfering RNA (siRNA)Edit. Main article: siRNA. In metazoans, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) processed by Dicer are ...
Exogenous control of mammalian gene expression through modulation of RNA self-cleavage. , journal = Nature , volume = 431 , ... journal = RNA , volume = 10 , issue = 10 , pages = 1653-61 , doi = 10.1261/rna.7810204 , pmid = 15383681 , pmc = 1370650}},/ref ...
In animal cells, a cleavage furrow (pinch) containing a contractile ring develops where the metaphase plate used to be, ... Prescott DM, Bender MA (March 1962). "Synthesis of RNA and protein during mitosis in mammalian tissue culture cells". ...
The detailed time course of this switch in the human cerebellum has been estimated using expression microarray and RNA seq and ... "Extrasynaptic NMDA receptors couple preferentially to excitotoxicity via calpain-mediated cleavage of STEP". The Journal of ...
They break down other enzymes and proteins back into amino acids.[3] Nucleases are enzymes that cut DNA or RNA, often in ... Water molecules join in and make the cleavage in a fraction of a second. Enzymes have these key features: *They are catalytic. ... An example is the cleavage of the polypeptide chain. Chymotrypsin, a digestive protease, is produced in inactive form in the ... p39 Other biocatalysts are catalytic RNA molecules, called ribozymes. ...
"Cleavage of CXCR1 on neutrophils disables bacterial killing in cystic fibrosis lung disease". Nat. Med. 13 (12): 1423-30. doi: ... RNA expression pattern. More reference expression data. Gene ontology. Molecular function. • C-X-C chemokine receptor activity ...
RNA sequencing[edit]. RNA sequencing was one of the earliest forms of nucleotide sequencing. The major landmark of RNA ... and Walter Gilbert published a DNA sequencing method in 1977 based on chemical modification of DNA and subsequent cleavage at ... A successful RNA extraction will yield a RNA sample that should be converted to complementary DNA (cDNA) using reverse ... This method is based on use of RNA polymerase (RNAP), which is attached to a polystyrene bead. One end of DNA to be sequenced ...
RNA binding. • mRNA binding. Cellular component. • eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3. • nucleolus. • cell nucleus. • ... "A novel form of DAP5 protein accumulates in apoptotic cells as a result of caspase cleavage and internal ribosome entry site- ...
Cyanogen bromide cleavage and N-terminal sequences of the fragments". The Biochemical Journal. 215 (3): 565-71. doi:10.1042/ ... RNA expression pattern. More reference expression data. Gene ontology. Molecular function. • calcium ion binding. • peptidase ...
"Sequence-specific cleavage of hepatitis C virus RNA by DNAzymes: inhibition of viral RNA translation and replication". The ... Furthermore, the RNA cleavage rates have been shown to increase after the introduction of intercalators or the substitution of ... "simplest solution for the RNA cleavage problem".[6][12] The 10-23 DNAzyme contains a 15-nucleotide catalytic core that is ... deoxyribozymes which functioned with substrates consisting of either full RNA or full DNA with a single RNA base were both able ...
"Distinct roles for Argonaute proteins in small RNA-directed RNA cleavage pathways". Genes Dev. 18 (14): 1655-66. doi:10.1101/ ... RNAs are the direct products of genes, and these small RNAs can direct enzyme complexes to degrade messenger RNA (mRNA) ... These processed RNAs are incorporated into the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which targets messenger RNA to prevent ... Two types of small ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules - microRNA (miRNA) and small interfering RNA (siRNA) - are central to RNA ...
... both S and L RNA genomes synthesize the antigenomic S and L RNAs, and from the antigenomic RNAs, genomic S and L RNA are ... It has been reported that the cellular protease SKI-1/S1P is responsible for this cleavage. The cleaved glycoproteins are ... while L RNA encodes Z and L proteins. The L protein most likely represents the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase.[23] When the ... The positive- or plus-sense genome, then makes viral complementary RNA (vcRNA) copies of itself. The RNA copies are a template ...
... new cleavages as well as the cleavage at NE were introduced in soc-nel+3b and soc-nel+6b RNAs (Figure 6B) but no cleavage other ... RNA techniques:. Isolation of total RNA from T4-infected cells, primer-extension analysis of soc RNA, and analysis of cDNA ... cleavage at NE was detected in soc-nel/ochre as well as in soc-nel RNA (lane 7). Similar to soc-nel, cleavage at NE occurred in ... RNA Cleavage Linked With Ribosomal Action. Haruyo Yamanishi and Tetsuro Yonesaki. Genetics October 1, 2005 vol. 171 no. 2 419- ...
... it is still a mystery why not every guide RNA elicits target DNA cleavage. Here the authors show that genomic context and ... to direct sequence-specific DNA cleavage. Not every gRNA elicits cleavage and the mechanisms that govern gRNA activity have not ... Even though gRNAs containing these structures do not yield cleavage-competent complexes, they can compete with active gRNAs for ... These results reveal that both genomic context and internal gRNA interactions can interfere with Cas9-mediated cleavage and ...
Co-transcriptional DNA and RNA Cleavage during Type III CRISPR-Cas Immunity.. Samai P1, Pyenson N1, Jiang W1, Goldberg GW1, ... A) Schematic of the dual crRNA-guided DNA and transcript RNA cleavage (red cross). Target sequences are shown in green; the ... Immunity against plasmids and DNA viruses requires DNA, but not RNA, cleavage activity. Our studies reveal a highly versatile ... Arrowheads showed the cleavage sites detected in panel E. (C) In vitro ssRNA cleavage assay of the radiolabeled substrate show ...
Motoneurons Secrete Angiogenin to Induce RNA Cleavage in Astroglia. Alexandra Skorupa, Matthew A. King, Isabela M. Aparicio, ... Motoneurons Secrete Angiogenin to Induce RNA Cleavage in Astroglia. Alexandra Skorupa, Matthew A. King, Isabela M. Aparicio, ... Motoneurons Secrete Angiogenin to Induce RNA Cleavage in Astroglia Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... Motoneurons Secrete Angiogenin to Induce RNA Cleavage in Astroglia. Alexandra Skorupa, Matthew A. King, Isabela M. Aparicio, ...
RNA-guided RNA cleavage by a CRISPR RNA-Cas protein complex.. Hale CR1, Zhao P, Olson S, Duff MO, Graveley BR, Wells L, Terns ... through base pairing between the psiRNA and invader RNA, positioning the region of the RNA-RNA duplex 14 nucleotides from the 3 ... RNA species present in the S-sepharose fraction (visualized by SYBR Gold staining) are shown in left panel. RNAs in the upper ... B) Model for cleavage at two sites directed by two psiRNAs. The 45-nucleotide psiRNA species guides cleavage at site 1 and the ...
Molecular design of an acid-base cooperative catalyst for RNA cleavage based on a dizinc complex. ... In contrast, (Zn2+)2-32− showed lower activity toward ApA cleavage at pH 7.0, which can be ascribed to the absence of the ... Acid-base cocatalyst Dinucleating ligands Dizinc(II) complexes Kinetics and mechanism RNA hydrolysis ... which are responsible for ApA cleavage. The monohydroxo species of (Zn2+)2-2 has two acidic protons, which are not present in ...
... Barman, Jharna Uppsala University, ... but the RNA cleavage sites of the modified AON/RNA were found to be very different. The aza-ENA-T modifications also made the ... The Km and Vmax values obtained from the RNA concentration-dependent kinetics of RNase H promoted cleavage reaction for all AON ... the enzymatic hydrolysis of a specific phosphate in RNA by general base-catalyss in RNA-cleaving proteins (RNase A, RNA ...
... ... for defining the cleavage specificity of endoribonucleolytic toxins. Application of MORE RNA-seq to MazF-mt3 from Mycobacterium ... that inhibits growth by sequence-specific cleavage of single-stranded RNA. Defining the physiological targets of a MazF toxin ... Our findings support an emerging model where both ribosomal and messenger RNAs are principal targets of MazF toxins and suggest ...
... Caryn R. Hale, Peng Zhao, Sara Olson, Michael O. Duff, Brenton R. ... Homology-dependent cleavage of a target RNA. One hypothesis for the mechanism by which CRISPR RNAs and Cas proteins mediate ... The 14-nucleotide product that results from cleavage of the Δ1-6 target RNA at site 2 was observed (Figure 4A), but cleavage at ... In order to determine whether all of the six Cmr proteins are essential for psiRNA-guided RNA cleavage, we assayed cleavage ...
It has been discovered that any RNA can be targeted for cleavage by RNase P from prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells using a ... Sequence-specific and efficient cleavage of these RNA substrates by the appropriate RNA enzymes resulted.. A set of RNA enzymes ... 10 is a diagram of TK and CaT RNA substrate RNAs. The two 13-nt segments highlighted in the TK RNA and CAT RNA sequences ( ... "Cleavage Of Targeted RNA By RNase P" to Altman et al., discloses that it is possible to target any RNA molecule for cleavage by ...
anti-Cleavage Stimulation Factor, 3 Pre-RNA, Subunit 2, 64kDa Antikörper * anti-Cleavage Stimulation Factor, 3 Pre-RNA, ... cleavage stimulation factor, 3 pre-RNA subunit 2, 64 kDa, tau , tauCstF-64 , cleavage stimulation factor, 3 pre-RNA subunit 2 ... Target Cleavage Stimulation Factor, 3 Pre-RNA, Subunit 2, 64kDa, tau Variant (CSTF2T) * Cleavage Stimulation Factor, 3 Pre- ... cleavage stimulation factor, 3 pre-RNA subunit 2, tau (Cstf2t) Antikörper * cleavage stimulation factor subunit 2 tau variant ...
Understanding RNA processing and turnover requires knowledge of cleavages by major endoribonucleases within a living cell. We ... Recapitulating this process in vitro, Hfq guides RNase E cleavage of a representative small-RNA precursor for interaction with ... In Vivo Cleavage Map Illuminates the Central Role of RNase E in Coding and Non-coding RNA Pathways. In: Molecular Cell, Vol. 65 ... small RNAs whereby RNase E acts together with the RNA chaperone Hfq to liberate stable 30 fragments from various precursor RNAs ...
Characterization of a Cleavage Stimulation Factor, 3′ pre-RNA, Subunit 2, 64 kDa (CSTF2) as a Therapeutic Target for Lung ... Characterization of a Cleavage Stimulation Factor, 3′ pre-RNA, Subunit 2, 64 kDa (CSTF2) as a Therapeutic Target for Lung ... Characterization of a Cleavage Stimulation Factor, 3′ pre-RNA, Subunit 2, 64 kDa (CSTF2) as a Therapeutic Target for Lung ... Characterization of a Cleavage Stimulation Factor, 3′ pre-RNA, Subunit 2, 64 kDa (CSTF2) as a Therapeutic Target for Lung ...
The RNA genome is transcribed and replicated by the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase in the cell nucleus (21). The viral RNAs ... Expression of both RNAs is driven by a truncated human RNA polymerase I promoter (nt −250 to −1). The 3′ ends of both RNAs are ... Surprisingly, however, this mutant RNA polymerase was active in RNA replication, as determined by analysis of RNA levels in ... Characterization of the RNA-fork model of virion RNA in the initiation of transcription in influenza A virus. J. Virol. 69 : ...
B) Partially purified Arabidopsis DCLs process miR319 precursor RNAs and PSTVd RNAs into small RNAs of ∼21 nt but not ssGFP RNA ... and minus-concatemeric RNAs or dsPSTVd RNAs generated via a cellular RNA-directed RNA polymerase. It is also possible that the ... A Structured Viroid RNA Serves as a Substrate for Dicer-Like Cleavage To Produce Biologically Active Small RNAs but Is ... A Structured Viroid RNA Serves as a Substrate for Dicer-Like Cleavage To Produce Biologically Active Small RNAs but Is ...
p,Massively parallel sequencing of millions of , 30-nt RNAs expressed in mouse ovary, embryonic pancreas (E14.5), and insulin- ... Mouse let-7 miRNA populations exhibit RNA editing that is constrained in the 5-seed/ cleavage/anchor regions and stabilize ... Our results also demonstrate that the systematic study of sequence variation within specific RNA classes in a given cell type ... Massively parallel sequencing of millions of , 30-nt RNAs expressed in mouse ovary, embryonic pancreas (E14.5), and insulin- ...
2014 (English)In: Handbook of RNA Biochemistry: Second, Completely Revised and Enlarged Edition / [ed] Roland K. Hartmann, ... RNA/DNA-metabolizing enzymes National Category Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Identifiers. URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-307112 ... mediated hydroxyl radical cleavage of proteins, Fenton reaction, Identification of divalent metal ion binding sites in proteins ...
Different cleavage sites are aligned differently in the active site of M1 RNA, the catalytic subunit of Escherichia coli RNase ... RNA; Catalytic/genetics/*metabolism, RNA; Messenger/chemistry/*metabolism, RNA; Transfer/chemistry/metabolism, Ribonuclease P ...
The cleavage pattern derived from in-line probing experiments reflects local and overall conformational changes in RNA upon the ... The cleavage pattern derived from in-line probing experiments reflects local and overall conformational changes in RNA upon the ... Monitoring Global Structural Changes and Specific Metal-Ion-Binding Sites in RNA by In-line Probing and Tb(III) Cleavage ... On the other side, terbium(III) cleavage experiments are applied to locate specific metal ion-binding sites in RNA molecules. ...
Pol III-associated RNA 3′ cleavage assay. RNA cleavage was performed using in vitro-reconstituted elongation complexes (ECs) ( ... that mediates RNA 3′ cleavage and facilitates Pol III termination (8). Indeed, Pol III can carry out RNA 3′ cleavage and ... RNA 3:1434-1443. [PubMed]. 34. Whitehall, S. K., C. Bardeleben, and G. A. Kassavetis. 1994. Hydrolytic cleavage of nascent RNA ... RNA 3′-oligo(U) length is inversely related to cleavage activity by Rpc11p. With regard to the relationship between RNA 3′ ...
... abstracts a hydrogen atom from a ribose sugar in the backbone of DNA and RNA, leading to stra ... OH cleavage of RNA. These experiments provide the first direct evidence for the mechanism of RNA cleavage by the hydroxyl ... about the detailed chemical mechanism of RNA cleavage by the hydroxyl radical. In order to investigate the mechanism of RNA ... Deuterium Kinetic Isotope Effect Experiments on RNA Cleavage by the Hydroxyl Radical. Reactive oxygen species are known to ...
Kaczmarek A, Alvarez Porebski PW, Mortier T, Lynen F, Van Deun R, Van Hecke K. Near-infrared luminescence and RNA cleavage ... Schiff base, Lanthanide, Luminescence, Crystal structure, RNA cleavage, CRYSTAL-STRUCTURE, METAL-COMPLEXES, PHOTOPHYSICAL ... Near-infrared luminescence and RNA cleavage ability of lanthanide Schiff base complexes derived from N,N-bis (3- ... "Near-infrared Luminescence and RNA Cleavage Ability of Lanthanide Schiff Base Complexes Derived from N,N-bis (3- ...
Dong B, Niwa M, Walter P, Silverman R. Basis for regulated RNA cleavage by functional analysis of RNase L and Ire1p. RNA 7:361- ... Basis for regulated RNA cleavage by functional analysis of RNase L and Ire1p.. ... 2′-5′ oligoadenylates, produced in response to interferon treatment and viral double-stranded RNA, are necessary to activate ... Surprisingly, RNase L and Ire1p showed mutually exclusive RNA substrate specificity and partially overlapping but not identical ...
RNA-binding proteins in tumor progression *Hai Qin. *, Haiwei Ni. *, Yichen Liu ... A different perspective on alternative cleavage and polyadenylation. *Chuan Xu1. & *Jianzhi Zhang. ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0001- ... In a Review in this journal (Alternative cleavage and polyadenylation in health and disease. Nat. Rev. Genet. 20, 599-614 (2019 ... Gruber, A. J. & Zavolan, M. Alternative cleavage and polyadenylation in health and disease. Nat. Rev. Genet. 20, 599-614 (2019 ...
Total RNA from leaves and roots was extracted in TRIzol reagent (GIBCO/BRL). Leaf (10 μg) or root (20 μg) RNA was run in ... Cleavage Enzyme Assays.. The cleavage enzyme assay was performed as described (8). Appropriate amounts of protein and ... In vitro transcription was performed with the RiboMAX Large Scale RNA Production System (Promega) with T7 RNA polymerase ... B) RNA gel blot analysis of PvNCED1 mRNA (Upper) or Actin as control. The ratio of PvNCED1/Actin mRNA is plotted in A as ...
Cleavage of structural proteins during the assemble of the head of bacteriophage T4. ... Internal ribosome entry site within hepatitis C virus RNA by K Tsukiyama-kohara, N Iizuka, M Kohara, A Nomoto, J. Virol - J , ... Cleavage of structural proteins during the assemble of the head of bacteriophage T4. (1970) by U K Laemmli ... Poliovirus RNA replicative complexes are associated with cytoplasmic membranous structures that accumulate during viral ...
CONCLUSIONS: Our data define the catalytic center of Ire1 RNase and suggest a mechanism of RNA cleavage: each RNase monomer ... apparently contains a separate catalytic apparatus for RNA cleavage, whereas two RNase subunits contribute to RNA stem-loop ... CONCLUSIONS: Our data define the catalytic center of Ire1 RNase and suggest a mechanism of RNA cleavage: each RNase monomer ... Endoribonucleases; Membrane Glycoproteins; Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases; RNA Cleavage; Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins; ...
Our results suggest that targeted hammerhead ribozyme cleavage within introns can be used as a tool to define splicing ... Cotranscriptional cleavage mediated by a hammerhead ribozyme can affect alternative splicing if interposed between an exon and ... Modulating alternative splicing by cotranscriptional cleavage of nascent intronic RNA. Gromak N., Talotti G., Proudfoot NJ., ... Alternative Splicing, Fibronectins, Globins, HeLa Cells, Humans, Introns, Models, Molecular, RNA, Catalytic, RNA, Messenger, ...
... rapid cleavage was observed with Co2+ while very slow cleavage occurred with Sr2+ and Ba2+. No detectable specific cleavage was ... Dahm, S. A. C., & Uhlenbeck, O. C. (1991). Role of Divalent Metal Ions in the Hammerhead RNA Cleavage Reaction. Biochemistry, ... Dahm, Sue Ann C ; Uhlenbeck, Olke C. / Role of Divalent Metal Ions in the Hammerhead RNA Cleavage Reaction. In: Biochemistry. ... Dahm, SAC & Uhlenbeck, OC 1991, Role of Divalent Metal Ions in the Hammerhead RNA Cleavage Reaction, Biochemistry, vol. 30, ...
Here, we reported a comprehensive analysis of mouse cleavage stage embryonic lncRNA profiles based on public single-cell RNA- ... This study provides the first catalog of lncRNAs expressed in mouse cleavage stage embryos and gives a revealing insight into ... Expression profile analysis revealed that the profiles of lncRNA vary considerably at different stages of cleavage stage ... Co-expression network analysis suggested many lncRNAs in cleavage stage embryos are associated with cell cycle regulation, ...
  • Here, we have identified a CRISPR-Cas effector complex that is comprised of small invader-targeting RNAs from the CRISPR loci (termed prokaryotic silencing (psi)RNAs) and the RAMP module (or Cmr) Cas proteins. (nih.gov)
  • RNase III dicer or dicer-like (DCL) proteins and their associated factors cleave precursor RNAs to produce duplex miRNAs or siRNAs. (asm.org)
  • 2′-5′ oligoadenylates, produced in response to interferon treatment and viral double-stranded RNA, are necessary to activate RNase L. In contrast, unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum activate Ire1p, a transmembrane serine/threonine kinase and endoribonuclease. (ucsf.edu)
  • Citation Query Cleavage of structural proteins during the assemble of the head of bacteriophage T4. (psu.edu)
  • Cleavage of structural proteins during the assemble of the head of bacteriophage T4. (psu.edu)
  • Recent studies have revealed that Argonaute proteins are crucial components of the RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs) that direct both small interfering RNA (siRNA)- and microRNA (miRNA)-mediated gene silencing. (elsevier.com)
  • A subset of Argonaute proteins directly contributes to the target cleavage ("Slicer") activity of the RISC. (elsevier.com)
  • They comprise a ceramide- and cholesterol-rich lipid bilayer membrane ( 2 ), an array of membrane and cytosolic proteins ( 3 ) and selected RNA species ( 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cleaved proteins are often targeted by autoantibodies, suggesting that the cleavage of self Ags enhances immunogenicity and is prone to induce an autoimmune response. (jimmunol.org)
  • Recent studies have revealed that many autoantigens are cleaved during apoptosis ( 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 ), which suggests that inactivation by cleavage of these proteins is part of a biochemical pathway that leads cells toward apoptosis. (jimmunol.org)
  • In addition, attention has been focused recently on the possibility that apoptotic cleavage of proteins might play a role in triggering the autoimmune response ( 4 , 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • One of the major goals of our present study was to design and develop an RNA interference-based therapy to inhibit mannan-binding lectin (MBL)-associated serine proteases (MASPs) to determine whether these proteins would play an important role in the pathogenesis of experimental RA and might be appropriate therapeutic targets for human RA ( 6 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The dimerization and cleavage of caspase-8 in the DISC are the critical upstream events in TNF family ligand-induced apoptosis ( 9 - 12 ), and ubiquitination of proteins in the DISC regulates these biochemical processes ( 13 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Finally, our RNP IP and RNA transcriptome analysis of HuR under IR revealed that the HuR cleavage product-1 (HuR-CP1) associates and promotes the expression of mRNAs encoding proteins involved in apoptosis. (omicsdi.org)
  • Despite the identification of proteins and sequences related to deadenylation-dependent RNA degradation in plants, endonucleolytic cleavage-dependent RNA degradation has not been studied in detail. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The CRISPR/Cas system functions as an acquired bacterial immune defense system as Cas proteins associate with transcribed spacer DNA (RNA) to target foreign viral DNA. (kenyon.edu)
  • If viral DNA is identified via hybridization with the CRISPR RNA, CRISPR/Cas proteins' nuclease activity will cleave the DNA, inducing a double stranded break (DSB) and rendering the phage DNA inactivate. (kenyon.edu)
  • The goal of this tutorial is to elucidate how Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9, one of the the most widely used Cas proteins in gene engineering, binds target DNA via sgRNA and executes the chemical reactions required for cleavage. (kenyon.edu)
  • With recent advances in LLPS in biological research fields, studies have found that macromolecular droplets composed of proteins and RNAs are formed within living cells via moderate interactions among the biomolecules ( 6 - 10 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Although several in vitro studies have reproduced droplet formation by changing the concentrations of proteins/RNAs and salts ( 8 , 9 , 12 , 13 ), no study has demonstrated the control of dynamic behavior of macromolecular droplets by varying the biological information encoded in the biopolymer sequence. (sciencemag.org)
  • MMP-2 enhanced peritoneal adhesion of OvCa cells through cleavage of ECM proteins fibronectin (FN) and vitronectin (Vn) into small fragments and increased binding of OvCa cells to these FN and Vn fragments and their receptors, α 5 β 1 and α V β 3 integrin. (jci.org)
  • snRNA are often divided into two classes based upon both common sequence features as well as associated protein factors such as the RNA-binding LSm proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The spliceosome is a large, protein-RNA complex that consists of five small nuclear RNAs (U1, U2, U4, U5, and U6) and over 150 proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The proteins that constitute these complexes are recruited to the cleavage site by cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor and cleavage stimulatory factor, and form a larger complex that also includes polyadenine polymerase (PAP), which performs the polyadenylation reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Involved in the earliest step for the formation of the active cleavage complex, the CFIm complex is formed by three proteins of 25, 59 and 68 kDa, respectively: CFIm25 (or CPSF5/NUDT21) CFIm59 (or CPSF7) CFIm68 (or CPSF6) CFIm25 and CFIm68 are sufficient for the activity of the complex, proving the expected redundancy of CFIm68 and CFIm59, which share great sequence similarity. (wikipedia.org)
  • CRISPR-Cas immune systems protect prokaryotes from viral and plasmid infection utilizing small CRISPR RNAs that are complementary to the invader's genome and specify the targets of RNA-guided Cas nucleases. (nih.gov)
  • The PB2 subunit is a cap-binding protein that plays a role in initiation of viral mRNA synthesis by recruiting capped RNA primers. (asm.org)
  • The function of PA is unknown, but previous studies of temperature-sensitive viruses with mutations in PA have implied a role in viral RNA replication. (asm.org)
  • In this report we demonstrate that the PA subunit is required not only for replication but also for transcription of viral RNA. (asm.org)
  • We tested the effects of these mutations on the ability of RNA polymerase to transcribe and replicate viral RNA. (asm.org)
  • The RNA genome is transcribed and replicated by the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase in the cell nucleus ( 21 ). (asm.org)
  • The viral RNAs (vRNA) are transcribed into mRNAs and replicated through a cRNA intermediate to produce more vRNA molecules. (asm.org)
  • Consequently, viral mRNA molecules contain a 9- to 17-nucleotide (nt) capped host-derived RNA sequence at their 5′ ends. (asm.org)
  • The poly(A) tail is synthesized by the viral RNA polymerase by repeated copying of the U sequence ( 47 ). (asm.org)
  • All three reactions, i.e., vRNA→mRNA (transcription), vRNA→cRNA (first step of replication), and cRNA→vRNA (second step of replication) are catalyzed by the viral RNA polymerase complex. (asm.org)
  • The PB2 subunit of the viral RNA polymerase binds to cap-1 structures of host pre-mRNA molecules. (asm.org)
  • A hallmark of this defense response is the production of 21- to 24-nucleotide viral small RNAs via mechanisms that remain to be fully understood. (asm.org)
  • Many viruses encode suppressors of RNA silencing, and some viral RNAs function directly as silencing suppressors as counterdefense. (asm.org)
  • Short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are generated by cleavage of double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) that may originate from several sources, including cellular genomes, viral replication intermediates, aberrant cellular RNAs, overexpressed transgenes, and transposons. (asm.org)
  • It is generally thought that the dsRNAs that form during the replication of plant viral genomic RNAs serve as the substrates of DCL cleavage, and the resulting small RNAs then guide RISC cleavage of viral RNAs. (asm.org)
  • It remains to be demonstrated that the structured viral RNAs are direct substrates for DCL activities. (asm.org)
  • This is in contrast to some of the naturally occurring RNA enzymes, such as the "hammerhead" and "hairpin" ribozymes, which have been used to cleave and thereby inactivate target viral and messenger RNAs (reviewed in ref. 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • We will highlight to what extent the molecular mechanisms of SKI-1/S1P cleavage of viral GPC differ from processing of SKI-1/S1P's cellular substrates and discuss the implications for virus-host interaction and coevolution. (springer.com)
  • This study provides the strong position for future development of highly selective RNA-targeting agents that can potentially be used for disease-selective treatment at the level of messenger, micro, and genomic viral RNA. (novelconjugates.com)
  • p7/p1 and p1/p6 cleavage site sequences from sera from 110 patients infected with HIV-1 were compared by regression analysis, using clinical, laboratory, and sequence variables, and the evolution of CD4(+) cell counts and viral load over time. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 3'-end directed exonucleolytic cleavage of viral RNA-DNA hybrid. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The present invention relates to synthetic catalytic DNA molecules or DNAzymes which specifically cleave the RNA sequences of the Japanese Encephalitis Viral genome and is useful in treating Japanese Encephalitis infection. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The present invention also relates to the method of treatment of Japanese encephalitis comprising the steps of introducing the catalytic DNA molecule or DNAzyme into the infected cells under conditions suitable for cleavage and reduction of viral titres. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The viral RNA is protected in the nucleocapsid. (thebody.com)
  • abstract = "Bleomycin is a clinically used antitumor antibiotic long thought to function therapeutically at the level of DNA cleavage. (elsevier.com)
  • Additional analysis suggests that an interaction of the ribosome with a stop codon might affect the site of cleavage by RNase LS in an mRNA molecule. (genetics.org)
  • During characterization of RNase LS activity after infection of a T4 dmd mutant, we found cleavages in T4 soc mRNA when two successive ochre codons were introduced into the open reading frame ( K ai and Y onesaki 2002 ). (genetics.org)
  • Recapitulating this process in vitro, Hfq guides RNase E cleavage of a representative small-RNA precursor for interaction with a mRNA target. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • This observation is inconsistent with sequencing error and leads us to propose that the changes arise predominantly from post-transcriptional RNA-editing activity operating on miRNA:target mRNA complexes. (nih.gov)
  • Full complementarity between the small RNA and its target messenger RNA (mRNA) results in RISC-mediated cleavage ("Slicing") of the target mRNA. (elsevier.com)
  • Evolution of the Pol II system may have rendered mRNA transcript cleavage controllable by the dissociable factor transcription factor IIS to enable promoter-proximal gene regulation and elaborate 3-processing and transcription termination. (mpg.de)
  • MicroRNAs are short stretches of RNA that can regulate gene expression by inhibiting translation of mRNA into a protein and directing the destruction of mRNA before it can be used to make more protein. (mit.edu)
  • Researchers from the National Agricultural Research and Innovation Centre, Hungary describe a method that enables the high-throughput identification of cleaved mRNA targets of ARGONAUTE/small RNA complexes. (rna-seqblog.com)
  • After the sequence-specific miRNA-induced RNA cleavage, the 3′ cleavage product of the mRNA contains a 5′-monophosphate and a poly(A) tail. (rna-seqblog.com)
  • Critical events in 3'-end processing of pre-mRNA are the recognition of the AAUAAA polyadenylation signal by cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor (CPSF) and the binding of cleavage stimulation factor (CstF) via its 64-kDa subunit to the downstream element. (unibas.ch)
  • RNAi: double-stranded RNA directs the ATP-dependent cleavage of mRNA a" by Phillip D. Zamore, Thomas Tuschl et al. (umassmed.edu)
  • Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) directs the sequence-specific degradation of mRNA through a process known as RNA interference (RNAi). (umassmed.edu)
  • Processing of the dsRNA to the small RNA fragments does not require the targeted mRNA. (umassmed.edu)
  • Cleavage occurs at sites 21-23 nucleotides apart, the same interval observed for the dsRNA itself, suggesting that the 21-23 nucleotide fragments from the dsRNA are guiding mRNA cleavage. (umassmed.edu)
  • By simple adjustment of ring size of caged asODNs, we could successfully photoregulate their hybridization with mRNA and target RNA hydrolysis by RNase H with light activation. (bjmu.edu.cn)
  • Cleavage factors are two closely associated protein complexes involved in the cleavage of the 3' untranslated region of a newly synthesized pre-messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule in the process of gene transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cleavage is the first step in adding a polyadenine tail to the pre-mRNA, which is one of the necessary post-transcriptional modifications necessary for producing a mature mRNA molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Comparing near-identical gRNA sequences with different in vitro activities reveals that internal gRNA interactions reduce cleavage. (nature.com)
  • A comparative RNase H digestion study showed that modifications of the same type ( North-East type or North type) in different sequences gave rise to similar cleavage patterns. (diva-portal.org)
  • Nucleotide Sequences of the RNA Subunit of RNase P from Several Mammals,"Genomics 18(2):418-422 (1993). (patentgenius.com)
  • 30-nt RNAs expressed in mouse ovary, embryonic pancreas (E14.5), and insulin-secreting beta-cells (betaTC-3) reveals that approximately 50% of the mature miRNAs representing mostly the mmu-let-7 family display internal insertion/deletions and substitutions when compared to precursor miRNA and the mouse genome reference sequences. (nih.gov)
  • Our results also demonstrate that the systematic study of sequence variation within specific RNA classes in a given cell type from millions of sequences generated by next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies ("intranomics") can be used broadly to infer functional constraints on specific parts of completely uncharacterized RNAs. (nih.gov)
  • Aside from revealing directly metal ion-binding sites these techniques also provide structural information for longer RNA sequences that are out of range to be analyzed with other techniques such as NMR. (uzh.ch)
  • In a prebiotic perspective, the ability of oligo G polynucleotides to react with other sequences outlines a simple and possible evolutionary scenario based on the autocatalytic properties of RNA. (mdpi.com)
  • Thus, in contrast to ZFNs and TALENs, this modified CRISPR RNA/Cas9 system directs a common nuclease to specific DNA sequences by a short, readily generated RNA. (genetics.org)
  • Cellular RNAi components slice and destroy invading double-stranded RNA sequences and also help snip and process microRNAs, RNA sequences encoded by the genome that play key roles in gene regulation. (mit.edu)
  • The aims of the present study concern the amino acids sequences comparison with reference strain A/equine/Miami/1963(H3N8) of the HA2 subunit including the cleavage site of three equine influenza viruses (H3N8) isolated in Morocco: A/equine/Nador/1/1997(H3N8), A/equine/Essaouira/2/2004 (H3N8) and A/equine/Essaouira/3/2004 (H3N8). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Upstream catalytic targeting of specific RNA sequences offers an alternative platform for drug discovery to achieve more potent and selective treatment through antisense interference with disease-relevant RNAs. (novelconjugates.com)
  • That is to say, these short RNA strings allowed RNA to be copied without enzymes if they had a chemical group at one end that made them more reactive.Each short catalyst helped copy one of the four RNA letters, and adding several into one reaction meant that longer sequences containing all four RNA letters could be copied. (elifesciences.org)
  • Further work is now needed to see if it is possible to copy other RNA sequences, and especially longer ones, without enzymes. (elifesciences.org)
  • the nonenzymatic copying of RNA templates by suitably activated nucleotides ( Figure 1a ) must occur quickly enough to replicate functional RNA sequences faster than they degrade. (elifesciences.org)
  • Detailed mapping of RNA secondary structures in core and NS5B-encoding region sequences of hepatitis C virus by RNase cleavage and novel bioinformatic prediction methods. (ox.ac.uk)
  • To identify new miRNAs and regulation in Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ), 27 small RNA libraries were constructed and sequenced from various tissues, stresses, and small RNA biogenesis mutants, resulting in 95 million genome-matched sequences. (plantphysiol.org)
  • An RNA-seq method for defining endoribonuclease cleavage specificity identifies dual rRNA substrates for toxin MazF-mt3. (uniprot.org)
  • By changing the sequence of the substrate-recognition domains, the DNA enzyme can be made to target different RNA substrates. (pnas.org)
  • Other substrates included an RNA transcript encoding a large segment of the reverse transcriptase from human immunodeficiency virus 1. (elsevier.com)
  • We have used model substrates carrying modified nucleotides at the site immediately 5' of the canonical RNase P cleavage site, the -1 position, to study Escherichia coli RNase P RNA-mediated cleavage. (diva-portal.org)
  • For substrates with purines at -1, an exocyclic amine at C2 on the nucleobase promotes cleavage at an alternative site and it has a negative impact on cleavage at the canonical site. (diva-portal.org)
  • This activity is responsible for the cleavage of some natural exosome substrates, independently of exonucleolytic degradation. (waw.pl)
  • Cleavage of this analogue by NucA, however, is not inhibited by NuiA, suggesting that small molecules gain access to the active site of NucA in the enzyme-inhibitor complex under conditions where cleavage of DNA substrates is completely inhibited. (kpfu.ru)
  • One of the key initiation elements of the apoptotic pathway is the activation of caspases (cysteinyl-aspartic acid proteases) followed by cleavage of the caspase substrates [1]. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Ranpirnase is a member of the pancreatic ribonuclease (RNase A) protein superfamily and degrades RNA substrates with a sequence preference for uracil and guanine nucleotides. (wikipedia.org)
  • The influenza A virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase consists of three subunits-PB1, PB2, and PA. (asm.org)
  • The PB1 subunit is the catalytically active polymerase, catalyzing the sequential addition of nucleotides to the growing RNA chain. (asm.org)
  • In vitro analyses of the H510A recombinant polymerase, by using transcription initiation, vRNA-binding, capped-RNA-binding, and endonuclease assays, suggest that the primary defect of this mutant polymerase is in its endonuclease activity. (asm.org)
  • The PB1 component functions as the polymerase by catalyzing the sequential addition of nucleotides to RNA transcripts. (asm.org)
  • Termination by RNA polymerase III (Pol III) produces RNAs whose 3′ oligo(U) termini are bound by La protein, a chaperone that protects RNAs from 3′ exonucleases and promotes their maturation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The 3′ ends of tRNA and other RNA polymerase III (Pol III)-dependent genes contain dT n termination signals at which Pol III pauses and releases its RNA ( 6 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Furthermore, we show that this function of Drosha is dependent on its N-terminal protein-interaction domain, which associates with the RNA-binding protein CBP80 and RNA Polymerase II. (ox.ac.uk)
  • During gene transcription, the RNA polymerase (Pol) active center can catalyze RNA cleavage. (mpg.de)
  • RHA mediates molecular interactions between RNA polymerase II and the CREB binding protein (CBP) and is required for activation of transcription in response to cAMP ( 16 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • RHA also links the breast cancer-specific tumor suppressor protein, BRCA1, to the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme ( 17 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Sulfolobus solfataricus TFS1 functions as a bona fide cleavage factor, while the paralogous TFS4 evolved into a potent RNA polymerase inhibitor. (montana.edu)
  • In contrast, miRNAs are excised from precursors that are transcribed by RNA polymerase II as single-stranded precursors. (plantphysiol.org)
  • They are transcribed by either RNA polymerase II or RNA polymerase III. (wikipedia.org)
  • They have also been shown to aid in the regulation of transcription factors (7SK RNA) or RNA polymerase II (B2 RNA), and maintaining the telomeres. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sm-class snRNA are transcribed by RNA polymerase II. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lsm-class snRNAs are transcribed by RNA polymerase III and never leave the nucleus, in contrast to Sm-class snRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • To determine in vitro cleavage rates, we used single turnover enzyme cleavage assays 1 , 13 , in which the concentration of Cas9 protein was varied in the presence of a lower amount of DNA substrate and an excess of gRNA. (nature.com)
  • RNA-guided RNA cleavage by a CRISPR RNA-Cas protein complex. (nih.gov)
  • The psiRNA-Cmr protein complexes cleave complementary target RNAs at a fixed distance from the 3' end of the integral psiRNAs. (nih.gov)
  • The recombinant protein PvNCED1 catalyzes the cleavage of 9- cis -violaxanthin and 9′- cis -neoxanthin, so that the enzyme is referred to as 9- cis -epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase. (pnas.org)
  • After the discovery of catalytic RNA ( 1 , 2 ), it became clear that nucleic acid molecules of a particular sequence and 3-dimensional structure are able to carry out specific chemical reactions, often with an efficiency comparable to that of protein enzymes ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • We are also interested in (3) protein-RNA complexes along the microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis pathway that mediate processing of primary miRNAs to their precursor counterparts, and processes associated with miRNA guide strand-mediated cleavage, translation inhibition or degradation of target RNAs. (mskcc.org)
  • One strand of the small RNA duplex is subsequently loaded onto the Argonaute protein to yield an active RNA-induced silencing complex. (mskcc.org)
  • We show that N-terminal post-translational cleavage products of the prion protein (PrP) induce a quiescent state, halting NSC cellular growth, migration, and neurite outgrowth. (springer.com)
  • Full-depth explants of human OA knee articular cartilage from arthroplasty were cultured with exogenous DFO (1-50 μ M). Type II collagen cleavage and phospho-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (pAMPK) concentrations were measured using ELISAs. (hindawi.com)
  • Empty capsids of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) type A22 Iraq 24/64, whose structure has been solved by X-ray crystallography, are unusual for picornaviruses since they contain VP2 and VP4, the cleavage products of the protein precursor VP0. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Following these observations, experimentation revealed that bleomycin caused tRNA cleavage and DNA-independent protein synthesis inhibition in rabbit reticulocyte lysate and when microinjected into Xenopus oocytes. (elsevier.com)
  • The correlation of protein synthesis inhibition to the previously reported site-specific RNA cleavage caused by bleomycin supports the thesis that RNA cleavage may constitute an important element of the mechanism of action of bleomycin. (elsevier.com)
  • We found autoantibodies that immunoprecipitated a 140-kDa RNA-associated protein, provisionally designated Pa, in 11 of 350 patient sera that were positive for antinuclear Abs in an immunofluorescence test. (jimmunol.org)
  • RHA is a multifunctional protein with roles in cellular RNA synthesis and processing. (jimmunol.org)
  • Thus, RHA is a multifunctional protein that plays an important role in cellular RNA biogenesis and metabolism. (jimmunol.org)
  • Now, researchers at Whitehead Institute have uncovered how small changes in the fish Argonaute (Ago) protein, an RNA slicing protein, that happened in its lineage an estimated 300 million years ago greatly diminished the efficiency of RNAi in these animals, while another ancestral feature, in a critical pre-microRNA, was retained that enabled the microRNA to still be produced despite the fish's impaired Ago protein. (mit.edu)
  • Since Chen had discovered that zebrafish lack an efficient Ago protein, it was mysterious as to how are fish were able to produce Ago cleavage-dependent miR-451. (mit.edu)
  • The Ago protein must process miR-451 by slicing the sequence out of a longer strand of RNA that has folded up on itself, forming a hairpin structure. (mit.edu)
  • Our study showed that prodigiosin (500 μM) (extracted from Serratia marcescens culture) and a prodigiosin/copper(II) (100 μM each) complex have strong RNA and dsDNA cleaving properties while they have no pronounced effect on protein. (frontiersin.org)
  • In the death-inducing signaling complex, the C-terminal zinc finger (Znf) domain of the A20 ubiquitin ligase mediates receptor-interacting protein 1 polyubiquitination through lysine-63-linked polyubiquitin chains, which bind to the caspase-8 protease domain and inhibit caspase-8 dimerization, cleavage, and the initiation of TRAIL-induced apoptosis in glioblastoma-derived cell lines and tumor-initiating cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The typical form of pre-miRNA processed by the Drosha protein is a hairpin RNA with 2-nt 3' overhangs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, we show that human recombinant DICER protein (rDICER) processes a hairpin RNA with 5' overhangs in vitro and generates an intermediate duplex with a 29 nt-5' strand and a 23 nt-3' strand, which was eventually cleaved into a canonical miRNA duplex via a two-step cleavage. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We demonstrated that the presence of superpower (SP) protein cleavage is responsible for the diversity of superpowers in a tissues-specific manner within The Incredibles family. (ubc.ca)
  • The extraction was performed with the AllPrep DNA/RNA/Protein Mini Kit (Qiagen Inc, Valencia, CA, USA) according to a modified manufacturer's protocols. (ubc.ca)
  • A well-studied RNA-binding protein Hu Antigen-R (HuR), controls post-transcriptional gene regulation and undergoes stress-activated caspase-3 dependent cleavage in cancer cells. (omicsdi.org)
  • The current understanding related to the production of small ribonucleic acid (RNAs), the process concerning their loading into the protein complexes and the repression of the gene expression is reviewed. (readabstracts.com)
  • With the anti-PARP Caspase Cleavage Product Antibody you will specifically detect only the small apoptotic PARP-1 cleavage fragment, but not the full-length protein, in samples of human, mouse, or rat origin. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Intracellular redistribution of truncated La protein produced by poliovirus 3Cpro-mediated cleavage. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The La autoantigen (also known as SS-B), a cellular RNA binding protein, may shuttle between the nucleus and cytoplasm, but it is mainly located in the nucleus. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Altman, "Ribonulcease P: An Enzyme with a Catalytic RNA Subunit," Adv. Enzymol. (patentgenius.com)
  • Cech, in "Structure and Mechanism of the Large Catalytic RNAs: Group I and Group II Introns and Ribonuclease P," The RNA World Chapter 11, pp. 239-269 (Gesteland and Atkins, eds. (patentgenius.com)
  • Different cleavage sites are aligned differently in the active site of M1 RNA, the catalytic subunit of Escherichia coli RNase P. (diva-portal.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our data define the catalytic center of Ire1 RNase and suggest a mechanism of RNA cleavage: each RNase monomer apparently contains a separate catalytic apparatus for RNA cleavage, whereas two RNase subunits contribute to RNA stem-loop docking. (umassmed.edu)
  • RNA provides, for the time being, the only plausible solution to self-generation, as allowed by self-polymerization and by a variety of self-catalytic processes. (mdpi.com)
  • These two changes reside in and near the protein's catalytic site and greatly decrease the ability of the fish Ago to perform its RNA slicing function, offering an explanation for why RNAi has not been a useful tool in zebrafish. (mit.edu)
  • We report a novel class of catalytic biomaterials, comprising amphipathic RNA-cleaving peptides placed between two RNA recognition motifs, here demonstrated to target the TΨC loop and 3′- acceptor stem of tRNAPhe. (novelconjugates.com)
  • Hybridization of the DCs bearing two spatially-separated recognition motifs with the target tRNAPhe placed the peptide adjacent to a single-stranded RNA region and promoted cleavage within the 'action radius' of the catalytic peptide. (novelconjugates.com)
  • Both ribozyme and U1 snRNA chimeric ribozyme exhibited specifically catalytic activity against HCV RNA in vitro . (bvsalud.org)
  • 30. A method of cleaving RNA of Japanese Encephalitis Virus comprising the step of contacting the catalytic DNA molecule of claim 25 with said RNA under conditions suitable for cleavage. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 32. A method of treatment of Japanese Encephalitis and related infectious diseases in animals comprising the steps of introducing said catalytic DNA molecule of claim 25 into infected cells under conditions suitable for cleavage and reduction of infectious Japanese Encephalitis virus or other infectious micro-organisms. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • FNAs, as described by Dr. S.K. Silverman, are DNA and RNA aptamers that bind targets, or they are deoxyribozymes (single stranded DNA) and ribozymes (RNA) that have catalytic activity. (openwetware.org)
  • Functional Nucleic Acids (FNAs), as described by Dr. S.K. Silverman, are DNA and RNA aptamers that bind targets, or they are deoxyribozymes (single stranded DNA) and ribozymes (RNA) that have catalytic activity. (openwetware.org)
  • The comparative study showed that a single modified nucleotide in the AON with North-East locked sugar (oxetane-T and azetidine-T) lowered the affinity for the complementary RNA whereas North locked sugars (LNA-T, aza-ENA-T, carbocyclic-ENA-T, and carbocyclic-LNA-T) significantly improved the affinity. (diva-portal.org)
  • A key mediator of RNA silencing is several classes of 21- to 24-nucleotide (nt) small RNAs. (asm.org)
  • Degradation of RNA polymers, an ubiquitous process in all cells, is catalyzed by specific subsets of endo- and exoribonucleases that together recycle RNA fragments into nucleotide monophosphate. (elifesciences.org)
  • The nonenzymatic replication of RNA is a potential transitional stage between the prebiotic chemistry of nucleotide synthesis and the canonical RNA world in which RNA enzymes (ribozymes) catalyze replication of the RNA genomes of primordial cells. (elifesciences.org)
  • Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and Moloney murine leukemia virus enzymes prefer to cleave the RNA strand one nucleotide away from the RNA-DNA junction. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • together with the fact that DXZ4 expresses ~85 nucleotide long RNAs ( Chadwick 2008 ), we investigated whether small RNAs are expressed from DXZ4 . (g3journal.org)
  • Whole RNA features related to the translation process and nucleotide frequency around cleavage sites were major determinants of cleavage efficiency. (biomedcentral.com)
  • G nucleotide frequency around cleavage sites and RNA length). (biomedcentral.com)
  • A mistake in even a single nucleotide can be devastating to the cell, and a reliable, repeatable method of RNA processing is necessary to ensure cell survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA target recognition requires a short protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) sequence (5′-NGG-3′ for Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9) ( 5 ) and complementary base pairing with the 20-nucleotide (nt) targeting sequence of the guide RNA. (sciencemag.org)
  • To verify the biological and clinicopathologic significance of the respective gene products, we have established a screening system by combination of the tumor tissue microarray analysis of clinical lung cancer materials and RNA interference technique ( 11-41 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • RNA silencing, also known as RNA interference, is a conserved biological response to double-stranded RNA that regulates gene expression. (mskcc.org)
  • RNA interference (RNAi) is a defense used by eukaryotic cells to protect themselves from such threats to their genomic harmony. (mit.edu)
  • Small interference RNA knock down of Grx significantly inhibited tumor necrosis factor-α-induced endothelial cell death because of attenuated caspase-3 cleavage concomitant with increased caspase-3 glutathiolation. (ahajournals.org)
  • To knock down Grx, we treated HUVECs with small interference RNA (siRNA) against human Grx. (ahajournals.org)
  • DICER plays a key role in RNA interference pathways through the biogenesis of microRNA (miRNA) and small interfering RNA (siRNA) [ 1 - 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • RNA Interference. (worldcat.org)
  • A talk and slideshow presentation on RNA interference functions and mechanisms in animals. (worldcat.org)
  • Across kingdoms, RNA interference (RNAi) has been shown to regulate gene expression in the transcriptional- or the post-transcriptional level. (ac-devd-cho.com)
  • Gene silencing in the process of RNA interference is mediated by a ribonucleoprotein complex referred to as RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). (readabstracts.com)
  • A dominating cleavage signature is the location of a uridine two nucleotides downstream in a single-stranded segment, which we rationalize structurally as a key recognition determinant that may favor RNase E catalysis. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Approximately, 12%-20% of species associated with mmu-let-7 populations exhibit sequence discrepancies that are dramatically reduced in nucleotides 3-7 (5'-seed) and 10-15 (cleavage and anchor sites). (nih.gov)
  • subsets of nucleotides at the junction of single- and double-stranded regions were especially susceptible to cleavage. (elsevier.com)
  • DICER is an RNase III family endoribonuclease that processes precursor microRNAs (pre-miRNAs) and long double-stranded RNAs, generating microRNA (miRNA) duplexes and short interfering RNA duplexes with 20~23 nucleotides (nts) in length. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, the plausibility of nonenzymatic RNA replication is undercut by the lack of a protocell-compatible chemical system capable of copying RNA templates containing all four nucleotides. (elifesciences.org)
  • 2. RNA 5'-end directed cleavage 13-19 nucleotides from the RNA end. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • 3. DNA 3'-end directed cleavage 15-20 nucleotides away from the primer terminus. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Small RNA sequencing was done on an Illumina HiSEQ2500 Platform using the Rapid mode with a read length of 50 nucleotides. (ac-devd-cho.com)
  • During the RNAi reaction, both strands of the dsRNA are processed to RNA segments 21-23 nucleotides in length. (umassmed.edu)
  • An in vitro selection procedure was used to develop a DNA enzyme that can be made to cleave almost any targeted RNA substrate under simulated physiological conditions. (pnas.org)
  • In this study, for example, it was directed to cleave synthetic RNAs corresponding to the start codon region of HIV-1 gag / pol , env , vpr , tat , and nef mRNAs. (pnas.org)
  • We sought to develop a DNA enzyme that could be made to cleave almost any RNA substrate, efficiently and specifically under physiological conditions. (pnas.org)
  • Although that DNA enzyme was unable to cleave an all-RNA substrate, its properties suggested that a DNA enzyme with general purpose RNA cleavage activity might be attainable. (pnas.org)
  • Precise selection of cleavage sites by RNase III enzymes is critical, with Drosha and Dicer recognizing specific RNA structures and cleave a fixed distance away from that structural element. (mskcc.org)
  • Recently, it has become clear that bleomycin can also cleave selected members of all major classes of RNA. (elsevier.com)
  • The targeting CRISPR RNA (sgRNA) can be synthesized to match a specific eukaryotic genomic locus, enabling the CRISPR/Cas system to cleave the locus of interest. (kenyon.edu)
  • Altman, et al, "Catalysis by the RNA Subunit of RNase P--A Minireview," Gene 82:63-64 (1989). (patentgenius.com)
  • In this process, we detected a gene encoding cleavage stimulation factor, 3′ pre-RNA, subunit 2, 64 kDa (CSTF2) as a candidate. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Because there is a significant correlation of cleavage stimulation factor, 3′ pre-RNA, subunit 2, 64 kDa (CSTF2) expression with poor prognosis for patients with lung cancers, CSTF2 positivity in resected specimens could be an index that provides useful information to physicians in applying adjuvant therapy and intensive follow-up to the cancer patients who are likely to relapse. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This systematic approach revealed that cleavage stimulation factor, 3′ pre-RNA, subunit 2, 64 kDa ( CSTF2 ) gene was frequently transactivated in the majority of primary lung cancers. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The Rpc11p subunit of Pol III shows homology with the zinc ribbon of TFIIS and is known to mediate RNA 3′ cleavage and to be important for termination. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Here we show that Pol II gains strong cleavage activity when the C-terminal zinc ribbon domain (C-ribbon) of subunit Rpb9 is replaced by its counterpart from the Pol III subunit C11. (mpg.de)
  • Interestingly, this RNase triggers RNA degradation more efficiently when the target RNA is translatable than when it is untranslatable. (genetics.org)
  • Compared with synthetic RNA enzymes, DNA enzymes are easier to prepare and less sensitive to chemical and enzymatic degradation. (pnas.org)
  • The response is mediated by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), which guide the sequence-specific degradation of cognate messenger RNAs (mRNAs). (mskcc.org)
  • The mode of action of eukaryotic exosome cores in RNA processing and degradation should be reconsidered, taking into account the cooperation between its multiple ribonucleolytic activities. (waw.pl)
  • While other cellular RNases process oligoribonucleotides down to diribonucleotide entities, Orn is the one and only diribonucleotidase that completes the terminal step of RNA degradation. (elifesciences.org)
  • Together, our studies indicate RNA degradation as a step-wise process with a dedicated enzyme for the clearance of a specific intermediate pool, diribonucleotides, that affects cellular physiology and viability. (elifesciences.org)
  • This cleavage event produces two fragments, 135 kDa and 85 kDa, without a loss of peptide, as confirmed by Edman degradation. (ubc.ca)
  • RNA degradation is important for the regulation of gene expression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The model revealed the significance of the effect of multiple determinants on cleavage efficiency, suggesting that sequence features are important for RNA degradation mechanisms in A. thaliana . (biomedcentral.com)
  • RNA degradation is an important process for regulating gene expression in living organisms [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • RNA degradation is mediated by deadenylation-dependent or endonucleolytic cleavage-dependent RNA degradation mechanisms [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In both degradation mechanisms, the final step in RNA digestion is catalyzed by exonucleases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • however, endonucleolytic cleavage-dependent RNA degradation has not been analyzed in detail. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Note that PARP cleavage precedes DNA degradation and TUNEL labeling. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Thus, the mechanism of RNA cleavage by RNase LS seems complicated and remains to be elucidated. (genetics.org)
  • Little is known, though, about the detailed chemical mechanism of RNA cleavage by the hydroxyl radical. (jbsdonline.com)
  • These experiments provide the first direct evidence for the mechanism of RNA cleavage by the hydroxyl radical. (jbsdonline.com)
  • MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are produced by cleavage of hairpin RNA precursors encoded by the genome of an organism. (asm.org)
  • However, although the expression patterns of messenger RNAs and microRNAs in cleavage stage embryos were discussed in previous studies, the long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), which were recently proved to be critical gene regulators of development, are not yet clearly elucidated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • MicroRNAs ( miRNAs ) are a class of small RNAs that typically function by guiding the cleavage of target messenger RNAs. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The two major classes of small RNAs are small interfering RNAs ( siRNAs ) and microRNAs ( miRNAs ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • In vitro selection of active hairpin ribozymes by sequential RNA-catalyzed cleavage and ligation reactions," Genes and Dev. (patentgenius.com)
  • Most natural ribozymes, RNA catalysts, catalyze mostly some type of scission or ligation that involves some type of phosphodiester chemistry. (openwetware.org)
  • The CRISPR/Cas system uses guide RNAs (gRNAs) to direct sequence-specific DNA cleavage. (nature.com)
  • Among these, the mazEF TA system encodes an endoribonucleolytic toxin, MazF, that inhibits growth by sequence-specific cleavage of single-stranded RNA. (uniprot.org)
  • One of the strands is incorporated into the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) to guide sequence-specific cleavage of a target RNA or inhibition of translation or into an RNA-induced initiator of transcriptional silencing complex to guide DNA methylation ( 1 , 6 , 14 , 19 , 26 , 39 , 42 , 58 , 85 ). (asm.org)
  • In type II CRISPR systems, a CRISPR RNA (crRNA), which contains sequence complementary to invading virus or plasmid DNA, and a trans -activating CRISPR RNA (tracrRNA) interact with a CRISPR-associated nuclease (Cas9) to direct sequence-specific cleavage of exogenous DNA. (genetics.org)
  • sequence-specific internal cleavage of RNA. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Even though gRNAs containing these structures do not yield cleavage-competent complexes, they can compete with active gRNAs for binding to Cas9. (nature.com)
  • The effects of donor groups of dizinc complexes, formed from a 2:1 mixture of Zn(II) and a dinucleating ligand, on adenylyl(3′-5′)adenosine (ApA) cleavage have been studied. (springer.com)
  • The cleavage pattern derived from in-line probing experiments reflects local and overall conformational changes in RNA upon the addition of metal ions, metal complexes, or other ligands. (uzh.ch)
  • Kaczmarek A, Alvarez Porebski PW, Mortier T, Lynen F, Van Deun R, Van Hecke K. Near-infrared luminescence and RNA cleavage ability of lanthanide Schiff base complexes derived from N,N'-bis (3-methoxysalicylidene)ethylene-1,2-diamine ligands. (ugent.be)
  • We show that A20-mediated ubiquitination inhibits caspase-8 cleavage and TRAIL-induced apoptosis in glioblastoma through 2 signaling complexes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In the nucleus, small RNA-Argonaute complexes recruit epigenetic modifying activities to genomic sites. (g3journal.org)
  • The most common snRNA components of these complexes are known, respectively, as: U1 spliceosomal RNA, U2 spliceosomal RNA, U4 spliceosomal RNA, U5 spliceosomal RNA, and U6 spliceosomal RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dicer also participates in small interfering RNA (siRNA) production from long RNA duplexes. (mskcc.org)
  • The mutational analysis of the target RNA, mismatches across from the 5' end of siRNA, and their effects are discussed. (readabstracts.com)
  • Here we show that both phenomena influence Cas9 activity by comparing mutagenesis rates in zebrafish embryos with in vitro cleavage assays. (nature.com)
  • Fluorogenic peptide assays confirmed that the substitutions modulate furin cleavage. (cdc.gov)
  • Co-transcriptional DNA and RNA Cleavage during Type III CRISPR-Cas Immunity. (nih.gov)
  • Type III CRISPR-Cas immunity requires target transcription, and whereas genetic studies demonstrated DNA targeting, in vitro data have shown crRNA-guided RNA cleavage. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we show that transcription across the targets of the Staphylococcus epidermidis type III-A CRISPR-Cas system results in the cleavage of the target DNA and its transcripts, mediated by independent active sites within the Cas10-Csm ribonucleoprotein effector complex. (nih.gov)
  • Our studies reveal a highly versatile mechanism of CRISPR immunity that can defend microorganisms against diverse DNA and RNA invaders. (nih.gov)
  • A CRISPR View of Cleavage. (nih.gov)
  • RNAs from the CRISPR loci are hypothesized to guide the CRISPR-Cas defense response based on their potential to base pair with invading nucleic acids. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We have adapted a bacterial CRISPR RNA/Cas9 system to precisely engineer the Drosophila genome and report that Cas9-mediated genomic modifications are efficiently transmitted through the germline. (genetics.org)
  • In the past few months, the simplified CRISPR RNA-guided Cas9 nuclease has shown broad potential for genome engineering in metazoans. (genetics.org)
  • Nonetheless, to date the CRISPR RNA/Cas9 system has not been adapted for Drosophila , a key genetic model, and germline transmission of Cas9-induced changes has not been achieved in any organism. (genetics.org)
  • The RNA-guided endonuclease Cas9 is responsible for recognizing, unwinding, and cutting double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) targets as part of the type II CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated) adaptive immune system ( 1 - 4 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • RIBONUCLEASE LS ( l ate-gene s ilencing in bacteriophage T4) plays a role in Escherichia coli RNA metabolism ( O tsuka and Y onesaki 2005 ), although its effect seems modest in comparison to that of RNase E ( K ushner 2002 ). (genetics.org)
  • Altman, "RNA enzyme-directed gene therapy," Proc. (patentgenius.com)
  • Directed Evolution of an RNA Enzyme," Science,257:635-641 91992). (patentgenius.com)
  • Efficient enzyme-free copying of all four pre-activated nucleobases, templated by immobilized RNA, was reported [ 24 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • In the present report we describe a new autoantibody system that recognizes human RNA helicase A (RHA) and show for the first time that this enzyme is cleaved by caspase-3 as an early event in apoptosis. (jimmunol.org)
  • We have found patterns of the oligonucleotide sugar-phosphate backbone modi-fications that enhance oligonucleotide stability in the biological environment and do not violate the ability to interact with the enzyme and induce the RNA hydrolysis. (nsu.ru)
  • Cullin 3 (CUL3), an E3 ligase, adds K48- and K63-linked polyubiquitin chains to caspase-8 and facilitates its dimerization and cleavage in the DISC, where A20 deubiquitinating enzyme removes the polyubiquitin chains from caspase-8 ( 23 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • then used these short catalysts to copy an RNA molecule that itself acts a bit like an enzyme, and confirmed that a significant portion of this molecule could be copied without any polymerases. (elifesciences.org)
  • The cleavage activity of the chimeric ribozyme increased with the prolongation of reaction time and increment of enzyme concentration. (bvsalud.org)
  • In this study, we demonstrate that, following kainic acid-induced seizures, the proNGF processing enzyme matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP-7) and its inhibitor TIMP-1 (tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase 1) are regulated in a manner that prevents proneurotrophin cleavage and leads to increased proNGF in the extracellular milieu. (jneurosci.org)
  • In the figure below you can observe 8-17, an RNA cleaving DNA enzyme. (openwetware.org)
  • Immunity against plasmids and DNA viruses requires DNA, but not RNA, cleavage activity. (nih.gov)
  • The predominant plus-strand polarity and genomic map locations suggest that small RNAs are derived mostly from structured regions of genomic RNAs of several tested positive-strand RNA viruses ( 59 ) and the structured region of defective interfering (DI) RNAs ( 82 ). (asm.org)
  • The arenaviruses are a large family of emerging negative-stranded RNA viruses that include several severe human pathogens causing hemorrhagic fevers with high mortality. (springer.com)
  • The configuration and genetic variability of many of these other NS5B and core structures is perhaps more consistent with their involvement in genome-scale ordered RNA structure, a structural configuration of the genomes of many positive-stranded RNA viruses that is associated with host persistence. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Cotranscriptional cleavage mediated by a hammerhead ribozyme can affect alternative splicing if interposed between an exon and its intronic regulatory elements. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Our results suggest that targeted hammerhead ribozyme cleavage within introns can be used as a tool to define splicing regulatory elements. (ox.ac.uk)
  • A hammerhead self-cleaving domain composed of two oligoribonucleotides was used to study the role of divalent metal ions in the cleavage reaction. (northwestern.edu)
  • Six additional divalent ions were tested for their ability to support hammerhead cleavage. (northwestern.edu)
  • However, in the presence of 0.5 mM spermine, rapid cleavage was observed with Zn 2+ and Cd 2+ , and the rate with Sr 2+ was increased, indicating that while these three ions could not promote proper folding of the hammerhead they were able to stimulate cleavage. (northwestern.edu)
  • These results suggest certain divalent ions either participate directly in the cleavage mechanism or are specifically involved in stabilizing the tertiary structure of the hammerhead. (northwestern.edu)
  • The RNA 'hammerhead' domain is a small element of secondary structure found in the genomes of certain plant pathogens. (elsevier.com)
  • In order to address this issue, a series of time-resolved, transient electric birefringence measurements was conducted in an effort to define the global conformation of an RNA hammerhead in real time throughout the process of self-cleavage. (elsevier.com)
  • Amiri, KMA & Hagerman, PJ 1996, ' The global conformation of an active hammerhead RNA during the process of self-cleavage ', Journal of Molecular Biology , vol. 261, no. 2, pp. 125-134. (elsevier.com)
  • Finally, by immobilizing the primer and template on a bead and adding individual monomers in sequence, we synthesize a significant part of an active hammerhead ribozyme, forging a link between nonenzymatic polymerization and the RNA world. (elifesciences.org)
  • The third stem-loop sequence of human U1 snRNA (position 95-116) within pBSIISK+ U1 was substituted by hammerhead ribozyme against HCV RNA by PCR and cloning methods , and the constructed plasmid was named pBSIISK+ (U1-Rz). (bvsalud.org)
  • Our results suggest a prominent biogenesis pathway for bacterial regulatory small RNAs whereby RNase E acts together with the RNA chaperone Hfq to liberate stable 30 fragments from various precursor RNAs. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • These are small RNA molecules that play an essential role in RNA biogenesis and guide chemical modifications of ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and other RNA genes (tRNA and snRNAs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Identification and characterization of an RNA molecule that copurifies with RNase P activity from HeLa cells," Genes Dev. (patentgenius.com)
  • Here we report the genome-wide characterization of cleavage stage embryonic lncRNAs, and define a stringent set of 3492 (5,563 transcripts) novel lncRNA genes from single-cell RNA-seq data of mouse cleavage stage embryos. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These results suggest that RNA silencing targets several genes from T-DNA of A. rhizogenes in hairy roots of common bean. (frontiersin.org)
  • The LASSO regression model was validated in exogenous genes, which showed that the model constructed using only sequence information can predict cleavage efficiency in both endogenous and exogenous genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A ) The small molecule CBR703 inhibits RNAP elongation and was tested in our DNA cleavage assay to corroborate the transcription requirement for cleavage. (nih.gov)
  • Such a molecule could be used to inactivate a target RNA, probe a structured RNA, or assist in the manipulation of recombinant RNA. (pnas.org)
  • The earliest life on Earth is unlikely to have used DNA to store its genetic information, and probably used a closely related molecule called RNA instead. (elifesciences.org)
  • Using single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer, we identified an intermediate state of Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9, representing a conformational checkpoint between DNA binding and cleavage. (sciencemag.org)
  • We describe a rapid genome-scale approach, MORE (mapping by overexpression of an RNase in Escherichia coli) RNA-seq, for defining the cleavage specificity of endoribonucleolytic toxins. (uniprot.org)
  • Influenza A virus is a negative-strand RNA virus containing eight segments of single-stranded RNA as its genome ( 39 ). (asm.org)
  • There is accumulating evidence from bioinformatic studies that hepatitis C virus (HCV) possesses extensive RNA secondary structure in the core and NS5B-encoding regions of the genome. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The Cas9 endonuclease is widely used for genome engineering applications by programming its single-guide RNA, and ongoing work is aimed at improving the accuracy and efficiency of DNA targeting. (sciencemag.org)
  • By manipulating the sequence of the single-guide RNA (sgRNA), Cas9-sgRNA can be programmed to target any DNA sequence flanked by a PAM ( 6 , 8 - 10 ), making it a powerful genome-editing tool. (sciencemag.org)
  • These results reveal that both genomic context and internal gRNA interactions can interfere with Cas9-mediated cleavage and illuminate previously uncharacterized features of Cas9-gRNA complex formation. (nature.com)
  • These novel bioinformatic methods have been combined with enzymic mapping of RNA transcripts from the core and NS5B regions to precisely delineate the RNA structures that are present in these genomic regions. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Various sgRNA can be designed to target genomic loci by changing this guide sequence and Cas9 cleavage will not be hindered. (kenyon.edu)
  • Our molecular and biochemical studies provide evidence that srPSTVds were derived mostly from the secondary structure of viroid RNAs. (asm.org)
  • This study provides the first catalog of lncRNAs expressed in mouse cleavage stage embryos and gives a revealing insight into the molecular mechanism responsible for early embryonic development. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus, understanding the molecular mechanism underlying cleavage stage development is of paramount importance to the improvement of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). (biomedcentral.com)
  • A major goal in the study of cleavage stage embryos is to illustrate intricate molecular regulatory networks and to identify key regulators during cleavage stage embryonic development. (biomedcentral.com)
  • however, the underlying molecular mechanisms facilitating caspase-3 activation and HuR cleavage remains unknown. (omicsdi.org)
  • Replication of PSTVd was resistant to RNA silencing, although the srPSTVds were biologically active in guiding RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC)-mediated cleavage, as shown with a sensor system. (asm.org)
  • Arenavirus infection induces discrete cytosolic structures for Rna replication. (springer.com)
  • Defining the physiological targets of a MazF toxin first requires the identification of its cleavage specificity, yet the current toolkit is antiquated and limited. (uniprot.org)
  • Surprisingly, RNase L and Ire1p showed mutually exclusive RNA substrate specificity and partially overlapping but not identical requirements for phylogenetically conserved amino acid residues in their nuclease domains. (ucsf.edu)
  • Additionally, an altered divalent metal ion specificity was observed when a unique phosphorothioate linkage was inserted at the cleavage site. (northwestern.edu)
  • A comparison of the putative active sites in FMDV and poliovirus suggests a structural explanation for the sequence specificity of the cleavage reaction. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Efforts are in progress ( 15 , 16 ) to enhance the specificity of DNA targeting by Cas9 for potential therapeutic applications ( 17 , 18 ), which requires detailed mechanistic understanding of substrate-dependent activation of Cas9 for DNA cleavage. (sciencemag.org)
  • This binding is not associated with miRNA production or RNA cleavage. (ox.ac.uk)
  • What they determined was that in the pre-miR-451 hairpin in zebrafish, at a critical position in the miRNA, they found a "G-G" pairing mismatch that actually appears to facilitate cleavage by the impaired zebrafish Ago. (mit.edu)
  • On the other hand, production of mature miRNA from an endogenous hairpin RNA with 5' overhangs has also been reported, although the mechanism for this process is unknown. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The previously identified endogenous pre-miRNA with 5' overhangs, pre-mmu-mir-1982 RNA, is also determined to be a substrate of rDICER through the same two-step cleavage. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In particular, the discovery of ARGONAUTE loading and target cleavage biases gave important insights into tissue-specific expression patterns, pathogen responses, and the role of sequence variation among closely related miRNA family members that would not be evident without this combinatorial approach. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Here, we demonstrate that RNase LS cleaves soc RNA at the same site even when only a single ochre codon is present or is replaced with either an amber or an opal codon. (genetics.org)
  • Indeed, some cleavages by RNase LS are introduced only when the target is translatable, while others are independent of translation ( K ai and Y onesaki 2002 ). (genetics.org)
  • In fact, in the in vitro cleavage reaction ( O tsuka and Y onesaki 2005 ), Dmd inhibits the activity of RNase LS (Y. O tsuka and T. Y onesaki , unpublished results). (genetics.org)
  • Here, we present a line of evidence indicating that the cleavages are tightly linked with translation termination and present insights into the selection of cleavage sites by RNase LS. (genetics.org)
  • Structure and Transcription of a Human Gene for H1 RNA the RNA Component of Human RNase," Nucleic Acids Res. (patentgenius.com)
  • We have employed TIER-seq (transiently inactivating an endoribonuclease followed by RNA-seq) to profile cleavage products of the essential endoribonuclease RNase E in Salmonella enterica. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Basis for regulated RNA cleavage by functional analysis of RNase L and Ire1p. (ucsf.edu)
  • Dong B, Niwa M , Walter P , Silverman R. Basis for regulated RNA cleavage by functional analysis of RNase L and Ire1p. (ucsf.edu)
  • RNase III enzymes play central roles in RNA silencing by processing double-stranded RNA precursors into small RNA duplexes. (mskcc.org)
  • Подробные сведения о темах исследования «Modified Oligonucleotides for Guiding RNA Cleavage Using Bacterial RNase P». Вместе они формируют уникальный семантический отпечаток (fingerprint). (nsu.ru)
  • Modified Oligonucleotides for Guiding RNA Cleavage Using Bacterial RNase P . Molekuliarnaia biologiia , 52 (6), 1045-1054. (nsu.ru)
  • We also provide new insights into the interaction between E. coli RNase P RNA and the -1 residue in the substrate. (diva-portal.org)
  • Our findings will be discussed using a model where bacterial RNase P cleavage proceeds through a conformational-assisted mechanism that positions the metal(II)-activated H2O for an in-line attack on the phosphorous atom that leads to breakage of the phosphodiester bond. (diva-portal.org)
  • an N-terminal DExH-box RNA helicase-like domain, a DUF283 domain, a PAZ domain, two RNase III domains (RIIIa and RIIIb), and a dsRNA binding motif domain (DARM) [ 24 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our long-term goals are to structurally characterize and mechanistically define events associated with (1) processing of long double-stranded RNAs into siRNAs by the endonuclease acvtivity of Dicer and (2) guide-strand-mediated cleavage of target RNAs by Argonaute, the key component exhibiting slicer activity, within the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). (mskcc.org)
  • To determine the individual effects of MASP-1/3 and Df gene silencing on collagen Ab-induced arthritis, mice were injected with scrambled, MASP-1/3-targeted, or Df-targeted small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). (jimmunol.org)
  • The second aspect studied in this thesis is based on physicochemical studies of short RNA molecules utilizing NMR based pH titration and alkaline hydrolysis reactions ( Paper IV - V ). The NMR based ( 1 H and 31 P) pH titration studies revealed the effect of guaninyl ion formation, propagated electrostatically through a single stranded chain in a sequence dependent manner. (diva-portal.org)
  • On the other side, terbium(III) cleavage experiments are applied to locate specific metal ion-binding sites in RNA molecules. (uzh.ch)
  • Small nuclear ribonucleic acid (snRNA), also commonly referred to as U-RNA, is a class of small RNA molecules that are found within the splicing speckles and Cajal bodies of the cell nucleus in eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Baksa I, Szittya G. (2017) Identification of ARGONAUTE/Small RNA Cleavage Sites by Degradome Sequencing . (rna-seqblog.com)
  • Here, we describe in human somatic cells a potential link between the expression of small RNAs from the macrosatellite DXZ4 and Argonaute-dependent DNA methylation of this locus. (g3journal.org)
  • A subpopulation of these RNAs is bound by Argonaute. (g3journal.org)
  • We hypothesize that the RNAs are involved in Argonaute-dependent methylation of DXZ4 DNA. (g3journal.org)
  • In somatic cells, we detected the expression of a wide range of small RNAs from this locus with a subpopulation associating with Argonaute. (g3journal.org)
  • By combining small RNA expression analysis with ARGONAUTE immunoprecipitation data and global target cleavage data from Parallel Analysis of RNA Ends, a much more complete picture of Arabidopsis miRNAs was obtained. (plantphysiol.org)
  • This inverse correlation between caspase-3 glutathiolation and cleavage was further confirmed by the observation that in vitro glutathiolation of caspase-3 inhibited its cleavage with recombinant caspase-8. (ahajournals.org)
  • To study the cleavage activity on the HCV RNA of a chimeric recombinant of HCV specific ribozyme and U1 small nuclear RNA , which compartmentalizes within the nucleolus. (bvsalud.org)
  • RHA is a nuclear helicase that unwinds dsRNA and RNA:DNA duplexes in a reaction driven by hydrolysis of ATP ( 10 , 11 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • RNA cleavage without hydrolysis. (qub.ac.uk)
  • DNA cleavage by a deoxyribozyme uses to main mechanisms, either they cleaved their DNA substrate by hydrolysis or via deglycosylation, a carbohydrate (sugar) is detached from the DNA subtrate which is the followed by two β-eliminations. (openwetware.org)
  • Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) regulate embryonic development and cell fate decision in various ways, such as modulation of chromatin modification and post-transcription regulation of gene expression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study reports the effects of the iron chelator deferoxamine (DFO) on collagen cleavage, inflammation, and chondrocyte hypertrophy in relation to energy metabolism-related gene expression in osteoarthritic (OA) articular cartilage. (hindawi.com)
  • Drosha regulates gene expression independently of RNA cleavage function. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Consequently, we uncover a previously unsuspected RNA cleavage-independent function of Drosha in the regulation of human gene expression. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Small noncoding RNAs play several roles in regulating gene expression. (g3journal.org)
  • Taken together, this evidence suggests that small RNA pathways can regulate gene expression by chromatin modification in somatic cells. (g3journal.org)
  • Small RNAs are a type of noncoding RNA that regulate gene expression at the transcriptional or posttranscriptional level. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The results provide evidence that drought-induced ABA biosynthesis is regulated by the 9- cis -epoxycarotenoid cleavage reaction and that this reaction takes place in the thylakoids, where the carotenoid substrate is located. (pnas.org)
  • Moreover, despite the fact that at least one kinetic intermediate is formed during the self-cleavage reaction, there is no evidence for the existence of a significant population of intermediates with altered global conformation during cleavage. (elsevier.com)
  • Such a model would help to explain the significant rate of reversal of the cleavage reaction (self-ligation). (elsevier.com)
  • This reaction is dubbed Ligation following Intermolecular Cleavage (LIC). (mdpi.com)
  • The researchers discovered that while, as might be expected, a G-G mismatch slows Ago binding, it significantly enhances both slicing efficiency as well as the release of the bound product, more than off-setting the slower binding reaction kinetics and suggesting that non- "Watson-Crick" base pairing creates an exceptionally favorable geometry for the cleavage and release parts of the reaction. (mit.edu)
  • Activity was defined as the concentration of Cas9 that yielded half-maximal cleavage (EC 1/2max ), determined by quantifying fraction of substrate and product at multiple Cas9 concentrations. (nature.com)
  • This RNA-guided Cas9 system can be rapidly programmed to generate targeted alleles for probing gene function in Drosophila . (genetics.org)
  • identified a minimal two-component system required for the site-specific cleavage of DNA-Cas9 and a chimeric RNA (chiRNA) comprising the crRNA and tracrRNA from Streptococcus pyogenes . (genetics.org)
  • DNA cleavage of Cas9 is controlled by the conformational state of the HNH nuclease domain, but the mechanism that governs HNH activation at on-target DNA while reducing cleavage activity at off-target sites remains poorly understood. (sciencemag.org)
  • Synthesis of mRNAs is primed by short capped RNA fragments that are generated from cellular pre-mRNAs by endonucleolytic cleavage. (asm.org)
  • The occurrence of viroid-specific small RNAs in infected plants suggests that viroids can trigger RNA silencing in a host, raising the question of how these noncoding and unencapsidated RNAs survive cellular RNA-silencing systems. (asm.org)
  • Recent findings suggest that cellular RNA may be a therapeutically relevant locus. (elsevier.com)
  • The ready accessibility of cellular RNAs to xenobiotic agents, the high selectivity of bleomycin action on RNAs, and the paucity of mechanisms for RNA repair suggest that RNA may be a therapeutically relevant target for bleomycin. (elsevier.com)
  • The exosome is a major eukaryotic nuclease located in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm that contributes to the processing, quality control and/or turnover of a large number of cellular RNAs. (waw.pl)
  • Among them, Oligoribonuclease (Orn) is unique as its activity is required for clearing short RNA fragments, which is important for cellular fitness. (elifesciences.org)
  • Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown (KD) of ADAM9 resulted in up-regulation of membrane-bound MICA expression on the HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5 cellular surfaces and down-regulation of soluble MICA levels in their culture supernatant. (wiley.com)
  • Not every gRNA elicits cleavage and the mechanisms that govern gRNA activity have not been resolved. (nature.com)
  • Our results should have important implications in further studies on RNA-based mechanisms of host-pathogen interactions and the biological constraints that shape the evolution of infectious RNA structures. (asm.org)
  • However, the mechanisms that regulate caspase-3 cleavage remain elusive. (ahajournals.org)
  • The mechanisms that regulate cleavage of proNGF, therefore, are critical determinants of whether this factor promotes neuronal survival or death. (jneurosci.org)
  • The two-step cleavage of a hairpin RNA with 5' overhangs shows that DICER releases double-stranded RNAs after the first cleavage and binds them again in the inverse direction for a second cleavage. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A structural model of the DNA/RNA non-specific endonuclease NucA from Anabaena sp. (kpfu.ru)
  • Consistent with this suggestion, the cleavage dependency on an amber codon was considerably reduced in the presence of amber-codon-suppressing tRNA. (genetics.org)
  • A subset of these enzymes recognizes structural features of the RNA substrate, such as in tRNA, while others act on unstructured polymers ( Li and Deutscher, 1996 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • Spliceosomes are a major component of an integral step in eukaryotic precursor messenger RNA maturation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Comparing the results of this assay with cleavage in zebrafish embryos 8 , we identified gRNAs with high in vitro cleavage activity (low EC 1/2max ) but low in vivo mutagenesis rates ( Fig. 1a ). (nature.com)
  • D ) Schematic of the co-transcriptional DNA cleavage assay of a dsDNA substrate containing the nes target. (nih.gov)
  • The role of dT n extends beyond termination, since it provides a means to link Pol III transcripts to La, an abundant and ubiquitous nuclear phosphoprotein that binds these RNAs in a 3′-oligo(U) length-dependent manner and promotes their posttranscriptional processing ( 27 , 32 , 37 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We reconstructed 50,006 high-confidence transcripts in 22,827 loci, and identified 5563 novel lncRNAs from 3492 loci expressed in mouse cleavage stage embryos. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Exploring the effects of a seed sequence mismatch on Ago-catalyzed cleavage kinetics further, they then tested its ability to slice other bound transcripts. (mit.edu)
  • The transcripts of ribozyme, disabled ribozyme and target RNAs were prepared using the RiboMAX large scale RNA production system. (bvsalud.org)
  • Also the (32)P-labeled pCMV/T7-NCRC luc (containing the gene sequence of the whole 5'-NCR and part core of HCV RNA ) transcripts as target-RNAs were transcribed in vitro . (bvsalud.org)
  • The alpha- and beta-cleavage events remove the flexible, unstructured N-terminus from the structured C-terminal region, producing N1/C1 and N2/C2 fragments, respectively (Fig. 1 a). (springer.com)
  • long RNAs are first converted into a library of cDNA fragments through either RNA fragmentation or DNA fragmentation. (rna-seqblog.com)
  • Proteolytic cleavage by caspases is the central event in cells undergoing apoptosis. (jimmunol.org)
  • Caspase-3 cleavage and activation are known to play central roles in apoptosis. (ahajournals.org)
  • TRAF2 and RIP1 then detach from TNFR1 and recruit FADD and caspase-8 for the assembly of the cytoplasmic complex II ( 19 ), where the deubiquitinating cylindromatosis removes the polyubiquitin chains from RIP1 to promote caspase-8 cleavage for TNF-α-induced apoptosis ( 20 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • We determined that oral cancer cells overexpressing cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) limited the cleavage of both caspase-3 and HuR, which in turn, reduced the rate of apoptosis in paclitaxel treated cells. (omicsdi.org)
  • Specific inhibition of COX-2 by celecoxib promoted apoptosis through activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of HuR in paclitaxel-resistant oral cancer cells. (omicsdi.org)
  • Detection of a 89-kDa or 24-kDa caspase cleavage fragment of PARP-1 was shown to be a hallmark of apoptosis [2]. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In contrast to measuring active caspase 3, which is degraded during apoptosis via the ubiquitin/proteosome pathway, measuring PARP-1 cleavage might allow sustained signal detection even in late stages of apoptosis. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The antibody can serve as an early marker of apoptosis since it is directed against the caspase cleavage site of PARP-1 and specifically recognizes an epitope that is generated by caspases, but is not accessible in nonapoptotic cells. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Furthermore, providing exogenous MMP-7 after injury promoted proNGF cleavage and neuroprotection, suggesting a novel regulatory mechanism for p75 NTR -mediated apoptosis. (jneurosci.org)
  • By measuring both the in vitro cleavage and in vivo activity in zebrafish embryos, we find that there are gRNAs that fail for both reasons. (nature.com)
  • The in vitro cleavage reactions were performed through incubation of 32P-labeled target RNAs with ribozyme or disabled ribozyme in different conditions. (bvsalud.org)
  • We then used in vitro transcription, with either 5'-dideuterated, 4' deuterated, 3' deuterated, or 2' deuterated GTP or ATP, along with the other three ribonucleoside triphosphates, to prepare a 29mer analog of the Sarcin-Ricin loop, a key structural feature of 28S ribosomal RNA. (jbsdonline.com)
  • Structural and functional basis for RNA cleavage by Ire1" by Alexei V. Korennykh, Andrei A. Korostelev et al. (umassmed.edu)
  • and Walter, Peter, "Structural and functional basis for RNA cleavage by Ire1" (2011). (umassmed.edu)
  • The current results are consistent with a structural model in which the active center possesses similar conformations pre-cleavage and post-cleavage. (elsevier.com)
  • Structural biology of RNA silencing and its functional implications. (mskcc.org)
  • Here, we reported a comprehensive analysis of mouse cleavage stage embryonic lncRNA profiles based on public single-cell RNA-seq data. (biomedcentral.com)
  • More recently the hydroxyl radical has become widely used as a high-resolution probe of RNA folding and structure. (jbsdonline.com)
  • We expect that these and future results using this experimental system will be useful in developing a more detailed interpretation of RNA structure based on hydroxyl radical cleavage experiments. (jbsdonline.com)
  • Further analyses showed that without possessing or triggering silencing suppressor activities, the PSTVd secondary structure played a critical role in resistance to RISC-mediated cleavage. (asm.org)
  • However, a functional furin cleavage site has been identified in 2 serotype 1 FECVs, located at the shared boundary of the S1 and S2 subunits ( 19 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Our results reveal a compelling functional diversification of cleavage factors in archaea, and provide novel insights into transcription inhibition in the context of the host-virus relationship. (montana.edu)
  • The building blocks of RNA are commonly referred to using single letters: A, C, G and U. Previous studies have shown that it is possible to copy RNA without enzymes, but for only two of the four RNA letters, namely C and G. (elifesciences.org)
  • The enzymes were incubated with the target RNAs under different conditions and autoradiographed after denaturing gel- electrophoresis . (bvsalud.org)
  • In a Review in this journal (Alternative cleavage and polyadenylation in health and disease. (nature.com)
  • Gruber, A. J. & Zavolan, M. Alternative cleavage and polyadenylation in health and disease. (nature.com)
  • RNA ligands selected by HeLa and calf thymus CstF contained three highly conserved sequence elements as follows: element 1 (AUGCGUUCCUCGUCC) and two closely related elements, element 2a (YGUGUYN0-4UUYAYUGYGU) and element 2b (UUGYUN0-4AUUUACU(U/G)N0-2YCU). (unibas.ch)
  • Endonucleolytic RNA cleavage by a eukaryotic exosome. (waw.pl)
  • TFIIS-like transcript cleavage factors enhance the processivity and fidelity of archaeal and eukaryotic RNA polymerases. (montana.edu)
  • They are located in the nucleolus and the Cajal bodies of eukaryotic cells (the major sites of RNA synthesis), where they are called scaRNAs (small Cajal body-specific RNAs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Parallel Analysis of RNA Ends data provide evidence that the majority guide target cleavage. (plantphysiol.org)
  • We show that wild-type angiogenin acts unidirectionally to induce RNA cleavage in astroglia, while the ALS-associated K40I mutant is also secreted and endocytosed, but fails to induce RNA cleavage. (jneurosci.org)
  • This mechanism is also used by transcription factor IIS, a factor that can bind Pol II and induce strong RNA cleavage. (mpg.de)
  • When reacted with fully or partially sequence-complementary RNA (oligo C), the abiotically generated oligo G RNA displays a typical ribozyme activity consisting of terminal ligation accompanied by cleavage of an internal phosphate site of the donor oligonucleotide stem upon attack of the acceptor 3′ terminal OH. (mdpi.com)
  • The ribozyme cleaved target RNAs into anticipated products effectively. (bvsalud.org)
  • As expected, the disabled ribozyme possessed no cleavage activity in vitro . (bvsalud.org)
  • The ribozyme with perfect cleavage activity in the cell-free system used inhibited TGFbeta1 expression effectively in activated HSCs. (bvsalud.org)
  • Our findings support an emerging model where both ribosomal and messenger RNAs are principal targets of MazF toxins and suggest that, as in E. coli, removal of the aSD sequence by a MazF toxin modifies ribosomes to selectively translate leaderless mRNAs in M. tuberculosis. (uniprot.org)
  • The protocol is based on a modified 5′-rapid amplification of cDNA ends combined with deep sequencing of 3′ cleavage products of mRNAs. (rna-seqblog.com)
  • HNH docking requires divalent cations, but not strand scission, and this docked conformation persists following DNA cleavage. (sciencemag.org)
  • Sequence mismatches between the DNA target and guide RNA prevent transitions from the checkpoint intermediate to the active conformation, providing selective avoidance of DNA cleavage at stably bound off-target sites. (sciencemag.org)
  • A previous bulk Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) study revealed that the HNH conformation regulates DNA cleavage activity of both nuclease domains and is highly sensitive to RNA-DNA complementarity ( 12 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • It contains the conserved motifs characteristic of RNA-dependent RNA polymerases ( 1 , 2 , 46 ). (asm.org)
  • wanted to know if it was possible to create a chemical system, without polymerases, in which all four RNA letters could be copied. (elifesciences.org)
  • We address this question by characterizing the production of small RNAs of Potato spindle tuber viroid (srPSTVds) and investigating how PSTVd responds to RNA silencing. (asm.org)
  • Furthermore, small RNA-mediated gene silencing plays essential roles in regulating a wide variety of growth and development processes ( 4 - 6 , 11 , 13 , 17 , 23 , 28 , 42 ). (asm.org)
  • Here, we identified and characterized small RNAs generated from the transfer DNA (T-DNA) of A. rhizogenes in hairy roots of common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Distinct abundant A. rhizogenes T-DNA-derived small RNAs (ArT-sRNAs) belonging to several oncogenes were detected in hairy roots using high-throughput sequencing. (frontiersin.org)
  • DXZ4 was found to express a wide range of small RNAs potentially representing several classes of small RNAs. (g3journal.org)
  • Gel slices were smashed and small RNAs were extracted by overnight incubation in 3Vol of 0.3M NaCl. (ac-devd-cho.com)
  • After precipitation with 3 Vol EtOH and 70ng/l glycogen, the small RNA fraction was cloned using the NEBNext? (ac-devd-cho.com)
  • small RNA library prep Kit (NEB, Frankfurt a.M., Germany), following the manufacturer's instructions (18 h 3-adapter ligation at 16C). (ac-devd-cho.com)
  • A large group of snRNAs are known as small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Application of MORE RNA-seq to MazF-mt3 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis reveals two critical ribosomal targets-the essential, evolutionarily conserved helix/loop 70 of 23S rRNA and the anti-Shine-Dalgarno (aSD) sequence of 16S rRNA. (uniprot.org)
  • The ligation of preformed RNA oligonucleotides by nonenzymatic ligation was also observed [ 25 , 26 , 27 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Poly(A) RNA is purified from the tissue of interest which is followed by a 5′-RNA adapter ligation. (rna-seqblog.com)
  • The method starts with poly(A) selection and followed by a 5′-RNA adapter ligation. (rna-seqblog.com)