Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A family of ribonucleoproteins that were originally found as proteins bound to nascent RNA transcripts in the form of ribonucleoprotein particles. Although considered ribonucleoproteins they are primarily classified by their protein component. They are involved in a variety of processes such as packaging of RNA and RNA TRANSPORT within the nucleus. A subset of heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoproteins are involved in additional functions such as nucleocytoplasmic transport (ACTIVE TRANSPORT, CELL NUCLEUS) of RNA and mRNA stability in the CYTOPLASM.
Proteins that bind to the 3' polyadenylated region of MRNA. When complexed with RNA the proteins serve an array of functions such as stabilizing the 3' end of RNA, promoting poly(A) synthesis and stimulating mRNA translation.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A family of RNA-binding proteins that are homologues of ELAV protein, Drosophila. They were initially identified in humans as the targets of autoantibodies in patients with PARANEOPLASTIC ENCEPHALOMYELITIS. They are thought to regulate GENE EXPRESSION at the post-transcriptional level.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The extent to which an RNA molecule retains its structural integrity and resists degradation by RNASE, and base-catalyzed HYDROLYSIS, under changing in vivo or in vitro conditions.
The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.
A process that changes the nucleotide sequence of mRNA from that of the DNA template encoding it. Some major classes of RNA editing are as follows: 1, the conversion of cytosine to uracil in mRNA; 2, the addition of variable number of guanines at pre-determined sites; and 3, the addition and deletion of uracils, templated by guide-RNAs (RNA, GUIDE).
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A family of double-stranded RNA-binding proteins that are related to NFATC TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. In addition to binding to RNA, nuclear factor 90 proteins form heterodimeric complexes that regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and may play a role in T-CELL activation.
Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.
The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A class of closely related heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoproteins of approximately 34-40 kDa in size. Although they are generally found in the nucleoplasm, they also shuttle between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Members of this class have been found to have a role in mRNA transport, telomere biogenesis and RNA SPLICING.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
RNA transcripts of the DNA that are in some unfinished stage of post-transcriptional processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL) required for function. RNA precursors may undergo several steps of RNA SPLICING during which the phosphodiester bonds at exon-intron boundaries are cleaved and the introns are excised. Consequently a new bond is formed between the ends of the exons. Resulting mature RNAs can then be used; for example, mature mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER) is used as a template for protein production.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A protein subunit that takes part in forming nuclear factor 90 protein complexes.
A family of proteins that promote unwinding of RNA during splicing and translation.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Ribonucleic acid in fungi having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoprotein that has specificity for AU-rich elements found in the 3'-region of mRNA and may play a role in RNA stability. Several isoforms of hnRNP D protein have been found to occur due to alternative mRNA splicing (RNA SPLICING).
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A multifunctional heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoprotein that may play a role in homologous DNA pairing and recombination. The N-terminal portion of protein is a potent transcriptional activator, while the C terminus is required for RNA binding. The name FUS refers to the fact that genetic recombination events result in fusion oncogene proteins (ONCOGENE PROTEINS, FUSION) that contain the N-terminal region of this protein. These fusion proteins have been found in myxoid liposarcoma (LIPOSARCOMA, MYXOID) and acute myeloid leukemia.
A RNA-binding protein that binds to polypyriminidine rich regions in the INTRONS of messenger RNAs. Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein may be involved in regulating the ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of mRNAs since its presence on an intronic RNA region that is upstream of an EXON inhibits the splicing of the exon into the final mRNA product.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Ribonucleic acid in protozoa having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Ribonucleic acid in chloroplasts having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Factors that are involved in directing the cleavage and POLYADENYLATION of the of MESSENGER RNA near the site of the RNA 3' POLYADENYLATION SIGNALS.
The addition of a tail of polyadenylic acid (POLY A) to the 3' end of mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). Polyadenylation involves recognizing the processing site signal, (AAUAAA), and cleaving of the mRNA to create a 3' OH terminal end to which poly A polymerase (POLYNUCLEOTIDE ADENYLYLTRANSFERASE) adds 60-200 adenylate residues. The 3' end processing of some messenger RNAs, such as histone mRNA, is carried out by a different process that does not include the addition of poly A as described here.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
Short chains of RNA (100-300 nucleotides long) that are abundant in the nucleus and usually complexed with proteins in snRNPs (RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL NUCLEAR). Many function in the processing of messenger RNA precursors. Others, the snoRNAs (RNA, SMALL NUCLEOLAR), are involved with the processing of ribosomal RNA precursors.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
An integration host factor that was originally identified as a bacterial protein required for the integration of bacteriophage Q beta (ALLOLEVIVIRUS). Its cellular function may be to regulate mRNA stability and processing in that it binds tightly to poly(A) RNA and interferes with ribosome binding.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A large family of RNA helicases that share a common protein motif with the single letter amino acid sequence D-E-A-D (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp). In addition to RNA helicase activity, members of the DEAD-box family participate in other aspects of RNA metabolism and regulation of RNA function.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A group of closely related heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoproteins of approximately 41-43 kDa in size found in the cell nucleus. Members of this class have been implicated in a variety of processes including splicing, polyadenylation, and nuclear retention of RNA.
RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated RNAs they are not included in this scope.
The process of moving specific RNA molecules from one cellular compartment or region to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms.
RNA molecules found in the nucleus either associated with chromosomes or in the nucleoplasm.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A poly(A) binding protein that has a variety of functions such as mRNA stabilization and protection of RNA from nuclease activity. Although poly(A) binding protein I is considered a major cytoplasmic RNA-binding protein it is also found in the CELL NUCLEUS and may be involved in transport of mRNP particles.
A family of immunophilin proteins that bind to the immunosuppressive drugs TACROLIMUS (also known as FK506) and SIROLIMUS. EC 5.2.1.-
Small kinetoplastid mitochondrial RNA that plays a major role in RNA EDITING. These molecules form perfect hybrids with edited mRNA sequences and possess nucleotide sequences at their 5'-ends that are complementary to the sequences of the mRNA's immediately downstream of the pre-edited regions.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
An endoribonuclease that is specific for double-stranded RNA. It plays a role in POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL RNA PROCESSING of pre-RIBOSOMAL RNA and a variety of other RNA structures that contain double-stranded regions.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC
Proteins involved in the process of transporting molecules in and out the cell nucleus. Included here are: NUCLEOPORINS, which are membrane proteins that form the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX; KARYOPHERINS, which carry molecules through the nuclear pore complex; and proteins that play a direct role in the transport of karyopherin complexes through the nuclear pore complex.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.
RNA that has catalytic activity. The catalytic RNA sequence folds to form a complex surface that can function as an enzyme in reactions with itself and other molecules. It may function even in the absence of protein. There are numerous examples of RNA species that are acted upon by catalytic RNA, however the scope of this enzyme class is not limited to a particular type of substrate.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
A ZINC FINGER MOTIF containing transcription factor that was originally identified as one of the IMMEDIATE-EARLY PROTEINS. It shuttles between the CYTOPLASM and the CELL NUCLEUS and is involved in destabilization of mRNAs for TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Proteins that regulate cellular and organismal iron homeostasis. They play an important biological role by maintaining iron levels that are adequate for metabolic need, but below the toxicity threshold.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
A group of ribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Sequences within RNA that regulate the processing, stability (RNA STABILITY) or translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of RNA.
Nucleic acid structures found on the 5' end of eukaryotic cellular and viral messenger RNA and some heterogeneous nuclear RNAs. These structures, which are positively charged, protect the above specified RNAs at their termini against attack by phosphatases and other nucleases and promote mRNA function at the level of initiation of translation. Analogs of the RNA caps (RNA CAP ANALOGS), which lack the positive charge, inhibit the initiation of protein synthesis.
Proteins found in ribosomes. They are believed to have a catalytic function in reconstituting biologically active ribosomal subunits.
The processes of RNA tertiary structure formation.
RNA molecules which hybridize to complementary sequences in either RNA or DNA altering the function of the latter. Endogenous antisense RNAs function as regulators of gene expression by a variety of mechanisms. Synthetic antisense RNAs are used to effect the functioning of specific genes for investigative or therapeutic purposes.
A family of soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors and modulate their biological actions at the cellular level. (Int J Gynaecol Obstet 1992;39(1):3-9)
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
A RNA-binding protein that is found predominately in the CYTOPLASM. It helps regulate GENETIC TRANSLATION in NEURONS and is absent or under-expressed in FRAGILE X SYNDROME.
Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.
A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
Ribonucleic acid in helminths having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Highly conserved nuclear RNA-protein complexes that function in RNA processing in the nucleus, including pre-mRNA splicing and pre-mRNA 3'-end processing in the nucleoplasm, and pre-rRNA processing in the nucleolus (see RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL NUCLEOLAR).
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A multiribosomal structure representing a linear array of RIBOSOMES held together by messenger RNA; (RNA, MESSENGER); They represent the active complexes in cellular protein synthesis and are able to incorporate amino acids into polypeptides both in vivo and in vitro. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes nagana in domestic and game animals in Africa. It apparently does not infect humans. It is transmitted by bites of tsetse flies (Glossina).
Organelles in which the splicing and excision reactions that remove introns from precursor messenger RNA molecules occur. One component of a spliceosome is five small nuclear RNA molecules (U1, U2, U4, U5, U6) that, working in conjunction with proteins, help to fold pieces of RNA into the right shapes and later splice them into the message.
An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Intracellular proteins that reversibly bind hydrophobic ligands including: saturated and unsaturated FATTY ACIDS; EICOSANOIDS; and RETINOIDS. They are considered a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed family of proteins that may play a role in the metabolism of LIPIDS.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.
A poly(A) binding protein that is involved in promoting the extension of the poly A tails of MRNA. The protein requires a minimum of ten ADENOSINE nucleotides in order for binding to mRNA. Once bound it works in conjunction with CLEAVAGE AND POLYADENYLATION SPECIFICITY FACTOR to stimulate the rate of poly A synthesis by POLY A POLYMERASE. Once poly-A tails reach around 250 nucleotides in length poly(A) binding protein II no longer stimulates POLYADENYLATION. Mutations within a GCG repeat region in the gene for poly(A) binding protein II have been shown to cause the disease MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY, OCULOPHARYNGEAL.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
A family of RNA-binding proteins that has specificity for MICRORNAS and SMALL INTERFERING RNA molecules. The proteins take part in RNA processing events as core components of RNA-induced silencing complex.
A family of proteins involved in NUCLEOCYTOPLASMIC TRANSPORT. Karyopherins are heteromeric molecules composed two major types of components, ALPHA KARYOPHERINS and BETA KARYOPHERINS, that function together to transport molecules through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Several other proteins such as RAN GTP BINDING PROTEIN and CELLULAR APOPTOSIS SUSCEPTIBILITY PROTEIN bind to karyopherins and participate in the transport process.
One of the six homologous soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors (SOMATOMEDINS) and modulate their mitogenic and metabolic actions at the cellular level.
A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Periplasmic proteins that scavenge or sense diverse nutrients. In the bacterial environment they usually couple to transporters or chemotaxis receptors on the inner bacterial membrane.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).
Nuclear nonribosomal RNA larger than about 1000 nucleotides, the mass of which is rapidly synthesized and degraded within the cell nucleus. Some heterogeneous nuclear RNA may be a precursor to mRNA. However, the great bulk of total hnRNA hybridizes with nuclear DNA rather than with mRNA.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
RNA present in neoplastic tissue.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A bacteriophage genus of the family LEVIVIRIDAE, whose viruses contain the short version of the genome and have a separate gene for cell lysis.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.
A nuclear RNA-protein complex that plays a role in RNA processing. In the nucleoplasm, the U1 snRNP along with other small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (U2, U4-U6, and U5) assemble into SPLICEOSOMES that remove introns from pre-mRNA by splicing. The U1 snRNA forms base pairs with conserved sequence motifs at the 5'-splice site and recognizes both the 5'- and 3'-splice sites and may have a fundamental role in aligning the two sites for the splicing reaction.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A general transcription factor that plays a major role in the activation of eukaryotic genes transcribed by RNA POLYMERASES. It binds specifically to the TATA BOX promoter element, which lies close to the position of transcription initiation in RNA transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE II. Although considered a principal component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID it also takes part in general transcription factor complexes involved in RNA POLYMERASE I and RNA POLYMERASE III transcription.
A 12-KDa tacrolimus binding protein that is found associated with and may modulate the function of calcium release channels. It is a peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase which is inhibited by both tacrolimus (commonly called FK506) and SIROLIMUS.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A family of secreted multidomain proteins that were originally identified by their association with the latent form of TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTORS. They interact with a variety of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS and may play a role in the regulation of TGB-beta bioavailability.
A species of GREEN ALGAE. Delicate, hairlike appendages arise from the flagellar surface in these organisms.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Methods for determining interaction between PROTEINS.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.

Apontic binds the translational repressor Bruno and is implicated in regulation of oskar mRNA translation. (1/12081)

The product of the oskar gene directs posterior patterning in the Drosophila oocyte, where it must be deployed specifically at the posterior pole. Proper expression relies on the coordinated localization and translational control of the oskar mRNA. Translational repression prior to localization of the transcript is mediated, in part, by the Bruno protein, which binds to discrete sites in the 3' untranslated region of the oskar mRNA. To begin to understand how Bruno acts in translational repression, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen to identify Bruno-interacting proteins. One interactor, described here, is the product of the apontic gene. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments lend biochemical support to the idea that Bruno and Apontic proteins physically interact in Drosophila. Genetic experiments using mutants defective in apontic and bruno reveal a functional interaction between these genes. Given this interaction, Apontic is likely to act together with Bruno in translational repression of oskar mRNA. Interestingly, Apontic, like Bruno, is an RNA-binding protein and specifically binds certain regions of the oskar mRNA 3' untranslated region.  (+info)

Meiosis: MeiRNA hits the spot. (2/12081)

The protein Mei2 performs at least two functions required in fission yeast for the switch from mitotic to meiotic cell cycles. One of these functions also requires meiRNA. It appears that meiRNA targets Mei2 to the nucleus, where it can promote the first meiotic division.  (+info)

The splicing factor-associated protein, p32, regulates RNA splicing by inhibiting ASF/SF2 RNA binding and phosphorylation. (3/12081)

The cellular protein p32 was isolated originally as a protein tightly associated with the essential splicing factor ASF/SF2 during its purification from HeLa cells. ASF/SF2 is a member of the SR family of splicing factors, which stimulate constitutive splicing and regulate alternative RNA splicing in a positive or negative fashion, depending on where on the pre-mRNA they bind. Here we present evidence that p32 interacts with ASF/SF2 and SRp30c, another member of the SR protein family. We further show that p32 inhibits ASF/SF2 function as both a splicing enhancer and splicing repressor protein by preventing stable ASF/SF2 interaction with RNA, but p32 does not block SRp30c function. ASF/SF2 is highly phosphorylated in vivo, a modification required for stable RNA binding and protein-protein interaction during spliceosome formation, and this phosphorylation, either through HeLa nuclear extracts or through specific SR protein kinases, is inhibited by p32. Our results suggest that p32 functions as an ASF/SF2 inhibitory factor, regulating ASF/SF2 RNA binding and phosphorylation. These findings place p32 into a new group of proteins that control RNA splicing by sequestering an essential RNA splicing factor into an inhibitory complex.  (+info)

Selection and characterization of pre-mRNA splicing enhancers: identification of novel SR protein-specific enhancer sequences. (4/12081)

Splicing enhancers are RNA sequences required for accurate splice site recognition and the control of alternative splicing. In this study, we used an in vitro selection procedure to identify and characterize novel RNA sequences capable of functioning as pre-mRNA splicing enhancers. Randomized 18-nucleotide RNA sequences were inserted downstream from a Drosophila doublesex pre-mRNA enhancer-dependent splicing substrate. Functional splicing enhancers were then selected by multiple rounds of in vitro splicing in nuclear extracts, reverse transcription, and selective PCR amplification of the spliced products. Characterization of the selected splicing enhancers revealed a highly heterogeneous population of sequences, but we identified six classes of recurring degenerate sequence motifs five to seven nucleotides in length including novel splicing enhancer sequence motifs. Analysis of selected splicing enhancer elements and other enhancers in S100 complementation assays led to the identification of individual enhancers capable of being activated by specific serine/arginine (SR)-rich splicing factors (SC35, 9G8, and SF2/ASF). In addition, a potent splicing enhancer sequence isolated in the selection specifically binds a 20-kDa SR protein. This enhancer sequence has a high level of sequence homology with a recently identified RNA-protein adduct that can be immunoprecipitated with an SRp20-specific antibody. We conclude that distinct classes of selected enhancers are activated by specific SR proteins, but there is considerable sequence degeneracy within each class. The results presented here, in conjunction with previous studies, reveal a remarkably broad spectrum of RNA sequences capable of binding specific SR proteins and/or functioning as SR-specific splicing enhancers.  (+info)

Substrate specificities of SR proteins in constitutive splicing are determined by their RNA recognition motifs and composite pre-mRNA exonic elements. (5/12081)

We report striking differences in the substrate specificities of two human SR proteins, SF2/ASF and SC35, in constitutive splicing. beta-Globin pre-mRNA (exons 1 and 2) is spliced indiscriminately with either SR protein. Human immunodeficiency virus tat pre-mRNA (exons 2 and 3) and immunoglobulin mu-chain (IgM) pre-mRNA (exons C3 and C4) are preferentially spliced with SF2/ASF and SC35, respectively. Using in vitro splicing with mutated or chimeric derivatives of the tat and IgM pre-mRNAs, we defined specific combinations of segments in the downstream exons, which mediate either positive or negative effects to confer SR protein specificity. A series of recombinant chimeric proteins consisting of domains of SF2/ASF and SC35 in various combinations was used to localize trans-acting domains responsible for substrate specificity. The RS domains of SF2/ASF and SC35 can be exchanged without effect on substrate specificity. The RNA recognition motifs (RRMs) of SF2/ASF are active only in the context of a two-RRM structure, and RRM2 has a dominant role in substrate specificity. In contrast, the single RRM of SC35 can function alone, but its substrate specificity can be influenced by the presence of an additional RRM. The RRMs behave as modules that, when present in different combinations, can have positive, neutral, or negative effects on splicing, depending upon the specific substrate. We conclude that SR protein-specific recognition of specific positive and negative pre-mRNA exonic elements via one or more RRMs is a crucial determinant of the substrate specificity of SR proteins in constitutive splicing.  (+info)

A human sequence homologue of Staufen is an RNA-binding protein that is associated with polysomes and localizes to the rough endoplasmic reticulum. (6/12081)

In the course of a two-hybrid screen with the NS1 protein of influenza virus, a human clone capable of coding for a protein with high homology to the Staufen protein from Drosophila melanogaster (dmStaufen) was identified. With these sequences used as a probe, cDNAs were isolated from a lambda cDNA library. The encoded protein (hStaufen-like) contained four double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-binding domains with 55% similarity and 38% identity to those of dmStaufen, including identity at all residues involved in RNA binding. A recombinant protein containing all dsRNA-binding domains was expressed in Escherichia coli as a His-tagged polypeptide. It showed dsRNA binding activity in vitro, with an apparent Kd of 10(-9) M. Using a specific antibody, we detected in human cells a major form of the hStaufen-like protein with an apparent molecular mass of 60 to 65 kDa. The intracellular localization of hStaufen-like protein was investigated by immunofluorescence using a series of markers for the cell compartments. Colocalization was observed with the rough endoplasmic reticulum but not with endosomes, cytoskeleton, or Golgi apparatus. Furthermore, sedimentation analyses indicated that hStaufen-like protein associates with polysomes. These results are discussed in relation to the possible functions of the protein.  (+info)

Mammalian staufen is a double-stranded-RNA- and tubulin-binding protein which localizes to the rough endoplasmic reticulum. (7/12081)

Staufen (Stau) is a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-binding protein involved in mRNA transport and localization in Drosophila. To understand the molecular mechanisms of mRNA transport in mammals, we cloned human (hStau) and mouse (mStau) staufen cDNAs. In humans, four transcripts arise by differential splicing of the Stau gene and code for two proteins with different N-terminal extremities. In vitro, hStau and mStau bind dsRNA via each of two full-length dsRNA-binding domains and tubulin via a region similar to the microtubule-binding domain of MAP-1B, suggesting that Stau cross-links cytoskeletal and RNA components. Immunofluorescent double labeling of transfected mammalian cells revealed that Stau is localized to the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), implicating this RNA-binding protein in mRNA targeting to the RER, perhaps via a multistep process involving microtubules. These results are the first demonstration of the association of an RNA-binding protein in addition to ribosomal proteins, with the RER, implicating this class of proteins in the transport of RNA to its site of translation.  (+info)

NMD3 encodes an essential cytoplasmic protein required for stable 60S ribosomal subunits in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (8/12081)

A mutation in NMD3 was found to be lethal in the absence of XRN1, which encodes the major cytoplasmic exoribonuclease responsible for mRNA turnover. Molecular genetic analysis of NMD3 revealed that it is an essential gene required for stable 60S ribosomal subunits. Cells bearing a temperature-sensitive allele of NMD3 had decreased levels of 60S subunits at the nonpermissive temperature which resulted in the formation of half-mer polysomes. Pulse-chase analysis of rRNA biogenesis indicated that 25S rRNA was made and processed with kinetics similar to wild-type kinetics. However, the mature RNA was rapidly degraded, with a half-life of 4 min. Nmd3p fractionated as a cytoplasmic protein and sedimented in the position of free 60S subunits in sucrose gradients. These results suggest that Nmd3p is a cytoplasmic factor required for a late cytoplasmic assembly step of the 60S subunit but is not a ribosomal protein. Putative orthologs of Nmd3p exist in Drosophila, in nematodes, and in archaebacteria but not in eubacteria. The Nmd3 protein sequence does not contain readily recognizable motifs of known function. However, these proteins all have an amino-terminal domain containing four repeats of Cx2C, reminiscent of zinc-binding proteins, implicated in nucleic acid binding or protein oligomerization.  (+info)

There are a growing number of reports on the sub-physiological temperature culturing of mammalian cells for increased recombinant protein yields. However, the effect varies and the reasons for the enhancement are not fully elucidated. Expression of cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (cirp, also called cirbp or hnRNP A18) is known to be induced in response to mild, but not severe, hypothermia in mammalian cells. To clarify the molecular mechanism underlying the induction and to exploit this to improve the productivity of recombinant proteins, we tried to identify the regulatory sequence(s) in the 5′ flanking region of the mouse cirp gene. By transiently transfecting HEK293 cells with plasmids expressing chloramphenicol acetyltransferase as a reporter, we found that the cirp 5′ flanking region octanucleotide 5′-TCCCCGCC-3′ is a mild-cold responsive element (MCRE). When 3 copies of MCRE were placed upstream of the CMV promoter and used in transient transfection, reporter gene expression was
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Serine 195 phosphorylation in the RNA-binding protein Rbm38 increases p63 expression by modulating Rbm38s interaction with the Ago2-miR203 complex. AU - Zhang, Yanhong. AU - Feng, Xiuli. AU - Sun, Wenqiang. AU - Zhang, Jin. AU - Chen, Xinbin. PY - 2019/1/1. Y1 - 2019/1/1. N2 - The p63 transcription factor, a p53 family protein, regulates genes involved in various cellular processes, including cell growth and differentiation. We previously showed that RNA-binding motif protein (Rbm38) is a p63 target and, in turn, regulates p63 mRNA stability by binding to the AU/U-rich element in its 3UTR. Interestingly, Rbm38 can be phosphorylated at serine 195, altering its ability to regulate mRNA translation. However, whether the Ser-195 phosphorylation affects Rbm38s ability to destabilize p63 mRNA remains unclear. Here, using MCF7 and HaCaT cells, we showed that ectopic expression of phosphomimetic Rbm38-S195D increases, whereas WT Rbm38 and nonphosphorylatable Rbm38-S195A decrease p63 ...
RNA-binding proteins have diverse functions in the regulation of gene expression. This is the first report, to our knowledge, that a KH motif RNA-binding protein is regulated by p53 and that it serves as a mediator in inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in G2-M. We have demonstrated that deletion of either of the KH domains or a point mutation in the C-terminal KH domain of MCG10as abrogates or severely diminishes the activity of MCG10 and MCG10as in binding RNA. As a result, the MCG10 and MCG10as mutants defective in RNA binding are also defective in inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. These results indicate that, like other RNA-binding proteins, the RNA-binding activity is critical for the function of MCG10 and MCG10as. Interestingly, a 55-amino-acid insertion in the N-terminal KH domain does not interfere with the RNA-binding activity of MCG10.. Previously, we and others have shown that p53 cellular target genes are differentially regulated by p73 (21, 50, 107). We found that the ...
RNA-binding proteins are a critical component of the cellular machinery that dictate the fate of RNA molecules. As RNA virus genomes are small, they rely on host RNA-binding proteins to control the life of the viral RNA. However, which of these host proteins are required for virus infection remains largely unknown. Alfredos group developed a novel technique called comparative RNA interactome capture to interrogate which RNA-binding proteins are involved in the infection of a model virus called Sindbis (SINV). This work uncovered that SINV infection alters the activity of more than 200 cellular RNA-binding proteins, thus rewiring cellular RNA metabolism (Figure 1). ...
BACKGROUND: Low nuclear expression of the RNA-binding motif protein 3 (RBM3) has previously been found to be associated with poor prognosis in several cancer forms e.g. breast, ovarian, colorectal, prostate cancer and malignant melanoma. The aim of this study was to examine the prognostic impact of RBM3 expression in urinary bladder cancer.. METHODS: Immunohistochemical RBM3 expression was examined in tumours from 343 patients with urothelial bladder cancer. Chi-square and Spearmans correlation tests were applied to explore associations between RBM3 expression and clinicopathological characteristics. The impact of RBM3 expression on disease-specific survival (DSS), 5-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) was assessed by Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards modelling.. RESULTS: Reduced nuclear RBM3 expression was significantly associated with more advanced tumour (T) stage (p ,0.001) and high grade tumours (p=0.004). Negative RBM3 expression was associated ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
In eukaryotic cells, a multitude of RNA-binding proteins play key roles in the posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression. Characterization of these proteins has led to the identification of several RNA-binding motifs, and recent experiments have begun to illustrate how several of them bind RNA. The significance of these interactions is reflected in the recent discoveries that several human and other vertebrate genetic disorders are caused by aberrant expression of RNA-binding proteins. The major RNA-binding motifs are described and examples of how they may function are given. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - She2p is a novel RNA binding protein with a basic helical hairpin motif. AU - Niessing, Dierk. AU - Hüttelmaier, Stefan. AU - Zenklusen, Daniel. AU - Singer, Robert H.. AU - Burley, Stephen K.. PY - 2004/11/12. Y1 - 2004/11/12. N2 - Selective transport of mRNAs in ribonucleoprotein particles (mRNP) ensures asymmetric distribution of information within and among eukaryotic cells. Actin-dependent transport of ASH1 mRNA in yeast represents one of the best-characterized examples of mRNP translocation. Formation of the ASH1 mRNP requires recognition of zip code elements by the RNA binding protein She2p. We determined the X-ray structure of She2p at 1.95 Å resolution. She2p is a member of a previously unknown class of nucleic acid binding proteins, composed of a single globular domain with a five α helix bundle that forms a symmetric homodimer. After demonstrating potent, dimer-dependent RNA binding in vitro, we mapped the RNA binding surface of She2p to a basic helical hairpin in ...
Expression of the RNA-binding protein RBM3 is associated with a favourable prognosis and cisplatin sensitivity in epithelial ovarian cancer. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Author: Maatz, H. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2014-08; Open Access; Title: RNA-binding protein RBM20 represses splicing to orchestrate cardiac pre-mRNA processing
The protamine mRNAs are stored for up to 8 days as translationally repressed ribonucleoprotein particles during murine spermatogenesis. Translational repression of the protamine 1, Prm1, mRNA is controlled by sequences in its 3-untranslated region (UTR). In this study we used the yeast three-hybrid system to clone Msy4, which encodes a novel member of the Y box family of nucleic acid binding proteins. MSY4 specifically binds to a site within the 5 most 37 nucleotides in the Prm1 3 UTR. Msy4 is highly expressed in the testis, and the protein is detected in the cytoplasm of germ cells in both the testis and the ovary, where repressed messages are stored. Analysis of a previously described 48/50-kDa binding activity in testis extracts by electrophoretic mobility shift assays and immunoprecipitation indicates the activity is composed of MSY4 and MSY2, another mouse Y box protein. Polysome analysis demonstrates MSY4 is associated with mRNPs, consistent with MSY4 having a role in storing
Algorithms designed to identify canonical yeast prions predict that around 250 human proteins, including several RNA-binding proteins associated with neurodegenerative disease, harbour a distinctive prion-like domain (PrLD) enriched in uncharged polar amino acids and glycine. PrLDs in RNA-binding proteins are essential for the assembly of ribonucleoprotein granules. However, the interplay between human PrLD function and disease is not understood. Here we define pathogenic mutations in PrLDs of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) A2B1 and A1 in families with inherited degeneration affecting muscle, brain, motor neuron and bone, and in one case of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Wild-type hnRNPA2 (the most abundant isoform of hnRNPA2B1) and hnRNPA1 show an intrinsic tendency to assemble into self-seeding fibrils, which is exacerbated by the disease mutations. Indeed, the pathogenic mutations strengthen a steric zipper motif in the PrLD, which accelerates the formation of self
ZBP1 (zipcode binding proteins 1) is an RNA-binding protein involved in many posttranscriptional processes such as RNA localization RNA stability and translational control. both cell adhesion and transcription specifically binds to the ZBP1 promoter via a conserved β-catenin/TCF4 response element and activates its gene expression. ZBP1 activation is also closely correlated with nuclear translocation of β-catenin in human breast tumors. We further demonstrate feedback regulation by finding that ZBP1 physically associates with β-catenin mRNA in vivo and increases its stability. These experiments suggest that in breast Pomalidomide cancer cells the expression of ZBP1 and the expression of β-catenin are coordinately regulated. β-Catenin mediates the transcription of the ZBP1 gene while ZBP1 promotes the stability of β-catenin mRNA. ZBP1 (zipcode binding protein 1) belongs to a conserved family of RNA-binding proteins that contain four hnRNP K (KH) domains and Pomalidomide two RNA recognition ...
Understanding how biomolecules interact is a major task of systems biology. To model protein-nucleic acid interactions, it is important to identify the DNA or RNA-binding residues in proteins. Protein sequence features, including the biochemical property of amino acids and evolutionary information in terms of position-specific scoring matrix (PSSM), have been used for DNA or RNA-binding site prediction. However, PSSM is rather designed for PSI-BLAST searches, and it may not contain all the evolutionary information for modelling DNA or RNA-binding sites in protein sequences. In the present study, several new descriptors of evolutionary information have been developed and evaluated for sequence-based prediction of DNA and RNA-binding residues using support vector machines (SVMs). The new descriptors were shown to improve classifier performance. Interestingly, the best classifiers were obtained by combining the new descriptors and PSSM, suggesting that they captured different aspects of evolutionary
RNA-protein interactions are pivotal in fundamental cellular processes such as translation, mRNA processing, early development, and infection by RNA viruses. However, in spite of the central importance of these interactions, few approaches are available to analyze them rapidly in vivo. We describe a yeast genetic method to detect and analyze RNA-protein interactions in which the binding of a bifunctional RNA to each of two hybrid proteins activates transcription of a reporter gene in vivo. We demonstrate that this three-hybrid system enables the rapid, phenotypic detection of specific RNA-protein interactions. As examples, we use the binding of the iron regulatory protein 1 (IRP1) to the iron response element (IRE), and of HIV trans-activator protein (Tat) to the HIV trans-activation response element (TAR) RNA sequence. The three-hybrid assay we describe relies only on the physical properties of the RNA and protein, and not on their natural biological activities; as a result, it may have broad ...
RNA-binding proteins regulate a number of cellular processes, including synthesis, folding, translocation, assembly and clearance of RNAs. Recent studies have reported that an unexpectedly large number of proteins are able to interact with RNA, but partners of many RNA-binding proteins are still uncharacterized.
Understanding interactions between proteins and RNA is key to deciphering the mechanisms of many important biological processes. Here we describe RNABindR, a web-based server that identifies and displays RNA-binding residues in known protein-RNA complexes and predicts RNA-binding residues in proteins of unknown structure. RNABindR uses a distance cutoff to identify which amino acids contact RNA in solved complex structures (from the Protein Data Bank) and provides a labeled amino acid sequence and a Jmol graphical viewer in which RNA-binding residues are displayed in the context of the three-dimensional structure. Alternatively, RNABindR can use a Naive Bayes classifier trained on a non-redundant set of protein-RNA complexes from the PDB to predict which amino acids in a protein sequence of unknown structure are most likely to bind RNA. RNABindR automatically displays high specificity and high sensitivity predictions of RNA-binding residues. RNABindR is freely available at http://bindr.gdcb.iastate
Sepsis represents uncontrolled inflammation due to an infection. Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP) is a stress-induced damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP). A subset of neutrophils expressing ICAM-1+ neutrophils was previously shown to produce high levels of reactive oxygen species. The role of CIRP for the development and function of ICAM-1+ neutrophils during sepsis is unknown. We hypothesize that CIRP induces ICAM-1 expression in neutrophils causing injury to the lungs during sepsis. Using a mouse model of cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis, we found increased expression of CIRP and higher frequencies and numbers of ICAM-1+ neutrophils in the lungs ...
RNA-binding protein which may be involved in spermatogenesis. Required for sperm development, possibly by participating in pre-mRNA splicing in the testis.
Pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins are characterized by tandem repeats of a degenerate 35 amino acid motif [1]. Most of PPR proteins have roles in mitochondria or plastid. PPR repeats were discovered while screening Arabidopsis proteins for those predicted to be targeted to mitochondria or chloroplast [1,2]. Some of these proteins have been shown to play a role in post-transcriptional processes within organelles and they are thought to be sequence-specific RNA-binding proteins [3,4,5]. Plant genomes have between one hundred to five hundred PPR genes per genome whereas non-plant genomes encode two to six PPR proteins. Although no PPR structures are yet known, the motif is predicted to fold into a helix-turn-helix structure similar to those found in the tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) family (see ,PDOC50005,) [1]. The plant PPR protein family has been divided in two subfamilies on the basis of their motif content and organization [6,7]: ...
As published in the January 15th issue of G&D, Dr. Joel Richter s laboratory at UMASS Medical School has identified a critical role for the RINGO/Spy protein in the control of cytoplasmic polyadenylation. CPEB is a highly conserved, sequence-specific RNA-binding protein that modulates polyadenylation, and thereby mRNA translation. Dr. Richter and his graduate student, Kiran Padmanabhan, now show that CPEB phosphorylation (and subsequent activation) is regulated by RINGO/Spy in Xenopus oocytes. ...
The double-stranded RNA binding protein Staufen is required for the microtubule-dependent localization of bicoid and oskar mRNAs to opposite poles of the Drosophila oocyte and also mediates the actin-dependent localization of prospero mRNA during the asymmetric neuroblast divisions. The posterior localization of oskar mRNA requires Staufen RNA binding domain 2, whereas prospero mRNA localization mediated the binding of Miranda to RNA binding domain 5, suggesting that different Staufen domains couple mRNAs to distinct localization pathways. This study shows that the expression of Miranda during mid-oogenesis targets Staufen/oskar mRNA complexes to the anterior of the oocyte, resulting in bicaudal embryos that develop an abdomen and pole cells instead of the head and thorax. Anterior Miranda localization requires microtubules, rather than actin, and depends on the function of Exuperantia and Swallow, indicating that Miranda links Staufen/oskar mRNA complexes to the bicoid mRNA localization ...
We have characterized two RNA-binding proteins, of apparent molecular masses of approximately 40 and 35 kDa, which possess a single N-terminal RNA-recognition motif (RRM) followed by a C-terminal domain rich in serine-arginine dipeptides. Their primary structures resemble the single-RRM serine-arginine (SR) protein, SC35; however their functional effects are quite distinctive. The 40-kDa protein cannot complement SR protein-deficient HeLa cell S100 extract and showed a dominant negative effect in vitro against the authentic SR proteins, SF2/ASF and SC35. Interestingly, the 40- and 35-kDa proteins antagonize SR proteins and activate the most distal alternative 5 splice site of adenovirus E1A pre-mRNA in vivo, an activity that is similar to that characterized previously for the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles A/B group of proteins. A series of recombinant chimeric proteins consisting of domains from these proteins and SC35 in various combinations showed that the RRM, but not the C
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of RNA-binding protein RBM24 regulates p63 expression via mRNA stability. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Alternative pre-mRNA splicing is a powerful mechanism that is exploited by higher eukaryotes to diversify their proteomes, and to differentially regulate the expression, function, and localization of mRNA and proteins. Pre-mRNA splicing is typically regulated by RNA-binding proteins that recognize cis-acting RNA elements, and either activate or repress splicing of adjacent exons in a temporal, and tissue specific, manner. Understanding how RNA-binding proteins control the splicing code is fundamental to understanding organismal development and disease. The SR proteins are a well-conserved class of RNA-binding proteins that have an essential role in the regulation of splice site selection, and have also been implicated as key regulators during other stages of RNA metabolism. The complexity of the RNA targets, and specificity of RNA binding location remains poorly understood for many members of the SR protein family. Here, we present a comprehensive study to elucidate how the SR proteins ...
RNA-binding proteins have been suggested to move in association with RNA as it leaves the nucleus. The NPL3 gene of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes in nuclear protein with consensus RNA-binding motifs and similarity to heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins and members of the S/R protein family. We show that although Npl3 is located in the nucleus, it can shuttle between nuclei in yeast heterokaryons. In contrast, other nucleus-targeted proteins do not leave the nucleus under similar conditions. Mutants missing the RNA-binding motifs or the N terminus are still capable of shuttling in and out of the nucleus. Npl3 mutants missing the C terminus fail to localize to the nucleus. Overproduction of Npl3 in wild-type cells shows cell growth. This toxicity depends on the presence of series of unique repeats in the N terminus and localization to the nucleus. We suggest that the properties of Npl3 are consistent with it being involved in export of RNAs from the nucleus. ...
The myeloid translocation gene (MTG) proteins are non-DNA-binding transcriptional regulators capable of interacting with chromatin modifying proteins. As a consequence of leukemia-associated chromosomal translocations, two of the MTG proteins, MTG8 and MTG16, are fused to the DNA-binding domain of AML1, a transcriptional activator crucial for hematopoiesis. The AML1-MTG fusion proteins, as the wild type MTGs, display four conserved homology regions (NHR1-4) related to the Drosophila nervy protein. Structural protein analyses led us to test the hypothesis that specific MTG domains may mediate RNA binding. By using an RNA-binding assay based on synthetic RNA homopolymers and a panel of MTG deletion mutants, here we show that all the MTG proteins can bind RNA. The RNA-binding properties can be traced to two regions: the Zinc finger domains in the NHR4, which mediate Zinc-dependent RNA binding, and a novel short basic region (SBR) upstream of the NHR2, which mediates Zinc-independent RNA binding. The two
RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) allow cells to carry out pre-RNA processing and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression, and aberrations in RBP functions have been linked to many diseases, including neurological disorders and cancer. Human cells encode thousands of RNA-binding proteins with u …
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nuclear-Import Receptors Reverse Aberrant Phase Transitions of RNA-Binding Proteins with Prion-like Domains. AU - Guo, Lin. AU - Kim, Hong Joo. AU - Wang, Hejia. AU - Monaghan, John. AU - Freyermuth, Fernande. AU - Sung, Julie C.. AU - ODonovan, Kevin. AU - Fare, Charlotte M.. AU - Diaz, Zamia. AU - Singh, Nikita. AU - Zhang, Zi Chao. AU - Coughlin, Maura. AU - Sweeny, Elizabeth A.. AU - DeSantis, Morgan E.. AU - Jackrel, Meredith E.. AU - Rodell, Christopher B.. AU - Burdick, Jason A.. AU - King, Oliver D.. AU - Gitler, Aaron D.. AU - Lagier-Tourenne, Clotilde. AU - Pandey, Udai Bhan. AU - Chook, Yuh Min. AU - Taylor, J. Paul. AU - Shorter, James. PY - 2018/4/19. Y1 - 2018/4/19. N2 - RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) with prion-like domains (PrLDs) phase transition to functional liquids, which can mature into aberrant hydrogels composed of pathological fibrils that underpin fatal neurodegenerative disorders. Several nuclear RBPs with PrLDs, including TDP-43, FUS, hnRNPA1, and ...
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Signaling-protein mRNAs tend to have long untranslated regions (UTRs) containing binding sites for RNA-binding proteins regulating gene expression. Here we show that a PUF-family RNA-binding protein, Mpt5, represses the yeast MAP-kinase pathway controlling differentiation to the filamentous form. Mpt5 represses the protein levels of two pathway components, the Ste7 MAP-kinase kinase and the Tec1 transcriptional activator, and negatively regulates the kinase activity of the Kss1 MAP kinase. Moreover, Mpt5 specifically inhibits the output of the pathway in the absence of stimuli, and thereby prevents inappropriate cell differentiation. The results provide an example of what may be a genome-scale level of regulation at the interface of signaling networks and protein-RNA binding networks.
Shop Nuclear polyadenylated RNA-binding protein ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Nuclear polyadenylated RNA-binding protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Allows to analyse binding sites of RNA-binding proteins. CLIPZ is a database and an analysis environment which supports the automatic functional annotation of short reads resulting primarily from crosslinking and immunoprecipitation experiments (CLIP) performed with RNA-binding proteins to identify the binding sites of these proteins. The software allows users to upload their own sequence data sets while being able to limit the access to these data to specific users.
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Splicing of the Drosophila Sex-lethal early transcripts involves exon skipping that is independent of Sex-lethal protein. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Philip J Uren, Dat T Vo, Patricia Rosa de Araujo, Rebecca Pötschke, Suzanne C Burns, Emad Bahrami-Samani, Mei Qiao, Raquel de Sousa Abreu, Helder I Nakaya, Bruna R Correa, Caspar Kühnöl, Jernej Ule, Jennifer L Martindale, Kotb Abdelmohsen, Myriam Gorospe, Andrew D Smith, Luiz O F Penalva].
Mai S, et al. Global regulation of alternative RNA splicing by the SR-rich protein RBM39. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2016 Aug;1859(8):1014-24. (IF=5.373). ...
mRNA stability is modulated by elements in the mRNA transcript and their cognate RNA binding proteins. Poly(U) binding protein 1 (Pub1) is a cytoplasmic Saccharomyces cerevisiae mRNA binding protein that stabilizes transcripts containing AU-rich elements (AREs) or stabilizer elements (STEs). In a yeast two-hybrid screen, we identified nuclear poly(A) binding protein 2 (Nab2) as being a Pub1-interacting protein. Nab2 is an essential nucleocytoplasmic shuttling mRNA binding protein that regulates poly(A) tail length and mRNA export. The interaction between Pub1 and Nab2 was confirmed by copurification and in vitro binding assays. The interaction is mediated by the Nab2 zinc finger domain. Analysis of the functional link between these proteins reveals that Nab2, like Pub1, can modulate the stability of specific mRNA transcripts. The half-life of the RPS16B transcript, an ARE-like sequence-containing Pub1 target, is decreased in both nab2-1 and nab2-67 mutants. In contrast, GCN4, an STE-containing ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Regulation of tau RNA maturation by thyroid hormone is mediated by the neural RNA-binding protein musashi-1. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Transcription factors (TFs) are well-established key factors orchestrating gene transcription, and RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are mainly thought to participate in post-transcriptional control of gene. In fact, these two steps are functionally coupled, offering a possibility for reciprocal communications between transcription and regulatory RNAs and RBPs. Recently, a series of exploratory studies, utilizing functional genomic strategies, have revealed that RBPs are prevalently involved in transcription control genome-wide through their interactions with chromatin. Here, we present a refined census of RBPs to grope for such an emerging role and discuss the global view of RBP-chromatin interactions and their functional diversities in transcription regulation. ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Meghdad Yeganeh, Ehsan Seyedjafari, Farnaz Akbari Kamrani, Nasser Ghaemi].
The expression profile of a panel of RNA-binding proteins (heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A1, hnRNP C1/C2, hnRNP H, hnRNP I, ASF/SF2, SR proteins, HuR and U2AF(65)) and markers of differentiation, proliferation and neoplasia (cytokeratin (CK) 13, CK-14, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), Syndecan-1 and p16INK4a) were analyzed in 50 formalin fixed paraffin embedded cervical tissues using immunohistochemistry. The samples included histologically normal cervical epithelium, human papillomavirus (HPV) induced low-grade and high-grade pre-malignant lesions and cervical cancers. All samples were tested for HPV DNA using nested PCR. Forty-nine of the 50 tissue samples tested positive for HPV, 27 tissue samples (54%) were HPV-16 positive and 4 samples (8%) were HPV-18 positive. The immunohistochemistry results detected different expression levels of the various proteins in basal epithelial cells in histologically normal epithelium followed by an increase in expression in the ...
RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are effectors and regulators of posttranscriptional gene regulation (PTGR). RBPs regulate stability, maturation, and turnover of all RNAs, often binding thousands of target
RNA in cells is always associated with RNA-binding proteins that regulate all aspects of RNA metabolism including RNA splicing, export from the nucleus, RNA localization, mRNA turn-over as well as translation. Given their diverse functions, cells express a variety of RNA-binding proteins, which play important roles in the pathologies of a number of diseases. In this review we focus on the effect of alcohol on different RNA-binding proteins and their possible contribution to alcohol-related disorders, and discuss the role of these proteins in the development of neurological diseases and cancer. We further discuss the conventional methods and newer techniques that are employed to identify RNA-binding proteins.
Regulation of gene expression, protein synthesis, replication and assembly of many viruses involve RNA-protein interactions. Although some successful computational tools have been reported to recognize RNA binding sites in proteins, the problem of specificity remains poorly investigated. After the nucleotide base composition, the dinucleotide is the smallest unit of RNA sequence information and many RNA-binding proteins simply bind to regions enriched in one dinucleotide. Interaction preferences of protein subsequences and dinucleotides can be inferred from protein-RNA complex structures, enabling a training-based prediction approach. We analyzed basic statistics of amino acid-dinucleotide contacts in protein-RNA complexes and found their pairing preferences could be identified. Using a standard approach to represent protein subsequences by their evolutionary profile, we trained neural networks to predict multiclass target vectors corresponding to 16 possible contacting dinucleotide subsequences. In the
In addition to DNA, gametes contribute epigenetic information in the form of histones and non-coding RNA. Epigenetic programs often respond to stressful environmental conditions and provide a heritable history of ancestral stress that allows for adaptation and propagation of the species. In the nematode C. elegans, defective epigenetic transmission often manifests as progressive germline mortality. We previously isolated sup-46 in a screen for suppressors of the hexosamine pathway gene mutant, gna-2(qa705). In this study, we examine the role of SUP-46 in stress resistance and progressive germline mortality. We identified SUP-46 as an HNRNPM family RNA-binding protein, and uncovered a highly novel role for SUP-46 in preventing paternally-mediated progressive germline mortality following mating. Proximity biotinylation profiling of human homologs (HNRNPM, MYEF2) identified proteins of ribonucleoprotein complexes previously shown to contain non-coding RNA. Like HNRNPM and MYEF2, SUP-46 was associated with
Small RNAs, 5 UTR elements and RNA-binding proteins in intracellular bacteria: impact on metabolism and virulence. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2015 May;39(3):331-349 Authors: Oliva G, Sahr T, Buchrieser C Abstract Sequencing-based studies have illuminated increased transcriptional complexity within the genome structure of bacteria and have resulted in the identification of many small regulatory RNAs (sRNA) and…
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Mammalian ELAV-like neuronal RNA-binding proteins HuB and HuC promote neuronal development in both the central and the peripheral nervous systems. AU - Akamatsu, Wado. AU - Okano, Hirotaka J.. AU - Osumi, Noriko. AU - Inoue, Takayoshi. AU - Nakamura, Shun. AU - Sakakibara, Shin Ichi. AU - Miura, Masayuki. AU - Matsuo, Nobutake. AU - Darnell, Robert B.. AU - Okano, Hideyuki. PY - 1999/8/17. Y1 - 1999/8/17. N2 - Hu proteins are mammalian embryonic lethal abnormal visual system (ELAV)-like neuronal RNA-binding proteins that contain three RNA recognition motifs. Although Drosophila ELAV is required for the correct differentiation and survival of neurons, the roles played by the Hu genes in the mammalian nervous system remain largely unknown. To explore the in vivo functions of mouse Hu proteins, we overexpressed them in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells, where they induced neuronal phenotype in the absence of nerve growth factor. We have characterized the functions of various forms of ...
Nuclear RNA processing is a critical stage in eukaryotic gene expression, and is controlled in part by the expression and concentration of nuclear RNA-binding proteins. Different nuclear RNA-binding proteins are differentially expressed in different cells, helping the spliceosome to decode pre-mRNAs into alternatively spliced mRNAs. Recent post-genomic technology has exposed the complexity of nuclear RNA processing, and is starting to reveal the mechanisms and rules through which networks of RNA-binding proteins can regulate multiple parallel pathways. Identification of multiple parallel processing pathways regulated by nuclear RNA-binding proteins is leading to a systems-wide understanding of the rules and consequences of alternative nuclear RNA processing.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Interaction of RNA-binding proteins HuR and AUF1 with the human ATF3 mRNA 3′-untranslated region regulates its amino acid limitation-induced stabilization. AU - Pan, Yuan Xiang. AU - Chen, Hong. AU - Kilberg, Michael S.. PY - 2005/10/14. Y1 - 2005/10/14. N2 - ATF3 expression is induced in cells exposed to a variety of stress conditions, including nutrient limitation. Here we demonstrated that the mechanism by which the ATF3 mRNA content is increased following amino acid limitation of human HepG2 hepatoma cells is mRNA stabilization. Analysis of ATF3 mRNA turnover revealed that the half-life was increased from about 1 h in control cells to greater than 8 h in the histidine-deprived state, demonstrating mRNA stabilization in response to nutrient deprivation. Treatment of HepG2 cells with thapsigargin, which causes endoplasmic reticulum stress, also increased the half-life of ATF3 mRNA. HuR is an RNA-binding protein that regulates both the stability and cytoplasmic/nuclear ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Antitumor effects of EMAP II against pancreatic cancer through inhibition of fibronectin-dependent proliferation. AU - Schwarz, Roderich E.. AU - Awasthi, Niranjan. AU - Konduri, Srivani. AU - Caldwell, Lauren. AU - Cafasso, Danielle. AU - Schwarz, Margaret A.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2010/4/15. Y1 - 2010/4/15. N2 - Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is highly resistant to conventional chemotherapy. The presence of both cellular and stromal fibronectin (FN) and its interaction with integrins is necessary for PDAC progression. We tested the efficacy of endothelial monocyte-activating polypeptide II (EMAP II) to inhibit PDAC progression and its ability to interfere with FN-integrin angiogenesis signaling. In heterotopic PDAC tumors EMAP II caused a significant reduction (,65%) in tumor growth, accompanied by a ,50% and 44% decrease in microvessel density and proliferative activity, respectively. EMAP II therapy caused a 62% and ...
Elucidation of the interaction of proteins with different molecules is of significance in the understanding of cellular processes. Computational methods have been developed for the prediction of protein-protein interactions. But insufficient attention has been paid to the prediction of protein-RNA interactions, which play central roles in regulating gene expression and certain RNA-mediated enzymatic processes. This work explored the use of a machine learning method, support vector machines (SVM), for the prediction of RNA-binding proteins directly from their primary sequence. Based on the knowledge of known RNA-binding and non-RNA-binding proteins, an SVM system was trained to recognize RNA-binding proteins. A total of 4011 RNA-binding and 9781 non-RNA-binding proteins was used to train and test the SVM classification system, and an independent set of 447 RNA-binding and 4881 non-RNA-binding proteins was used to evaluate the classification accuracy. Testing results using this independent ...
Mammalian gene expression patterns change profoundly in response to low oxygen levels. These changes in gene expression programs are strongly influenced by post-transcriptional mechanisms mediated by mRNA-binding factors: RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) and microRNAs (miRNAs). Here, we review the RBPs and miRNAs that modulate mRNA turnover and translation in response to hypoxic challenge. RBPs such as HuR (human antigen R), PTB (polypyrimidine tract-binding protein), heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs), tristetraprolin, nucleolin, iron-response element binding proteins (IRPs), and cytoplasmic polyadenylation-element-binding proteins (CPEBs), selectively bind to numerous hypoxia-regulated transcripts and play a major role in establishing hypoxic gene expression patterns. MiRNAs including miR-210, miR-373, and miR-21 associate with hypoxia-regulated transcripts and further modulate the levels of the encoded proteins to implement the hypoxic gene expression profile. We discuss the potent
Methionyl-tRNA synthetase (MetRS) belongs to the family of 20 enzymes essential for protein biosynthesis. It links covalently methionine with its cognate tRNA. Crystal structures solved for bacterial MetRSs have given a number of interesting insights into enzyme architecture and methionylation catalysis. A comparison of sequences of MetRSs belonging to all kingdoms of life, as well as numerous biochemical and genetic studies have revealed the presence of various additional domains appended to the catalytic core of synthetase. They are responsible for interactions with tRNA and proteins. Tertiary structure of C-terminal tRNA-binding appendices can be deduced from those determined for their homologues: tRNA binding protein 111 and endothelial monocyte-activating polypeptide II. Contacts between MetRS and other proteins could be mediated not only by noncatalytic peptides but also by structural elements present in the catalytic core, e.g. Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motifs. Additional activities involve MetRS ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hrb27C, Sqd and Otu cooperatively regulate gurken RNA localization and mediate nurse cell chromosome dispersion in Drosophila oogenesis. AU - Goodrich, Jennifer S.. AU - Clouse, K. Nicole. AU - Schüpbach, Trudi. PY - 2004/5. Y1 - 2004/5. N2 - Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins, hnRNPs, are RNA-binding proteins that play crucial roles in controlling gene expression. In Drosophila oogenesis, the hnRNP Squid (Sqd) functions in the localization and translational regulation of gurken (grk) mRNA. We show that Sqd interacts with Hrb27C, an hnRNP previously implicated in splicing. Like sqd, hrb27C mutants lay eggs with dorsoventral defects and Hrb27C can directly bind to grk RNA. Our data demonstrate a novel role for Hrb27C in promoting grk localization. We also observe a direct physical interaction between Hrb27C and Ovarian tumor (Otu), a cytoplasmic protein implicated in RNA localization. We find that some otu alleles produce dorsalized eggs and it appears that Otu cooperates ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Conserved RNA-binding specificity of polycomb repressive complex 2 is achieved by dispersed amino acid patches in EZH2. AU - Long, Yicheng. AU - Bolanos, Ben. AU - Gong, Lihu. AU - Liu, Wei. AU - Goodrich, Karen J.. AU - Yang, Xin. AU - Chen, Siming. AU - Gooding, Anne R.. AU - Maegley, Karen A.. AU - Gajiwala, Ketan S.. AU - Brooun, Alexei. AU - Cech, Thomas R.. AU - Liu, Xin. N1 - Funding Information: We thank members of the Cech lab, Oncology Structural Biology and Protein Science group, and the Liu lab for useful conversations. We also thank Daniel T Youmans for technical advice and reagents for the RNA immunoprecipitation experiments. TRC is an investigator of the HHMI, which supported this research. This research was supported by Welch Foundation research grant I-1790, CPRIT research grant R1119, Rita Allen Foundation research grant, UT Southwestern Medical Center Endowed Scholar fund, and NIH grants GM114576 and GM121662 to XL XL is a W W Caruth, Jr. Scholar in Biomedical ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Xenopus Staufen is a component of a ribonucleoprotein complex containing Vg1 RNA and kinesin. AU - Yoon, Young J.. AU - Mowry, Kimberly L.. PY - 2004/7. Y1 - 2004/7. N2 - RNA localization is a key mechanism for generating cell and developmental polarity in a wide variety of organisms. We have performed studies to investigate a role for the Xenopus homolog of the double-stranded RNA-binding protein, Staufen, in RNA localization during oogenesis. We have found that Xenopus Staufen (XStau) is present in a ribonucleoprotein complex, and associates with both a kinesin motor protein and vegetally localized RNAs Vg1 and VegT. A functional role for XStau was revealed through expression of a dominant-negative version that blocks localization of Vg1 RNA in vivo. Our results suggest a central role for XStau in RNA localization in Xenopus oocytes, and provide evidence that Staufen is a conserved link between specific mRNAs and the RNA localization machinery.. AB - RNA localization is a key ...
The mouse cytoplasmic polyadenylation element-binding protein 3 (CPEB3) is a translational regulator implicated in long-term memory maintenance. Invertebrate orthologs of CPEB3 in Aplysia and Drosophila are functional prions that are physiologically active in the aggregated state. To determine if this principle applies to the mammalian CPEB3, we expressed it in yeast and found that it forms heritable aggregates that are the hallmark of known prions. In addition, we confirm in the mouse the importance of CPEB3s prion formation for CPEB3 function. Interestingly, deletion analysis of the CPEB3 prion domain uncovered a tripartite organization: two aggregation-promoting domains surround a regulatory module that affects interaction with the actin cytoskeleton. In all, our data provide direct evidence that CPEB3 is a functional prion in the mammalian brain and underline the potential importance of an actin/CPEB3 feedback loop for the synaptic plasticity underlying the persistence of long-term memory ...
Co-Coordinator , Professor, Dept. of Molecular Genetics & Microbiology , [email protected] Maurice Swanson is the co-coordinator of the Genetics & genomics doctoral program, and a professor in the department of molecular genetics & microbiology in the College of Medicine. Swanson works with incoming and current students, guiding them from the application process and through the doctoral program.. Swanson received his PhD from the University of California at Berkeley, followed by a postdoctoral fellowship at Northwestern University, where he studied the functions of nuclear and cytoplasmic RNA-binding proteins in RNA processing and mRNA translation. His current research is focused on the functions of repetitive DNA, particularly the roles of unstable microsatellites in RNA-mediated neurological and neuromuscular diseases.. ...
Mitochondrial RNA-binding proteins, molecular model. This complex consists of two mitochondrial RNA-binding proteins MRP1 and MRP2. These act together to bind to RNA (ribonucleic acid). Here, they here form a heteromeric complex, specifically a heterotetramer, with fourfold symmetry. These two proteins are from the protozoan Trypanosoma brucei. - Stock Image C015/4007
Mitochondrial RNA-binding proteins, molecular model. This complex consists of two mitochondrial RNA-binding proteins MRP1 and MRP2. These act together to bind to RNA (ribonucleic acid). Here, they here form a heteromeric complex, specifically a heterotetramer, with fourfold symmetry. These two proteins are from the protozoan Trypanosoma brucei. - Stock Image C015/4586
Project C1: The role of selected RNA-binding proteins and small RNAs in bacterial pathogenicity Monika Helm studied biochemistry at the Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg (2009-2014). As a PhD student Monika investigates potential roles of selected small RNAs (sRNAs) and putative RNA-binding proteins in the virulence of the plant pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv). Although a number of small RNAs were recently discovered in Xcv and virulence functions have been demonstrated for two of them, the targets of the other sRNAs are not known. Furthermore, the involvement of RNA-binding proteins in regulation of small RNA activity in Xcv is not well studied yet. Therefore, Monika aims at the identification and characterization of novel small RNA-binding proteins.. Supervisor: Prof. Ulla Bonas. Contact:. phone: 0345-5526296. eMail: monika.arnold(at) ...
PUFs are RNA binding proteins that promote mRNA deadenylation and decay and inhibit translation. Yeast Puf5 is the prototype for studying PUF-dependent gene repression. Puf5 binds to the Pop2 subunit of the Ccr4-Pop2-NOT mRNA deadenylase, recruiting the deadenylase and associated translational repressors to mRNAs. Here we used yeast genetics to show that Puf5 has additional roles in vivo that do not require Pop2. Deletion of PUF5 caused increased sensitivity to DNA replication stress in cells lacking Pop2, as well as in cells mutated for two activities recruited to mRNAs by the Puf5-Pop2 interaction, the deadenylase Ccr4 and the translational repressor Dhh1. A functional Puf5 RNA binding domain was required, and Puf5 cytoplasmic localisation was sufficient for resistance to replication stress, indicating posttranscriptional gene expression control is involved. In contrast to DNA replication stress, in response to the cell wall integrity pathway activator caffeine, PUF5 and POP2 acted in the same genetic
Polypyrimidine Tract Binding Protein (PTB) is an intensely studied RNA binding protein involved in several post-transcriptional regulatory events of gene expression. Initially described as a pre-mRNA splicing regulator, PTB is now widely accepted as a multifunctional protein shuttling between nucleus and cytoplasm. Accordingly, PTB can interact with selected RNA targets, structural elements and proteins. There is increasing evidence that PTB and its paralog PTBP2 play a major role as repressors of alternatively spliced exons, whose transcription is tissue-regulated. In addition to alternative splicing, PTB is involved in almost all steps of mRNA metabolism, including polyadenylation, mRNA stability and initiation of protein translation. Furthermore, it is well established that PTB recruitment in internal ribosome entry site (IRES) activates the translation of picornaviral and cellular proteins. Detailed studies of the structural properties of PTB have contributed to our understanding of the mechanism of
Human RNA-binding protein (HuR), a ubiquitously expressed member of the Hu protein family, plays an important role in mRNA degradation and has been implicated as a key post-transcriptional regulator. HuR contains three RNA-recognition motif (RRM) domains. The two N-terminal tandem RRM domains can se …
The discovery that repeat expansions in C9orf72 gene has led to many exciting discoveries in the past few years. This expansion causes amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and is responsible for the majority of ALS and FTD cases of European ancestry. Three, not mutually exclusive pathological mechanisms have been proposed: i) Formation of RNA foci sequestering specific RNA-binding proteins and impairing their normal function; ii) Repeat-associated non-AUG-initiated (RAN) translation of RNA repeats into toxic dipeptide repeat proteins (DPRs) and iii) haploinsufficiency resulting in reduced levels of the C9orf72 protein contributing to pathogenesis.The pathological mechanisms of C9orf72-linked disease are a very active and timely research field and many original papers and reviews are regularly published on this subject. Therefore, the goal of this Research Topic is to address the most recent progress in unraveling molecular mechanisms of C9orf72 neurodegeneration.
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is an inducible rate-controlling enzyme of heme catabolism. The cytoprotective function of HO-1 activity has been verified in multiple studies, and together with its by-products is considered a key component of the cellular stress response. The transcriptional induction of HO-1 has been largely studied in response to multiple forms of stressful stimuli but our understanding of HO-1 post-transcriptional control mechanisms in neuronal cells is currently lacking. In the present report we show the involvement of the RNA-binding proteins ELAV in the regulation of HO-1 gene expression. Our study demonstrates a specific binding between HO-1 mRNA and ELAV proteins, accompanied by an increased expression of HO-1 at protein level, in a human neuroblastoma cell line treated with hemin. Clarifying the induction of HO-1 expression at post-transcriptional level may open therapeutic perspectives for treatments associated with the modulation of HO-1 expression.. ...
An RNA-binding protein that is overproduced in ovarian cancer may pres...Researchers in the UIC College of Pharmacy found that interfering with... In a previous study we observed that human ovarian tumors overexpres...In the new study Beck and research assistant professor Xiaolong He sh...The research has been published in the online version of the journal O...,RNA,splicing,factor,implicated,in,ovarian,tumor,cell,growth,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
J.C. Schöning, et al., Reciprocal regulation of glycine-rich RNA-binding proteins via an interlocked feedback loop coupling alternative splicing to nonsense-mediated decay in Arabidopsis, Nucleic Acids Research, vol. 36, 2008, pp. 6977-6987 ...
RNA-binding proteins interact with specific RNA molecules to regulate important cellular processes. It is therefore necessary to identify the RNA interaction partners in order to understand the precise functions of such proteins. Protein-RNA interactions are typically characterized using in vivo and in vitro experiments but these may not detect all binding partners. Therefore, computational methods that capture the protein-dependent nature of such binding interactions could help to predict potential binding partners in silico. We have developed three methods to predict whether an RNA can interact with a particular RNA-binding protein using support vector machines and different features based on the sequence (the Oli method), the motif score (the OliMo method) and the secondary structure (the OliMoSS method). We applied these approaches to different experimentally-derived datasets and compared the predictions with RNAcontext and RPISeq. Oli outperformed OliMoSS and RPISeq, confirming our protein-specific
Sense and antisense transcripts of the repeat accumulate in ubiquitous small nuclear, and occasionally cytoplasmic, RNA foci. Many (G4C2) n -binding proteins have been identified that are partially sequestered by the repeat RNA. Several of the trapped RNA-binding proteins are involved in alternative splicing and splicing abnormalities have been reported in C9orf72 patients [22, 25]. However, a sophisticated study on 63 C9orf72 cases shows no correlation of sense and antisense foci with neurodegeneration or clinical parameters [6], although antisense foci have been linked to TDP-43 pathology by others [5].. Repeat-associated non-ATG (RAN) translation of both sense and antisense repeat transcripts in all reading frames generates five co-aggregating dipeptide repeat (DPR) proteins: poly-GA/GP/GR from the sense transcript and poly-GP/PA/PR from the antisense transcript. The sense-strand derived DPRs are abundant throughout the neocortex, hippocampus, thalamus and cerebellum, but scarce in brain stem ...
The selective expression of Musashi1 in stem cells or immature cells of these tissues led us to speculate that it plays a role in keeping these cells in an undifferentiated state during post-transcriptional gene regulation. We sought to identify its target RNA by using a strategy similar to that used in the study of Drosophila Musashi. By in vitro selection, we determined that the consensus ligand RNA sequence for mammalian Musashi1 is G/AU2-3(AGU). We then explored candidates for the in vivo Musashi1 target gene on the basis of the results of in vitro selection experiments as well as expression patterns and functions. We speculated that mRNAs of genes regulating neural differentiation (either positively or negatively) would be downstream targets of Musashi1 since Musashi1 is preferentially expressed in undifferentiated neuronal progenitor cells.. One of the in vivo targets of Musashi1 is m-Numb mRNA, the 3′ UTR of which has a Musashi1-binding site ( Imai et al., 2001). The m-Numb and Musashi1 ...
RNA-Binding Motif Protein 17 or Splicing factor 45 is encoded by the gene RBM17. RBM17 is a component of the spliceosome complex and displays catalytic activity during mRNA splicing. RBM17 is involved in alternative splicing, resulting in different isoforms of a gene. RBM is also thought to play a role in DNA repair (Red: Chaouki et al 2006) RBM17 is widely expressed in the nucleus and important for development. Diseases associated with this gene include sickle cell anemia and forms of Ataxia 1 ...
File:OlivasLab-Pufaction.tiff Cells respond to environmental signals and stresses by transcriptional regulation of response genes, as well as activation of more rapid post-transcriptional regulatory pathways. Modulation of mRNA degradation and translation rates is an efficient method to rapidly alter protein production in response to cellular changes. The Puf family of eukaryotic RNA-binding proteins control critical decisions in cell development and differentiation by regulating the degradation and translation of target mRNAs through interactions with 3 untranslated regions (UTRs). Pufs are also involved in cellular stress responses. Research in our lab utilizes the yeast model system Saccharomyces cerevisiae to determine how Puf proteins integrate environmental signals to alter their regulation of mRNA metabolism. For example, we have demonstrated that Puf3p responds to environmental carbon source signals to regulate the decay of nuclear-encoded transcripts that code for mitochondrial ...
This enzyme is activated during Fas-mediated apoptosis. Following Fas ligation, the enzyme, which is constitutively phosphorylated, is dephosphorylated, and it is the dephosphorylated form that causes phosphorylation of TIA-1, a nuclear RNA-binding protein. Phosphorylation of TIA-1 precedes the onset of DNA fragmentation ...
RBMY2EP (RNA binding motif protein Y-linked family 2 member E, pseudogene), Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
All of the work and power in the methodology is on the sample prep side, so hopefully you have someone great who does that for you! They validate the assay by using a human cancer cell line and identify about 1,000 RNA binding sites -- many previously characterized, and a bunch of new ones ...
Disruption of a mitochondrial RNA-binding protein gene results in decreased cytochrome b expression and a marked reduction in ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase activity in mouse heart mitochondria ...
PMID: 14559993. SRrp86 is a unique member of the SR protein superfamily containing one RNA recognition motif and two serine-arginine (SR)-rich domains separated by an unusual glutamic acid-lysine (EK)-rich region. Previously, we showed that SRrp86 could regulate alternative splicing by both positively and negatively modulating the activity of other SR proteins and that the unique EK domain could inhibit both constitutive and alternative splicing. These functions were most consistent with the model in which SRrp86 functions by interacting with and thereby modulating the activity of target proteins. To identify the specific proteins that interact with SRrp86, we used a yeast two-hybrid library screen and immunoprecipitation coupled to mass spectrometry. We show that SRrp86 interacts with all of the core SR proteins, as well as a subset of other splicing regulatory proteins, including SAF-B, hnRNP G, YB-1, and p72. In contrast to previous results that showed activation of SRp20 by SRrp86, we now ...
We describe a novel RNA binding protein, Y14, a predominantly nuclear nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein. Interestingly, Y14 associates preferentially with mRNAs produced by splicing but not with pre-mRNAs, introns, or mRNAs produced from intronless cDNAs. Y14 associates with both nuclear mRNAs and newly exported cytoplasmic mRNAs. Splicing of a single intron is sufficient for Y14 association. Y14-containing nuclear complexes are different from general hnRNP complexes. They contain hnRNP proteins and several unique proteins including the mRNA export factor TAP. Thus, Y14 defines novel intermediates in the pathway of gene expression, postsplicing nuclear preexport mRNPs, and newly exported cytoplasmic mRNPs, whose composition is established by splicing. These findings suggest that pre-mRNA splicing imprints mRNA with a unique set of proteins that persists in the cytoplasm and thereby communicates the history of the transcript ...
FMR1 is an RNA-binding protein that is either absent or mutated in patients affected by the fragile X syndrome, the most common inherited cause of mental retardation in humans. Sequence analysis of the FMR1 protein has suggested that RNA binding is related to the presence of two K-homologous (KH) modules and an RGG box. However, no attempt has been so far made to map the RNA-binding sites along the protein sequence and to identify possible differential RNA-sequence specificity. In the present article, we describe work done to dissect FMR1 into regions with structurally and functionally distinct properties. A semirational approach was followed to identify four regions: an N-terminal stretch of 200 amino acids, the two KH regions, and a C-terminal stretch. Each region was produced as a recombinant protein, purified, and probed for its state of folding by spectroscopical techniques. Circular dichroism and NMR spectra of the N-terminus show formation of secondary structure with a strong tendency to ...
1L3K: Correlated alternative side chain conformations in the RNA-recognition motif of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1.
The central dogma of biology describes the flow of genetic information from DNA to RNA to proteins. While RNA was originally believed to be a carrier of genetic information, subsequent work has shown something completely different: RNA is now known to have function independent of proteins, with a rich layer of regulatory networks. In fact, a large amount of the RNA present in a cell does not actually make proteins. This increased appreciation and understanding has led to many fascinating mechanistic insights into RNA and its role as a central player in cellular regulation and human disease.. Helping to facilitate RNA function are a large number of proteins that can bind to and regulate RNA. These RNA-binding proteins, or RBPs, number in the thousands and are made up of many different independent modular segments similar to a childs set of building blocks. In much a similar fashion, these blocks or domains provide nature with a way of mixing and matching different domains to generate new ...
Musashi Protein Powders and Supplements are well known for their Musashi Bulk, SLM, Creatine and Musashi protein bars. The Musashi brand produces supplements according to TGA standards of therapeutic goods which enables Musashi Supplements to meet world class nutrition standards. Musashi, Australias Trusted Performance Nutrition company was established in 1987. The business is named after Miyamoto Musashi, a Japanese swordsman famed for his duels and distinctive style as well as authoring The Book of Five Rings- a book on strategy, tactics, and philosophy.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cyclin A2 is an RNA binding protein that controls Mre11 mRNA translation. AU - Kanakkanthara, Arun. AU - Jeganathan, Karthik B.. AU - Limzerwala, Jazeel F.. AU - Baker, Darren J.. AU - Hamada, Masakazu. AU - Nam, Hyun Ja. AU - Van Deursen, Willemijn H.. AU - Hamada, Naomi. AU - Naylor, Ryan M.. AU - Becker, Nicole A.. AU - Davies, Brian A.. AU - Van Ree, Janine H.. AU - Mer, Georges. AU - Shapiro, Virginia S.. AU - Maher, L. James. AU - Katzmann, David J.. AU - Van Deursen, Jan M.. N1 - Funding Information: We thank W. Zhou, M. Li, F. Jin, and X. Wang for assistance and D. Compton for providing photoactivatable GFP-tagged ?-tubulin. Supported by NIH grants CA126828 and CA168709 (J.M.v.D.) and CA166025 (L.J.M.). Publisher Copyright: © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science. All rights reserved.. PY - 2016/9/30. Y1 - 2016/9/30. N2 - Cyclin A2 activates the cyclin-dependent kinases Cdk1 and Cdk2 and is expressed at elevated levels from S phase until early ...
In a screen for RNA-binding proteins expressed during murine spermatogenesis, we have identified a cDNA that encodes a protein of 911 amino acids that contains two copies of the double-stranded RNA-binding ...
In a screen for RNA-binding proteins expressed during murine spermatogenesis, we have identified a cDNA that encodes a protein of 911 amino acids that contains two copies of the double-stranded RNA-binding ...
DNA-binding protein RNA-binding protein database Ribonucleoprotein Wikimedia Commons has media related to RNA-binding proteins ... identification of RNA-binding proteins has extended the number of RNA-binding proteins significantly RNA-binding protein Sam68 ... intricacy of protein-RNA recognition of RRM as it entails RNA-RNA and protein-protein interactions in addition to protein-RNA ... cureted human RNA binding proteins database. RsiteDB: RNA binding site database SPOT-Seq-RNA: Template-based prediction of RNA ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EWSR1 gene on human chromosome 22, specifically 22q12.2. ... "Cloning and mapping of a human RBP56 gene encoding a putative RNA binding protein similar to FUS/TLS and EWS proteins". ... "Tyrosine kinase Pyk2 mediates G-protein-coupled receptor regulation of the Ewing sarcoma RNA-binding protein EWS". Curr. Biol. ... The normal EWS gene encodes an RNA binding protein closely related to FUS (gene) and TAF15, all of which have been associated ...
"FUS - RNA-binding protein FUS - Homo sapiens (Human) - FUS gene & protein". Retrieved 2019-03-13. Kino Y, ... FUS/TLS is a member of the FET protein family that also includes the EWS protein, the TATA-binding protein TBP-associated ... a novel RNA/ssDNA-binding protein with homology to the pro-oncoproteins TLS/FUS and EWS is associated with both TFIID and RNA ... Zinszner H, Albalat R, Ron D (November 1994). "A novel effector domain from the RNA-binding protein TLS or EWS is required for ...
Right now, RNA-binding protein database (RBPDB) contains 1171 RNA-binding proteins from Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Drosophila ... The RNA-binding Proteins Database (RBPDB) is a biological database of RNA-binding protein specificities that includes ... RBPDB database: a database for RNA-binding proteins. New resource catalogs RNA-binding sites of many proteins: A new online ... RNA-binding proteins ( RBPs ) play critical role during this process. All RBPs can bind to RNA depends on different ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RBM44 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... "Entrez Gene: RNA binding motif protein 44". Retrieved 2018-07-25. v t e (Genes on human chromosome 2, All stub articles, Human ...
The Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) coat protein binding (CPB) RNA is an RNA element which is found in the 3′ UTR of the genome. AMV ... "Efficient translation of alfamovirus RNAs requires the binding of coat protein dimers to the 3′ termini of the viral RNAs". The ... Page for Alfalfa mosaic virus coat protein binding (CPB) RNA at Rfam v t e (Articles with short description, Short description ... This family contains at least two coat protein binding sites which are thought to be essential for efficient RNA translation. ...
... (Rbfox3) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RBFOX3 gene. It is ... "Entrez Gene: RNA binding protein, fox-1 homolog (C. elegans) 3". v t e (Articles with short description, Short description ... matches Wikidata, Genes on human chromosome 17, All stub articles, Human chromosome 17 gene stubs, Human proteins). ...
2007). "RNA-binding motif protein 15 binds to the RNA transport element RTÉ and provides a direct link to the NXF1 export ... RNA-binding motif protein, Y chromosome, family 1 member A1/C is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RBMY1A1 gene. This ... 2000). "A mammalian germ cell-specific RNA-binding protein interacts with ubiquitously expressed proteins involved in splice ... "Entrez Gene: RBMY1A1 RNA binding motif protein, Y-linked, family 1, member A1". Lavery R, Glennon M, Houghton J, et al. (2007 ...
It was found in many eukaryotic proteins. The largest group of single strand RNA-binding protein is the eukaryotic RNA ... RNA recognition motif, RNP-1 is a putative RNA-binding domain of about 90 amino acids that are known to bind single-stranded ... binding protein is necessary and sufficient for RNA binding and cell viability". Mol. Cell. Biol. 7 (9): 3268-76. doi:10.1128/ ... "A common RNA recognition motif identified within a defined U1 RNA binding domain of the 70K U1 snRNP protein". Cell. 57 (1): 89 ...
... is a database of protein-RNA interfaces extracted from the Protein Data Bank. RNA-binding protein Protein Data Bank Lewis, ... v t e (Biological databases, RNA-binding proteins, RNA, All stub articles, Biological database stubs). ... a Protein-RNA Interface Database". Nucleic Acids Res. England. 39 (Database issue): D277-82. doi:10.1093/nar/gkq1108. PMC ...
This domain can bind proteins and RNA independently, even if the other binding domains are not present. Although this domain is ... The RRMs play a role in RNA binding, while the AcD engages in protein-protein interactions (PPIs). The RGG box is involved in ... Kiledjian M, Dreyfuss G (1992). "Primary structure and binding activity of the hnRNP U protein: Binding RNA through RGG box". ... The hnRNPs are RNA-binding proteins and they complex with heterogeneous nuclear RNA (hnRNA). SYNCRIP is made up of an N- ...
April 2015). "Systematic discovery of Xist RNA binding proteins". Cell. 161 (2): 404-16. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2015.03.025. PMC ... PRC2 binds the A-repeat (RepA) of Xist RNA directly and with very high affinity (dissociation constants of 10-100 nanomolar), ... Zhao J, Sun BK, Erwin JA, Song JJ, Lee JT (October 2008). "Polycomb proteins targeted by a short repeat RNA to the mouse X ... February 2014). "Spatial separation of Xist RNA and polycomb proteins revealed by superresolution microscopy". Proceedings of ...
... one by mutations in the RNA binding protein while the other being an expansion of nucleotide repeats in the RNA. Another ... is mRNA with bound proteins. mRNA does not exist "naked" in vivo but is always bound by various proteins while being ... Later, the pre-mRNA is bound by the spliceosome containing exon and intron definition complexes and proteins and RNA that ... Neuronal RNP granules that are connected to RNA binding proteins show signs of causing neurodevelopment, neurodegeneration or ...
... also known as ataxin 2-binding protein 1 (A2BP1) or hexaribonucleotide-binding protein 1 (HRNBP1) or RNA binding protein, fox-1 ... Rbfox1 has an RNA recognition motif that is highly conserved among RNA-binding proteins. Rbfox1, and the related protein Rbfox2 ... "Entrez Gene: A2BP1 ataxin 2-binding protein 1". Jin, Y. (2003-02-17). "A vertebrate RNA-binding protein Fox-1 regulates tissue- ... Shibata H, Huynh DP, Pulst SM (May 2000). "A novel protein with RNA-binding motifs interacts with ataxin-2". Human Molecular ...
The HuD/ELAVL4 protein is an RNA-binding protein. HuD contains three RRM protein domains, enabling RNA binding. HuD is ... Lazarova DL, Spengler BA, Biedler JL, Ross RA (1999). "HuD, a neuronal-specific RNA-binding protein, is a putative regulator of ... Lukong, Kiven E.; Chang, Kai-wei; Khandjian, Edouard W.; Richard, Stéphane (2008-08-01). "RNA-binding proteins in human genetic ... Nora Perrone-Bizzozero; Federico Bolognani (2002). "Role of HuD and other RNA-binding proteins in neural development and ...
This protein bears similarity to nuclear RNA-binding proteins; however, it has not been demonstrated that this protein binds ... "The human RD protein is closely related to nuclear RNA-binding proteins and has been highly conserved". Gene. 90 (2): 299-302. ... "Entrez Gene: RDBP RD RNA binding protein". Narita T, Yamaguchi Y, Yano K, Sugimoto S, Chanarat S, Wada T, Kim DK, Hasegawa J, ... The protein encoded by this gene is part of a complex termed negative elongation factor (NELF) which represses RNA polymerase ...
Identification of novel Y RNA-binding proteins". European Journal of Biochemistry. 267 (9): 2778-89. doi:10.1046/j.1432- ... Tripartite motif-containing protein 21, also known as E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase TRIM21, is a protein that in humans is ... The TRIM motif includes three zinc-binding domains, a RING finger domain, a B-box type 1 and a B-box type 2 zinc finger, and a ... TRIM21 itself is not degraded in the proteasome unlike both the viral capsid and the bound antibody. TRIM21 is part of the ...
Zinc finger RNA binding protein is a protein in humans that is encoded by the ZFR gene. "Entrez Gene: Zinc finger RNA binding ... v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Human proteins, All stub articles, Human chromosome ...
The 5' UTR is bound by the RNA binding proteins RBMX1, FUS, SFRS1, ACO1, and NONO. The 3' UTR is bound by EIF4B, A2BP1, and ... "The Database of RNA-binding protein specificities". RBPDB. University of Toronto. Retrieved 1 May 2018. Stothard, Paul. " ... Protein FAM208B (family with sequence similarity 208 member b) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FAM208B gene. The ... The promoter contains binding sites for Ikaros2, Nuclear Factor Y, and at least three binding sites for Pleomorphic adenoma ...
RNA binding motif protein 47 is a protein in humans that is encoded by the RBM47 gene in chromosome 4. Model organisms have ... "Entrez Gene: RNA binding motif protein 47". Retrieved 2013-06-01. Gerdin AK (2010). "The Sanger Mouse Genetics Programme: high ... "Infection and Immunity Immunophenotyping (3i) Consortium". v t e (Genes on human chromosome 4, Human proteins, All stub ...
This gene encodes an RNA-binding protein that is a member of the Musashi protein family. The encoded protein is translational ... Musashi-2, also known as Musashi RNA binding protein 2, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MSI2 gene. Like its ... "Entrez Gene: Musashi RNA binding protein 2". de Andrés-Aguayo L, Varas F, Graf T (July 2012). "Musashi 2 in hematopoiesis". ... As an RNA-binding protein, MSI2 is acts as a translational inhibitor. Through this molecular mechanism, MSI2 contributes in ...
Tuschl, Thomas; Hafner, Markus; Gerstberger, Stefanie (December 2014). "A census of human RNA-binding proteins". Nature Reviews ... "N6-methyladenosine-dependent RNA structural switches regulate RNA-protein interactions". Nature. 518 (7540): 560-564. doi: ... Ding researches RNA structure and post-transcriptional gene regulations. Ding's research on nucleic acid chemistry and RNA ... In particular her work on a high throughput method, Structure-seq to analyse one of the first two genome-wide in vivo RNA ...
Johansson, H. E. (1998). "A thermodynamic analysis of the sequence-specific binding of RNA by bacteriophage MS2 coat protein". ... "RNA binding site of R17 coat protein". Biochemistry. 26 (6): 1563-1568. doi:10.1021/bi00380a011. ISSN 0006-2960. PMID 3297131. ... "An Imperfect Account of the Founding of the RNA Society". The RNA society. "$1 million gift to BioFrontiers Institute to aid ... His research group has led to many breakthroughs in RNA biochemistry, including the enzymatic synthesis of RNAs from synthetic ...
July 2008). "Induced ncRNAs allosterically modify RNA-binding proteins in cis to inhibit transcription". Nature. 454 (7200): ... RNA pol II) binding and non-coding RNA transcription. The level of RNA pol II-enhancer interaction and RNA transcript formation ... of the sites were found to bind RNA Pol II and generate transcripts. In parallel studies, 4,588 high confidence extragenic RNA ... Protein biosynthesis, Molecular genetics, Spliceosome, RNA splicing, Non-coding RNA). ...
The RNA binding protein TLS binds and inhibits the CREB binding protein and p300 histone acetyltransferase activities on a ... In the broad sense, this mechanism allows the cell to harness RNA-binding proteins, which make up one of the largest classes ... small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs), and other short RNAs. Long ... Espinoza CA, Allen TA, Hieb AR, Kugel JF, Goodrich JA (September 2004). "B2 RNA binds directly to RNA polymerase II to repress ...
TERRA transcripts are bound by a complex array of RNA- binding proteins. Nat Commun 2010, 1:33. Artandi SE, DePinho RA. ... Redon S, Reichenbach P, Lingner J. Protein RNA and protein protein interactions mediate association of human EST1A/SMG6 with ... Telomeric noncoding RNA : telomeric repeat‐containing RNA in telomere biology. WIREs RNA 2014, 5: 407-419. doi: 10.1002/wrna. ... RNA pulldown experiments have also shown that TERRA associates with heterochromatin proteins, including HP1α, HP1β, and the ...
RNA-binding motif protein 7 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RBM7 gene. RBM7 has been shown to interact with SF3B2 ... "Spermatogenetic expression of RNA-binding motif protein 7, a protein that interacts with splicing factors". Journal of ... "Spermatogenetic expression of RNA-binding motif protein 7, a protein that interacts with splicing factors". Journal of ... "Entrez Gene: RBM7 RNA binding motif protein 7". Guo TB, Boros LG, Chan KC, Hikim AP, Hudson AP, Swerdloff RS, Mitchell AP, ...
RNA-binding protein 33 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RBM33 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000184863 - ... "Entrez Gene: RBM33 RNA binding motif protein 33". Venter JC, Adams MD, Myers EW, et al. (2001). "The sequence of the human ...
The complex is minimally composed of the ribonuclease enzyme Drosha and the dimeric RNA-binding protein DGCR8 (also known as ... a double-stranded RNA binding protein. (DGCR8 is the name used in mammalian genetics, abbreviated from "DiGeorge syndrome ... The microprocessor complex is a protein complex involved in the early stages of processing microRNA (miRNA) and RNA ... Michlewski G, Cáceres JF (January 2019). "Post-transcriptional control of miRNA biogenesis". RNA. 25 (1): 1-16. doi:10.1261/rna ...
RNA-binding protein 28 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RBM28 gene. It is a nucleolar component of the ... "Entrez Gene: RBM28 RNA binding motif protein 28". Damianov A, Kann M, Lane WS, Bindereif A (2006). "Human RBM28 protein is a ... Damianov A, Kann M, Lane WS, Bindereif A (2006). "Human RBM28 protein is a specific nucleolar component of the spliceosomal ...
Danner S, Belasco JG (November 2001). "T7 phage display: a novel genetic selection system for cloning RNA-binding proteins from ... Phage display is a laboratory technique for the study of protein-protein, protein-peptide, and protein-DNA interactions that ... The N2 domain binds to the F pilus during virion infection freeing the N1 domain which then interacts with a TolA protein on ... a gene encoding a protein of interest is inserted into a phage coat protein gene, causing the phage to "display" the protein on ...
Tan M, Hegde RS, Jiang X (2004). "The P Domain of Norovirus Capsid Protein Forms Dimer and Binds to Histo-Blood Group Antigen ... Positive-stranded RNA virus transcription is the method of replication. Translation takes place by leaky scanning and RNA ... a major structural protein (VP1) of about 58~60 kDa and a minor capsid protein (VP2). The most variable region of the viral ... "Mutations within the P2 domain of norovirus capsid affect binding to human histo-blood group antigens: evidence for a binding ...
... gene expression is mediated by decreased DNA binding of nuclear factor I proteins which control constitutive TTF-1 expression ... is generated by alternative RNA processing". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (16): 10739-10745. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.16.10739. PMID 9099724. ... Nfix has been shown to interact with SKI protein and it is also known to interact with AP-1. NFI-X3 has been shown to interact ... Nuclear factor 1 X-type is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NFIX gene. NFI-X3, a splice variant of NFIX, regulates ...
The N-terminal domain - sometimes known as the RNA-binding domain, though other parts of the protein also interact with RNA - ... Formation of RNPs is thought to involve allosteric interactions between RNA and multiple RNA-binding regions of the protein. ... N also serves as a chaperone protein for the formation of RNA structure in the genomic RNA. Synthesis of genomic RNA appears to ... In addition to its interactions with RNA, N forms protein-protein interactions with the coronavirus membrane protein (M) during ...
For example, many DNA binding proteins that have affinity for specific DNA binding sites bind DNA in only its double-helical ... Some of these are believed to affect the shape of nucleic acids (see for example RNA self-splicing), but this is only sometimes ... The authors were able to show that the motif has DNA binding activity. A similar approach is commonly used by modern protein ... In 2018, a Markov random field approach has been proposed to infer DNA motifs from DNA-binding domains of proteins. The E. coli ...
Liu QL, Kishi H, Ohtsuka K, Muraguchi A (September 2003). "Heat shock protein 70 binds caspase-activated DNase and enhances its ... Hillman RT, Green RE, Brenner SE (2005). "An unappreciated role for RNA surveillance". Genome Biology. 5 (2): R8. doi:10.1186/ ... 2007). "Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Molecular Systems Biology. 3 (1): 89. ... The protein caspase DNase is an endonuclease involved in the cell apoptotic process that facilitates the DNA breakup. Cell ...
... which contains multiple binding sites for the initiator protein DnaA (a highly homologous protein amongst bacterial kingdom). ... The RNA primers of Okazaki fragments are subsequently degraded by RNase H and DNA Polymerase I (exonuclease), and the gaps (or ... They bind to DnaA-ADP and DnaA-ATP with equal affinities and are bound by DnaA throughout most of the cell cycle and forms a ... It is hypothesized that DNA stretching by DnaA bound to the origin promotes strand separation which allows more DnaA to bind to ...
Binding of the hormone to insulin receptors on cells then activates a cascade of protein kinases that cause the cells to take ... Proteins are made from amino acids that have been activated by attachment to a transfer RNA molecule through an ester bond. ... Metal cofactors are bound tightly to specific sites in proteins; although enzyme cofactors can be modified during catalysis, ... Metal micronutrients are taken up into organisms by specific transporters and bind to storage proteins such as ferritin or ...
"DNA sequence polymorphisms within the bovine guanine nucleotide-binding protein Gs subunit alpha (Gsα)-encoding (GNAS) genomic ... The expression of non-coding RNAs, such as antisense Igf2r RNA (Air) on mouse chromosome 17 and KCNQ1OT1 on human chromosome ... DeVeale B, van der Kooy D, Babak T (2012). "Critical evaluation of imprinted gene expression by RNA-Seq: a new perspective". ... The grouping of imprinted genes within clusters allows them to share common regulatory elements, such as non-coding RNAs and ...
The encoded nuclear protein belongs to the splicing factor SR family and has been shown to bind with and modulate another ... Tran Q, Roesser JR (February 2003). "SRp55 is a regulator of calcitonin/CGRP alternative RNA splicing". Biochemistry. 42 (4): ... Splicing factor, arginine/serine-rich 6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SFRS6 gene. The protein encoded by this ... "Entrez Gene: SFRS6 splicing factor, arginine/serine-rich 6". Zahler AM, Lane WS, Stolk JA, Roth MB (May 1992). "SR proteins: a ...
"Hsp70's RNA-binding and mRNA-stabilizing activities are independent of its protein chaperone functions". The Journal of ... Heat shock 70kDa protein 1B is a chaperone protein, cooperating with other heat shock proteins and chaperone systems to ... independent of the occupational states of its other binding sites. This protein is deactivated by binding ATP, and activated by ... Mohanan V, Grimes CL (July 2014). "The molecular chaperone HSP70 binds to and stabilizes NOD2, an important protein involved in ...
"Role of RNA in Protein Synthesis - RNAi Biology - RNA Therapeutics Institute at UMass Medical School - Worcester". www.umassmed ... when bound to the RNA sequence 24-2, deemed Spinach. It was determined that DFHBI only binds Spinach in the phenolate form. At ... The aptamer was designed to be an RNA mimic of green fluorescent protein (GFP); similar to GFP for proteins, Spinach can be ... the protein or small molecule. "Roles of RNA in Cells - RNAi Biology - RNA Therapeutics Institute at UMass Medical School - ...
Some viruses can encode proteins that bind to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) to prevent the activity of RNA-dependent protein ... "Proteolytic cleavage of the reovirus sigma 3 protein results in enhanced double-stranded RNA-binding activity: identification ... and phosphorylates a translational repressor protein called eukaryotic translation-initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 ( ... Once released, type I interferons bind to specific receptors on target cells, which leads to expression of proteins that will ...
The structure of Φ29 is composed of seven main proteins: the terminal protein (p3), the head or capsid protein (p8), the head ... Versatility in RNA structure and function provides the ability to assemble nanoparticles for nanomedicinal therapeutics. The ... Specifically, the functional domains of pRNA bind to the gp16 packaging enzyme and the structural connector molecule to aid in ... the portal or connector protein (p10), the tail tube or lower collar proteins (p11), and the tail fibers or appendage proteins ...
2002). "AU binding proteins recruit the exosome to degrade ARE-containing mRNAs". Cell. 107 (4): 451-64. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674 ... 2006). "The AAA-ATPase NVL2 is a component of pre-ribosomal particles that interacts with the DExD/H-box RNA helicase DOB1". ... Raijmakers R, Noordman YE, van Venrooij WJ, Pruijn GJ (2002). "Protein-protein interactions of hCsl4p with other human exosome ... 2007). "Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Mol. Syst. Biol. 3 (1): 89. doi: ...
This binding in turn results in an inhibition of translation of the target protein or degradation of the target messenger RNA. ... the total number of RNA domains in the clan is 112. miR-137 is located on chromosome 1p22 within the non-protein-coding RNA ... WW domain binding protein 1-like), CACNA1C (Calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit), DPYD ( ... Zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 2) and PRKD3 (Serine/threonine-protein kinase D3). Neault et al. recently identified miR-137 ...
The encoded protein is a tyrosine phosphatase and belongs to the Cdc25 phosphatase family. It directs dephosphorylation of ... Lu, P J; Zhou X Z; Shen M; Lu K P (Feb 1999). "Function of WW domains as phosphoserine- or phosphothreonine-binding modules". ... "The transcription elongation factor CA150 interacts with RNA polymerase II and the pre-mRNA splicing factor SF1". Mol. Cell. ... Shen, M; Stukenberg P T; Kirschner M W; Lu K P (Mar 1998). "The essential mitotic peptidyl-prolyl isomerase Pin1 binds and ...
The protein encoded by this gene has four repeats of quasi-RNA recognition motif (RRM) domains that bind RNAs. This protein ... The hnRNPs are RNA-binding proteins and they complex with heterogeneous nuclear RNA (hnRNA). These proteins are associated with ... Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PTBP1 gene. This gene belongs to the ... Black AC, Luo J, Chun S, Bakker A, Fraser JK, Rosenblatt JD (1997). "Specific binding of polypyrimidine tract binding protein ...
"Structure and drug binding of the SARS-CoV-2 envelope protein transmembrane domain in lipid bilayers". Nature Structural & ... They are found in a variety of viral genomes but are particularly common in RNA viruses. Many viruses that cause human disease ... which can modulate protein trafficking of viral proteins or protect the proteins from the low pH they would otherwise encounter ... The human papillomavirus 16 E5 protein, the least well-studied of the three known oncogenic HPV proteins, was reported in 2012 ...
In genetics, a promoter is a sequence of DNA to which proteins bind to initiate transcription of a single RNA transcript from ... transcribes genes encoding transfer RNA, 5s ribosomal RNAs and other small RNAs General transcription factor binding sites, e.g ... 5.8S and 28S ribosomal RNAs RNA polymerase II: transcribes genes encoding messenger RNA and certain small nuclear RNAs and ... In the case of a transcription factor binding site, there may be a single sequence that binds the protein most strongly under ...
Another was that the virus coat, the protein capsid, is dependent upon the genetic material in the RNA core of the particle and ... Their simulations suggested that drug resistance may arise from disruption of the binding process due to electrostatic ... His work made possible the dynamic simulation of the activities of thousands of proteins working together at the macromolecular ... 1996 marked the publication of Schulten's model of the LH2 structure of the photosynthetic reaction centre protein family of ...
In its structural role, zinc coordinates with certain protein domains, facilitating protein folding and producing structures ... Although whole grains and cereals are high in zinc, they also contain chelating phytates which bind zinc and reduce its ... It is important in maintaining basic cellular functions such as DNA replication, RNA transcription, cell division and cell ... In 2002 the zinc transporter protein ZIP4 was first identified as the mechanism for absorption of zinc in the gut across the ...
... which is able to bind to DNA and RNA. The SON protein is mainly localised to nuclear speckles and involved in a variety of ... SON contains various domains such as the RS-rich domain, a G-patch domain and a double-stranded RNA-binding motif. The presence ... In wild-type ESCs, SON binding to the RNA transcripts of pluripotency regulating genes such as PRDM14 and OCT4 results in ... The SON gene is required for RNA splicing of transcripts encoding the cell-cycle protein TUBG1 and genes maintaining hESC ...
Finally, it disrupts the synthesis of DNA, RNA and proteins in fungal cells and leads to cell death. Ciclopirox may also exert ... Upon binding to the fungal cell membrane and forming pores, membrane permeability and transport in fungus are altered. As a ... They work by blocking the ability of the fungus to produce proteins in a highly specific way. Hence, disrupting the action of ... The only polyene antifungal available topically is nystatin, which works by binding to ergosterol thus disrupting the integrity ...
... nucleocapsid protein (N), and the spike protein (S). The M protein of SARS-CoV-2 is about 98% similar to the M protein of bat ... The standard methods of testing for presence of SARS-CoV-2 are nucleic acid tests, which detects the presence of viral RNA ... S1 determines the virus-host range and cellular tropism via the receptor-binding domain. S2 mediates the membrane fusion of the ... interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP‑10), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1), macrophage inflammatory protein 1‑alpha ...
Rates of RNA transcription and protein synthesis are very low during this phase. An exception to this is histone production, ... In general, the binding of pRb to E2F inhibits the E2F target gene expression of certain G1/S and S transition genes including ... Two families of genes, the cip/kip (CDK interacting protein/Kinase inhibitory protein) family and the INK4a/ARF (Inhibitor of ... Originally, a green fluorescent protein, mAG, was fused to hGem(1/110) and an orange fluorescent protein (mKO2) was fused to ...
... of the total leaf protein. Importantly, the insecticidal protein could be translated from the bacterial AU-rich mRNA, while for ... Svab Z, Maliga P (August 1991). "Mutation proximal to the tRNA binding region of the Nicotiana plastid 16S rRNA confers ... Hajdukiewicz, P, Allison, LA, Maliga, P (1997). "The two RNA polymerases encoded by the nuclear and the plastid compartments ... The Maliga lab characterised plastid promoters in vivo and in vitro, and identified proteins that are parts of the plastid PEP ...
GlmY functions as an anti-adaptor, it binds to RapZ (RNase adaptor protein for sRNA GlmZ), this binding prevents RapZ from ... "Targeted decay of a regulatory small RNA by an adaptor protein for RNase E and counteraction by an anti-adaptor RNA". Genes & ... Page for SraJ RNA at Rfam v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Non-coding RNA, All stub ... binding to GlmZ and targeting it for cleavage by RNase E. Argaman L, Hershberg R, Vogel J, et al. (2001). "Novel small RNA- ...
"UV-damaged DNA-binding protein in the TFTC complex links DNA damage recognition to nucleosome acetylation". The EMBO Journal. ... "The human 18S U11/U12 snRNP contains a set of novel proteins not found in the U2-dependent spliceosome". RNA. 10 (6): 929-41. ... RNA. 10 (2): 240-53. doi:10.1261/rna.5153204. PMC 1370536. PMID 14730023. Will CL, Schneider C, Hossbach M, Urlaub H, Rauhut R ... "Characterization of novel SF3b and 17S U2 snRNP proteins, including a human Prp5p homologue and an SF3b DEAD-box protein". The ...
"Entrez Gene: RBMX RNA binding motif protein, X-linked". Hofmann Y, Wirth B (Aug 2002). "hnRNP-G promotes exon 7 inclusion of ... a novel relative of SAM68 that interacts with an RNA-binding protein implicated in spermatogenesis". Human Molecular Genetics. ... sequence and characterization of a glycosylated RNA-binding protein". Nucleic Acids Research. 21 (18): 4210-7. doi:10.1093/nar/ ... Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein G is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RBMX gene. This gene belongs to the ...
General protein information Go to the top of the page Help Preferred Names. zinc finger RNA-binding protein. Names. M-phase ... The encoded protein may play a role in the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of another RNA-binding protein, Staufen homolog 2, in ... mRNA and Protein(s) * NM_016107.5 → NP_057191.2 zinc finger RNA-binding protein ... zinc finger RNA binding proteinprovided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:17277 See related. Ensembl:ENSG00000056097 MIM: ...
Functional assay of type I interferon in systemic lupus erythematosus plasma and association with anti-RNA binding protein ... with the expression of that gene studied ex vivo in PBMCs from the same patients and with the titer of anti-RNA binding protein ... RNA, Long Noncoding * RNA-Binding Proteins / genetics * RNA-Binding Proteins / immunology* * Tumor Suppressor Proteins / ...
Structure of the N-terminal RNA-binding Domain of the SARS CoV Nucleocapsid Protein ... The protein consists of a five-stranded beta sheet with a folding topology distinct from other RNA-binding proteins. Single- ... Structure of the N-Terminal RNA-Binding Domain of the SARS CoV Nucleocapsid Protein.. Huang, Q., Yu, L., Petros, A.M., ... Structure of the N-terminal RNA-binding Domain of the SARS CoV Nucleocapsid Protein. *PDB DOI: 10.2210/pdb1SSK/pdb ...
The La and related RNA-binding proteins (LARPs): structures, functions, and evolving perspectives Author(s): Richard J. Maraia ... Structural and functional studies of LARP4, a new RNA binding protein involved in mRNA stabilisation and cell migration. ... LARP4A recognizes polyA RNA via a novel binding mechanism mediated by disordered regions and involving the PAM2w motif, ... Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: RNA, 8/6, 2017, Page(s) e1430, ISSN 1757-7004 Publisher: John Wiley and Sons Inc. DOI: 10.1002 ...
Swiss researchers have found that expression of an RNA-binding protein helps tumors to evade the immune system. ... CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing links RNA-binding protein to immunotherapy resistance. By Nick Paul Taylor, The Science Advisory Board ... Swiss researchers have provided evidence that expression of an RNA-binding protein helps tumors to evade the immune system. ... Previous studies have found cancers that overexpress the protein, fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), are invasive and ...
Previous studies reported the RNA-binding capacity of HAX1, but the role of this binding in physiology and pathology remains ... Here, we report the transcriptome-wide characterization of HAX1 RNA targets using RIP-seq and CRAC, indicating that HAX1 binds ... Using CRISPR knockouts, we find that HAX1 RNA targets partially overlap with transcripts downregulated in HAX1 KO, implying a ... HAX1 is a human protein with no known homologues or structural domains. Mutations in the HAX1 gene cause severe congenital ...
Protein (GST tag). Spezies: Human. Quelle: Wheat germ. Jetzt Produkt ABIN1317629 bestellen. ... RNA binding motif protein 8A, RNA binding motif protein 8a, RNA binding motif protein 8A S homeolog, RBM8A, rbm8a, Rbm8a, rbm8a ... RNA Binding Motif Protein 8A (RBM8A) (AA 2-174) protein (His tag) RBM8A Spezies: Ratte Wirt: Hefe Recombinant > 90 % ELISA ... RNA Binding Motif Protein 8A (RBM8A) protein RBM8A Spezies: Human Wirt: Escherichia coli (E. coli) Recombinant > 90 % pure SDS ...
... and that RRM binding proteins, whose function relies upon plastic RNA-protein interactions, may have played an important role ... Remarkably, three of the conserved exon junctions are both close to structural elements, involved respectively in protein-RNA ... Its members encode structurally conserved neuronal proteins with three RNA Recognition Motifs (RRM) but they paradoxically act ... proteins encoded by the two elav paralogs of Drosophila. ... Conserved RNA binding proteins: a reservoir for accelerated ...
Previously, the Elav-Hu family protein RNA-binding protein 9 (rbp9) has been reported important for germ cell differentiation ... The function of RNA Binding Protein 9 in germ cell differentiation in Drosophila ovary. ...
Our previous work on the RNA-binding protein Staufen1 demonstrated its novel role in cancer biology, and in particular ... From: Distinct roles for the RNA-binding protein Staufen1 in prostate cancer ...
Yeast RNA-binding protein Nab3 regulates genes involved in nitrogen metabolism. Molecular and cellular biology. 2017 Sep 1;37( ... Yeast RNA-binding protein Nab3 regulates genes involved in nitrogen metabolism. / Merran, Jonathan; Corden, Jeffry L. ... Merran, J., & Corden, J. L. (2017). Yeast RNA-binding protein Nab3 regulates genes involved in nitrogen metabolism. Molecular ... Merran, Jonathan ; Corden, Jeffry L. / Yeast RNA-binding protein Nab3 regulates genes involved in nitrogen metabolism. In: ...
Two classes of RBPs, Pentatricopeptide Repeats (PPR) and Pumilio/fem-3 binding factor (PUF) proteins, recognize and bind linear ... Plants encode over 1800 RNA binding proteins (RBPs) that modulate a myriad of steps in gene regulation from chromatin ... Using phylogenetic analysis, predictive protein structural modeling, and PUF binding element (PBE) prediction we were able to ... Thus, we conducted the first global determination of in vivo APUM target RNAs via RIPseq and identified a core subset of RNA ...
BRCA1 is posttranscriptionally regulated by RNA-binding proteins, the identities of which are unknown. HuR is an RNA binding ... BRCA1 is posttranscriptionally regulated by RNA-binding proteins, the identities of which are unknown. HuR is an RNA binding ... BRCA1 is posttranscriptionally regulated by RNA-binding proteins, the identities of which are unknown. HuR is an RNA binding ... BRCA1 is posttranscriptionally regulated by RNA-binding proteins, the identities of which are unknown. HuR is an RNA binding ...
... structurally related RNA binding proteins. The complexity of their RNA targets and specificity of RNA recognition in vivo is ... In contrast, SRSF3 but not SRSF4 specifically bound transcripts encoding numerous RNA binding proteins. Remarkably, SRSF3 was ... Here we use iCLIP to globally analyze and compare the RNA binding properties of two SR proteins, SRSF3 and SRSF4, in murine ... Surprisingly, both SR proteins bound to the 3 ends of the majority of intronless histone transcripts, implicating SRSF3 and ...
The RNA-binding protein Musashi-2 (MSI2) controls mRNA processing and translational regulation via interactions with SFPQ and ... The RNA-binding protein Musashi-2 (MSI2) controls mRNA processing and translational regulation via interactions with SFPQ and ... The RNA-binding protein Musashi-2 (MSI2) controls mRNA processing and translational regulation via interactions with SFPQ and ...
... have identified dozens of cellular proteins that are key regulators of virus infection. This work could potentially open new ... By studying RNA metabolism in infected cells, Alfredo Castello and his team in the Department of Biochemistry, ... Discovering the cellular RNA-binding proteins controlling virus infection Share Share Share ... Castellos laboratory published in Molecular Cell has discovered that virus infection rewires cellular RNA-binding proteins on ...
RNA binding by the Wilms tumor suppressor zinc finger proteins. A A Caricasole, Antonio Duarte, S H Larsson, N D Hastie, M ... Dive into the research topics of RNA binding by the Wilms tumor suppressor zinc finger proteins. Together they form a unique ...
We show that Zea binds a subset of L. monocytogenes RNAs, causing their accumulation in the extracellular medium. Furthermore, ... perform key cellular activities by controlling the function of bound RNAs. The widely held assumption that RBPs are strictly ... during L. monocytogenes infection, Zea binds RIG-I, the non-self-RNA innate immunity sensor, potentiating interferon-β ... Together, our results unveil that bacterial RNAs can be present extracellularly in association with RBPs, acting as ...
Purification and characterization of Rpp25, an RNA-binding protein subunit of human ribonuclease P. In: RNA. 2002 ; Vol. 8, No ... an RNA-binding protein subunit of human ribonuclease P. RNA. 2002;8(3):290-295. doi: 10.1017/S1355838202027954 ... Furthermore, this protein has general RNA binding properties.. AB - In HeLa cells, ribonuclease P (RNase P), the tRNA ... Guerrier-Takada, C, Eder, PS, Gopalan, V & Altman, S 2002, Purification and characterization of Rpp25, an RNA-binding protein ...
RNA biophysics. RNA-protein interactions. RNA turnover. Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein D. RNA-Binding Proteins ... exon 2-encoded sequences inhibited RNA-binding affinity. By contrast, the exon 7-encoded domain enhanced RNA-dependent protein ... showed that the different isoforms remodel bound RNA substrates into divergent structures as a function of protein:RNA ... AU-rich element RNA binding protein 1 (AUF1) regulates the stability of mRNAs containing AU-rich elements (AREs) in their 3- ...
A regulated RNA binding protein also possesses aconitase activity. S. Kaptain, W. E. Downey, C. Tang, C. Philpott, D. Haile, D ... A regulated RNA binding protein also possesses aconitase activity. In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ... A regulated RNA binding protein also possesses aconitase activity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ... A regulated RNA binding protein also possesses aconitase activity. / Kaptain, S.; Downey, W. E.; Tang, C. et al. ...
Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase is one of the three major RNA-binding proteins of rabbit reticulocytes. FEBS Letters. ... Ryazanov, A. G. (1985). Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase is one of the three major RNA-binding proteins of rabbit ... Ryazanov, Alexei G. / Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase is one of the three major RNA-binding proteins of rabbit ... N2 - One of the 3 major RNA-binding proteins of rabbit reticulocytes, a polypeptide of 36 kDa, is identified as glyceraldehyde- ...
... in RNA-Binding Proteins The majority of the known RNA-binding proteins have modular structures that contain an RNA-binding ... Four RNA-binding sequence motifs have been found in RNA-binding proteins […] ... RNA-Binding Proteins Part 2 (Molecular Biology). 1. Domains and Motifs Found in RNA-Binding Proteins The majority of the known ... U1A protein is a protein component of U1 snRNP, a large RNA/protein complex involved in pre-mRNA splicing, and binds to an RNA ...
Mechanistically, the protein heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein C (C1/C2) (HNRNPC) was identified to interact with KHSRP ... experiments were performed to identify the interactions between candidate molecules and their interacting proteins. Gene ... KH-type splicing regulatory protein (KHSRP) plays an important role in cancer invasion, but the relevant mechanism is not well ... KHSRP is a multifunctional nucleic acid-binding protein belonging to the far upstream component binding protein (FUBPs) family ...
Dive into the research topics of Cystathionine γ Lyase Sulfhydrates the RNA Binding Protein Human Antigen R to Preserve ... Cystathionine γ Lyase Sulfhydrates the RNA Binding Protein Human Antigen R to Preserve Endothelial Cell Function and Delay ...
The nexus between RNA-binding proteins and their effectors This Review surveys the known mechanisms of communication between ... Biological roles of adenine methylation in RNA Boulias and Greer review the functions of N6-methyladenosine (m6A) in RNA at the ... the dynamics of RNA ensembles and how RNA structure regulates cellular processes. ... Probing the dynamic RNA structurome and its functions In this Review, Spitale and Incarnato discuss how the application of ...
The study authors write that these RNA-binding proteins act as computers that read these RNA elements and act on their ... RNA-binding proteins. Gene Yeo, PhD, professor of cellular and molecular medicine at UC San Diego School of Medicine. ... "I am astounded by the complexity of regulation by these RNA-binding proteins and I believe our new datasets will open the doors ... Yeo said the findings are significant because they reveal novel functions for many RNA-binding proteins and identify genetic ...
... a significant number of them are caused by mutations that affect proteins that bind RNA, a type of genetic material. University ... of California San Diego School of Medicine researchers studied several ALS cases with a mutation in a RNA-binding protein known ... In the study, published October 20 by Neuron, they describe how damage to this protein contributes to ALS by scrambling crucial ... ALS study reveals role of RNA binding proteins. ALS study reveals role of RNA-binding proteins. October 20, 2016. ...
RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are responsible for most post-transcriptional regulation, from splicing to translation to ... RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are responsible for most post-transcriptional regulation, from splicing to translation to ... RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are responsible for most post-transcriptional regulation, from splicing to translation to ... RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are responsible for most post-transcriptional regulation, from splicing to translation to ...
... then encounter RNA binding proteins (RBPs), some which act to process the RNA into a mature message, others that simply bind ... The whole collection of RNA and its associated proteins is often referred to as the Ribonuclear Particle (RNP). The protein ... Both prizes were essentially given to RNA dependent processes. In the case of Telomerase, an RNA molecule, Telomerase RNA (hTR ... two papers describe how proteins are pumped out of cells by the SecA secretory protein. Background: You can divide proteins ...
  • Plants encode over 1800 RNA binding proteins (RBPs) that modulate a myriad of steps in gene regulation from chromatin organization through translation, yet only a small number of these proteins and their target transcripts have been functionally characterized. (
  • Two classes of RBPs, Pentatricopeptide Repeats (PPR) and Pumilio/fem-3 binding factor (PUF) proteins, recognize and bind linear RNA through a unique, modular, sequence-specific method determined by the amino acid sequence of key residues. (
  • This Review surveys the known mechanisms of communication between RBPs and their effectors and their roles in reducing the complexity of RNA networks. (
  • RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are responsible for most post-transcriptional regulation, from splicing to translation to localization. (
  • RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. (
  • A host of special molecules called nuclear RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), when misplaced outside the nucleus, form the harmful clumps seen in several brain disorders, including frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). (
  • Much of post-transcriptional regulation is mediated through RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). (
  • Scientists led by Johan Auwerx's lab at EPFL, have taken a different route, and studied the link between aging and RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), which bind mRNA molecules and regulate their fate after gene transcription . (
  • We profiled the differentially expressed genes and identified a group of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) as potential regulators. (
  • Many of those protein substrates are equipped within the type of ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complicated consisting of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) and mRNAs, that are subsequently translated in distal dendritic areas. (
  • The remaining genes show remarkable conservation of their exon organization, and their products most resemble FNE and RBP9, proteins encoded by the two elav paralogs of Drosophila. (
  • In humans, there are 497 genes encoding RRM containing proteins, which represent 2% of the human gene products. (
  • Merran, J & Corden, JL 2017, ' Yeast RNA-binding protein Nab3 regulates genes involved in nitrogen metabolism ', Molecular and cellular biology , vol. 37, no. 18, e00154-17. (
  • HuR is an RNA binding protein implicated in posttranscriptional regulation of many genes and is overexpressed in sporadic breast cancer. (
  • SRSF3 and SRSF4 binding sites mapped to largely non-overlapping target genes, and in vivo consensus binding motifs were distinct. (
  • While investigation of transcriptional regulation by transcription factors has led to a deep understanding of how DNA binding proteins direct RNA polymerases to genes, regulation of RNA processing by RNA-binding proteins is still enigmatic. (
  • Reverse genetic analyses of TERMINAL EAR-like RNA-binding protein genes in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. (
  • Gene function analysis indicated that most of these genes were enriched in RNA -regulated pathways including RNA processing . (
  • The FUS protein attaches (binds) to DNA and regulates an activity called transcription, which is the first step in the production of proteins from genes. (
  • Based on real-time PCR analysis of basal defense genes and the Lr34 gene, we selected 72 hpi for RNA-seq with four biological replicates per condition. (
  • RNA was sequenced and 63 wheat genes were identified that showed varying expression in response to the six races. (
  • The characterized genes have proposed functions involved in plant defense and stress, energy and metabolism, protein transport, replication, and RNA binding. (
  • PB2 genes (viral ribonucleoproteins [RNPs]) and are most- encoded protein sequences have not been extensively ly located in the functional domains related to RNP-RNP reported. (
  • In participating UK research institutions, investigators can publish open access in Genome Research, Genes & Development, RNA, and Learning & Memory without article publication charges and all staff can read the entire renowned Cold Spring Harbor journal collection. (
  • The Ataxin -family protein ATXN1L has beforehand been reported to work together with CIC in each developmental and illness contexts to facilitate the repression of CIC goal genes and promote the post-translational stability of CIC. (
  • 2005). Small Nuclear RNAs Encoded by Herpesvirus saimiri Upregulate the Expression of Genes Linked to T Cell Activation in Virally Transformed T Cells. (
  • These include the 5′ frameshifted polyprotein (ORF1a/ORF1ab), nucleocapsid (N), envelope (E), spike (S) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) genes (5). (
  • The S gene is one of the structural genes of the virus which encodes for a protein that sits on the surface of the SARS CoV-2 virus. (
  • The FUS protein is also involved in processing molecules called messenger RNA (mRNA), which serve as the genetic blueprints for making proteins. (
  • New Scientist - In a first for any infectious disease, a vaccine against flu has been made out of messenger RNA (mRNA) - the genetic material that controls the production of proteins. (
  • An intermediate messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule is first produced from the gene via a process termed transcription that takes place in the cell nucleus. (
  • It turns out that this information is engraved in the messenger RNA sequence itself, which are dubbed RNA localization elements or RNA zip codes. (
  • The information for protein synthesis is generally stored in DNA, which is transcribed to messenger RNA (mRNA), and then translated into a protein. (
  • Messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of c- myc, a gene regulated by NF-kappa-B, were determined via Northern blot analysis. (
  • Through transcription the information contained in a section of DNA is replicated to form a new piece of messenger RNA (mRNA). (
  • Termination of mRNAs is coupled to cleavage and polyadenylation while noncoding transcripts are terminated through the Nrd1-Nab3-Sen1 (NNS) pathway in a process that is linked to RNA degradation by the nuclear exosome. (
  • Interactions with intronless and intron-containing mRNAs as well as non-coding RNAs were detected. (
  • AU-rich element RNA binding protein 1 (AUF1) regulates the stability of mRNAs containing AU-rich elements (AREs) in their 3'-untranslated regions. (
  • AREs are highly enriched in mRNAs that encode cytokines, cell cycle regulators, and other regulatory proteins, making AUF1 a critical factor in control of many cellular systems. (
  • These findings provide a mechanistic explanation for the diverse population of AUF1 target mRNAs, but also suggest that the role of AUF1 and proteins/miRNAs binding adjacent sites may be reciprocally regulated by local RNA structure. (
  • Using this element in the three-hybrid in vivo RNA-binding assay, we identified a protein, Loc1p, that binds in vitro directly to the wild-type ASH1 3′-UTR RNA, but not to a mutant RNA incapable of localizing to the bud nor to several other mRNAs. (
  • From cells exposed to osmotic stress, we then purified these four tagged mRNAs, each with its own complex of associated proteins. (
  • The proteins were analyzed and quantitated with mass spectrometry, and the composition compared between the four mRNAs. (
  • It emerged that proteins from the Lsm1-7/Pat1 complex were enriched in the samples with stress-induced mRNAs, relative to the mRNAs not affected by stress. (
  • This complex has been described to bind mRNAs to connect them to the degradation machinery, which competes with the translation machinery. (
  • Upon its binding, PUM2 represses the translation of the target mRNAs into proteins. (
  • Since the time of his PhD work, his research has focused on how mRNAs are translated into proteins and how this process is regulated during cell division and differentiation. (
  • Once the mRNAs are born and progressively become mature, they come out from the nucleus to the cytoplasm where they serve as precursors to proteins via a complex cellular process termed translation. (
  • However, extensive research in the last two decades addressing the fate of the messenger RNAs following their transport into the cytoplasm suggest that a significant fraction of total cellular mRNAs do not immediately engage in translation (protein production). (
  • Scientists believe that the movement of the mRNAs in the cells from the nucleus to another location is vital for controlling the spatial distribution of the various critical cellular proteins. (
  • Researchers have now found that the cells are better off if they transport the precursor mRNAs to the appropriate sites of the function of their respective proteins rather than if they make the proteins at any random location. (
  • In a recent review published in WIRES RNA , Drs Biswadip Das, Anusha Chaudhuri, and Subhadeep Das from Jadavpur University presented a detailed account of movements of mRNAs in the baker's yeast, exploring various kinds of transporting mRNAs, the cellular carriers who transport these messages, and the disease consequences if these RNAs do not get managed to localize to their appropriate locations. (
  • Since the production of one copy of a given protein requires a lot of energy, it is a better strategy for the cells to send and target the precursor mRNAs to the site of action of the corresponding proteins rather than producing the proteins before mRNA arrives on-site. (
  • Recently, selective mRNA translation into proteins has been reported to be a mode of plant immune response, which may represent a post-transcriptional mechanism for rapid translation of existing mRNAs and/or a safeguarding system to ensure protein translation only when absolutely necessary. (
  • This protein binds to microRNAs (miRNAs) or small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and represses translation of mRNAs that are complementary to them. (
  • The mechanism by which the mRNAs are trafficked to the bud, illustrated by ASH1 mRNA, involves recognition of cis-acting localization elements present in the mRNA by the RNA-binding protein, She2p. (
  • certain mRNAs corresponding to nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins are specifically sorted to the proximity of mitochondria. (
  • This gene encodes an RNA-binding protein characterized by its DZF (domain associated with zinc fingers) domain. (
  • Its virion encodes several proteins including a replicase and four structural proteins. (
  • Using CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing, the researchers knocked out the gene that encodes the protein, FMR1, and used the resulting cell line to establish tumors in immunodeficient and immunocompetent mice. (
  • The mRNA encodes for a protein called mitochondrial fission factor (MFF), and is a pivotal regulator of mitochondrial fission-a process by which mitochondria break up into smaller mitochondria. (
  • Adenovirus encodes two proteins, E1B55K and E4orf6, that work together to co-opt the host's ubiquitin machinery for the virus's own gain. (
  • This gene encodes an RNA binding protein that is thought to be a key regulator of alternative exon splicing in the nervous system and other cell types. (
  • FUNCTION: This gene encodes a member of the argonaute family of proteins, which associate with small RNAs and have important roles in RNA interference (RNAi) and RNA silencing. (
  • Proteins containing one or several of these domains are capable of interacting in a sequence specific manner with single stranded RNA molecules and of directing the assembly of multiprotein complexes [ 4 , 5 ]. (
  • To investigate the possibility that these two molecules are functionally linked in breast cancer, we performed bioinformatic analysis of the BRCA1 3' untranslated region (UTR), RNA-protein assays with the HuR protein and the BRCA1 3'UTR, and immunohistochemical analysis of a cohort of breast tumors using antibodies against BRCA1 and HuR. (
  • Coimmunoprecipitation (Co-IP) experiments were performed to identify the interactions between candidate molecules and their interacting proteins. (
  • PUM2 binds mRNA molecules containing specific recognition sites. (
  • By cutting and rearranging mRNA molecules in different ways, the FUS protein controls the production of different versions of certain proteins. (
  • The authors show that this bacterium utilizes host oxidative molecules to activate regulatory proteins that enhance the production of effector molecules, counteracting the host weapon NADPH oxidase and inducing a protective response. (
  • Krull, C. E., Collazo, A., Fraser, S. E. & Bronner-Fraser, M. Segmental migration of trunk neural crest: time lapse analysis reveals a role for PNA-binding molecules. (
  • Boston Molecules is a leading provider of comprehensive, high quality recombinant protein services. (
  • With extensive training from world-renown enzymology laboratory and crystallography laboratory, scientists in Boston Molecules provide customers with highly purified, properly folded (including ion optimized and disulfide bond correctly positioned) recombinant protein production services. (
  • Translation or protein synthesis is a multi-step process that requires a lot of molecules including transfer RNAs (tRNA), amino acids, ATP, GTP and other cofactors to transfer information from mRNA to protein in ribosomes. (
  • DNA and RNA are negatively charged molecules due to their phosphate backbone, and they naturally travel toward the positive electrode at the far end of the gel. (
  • RNA-binding proteins can change gene expression output at different steps of RNA metabolism, including pre-mRNA splicing, polyadenylation, RNA export, RNA stability, and translation. (
  • The dsRBD is also found in adenosine deaminase, which is a key enzyme in RNA Editing, and in the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase, which plays an important role in viral gene expression. (
  • HuR not only functions as an RNA binding protein to modulate post-transcriptional gene expression but also regulates H19 promoter activity. (
  • transite is a computational method that allows comprehensive analysis of the regulatory role of RNA-binding proteins in various cellular processes by leveraging preexisting gene expression data and current knowledge of binding preferences of RNA-binding proteins. (
  • Among the signaling pathways regulated by GSK3s, the Wnt canonical pathway is the most well described, with GSK3β inhibition triggering an increase in β -catenin protein levels and its nuclear translocation to activate target gene expression ( Doble and Woodgett, 2003 ). (
  • Asbestos induces nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B) DNA-binding activity and NF-kappa B-dependent gene expression in tracheal epithelial cells. (
  • The effects of asbestos (1332214) on nuclear-factor-kappa-B (NF- kappa-B) DNA binding activity and NF-kappa-B dependent gene expression were examined. (
  • The authors conclude that asbestos induces NF-kappa-B DNA binding activity and NF-kappa-B dependent gene expression, both of which may be involved in the development of asbestos induced lung cancers. (
  • Importantly, CLIP analysis led to the discovery that SRSF3 cross-regulates the expression of other SR protein family members. (
  • In this Review, Spitale and Incarnato discuss how the application of sequencing-based RNA structure mapping methods to entire transcriptomes in living cells is providing insight into the RNA structurome, the dynamics of RNA ensembles and how RNA structure regulates cellular processes. (
  • The protein also interacts with the estrogen receptor 1 transcription factor and regulates estrogen receptor 1 transcriptional activity. (
  • Now, on p. 4975 , Boag and co-workers report that a conserved RNA-protein (RNP)complex regulates germline apoptosis in Caenorhabditis elegans . (
  • abstract = "A clone for the iron-responsive element (IRE)-binding protein (IRE-BP) has been transfected and expressed in mouse fibroblasts. (
  • abstract = "One of the 3 major RNA-binding proteins of rabbit reticulocytes, a polypeptide of 36 kDa, is identified as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPD). (
  • The majority of the known RNA-binding proteins have modular structures that contain an RNA-binding domain combined with other auxiliary domains (1, 2). (
  • It is an interesting observation that many known RNA-binding proteins are all b or a/b proteins that contain an exposed b-sheet. (
  • Surprisingly, Loc1p was found to be strictly nuclear, unlike other known RNA-binding proteins involved in mRNA localization which shuttle between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. (
  • Remarkably, three of the conserved exon junctions are both close to structural elements, involved respectively in protein-RNA interactions and in the regulation of sub-cellular localization, and in the vicinity of diverse sequence variations. (
  • We propose that the conserved exon junctions constitute potential sites for sequence/function modifications, and that RRM binding proteins, whose function relies upon plastic RNA-protein interactions, may have played an important role in brain evolution. (
  • In spite of the remarkable sequence conservation of the RRM domains, RRM-containing proteins perform numerous functions, intervening at all the possible steps of RNA metabolism. (
  • The plasticity of RRMs in their sequence-specific recognition of topologically diverse RNA is likely to be correlated with their presence in a variety of proteins involved in the diverse steps of post-transcriptional regulation. (
  • requires only 15 nucleotides of AU-rich sequence to form stable RNPs in a larger RNA context. (
  • Four RNA-binding sequence motifs have been found in RNA-binding proteins from diverse species: therefore, it is considered that they arose early in evolution. (
  • The RNP domain, also known as RNA recognition motif (RRM) or RNP-consensus sequence (RNP-CS) type RNA-binding domain, is found in more than 200 distinct RNA-binding proteins from diverse species (1, 2, 6). (
  • It is also the second most common protein sequence motif in the entire genome of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. (
  • The AUUGCAC sequence in the ten-nucleotide loop fits into the groove on the surface of the b-sheet and binds tightly through stacking and hydrogen bond interactions with the protein. (
  • The dsRBD is a short sequence motif found in multiple copies in RNA-binding proteins from diverse origins including Escherichia coli, Drosophila, Xenopus, and mammals. (
  • a mutation of this sequence to AUAGGUAU abrogates the binding of proteins. (
  • Both the sequence and position of the two putative protein binding regions are highly conserved across species, indicating their important role in the regulation of translational repression and inducibility of TNF-α synthesis. (
  • C to U editing of apolipoprotein B (apoB) mRNA involves the interaction of a multicomponent editing enzyme complex with a requisite RNA sequence embedded within an AU-rich context. (
  • article{Schneider-walker1997, author = "T. D. Schneider", title = "Sequence Walkers: a graphical method to display how binding proteins interact with {DNA} or {RNA} sequences", journal = "Nucleic Acids Res. (
  • B) Protein sequence alignment of open reading frame (ORF) 4a (residues 10-76) of all 13 MERS-CoV strains from Jordan in 2015 compared with the consensus sequence of the Riyadh 2015 cluster. (
  • C) Protein sequence alignment of ORF3 (residues 25-77) of all 13 MERS-CoV strains from Jordan in 2015 compared with the consensus sequence of the Riyadh 2015 cluster. (
  • Their binding properties depend on the amino acid sequence of the finger domains and of the linker between fingers, as well as on the higher-order structures and the number of fingers. (
  • Because dCas9 is enzymatically inactive, it is unable to cleave the DNA upon binding to the targeted sequence in the host genome. (
  • Human antigen R (HuR), an RNA-binding protein, is an important post-transcriptional regulator. (
  • T-cell restricted intracellular antigen-related protein (TIAR) is an RNA recognition motif-type RNA-binding protein that has been implicated in the apoptotic death of T-lymphocytes and retinal pigment epithelial cells. (
  • Evaluation of on-line high-performance size-exclusion chromatography, differential refractometry, and multi-angle laser light scattering analysis for the monitoring of the oligomeric state of human immunodeficiency virus vaccine protein antigen. (
  • U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein auxiliary factor 35 kDa subunit- related protein 2 (U2(RNU2) small nuclear RNA auxiliary factor 1-like 2) (CCCH type zinc finger, RNA-binding motif and serine/arginine rich protein 2) (Renal carcinoma antigen NY-REN-20). (
  • E), nucleocapsid protein (N), RNA-dependent RNA drome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus polymerase enzyme, and ORF1 gene) (4-6) either by disease 2019 (COVID-19), which was declared a pandemic nucleic acid amplification testing or detection of virus- on 11 March 2020, because of its rapid spread around the specific proteins by antigen testing (7,8) . (
  • COVID-19 can be diagnosed by detection of RNA gene targets (e.g. spike protein (S), an envelope protein (E), nucleocapsid protein (N), RNA-dependent RNA polymerase enzyme, and ORF1 gene) (4-6) either by nucleic acid amplification testing or detection of virus-specific proteins by antigen testing (7,8). (
  • Here we describe a second protein binding region which is located 147 bases downstream of the first region and interacts with at least seven distinct protein species present in murine macrophages. (
  • HPE1 also interacts with other plastid RNA-splicing factors, including CAF1 (AT2G20020) and OTP51 (AT2G15820), which share common targets with HPE1. (
  • The Interdomain Region of Dengue NS5 Protein Interacts with NS3 and Host Proteins accounts of epidemic outbreaks of dengue the membrane-associated synthesis of in this region date back to 1898(1). (
  • Mechanistically, the protein heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein C (C1/C2) (HNRNPC) was identified to interact with KHSRP using Co-IP experiments. (
  • Thus, disease is associated with expansions of 12 or more uninterrupted alanines in this nuclear protein. (
  • A heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoprotein that has specificity for AU-rich elements found in the 3'-region of mRNA and may play a role in RNA stability. (
  • A subset of heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoproteins are involved in additional functions such as nucleocytoplasmic transport (ACTIVE TRANSPORT, CELL NUCLEUS) of RNA and mRNA stability in the CYTOPLASM. (
  • A group of closely-related 72-74-kDa heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoproteins that are involved in RNA SPLICING events. (
  • AMMECR nuclear protein 1 [S. (
  • Instead, many of them are first transported from the nuclear periphery to various subcellular territories where their corresponding proteins will perform their cellular functions. (
  • Nuclear receptor-binding factor 2 (NRBF-2) (Comodulator of PPAR and RXR). (
  • 2004). The Herpesvirus saimiri Small Nuclear RNAs Recruit AU-Rich Element-Binding Proteins but Do Not Alter Host AU-Rich Element-Containing mRNA Levels in Virally Transformed T Cells. (
  • XIII" YMR047C 3 13 3 YMR047C "Nuclear pore complex protein that is member of GLFG repeat-containing family of nucleoporins and is,XIII" YMR049C 3 13 4 YMR049C "Ymr049cp,XIII" YMR051C 3 13 5 YMR051C "TyA Gag protein. (
  • Following exposure, nuclear protein extracts were analyzed for enhanced NF-kappa-B DNA binding activity using a gel mobility shift assay. (
  • Multiple gel shift complexes, competitively blocked by excesses of NF-kappa-B, were observed in the nuclear protein extracts of crocidolite exposed HTE cells. (
  • Animal PUFs are important in a variety of important biological processes including embryo and tissue development, cell patterning, viral RNA sensing, and cancer. (
  • The researchers found a unique ubiquitination mechanism that alters protein-RNA binding and promotes viral RNA processing. (
  • The findings, which elucidate how adenovirus alters host protein-RNA binding to promote the production of viral RNA, were published today in Nature Microbiology . (
  • Adenovirus manipulation of ubiquitination is particularly important for efficient production of viral RNA. (
  • However, CHOP researchers identified two substrates of viral-mediated ubiquitination that aid the processing of viral RNA but that surprisingly do not degrade when ubiquitinated in the midst of adenovirus infection. (
  • These RNA-binding proteins, RALY and hnRNP-C, seem to play a role in slowing the production of virus by binding to viral RNA. (
  • Ubiquitination during adenovirus infection blocks their interaction with viral RNA, and so the virus is able to replicate faster and more efficiently. (
  • We subse- the mechanism of influenza viral infection and replication quently used 15,785 protein sequences from the National in different host species. (
  • Protein p48 may play a role in viral replication by interacting with host VAPA, a vesicle-associated membrane protein that plays a role in SNARE-mediated vesicle fusion. (
  • Viral genome-linked protein is covalently linked to the 5'-end of the positive-strand, negative-strand genomic RNAs and subgenomic RNA. (
  • May recruit ribosome to viral RNA thereby promoting viral proteins translation (By similarity). (
  • Catalyzes the covalent attachment VPg with viral RNAs (By similarity). (
  • Although dengue virus is not proteins NS5 and NS3 act in concert through endemic to North Queensland, the protein-protein interactions within the widespread prevalence of the mosquito Replicative Complex (RC) that includes other vector, Aedes aegypti , results in small viral NS proteins. (
  • 3024 /gene="POL" /locus_tag="H649_43655gpPOL" /product="viral genome-linked protein" /note="VPg" mat_peptide 3025. (
  • The viral S gene is important as it codes for the Spike protein which is the molecule that makes contact with, and allows entry of the virus into susceptible host cells, causing infection. (
  • The F-protein is responsible for fusion of the virus and host cell membranes, viral penetration, and hemolysis. (
  • SRSF3 and SRSF4 display unique RNA binding properties underlying diverse cellular regulatory mechanisms, with shared as well as unique coding and non-coding targets. (
  • By studying RNA metabolism in infected cells, Alfredo Castello and his team in the Department of Biochemistry, have identified dozens of cellular proteins that are key regulators of virus infection. (
  • New research from Alfredo Castello's laboratory published in Molecular Cell has discovered that virus infection rewires cellular RNA-binding proteins on a global level. (
  • In the study, published October 20 by Neuron , they describe how damage to this protein contributes to ALS by scrambling crucial cellular messaging systems. (
  • 1994). The initial reaction results in the formation of a reactive intermediate, which gives off hydrochloric acid to form phosgene, which is then free to react with cellular macromolecules (including GSH, proteins, and nucleic acids) or conjugate with water to form carbon dioxide and hydrochloric acid (Ade et al. (
  • As a result, we found proteins that are involved in important processes during development, such as energy metabolism, control pathways and cellular communication. (
  • The latter possibility would lead to the risk of sending a specific protein to the wrong cellular sites, which interferes with the protein's function and also costs the cell a considerable amount of additional energy. (
  • May cleave polyadenylate-binding protein thereby inhibiting cellular translation. (
  • RNA is similar in structure to DNA but is involved in different cellular functions. (
  • Its members encode structurally conserved neuronal proteins with three RNA Recognition Motifs (RRM) but they paradoxically act at diverse levels of post-transcriptional regulation. (
  • The proteins in this family contain three RNA Recognition Motifs (RRM), with a hinge region separating the second and third RRMs and an optional non-conserved N-terminal region. (
  • Hundreds of proteins encoded by metazoan genomes have RNA-binding capacity conferred by specific protein structural domains, such as RNA recognition motifs (RRMs), KH domains and zinc fingers [ 1 ]. (
  • SR proteins share a modular structure of one or two RNA recognition motifs (RRMs) at their amino terminus and an arginine-serine-rich RS domain of variable length at the carboxyl terminus. (
  • X-ray crystallography has shown or NMR that they contain an a/b fold similar to those found in some ribosomal protein subunits, and it has been suggested that these RNA-binding motifs may have evolved from ribosomal proteins. (
  • Zinc finger (Znf) domains are relatively small protein motifs which contain multiple finger-like protrusions that make tandem contacts with their target molecule. (
  • They display considerable versatility in binding modes, even between members of the same class (e.g. some bind DNA, others protein), suggesting that Znf motifs are stable scaffolds that have evolved specialised functions. (
  • Zinc-binding motifs are stable structures, and they rarely undergo conformational changes upon binding their target. (
  • In a recent paper published in the Journal of Biological Chemistry Yuna Ayala, Ph.D., assistant professor of biochemistry and molecular biology at Saint Louis University, and her research team made advances in understanding how a protein causes damaging plaques to build up in neurodegenerative illnesses like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and a form of dementia called frontotemporal lobar degeneration. (
  • We report here the cloning and immuno-biochemical analysis of Rpp25, another protein subunit of RNase P. Polyclonal rabbit antibodies raised against recombinant Rpp25 recognize their corresponding antigens in RNase P-containing fractions purified from HeLa cells, and they also precipitate active holoenzyme. (
  • Dive into the research topics of 'Purification and characterization of Rpp25, an RNA-binding protein subunit of human ribonuclease P'. Together they form a unique fingerprint. (
  • Clindamycin inhibits bacterial protein synthesis by binding to the 23S RNA of the 50S subunit of the ribosome. (
  • During initiation, the small subunit of the ribosome bound to initiator t-RNA searches for the mRNA starting at the 5' terminal to identify and bind the initiation codon (AUG). The large subunit of the ribosome then joins the small ribosomal subunit to generate the initiation complex at the initiation codon. (
  • Azithromycin binds to the 50S subunit of the 70S bacterial ribosomes, and therefore inhibits RNA-dependent protein synthesis in bacterial cells. (
  • Mechanism of action :- Spiramycin is a macrolide antibacterial that inhibits protein synthesis by irreversibly binding to the 50S subunit of the ribosomal subunit thus blocking the transpeptidation or translocation reactions of susceptible organisms resulting in stunted cell growth. (
  • Ubiquitin acts as a sort of marker, either targeting the protein for degradation or affecting the protein's activity in other ways, such as promoting or preventing protein interactions. (
  • Post-transcriptional control also involves cytoplasmic RNA granules (e.g. processing bodies or stress granules) - RNA/protein-containing structures that are associated with regulating RNA degradation or translational arrest. (
  • It is also involved in transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) of promoter regions that are complementary to bound short antigene RNAs (agRNAs), as well as in the degradation of miRNA-bound mRNA targets. (
  • Useful in vitro research using ATXN1L human cell traces revealed that lack of ATXN1L results in the buildup of polyubiquitinated CIC protein, selling its degradation by means of the proteasome. (
  • Degradation of CIC protein following lack of ATXN1L was as an alternative noticed to be mediated by the E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM25 which was additional validated utilizing glioma-derived cell traces and the TCGA breast carcinoma and liver hepatocellular carcinoma cohorts. (
  • The contact surface of the protein molecule is shown, whereas the RNA is a skeletal model. (
  • In the case of Telomerase, an RNA molecule, Telomerase RNA (hTR or TERC), acts as the template strand to help Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase (TERT) elongate the end of the telomere. (
  • Were God a molecule, he or she would be a ribosome, a veritable galaxy of atoms whose job is to translate genetic code into the stuff of life--protein. (
  • The binding of G3 APUMs led to a decrease in transcripts involved in development and anatomical structure that resulted in slow growth and a delay in flowering, illustrating the role of G3 APUMs in both post-transcriptional gene regulation and plant development. (
  • These results identify the first posttranscriptional protein regulator of BRCA1 and have implications for understanding BRCA1 regulation in human breast cancer. (
  • The authors review the emerging roles of RBP-effector interactions in the control of RNA processing and regulation of biological outcomes, and their contribution to human health and disease. (
  • This resource provides a new analytical framework to connect the full range of RNA regulation to complex disease. (
  • Thus, the loss of FMRP and possibly the loss of regulation of other as-yet-unidentified proteins result in the clinical phenotype of the fragile X syndrome. (
  • However, the synthesis of the protein cannot take place directly from the gene. (
  • Amoxicillin inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis by binding to penicillin-binding proteins. (
  • Transcribes also a subgenomic mRNA by initiating RNA synthesis internally on antigenomic RNA. (
  • However, in eukaryotes, the processes of transcription and translation are spatially separated and occur sequentially with transcription happening in the nucleus and translation, or protein synthesis, occurring in the cytoplasm. (
  • Although there are some particular differences existed, the overall process of protein synthesis is similar in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes with three stages of initiation, elongation and termination. (
  • Cefixime binds to specific penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) located inside the bacterial cell wall, causing the inhibition of the third and last stage of bacterial cell wall synthesis. (
  • 1990s the frequency of outbreaks of dengue the replicative form (RF), which is the fever have escalated, mirroring the situation recycling template for the synthesis of new in the neighbouring regions and elsewhere plus strand RNA. (
  • The N-terminal region is associated serves directly as a template for the synthesis with the RNA capping reaction that puts a of the virus proteins. (
  • Termination of Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcripts occurs through two alternative pathways. (
  • We also show that this interaction is disrupted by single nucleotide substitutions in the BRCA1 3'UTR and that endogenous HuR protein associates with BRCA1 transcripts in T47D and MCF7 breast cancer cells. (
  • Surprisingly, both SR proteins bound to the 3' ends of the majority of intronless histone transcripts, implicating SRSF3 and SRSF4 in histone mRNA metabolism. (
  • In contrast, SRSF3 but not SRSF4 specifically bound transcripts encoding numerous RNA binding proteins. (
  • Remarkably, SRSF3 was shown to modulate alternative splicing of its own as well as three other transcripts encoding SR proteins. (
  • From data accumulated recently within the "RNA Field", we know that transcription in eukaryotic cells is very sloppy - that is, a plethora of different RNA transcripts are generated from seemingly random pieces of DNA. (
  • As I've said before, if you want to understand what is going on with all of these non-coding RNA transcripts, you have to understand how DNA is organized. (
  • Besides altering the transcription program, pre-existing transcripts can be modulated for increased or decreased turnover rate, and for increased or decreased efficiency of translation into proteins. (
  • A family of ribonucleoproteins that were originally found as proteins bound to nascent RNA transcripts in the form of ribonucleoprotein particles. (
  • The protein binds to a conserved UGCAUG element found downstream of many alternatively spliced exons and promotes inclusion of the alternative exon in mature transcripts. (
  • While all AUF1 isoforms generated oligomeric complexes on ARE substrates by sequential dimer association, exon 2-encoded sequences inhibited RNA-binding affinity. (
  • The IRE-BP gene product binds IREs with high affinity and specificity. (
  • Investigations using different templates suggest that the inhibitory protein has a stronger binding affinity for G, C-rich templates. (
  • Our main modification was to use a higher affinity GFP-binding protein. (
  • It carries a deletion mutation at positions 69 and 70 in the spike protein that increases binding affinity to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor (8). (
  • The spike glycoprotein is an envelope protein that binds with high affinity to mammalian ACE2 (10). (
  • Human proteins, cDNA and human recombinants are used in human reactive ELISA kits and to produce anti-human mono and polyclonal antibodies. (
  • Anti-Hu antibodies may alter the production of these proteins, which are essential for the development, maturation, and maintenance of the vertebrate nervous system. (
  • In one report, a subset of patients with limbic encephalitis associated with a systemic neoplasm previously attributed to antibodies against voltage gated potassium channel antibodies actually recognize LGI1 protein complex epitopes and do not represent a channelopathy. (
  • In the proposed "zinc finger" DNA-binding motif, each repeat unit binds a zinc metal ion through invariant Cys and His residues and this drives the folding of each 30-residue unit into an independent nucleic acid-binding domain. (
  • To obtain structural information, we synthesized single and double zinc finger peptides from the yeast transcription activator ADR1, and assessed the metal-binding and DNA-binding properties of these peptides, as well as the solution structure of the metal-stabilized domains, with the use of a variety of spectroscopic techniques. (
  • A single zinc finger can exist as an independent structure sufficient for zinc-dependent DNA binding. (
  • zinc finger protein 451 [So. (
  • We, recently, reported the Arabidopsis thaliana Tandem Zinc Finger protein 9 (TZF9) to be an RNA-binding protein co-localizing with components of RNA granules. (
  • contains a zinc finger,XV" YOL091W 1 15 16 YOL091W "involved in sporulation,XV" YOL103W-B 1 15 17 YOL103W-B "TyB Gag-Pol protein. (
  • Taken together, the results indicate that GRY-RBP is a member of the ACF gene family that may function to modulate C to U RNA editing through binding either to ACF or to apobec-1 or, alternatively, to the target RNA itself. (
  • Structural studies indicate that four antiparallel beta-sheets form the RNA interaction surface, with RNP-1 and RNP-2 on the two inner sheets (beta 1 and beta 3). (
  • Using phylogenetic analysis, predictive protein structural modeling, and PUF binding element (PBE) prediction we were able to define the conservation of PUFs within plant species, as well as determine the PBE for all APUMs, illustrating the potential for unique PBEs in two Groups of APUMs. (
  • However, van't Hoff and FRET analyses showed that AUF1 contacts with the 5&rsquo-extension contribute to RNA structural condensation. (
  • The proteins responsible for the key molecular events leading to the structural changes between the developmental stages of Echinococcus granulosus remain unknown. (
  • This sgRNA codes for structural proteins. (
  • PPRs have been well studied due to their abundance in plant genomes and critical roles in organellar RNA editing, while very little is known about plant PUFs, despite extensive work done in animal systems. (
  • A new paper in Science reports that human genomes encode a large repertoire of retroviral envelope-derived proteins, with potential roles in protecting from infection by other retroviruses. (
  • They play major roles in the tissue- and stage-specific expression of protein isoforms as well as in the maintenance of protein homeostasis. (
  • This informs us that the Lsm1 and Pat1 proteins participate in the same roles, likely as parts of the same protein complex. (
  • Our previous studies suggested that mammalian heat shock proteins might be able to play similar roles in both diseases. (
  • Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) proteins (GSK3α and GSK3β) are key mediators of signaling pathways, with crucial roles in coordinating fundamental biological processes during neural development. (
  • Experiments using recombinant proteins demonstrate that GRY-RBP binds to ACF and inhibits both the binding of ACF to apoB RNA and C to U RNA editing. (
  • Resistance is caused by a change in penicillin-binding proteins. (
  • The complexity of their RNA targets and specificity of RNA recognition in vivo is not well understood. (
  • However, the latter analysis provided information at the gene level and did not identify direct binding sites of SR proteins to RNA targets. (
  • These observations require further studies, but clearly show that RNA-binding proteins could be promising targets in aging and age-related dysfunctions. (
  • Previous research had only identified host targets that were marked for destruction during infection, and none of these substrates was linked to RNA processing. (
  • Aberrations in Capicua (CIC) have lately been implicated as a adverse prognostic consider a mess of most cancers sorts by means of the derepression of targets downstream of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascade, similar to oncogenic E26 transformation-specific (ETS) transcription components. (
  • Protein factors as well as sequences in mRNA are involved in the recognition of the initiation codon and formation of the initiation complex. (
  • Previously, the Elav-Hu family protein RNA-binding protein 9 (rbp9) has been reported important for germ cell differentiation in Drosophila ovary, but its mechanism of function is largely unknown. (
  • In the Drosophila embryo, Staufen protein binds to maternal bicoid mRNA and plays an important role in establishing the anterior-posterior polarity through mRNA localization (11). (
  • The neuronal proteins are homologous to the embryonic lethal abnormal visual (ELAV) protein in Drosophila species. (
  • RNA localization is a widely utilized strategy employed by cells to spatially restrict protein function. (
  • Long, Roy M. / RNA localization in yeast : Moving towards a mechanism . (
  • The findings suggested that the neuronal regulatory protein may contribute to tumor resistance to immunotherapies, highly effective treatments that are nullified in some patients by cancer cells that evade immune attacks. (
  • Here we use iCLIP to globally analyze and compare the RNA binding properties of two SR proteins, SRSF3 and SRSF4, in murine cells. (
  • Currently, the most effective strategies in proteomics research are comparing the similarities and differences in all proteins or regional organelle subunits expressed in cells or tissues under different physiological and pathological conditions [ 5 ]. (
  • We have previously isolated an enriched fraction of S100 extracts, prepared from chicken intestinal cells, that displays apoB RNA binding and which, following supplementation with apobec-1, permits efficient C to U editing. (
  • As further evidence of the role of GRY-RBP, rat hepatoma cells treated with an antisense oligonucleotide to GRY-RBP demonstrated an increase in C to U editing of endogenous apoB RNA. (
  • Das, M. R. (1983) Inhibition of avian myeloblastosis virus reverse transcriptase by an RNA-binding protein from plasma membranes of normal and tumor cells Journal of Biosciences, 5 (2). (
  • In normal cells, stress proteins are not made unless the stress intensity exceeds a certain limit. (
  • The FUS protein also helps repair errors in DNA, which prevents cells from accumulating genetic damage. (
  • As a result, FUS protein and mRNA are trapped within cells and likely form clumps (aggregates), which have been found in nerve cells that control muscle movement (motor neurons) in some people with ALS. (
  • Double-labeling studies showed that TIAR protein expression was co-localized with DNA damage in neuronal cells. (
  • Immunoprecipitation experiments indicated an increased binding of a RNA stabilizing protein, nucleolin, to gadd45alpha mRNA in Ikkbeta-/- cells. (
  • An injection of mRNA is picked up by immune cells, which translate it into protein. (
  • Consequently, cells have to unnecessarily produce a lot of proteins to compensate for this mislocalization on-site. (
  • Pretreatment of HTE cells with N-acetyl-L-cysteine, a glutathione stimulator, induced a significant decrease in the crocidolite induced NF-kappa-B DNA binding activity. (
  • Although dengue virus genome replication occurs in the cytoplasm of infected cells, it has been shown that the NS5 protein (RNA-dependent RNA polymerase) is hyperphosphorylated at a late stage in infection and localized to the cell nucleus. (
  • Some mutations in the S gene may lead to changes in the spike protein which result in inhibition of contact and entry of the virus into human cells, however in the case of the VOC, they contain mutations in the S gene that enhance the process of contact and entry into human cells, increasing transmissibility of the virus. (
  • The H-protein is responsible for the binding of virions to cells. (
  • expressed in middle/late meiosis,IV" YDR525W 1 5 7 YDR525W "Ydr525wp,IV" YDR526C 1 5 8 YDR526C "Ydr526cp,IV" YER187W 1 5 9 YER187W "similar to killer toxin,V" YER188W 1 5 10 YER188W "Yer188wp,V" YER190W 1 5 11 YER190W "Yrf1-2p,V" YFL002C 1 5 12 YFL002C "ATP-dependent RNA helicase,VI" YFL002W-B 1 5 13 YFL002W-B "TyA gag protein. (
  • They identify a germline RNA-binding protein, CAR-1 (for cytokinesis/apoptosis/RNA binding), and show that it associates with the RNA helicase CGH-1 in an RNA-dependent manner within a germline RNP complex. (
  • Further studies using the yeast two-hybrid system revealed that the NS5 region (residues 320-368) immediately adjacent to the NLS contained an importin - binding site that abuts or overlaps the binding site for the NS3 protein (protease/helicase). (
  • The expression of each IFNalpha target gene induced by SLE plasma correlated with the expression of that gene studied ex vivo in PBMCs from the same patients and with the titer of anti-RNA binding protein (anti-RBP)-specific autoantibodies. (
  • November 21, 2022 -- Using CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing, Swiss researchers have provided evidence that expression of an RNA-binding protein helps tumors to evade the immune system. (
  • The collaborators began by confirming that FMRP is overexpressed in cancers by immunostaining human tumor tissue microarrays for expression of the protein. (
  • Expression of ectopic HuR results in a significant decrease in BRCA1 protein expression and also BRCA1 3'UTR activity. (
  • Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that although BRCA1 and HuR expression were associated with some clinicopathologic features of the tumors, there was no statistically significant correlation between BRCA1 and HuR protein expression. (
  • Importantly, mutations of splicing factors of the RBP family and defective alternative splicing, which result in inappropriate expression of protein isoforms, lead to deafness in both animal models and humans. (
  • Expression of TIAR protein was also increased in parietal cortex 6 and 24 hr after 90 min of focal cerebral ischemia induced by middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion, as well as in cultured cortical neurons and astroglia after exposure to hypoxia in vitro. (
  • After the controlled-labeling of proteins during the induction of strobilar development, we identified modifications in protein expression. (
  • We offer a variety of recombinant protein expression and purification services from gene to protein to crystallography. (
  • Purified plasma membranes from normal rat liver, a rat hepatoma and a rat hepatic fibrosarcoma have been shown to contain a protein which drastically inhibits avian myeloblastosis virus reverse transcriptase activity. (
  • Finally, fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based assays (FRET) showed that the different isoforms remodel bound RNA substrates into divergent structures as a function of protein:RNA stoichiometry. (
  • The NMR structures of dsRBD from RNase III and Staufen protein show that the module contains a three-stranded antiparallel b-sheet that has two a-helices packed on one side (11, 12). (
  • Once the FUS protein processes the mRNA, it transports the mRNA out of the nucleus where it gets taken up by other cell structures to be further processed into a mature protein. (
  • Recent structures containing a single copy of CENP-N NT bound to the CENP-A nucleosome in the absence of CENP-C were reported. (
  • Transcription begins when the double-stranded DNA is unwound to allow the binding of RNA polymerase. (
  • Once transcription is initiated, RNA polymerase is released from the DNA. (
  • The lack of DNA cleavage results in gene silencing through impeding RNA polymerase binding, transcription factor binding, and/or transcription elongation. (
  • The creation of RNA is made possible by a process called bacterial transcription. (
  • E. coli ribonuclease III is an important enzyme involved in processing ribosomal and transfer RNA. (
  • Resistance to clindamycin is most often caused by modification of specific bases of the 23S ribosomal RNA. (
  • Ribosomal RNA adenine dimethylase [Interproscan]. (
  • Using a systems genetics approach, the researchers then identified a new mRNA target that PUM2 binds. (
  • Although only 10 percent of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) cases are hereditary, a significant number of them are caused by mutations that affect proteins that bind RNA, a type of genetic material. (
  • Our most remarkable finding was the effect of lsm1 or pat1 mutations on the production of stress proteins. (
  • Most of these mutations change single protein building blocks in the FUS protein and often affect the region of the protein involved in DNA binding and mRNA processing. (
  • The protein consists of a five-stranded beta sheet with a folding topology distinct from other RNA-binding proteins. (
  • This might help to explain why RNA-binding domains are generally distinct from DNA-binding domains. (
  • used single cell RNA-seq to identify previously unknown heterogeneity of these progenitors in zebrafish and to delineate the trajectories that distinct pools of these progenitors take. (
  • Using single-cell RNA sequencing, here, we identified a previously unknown heterogeneity among pMN progenitors with distinct fates and molecular signatures in zebrafish. (
  • Bacterial regulatory proteins [Interproscan]. (
  • Here I am, in the lab with one last experiment to go before I leave to feast on a Christmas Eve dinner, so while I wait for that last centrifugation step, I'll write a quick post about all these great papers on RNA Polymerase II and chromatin remodelling. (
  • To understand the widespread functions of SR protein family members, the identification of endogenous RNA target sites is required. (
  • They are concentrated in the nucleus, where they participate in pre-mRNA splicing [ 4 ], yet nearly all SR proteins shuttle between the nucleus and cytoplasm. (
  • Previously, almost all kinds of messenger RNAs that move between the nucleus and cytoplasm were thought to be utilized for the production of the corresponding proteins. (
  • However, the in vivo binding specificity and function(s) of most RNA-binding proteins are not well understood. (
  • Hepatic lipid accumulation, inflammation and fibrosis were examined by histology, RNA transcriptome analysis, qRT-PCR, and Western blot analysis. (
  • After whole-body autoradiography to study the distribution of inhaled 14C-labeled chloroform in mice, most of the radioactivity was found in fat immediately after exposure, while the concentration of radioactivity in the liver increased during the postanesthetic period, most likely due to covalent binding to lipid and protein in the liver (Cohen and Hood 1969). (
  • The characterization and molecular cloning of the double-stranded RNA genome of an Australian strain of infectious bursal disease virus. (
  • Several isoforms of hnRNP D protein have been found to occur due to alternative mRNA splicing (RNA SPLICING). (
  • The development of ultraviolet (UV) crosslinking and immunoprecipitation (CLIP) followed by high-throughput sequencing has made possible the identification of in vivo binding sites of RNA-binding proteins in a genome-wide manner [ 14 ]. (
  • The QIAamp Circulating Nucleic Acid Kit greatly simplifies concentration and purification of free-circulating DNA and RNA from plasma or serum. (
  • Column-based extraction is a method that employs selective binding of nucleic acid to a solid matrix, such as silica that is packed in a column. (
  • The encoded protein may play a role in the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of another RNA-binding protein, Staufen homolog 2, in neurons. (
  • Dendrites require exact and well timed supply of protein substrates to distal areas to make sure the proper morphology and performance of neurons. (
  • fragile X psychological retardation protein (FMRP), decreased in each cell our bodies and dendrites when neurons had been confronted with aberrant upregulation of ATX2. (
  • University of California San Diego School of Medicine researchers studied several ALS cases with a mutation in a RNA-binding protein known as hnRNP A2/B1. (
  • The fragile X mutation in affected persons results in the loss of the FMR1 gene product fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), an RNA-binding protein ( 2 ). (
  • In RNA-RRM complexes, nucleotides establish contacts with residues in the RNPs, with regions in the RRM beyond the RNP domains also involved in RNA recognition. (
  • This means that GAPD, like other RNA-binding proteins, can form loose dynamic complexes with polyribosomes. (
  • Previously, we have characterized protein complexes binding to the main AU-rich region in the 3'-UTR of murine TNF-α mRNA. (
  • Both prizes were essentially given to RNA dependent processes. (
  • These findings reveal a quicker way that viruses can take over host processes without degrading host proteins," said Matthew D. Weitzman, PhD , an investigator in the Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine at CHOP . (
  • They are involved in a variety of processes such as packaging of RNA and RNA TRANSPORT within the nucleus. (
  • These proteins were mainly involved in metabolic, regulatory and signaling processes. (
  • Unfolded protein-independent IRE1 activation contributes to multifaceted developmental processes in Arabidopsis. (
  • 3C-like protease processes the polyprotein: 3CLpro-RdRp is first released by autocleavage, then all other proteins are cleaved. (
  • The ~11 kb ss (+) RNA genome of domains that contain enzyme activities that dengue virus is capped at the 5' end but not are crucial for the replicative cycle of the poly-adenylylated and upon uncoating, virus. (
  • Proteomics is mainly the study of protein-protein interactions to clarify protein functions [ 4 ]. (
  • Previous studies have found cancers that overexpress the protein, fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), are invasive and metastatic. (
  • The video will also touch on the different types of RNA found in a cell and their functions. (
  • We are also beginning to understand ubiquitin's role in regulating RNA splicing, so further research that analyzes host splicing changes during adenovirus infection may provide insights into host pathways altered by the ubiquitination of RNA-binding proteins. (
  • I delineated the mechanisms underlying stress response pathways, in particular the unfolded protein response (UPR) and define their role in prostate tumorigenesis using genetic mouse models as well as in patient derived xenografts model of metastatic prostate cancer. (
  • to other RNAs may initiate epige- cleus pathways. (
  • Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) proteins (GSK3α or GSK3β) are key mediators of signaling pathways, especially in the CNS but poorly described in the retina. (
  • Reducing Pum2 levels, we obtained more MFF protein and increased mitochondrial fragmentation and mitophagy. (
  • The RNA-binding protein PUM2 impairs mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy during aging. (
  • The elav ( embryonic lethal abnormal visual system ) gene of D. melanogaster was the the first identified member of a family of neuronal RNA binding proteins that is conserved in metazoans [ 1 , 2 ]. (
  • The rbp9 (RNA binding protein 9) product is present in neuronal nuclei starting at the third larval instar and also in the cytoplasm of cystocytes during oogenesis. (
  • Lastly, we revealed that the PAM2 motif of ATX2, which mediates its interplay with poly(A)-binding protein (PABP), is probably mandatory for the lower of FMRP in sure neuronal stress situations. (