Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Liver Transplantation: The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.Hepatitis, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER with ongoing hepatocellular injury for 6 months or more, characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES and inflammatory cell (LEUKOCYTES) infiltration. Chronic hepatitis can be caused by viruses, medications, autoimmune diseases, and other unknown factors.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Fatty Liver: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.Hepatitis: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER.Liver Function Tests: Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.Liver Diseases, Alcoholic: Liver diseases associated with ALCOHOLISM. It usually refers to the coexistence of two or more subentities, i.e., ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER; ALCOHOLIC HEPATITIS; and ALCOHOLIC CIRRHOSIS.Liver Regeneration: Repair or renewal of hepatic tissue.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.End Stage Liver Disease: Final stage of a liver disease when the liver failure is irreversible and LIVER TRANSPLANTATION is needed.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.Liver Cirrhosis, Alcoholic: FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to chronic excess ALCOHOL DRINKING.Drug-Induced Liver Injury, Chronic: Liver disease lasting six months or more, caused by an adverse drug effect. The adverse effect may result from a direct toxic effect of a drug or metabolite, or an idiosyncratic response to a drug or metabolite.Liver Failure, Acute: A form of rapid-onset LIVER FAILURE, also known as fulminant hepatic failure, caused by severe liver injury or massive loss of HEPATOCYTES. It is characterized by sudden development of liver dysfunction and JAUNDICE. Acute liver failure may progress to exhibit cerebral dysfunction even HEPATIC COMA depending on the etiology that includes hepatic ISCHEMIA, drug toxicity, malignant infiltration, and viral hepatitis such as post-transfusion HEPATITIS B and HEPATITIS C.Alanine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary: FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to obstruction of BILE flow (CHOLESTASIS) in the intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC; BILE DUCTS, EXTRAHEPATIC). Primary biliary cirrhosis involves the destruction of small intra-hepatic bile ducts and bile secretion. Secondary biliary cirrhosis is produced by prolonged obstruction of large intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts from a variety of causes.Hepatitis C, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans that is caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS lasting six months or more. Chronic hepatitis C can lead to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Hepatitis, Viral, Human: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans due to infection by VIRUSES. There are several significant types of human viral hepatitis with infection caused by enteric-transmission (HEPATITIS A; HEPATITIS E) or blood transfusion (HEPATITIS B; HEPATITIS C; and HEPATITIS D).Hepatic Stellate Cells: Perisinusoidal cells of the liver, located in the space of Disse between HEPATOCYTES and sinusoidal endothelial cells.Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental: Experimentally induced chronic injuries to the parenchymal cells in the liver to achieve a model for LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Carbon Tetrachloride: A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Hepatitis B: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Hepatic Encephalopathy: A syndrome characterized by central nervous system dysfunction in association with LIVER FAILURE, including portal-systemic shunts. Clinical features include lethargy and CONFUSION (frequently progressing to COMA); ASTERIXIS; NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC; brisk oculovestibular reflexes; decorticate and decerebrate posturing; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; and bilateral extensor plantar reflexes (see REFLEX, BABINSKI). ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY may demonstrate triphasic waves. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1117-20; Plum & Posner, Diagnosis of Stupor and Coma, 3rd ed, p222-5)Hepatitis C: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.Liver Failure: Severe inability of the LIVER to perform its normal metabolic functions, as evidenced by severe JAUNDICE and abnormal serum levels of AMMONIA; BILIRUBIN; ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE; ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE; LACTATE DEHYDROGENASES; and albumin/globulin ratio. (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed)Liver Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.Liver Circulation: The circulation of BLOOD through the LIVER.Hypertension, Portal: Abnormal increase of resistance to blood flow within the hepatic PORTAL SYSTEM, frequently seen in LIVER CIRRHOSIS and conditions with obstruction of the PORTAL VEIN.Hepatic Insufficiency: Conditions in which the LIVER functions fall below the normal ranges. Severe hepatic insufficiency may cause LIVER FAILURE or DEATH. Treatment may include LIVER TRANSPLANTATION.Hepacivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.Hepatitis B, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS B VIRUS lasting six months or more. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Hepatectomy: Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Hepatitis, Autoimmune: A chronic self-perpetuating hepatocellular INFLAMMATION of unknown cause, usually with HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA and serum AUTOANTIBODIES.Liver Extracts: Extracts of liver tissue containing uncharacterized specific factors with specific activities; a soluble thermostable fraction of mammalian liver is used in the treatment of pernicious anemia.Carbon Tetrachloride PoisoningElasticity Imaging Techniques: Non-invasive imaging methods based on the mechanical response of an object to a vibrational or impulsive force. It is used for determining the viscoelastic properties of tissue, and thereby differentiating soft from hard inclusions in tissue such as microcalcifications, and some cancer lesions. Most techniques use ultrasound to create the images - eliciting the response with an ultrasonic radiation force and/or recording displacements of the tissue by Doppler ultrasonography.Cholestasis: Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).Hepatitis Antibodies: Immunoglobulins raised by any form of viral hepatitis; some of these antibodies are used to diagnose the specific kind of hepatitis.Liver Abscess: Solitary or multiple collections of PUS within the liver as a result of infection by bacteria, protozoa, or other agents.Bile Ducts: The channels that collect and transport the bile secretion from the BILE CANALICULI, the smallest branch of the BILIARY TRACT in the LIVER, through the bile ductules, the bile ducts out the liver, and to the GALLBLADDER for storage.Hepatitis A: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the HEPATOVIRUS genus, HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS. It can be transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water.Aspartate Aminotransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.Liver, Artificial: Devices for simulating the activities of the liver. They often consist of a hybrid between both biological and artificial materials.Hepatitis B virus: The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.Bilirubin: A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.Ascites: Accumulation or retention of free fluid within the peritoneal cavity.Hepatitis A Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).alpha-Fetoproteins: The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.Hepatic Veins: Veins which drain the liver.Kupffer Cells: Specialized phagocytic cells of the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM found on the luminal surface of the hepatic sinusoids. They filter bacteria and small foreign proteins out of the blood, and dispose of worn out red blood cells.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Hepatitis, Alcoholic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER due to ALCOHOL ABUSE. It is characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES, infiltration by NEUTROPHILS, and deposit of MALLORY BODIES. Depending on its severity, the inflammatory lesion may be reversible or progress to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Esophageal and Gastric Varices: Dilated blood vessels in the ESOPHAGUS or GASTRIC FUNDUS that shunt blood from the portal circulation (PORTAL SYSTEM) to the systemic venous circulation. Often they are observed in individuals with portal hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PORTAL).Portal System: A system of vessels in which blood, after passing through one capillary bed, is conveyed through a second set of capillaries before it returns to the systemic circulation. It pertains especially to the hepatic portal system.Liver Diseases, Parasitic: Liver diseases caused by infections with PARASITES, such as tapeworms (CESTODA) and flukes (TREMATODA).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Hepatopulmonary Syndrome: A syndrome characterized by the clinical triad of advanced chronic liver disease, pulmonary vascular dilatations, and reduced arterial oxygenation (HYPOXEMIA) in the absence of intrinsic cardiopulmonary disease. This syndrome is common in the patients with LIVER CIRRHOSIS or portal hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PORTAL).Hepatorenal Syndrome: Functional KIDNEY FAILURE in patients with liver disease, usually LIVER CIRRHOSIS or portal hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PORTAL), and in the absence of intrinsic renal disease or kidney abnormality. It is characterized by intense renal vasculature constriction, reduced renal blood flow, OLIGURIA, and sodium retention.gamma-Glutamyltransferase: An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Portal Vein: A short thick vein formed by union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein.Periostitis: Inflammation of the periosteum. The condition is generally chronic, and is marked by tenderness and swelling of the bone and an aching pain. Acute periostitis is due to infection, is characterized by diffuse suppuration, severe pain, and constitutional symptoms, and usually results in necrosis. (Dorland, 27th ed)Hepatitis C Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Liver Glycogen: Glycogen stored in the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency: Deficiency of the protease inhibitor ALPHA 1-ANTITRYPSIN that manifests primarily as PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA and LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic: Passages within the liver for the conveyance of bile. Includes right and left hepatic ducts even though these may join outside the liver to form the common hepatic duct.Hepatolenticular Degeneration: A rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by the deposition of copper in the BRAIN; LIVER; CORNEA; and other organs. It is caused by defects in the ATP7B gene encoding copper-transporting ATPase 2 (EC 3.6.3.4), also known as the Wilson disease protein. The overload of copper inevitably leads to progressive liver and neurological dysfunction such as LIVER CIRRHOSIS; TREMOR; ATAXIA and intellectual deterioration. Hepatic dysfunction may precede neurologic dysfunction by several years.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hepatitis A Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS A ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.Hyperammonemia: Elevated level of AMMONIA in the blood. It is a sign of defective CATABOLISM of AMINO ACIDS or ammonia to UREA.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Egypt: A country in northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula Its capital is Cairo.Osteoarthropathy, Secondary Hypertrophic: Symmetrical osteitis of the four limbs, chiefly localized to the phalanges and the terminal epiphyses of the long bones of the forearm and leg, sometimes extending to the proximal ends of the limbs and the flat bones, and accompanied by dorsal kyphosis and joint involvement. It is often secondary to chronic conditions of the lungs and heart. (Dorland, 27th ed)Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Cholangitis, Sclerosing: Chronic inflammatory disease of the BILIARY TRACT. It is characterized by fibrosis and hardening of the intrahepatic and extrahepatic biliary ductal systems leading to bile duct strictures, CHOLESTASIS, and eventual BILIARY CIRRHOSIS.Hepatitis B Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.Prothrombin Time: Clotting time of PLASMA recalcified in the presence of excess TISSUE THROMBOPLASTIN. Factors measured are FIBRINOGEN; PROTHROMBIN; FACTOR V; FACTOR VII; and FACTOR X. It is used for monitoring anticoagulant therapy with COUMARINS.Jaundice: A clinical manifestation of HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA, characterized by the yellowish staining of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA. Clinical jaundice usually is a sign of LIVER dysfunction.Serum Albumin: A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.D-Alanine Transaminase: A PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE containing enzyme that catalyzes the reversible transfer of an amino group between D-Alanine and alpha-ketoglutarate to form PYRUVATE and D-GLUTAMATE, respectively. It plays a role in the synthesis of the bacterial CELL WALL. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 2.6.1.10.Thioacetamide: A crystalline compound used as a laboratory reagent in place of HYDROGEN SULFIDE. It is a potent hepatocarcinogen.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Transaminases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.Hemochromatosis: A disorder of iron metabolism characterized by a triad of HEMOSIDEROSIS; LIVER CIRRHOSIS; and DIABETES MELLITUS. It is caused by massive iron deposits in parenchymal cells that may develop after a prolonged increase of iron absorption. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Syndromes & Eponymic Diseases, 2d ed)Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Canrenone: A synthetic pregnadiene compound with anti-aldosterone activity.Hepatitis D: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS, a defective RNA virus that can only infect HEPATITIS B patients. For its viral coating, hepatitis delta virus requires the HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS produced by these patients. Hepatitis D can occur either concomitantly with (coinfection) or subsequent to (superinfection) hepatitis B infection. Similar to hepatitis B, it is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Cholestasis, Intrahepatic: Impairment of bile flow due to injury to the HEPATOCYTES; BILE CANALICULI; or the intrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC).Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Siderosis: A form of pneumoconiosis resulting from inhalation of iron in the mining dust or welding fumes.ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Acetaminophen: Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Iron Overload: An excessive accumulation of iron in the body due to a greater than normal absorption of iron from the gastrointestinal tract or from parenteral injection. This may arise from idiopathic hemochromatosis, excessive iron intake, chronic alcoholism, certain types of refractory anemia, or transfusional hemosiderosis. (From Churchill's Illustrated Medical Dictionary, 1989)Platelet Count: The number of PLATELETS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.Flaviviridae: A family of RNA viruses, many of which cause disease in humans and domestic animals. There are three genera FLAVIVIRUS; PESTIVIRUS; and HEPACIVIRUS, as well as several unassigned species.Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage: Bleeding in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.Fibrosis: Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.DNA Virus InfectionsImmunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Orthohepadnavirus: A genus of HEPADNAVIRIDAE causing hepatitis in humans, woodchucks (HEPATITIS B VIRUS, WOODCHUCK) and ground squirrels. hepatitis b virus is the type species.Bacterial Translocation: The passage of viable bacteria from the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT to extra-intestinal sites, such as the mesenteric lymph node complex, liver, spleen, kidney, and blood. Factors that promote bacterial translocation include overgrowth with gram-negative enteric bacilli, impaired host immune defenses, and injury to the INTESTINAL MUCOSA resulting in increased intestinal permeability. Bacterial translocation from the lung to the circulation is also possible and sometimes accompanies MECHANICAL VENTILATION.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Biliary Tract Diseases: Diseases in any part of the BILIARY TRACT including the BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Precipitins: Antibodies which elicit IMMUNOPRECIPITATION when combined with antigen.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Cholagogues and Choleretics: Gastrointestinal agents that stimulate the flow of bile into the duodenum (cholagogues) or stimulate the production of bile by the liver (choleretic).Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Biliary Atresia: Progressive destruction or the absence of all or part of the extrahepatic BILE DUCTS, resulting in the complete obstruction of BILE flow. Usually, biliary atresia is found in infants and accounts for one third of the neonatal cholestatic JAUNDICE.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Waiting Lists: Prospective patient listings for appointments or treatments.Hepatitis B Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.Tissue and Organ Procurement: The administrative procedures involved with acquiring TISSUES or organs for TRANSPLANTATION through various programs, systems, or organizations. These procedures include obtaining consent from TISSUE DONORS and arranging for transportation of donated tissues and organs, after TISSUE HARVESTING, to HOSPITALS for processing and transplantation.Ursodeoxycholic Acid: An epimer of chenodeoxycholic acid. It is a mammalian bile acid found first in the bear and is apparently either a precursor or a product of chenodeoxycholate. Its administration changes the composition of bile and may dissolve gallstones. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Biopsy, Needle: Removal and examination of tissue obtained through a transdermal needle inserted into the specific region, organ, or tissue being analyzed.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Carrier State: The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.AlbaniaHydroxyproline: A hydroxylated form of the imino acid proline. A deficiency in ASCORBIC ACID can result in impaired hydroxyproline formation.Alcoholism: A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Hepatitis Viruses: Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals.Hep G2 Cells: A human liver tumor cell line used to study a variety of liver-specific metabolic functions.Silymarin: A mixture of flavonoids extracted from seeds of the MILK THISTLE, Silybum marianum. It consists primarily of silybin and its isomers, silicristin and silidianin. Silymarin displays antioxidant and membrane stabilizing activity. It protects various tissues and organs against chemical injury, and shows potential as an antihepatoxic agent.Graft Survival: The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.alpha 1-Antitrypsin: Plasma glycoprotein member of the serpin superfamily which inhibits TRYPSIN; NEUTROPHIL ELASTASE; and other PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Focal Nodular Hyperplasia: Solitary or multiple benign hepatic vascular tumors, usually occurring in women of 20-50 years of age. The nodule, poorly encapsulated, consists of a central stellate fibrous scar and normal liver elements such as HEPATOCYTES, small BILE DUCTS, and KUPFFER CELLS among the intervening fibrous septa. The pale colored central scar represents large blood vessels with hyperplastic fibromuscular layer and narrowing lumen.Myofibroblasts: Spindle-shaped cells with characteristic CONTRACTILE PROTEINS and structures that contribute to the WOUND HEALING process. They occur in GRANULATION TISSUE and also in pathological processes such as FIBROSIS.Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Torque teno virus: A species of non-enveloped DNA virus in the genus ANELLOVIRUS, associated with BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS; and HEPATITIS. However, no etiological role has been found for TTV in hepatitis.Portacaval Shunt, Surgical: Surgical portasystemic shunt between the portal vein and inferior vena cava.Gastroenterology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of the physiology and diseases of the digestive system and related structures (esophagus, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas).Hepatitis B e Antigens: A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Hyaluronic Acid: A natural high-viscosity mucopolysaccharide with alternating beta (1-3) glucuronide and beta (1-4) glucosaminidic bonds. It is found in the UMBILICAL CORD, in VITREOUS BODY and in SYNOVIAL FLUID. A high urinary level is found in PROGERIA.Metabolic Clearance Rate: Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.Hepatic Artery: A branch of the celiac artery that distributes to the stomach, pancreas, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, and greater omentum.Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Transforming Growth Factor beta1: A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Serum Globulins: All blood proteins except albumin ( = SERUM ALBUMIN, which is not a globulin) and FIBRINOGEN (which is not in the serum). The serum globulins are subdivided into ALPHA-GLOBULINS; BETA-GLOBULINS; and GAMMA-GLOBULINS on the basis of their electrophoretic mobilities. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Collagen Type I: The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.Hepatitis C Antigens: Antigens of the virions of HEPACIVIRUS, their surface, core, or other associated antigens.Flaviviridae Infections: Infections with viruses of the family FLAVIVIRIDAE.JapanPortoenterostomy, Hepatic: Operation for biliary atresia by anastomosis of the bile ducts into the jejunum or duodenum.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Thrombocytopenia: A subnormal level of BLOOD PLATELETS.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Living Donors: Non-cadaveric providers of organs for transplant to related or non-related recipients.Glycochenodeoxycholic Acid: A bile salt formed in the liver from chenodeoxycholate and glycine, usually as the sodium salt. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is a cholagogue and choleretic.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Rats, Inbred F344Hemophilia A: The classic hemophilia resulting from a deficiency of factor VIII. It is an inherited disorder of blood coagulation characterized by a permanent tendency to hemorrhage.Portography: Examination of the portal circulation by the use of X-ray films after injection of radiopaque material.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Helicobacter: A genus of gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacteria that has been isolated from the intestinal tract of mammals, including humans. It has been associated with PEPTIC ULCER.
Enlargement of the liver and spleen causes the abdomen to distend. Mediastinal lymphoma can cause fluid to collect around the ... In older ferrets, lymphoma is usually chronic and can exhibit no symptoms for years. Symptoms seen are the same as in young ... The cause is genetic, but there are also suspected environmental factors involved, including in one study an increased risk ... Alternative treatments include vitamin C and Pau d'Arco (a bark extract). The prognosis for lymphoma in ferrets depends on ...
Live conifer needles are one of the richest and most widely available sources for polyprenol extraction in the world. ... Commercial extraction of polyprenols involves a soft extraction procedure that enables them to be extracted without destroying ... New Zealand Environmental Risk Management Agency, retrieved 2009-08-31 . See, e.g., Kogan, S. B.; Kaliya, M.; Froumin, N. (2006 ... activity of polyprenols is based on their substitutive effect in the case of dolichol deficits which are observed with chronic ...
Chronic periodontitis affects about 750 million people or about 10.8% of the population as of 2010. Like other conditions ... If patients have 7-mm or deeper pockets around their teeth, then they would likely risk eventual tooth loss over the years. If ... II: As observed on extracted teeth". J Periodontol. 49 (3): 119-34. doi:10.1902/jop.1978.49.3.119. PMID 288899. Kaldahl WB, ... However, such treatments do not address calculus formations, and so are short-lived, as anaerobic microbial colonies quickly ...
Risks of turbinate surgery including reduction of the inferior or middle turbinates can cause empty nose syndrome. Dr. Houser ... This is usually a temporary condition but, over time, may lead to chronic anosmia. The turbinates also increase the surface ... Olfactory turbinates are found in all living tetrapods,[citation needed] and respiratory turbinates are found in most mammals ... and extract heat and moisture from exhaled air to prevent desiccation of the lungs. ...
Extracted from living systems[edit]. Some of the oldest forms of biologics are extracted from the bodies of animals, and other ... chronic plaque psoriasis immunoglobin G1 fusion protein incompletely characterized erythropoietin Epogen anemia arising from ... This production is a significant risk for the investor, due to production failure or scrutiny from regulatory bodies based on ... Blood plasma is a type of biopharmaceutical directly extracted from living systems. ...
All of these risks last not only for the mine life but forever, requiring a significant continual investment of inspection and ... Natural gas is burned to heat the bitumen in the tar sands in order to extract the liquid oil. The energy equivalent of one ... 2- Aboriginal Rights and Title -The Tsilhqot'in Nation, which comprises six member communities, has lived in the area of the ... chronic, and sometimes irremediable environmental damage. Often, the corporate entity that developed the mine has ceased to ...
"Tox Town - Diesel - Toxic chemicals and environmental health risks where you live and work - Text Version". toxtown.nlm.nih.gov ... Concentration (ng/mg extract) ... Concentration (µg/g of particles) Campbell, Robert M.; Lee, Milton L. (1984-05-01). " ... Long-term exposures can lead to chronic, more serious health problems such as cardiovascular disease, cardiopulmonary disease, ... which estimate the proportion of cases that could be avoided if a risk factor were removed. PAFs depend not only on the risk ...
... chronic frequent use of high-dose kava bears significant risk of skin disease and liver damage, as well as the potential for ... "Liver Function Test Abnormalities in Users of Aqueous Kava Extracts". Journal of Toxicology: Clinical Toxicology. 41 (6): 821- ... ", "liver injury by kava is basically a preventable disease". In order to minimize or eliminate the risk of liver injury, only ... particularly liver injury, is not known...Between 50 and 100 cases of clinically apparent liver injury have been published or ...
Higgins, GM; RM Anderson RM (1931). "Experimental pathology of the liver. I. Restoration of the liver of the white rat ... They extracted DNA from the myocardium of these research subjects and found that cardiomyocytes do in fact renew at a slowing ... Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the most widespread health threats today. It affects 329 million people ... The scarring that results is then responsible for greatly increasing the risk of life-threatening abnormal heart rhythms or ...
... now called chronic active EBV infection. Other viral diseases Straus worked on include HIV/AIDS, influenza and chronic ... He followed a cohort of over 200 people with ALPS, and showed that they have a substantially elevated risk of developing ... Ginkgo biloba extracts for dementia, and acupuncture and glucosamine/chondroitin sulfate supplements for osteoarthritis of the ... a large clinical trial which demonstrated that a live-attenuated VZV vaccine is effective against shingles. Straus discovered ...
... should be aware that uranium dust inhalation carries a long-term risk … [the dust] has been shown to increase the risks of ... "Biological Half Lives". Mitsakou C., Eleftheriadis K., Housiadas C., Lazaridis M. Modeling of the dispersion of depleted ... The actual level of acute and chronic toxicity of DU is also controversial. Several studies using cultured cells and laboratory ... in the hope that improved enrichment processes could extract additional quantities of the fissionable U-235 isotope. This re- ...
Extracts include liquid extracts, dry extracts, and nebulisates. Liquid extracts are liquids with a lower ethanol percentage ... "Risk Management and Healthcare Policy. 2: 21-33. doi:10.2147/RMHP.S4652. PMC 3270908. PMID 22312205.. ... Black cohosh has been implicated in a case of liver failure.[49] Few studies are available on the safety of herbs for pregnant ... The use of herbal remedies is more prevalent in patients with chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, asthma and end-stage ...
The population in high risk areas is about 14.4 million, in addition, 15.2 million people live in areas were around 20-40% of ... Additionally, chronic abscesses can be caused by the dying worms. The most visual sign of an adult worm infections with Loa loa ... Studies have shown that the worm is not paralyzed completely, therefore if it is not extracted quickly, the worm can vanish ... People at the highest risk for acquiring loiasis are those that live in the rainforests of West/Central Africa. Furthermore, ...
Lett.) The first known animals to live their lives entirely without oxygen - members of the phylum Loricifera - are discovered ... BBC) (PLoS Pathog.) 19 July - A vaginal gel which reduces the risk of HIV infection in women is developed. (New York Times) ( ... BBC) (PNAS) 16 February A study published in Biological Psychiatry announces that insomnia and chronic lack of sleep are linked ... Laboratory and Conway Institute analyse the DNA of a species of European cattle that died out 400 years ago by extracting ...
Drug-induced liver injury is a cause of acute and chronic liver disease. ... Nitric oxide also plays a role in inducing toxicity.[12] The risk of liver injury is influenced by several factors including ... Green tea extract is a growing cause of liver failure due to its inclusion in more products.[25][26][27] ... Toxic liver disease. Toxin induced liver disease. Drug induced liver disease. Drug induced liver damage. Drug induced liver ...
... is contraindicated in those with risk of bleeding (especially in people with uncontrolled blood pressure, liver disease ... This poses a potential problem, since heparin may be extracted along with the DNA, and it has been found to interfere with the ... More rarely, the side-effects alopecia and osteoporosis can occur with chronic use. As with many drugs, overdoses of heparin ... It was originally isolated from canine liver cells, hence its name (hepar or "ήπαρ" is Greek for "liver"; hepar + -in). McLean ...
It is not recommended and dangerous for XLA patients to receive live attenuated vaccines such as live polio, or the measles, ... IVIg is a human product extracted and pooled from thousands of blood donations. IVIg does not cure XLA but increases the ... These may cause severe central nervous system conditions as chronic encephalitis, meningitis and death. An experimental anti- ... Unlike in other primary immunodeficiencies XLA patients are at no greater risk for developing autoimmune illnesses. ...
However, individuals with chronic kidney disease who have a living donor available may undergo pre-emptive transplantation ... studies suggest that lifelong risk of chronic kidney disease is several-fold higher in kidney donors although the absolute risk ... This involves taking a deceased donor pancreas, breaking it down, and extracting the islet cells that make insulin. The cells ... Living-donor renal transplants are further characterized as genetically related (living-related) or non-related (living- ...
Liver cirrhosis, whether from chronic viral hepatitis infection or alcoholism, is associated with the development of liver ... and the combination of cirrhosis and viral hepatitis presents the highest risk of liver cancer development. Worldwide, liver ... could be transmitted by cell-free extracts.[28] This was subsequently confirmed for solid tumors in chickens in 1910-1911 by ... Hepatitis viruses, including hepatitis B and hepatitis C, can induce a chronic viral infection that leads to liver cancer in ...
Blood pressure is used to determine the risk of stroke. It is also widely known that cholesterol values are a biomarker and ... Among the most common safety tests are those of liver function (e.g., transaminases, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase) and ... For chronic diseases, whose treatment may require patients to take medications for years, accurate diagnosis is particularly ... or a drop of blood like those diabetes patients extract from their own fingertips for regular blood-sugar monitoring. For rapid ...
Concerns including memory and cognition problems, risk of addiction, schizophrenia in young people, and the risk of children ... As a drug it usually comes in the form of dried flower buds (marijuana), resin (hashish), or various extracts collectively ... Kaplan, Aryeh (1981). The Living Torah. New York. p. 442. ISBN 0-940118-35-1. Ernest, Abel (1979). A Comprehensive Guide to ... and to treat chronic pain and muscle spasms. Short-term use increases both minor and major adverse effects. Common side effects ...
Its aglycone is enoxolone assessed as a prodrug used in Japan to reduce the risk of liver cancer in people with chronic ... Glycyrrhizin is obtained as an extract from licorice root after maceration and boiling in water. Licorice extract (glycyrrhizin ... Chronic consumption of black licorice, even in moderate amounts, is associated with an increase in blood pressure, may cause ... β-glycyrrhetinic acid is metabolised to 3β-monoglucuronyl-18β-glycyrrhetinic acid in the liver. This metabolite then circulates ...
"Tox Town - Diesel - Toxic chemicals and environmental health risks where you live and work - Text Version". toxtown.nlm.nih.gov ... Concentration (ng/mg extract) ... Concentration (μg/g of particles). *^ Campbell, Robert M.; Lee, Milton L. (1984-05-01). " ... Acute (short-term) exposure ... results in irritation of the eyes, mucous membranes, ... Chronic (long-term) exposure ... has ... which estimate the proportion of cases that could be avoided if a risk factor were removed. PAFs depend not only on the risk ...
Goldman L.R. (2007). "Managing pesticide chronic health risks: U.S. policies". Journal of Agromedicine. 12 (1): 57-75. doi: ... In the 17th century, nicotine sulfate was extracted from tobacco leaves for use as an insecticide. The 19th century saw the ... Pesticides can also be considered as either biodegradable pesticides, which will be broken down by microbes and other living ... Goldman LR (2007). "Managing pesticide chronic health risks: U.S. Policies". Journal of Agromedicine. 12 (1): 67-75. doi: ...
... and there are concerns that taking alcohol and aspirin together may increase the risk of stomach bleeding and liver damage.[33] ... A study concluded, "The chronic usage of Pueraria lobata at times of high ethanol consumption, such as in hangover remedies, ... Yeast-based extracts: The difference in the change for discomfort, restlessness, and impatience were statistically significant ... Artichoke: Research shows that artichoke extract does not prevent the signs and symptoms of alcohol-induced hangover.[33] ...
... and applications in chronic liver disease". Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012: 1-19. doi:10.1155/2012/837939. PMC ... 7 Risks and problems *7.1 Negative outcomes *7.1.1 Adequacy of regulation and CAM safety ... Extracted from WHO 2000. *^ IOM Report 2005, pp. 17-19. *^ Zollman, C.; et al. (1999). "What is complementary medicine?". ABC ... Even low-risk medications such as antibiotics can have potential to cause life-threatening anaphylactic reactions in a very few ...
This Cannabis Extract Relieves Chronic Pain Minus The High. Written by Paul Logothetis ... Our ability to live a long life is influenced by a combination of our genes and our environment. In studies that involve ... Good Cholesterol May Cut Womens Dementia Risk. Written by Catriona May. Two recent studies shed light on which women are most ... These 4 Factors Predict The Risk Of Postpartum Depression. A Life Path Metaphor: Two Horses, A Carriage, A Driver, and A ...
A summary safety review for green tea extract-containing natural health products and the possible risk of liver injury ( ... However, 1 patient developed a more serious disease (i.e.,chronic liver fibrosis) and 2 patients required a liver transplant. ... Health Canada reviewed the potential risk of liver injury with green tea extract-containing natural health products because of ... Health Canada reviewed the potential risk of liver injury (hepatotoxicity) associated with green tea extract because of ongoing ...
Fat-Soluble Statins May Alter Liver Ca Risk in Chronic Hepatitis Fat-Soluble Statins May Alter Liver Ca Risk in Chronic ... For example, curing hepatitis C infection - an important cause of chronic liver disease - reduces the risk of liver cancer. ... Liver cancer is usually caused by chronic liver disease, so an important way to prevent liver cancer is to treat the underlying ... Lipophilic Statins May Cut Liver Cancer in Chronic Viral Hepatitis. Inverse link is dose - dependent; lowest 10 - year HCC risk ...
... double blind studies have shown milk thistle extracts to be effective in patients with cirrhosis of the liver, chronic ... Milk thistle also alters bile makeup, which can potentially reduce the risk of gallstones. Other conditions that can be helped ... For liver disease and impaired liver function, some doctors of natural medicine suggest 420 mg of silymarin per day from an ... Extracts and tinctures of milk thistle can also be found at most health stores. In addition, milk thistle seeds can be ground ...
... liver extract sounds like a forgotten miracle treatment. Find out why this supplement isnt as common today as it was years ago ... What are the risks of liver extract?. In both animals and humans, the liver filters out toxins. There is some concern that ... evidence that liver extract may be effective in treating the fatigue and loss of appetite that affects patients with chronic ... What is liver extract?. Liver extract, a solution made from animal livers, was once a go-to treatment for a variety of health ...
Previous studies have reported that tea extract supplementation has potential benefits on the risk factors of non-alcoholic ... fatty liver disease (NAFLD); however, no study has investigated the direct effect of ...... ... prevention and treatment of severe chronic inflammation to reduce the risk of chronic disease and death worldwide.The group of ... studies have reported that tea extract supplementation has potential benefits on the risk factors of non-alcoholic fatty liver ...
... and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease. However, few studies have been explored the potential benefits from vine ... Alcoholic and nonalcoholic liver diseases have been related to chronic exposition to risk factors as alcohol, tobacco smoking, ... Vine leaves extract (Vitis coignetiae Pulliat) decreases the leakage of biliary enzymes and attenuates liver fibrosis after 3 ... Aqueous extract from Vitis coignetiae Pulliat leaves shows hepatoprotective effect after chronic oral administration in an ...
... at least 15 percent of the general population experiences chronic constipation that continues for 30 days or more. ... at least 15 percent of the general population experiences chronic constipation that continues for 30 days or more. ... Reducing Your Risk of Constipation. There are several ways to reduce your risk of constipation. I strongly recommend eating ... As the stool slows down more water is extracted by the body, making the stool hard, dry, and more difficult to pass. ...
Psychiatric disorders dont increase the risk of Alzheimers disease, but the prevalence of psychiatric diagnoses increased ... History of psychiatric disorders since 1972 was extracted from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register. Chronic disorders and ... Thus, those persons with psychiatric disorders who lived long enough to develop Alzheimers disease were a selected sample of ... Otherwise the identified "risk factors" may actually be manifestations of the neurodegenerative disease. It should also be ...
... or at high-risk of developing liver (61) or colorectal cancers (64). Another extract produced beneficial biologic responses in ... Phase 2 trial of daily, oral polyphenon E in patients with asymptomatic, Rai stage 0 to II chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Cancer ... Animal studies indicate that oral consumption of green tea extract during fasting can increase the risk of toxicity (49). In ... Animal studies indicate that oral consumption of green tea extract during fasting can increase the risk of toxicity. It may ...
"The presence of liver disease and/or liver transplant confers certain risks to outcome of a pregnancy. The goal of our study ... They identified patients from a prospectively collated database and extracted the data from patient records. The researchers ... found that the overall number of pregnancies in women with chronic liver disease or following liver transplantation has risen ... The researchers conducted a retrospective analysis of all pregnancies occurring in women with chronic liver disease or ...
... chronic renal disease; chronic liver disease; immunocompromised condition; neurologic disorder, neurodevelopmental or ... Preexisting medical conditions and other risk factors (yes, no, or unknown) included the following: chronic lung disease ( ... Symptom data on loss of smell or taste was extracted only from free-text symptom fields, thus the proportion with this symptom ... chronic renal disease; chronic liver disease; immunocompromised condition; neurologic disorder, neurodevelopmental or ...
This is common rhetoric written by people who do not live the ungodly pain of chronic migraines. It can be inferred that indeed ... In Canada, theres a standardised extract of cannabis….Sativex…available by GPs prescription. Ive yet to hear of a migraineur ... Treating Migraines with Codeine, Oxycodone or Barbiturates Increases Risk of Chronic Migraine. Category: Chronic Migraine, Meds ... Problem will always be balancing the cardiovascular risks of triptan use with the risk of developing chronic migraine. Triptan ...
... chronic kidney or liver conditions, IBS and metabolic syndrome. Other factors like the lack of exercise and smoking can ... increase the risk, as well as menopause and aging.. Hibiscus tea is rich in polyphenols, anthocyanins and flavonoids that may ... In Asia hibiscus extract is used to lower blood pressure or improve liver function. Around the world, hibiscus extracts are ... extract. Researchers concluded that two capsules of Hibiscus sabdariffa​ extract taken with food for one month can ...
Similarly, the FDA has known for a while that chronic exposure to copper sulfate can lead to anemia and liver disease. ... The increased risk due to Rotenone was five times higher than the risk posed by the synthetic alternative, chlorpyrifos. ... about the safety and healthiness of oils extracted from drupes treated with rotenone." Just like with certain synthetic ... If you dont want to listen to those people or me, listen to the toxicologists, who study this stuff for a living. When probed ...
There are several reasons why drinking water benefits the liver - and these four times of the day are the best to reap those ... aids in digestion - the bodys means for extracting nutrients from food, digestion can be hampered with chronic liver disease. ... helps maintain a healthy weight - an important factor to reduce the risk of developing or worsening fatty liver disease. ... There are several reasons why someone with chronic liver disease benefits from drinking water, but there may be times during ...
The Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) Extract Treatment Improves Triglyceridemia, Liver Cholesterol, Liver Steatosis, Oxidative ... Increased consumption of fruits may decrease the risk of chronic inflammatory diseases including inflammatory bowel disease ( ... HFD CE group displayed lower lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation (liver and adipose tissue) and accumulation of liver fat ... colorimetric assay on methanolic extracts of select rat organs (i.e., liver, kidney, heart, prostate and brain) and in the ...
Two authors independently extracted data. RevMan Analysis was used for statistical analysis of dichotomous data using risk ... Antiviral therapy to prevent the recurrence of chronic hepatitis C infection in patients undergoing liver transplantation ... Six randomised clinical trials with 581 participants with chronic hepatitis C were included. All trials had high risk of bias. ... Hence, hepatitis C virus is a leading cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality with hepatic fibrosis, end-stage liver ...
Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples by a routine phenol-chloroform method (36). The genotypes were determined by the ... Hedli C-C, Hoffmann M-J, Ji S, Thomas P-E, Snyder R. Benzene metabolism in the isolated perfused mouse liver. Toxicol Appl ... Genetic Polymorphisms in XRCC1, APE1, ADPRT, XRCC2, and XRCC3 and Risk of Chronic Benzene Poisoning in a Chinese Occupational ... Genetic Polymorphisms in XRCC1, APE1, ADPRT, XRCC2, and XRCC3 and Risk of Chronic Benzene Poisoning in a Chinese Occupational ...
An extract of saw palmetto oil may also help to reduce the risk of prostate cancer, according to Dr. Joseph Mercola; it should ... Finally, anecdotal evidence suggests that saw palmetto may help reduce migraines, ease a sore throat, reduce chronic bronchitis ...
However, its important to avoid inflammation and heart disease risks. ... Indeed, men turning 65 this year can expect to live, on average, to age 84.3; women, until age 86.6. And 1 in 10 of us will ... Chronic inflammation of the stomach lining, common in aging, reduces levels of digestive stomach acids. Taking proton pump ... Both interfere with your bodys ability to extract vitamin B12 from food and to absorb it. The easiest solution: Up your intake ...
These results suggest a functional role of YKL-40 in liver fibrogenesis and should be taken into account when using YKL-40 as a ... RESULTS CHI3L1 -131G--,C genotype was strongly associated with the stage of liver fibrosis in the screening (n=265, P=0.001) ... We assessed whether a functional promoter polymorphism in CHI3L1, encoding YKL-40, is associated with HCV-induced liver ... C determines YKL-40 serum levels and is associated with the severity of HCV-induced liver fibrosis. ...
Liver damage*Varicose veins. Nonetheless, according to the NMCD, grape seed and grape leaf extracts are possibly effective for ... addressing symptoms of poor blood flow in the legs (chronic venous insufficiency); and grape seed extract may relieve eye ... The Effect of Grape Seed Extract on Cardiovascular Risk Markers: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Journal of ... Grapes May Help Lower the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes. Eating whole grapes may help lower the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. A ...
"This research has important implications in the lives of shift workers who experience elevated risk of type two diabetes, ... obesity, and other chronic illness.". After volunteering in Dr. Snodgrass-Belts lab, Rabbitt says, "I chose to do research for ... dissecting fly heads to extract RNA, and measuring gene expression. " ...
... studies have reported that tea extract supplementation has potential benefits on the risk factors of non-alcoholic fatty liver ... Salt consumption and the risk of chronic diseases among Chinese adults in Ningbo city Chronic diseases have become one of ... Diet is a key risk factor for chronic disease, and an increasing concern among older adults. We aim to examine the changes in ... Low circulating vitamin D levels have been associated with increased risk of metabolic syndrome (MS) and cardiometabolic risk ...
  • To help people navigate the U.S. healthcare system while living with ongoing health issues, the Global Healthy Living Foundation (GHLF), a nonprofit dedicated to helping the chronic illness community, released " A Patient's Guide to Healthcare: 2018 Edition ," a free resource to help all chronic patients navigate the twisty paths of health insurance. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Posted May 3, 2018 FRIDAY, April 27, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Construction workers, farmers and others who work in the sun are at greater risk for skin cancer, according to researchers. (portsmouthhealthfood.com)
  • Animal studies indicate that oral consumption of green tea extract during fasting can increase the risk of toxicity. (mskcc.org)
  • Safety opinion ​ ​The AFC said rosemary extracts evaluated had low acute and sub-chronic toxicity when examined in 90-day feeding studies on rats. (foodnavigator.com)
  • Additionally, it said the toxicological data on the rosemary extracts are insufficient to establish acceptable daily intake amounts, as it does not provide reproductive and developmental toxicity or long-term studies. (foodnavigator.com)
  • Toxicity was observed by the evaluation of mice weight loss and histopathological changes in the liver. (mdpi.com)
  • Then, the comparison research between ethyl acetate extract (EAE) and n-butanol extract (BUE) suggested that liver toxicity was mainly induced by BUE. (mdpi.com)
  • The mechanical study suggested that BUE-induced liver toxicity was closely associated with necrosis detected by MTT and propidium iodide (PI) staining, via releasing lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), reducing the fluidity, and increasing the permeability of the cell membrane. (mdpi.com)
  • This finding indicated that the liver toxicity induced by BUE from P. hookeri was mainly caused by necrosis, which provides an important theoretical support for further evaluation of the safety of this folk medicine. (mdpi.com)
  • 1) Pterocephalus hookeri could induce liver toxicity in vivo and in vitro. (mdpi.com)
  • It is very important to access the toxicity of ST. This experiment presents data from 184-day toxicology studies in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats designed to characterize the chronic effects of a smokeless tobacco extract (STE). The control group and treatment groups were matched for a range of nicotine levels. (mdpi.com)
  • STE also showed moderate and reversible toxicity in esophagus, stomach, liver, kidney and lung. (mdpi.com)
  • Our data analysis has not determined if biochemical benefits of kratom may prove to outweigh its toxicity and risks. (frontiersin.org)
  • Jacques Dikansky, president and CEO for plant extracts firm Naturex, explained the company invested in toxicological studies and initiated the application process as countries such as France only tolerated it being labelled as a flavouring extract while an application for acceptance as an antioxidant had been filed. (foodnavigator.com)
  • However, plant extracts are continually being studied for their potential to maintain health and affect the disease process. (drfuhrman.com)
  • Clinical trials are being conducted, aiming to figure out whether certain plant extracts could affect cancer-related biomarkers, act as beneficial adjunct treatments to be used with chemotherapy, or help to prevent progression of an early stage cancer or pre-cancerous condition. (drfuhrman.com)
  • While primary dyslipidemia is genetic and inherited, secondary dyslipidemia is caused by conditions affecting blood lipid levels, e.g. obesity, diabetes, hypothyroidism, polycystic ovary syndrome, alcoholism, excess dietary saturated fats, chronic kidney or liver conditions, IBS and metabolic syndrome. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • If you've been diagnosed with pre-diabetes, your risk of developing the full-blown disease in the next year is 1 in 10. (aarp.org)
  • This research has important implications in the lives of shift workers who experience elevated risk of type two diabetes, obesity, and other chronic illness. (thecowl.com)
  • Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is correlated with an increased risk of adverse perinatal outcomes for both the mother and offspring. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The seriousness of the issue can be estimated with the tremendous increase in the number of diabetic patients annually, and the World Health Organization (2016) reported that 422 million adults were living with diabetes in 2014, compared to 108 million in 1980 which showed the terrifying rise from 4.7% to 8.5% in the adult population [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • An important factor in reducing your risk of obesity, cardiovascular disease and type-2 diabetes is getting regular exercise. (wikihow.com)
  • New research published in Diabetologia (the journal of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes [EASD]) shows that high levels of iron biomarkers in the body are associated with an increased risk of gestational diabetes (GDM) in pregnant women, raising questions about routine recommendations on iron supplementation in pregnancy. (eurekalert.org)
  • There's a new tool for people living with arthritis, diabetes, and other chronic disease. (everydayhealth.com)
  • We hypothesized that a combination of their extracts may have more effect on improving metabolic indexes in diabetes. (hindawi.com)
  • 2 Dyslipidaemia (including increased total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations and decreased high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations) is one of several factors (including hypertension, diabetes, and smoking) that have been implicated in the increased cardiovascular risk associated with chronic kidney disease and also in the progression of renal damage. (bmj.com)
  • Berries and berry extracts have been shown to reduce insulin resistance, lower cholesterol levels, and slash liver fat accumulation-benefits that, taken as a whole, would be of crucial importance for anyone with type II diabetes or prediabetes. (lifeextension.com)
  • It's in these unlucky individuals that the risk of Type 2 diabetes goes up. (cedars-sinai.edu)
  • She hopes the revolution in diagnostics will lead to the most meaningful revolution of all-effective prevention that improves and lengthens the lives of countless individuals and reverses the epidemic rise in Type 2 diabetes. (cedars-sinai.edu)
  • Future studies are needed to address the role of M. communis fruits extract on humans that have diabetes. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Today, standardized extracts of grape seed may be used to treat a range of health problems related to free radical damage, including heart disease, diabetes, and cancer. (stlukes-stl.com)
  • Another troubling fact: People of color and those at lower income levels are at higher risk of having type 2 diabetes and are getting it at younger and younger ages. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • Nearly one in four teens has prediabetes, placing them at very high risk of acquiring full-blown diabetes within 10 years, in the prime of their lives. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • Within a year, diabetes had been transformed from a hopeless, wasting disease into one that could be controlled through the injections of a miraculous pancreatic extract. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • Daily injections of the hormone saved hundreds of thousands of lives, but it was not the cure for diabetes that many people had hoped it would be. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • These microbes are responsible for the breakdown of food, how the calories or energy are processed, and can increase or decrease your risk of allergies , 3 obesity, and more. (mercola.com)
  • Compounds found in berries called anthocyanins have the ability to safely reduce the risk of obesity-as well as the problems it can cause. (lifeextension.com)
  • According to Dr. Szczepaniak-a physicist by training and now director of magnetic resonance spectroscopy at the Cedars-Sinai Heart Institute-in chronic obesity, the adipose tissue designed to store fat begins to malfunction, so fat spills into the liver, pancreas, and skeletal muscle. (cedars-sinai.edu)
  • Anti-Obesity and Antidiabetic Activities of Red Ginseng Plant Extract in Obese Diabetic Male Rats. (edu.sa)
  • LAB NAME: Nutrition and Cancer Biology 1: Determine the ability of carotenoid-enriched food, carotenoids, and apocarotenoids (carotenoid cleavage metabolites by beta-carotene 9',10'-oxygenase, BCO2) to induce SIRT1 by regulating microRNAs for preventing obesity-related inflammatory responses and cancer development in liver and colon. (usda.gov)
  • In a randomized, double-blind study, researchers gave metabolic syndrome patients (aged 40 to 75) either a placebo or 2,400 mg of aged garlic extract daily. (lifeextension.com)
  • Magnetic resonance spectroscopy is based on the same principles as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), but goes a step further: it extracts metabolic information from the organ it's imaging. (cedars-sinai.edu)
  • Effects of a polysaccharide-rich extract derived from Irish-sourced Laminaria digitata on the composition and metabolic activity of the human gut microbiota using an in vitro colonic model. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Liver-related deaths jumped 65% between 1999 and 2016. (nutritionexpress.com)
  • Posted July 29, 2016 MONDAY, July 25, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Binge-watchers, beware: Too much time in front of the TV could boost your risk of death from a blood clot in the lung, researchers warn. (livingnaturally.com)
  • Adding to the collective findings of the 2016 review, newer studies on the cardioprotective effects of aged garlic extract have revealed remarkable results. (lifeextension.com)
  • Posted July 6, 2016 THURSDAY, June 30, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Women with a gene mutation known as BRCA1 have an increased risk for a deadly form of uterine cancer, a new study finds. (portsmouthhealthfood.com)
  • Finally, anecdotal evidence suggests that saw palmetto may help reduce migraines, ease a sore throat, reduce chronic bronchitis and ease asthma symptoms. (azcentral.com)
  • Chronic pain around the back, shoulders or your neck - Since the support to your boobs are provided by the straps and the back of your bra so if you are not particular about your bra size and are wearing the wrong bra size Ill-fitting bra symptoms through them can result pinching of nerve in your neck and chronic back pain. (natural-living-for-women.com)
  • By MARILYNN MARCHIONE (AP Chief Medical Writer) CHICAGO - New research suggests that long-term use of any type of hormones to ease menopause symptoms can raise a woman's risk of breast cancer. (portsmouthhealthfood.com)
  • If you know how your bones, joints, and muscles operate, and what stops them from functioning properly, you'll be better able to treat your symptoms so you can live with less pain. (qualityhealth.com)
  • If the symptoms do not meet the criteria for CFS, the condition is referred to as idiopathic chronic fatigue, meaning the cause is unknown. (umm.edu)
  • The link between psychological disorders and chronic fatigue syndrome is problematic because so many of the symptoms overlap. (umm.edu)
  • A number of conditions overlap or coexist with chronic fatigue syndrome and have similar symptoms. (umm.edu)
  • There is overlap in the symptoms of chronic versus acute liver failure. (draxe.com)
  • The study was conducted by researchers at King's College Hospital in London - which has offered a multidisciplinary hepatology and obstetrics clinic for pregnant women with chronic liver disease since 2014 - in response to an increasing global burden of liver disease and a rising proportion of women of reproductive age who have been diagnosed with chronic liver disease or undergoing liver transplantation. (aasld.org)
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the in-vitro antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer assays and phytochemical constituents of aqueous and organic extracts of C. angustifolia leaves. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chemical constituents from the ethanol extracts of BP10A were characterized with the ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and each constituent was quantified with the UPLC-diode array detector me. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Oil palm ( Elaeis guineensis ) leaves polar extract (OPLE) or extract has 8% higher contents of nontoxic, ant oxidative phenolic compounds than green tea extract (mainly common plant constituents like glycosylated flavonoid) [ 1 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Hepatitis was significantly less severe in rats fed the extract for 14 days than in simvastatin-treated rats. (medworm.com)
  • A 1997 study on rats found that liver extracts could help fight certain types of flu viruses and increase the rat's life. (healthline.com)
  • Cod liver oil contains a high amount of vitamin D. A link between vitamin D and cognitive performance was identified in a study in rats. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In 2011, scientists gave cod liver oil to rats that were experiencing chronic stress . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Results of tests of memory, locomotor skills, and anxiety behavior indicated that the cod liver oil helped prevent cognitive impairment in these rats. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This study was designed to investigate the hypoglycemic, and hypolipidemic effects of M. communis fruits hydroalcoholic extract also pointed toward the assessment of its role in oxidative-antioxidative systems in Streptozotocin-induced (STZ) diabetic rats. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups which were supplemented with M. communis fruits hydroalcoholic extract in drinking water for five weeks. (alliedacademies.org)
  • The experimental groups of rats which were treated with M. communis fruits hydroalcoholic extract showed a reduction in serum glucose, lipid profile, and tissues malondialdehyde levels and an increase in insulin, serum paraoxonase, arylesterase, erythrocyte SOD, and the whole blood GSH-Px activities. (alliedacademies.org)
  • These findings suggest that M. communis fruit hydroalcoholic extract has hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and oxidative stress inhibitory activities in STZ-induced diabetic rats. (alliedacademies.org)
  • In vivo evaluation of effect of anthocyanin-rich wheat on rat liver microsomal drug-metabolizing cytochromes P450 and on biochemical and antioxidant parameters in rats. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The Aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that green tea ( Camellia sinenesis ) extract containing 85% polyphenols decreases injury after H/R in rats by scavenging ROS and RNS. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Female Sprague Dawley rats were given 100 mg polyphenol extract/kg body weight or vehicle 2 h prior to hemorrhagic shock. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Health Canada will continue to monitor any new information to determine whether additional risk mitigation measures are required, including, for example, limiting the amount of green tea extract's main antioxidant, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), in products. (canada.ca)
  • Antioxidant capacity of animal organs was determined by using the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) colorimetric assay on methanolic extracts of select rat organs (i.e., liver, kidney, heart, prostate and brain) and in the hamster organs (i.e., liver, kidney, heart, bladder and brain). (cranberryinstitute.org)
  • The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) said rosemary extract is safe for use as an antioxidant in food, expanding application opportunities and increasing its natural appeal. (foodnavigator.com)
  • Industry members began applying for rosemary extract to be accepted as an antioxidant more than 10 years ago as some European member states said the additive could no longer be described as a flavouring extract because it provided progressively less flavour to the end product. (foodnavigator.com)
  • However, companies can choose to label it as 'antioxidant: rosemary extract' to maintain a natural nutritional profile. (foodnavigator.com)
  • Both companies provide a range of ingredients based on rosemary extracts that use rosemary's antioxidant qualities to limit oxidation and thus improve product stability. (foodnavigator.com)
  • The risk of cell damage occurs when there is an imbalance between the oxidant-antioxidant defense systems [ 4 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
  • These extracts were further evaluated for antioxidant potential by the DPPH radical scavenging assay. (biomedcentral.com)
  • C. angustifolia extracts revealed the presence of quercimeritrin ( 1 ), scutellarein ( 2 ), and rutin ( 3 ), all known to have useful bioactivities including antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer activities. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The antioxidant activity of the phenolics S. maxima extracts was rature was maintained at 28± 2ºC.The algal growth (biomass gL-1) determined by two methods namely DPPH free-radical scaveng- was spectophotometrical y determined at 750 nm. (who.int)
  • Green tea extract-containing natural health products are authorized for sale in Canada for a variety of uses, including to help in weight management (along with diet and exercise) and as a source of antioxidants for the maintenance of good health. (canada.ca)
  • Health Canada reviewed the potential risk of liver injury (hepatotoxicity) associated with green tea extract because of ongoing reports of serious liver injury worldwide, including a recent report in Canada. (canada.ca)
  • Health Canada's review concluded that there may be a link between the use of green tea extract and a risk of rare and unpredictable liver injury. (canada.ca)
  • The safety review also recommended that green tea extract products be used by adults only. (canada.ca)
  • As a precautionary measure, Health Canada is requesting product licence holders of natural health products containing green tea extract as a medicinal ingredient and are intended for children and adolescents, to either remove the green tea extract from the product, or revise the label to indicate that the product is for adults (18 years and older) only. (canada.ca)
  • Green tea extract is a medicinal ingredient found in natural health products authorized for sale in Canada for a variety of uses, including to help in weight management (along with diet and exercise) and as a source of antioxidants (a substance that may prevent or delay some types of cell damage) for the maintenance of good health. (canada.ca)
  • Green tea extract-containing natural health products are available in different dosage forms such as capsules tablets, powders and liquids for oral administration (to be taken by mouth). (canada.ca)
  • Unlike natural health products, green tea consumed as a beverage or other food product typically contains less EGCG than the amounts found in green tea extract-containing natural health products, on a per serving basis. (canada.ca)
  • One clinical trial showed that a theaflavin-enriched green tea extract can be used with other dietary approaches to lower a certain type of cholesterol. (mskcc.org)
  • Similarly, in 2012 (the most recent year for which figures are available), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported that the U.S. has more than 117 million people - about half of all adults - living with at least one chronic health condition, and that of those, one in four lived with more than one. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Apart from the grape or wine, studies have been shown that grape byproducts such as juice, or extracts from the skin, seed, or leaf also present therapeutic proprieties [ 8 - 12 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • Fuel for the Driven: Contains Horny Goat Weed (Epimedium Leaf Extract) and a host of additional standardized herbs including standardized Maca Root Extract, Mucuna Pruriens Seed, Korean Ginseng, and a proprietary herbal blend combine to deliver a powerful formula of botanical ingredients traditionally used to support libido. (heb.com)
  • Ginkgo leaf is also taken by mouth for chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), schizophrenia , and to prevent winter depression , preventing mountain sickness and aging, controlling stomach acid, improving liver and gallbladder function, and controlling blood pressure . (webmd.com)
  • In manufacturing, ginkgo leaf extract is used in cosmetics . (webmd.com)
  • With today's technology of producing polar extract rather competitively, the oil palm leaf may be a potential new source of functional food ingredient, based on various reports of its benefits on health. (omicsonline.org)
  • A Double Blind Study on the Gastrointestinal Effects of Arabinoxylan (Leaf Fiber Extract). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The beverage will contain either approximately 7.25 grams of Arabinoxylan leaf fiber extract per day, or approximately 14.5 grams of Arabinoxylan leaf fiber extract per day, or will not contain any Arabinoxylan (control). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Based on their beneficial activities, this study aimed to indicate the chemical properties and in vivo efficacy of a combination of the herbs at a 1:2:1 ratio in a water extract form. (medworm.com)
  • study also found that liver extract was no more effective than a placebo. (healthline.com)
  • study looked into adding liver extract to their original treatment for hepatitis C. The original treatment involved injecting intravenous interferon-betas, which help boost the immune system. (healthline.com)
  • study found that liver oil taken from cow embryos can help to reduce bilirubin levels and treat loss of appetite and fatigue. (healthline.com)
  • The study 1 demonstrated a statistically significant link between people who suffer from chronic constipation and from other health problems, including colorectal cancer and gastric cancer. (mercola.com)
  • However, the links found in this study between chronic constipation, gastric cancer, rectal cancer, and ischemic colitis were not expected. (mercola.com)
  • Psychiatric disorders do not increase the risk of Alzheimer's disease, according to a recent study from the University of Eastern Finland. (healthcanal.com)
  • Hospital-treated mental and behavioral disorders and risk of Alzheimer's disease: A nationwide nested case-control study. (healthcanal.com)
  • The global burden of liver disease is increasing, according to a recent World Health Organization study. (aasld.org)
  • The study found people who took drugs containing barbiturates or opioids for only eight days a month were twice as likely to develop chronic migraine a year later as those who didn't take such drugs. (thedailyheadache.com)
  • The study found no evidence that the risk of developing chronic migraine increased among people who frequently used triptans, which are commonly prescribed drugs to treat migraine, or non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as aspirin, ibuprofen and naproxen. (thedailyheadache.com)
  • Still, the study is a good heads-up for anyone with chronic pain. (thedailyheadache.com)
  • Just like with certain synthetic pesticides, organic pesticide exposure has health implications- a study in Texas found that rotenone exposure correlated to a significantly higher risk of Parkinson's disease. (scientificamerican.com)
  • This study suggested that the stem extract of A. sessilis might be a potential therapeutic agent for skin wound healing, supporting its traditional medicinal uses. (hindawi.com)
  • This study aims to assess whether quantitative ultrasound spectroscopy (QUS) parameters measured in HCC tissues can be differentiated from those measured in at risk or healthy liver parenchyma. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Posted November 7, 2015 TUESDAY, Oct. 27, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- A new study out of Europe supports the notion that drinking raises women's risk of breast cancer. (livingnaturally.com)
  • Posted May 2, 2015 FRIDAY, May 1, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- A lifetime of vigorous exercise may lower the risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma -- a form of cancer that affects the lymph nodes, according to a new study. (livingnaturally.com)
  • Posted April 3, 2015 THURSDAY, April 2, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Women who were overweight as children and teens may have a greater risk of colon cancer, no matter what their current weight, a new study cautions. (livingnaturally.com)
  • In addition, data was extracted from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1986-2014), which involved 38,366 participants. (express.co.uk)
  • A mouse study, published in 2009, found that topically applying a 25-percent cod liver oil ointment to ear wounds could promote healing . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In 2011, a review of a historical study from 1848 published in the BMJ revealed that cod liver oil could be an effective treatment option for tuberculosis (TB). (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In this study, green tea is shown to alter gene expression toward healthy LDL cholesterol metabolism by improving receptor acceptance by the liver. (anabolicminds.com)
  • Posted July 29, 2014 MONDAY, July 28, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Following a healthy lifestyle may help childhood cancer survivors reduce their risk for chronic health issues, a new study indicates. (portsmouthhealthfood.com)
  • In this study, we aim to use existing literature to clarify both benefits and risks of kratom as well as its diagnosis evaluation as kratom misuse is an emerging trend in the Western world. (frontiersin.org)
  • The technical feasibility of utilizing RNA sequencing for identification of novel CTC transcripts of interest was also demonstrated with a liver cancer cell line spike-in study. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Although no causal association was proven, a recent study showed correlation between chronic periodontitis and erectile dysfunction. (wikipedia.org)
  • But too many people with chronic illness face roadblocks of all kinds when they try to work with their U.S. health insurance companies to obtain lifesaving, medically necessary medication so they can function and live well - because of the insurance companies' focus on cost savings, which sometimes seems to lack common sense. (everydayhealth.com)
  • The transcription factor Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2) may be induced by statins in liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (SEC), orchestrating an efficient vasoprotective response. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Over 95% of the correspondence I've received has been positive toward kratom, with most expressing fear and anxiety about the effect on their lives when kratom is no longer available. (forbes.com)
  • I'm not saying that kratom is without risks, and I will also include a few stories from people who've had negative experiences with the herb , all of which involve the use of concentrated kratom extracts, not the bulk powder that most commenters and correspondents seem to be using. (forbes.com)
  • In the U.S., the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) includes kratom on its "Drugs of Concern list," which means that kratom is not currently regulated by the Controlled Substances Act, but it can pose risks to persons who abuse it. (frontiersin.org)
  • Liver cancer is hard to treat. (medworm.com)
  • Since liver cancer is often found at a late stage, when treatment has limited benefit, there has been increasing interest in prevention. (medworm.com)
  • Thanks to more potent new treatments and a drop in smoking, cancer death rates have dropped dramatically since the 1990s, saving 2.4 million lives. (aarp.org)
  • An estimated 117 million-plus people in the United States live with chronic health conditions such as heart disease, asthma , cancer , and rheumatoid arthritis . (everydayhealth.com)
  • Hepatitis B is closely linked to liver cancer, which is almost always fatal. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • So the larger your bra timing the more you are under the risk of breast cancer. (natural-living-for-women.com)
  • The prescribing information for Sho-saiko-to does not recommend its use in patients with liver cancer due to risks for interstitial pneumonia, a serious and potentially life-threatening condition. (mskcc.org)
  • Posted February 6, 2015 THURSDAY, Feb. 5, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Scientists say they have identified two new genetic variants that are associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. (portsmouthhealthfood.com)
  • Drinking alcohol to protect against heart disease is not advocated by the American Heart Association and other organizations because of the potential for addiction and other serious problems, such as car accidents and the increased risk of hypertension, liver disease, breast cancer, and weight gain. (stlukes-stl.com)
  • I often recommend green tea supplementation to patients who have cancer or who are at risk. (drfuhrman.com)
  • 1.4: Investigate the protective effect of beta-cryptoxanthin (BCX, a provitamin A carotenoid) against high sugar diet- induced NAFLD and liver cancer via gut/adipose/liver axis 1.5: Determine the biological functions of intact BCX in absence of carotene cleavage enzymes beta-carotene 15,15'-oxygenase 1 ( BCO1) and beta-carotene 9',10'-oxygenase (BCO2) double knock out (KO) mice. (usda.gov)
  • 1.6 Determine the SIRT1 activity as a molecular target for BCX protection against high sugar diet-induced NAFLD and liver cancer. (usda.gov)
  • Learn how you can lower your risks of cancer, heart attack, and stroke. (cbn.com)