RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Codon: A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).Ribosomes: Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)RNA, Ribosomal: The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).RNA, Transfer: The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.3' Untranslated Regions: The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.5' Untranslated Regions: The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.MicroRNAs: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Ribonucleoproteins: Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Students, Medical: Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.RNA Editing: A process that changes the nucleotide sequence of mRNA from that of the DNA template encoding it. Some major classes of RNA editing are as follows: 1, the conversion of cytosine to uracil in mRNA; 2, the addition of variable number of guanines at pre-determined sites; and 3, the addition and deletion of uracils, templated by guide-RNAs (RNA, GUIDE).Biofuels: Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).Biodegradable Plastics: Organic polymeric materials which can be broken down by naturally occurring processes. This includes plastics created from bio-based or petrochemical-based materials.Transistors, Electronic: Electrical devices that are composed of semiconductor material, with at least three connections to an external electronic circuit. They are used to amplify electrical signals, detect signals, or as switches.Plastics: Polymeric materials (usually organic) of large molecular weight which can be shaped by flow. Plastic usually refers to the final product with fillers, plasticizers, pigments, and stabilizers included (versus the resin, the homogeneous polymeric starting material). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Ecological and Environmental Processes: Ecosystem and environmental activities, functions, or events.Dugong: A genus of the order Sirenia characterized by a notched tail, the presence of nasal bones and a long nasal cavity, and large columnar teeth lacking enamel. Dugongs inhabit the coastal waters of the Indian Ocean, Red Sea, and the Malay Archipelago. (From Scott, Concise Encyclopedia Biology, 1996)Petroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Agaricus: A basidiomycetous fungal genus of the family Agaricaceae, order Agaricales, which includes the field mushroom (A. campestris) and the commercial mushroom (A. bisporus).Electric Power Supplies: Devices that control the supply of electric current for running electrical equipment.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Keratoplasty, Penetrating: Partial or total replacement of all layers of a central portion of the cornea.RNA Editing: A process that changes the nucleotide sequence of mRNA from that of the DNA template encoding it. Some major classes of RNA editing are as follows: 1, the conversion of cytosine to uracil in mRNA; 2, the addition of variable number of guanines at pre-determined sites; and 3, the addition and deletion of uracils, templated by guide-RNAs (RNA, GUIDE).RNA Splicing: The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.RNA, Ribosomal: The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)Cell Biology: The study of the structure, behavior, growth, reproduction, and pathology of cells; and the function and chemistry of cellular components.Animal Use Alternatives: Alternatives to the use of animals in research, testing, and education. The alternatives may include reduction in the number of animals used, replacement of animals with a non-animal model or with animals of a species lower phylogenetically, or refinement of methods to minimize pain and distress of animals used.Alternative Splicing: A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.DeoxyriboseRNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Ribosomes: Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.RNA, Transfer: The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Blood Stains: Antigenic characteristics and DNA fingerprint patterns identified from blood stains. Their primary value is in criminal cases.Spectrum Analysis, Raman: Analysis of the intensity of Raman scattering of monochromatic light as a function of frequency of the scattered light.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Spindle Pole Bodies: Microtubule organizing centers of FUNGI and DIATOMS. They are embedded in the NUCLEAR ENVELOPE and evolve into the spindle apparatus during CELL DIVISION.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.MicroRNAs: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Nobel PrizeHistory, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Attentional Blink: Temporary visual deficit or impaired visual processing occurring in a rapid serial visual presentation task. After a person identifies the first of two visual targets, the ability to detect the second target is impaired for the next few hundred milliseconds. This phenomenon is called attentional blink.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)MassachusettsPatient Advocacy: Promotion and protection of the rights of patients, frequently through a legal process.Leadership: The function of directing or controlling the actions or attitudes of an individual or group with more or less willing acquiescence of the followers.North AmericaLatin America: The geographic area of Latin America in general and when the specific country or countries are not indicated. It usually includes Central America, South America, Mexico, and the islands of the Caribbean.

Meiosis: MeiRNA hits the spot. (1/21477)

The protein Mei2 performs at least two functions required in fission yeast for the switch from mitotic to meiotic cell cycles. One of these functions also requires meiRNA. It appears that meiRNA targets Mei2 to the nucleus, where it can promote the first meiotic division.  (+info)

Telomerase reverse transcriptase gene is a direct target of c-Myc but is not functionally equivalent in cellular transformation. (2/21477)

The telomerase reverse transcriptase component (TERT) is not expressed in most primary somatic human cells and tissues, but is upregulated in the majority of immortalized cell lines and tumors. Here, we identify the c-Myc transcription factor as a direct mediator of telomerase activation in primary human fibroblasts through its ability to specifically induce TERT gene expression. Through the use of a hormone inducible form of c-Myc (c-Myc-ER), we demonstrate that Myc-induced activation of the hTERT promoter requires an evolutionarily conserved E-box and that c-Myc-ER-induced accumulation of hTERT mRNA takes place in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. These findings demonstrate that the TERT gene is a direct transcriptional target of c-Myc. Since telomerase activation frequently correlates with immortalization and telomerase functions to stabilize telomers in cycling cells, we tested whether Myc-induced activation of TERT gene expression represents an important mechanism through which c-Myc acts to immortalize cells. Employing the rat embryo fibroblast cooperation assay, we show that TERT is unable to substitute for c-Myc in the transformation of primary rodent fibroblasts, suggesting that the transforming activities of Myc extend beyond its ability to activate TERT gene expression and hence telomerase activity.  (+info)

Tight binding of the 5' exon to domain I of a group II self-splicing intron requires completion of the intron active site. (3/21477)

Group II self-splicing requires the 5' exon to form base pairs with two stretches of intronic sequence (EBS1 and EBS2) which also bind the DNA target during retrotransposition of the intron. We have used dimethyl sulfate modification of bases to obtain footprints of the 5' exon on intron Pl.LSU/2 from the mitochondrion of the alga Pylaiella littoralis, as well as on truncated intron derivatives. Aside from the EBS sites, which are part of the same subdomain (ID) of ribozyme secondary structure, three distant adenines become either less or more sensitive to modification in the presence of the exon. Unexpectedly, one of these adenines in subdomain IC1 is footprinted only in the presence of the distal helix of domain V, which is involved in catalysis. While the loss of that footprint is accompanied by a 100-fold decrease in the affinity for the exon, both protection from modification and efficient binding can be restored by a separate domain V transcript, whose binding results in its own, concise footprint on domains I and III. Possible biological implications of the need for the group II active site to be complete in order to observe high-affinity binding of the 5' exon to domain I are discussed.  (+info)

Telomerase activity is sufficient to allow transformed cells to escape from crisis. (4/21477)

The introduction of simian virus 40 large T antigen (SVLT) into human primary cells enables them to proliferate beyond their normal replicative life span. In most cases, this temporary escape from senescence eventually ends in a second proliferative block known as "crisis," during which the cells cease growing or die. Rare immortalization events in which cells escape crisis are frequently correlated with the presence of telomerase activity. We tested the hypothesis that telomerase activation is the critical step in the immortalization process by studying the effects of telomerase activity in two mortal SVLT-Rasval12-transformed human pancreatic cell lines, TRM-6 and betalox5. The telomerase catalytic subunit, hTRT, was introduced into late-passage cells via retroviral gene transfer. Telomerase activity was successfully induced in infected cells, as demonstrated by a telomerase repeat amplification protocol assay. In each of nine independent infections, telomerase-positive cells formed rapidly dividing cell lines while control cells entered crisis. Telomere lengths initially increased, but telomeres were then maintained at their new lengths for at least 20 population doublings. These results demonstrate that telomerase activity is sufficient to enable transformed cells to escape crisis and that telomere elongation in these cells occurs in a tightly regulated manner.  (+info)

The influence of junction conformation on RNA cleavage by the hairpin ribozyme in its natural junction form. (5/21477)

In the natural form of the hairpin ribozyme the two loop-carrying duplexes that comprise the majority of essential bases for activity form two adjacent helical arms of a four-way RNA junction. In the present work we have manipulated the sequence around the junction in a way known to perturb the global folding properties. We find that replacement of the junction by a different sequence that has the same conformational properties as the natural sequence gives closely similar reaction rate and Arrhenius activation energy for the substrate cleavage reaction. By comparison, rotation of the natural sequence in order to alter the three-dimensional folding of the ribozyme leads to a tenfold reduction in the kinetics of cleavage. Replacement with the U1 four-way junction that is resistant to rotation into the antiparallel structure required to allow interaction between the loops also gives a tenfold reduction in cleavage rate. The results indicate that the conformation of the junction has a major influence on the catalytic activity of the ribozyme. The results are all consistent with a role for the junction in the provision of a framework by which the loops are presented for interaction in order to create the active form of the ribozyme.  (+info)

Molecular dynamics studies of U1A-RNA complexes. (6/21477)

The U1A protein binds to a hairpin RNA and an internal-loop RNA with picomolar affinities. To probe the molecular basis of U1A binding, we performed state-of-the-art nanosecond molecular dynamics simulations on both complexes. The good agreement with experimental structures supports the protocols used in the simulations. We compare the dynamics, hydrogen-bonding occupancies, and interfacial flexibility of both complexes and also describe a rigid-body motion in the U1A-internal loop complex that is not observed in the U1A-hairpin simulation. We relate these observations to experimental mutational studies and highlight their significance in U1A binding affinity and specificity.  (+info)

A novel nucleotide incorporation activity implicated in the editing of mitochondrial transfer RNAs in Acanthamoeba castellanii. (7/21477)

In Acanthamoeba castellanii, most of the mtDNA-encoded tRNAs are edited by a process that replaces one or more of the first three nucleotides at their 5' ends. As a result, base pairing potential is restored at acceptor stem positions (1:72, 2:71, and/or 3:70, in standard tRNA nomenclature) that are mismatched according to the corresponding tRNA gene sequence. Here we describe a novel nucleotide incorporation activity, partially purified from A. castellanii mitochondria, that has properties implicating it in mitochondrial tRNA editing in this organism. This activity is able to replace nucleotides at the first three positions of a tRNA (positions 1, 2, and 3), matching the newly incorporated residues through canonical base pairing to the respective partner nucleotide in the 3' half of the acceptor stem. Labeling experiments with natural (Escherichia coli tRNATyr) and synthetic (run-off transcripts corresponding to A. castellanii mitochondrial tRNALeu1) substrates suggest that the nucleotide incorporation activity consists of at least two components, a 5' exonuclease or endonuclease and a template-directed 3'-to-5' nucleotidyltransferase. The nucleotidyltransferase component displays an ATP requirement and generates 5' pppN... termini in vitro. The development of an accurate and efficient in vitro system opens the way for detailed studies of the biochemical properties of this novel activity and its relationship to mitochondrial tRNA editing in A. castellanii. In addition, the system will allow delineation of the structural features in a tRNA that identify it as a substrate for the labeling activity.  (+info)

Photocrosslinking of 4-thio uracil-containing RNAs supports a side-by-side arrangement of domains 5 and 6 of a group II intron. (8/21477)

Previous studies suggested that domains 5 and 6 (D5 and D6) of group II introns act together in splicing and that the two helical structures probably do not interact by helix stacking. Here, we characterized the major Mg2+ ion- and salt-dependent, long-wave UV light-induced, intramolecular crosslinks formed in 4-thiouridine-containing D56 RNA from intron 5gamma (aI5gamma) of the COXI gene of yeast mtDNA. Four major crosslinks were mapped and found to result from covalent bonds between nucleotides separating D5 from D6 [called J(56)] and residues of D6 near and including the branch nucleotide. These findings are extended by results of similar experiments using 4-thioU containing D56 RNAs from a mutant allele of aI5gamma and from the group IIA intron, aI1. Trans-splicing experiments show that the crosslinked wild-type aI5gamma D56 RNAs are active for both splicing reactions, including some first-step branching. An RNA containing the 3-nt J(56) sequence and D6 of aI5gamma yields one main crosslink that is identical to the most minor of the crosslinks obtained with D56 RNA, but in this case in a cation-independent fashion. We conclude that the interaction between J(56) and D6 is influenced by charge repulsion between the D5 and D6 helix backbones and that high concentrations of cations allow the helices to approach closely under self-splicing conditions. The interaction between J(56) and D6 appears to be a significant factor establishing a side-by-side (i.e., not stacked) orientation of the helices of the two domains.  (+info)

*Mir-9/mir-79 microRNA precursor family

The miR-9 microRNA (homologous to miR-79), is a short non-coding RNA gene involved in gene regulation. The mature ~21nt miRNAs ... Lau NC, Lim LP, Weinstein EG, Bartel DP (2001). "An abundant class of tiny RNAs with probable regulatory roles in ... Lagos-Quintana M, Rauhut R, Lendeckel W, Tuschl T (2001). "Identification of novel genes coding for small expressed RNAs". ...

*Mir-181 microRNA precursor

Rna. 9 (2): 180-6. doi:10.1261/rna.2141503. PMC 1370383 . PMID 12554860. Landgraf P, Rusu M, Sheridan R, Sewer A, Iovino N, ... Linsen SE, de Wit E, de Bruijn E, Cuppen E (April 2010). "Small RNA expression and strain specificity in the rat". BMC Genomics ... Lui WO, Pourmand N, Patterson BK, Fire A (July 2007). "Patterns of known and novel small RNAs in human cervical cancer". Cancer ... Lagos-Quintana M, Rauhut R, Meyer J, Borkhardt A, Tuschl T (February 2003). "New microRNAs from mouse and human". Rna. 9 (2): ...

*Mir-2 microRNA precursor

RNA Biology. 9 (3): 242-280. doi:10.4161/rna.19160. PMC 3384581 . PMID 22336713. Leaman, D; Chen PY; Fak J; Yalcin A; Pearce M ... Wang, X; Liu, S (2011). "Systematic curation of miRBase annotation using integrated small RNA high-throughput sequencing data ...

*Antagomir

... s are used to silence endogenous microRNA (miR). An antagomir is a small synthetic RNA that is perfectly complementary ... If a Blockmir binds to a non-intended RNA, it will only cause an effect if it prevents binding of a microRNA or another ... which prevents the degradation of the target mRNA via RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). ...

*MiR-27

Antisense RNA directed against miR-27a has been shown to decrease the percentage of cells in S phase whilst also increasing ... Cazalla, D; Yario, T; Steitz, JA (Jun 18, 2010). "Down-regulation of a host microRNA by a Herpesvirus saimiri noncoding RNA". ... Herpesvirus saimiri expresses several non-coding RNAs (HSURs) which have been found to significantly reduce the level of mir-27 ... Jun 29, 2007). "A mammalian microRNA expression atlas based on small RNA library sequencing". Cell. 129 (7): 1401-14. doi: ...

*5S ribosomal RNA

Binding between 5S rRNA and TFIIIA serves to both repress further transcription of the 5S RNA gene and stabilize the 5S RNA ... La protein is found in the nucleus in all eukaryotic organisms and associates with several types of RNAs transcribed by RNA pol ... Pelham, HRB; Brown DD (1980). "A specific transcription factor that can bind either the 5S RNA gene or 5S RNA". Proc. Natl. ... Page for 5S ribosomal RNA at Rfam 5SData 5S Ribosomal RNA at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH ...

*MiR-203

They are located in intergenic and intragenic regions, and are transcribed as pri-miRNA by RNA polymerase II or RNA polymerase ... MicroRNAs are short (20-22nt), non-coding RNA molecules involved in the regulation of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) by pairing with ... The guide strand of the miRNA is then loaded into RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) and is then able to pair with its target ... In molecular biology miR-203 is a short non-coding RNA molecule. MicroRNAs function to regulate the expression levels of other ...

*Three prime untranslated region

The most common structure is a stem-loop, which provides a scaffold for RNA binding proteins and non-coding RNAs that influence ... "RNA Binding Protein/RNA Element Interactions and the Control of Translation". Current Protein & Peptide Science. 13 (4): 294- ... miRNAs are short, non-coding RNA molecules capable of binding to mRNA transcripts and regulating their expression. One miRNA ... In molecular genetics, the three prime untranslated region (3'-UTR) is the section of messenger RNA (mRNA) that immediately ...

*Codon usage bias

For an overexpressed transgene, the corresponding mRNA makes a large percent of total cellular RNA, and the presence of rare ... Codon usage in noncoding DNA regions can therefore play a major role in RNA secondary structure and downstream protein ... Ikemura T (September 1981). "Correlation between the abundance of Escherichia coli transfer RNAs and the occurrence of the ... RNA stability, optimal growth temperature, hypersaline adaptation and dietary nitrogen. Although the mechanism of codon bias ...

*Let-7 microRNA precursor

RNA. 10 (10): 1586-94. doi:10.1261/rna.7122604. PMC 1370645 . PMID 15337850. Vella MC, Choi EY, Lin SY, Reinert K, Slack FJ ( ... RNA. 14 (11): 2440-51. doi:10.1261/rna.1139508. PMC 2578851 . PMID 18824511. Ding XC, Slack FJ, Grosshans H (2008). "The let-7 ... RNA. 14 (10): 2104-14. doi:10.1261/rna.551208. PMC 2553747 . PMID 18719242. Tokumaru S, Suzuki M, Yamada H, Nagino M, Takahashi ... "A cellular function for the RNA-interference enzyme Dicer in the maturation of the let-7 small temporal RNA". Science. 293 ( ...

*RNA

Also, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase is part of the RNA interference pathway in many organisms. Messenger RNA (mRNA) is the RNA ... According to the length of RNA chain, RNA includes small RNA and long RNA. Usually, small RNAs are shorter than 200 nt in ... RNA can also be methylated. Like DNA, RNA can carry genetic information. RNA viruses have genomes composed of RNA that encodes ... Long RNAs, also called large RNAs, mainly include long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) and mRNA. Small RNAs mainly include 5.8S ...

*UPSK RNA

... end of turnip yellow mosaic virus RNA in minus-strand synthesis by the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase". J Virol. 71 (8): ... terminus of tobacco mosaic virus RNA". RNA. 2 (3): 201-12. PMC 1369363 . PMID 8608444. Deiman, BA; Kortlever RM; Pleij CW (1997 ... The Upstream pseudoknot (UPSK) domain is an RNA element found in the turnip yellow mosaic virus, beet virus Q, barley stripe ... Matsuda, D; Dreher TW (2004). "The tRNA-like structure of Turnip yellow mosaic virus RNA is a 3'-translational enhancer". ...

*SraL RNA

The SraL RNA ('sra' for small RNA), also known as RyjA, is a small non-coding RNA discovered in E. coli, and later in ... RNA biology. 9 (4): 469-488. doi:10.4161/rna.19317. ISSN 1555-8584. PMID 22336761. Silva, Inês Jesus; Ortega, Alvaro Darío; ... RNA. 19 (9): 1253-1265. doi:10.1261/rna.039537.113. ISSN 1469-9001. PMC 3753932 . PMID 23893734. ... Argaman, L.; Hershberg, R.; Vogel, J.; Bejerano, G.; Wagner, E. G.; Margalit, H.; Altuvia, S. (2001-06-26). "Novel small RNA- ...

*RNA (journal)

RNA is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal that covers research on all aspects of RNA molecules, including their ... "RNA". NLM Catalog. National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved 2015-03-16. "RNA". 2013 Journal Citation Reports. ... Since 2003 it is published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press on behalf of the RNA Society. The editor-in-chief is Timothy ...

*RprA RNA

The RprA RNA gene encodes a 106 nucleotide regulatory non-coding RNA. Translational regulation of the stationary phase sigma ... RNA. 19 (8): 1089-104. doi:10.1261/rna.034595.112. PMC 3708529 . PMID 23804244. Madhugiri R, Basineni SR, Klug G (2010). "Turn- ... demonstrated that this RNA is bound by the Hfq protein. Binding to Hfq alters the conformation of RprA. In the presence of Hfq ... Updegrove T, Wilf N, Sun X, Wartell RM (2008). "Effect of Hfq on RprA-rpoS mRNA pairing: Hfq-RNA binding and the influence of ...

*SmY RNA

Jones TA, Otto W, Marz M, Eddy SR, Stadler PF (2009). "A survey of nematode SmY RNAs". RNA Biol. 6 (1): 5-8. doi:10.4161/rna. ... SmY ribonucleic acids (SmY RNAs) are a family of small nuclear RNAs found in some species of nematode worms. They are thought ... RNA. 13 (4): 511-520. doi:10.1261/rna.426707. PMC 1831854 . PMID 17283210. Deng W, Zhu X, Skogerbø G, et al. (January 2006). " ... SmY RNAs are about 70-90 nucleotides long and share a common secondary structure, with two stem-loops flanking a consensus ...

*RNA Biology

... is a peer-reviewed scientific journal in the field of ribonucleic acid (RNA) research. It is indexed for MEDLINE. ... "RNA Biology". 2014 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Science ed.). Thomson Reuters. 2015. Official website. ... This initiative is a collaboration between the journal and the consortium that produces the Rfam database of RNA families. The ... of families of RNA molecules in December 2008 and requires contributing authors to also submit a draft article on the RNA ...

*RNA extraction

... is the purification of RNA from biological samples. This procedure is complicated by the ubiquitous presence of ... The extraction of RNA in molecular biology experiments is greatly complicated by the presence of ubiquitous and hardy RNases ... FortiusBio High Throughput RNA Extraction Filter Paper Card Rossier, O.; Dao, J.; Cianciotto, N. P. (2009). "A type II secreted ... RNA extraction in liquid nitrogen, commonly using a mortar and pestle (or specialized steel devices known as tissue pulverizers ...

*RNA activation

In C. elegans, Argonaute CSR-1 interacts with 22G small RNAs derived from RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and antisense to ... The RNA-loaded Ago then recruits other proteins such as RHA, also known as nuclear DNA helicase II, and CTR9 to form an RNA- ... RNA activation (RNAa) is a small RNA-guided and Argonaute (Ago)-dependent gene regulation phenomenon in which promoter-targeted ... Li, Long-Cheng (2008). "Small RNA-mediated gene activation". In Morris, Kevin V. RNA and the Regulation of Gene Expression: A ...

*Rsa RNA

... a new staphylococcal family of highly transcribed non-coding RNA". RNA Biol. 7 (2): 116-9. doi:10.4161/rna.7.2.10925. PMID ... Rsa RNAs are non-coding RNAs found in the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. The shared name comes from their discovery, and does ... Although the RNAs showed varying expression patterns, many of the newly discovered RNAs were shown to be Hfq-independent and ... "Specific interaction of the RNA-binding domain of the bacillus subtilis transcriptional antiterminator GlcT with its RNA target ...

*Small RNA

... are ...

*CrfA RNA

... (Caulobacter response to famine RNA) is a family of non-coding RNAs found in Caulobacter crescentus. CrfA is expressed ... CrfA RNA is one of only 8 putative ncRNAs conserved in the closely related Caulobacter sp. K31. CrfA was found to be ... Landt SG, Abeliuk E, McGrath PT, Lesley JA, McAdams HH, Shapiro L (May 2008). "Small non-coding RNAs in Caulobacter crescentus ... Landt SG, Lesley JA, Britos L, Shapiro L (September 2010). "CrfA, a Small Noncoding RNA Regulator of Adaptation to Carbon ...

*RNA world

Although RNA is fragile, some ancient RNAs may have evolved the ability to methylate other RNAs to protect them. If the RNA ... of RNAs with molecular properties predicted for RNAs of the RNA World constitutes an additional argument supporting the RNA ... Particular RNAs were amplified up to 10,000 times, a first RNA version of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The RNA ... The RNA world hypothesis is supported by RNA's ability to store, transmit, and duplicate genetic information, as DNA does. RNA ...

*Sib RNA

... refers to a group of related non-coding RNA. They were originally named QUAD RNA after they were discovered as four ... Sib RNA regulates the expression of a toxic protein in a type I toxin-antitoxin system similar to that of hok/sok andldr-rdl ... These small RNA were identified computationally by searching the genome of E. coli for intergenic regions of high sequence ... The ibs gene is on the opposite strand to sib and is completely complimentary, so the antisense-binding of Sib RNA with the ibs ...

*Guide RNA

Guide RNAs (a.k.a. gRNA) are the RNAs that guide the insertion or deletion of uridine residues into mitochondrial mRNAs in ... The phrase "guide RNA" and "gRNA" are also used in DNA editing in the case of Cas9. Trypanosomatid protists and other ... The initial editing event occurs when a gRNA forms an RNA duplex with a complementary mRNA sequence just downstream of the ... The insertions and deletions are mediated by short guide RNA (gRNAs) which encode the editing information in the form of ...
The 3rd RNA Biology Symposium is organized by the RNA Biology Center of the Cancer Science Institute of Singapore and will take place on October 5-6th, 2017 at the Centre of translational medicine (LT-35, 14 Medical Drive, National University of Singapore, Singapore).. The RNA symposium brings together internationally renowned experts in the field of RNA biology, with the focus on: Non-classical RNAs, RNA editing/modification, RNA splicing, RNA in disease and cross talk between RNA classes and processes.. The 2 day conference will comprise of 2 keynote talks by Andrew Fire (Stanford University) and Lynne Maquat (University of Rochester Medical Center), as well as talks from Peter Beal, Zefeng Wang, Victoria Cowling and many more. In addition there will be trainee talks and posters, and an awards ceremony for outstanding posters supported by the Singapore RNA Biology Alliance.. A satellite computational workshop in the subject of RNA-sequencing data analysis will be held on the 3rd of September ...
This invention relates to the use of tumor-derived or associated extracellular ribonucleic acid (RNA) found circulating in the plasma or serum fraction of blood for the detection, monitoring, or evaluation of cancer or premalignant conditions. Extracellular RNA may circulate as non-bound RNA, protein-bound RNA, lipid-RNA complexes, lipoprotein (proteolipid)-RNA complexes, protein-RNA complexes including within or in association with ribonucleoprotein complexes, nucleosomes, or within apoptotic bodies. Any intracellular RNA found in plasma or serum can additionally be detected by this invention. Specifically, this invention enables the extraction of circulating RNA from plasma or serum and utilizes nucleic acid amplification assays for the identification, detection, inference, monitoring, or evaluation of any neoplasm, benign, premalignant, or malignant, in humans or other animals, which might be associated with that RNA. Further, this invention allows the qualitative or quantitative detection of tumor
This invention relates to the use of tumor-derived or associated extracellular ribonucleic acid (RNA) found circulating in the plasma or serum fraction of blood for the detection, monitoring, or evaluation of cancer or premalignant conditions. Extracellular RNA may circulate as non-bound RNA, protein-bound RNA, lipid-RNA complexes, lipoprotein (proteolipid)-RNA complexes, protein-RNA complexes including within or in association with ribonucleoprotein complexes, nucleosomes, or within apoptotic bodies. Any intracellular RNA found in plasma or serum can additionally be detected by this invention. Specifically, this invention enables the extraction of circulating RNA from plasma or serum and utilizes nucleic acid amplification assays for the identification, detection, inference, monitoring, or evaluation of any neoplasm, benign, premalignant, or malignant, in humans or other animals, which might be associated with that RNA. Further, this invention allows the qualitative or quantitative detection of tumor
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: Extracellular RNA Biogenesis, Biodistribution, Uptake, and Effector Function (U19) RFA-RM-12-012. Roadmap
This is the place of all things RNA related. RNA Analysis workflow products include RNA purification systems, RNasin protection, fluorescent RNA quantitation dyes and fluorometers, as well as all-inclusive kits for RT-PCR. Youll also find Riboprobe and other in vitro transcription kits in this product category.
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: Reference Profiles of Human Extracellular RNA (U01) RFA-RM-12-011. Roadmap
GeniCity.com: Innovations Start Here; Shop for Innovative Research Tools - Hardware, Software, and Reagents in Science & Technology - Directly from the Original Manufacturer.
The Plant/Fungi Total RNA Purification Kit provides a rapid method for the isolation and purification of total RNA from a wide range of plant and filamentous fungal species.
Choosing a DNA or RNA purification kit. Select your sample type, the type of nucleic acid you want to extract and the volume/throughput scale of purification. You will then be offered a range of DNA or RNA extraction kits that meet your specifications.
This chapter relates the intricate architecture of the L11-RNA complex to previous studies that delineated crucial features of the RNA tertiary structure and protein-RNA interface. In describing the structure, it is interesting to note how conservation and variation of different nucleotides and amino acids serve as a guide to critical features of the complex, and the authors use the extreme conservation of some bases to speculate about functional surfaces of the rRNA domain. Lastly, the chapter discusses the possibility that the functional role of L11-C76 is to promote a correct RNA tertiary fold. Relatively few RNA structures that have noncanonical interactions have been determined at atomic resolution, and of these only tRNA and the P4-P6 domain of group I intron have extensive tertiary structure. From nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies of the free L11 RNA binding domain (L11-C76), it was known that the protein folds into three α-helices that are superimposable on the α-helices of the
We have used laser tweezers to unfold single RNA molecules at room temperature and in physiological-type solvents. The forces necessary to unfold the RNAs are over the range 10-20 pN, forces that can be generated by cellular enzymes. The Gibbs free energy for the unfolding of TAR (transactivation-responsive) RNA from HIV was found to be increased after the addition of argininamide; the TAR hairpin was stabilized. The rate of unfolding was decreased and the rate of folding was increased by argininamide.. ...
DNA & RNA Purification GenElute HP Plasmid Kits Home Page. The GenElute™ HP Plasmid Midiprep and Maxiprep Kits offer purification of high quality plasmid DNA in less than 30 minutes
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The view of RNA as a simple information transfer molecule has been challenged since the discovery of ribozymes, a class of RNA with enzyme-like functions [1-3]. RNA molecules are now known to carry a large repertory of biological functions such as transfer of information, enzymatic catalysis and regulation of cellular processes [4]. Similar to proteins, functional RNA molecules fold into specific three-dimensional conformations essential for performing their biological activity. Despite advances in characterizing the folding and unfolding of RNA molecules [5-8] and the significant increase of RNA structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) [9], our knowledge of the atomic mechanism by which RNA molecules adopt their biological active structures is still limited [10]. Nonetheless, it is common knowledge that RNA 3D structure is more conserved than RNA sequence and that such principle could be used for comparative RNA structure prediction in a similar way it is done for proteins [11]. It ...
Buy Structures of Large RNA Molecules and Their Complexes from Dymocks online BookStore. Find latest reader reviews and much more at Dymocks
Commercially available RNA extraction kits are rapid, capable of high-throughput analysis and cost-effective [1]. The isolation of DNA-free RNA is crucial to the success of highly sensitive assays like RT-PCR. RNA extraction procedures frequently result in RNA preparations that are highly contaminated with genomic DNA, which often leads to false-positive RT-PCR outcomes. The presence of DNA in an RNA sample can be detected easily by an appropriate PCR test of an indicator gene. Then, if necessary, treatment of the RNA preparation with DNase I will usually eliminate, or at least substantially reduce, the content of DNA [2].. The RNA concentration of a sample is commonly determined via measurement of absorbance at a wavelength of 260 nm (A260). The purity of the RNA sample can be determined using the A260/A280 ratio as a reference (a value of ~2.0 is considered "pure" RNA). However, the accuracy of this method is questionable, because protein contamination can cause an overestimation (,50%) of RNA ...
Borodavka A, Singaram SW, Stockley PG, Gelbart WM, Ben-Shaul A, Tuma R. Sizes of Long RNA Molecules Are Determined by the Branching Patterns of Their Secondary Structures. BIOPHYSICAL JOURNAL. 2016;111 :2077-2085.
RNA structure is important for RNA function and regulation, and there is growing interest in determining the RNA structure of many transcripts. Here we provide a detailed protocol for the parallel analysis of RNA structure (PARS) for probing RNA secondary structures genome-wide. In this method, enzymatic footprinting is coupled to high-throughput sequencing to provide secondary structure data for thousands of RNAs simultaneously. The entire experimental protocol takes ∼5 d to complete, and sequencing and data analysis take an additional 6-8 d. PARS was developed using the yeast genome as proof of principle, but its approach should be applicable to probing RNA structures from different transcriptomes and structural dynamics under diverse solution conditions. Nat Protoc 2013 May; 8(5):849-69.
1/2/3 dimensional visualization of RNA Yann Ponty (VARNA), CNRS/Ecole Polytechnique, France Jim Procter (JalView), University of Dundee, UK Goals  To help your survive the RNA data jungle.  To conceptually and practically connect the three levels of RNA structural information.  To introduce mature prediction and annotation tools.  To illustrate the structure-informed curation RNA alignments.  To keep this fun and interactive. Schedule (French) When? What? 9:30 Introduction 9:45 First session: Databases, 2D structure prediction tools, 3D annotations tools, hands on. 10:30 Interactive coffee break 10:45 Second session: Ensemble approaches, comparative methods, further refinement of alignments, assessment. 12:30 Discussion 13:00 Lunch RNA structure(s) RNA structure(s) How RNA folds U/A U/G Canonical base-pairs G/C 5s rRNA (PDB ID: 1UN6) RNA folding = Hierarchical stochastic process driven by/resulting in the pairing (hydrogen bonds) of a subset of its bases. Sources of RNA data Name ...
Wang, B S. and Mannick, J A., "Further characterization of immune rna capable of transferring tumor immunity. Abstr." (1978). Subject Strain Bibliography 1978. 500 ...
Visit this resource. Title : 7.343 An RNA Safari: Exploring the Surprising Diversity of Mammalian Transcriptomes (MIT). Title : 7.343 An RNA Safari: Exploring the Surprising Diversity of Mammalian Transcriptomes (MIT). Description : The aim of this class is to introduce the exciting and often under appreciated discoveries in RNA biology by exploring the diversity of RNAs-encompassing classical molecules such as ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), transfer RNAs (tRNAs) and messenger RNAs (mRNAs) as well as newer species, such as microRNAs (miRNAs), long-noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), and circular RNAs (circRNAs). For each new class of RNA, we will evaluate the evidence for its existence as well as for its proposed function. Students will develop both a deep understanding of the field of RNA biology and the ability to critically assess new papers in this fast-paced field.This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology Department at MIT. These seminars are tailored for students ...
The HiScribe T7 Quick High Yield RNA Synthesis Kit is designed for quick set-up and production of large amounts of RNA in vitro. The reaction can be set up conveniently by combining the NTP buffer mix, T7 RNA Polymerase mix and a suitable DNA template. The kit also allows for capped RNA or dye-labeled RNA synthesis by incorporation of cap analog (ARCA, NEB #S1411) or dye-modified nucleotides. RNA synthesized with the kit can be used for RNA structure and function studies, ribozyme biochemistry, as probes for RNase protection assays and hybridization based blots, anti-sense RNA and RNAi experiments, microarray analysis and microinjection, as well as in vitro translation and RNA vaccines ...
where 40 is the average extinction coefficient for RNA. In addition, the A260/A280 ratio can be used to estimate RNA purity. An A260/A280 ratio between 1.8 and 2.1 indicates a highly pure RNA sample.. UV spectroscopy is relatively simple to perform but has several drawbacks. It does not discriminate between RNA and DNA so it is advisable to DNAse treat RNA samples before quantifying. DNA in the sample will lead to an overestimation of RNA concentration. Since proteins and residual phenol from the purification can interfere with absorbance readings, it is important to remove these contaminants in purification. Also, absorbance readings are dependent on pH and ionic strength. Dilute RNA samples in TE (pH 8.0) and use TE to blank the spectrophotometer before taking absorbance readings.. An alternative method for quantifying RNA samples is to use fluorescent dyes such as RiboGreen (Invitrogen). RiboGreen exhibits a strong fluorescent signal when bound to nucleic acids. Samples are quantified in a ...
The Direct-zol™ RNA MiniPrep Plus Kits are RNA purification kits that provide a streamlined method for the purification of up to 100 µg (per prep) of high-quality RNA directly from samples in TRI Reagent® or similar. Total RNA, including small RNAs (17-200 nt), is effectively isolated from a variety of sample sources (
Norgens RNA/Protein Purification Plus Kit provides a rapid method for the isolation and purification of total RNA (including small RNA and microRNAs) and proteins sequentially from a single sample of cultured animal cells, small tissue samples, blood, bacteria, yeast, fungi or plants. The total RNA and proteins are all column purified in less than 30 minutes. This kit is ideal for researchers who are interested in studying the transcriptome and proteome of a single sample, such as for studies of microRNA profiling, gene expression including gene silencing experiments or mRNA knockdowns, studies involving biomarker discovery, and for characterization of cultured cell lines. Norgens RNA/Protein Purification Plus Kit is especially useful for researchers who are isolating macromolecules from precious, difficult to obtain or small samples such as biopsy materials or single foci from cell cultures, as it eliminates the need to fractionate the sample. Furthermore, analysis will be more reliable since ...
Among the known blood molecules is a new class, the extracellular RNAs (exRNAs.) Some of these are excellent biomarker candidates, but there are also a signific...
This The EZgeneTM 96-well plasmid kit provides an easy and fast method for isolating high quality plasmid DNA in a high through put format The key to this system is Biomiga s ezbind matrix that avidly but reversibly binds DNA under optimized buffer condition while proteins and other unwanted
Explore our resources, tips and tricks, and troubleshooting help for your specialized RNA isolation needs including mRNA, microRNA (miRNA), and viral RNA extraction as well as high throughput RNA purification systems.
Synonyms for Rna, transfer in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Rna, transfer. 3 synonyms for transfer RNA: acceptor RNA, soluble RNA, tRNA. What are synonyms for Rna, transfer?
The central dogma of biology describes the flow of genetic information from DNA to RNA to proteins. While RNA was originally believed to be a carrier of genetic information, subsequent work has shown something completely different: RNA is now known to have function independent of proteins, with a rich layer of regulatory networks. In fact, a large amount of the RNA present in a cell does not actually make proteins. This increased appreciation and understanding has led to many fascinating mechanistic insights into RNA and its role as a central player in cellular regulation and human disease.. Helping to facilitate RNA function are a large number of proteins that can bind to and regulate RNA. These RNA-binding proteins, or RBPs, number in the thousands and are made up of many different independent modular segments similar to a childs set of building blocks. In much a similar fashion, these "blocks" or domains provide nature with a way of mixing and matching different domains to generate new ...
Ampliqon produces innovative solutions supplementing DNA and RNA extraction. We have recently launched a brand new product, named G2 DNA/RNA Enhancer. G2 DNA/RNA Enhancer increases the DNA yield from difficult samples such as clay dramatically. G2 DNA/RNA Enhancer must be used either in combination with commercial extraction kits or as part of the extraction method of interest.. ...
From the beginning of transcription through splicing and translation, RNAs are associated with proteins and RNAs that regulate their stability, transport, and function. Both coding and non-coding RNAs and their binding partners are involved in numerous cellular pathways. These pathways, which include RNA processing and regulation of transcription and translation, are critical determinants of cell differentiation and are altered in disease.. Our section of Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences focuses on RNA interactions with proteins and transcripts and aims to unveil implications for cell function and dysfunction. We are particularly interested in the following topics:. - Transcription and Splicing. - Ribosomes and Protein Translation. - Physical and Biochemical Characterization of RNA complexes. - Non-coding RNA. - RNA in Disease and Therapy. We also welcome new theoretical and experimental developments based on the most recent techniques, such as evolutionary analyses or results arising from ...
In the upcoming releases, we are expecting to provide more data for a multitude of prokaryotic and eukaryotic pathways for more RNA classes. We are looking for contributors, who would like to help us with supplementing data! MODOMICS and RNApathwaysDB are two complementary resources whichpresent RNA metabolism at different levels. While MODOMICS presents RNA modification pathways on the level of nucleosides, RNApathwaysDB deals with RNA metabolism with respect to whole RNA molecules. Our ultimate goal is to integrate these databases, however at the moment the users are invited to consult both of these complementary resources, depending on their needs and interests. ...
A process is provided for labeling with signal amplification a ribonucleic acid (RNA), comprising fragmenting the RNA to form RNA fragments, fixing a first ligand to a terminal phosphate located at least one of the 3′ end and the 5′ end of each of a plurality of the RNA fragments, the terminal phosphate having been released during the fragmentation, and binding a plurality of labeling agents to the first ligand on each of a plurality of the fragments.
RNA extraction with TRIZOL (Invitrogen product name) or the equivalent TRI (Sigma-Aldrich product name) is a common method of total RNA extraction from cells. It takes slightly longer than column-based methods like RNAeasy but it has higher capacity and can yield more RNA. ...
If you are a CCR PI, Staff Scientist or Staff Clinician and are interested in joining the CCR RNA Biology Initiative, or have questions about the site, please contact Laura Hooper or Joe Ziegelbauer.. All others are welcome to join the CCR RNA Biology listserv. Submit your subscription request at https://list.nih.gov/cgi-bin/wa.exe?SUBED1=CCR_RNA_BIO&A=1 ...
RNA is chemically better suited to carry out certain tasks than is DNA. There are also other reasons RNA, not DNA, is used for these tasks. First, it is desirable to keep DNA available for replication and not tied up with other functions. Second, the small number of DNA molecules in the cell is often insufficient. Creating many identical RNA molecules that are copies of a single segment of DNA provides the necessary numbers. Third, RNA can be differentially degraded when it is no longer needed, providing an important regulatory mechanism that would be unavailable if there were only one type of nucleic acid. ...
SLAMseq can differentiate between newly synthesized (nascent) RNA and existing RNA, while standard RNA-Seq measures total steady-state RNA levels only.. Compared to standard RNA-Seq the SLAMseq protocol adds only two extra steps: labeling of the RNA by adding one compound to the culture medium and pre-processing the total RNA before continuing with a standard RNA-Seq protocol.. SLAMseq. ...
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In eukaryotic cells, the majority of RNA is produced inside the nucleus. Several forms of RNA are synthesized there, including messenger RNA, transfer RNA and ribosomal RNA. Two organelles,...
RNA bioinformatics and computational RNA biology have emerged from implementing methods for predicting the secondary structure of single sequences. The field has evolved to exploit multiple sequences
Columns and collection vials provided,. Good for RNA isolation from all sources (Bacteria, Fungus, plants, Animal tissues, Blood, etc.),. Protocols applicable for all sources are provided "for free" along with Columns. DEPC-treated reagents can be made in- house or purchased (RNA purification solutions). ...
Complete information for RNA18S2 gene (RNA Gene), RNA, 18S Ribosomal 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Use Human CD58(Fc) HEK293 Cell Lysate for fast, easy, and consistent DNA/RNA Purification, Antibody/Protein Purification, Cell Isolation.
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There are three main types of RNA. They are messenger RNA (mRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and transfer RNA (tRNA). These three types of molecules perform different functions in gene coding and...
Nonenzymatic polymerization can copy templates containing all four RNA monomers, a prerequisite for the transition to the RNA world.
if Im not mistaken, the heating is needed to "melt" all the secondary structures and to anneal the primers (Hexa or oligoT) or at least to give them a better chance to interact with RNA. In the standard Invitrogen kit they usually recommended to heat the mix of RNA, primers and dNTPs at 65 C for 5 min before the reaction. However, in general the reaction can work well without heating as well if your target RNA does not have strong self-complementary sites. Before using Invitrogen I was using the home-made reverse transcriptase and never did the heating step, but all was working quite well. The point is that some enzymes can loose their activity after heating, so I think that if you decide to heat - do it before the revertase addition. Anyway, if the protocol says that there is no need for heating, than it seems like you can abandom it (:. ...
Invitrogen™ RNA|i|later|/i|™ Stabilization Solution 20 x 5mL, with manual Invitrogen™ RNA|i|later|/i|™ Stabilization Solution RNA...
RNA isolation is the process of extracting ribonucleic acid from cells, where it is then used in a number of different types of...
In commonly used RNA isolation methods, the absence of genomic DNA is still a challenge. Particularly for downstream quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR, co-amplified genomic DNA can lead to nonspecific results.
RNA ??̿ ?? ?ʪ ??Ǥ ä Ȥ RNA  ?? ?? 1 Ϥϡ RNA ˿ ??ǽ Ф ?? ????ή ȤʤäƤ RNA  ?? ?? ˤ?? Ĥ ????? 롥 ??裱?? ϡ ?? ??? ???Ĥ褦 ????ŪĹ RNA ɤΤ褦 ˤ ?? ?? Ȥ ???? Ǥ ꡤ?? ?? RNA Υۥ⥭ ?? ƥ ɤΤ褦 ˤ ?? ?? 줿 Ȥ ???? Ǥ 롥?? 䥢 ߥλ???????? ?? ?ͭ? D,L ?? ??ذ?? ?? ¸ ߲?? ǡ ??ϵ?? ǹ??ǤΤ褦 ʥ ?? ?? ʤ ?? ?? Ǥ ???????ʬ Ҥϡ D L Σ : κ ?ʪ Ǥ ?? ??ΤǤ ä ȹͤ ?? 롥RNA D- ?? ?? ?? Ȥ D- ̥ 쥪 ??ɤ Ź礷 ݥ?? ǡ DNA ?? ??D- ۥ⥭ ?? ƥ ?ͭ? Ƥ 롥 D- ۥ⥭ ?? ƥ ϳ˻??ι⼡ ¤ ?? 䵡ǽȯ ??Բķ?? ?? ȹͤ ?? Ƥ ꡤ ۥ⥭ ?? ƥ γ?? ʤ ˸ ߤ?? ̿ ƥ?? и Ϥ ??? ʤ ä ȹͤ ?? Ƥ 롥 Ĥޤꡤ ʾ?? Ĥ??????? ?ޤȤ?? ȡ 饻 ??Υ̥ 쥪 ??ɤ ?? Τ褦 ˤ D- ۥ⥭ ?? RNA ???? Ȥ Ȥˤʤ롥 Joyce ??RNA ??? ??Ѥ 饻 ??Υ?? ̥ 쥪 ??ɤ??????? Ź?ȿ ?? 2 ϡ Ʊ?? D ?? ̥ 쥪 ??ɤ?Ź礵 ?? ???? νŹ??Ψ ?? ??㲼 뤳 Ȥ???
C.C.CORRELL,K.SWINGER. COMMON AND DISTINCTIVE FEATURES OF GNRA TETRALOOPS BASED ON A GUAA TETRALOOP STRUCTURE AT 1.4 A RESOLUTION. RNA V. 9 355 2003 ASTM RNARFU UK ISSN 1355-8382 ...
Rna1p is the GTPase-activating factor (GAP) of yeast Gsp1p, an ortholog of mammalian Ran. Rna1p is located in the cytoplasm throughout the cell cycle and plays a direct role in protein import into the nucleus in S. cerevisiae and S. pombe.
LIN28A는 배아줄기세포의 자기 재생과 전분화능 그리고 분화와 발달과정을 조절하는 중요한 조절인자로 알려져 있으며, 줄기세포뿐만 아니라 암세포의 조절에 또한 관여하는 것으로 알려져 있다. 또한 OCT4, SOX2, NANOG 등과 함께 유도만능줄기세포의 제작에 필요한 중요 인자로도 이용되고 있다. 예쁜꼬마선충에서 처음 발견된 LIN28은 대표적인 마이크로 RNA중 하나인 let-7 마이크로 RNA의 성숙과정을 저해함으로써 발달의 시점을 조절하는 역할을 수행하는 것으로 알려졌으며 진화를 거치면서 LIN28A과 LIN28B의 두 상동체로 진화하였다. 기존 연구에 따르면 LIN28A는 주로 세포질에서 TUTase-의존적으로 let-7 마이크로 RNA의 성숙을 방해하고, LIN28B는 주로 핵 내에서 TUTase-비의존적인 방법으로 let-7 마이크로 RNA의 생성을 저해하는 것으로 알려졌으나 핵 내에 존재하는 LIN28A이 ...
Cell cycle analysis by means of differential staining of RNA and DNA permits determination of RNA content, which in turn allows one to discriminate G0 versus G1 cells and to detect cell differentiation
Name: ______________________________________ Date: ________________________ Student Exploration: RNA and Protein SynthesisVocabulary: amino…
Researchers have compiled the largest and most rigorously validated list to date of the genetic sites in fruit flies where RNA transcribed from DNA is then edited by an enzyme to affect a wide variety of fundamental biological functions. The list yielded several biological insights and can aid further research on RNA transcription because flies are a common model in that work.
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Biolin \ RNA Extraction Control 670 \ BIO-38041 for more molecular products just contact us
Can anyone help us with our rna extractions? Were using Ultraspec ( chomsinskys method) to extract hepatitis C rna from serum. When it works we get a nice product but it seems to be a bit of a hit and miss affair . I think we may be missing those specimens with a lower target number. We often see largish pellets after precipitation overnight with glycogen but get no product from the rt-pcr. Our problem may be the quality of the water we dissolve the pellet in . Any ideas? many thanks. Geraldine ...
RNA samples are notoriously difficult to work with given their highly labile nature and tendency to degrade even under carefully controlled RNase-free
This section describes considerations for isolation and quantification of RNA from different sample sources and RNA storage. It also deals with RNAi and the use of siRNA, together with miRNA, mimics, and inhibitors.
This section describes considerations for isolation and quantification of RNA from different sample sources. It also discusses the best practices for RNA, including how to store and stabilize RNA samples, how to disrupt and homogenize samples to get the highest yield, how to perform common RNA calculations, and how to use advanced technologies for RNA sample QC.
PINKR1RNA Pink RINO RNA Lysis Kit 50 Bead lysis kits for the homogenization of small, soft or medium-tough samples. Pack of 50, 1.5mL RINO screw-cap tubes prefilled with stabilized ceramic beads. RNase free ...
DNA and RNA both carry genetic information, but there are differences between them. This is a comparison of the differences between DNA versus RNA.
DNA and RNA are both made up of nucleotides and carry molecules from one end of a cell to another monomers of protein molecules that provide stru...
There are two views, that RNA came first and that Protien came first. Due to the evidence given forth in my class Im siding as of now with the Protein side. Protein acts as cell machinery (the hard ware) and RNA the soft ware. The first cells were formed by spontenously formed proteins envoloped by a chemical enveolope, very likely sulfur bubbles relseased form the earth. These proto-cells could reproduce but not replicate (they could grow large enough from the protein machinery inside that the simple membrane splits into two organisms. Spontaneously created RNA eventually was enveloped. RNA became the method of replication, hijacking the machinery to reproduce itself. RNA existed as early proto life and lived parasitically using the cell to replicate. The existing form of this early process are what we call viruses. All life as we know it arose from the interaction between viruses and protein machinery. Over a very long time these two processes of replication and reproduction became ...
DNA and RNA are both nucleic acids that work together in living cells. They interact to transcribe a cells genetic information...
RNA is an important molecule that often helps your body make proteins. But RNAs arent all the same-some may help your immune cells fight off infections by providing them with extra sugar.
Page contains details about RNA lipoplexes . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
<p>This meeting aims to explore all aspects of this emerging topic, from methods development to molecular mechanism as well as the mammalian physiological function of RNA modification and RNA binding proteins.</p>
Get an answer for What are the similarities and differences between DNA and RNA? and find homework help for other Science questions at eNotes
ProteoGenex supplies genetic derivatives (RNA and DNA) extracted from human tissues and biological fluids, from a variety of diseased and normal donors.
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摘 要:上皮细胞转分化现象及其与疾病发生发展的关系,近年已成为细胞生物学、免疫学等多学科关注的聚焦点。转分化作为细胞分化发育的基本生物学现象,存在于机体诸多生理病理过程,也受表观遗传学的调控。相对于经典遗传学而言,表观遗传学作为一门新兴学科,其为生物体的基因表达调控及遗传现象提供了新的理论阐释。现知,DNA 甲基化、组蛋白修饰及非编码RNA 等均可导致上皮细胞基因发生表观遗传改变,与上皮细胞转分化的发生发展密切相关,并在该过程中发挥重要的调控作用。进一步阐明细胞转分化的分子基础及其表观遗传学调控机制,将有助于认识生命现象基本过程,并可为炎症性疾病、自身免疫病、器官纤维化,以及肿瘤发生与转移等机制的研究与防治,提供新的思路和应对策略。对上皮细胞转分化与表观遗传学调控关系作一简述 ...
An RNA Reset Button Bumgarner and colleagues Molecular Cell …
Some viruses have RNA as their genetic material. I guess it depends on whether or not you feel they are alive to call them organisms. They do have DNA/RNA. They do reproduce, but they have to be in a living cell to do so. The do not have all the characteristics of other living things. However, since they do have the basic necessities of them, I would consider viruses to be organisms ...
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This server predicts RNA 3D structure, so please use only continuous strings of G,C,A,U to indicate RNA sequence (no Ts! please replace them by Us). The space character is used to indicate chain breaks. ...
Our RNA therapeutics are designed to bind selectively to target RNA and modulate its function to decrease or increase the production of a protein.
DNA RNA THING hey Im going to talk about transcription and translation  this is a DNA and turns into... A gene on DNA is copied that then the
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هدف: گروه A روتاویروس، مهم‏ترین عامل ویروسی گاستروانتریت و اسهال شدید در نوزادن و کودکان و مسئول حدود 600 تا 870 هزار مرگ در سال است، بنابراین تشخیص و درمان این بیماری از اهمیت ویژه‏ای برخوردار است. بازآرایی ژن‏ها طی پاساژهای متوالی ویروس با نسبت بالای عفونت‏زایی در کشت سلول و همچنین در عفونت‏های مزمن در بیماران با نقص ایمنی تشخیص داده شده است. در این مطالعه روش RT-PCR برای ردیابی، تشخیص و تکثیر ژن‏های روتاویروس استاندارد و بازآرایی شده راه‏اندازی شده است. مواد و روش‏ها: RNA روتاویروس از ردة سلولی MA-104 آلوده استخراج شد و حضور ژنوم توسط الکتروفورز ژل پلی آکریل
2017年7月19日から21日に富山国際会議場にて行われた第19回日本RNA学会年会において、生物有機化学研究室の伊藤真央さん(修士2年)が優秀賞を受賞しました。本賞は学生の発表者を対象にして、優れた発表を行ったものに対して授与されます。 おめでとうございます! 受賞年月日:2017年7月31日 演題:化学的シグナル増幅を可能とするプローブによる細胞内RNA検出法
P53 基因是一個十分重要的「腫瘤抑制基因」(註 1),與此基因有關的科學研究論文有近十萬篇之多!癌症的基因突變中最常見的即是 P53 基因,一半以上的癌症病患其腫瘤的 P53 基因都有缺失或突變,因此一般認為 P53 基因的變異與癌症的生成、惡化息息相關。但您是否會懷疑,若 P53 如此重要,為何...
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0041]This invention relates to methods for detecting tumor-associated RNA in plasma, serum and other bodily fluids. The methods thereby provide for the detecting, diagnosing, inferring, evaluating or monitoring of cancer or neoplastic disease in a human or animal. The inventive methods comprise the steps of extracting RNA from plasma, serum, or bodily fluid of a human or animal, and thereafter assessing the amount or concentration of mammalian extracellular RNA in said plasma, serum, or other bodily fluid of the human or animal, or cDNA derived therefrom. Particularly preferred embodiments of the inventive steps include an amplification or signal amplification step, followed by detection of the amplified product or signal. In particularly preferred embodiments this is performed by comparing the amount or concentration of one or more RNA species in said plasma, serum, or bodily fluid obtained from the human or animal with another, or with the amount or concentration of RNA found in bodily fluid ...
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By the analysis of thermodynamic RNA secondary structure predictions, we previously obtained evidence for evolutionarily conserved large-scale ordering of RNA virus genomes (P. Simmonds, A. Tuplin, and D.J. Evans, RNA 10: 1337-1351, 2004). Genome-scale ordered RNA structure (GORS) was widely distributed in many animal and plant viruses, much greater in extent than RNA structures required for viral translation or replication, but in mammalian viruses was associated with host persistence. To substantiate the existence of large-scale RNA structure differences between viruses, a large set of alignments of mammalian RNA viruses and rRNA sequences as controls were examined by thermodynamic methods (to calculate minimum free energy differences) and by algorithmically independent RNAz and Pfold methods. These methods produced generally concordant results and identified substantial differences in the degrees of evolutionarily conserved, sequence order-dependent RNA secondary structure between virus ...
A common problem for researchers working with RNA is to determine the three-dimensional structure of the molecule. However, in the case of RNA much of the final structure is determined by the secondary structure or intra-molecular base-pairing interactions of the molecule. This is shown by the high conservation of base-pair across diverse species. One of the first attempts to predict RNA secondary structure was made by Ruth Nussinov and co-workers who used dynamic programming method for maximising the number of base-pairs [1]. However, there are several issues with this approach, most importantly the solution is not unique. Nussinov et al published an adaptation of their approach to use a simple nearest-neighbour energy model in 1980 [2]. Michael Zuker and Patrick Stiegler in 1981 proposed using a slightly refined dynamic programming approach that models nearest neighbour energy interactions that directly incorporates stacking into the prediction [3]. The energies that are minimized by the ...
Understanding interactions between proteins and RNA is key to deciphering the mechanisms of many important biological processes. Here we describe RNABindR, a web-based server that identifies and displays RNA-binding residues in known protein-RNA complexes and predicts RNA-binding residues in proteins of unknown structure. RNABindR uses a distance cutoff to identify which amino acids contact RNA in solved complex structures (from the Protein Data Bank) and provides a labeled amino acid sequence and a Jmol graphical viewer in which RNA-binding residues are displayed in the context of the three-dimensional structure. Alternatively, RNABindR can use a Naive Bayes classifier trained on a non-redundant set of protein-RNA complexes from the PDB to predict which amino acids in a protein sequence of unknown structure are most likely to bind RNA. RNABindR automatically displays high specificity and high sensitivity predictions of RNA-binding residues. RNABindR is freely available at http://bindr.gdcb.iastate
2 -O-Methyl guanosine G is classified as a 2 -O-Methyl RNA monomer. 2 -O-Methyl nucleotides are most commonly used to confer nuclease resistance to an oligo designed for anti-sense, siRNA or aptamer-based research, diagnostic or therapeutic purposes, when specific 2 -OH is not required. Nuclease resistance can be further enhanced by phosphorothiolation of appropriate internucleotide linkages within the oligo.. The hydrogen bonding behavior of a 2 -O-Methyl RNA/RNA base pair is closer to that of an RNA/RNA base pair than a DNA/RNA base pair. Consequently, the presence of 2 -O-Methyl nucleotides improves duplex stability. Indeed, incorporation of a 2 -O-Methyl nucleotide into an anti-sense oligo (resulting in a 2 -O-Methyl RNA/DNA chimeric), lead to a increase in the Tm of its duplex with RNA, relative to that formed by an unmodified anti-sense DNA oligo, of 1.3 C per 2 -O-Methyl RNA residue added (2). Moreover, from a synthesis standpoint, the coupling efficiency of 2 -O-Methyl phosphoramidites ...
Telomerase, the ribonucleoprotein complex involved in telomere maintenance, is composed of two main components: hTERT and hTERC. hTERT seems to be the rate-limiting factor for telomerase activity, although hTERC expression was also shown to correlate to a certain extent with telomerase reactivation. To determine whether the absence of hTERC expression could be the consequence of DNA methylation, we quantified hTERC RNA in 60 human samples (19 telomerase-negative normal tissues, nine telomerase-positive and 22 telomerase-negative tumor tissues, eight telomerase-positive and two telomerase-negative cell lines) using a quantitative dot blot on RT-PCR products. Most of the normal tissues did not express hTERC whereas, in telomerase-positive cell lines and in telomerase-positive tumor tissues, a strong up-regulation was observed, suggesting that hTERC transcription is up-regulated during tumorigenesis. The two telomerase-negative cell lines did not express hTERC. In a series of 22 telomerase-negative ...
RNALogo: a new approach to display structural RNA alignment - Regulatory RNAs play essential roles in many essential biological processes, ranging from gene regulation to protein synthesis. This work presents a web-based tool, RNALogo, to create a new graphical representation of the patterns in a multiple RNA sequence alignment with a consensus structure. The RNALogo graph can indicate significant features within an RNA sequence alignment and its consensus RNA secondary structure. RNALogo extends Sequence logos, and specifically incorporates RNA secondary structures and mutual information of base-paired regions into the graphical representation. Each RNALogo graph is composed of stacks of letters, with one stack for each position in the consensus RNA secondary structure. RNALogo provides a convenient and high configurable logo generator. An RNALogo graph is generated for each RNA family in Rfam, and these generated logos are accumulated into a gallery of RNALogo. Users can search or browse RNALogo
Understanding how biomolecules interact is a major task of systems biology. To model protein-nucleic acid interactions, it is important to identify the DNA or RNA-binding residues in proteins. Protein sequence features, including the biochemical property of amino acids and evolutionary information in terms of position-specific scoring matrix (PSSM), have been used for DNA or RNA-binding site prediction. However, PSSM is rather designed for PSI-BLAST searches, and it may not contain all the evolutionary information for modelling DNA or RNA-binding sites in protein sequences. In the present study, several new descriptors of evolutionary information have been developed and evaluated for sequence-based prediction of DNA and RNA-binding residues using support vector machines (SVMs). The new descriptors were shown to improve classifier performance. Interestingly, the best classifiers were obtained by combining the new descriptors and PSSM, suggesting that they captured different aspects of evolutionary
An RNA thermometer (or RNA thermosensor) is a temperature-sensitive non-coding RNA molecule which regulates gene expression. RNA thermometers often regulate genes required during either a heat shock or cold shock response, but have been implicated in other regulatory roles such as in pathogenicity and starvation. In general, RNA thermometers operate by changing their secondary structure in response to temperature fluctuations. This structural transition can then expose or occlude important regions of RNA such as a ribosome binding site, which then affects the translation rate of a nearby protein-coding gene. RNA thermometers, along with riboswitches, are used as examples in support of the RNA world hypothesis. This theory proposes that RNA was once the sole nucleic acid present in cells, and was replaced by the current DNA → RNA → protein system. Examples of RNA thermometers include FourU, the Hsp90 cis-regulatory element, the ROSE element and the Hsp17 thermometer. The first ...
Telomeres, the DNA-protein complexes located at the end of linear eukaryotic chromosomes, are essential for chromosome stability. Until now, telomeres have been considered to be transcriptionally silent. We demonstrate that mammalian telomeres are transcribed into telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA). TERRA molecules are heterogeneous in length, are transcribed from several subtelomeric loci toward chromosome ends, and localize to telomeres. We also show that suppressors with morphogenetic defects in genitalia (SMG) proteins, which are effectors of nonsense-mediated messenger RNA decay, are enriched at telomeres in vivo, negatively regulate TERRA association with chromatin, and protect chromosome ends from telomere loss. Thus, telomeres are actively transcribed into TERRA, and SMG factors represent a molecular link between TERRA regulation and the maintenance of telomere integrity. Note: Swiss Institute for Experimental Cancer Research (ISREC), CH-1066 Epalinges, Switzerland. ...
Title: RNA as a Drug Target: Recent Patents on the Catalytic Activity of Trans- Splicing Ribozymes Derived from Group I Intron RNA. VOLUME: 4 ISSUE: 1. Author(s):Irudayam Maria Johnson. Affiliation:Department of Physiology, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163, USA.. Keywords:Group I intron ribozyme therapy, group I intron splicing inhibitors, trans splicing ribozyme, patents of trans splicing ribozymes, drug targeting, small molecules, self-splicing, catalytic activity, RNA repair, mutant RNA. Abstract: The importance of RNA in vital cellular events like gene expression, transport, self-splicing catalytic activity etc., renders them an alternative target for drugs and other specific RNA binding ligands. RNA targets gain significance for the fact that targeting DNA with therapeutics sooner leads to drug resistance and severe side effects by impairing essential function of the genes. However the unique structural features of the RNA facilitate targeting in two ...
Purpose: The strongest genetic association of Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD) is with an expanded trinucleotide repeat (CTG·CAG) in an intron of the TCF4 gene. The same expanded repeat sequence in the 3UTR of the DMPK gene causes Myotonic Dystrophy type 1 (DM1) via a RNA toxicity mechanism. In DM1, poly(CUG) transcripts accumulate in foci and sequester the splicing factor MBNL1, causing missplicing of essential transcripts in skeletal muscle. Our hypothesis is that the same molecular mechanism causes RNA toxicity in the corneal endothelium of FECD patients. Because FECD patients do not present signs or symptoms of DM1, we also ask whether the molecular signature of RNA toxicity is present in muscle cells derived from FECD patients.. Methods: Corneal endothelial tissue was obtained at the time of endothelial keratoplasty, and skin fibroblasts were derived from skin biopsy specimens from patients with FECD. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), protein-RNA aggregates can be ...
Oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides is an excellent microbial lipid producer using carbohydrates as the feedstock [1]. Therefore, it is important to develop molecular biology tools to further manipulate this microorganism. Extraction of high-quality RNA from R. toruloides is particular challenging due to high level of polysaccharides, lipids and other secondary metabolites [2]. To obtain an optimal protocol for RNA extraction from R. toruloides, four methods, including guanidine thiocyanate [3], glass beads-hot acid phenol, glass beads-TRIzol, and modified RNAiso, were evaluated. RNA quality was assessed using UV absorbance (A260/A280 and A260/A230), agarose gel electrophoresis, reverse transcription (RT)-PCR reactions, and Gel-Pro analyzer 4.5. Large differences in RNA yield and quality among protocols were found. The optimum method was modified RNAiso method, where RNA was isolated using liquid nitrogen-RNAiso with salt precipitation and the addition of PVP andβ-mercaptoethanol. This ...

Chinese medicinal herbs for measles | CochraneChinese medicinal herbs for measles | Cochrane

Measles (rubeola) is an infectious disease caused by multiplication of a single-strand ribonucleic acid (RNA) virus of the ...
more infohttp://www.cochrane.org/CD005531/ARI_chinese-medicinal-herbs-for-measles

Genome-Wide Medicago truncatula Small RNA Analysis Revealed Novel MicroRNAs and Isoforms Differentially Regulated in Roots and...Genome-Wide Medicago truncatula Small RNA Analysis Revealed Novel MicroRNAs and Isoforms Differentially Regulated in Roots and...

We used deep sequencing of small RNAs from root apexes and nodules of M. truncatula to identify 100 novel candidate miRNAs ... Genome-Wide Medicago truncatula Small RNA Analysis Revealed Novel MicroRNAs and Isoforms Differentially Regulated in Roots and ... Posttranscriptional regulation of a variety of mRNAs by small 21- to 24-nucleotide RNAs, notably the microRNAs (miRNAs), is ... Genome-Wide Medicago truncatula Small RNA Analysis Revealed Novel MicroRNAs and Isoforms Differentially Regulated in Roots and ...
more infohttp://www.plantcell.org/content/21/9/2780.short

RNA silencing - WikipediaRNA silencing - Wikipedia

RNA silencing also gets regulated[edit]. The same way that RNA silencing regulates downstream target mRNAs, RNA silencing ... doi:10.1261/rna.5235104. PMC 1370948. PMID 14970398.. *^ Zhou H, Hu H, Lai M (Dec 2010). "Non-coding RNAs and their epigenetic ... small interfering RNA (siRNA)[edit]. Main article: Small interfering RNA. siRNAs act in the nucleus and the cytoplasm and are ... piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA)[edit]. Main article: Piwi-interacting RNA. piRNAs represent the largest class of small non-coding ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RNA_silencing

RNA polymerase - WikipediaRNA polymerase - Wikipedia

RNA polymerase I. II. III. IV. V. ssRNAP POLRMT. Primase 1. 2. PrimPol. RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Polyadenylation. PAP. ... messenger RNA) (mRNA); or non-coding: so-called "RNA genes". At least four functional types of RNA genes exist: *transfer RNA ( ... RNA polymerase III synthesizes tRNAs, rRNA 5S and other small RNAs found in the nucleus and cytosol. RNA polymerase IV and V ... Messenger RNA (mRNA)-template for the synthesis of proteins by ribosomes.. *Non-coding RNA or "RNA genes"-a broad class of ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RNA_Polymerase

Messenger RNAMessenger RNA

... (mRNA) is a molecule of RNA encoding a chemical "blueprint" for a protein product. mRNA is transcribed from a DNA ... This process requires two other types of RNA: transfer RNA (tRNA) mediates recognition of the codon and provides the ... corresponding amino acid, while ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is the central component of the ribosomes protein manufacturing machinery ...
more infohttps://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Messenger_RNA.html

rna interferencerna interference

... short interfering RNAs (siRNAs). These native siRNA duplexes are then incorporated into a protein complex called RNA-induced ... short interfering RNAs (siRNAs). These native siRNA duplexes are then incorporated into a protein complex called RNA-induced ... RNA interference (RNAi) is a post-transcriptional gene silencing method reproducing a naturally occurring phenomena. RNAi is ... RNA interference (RNAi) is a post-transcriptional gene silencing method reproducing a naturally occurring phenomena. RNAi is ...
more infohttps://www.ebi.ac.uk/ols/ontologies/mi/terms?obo_id=MI%3A0256

RNA viruses | PNASRNA viruses | PNAS

Functional conservation despite structural divergence in ligand-responsive RNA switches Mark A. Boerneke, Sergey M. Dibrov, ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/keyword/rna-viruses

RNA SynthesisRNA Synthesis

The DNA strand is used as a template or guide on which the RNA is formed. Since RNA forms the proteins, this is the way the DNA ... The synthesis usually requires one or more enzymes like RNA polymerase. ... There are also numerous RNA-dependent RNA polymerases that use RNA as their template for synthesis of a new strand of RNA. For ... Once the RNA polymerase has been directed to the start point of the gene by sigma, the sigma factor is released and the RNA ...
more infohttps://www.news-medical.net/life-sciences/RNA-Synthesis.aspx

RNA TypesRNA Types

RNA as genetic material or RNA genomes Like DNA, RNA can carry genetic information. This is seen in many RNA viruses. ... RNAs in RNA tertiary structure processing Many RNAs are involved in modifying other RNAs. For example, introns are spliced out ... Ribozymes (RNA enzymes) Some RNAs are enzymes. It was widely believed for many years that only proteins could be enzymes. RNAs ... These DNA copies are then transcribed to new RNA. Double-stranded RNA These are called dsRNA where the RNA has two ...
more infohttps://www.news-medical.net/life-sciences/RNA-Types.aspx

RNA switches function | NatureRNA switches function | Nature

The recent discovery of riboswitches, regulatory elements within some messenger RNAs, proved that RNA can also detect essential ... some RNA molecules do it too. These RNAs lack chemical diversity, so how do we explain the variety of their respective ... These findings reveal how RNA folds to form a precise pocket for its target and how the antibiotic pyrithiamine acts by ... Montange and Batey have solved the structure of a bacterial riboswitch RNA bound to S-adenosyl methionine. Its complex folded ...
more infohttps://www.nature.com/articles/4411054a?error=cookies_not_supported&code=4fe17a24-a788-442a-986b-f551a2591afe

Messenger RNAMessenger RNA

... The ribonucleic acid (RNA) that is directly involved in the transcription of the pattern of bases from the DNA ... The sequence of bases on a segment of DNA called a gene is copied to a strand of RNA with the assistance of RNA polymerase. ... synthesis is then read and translated into the language of amino acids for protein construction with the help of transfer RNA ... to provide a blueprint for the construction of proteins is called messenger RNA or typically mRNA. ...
more infohttp://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/Organic/mrna.html

Rna protein synthesisseRna protein synthesisse

... messenger RNA, nucleotide, ribosome, RNA, RNApolymerase, transcription, transfer RNA, translationPrior Knowledge Questions (Do ... In addition to DNA,another nucleic acid, called RNA, is involved in making proteins.In the RNA and Protein Synthesis Gizmo™, ... Is the shown molecule DNA or RNA? How do you know? ________________________________________________2. RNA polymerase is a type ... RNA follows base-pairing rules. Experiment to find which RNA nucleotide on the right side of the Gizmo will successfully pair ...
more infohttps://www.slideshare.net/sbarkanic/rna-protein-synthesisse

RNA-virus - WikipediaRNA-virus - Wikipedia

RNA-virus er virus som benytter RNA som arvestoff.[1] De benytter organismer fra alle de biologiske rikene som verter.[2] RNA- ... De enkelttråda RNA-virusene kan ha både positiv og negativ RNA-polaritet.[3] RNA-virus er den vanligste klassen av virus som ... RNA-virus benytter RNA-avhengig RNA-polymerase eller revers transkriptase til å kopiere genoma sine. Disse enzymene savner ... Enkelttråda RNA-virus har ulike måter å formere seg på avhengig av polaritet. De med positiv polaritet kan oversette RNA- ...
more infohttps://no.wikipedia.org/wiki/RNA-virus

CAD For RNA - RedorbitCAD For RNA - Redorbit

While the RNA models and simulations developed at JBEI to date fall short of being a full-fledged RNA CAD platform, Keasling, ... "We are also actively trying to make our models and simulations more accessible to researchers who may not want to become RNA ... In our case, knob-turns are represented by specific kinetic terms for RNA folding and ribozyme catalysis, and our models are ... JBEI researchers are now using their RNA CAD-type models and simulations as well as the ribozyme and aptazyme devices they ...
more infohttp://www.redorbit.com/news/science/1112445545/cad-for-rna/

Rna Interference | Encyclopedia.comRna Interference | Encyclopedia.com

... of some of a cells messenger RNA (mRNA) sequences is prevented, because of the presence of (and consequent destruction of) ... RNA Interference RNA interference [1] is a process in which translation ... RNA Interference Genetics Copyright Genetics Society of America. RNA Interference. RNA interference is a process in which ... RNA interference (RNAi; post-transcriptional gene silencing) The ability of double-stranded RNA to interfere with, or suppress ...
more infohttps://www.encyclopedia.com/science-and-technology/biology-and-genetics/genetics-and-genetic-engineering/rna-interference

An RNA reset button - EnglishAn RNA reset button - English

An RNA Reset Button Bumgarner and colleagues Molecular Cell … ... An RNA reset button * 1. An RNA Reset Button Bumgarner and ... 9. Long non-coding RNAs regulate the variegated transcription of Flo11 Flo11 ICR1 FLO11 PWR1 But who regulates them?Friday, ... 7. Long non-coding RNAs regulate the variegated transcription of Flo11 Flo11 ICR1 FLO11 PWR1Friday, September 7, 12 ... 8. Long non-coding RNAs regulate the variegated transcription of Flo11 Flo11 ICR1 FLO11 PWR1Friday, September 7, 12 ...
more infohttps://www.slideshare.net/nachocab/2012-sept-bioinfo-retreat

RNA polyanion (CHEBI:83400)RNA polyanion (CHEBI:83400)

RNA(n)-3-adenine ribonucleotide polyanion (CHEBI:140626) has functional parent RNA polyanion (CHEBI:83400). RNA(n)-3-uridine ... CHEBI:83400 - RNA polyanion. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ... An ionic polymer obtained by global deprotonation of the phosphate OH groups of any RNA. Major structure at pH 7.3. ...
more infohttps://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/searchId.do?chebiId=CHEBI:83400

RNA & gene regulationRNA & gene regulation

A-to-I RNA editing is an important step in RNA processing in which specific adenosines in some RNA molecules are post- ... Circular RNAs are a class of endogenous RNAs with various functions in eukaryotic cells. Worthy of note, circular RNAs play a ... RNA & Gene Regulation. Guest Editors: Brenton Graveley and Mihaela Zavolan. RNA plays important roles in the many complex ... Massive A-to-I RNA editing is common across the Metazoa and correlates with dsRNA abundance Adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) RNA ...
more infohttps://www.biomedcentral.com/collections/RNAgeneregulation

RNA - ConservapediaRNA - Conservapedia

Purification of RNA is problematic as enzymes that degrade RNA (RNases) are ubiquitous. Successful RNA purification depends on ... The main role of rRNA or ribosomal RNA is to form the ribosome. RNA that has catalytic properties (such as the ribosome) is ... The sugar backbone of RNA is also composed of ribose (DNA contains deoxyribose). RNAs fall into several different categories, ... RNA. From Conservapedia. This is an old revision of this page, as edited by JHunter (Talk , contribs) at 16:09, 1 November 2012 ...
more infohttp://www.conservapedia.com/index.php?title=RNA&oldid=1016191

RNA - ConservapediaRNA - Conservapedia

Ribosomal RNAs (rRNA) are the RNA molecules that form a major component of the ribosomes. There are three rRNAs in prokaryotes ... Small nuclear RNAs (snRNA) are involved in several different processes that occur within the nucleus, notably RNA splicing and ... Short interfering RNAs (siRNA) are short (~21 base pairs), double-stranded RNA molecules which function in a manner similar to ... RNA performs a wide variety of functions within the cell. Types of RNA are specified by the functions that they perform. More ...
more infohttp://www.conservapedia.com/index.php?title=RNA&oldid=1022400

RNA folklore?RNA folklore?

... Cornelius Krasel krasel at alf.biochem.mpg.de Wed Dec 14 17:51:51 EST 1994 *Previous message: RNA folklore? ... When I first started , working with RNA, I was told that autoclaving inactivated RNAses, but the , RNAse protein will (after a ...
more infohttp://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/methods/1994-December/022109.html

RNA markersRNA markers

... Tina Higgins thiggins at wpi.edu Thu Sep 13 16:52:13 EST 2001 *Previous message: Multiple plasmid FuGENE 6 ... The blots are working fine -- I see a pretty big transcript, but I cannot be sure how big because the biggest RNA marker I can ...
more infohttp://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/methods/2001-September/090452.html

Messenger-rna | Encyclopedia.comMessenger-rna | Encyclopedia.com

... m-RNA*)* A single-stranded RNA [1] molecule that is responsible for the transmission to the ribosomes [2] of the genetic ... messenger-RNA (m-RNA) A single-stranded RNA molecule that is responsible for the transmission to the ribosomes of the genetic ... messenger-RNA (m-RNA) A single-stranded RNA molecule that is responsible for the transmission to the ribosomes of the genetic ... messenger-RNA (m-RNA) A single-stranded RNA molecule that is responsible for the transmission to the ribosomes of the genetic ...
more infohttps://www.encyclopedia.com/earth-and-environment/ecology-and-environmentalism/environmental-studies/messenger-rna

rna-puzzles - PubMed - NCBIrna-puzzles - PubMed - NCBI

RNA-Puzzles Round II: assessment of RNA structure prediction programs applied to three large RNA structures. ... RNA-Puzzles Round III: 3D RNA structure prediction of five riboswitches and one ribozyme. ... RNA-Puzzles: a CASP-like evaluation of RNA three-dimensional structure prediction. ... RNA. 2017 May;23(5):655-672. doi: 10.1261/rna.060368.116. Epub 2017 Jan 30. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=rna-puzzles

Messenger RNA | genetics | Britannica.comMessenger RNA | genetics | Britannica.com

Messenger RNA (mRNA), molecule in cells that carries codes from the DNA in the nucleus to the sites of protein synthesis in the ... In addition to mRNA, there are two other major types of RNA: ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and transfer RNA (tRNA). ... nucleic acid: Messenger RNA (mRNA). Messenger RNA (mRNA) delivers the information encoded in one or more genes from the DNA to ... a type of RNA called messenger RNA (mRNA), so named because it carries a genetic message from the gene on a nuclear chromosome ...
more infohttps://www.britannica.com/science/messenger-RNA
  • These native siRNA duplexes are then incorporated into a protein complex called RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Cells can trim double stranded RNA to form small inhibitory RNA (siRNA). (wikiversity.org)
  • An siRNA can be processed to the single strand anti-sense RNA and used to target mRNAs for destruction. (wikiversity.org)
  • The sense and antisense RNA strands form double strand RNA (Figure 2, top) that is processed to small (about 20 base pairs long) inhibitory RNA (siRNA). (wikiversity.org)
  • Using mechanistic models of biochemical function and kinetic biophysical simulations of RNA folding, ribozyme and aptazyme devices with quantitatively predictable functions were assembled from components that were characterized in vitro, in vivo and in silico. (redorbit.com)
  • In our case, knob-turns are represented by specific kinetic terms for RNA folding and ribozyme catalysis, and our models are needed to tell us how a combination of these knob-turns will affect overall system function. (redorbit.com)
  • RNA-Puzzles Round III: 3D RNA structure prediction of five riboswitches and one ribozyme. (nih.gov)
  • DNA is composed of the bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T). RNA is composed of adenine, cytosine, guanine, and uracil (U). Look at the SIMULATION pane. (slideshare.net)
  • the two largest differences being that RNA contains ribose instead of 2'-deoxyribose and uses uracil instead of thymine as one of its four bases . (conservapedia.com)
  • The four nitrogenous bases used in RNA are adenine , guanine , cytosine , and uracil . (conservapedia.com)
  • RNA, which contains uracil (U) instead of thymine, carries the code to protein-making sites in the cell. (britannica.com)
  • The complementary base to adenine in DNA is thymine, whereas in RNA, it is uracil, which is an unmethylated form of thymine. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNA is transcribed with only four bases (adenine, cytosine, guanine and uracil), but these bases and attached sugars can be modified in numerous ways as the RNAs mature. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNAs are now known to adopt complex tertiary structures and act as biological catalysts. (news-medical.net)
  • LCS-TA to identify similar fragments in RNA 3D structures. (nih.gov)
  • RNAssess--a web server for quality assessment of RNA 3D structures. (nih.gov)
  • RNA-Puzzles Round II: assessment of RNA structure prediction programs applied to three large RNA structures. (nih.gov)
  • RNA 3D Motif Atlas is a comprehensive and representative collection of internal and hairpin loop RNA 3D motifs extracted from the Representative set (non-redundant lists) of RNA 3D structures. (bgsu.edu)
  • Some RNA polymerases use the DNA as template for copying strands of RNA (as described above). (news-medical.net)
  • The most astonishing finding was the extra-ordinary selectivity achieved by these RNAs: for instance, the guanine-sensing riboswitch binds to guanine with 100,000-fold greater affinity than it does to adenine, a remarkable feat considering the close chemical similarity of the two purine substrates. (nature.com)
  • C. Which RNA base bonds with guanine? (slideshare.net)
  • The RNA of a riboswitch contains two functional domains: a metabolite-sensing domain (blue) and a gene-expression signal (green). (nature.com)
  • More than 21 functional classes of RNA have been identified, the most common types are described below. (conservapedia.com)
  • The biological importance of RNA and the growing recognition of its therapeutic potential mean that the new modeling algorithms have many applications in biomedical research. (redorbit.com)
  • Spatial regulation of miRNAs may determine specialization of regulatory RNA networks in plant differentiation processes, such as root nodule formation. (plantcell.org)
  • Recent advances, such as findings of extensive modifications of regulatory RNAs, indicate that our understanding of the role of RNAs in gene regulation is far from complete. (biomedcentral.com)
  • High throughput DNA sequencing technology has enabled quantification of all the RNAs in a cell or tissue, a method widely known as RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Eukaryotic and archaeal RNA polymerases have a similar core structure and work in a similar manner, although they have many extra subunits. (wikipedia.org)
  • A range of diverse functions have been proposed for a growing number of characterized small RNA sequences-e.g., regulation of developmental, neuronal cell fate, cell death, proliferation, fat storage, haematopoietic cell fate, insulin secretion. (wikipedia.org)
  • To the extent it is useful to craft a distinction between these related concepts, RNA silencing may be thought of as referring to the broader scheme of small RNA related controls involved in gene expression and the protection of the genome against mobile repetitive DNA sequences, retroelements, and transposons to the extent that these can induce mutations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Keasling, Carothers and their co-authors focused their design-driven approach on RNA sequences that can fold into complicated three dimensional shapes, called ribozymes and aptazymes. (redorbit.com)
  • Additionally, RNAs can hybridize through base pairing with other RNAs or with complementary DNA sequences. (conservapedia.com)
  • RNA 3D structure prediction guided by independent folding of homologous sequences. (nih.gov)
  • When the substrate binds to the metabolite-sensing domain, a structural reorganization of the RNA occurs that unveils (or sometimes masks) the gene-expression signal. (nature.com)
  • 20-25 nt) are often produced by breakdown of viral RNA, there are also endogenous sources of siRNAs. (news-medical.net)
  • This inactivates the RNA, so that it cannot be used to carry out the viral replication cycle or be reinserted into the genome (in the case of a transposon), thus protecting the cell from its harmful effects. (encyclopedia.com)
  • RNA silencing describes several mechanistically related pathways which are involved in controlling and regulating gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has also been observed that the major RNA silencing pathways currently identified have mechanisms of action which may involve both post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) as well as chromatin-dependent gene silencing (CDGS) pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • An ionic polymer obtained by global deprotonation of the phosphate OH groups of any RNA. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • These RNAs - known as riboswitches - elegantly couple metabolite recognition with gene regulation in the absence of protein helpers. (nature.com)
  • Perhaps even more importantly, we have provided a framework for studying RNA functions and demonstrated the potential of using biochemical and biophysical modeling to develop rigorous design-driven engineering strategies for biology. (redorbit.com)
  • This special collection of articles has been launched with the intention of providing novel insights into the latest methods within the field of RNA, addressing questions of general interest to the RNA community, as well as predictions on future uses, modifications and improvements that would advance existing methods beyond their current use. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The specific roles of many of these modifications in RNA are not fully understood. (wikipedia.org)