Health Transition: Demographic and epidemiologic changes that have occurred in the last five decades in many developing countries and that are characterized by major growth in the number and proportion of middle-aged and elderly persons and in the frequency of the diseases that occur in these age groups. The health transition is the result of efforts to improve maternal and child health via primary care and outreach services and such efforts have been responsible for a decrease in the birth rate; reduced maternal mortality; improved preventive services; reduced infant mortality, and the increased life expectancy that defines the transition. (From Ann Intern Med 1992 Mar 15;116(6):499-504)Quackery: The fraudulent misrepresentation of the diagnosis and treatment of disease.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Urbanization: The process whereby a society changes from a rural to an urban way of life. It refers also to the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Developed Countries: Countries that have reached a level of economic achievement through an increase of production, per capita income and consumption, and utilization of natural and human resources.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Health Priorities: Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.Africa South of the Sahara: All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).Communicable DiseasesPrevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Life Expectancy: Based on known statistical data, the number of years which any person of a given age may reasonably expected to live.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Cause of Death: Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.Primary Prevention: Specific practices for the prevention of disease or mental disorders in susceptible individuals or populations. These include HEALTH PROMOTION, including mental health; protective procedures, such as COMMUNICABLE DISEASE CONTROL; and monitoring and regulation of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS. Primary prevention is to be distinguished from SECONDARY PREVENTION and TERTIARY PREVENTION.Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.IndiaHealth Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.United StatesAge Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Diabetes Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with the disease of diabetes mellitus. Due to the impaired control of BLOOD GLUCOSE level in diabetic patients, pathological processes develop in numerous tissues and organs including the EYE, the KIDNEY, the BLOOD VESSELS, and the NERVE TISSUE.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.JapanPregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Epidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System: Telephone surveys are conducted to monitor prevalence of the major behavioral risks among adults associated with premature MORBIDITY and MORTALITY. The data collected is in regard to actual behaviors, rather than on attitudes or knowledge. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) established the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) in 1984.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Metabolic Syndrome X: A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Cholesterol, HDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Coronary Artery Disease: Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.BrazilPopulation Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Hypercholesterolemia: A condition with abnormally high levels of CHOLESTEROL in the blood. It is defined as a cholesterol value exceeding the 95th percentile for the population.Homocysteine: A thiol-containing amino acid formed by a demethylation of METHIONINE.Atherosclerosis: A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.Dyslipidemias: Abnormalities in the serum levels of LIPIDS, including overproduction or deficiency. Abnormal serum lipid profiles may include high total CHOLESTEROL, high TRIGLYCERIDES, low HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL, and elevated LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Hyperlipidemias: Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Asian Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.TriglyceridesAfrican Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.Cholesterol, LDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.FinlandCerebrovascular Disorders: A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.Carotid Artery Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Waist Circumference: The measurement around the body at the level of the ABDOMEN and just above the hip bone. The measurement is usually taken immediately after exhalation.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.France: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.Kidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Parity: The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.GermanyTunica Media: The middle layer of blood vessel walls, composed principally of thin, cylindrical, smooth muscle cells and elastic tissue. It accounts for the bulk of the wall of most arteries. The smooth muscle cells are arranged in circular layers around the vessel, and the thickness of the coat varies with the size of the vessel.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.SwedenMass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Arteriosclerosis: Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.IranCalcinosis: Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.TurkeyVascular Diseases: Pathological processes involving any of the BLOOD VESSELS in the cardiac or peripheral circulation. They include diseases of ARTERIES; VEINS; and rest of the vasculature system in the body.ItalyExercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Age of Onset: The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Causality: The relating of causes to the effects they produce. Causes are termed necessary when they must always precede an effect and sufficient when they initiate or produce an effect. Any of several factors may be associated with the potential disease causation or outcome, including predisposing factors, enabling factors, precipitating factors, reinforcing factors, and risk factors.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Carotid Arteries: Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Diabetic Angiopathies: VASCULAR DISEASES that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS.Hyperhomocysteinemia: Condition in which the plasma levels of homocysteine and related metabolites are elevated (>13.9 µmol/l). Hyperhomocysteinemia can be familial or acquired. Development of the acquired hyperhomocysteinemia is mostly associated with vitamins B and/or folate deficiency (e.g., PERNICIOUS ANEMIA, vitamin malabsorption). Familial hyperhomocysteinemia often results in a more severe elevation of total homocysteine and excretion into the urine, resulting in HOMOCYSTINURIA. Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, osteoporotic fractures and complications during pregnancy.Occupations: Crafts, trades, professions, or other means of earning a living.Overweight: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".Tunica Intima: The innermost layer of an artery or vein, made up of one layer of endothelial cells and supported by an internal elastic lamina.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Heart Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.Risk Reduction Behavior: Reduction of high-risk choices and adoption of low-risk quantity and frequency alternatives.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Republic of Korea: The capital is Seoul. The country, established September 9, 1948, is located on the southern part of the Korean Peninsula. Its northern border is shared with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.Hispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Thrombophilia: A disorder of HEMOSTASIS in which there is a tendency for the occurrence of THROMBOSIS.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Kidney Diseases: Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.TaiwanFamily Health: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.Accidental Falls: Falls due to slipping or tripping which may result in injury.CaliforniaLipoprotein(a): A lipoprotein that resembles the LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS but with an extra protein moiety, APOPROTEIN (A) also known as APOLIPOPROTEIN (A), linked to APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100 on the LDL by one or two disulfide bonds. High plasma level of lipoprotein (a) is associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.Cross Infection: Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Venous Thrombosis: The formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) within a vein.Great BritainContinental Population Groups: Groups of individuals whose putative ancestry is from native continental populations based on similarities in physical appearance.Peripheral Vascular Diseases: Pathological processes involving any one of the BLOOD VESSELS in the vasculature outside the HEART.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Waist-Hip Ratio: The waist circumference measurement divided by the hip circumference measurement. For both men and women, a waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) of 1.0 or higher is considered "at risk" for undesirable health consequences, such as heart disease and ailments associated with OVERWEIGHT. A healthy WHR is 0.90 or less for men, and 0.80 or less for women. (National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2004)Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Gene Frequency: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Metabolic Diseases: Generic term for diseases caused by an abnormal metabolic process. It can be congenital due to inherited enzyme abnormality (METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS) or acquired due to disease of an endocrine organ or failure of a metabolically important organ such as the liver. (Stedman, 26th ed)Epidemiologic Studies: Studies designed to examine associations, commonly, hypothesized causal relations. They are usually concerned with identifying or measuring the effects of risk factors or exposures. The common types of analytic study are CASE-CONTROL STUDIES; COHORT STUDIES; and CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES.Maternal Age: The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.NorwayDenmarkKorea: Former kingdom, located on Korea Peninsula between Sea of Japan and Yellow Sea on east coast of Asia. In 1948, the kingdom ceased and two independent countries were formed, divided by the 38th parallel.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Fibrinogen: Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Kidney Transplantation: The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.Renal Dialysis: Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).EuropeGlomerular Filtration Rate: The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.Hepatitis C: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.CreatinineAnti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Probability: The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.Morbidity: The proportion of patients with a particular disease during a given year per given unit of population.
Mongolian STEPS Survey on the Prevalence of Noncommunicable Disease Risk Factors 2006. WHO (2007). ISBN 9992998040 Enrollment ... A century of trends in adult human height by NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC). ... Such factors may not have been controlled in some of the studies. Data is representative of the majority of the country or ... The height of persons can vary over the course of a day, due to factors such as a height decrease from exercise done directly ...
... cerebrovascular disease, and COPD. The main risk factors for NCD deaths in Tajikistan are dietary risks, high blood pressure ... the leading causes of death were non-communicable diseases (predominantly stroke and ischemic heart disease). Of the 25 most ... The leading health risk factor in Tajikistan is dietary risks. The Republic of Tajikistan has some of the highest child ... This was driven by a rise in both communicable and non-communicable diseases and declining access to health services, ...
... to perform disease screening, identify risk factors for disease, discuss tips for a healthy and balanced lifestyle, stay up to ... Primary prevention of cancer can also prevent other diseases, both communicable and non-communicable, that share common risk ... Obesity is a major risk factor for a wide variety of conditions including cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, certain ... "Global and regional burden of disease and risk factors, 2001: systematic analysis of population health data". Lancet 367 (9524 ...
... non-communicable diseases and the underlying behavior-related risk factors have been at the bottom. This is changing however, ... and programs designed to decrease non-communicable diseases by acting on known risk factors such as a person's background, ... waterborne diseases, zoonotic diseases, and antibiotic resistance leading to the reemergence of infectious diseases such as ... Epidemic disease was the main factor in the decline of indigenous populations in the era immediately following the sixteenth- ...
National level WHO STEP wise Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factors survey 2007/08 carried out in 15 districts of Nepal with the ... "National level WHO STEP wise Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factors survey 2007/08" (pdf). SOLID Nepal, Kathmandu (digitised by ... their sexual and reproductive health and to prevent them from non-communicable diseases by changing their lifestyles and risk ... Coordinate and/or conduct NCD Risk Factors prevention and control activities through different sectors. Interlink and integrate ...
... non-communicable diseases and their risk factors. Robert Koch (1891-1904) Georg Gaffky (1904-1913) Friedrich Loeffler (1913- ... Its core tasks include the detection, prevention and combatting of infectious diseases as well as non-communicable diseases in ... The institute is also in charge of health monitoring and health reporting in Gemany, covering non-communicable diseases: in ... The institute consists of five scientific departments: Infectious Diseases Epidemiology and Health Reporting Infectious Disease ...
... communicable diseases.' As an advocate of putting cardiovascular disease and its risk factors on the global health agenda, the ... In September 2011, the UN held a landmark High-level Meeting on Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs).The meeting was attended by 28 ... Because cardiovascular disease (CVD) accounts for nearly half of the global NCD burden, CVD and its risk factors must be ... In May 2012, all 194 WHO Member States endorsed a historic target to reduce premature deaths from non-communicable disease ( ...
... and cerebrovascular disease (7%). Non-communicable diseases risk factors in North Korea include high rates of urbanisation, an ... Instead, it is closer to the worldwide averages, with non-communicable diseases - such as cardiovascular disease - accounting ... Cardiovascular disease as a single disease group is the largest cause of death in North Korea (2013). The three major causes of ... Extreme poverty is also a factor in the hunger faced by North Korean people, with 27% of the population living at or below the ...
... a growing incidence of noncommunicable diseases, and risks posed by environmental toxins. Inadequate laboratories and ... there has been limited information about NCDs and risk factors such as tobacco use. IANPHI is working with the National ... The project will lay the foundation for noncommunicable disease surveillance and a national laboratory network. Given IEDCR's ... The burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) is increasing, but in the past, ...
SHS is associated with cardiovascular risk factors and contributes to the development of cardiovascular disease. SHS should be ... To investigate the causative effect of SHS in non-communicable chronic diseases (NCD), China suboptimal health cohort study ( ... Phase I of the study involved a cross-sectional survey aimed at identifying the risk/protective factors associated with SHS; ... "Association of suboptimal health status and cardiovascular risk factors in urban Chinese workers". Journal of Urban Health: ...
"A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 ... Non-Communicable diseases: Diabetes, Cardiovascular diseases, Hypertension, Stroke, Chronic respiratory diseases, Cancer and ... According to National NCD Risk Factor Survey in 2010, 99% of the survey population revealed at least one NCD risk factor and ~ ... Among dominant identified risk factor of burden of diseases in South Asian countries, Diabetes is placed in seventh position. ...
... that exists to find solutions to fight the epidemic of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). C3's focus is on the main risk factors ... cardiovascular disease (heart disease and stroke), type 2 diabetes, chronic lung disease and cancers. The United Nations ... and also raises awareness of the importance of tackling NCDs and the risk factors through other media, e.g.: letters on cycling ... declaration of the High-level Meeting of the General Assembly on the Prevention and Control of Non-communicable Diseases". ...
... comparable high quality health indicators on health and important modifiable risk factors of major non-communicable diseases ... These pilot studies established standardised protocols for the measurement of key risk factors for chronic disease, such as ... such as examination of issues in participation rates in healthcare surveys and identification of groups with risk factors for ... "Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on a European initiative on Alzheimer's disease ...
... "diseases of affluence", which include mostly chronic non-communicable diseases for which personal lifestyles and societal ... conditions associated with economic development are believed to be important risk factors. Gestational diabetes - Gestational ... A class of metabolic diseases A class of systemic diseases Prediabetes - Main types of diabetes: Diabetes mellitus type 1 - ... However, the disease can often be delayed through proper nutrition and regular exercise. Insulin therapy Insulin Carbohydrate ...
This study follows and tests a cohort of Agincourt residents for HIV infection and cardiometabolic disease risk factors, then ... integrates that data with mortality data to study the drivers and consequences of HIV and non-communicable diseases in an aging ... she is noted for identifying the effects of social networks on mortality risks that helped define the field in the late 1970s. ... Research Risk Project Harvard Center for Population and Development Studies: Major Projects Harvard Center for Population and ...
... and agricultural products have a major influence on the disease risk factors. Initial criticism emerged in the early 2000s ... It is evident that supply outputs are generating widespread public health issues of obesity and diet-related non-communicable ... However, two main factors contributed to its creation of this policy. This includes the promise EEC made to France bargaining ... Outside Brussels proper, the farming lobby's power has been a factor determining EU agricultural policy since the earliest days ...
... for Non-communicable diseases (ENFR) Source 2005 = 14.6% 2009 = 18% 2013 = 20.8% 2005-2013 period variation = 42,5% 6 out of 10 ... Ministry of Health shows the following progression recorded since 2005 when was launched the National Survey for Risk Factors, ...
The correlation between diabetes mellitus and TB concerns public health as it merges communicable and non-communicable diseases ... Diabetes mellitus is also an important risk factor that is growing in importance in developing countries. Other disease states ... HIV is a major risk factor for tuberculosis. The risk of developing TB is estimated to be between 20-37 times greater in people ... hematologic and reticuloendothelial diseases, such as leukemia and Hodgkin's disease, end-stage kidney disease, intestinal ...
... bush as cardiovascular disease, cancers, and respiratory diseases. Malnutrition remains to be a major risk factor for ... Currently, rate of non-communicable diseases occurring in Cambodia has been rising, and mortality due to non-communicable ... Unsafe drinking water and lack of sanitation facilities are major risk factors of infectious disease, especially diarrhea. ... Major infectious diseases include a very high risk of food or waterborne diseases including bacterial and protozoal diarrhoea, ...
Social determinants are important risk factors for chronic diseases. Social factors, e.g., socioeconomic status, education ... Noncommunicable diseases, World Health Organization, retrieved April 5, 2016 Chronic Diseases and Conditions, New York State ... Obesity itself is a medical condition and not a disease, but it constitutes a major risk factor for developing chronic ... most of the common chronic diseases in the US are caused by dietary, lifestyle and metabolic risk factors that are also ...
... and is highly regarded in evidence-based medicine for identifying risk factors for disease. In the study of communicable and ... Non-communicable. A non-communicable disease is a medical condition or disease that is non-transmissible. Non-communicable ... Acute disease. An acute disease is a short-lived disease, like the common cold.. Chronic disease. A chronic disease is one that ... It also sounds like it could imply secondary disease, but acquired disease can be primary disease.. Acute disease disease of a ...
"Ability of body mass index and waist circumference to identify risk factors for non-communicable disease in the Pacific Islands ...
The Africa/HSPH PaCT project plans on investigating the association of lifestyle factors and chronic disease risk in sub- ... Building the case for healthy public policies on Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) in Africa. Noncommunicable Diseases on the ... Africa/HSPH PaCT will investigate chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs), namely cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus ( ... Non-communicable diseases in sub-Saharan Africa: The case for cohort studies.PLoS Med. 2010;7(5): e1000244". Plosmedicine.org. ...
... non-communicable diseases and the underlying behavior-related risk factors have been at the bottom. This is changing however, ... and programs designed to decrease non-communicable diseases by acting on known risk factors such as a person's background, ... Press Conference on General Assembly Decision to Convene Summit in September 2011 on Non-Communicable Diseases. New York, 13 ... waterborne diseases, zoonotic diseases, and antibiotic resistance leading to the reemergence of infectious diseases such as ...
The WHO's World Health Report 2002 identified five important risk factors for non-communicable disease in the top ten leading ... List of countries by risk of death from non-communicable disease Chronic disease Global health The INCTR Challenge Fund project ... "Noncommunicable diseases". World Health Organization. Retrieved April 5, 2016. "Non-Communicable Diseases Deemed Development ... Risk factors such as a person's background; lifestyle and environment are known to increase the likelihood of certain non- ...
... two to four times the risk of cardiovascular disease, including ischemic heart disease and stroke; a 20-fold increase in lower ... "Effect of physical inactivity on major non-communicable diseases worldwide: an analysis of burden of disease and life ... Dietary factors also influence the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks in excess is ... Diseases of the endocrine system (ICD-10 Chapter IV: Endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases - Endocrine diseases, E00- ...
Prevalence of NCD risk factors. We took chronic disease risk factor data from the Indian NCD risk factor surveillance study ... 1. Mean of noncommunicable disease risk factor variables in low, middle and high urbanicity groups in seven locationsa in Tamil ... Level of urbanization and noncommunicable disease risk factors in Tamil Nadu, India. Steven Allender a, Ben Laceya, Premila ... Table 3. Noncommunicable disease risk factor prevalence (%), by urbanicity group, in seven locationsa in Tamil Nadu, India, ...
2014)‎. WHO STEPS Survey on risk factors for noncommunicable diseases, Maldives, 2011. WHO Regional Office for South-East Asia ... The findings indicate that risk behaviours for noncommunicable diseases, such as tobacco use, unhealthy diet and physical ... This report describes the findings of the WHO STEP wise approach to surveillance for noncommunicable diseases conducted in the ... calling attention to the need for concrete urgent public health action to control noncommunicable diseases in the Maldives ...
... large-scale household survey to study the prevalence of risk factors for noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) in the country. ... Health topics Noncommunicable diseases Turkey monitors noncommunicable disease risk factors among its population ... Turkey monitors noncommunicable disease risk factors among its population. 10-10-2018. In 2017, WHO and Turkeys Ministry of ... The results are now presented in "National Household Health Survey - Prevalence of Noncommunicable Disease Risk Factors in ...
Those who suffer from chronic hypertension, obesity, diabetes, and kidney disease are highly susceptible; and the impact of ... hypertensive disease that can lead to life-threatening high blood pressure and long-term health complications for mothers and ... All pregnant women are at risk of developing preeclampsia- a devastating, ... Non-Communicable Diseases: Preeclampsia Risk Factors and Long Term Complications. Webcast available Event Co-sponsors. Global ...
... ... 2018)‎. WHO STEPS survey: step towards a healthier world: monitoring noncommunicable diseases and their risk factors. World ...
... ... The South-East Asia region are projected to see the highest increase in non-communicable diseases (NCD). This study examines ... how mining industry employees are exposed to various factors that elevates their NCD risk. Assessment is over a 5 year duration ... with results showing risk indicators were high and increased significantly from baseline through 5-year follow-up. ...
Noncommunicable disease (NCD) and risk factors Comparative study of risk factors for diabetes type-2 and cardiovascular disease ... The project will provide good baseline data on risk factors of various risk factors for lifestyle diseases in this population. ... risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease and will contribute knowledge about the prevalence of various risk factors ... The main objective is to assess the prevalence of risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease and to improve knowledge ...
The objectives of this study were to describe the prevalence of selected NCD risk factors and the relationship between body ... Noncommunicable Disease Risk Factors in Jordan: Results of the 2007 Jordan Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey. ... noncommunicable disease risk factors in Jordan: results of the 2007 Jordan Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey. Prev ... Chronic Disease Risk Factors Among Participants in Medical Examination (n = 765), by Sex and Age, Behavioral Risk Factor ...
To estimate the prevalence of risk behaviors for non-communicable diseases and analyze their associated factors in adolescents ... Table 3 . Association among risk behaviors for Non-Communicable Diseases (NCD) in adolescents according to sex (n=1,139). ... Table 1 . Distribution of risk behaviors for non-communicable diseases and their association with variables of interest among ... Table 2 . Distribution of risk behaviors for non-communicable diseases and their association with variables of interest among ...
Socioeconomic status, non-communicable disease risk factors, and walking speed in older adults: multi-cohort population based ... Socioeconomic status, non-communicable disease risk factors, and walking speed in older adults: multi-cohort population based ... Socioeconomic status, non-communicable disease risk factors, and walking speed in older adults: multi-cohort population based ... Socioeconomic status, non-communicable disease risk factors, and walking speed in older adults: multi-cohort population based ...
Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the largest cause of premature death worldwide. Socioeconomic inequalities contribute to a ... Socioeconomic inequalities in non-communicable diseases and their risk factors: An overview of systematic reviews. ... Socioeconomic inequalities in non-communicable diseases and their risk factors: An overview of systematic reviews. BMC Public ... Reviews included here indicated that lower SES is a risk factor for obesity in HIC, but this association varied by SES measure ...
Third Moscow intersectoral NCD training course: Alcohol as a risk factor for road safety and noncommunicable diseases (2018). ... The third Moscow intersectoral NCD training course, "Alcohol as a risk factor for road safety and noncommunicable diseases", ... Alcohol as a risk factor for road safety and noncommunicable diseases (2018) ...
... exploring how risk factors (e.g., tobacco, alcohol, diet and physical activity) of non-communicable diseases (e.g., cancer, ... In an exploration project together with Microsoft Research, indices for each risk factor were built and tracked over time on ... 70% of the reduction in coronary mortality can be attributed to population level reductions in the risk factors. Traditionally ... Big data sources as social media could provide faster and cheaper information on risks on an ongoing basis. ...
... such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes and chronic respiratory diseases are responsible for 70% per cent of all ... Using Advanced Analytics to Model and Predict Risk Factors of Non-Communicable Diseases. ... Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes and chronic respiratory diseases are ... The platform will use machine learning and deep learning methods to model and predict known and new NCD risk factors - such as ...
... resulting in an increased risk of non-communicable diseases (NCD s). Objectives . The aim of the pilot study was to... ... Lifestyle risk factors of non-communicable diseases among patients after liver transplantation - a pilot study. Anna Jagielska ... Lifestyle risk factors of non-communicable diseases among patients after liver transplantation - a pilot study. Family Medicine ... 2017). Lifestyle risk factors of non-communicable diseases among patients after liver transplantation - a pilot study. Family ...
non-communicable diseases, premature deaths, risk factors, population attributable risk, Västerbotten Intervention Program ... What kills middle-aged Swedes? Non-communicable disease risk factors and mortality in a prospective population cohort study. ... epidemiological transition, premature mortality, non-communicable disease, risk factors, Sweden, low-and middle-income ... 2006 were used to measure the magnitude of premature non-communicable disease mortality reductions associated with risk factor ...
Contribution of Six Risk Factors to Achieving the 25×25 Non-Communicable Disease Mortality Reduction Target: A Modeling Study. ... YOU ARE HERE: Home , Latest in Cardiology , Contribution of Six Risk Factors to Achieving the 25×25 Non-Communicable Disease ... contribution of achieving six risk factor targets toward reducing premature mortality from four main noncommunicable diseases ( ... Relative risks for the effects of individual and multiple risks, and for change in risk after decreases or increases in ...
The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of risk factors of non-conmmunicable diseases among female university ... Two-thirds of 2010 deaths worldwide were caused by non-communicable diseases with Cardiovascular diseases, hypertension and ... and 46 per 1000 male population deaths in Saudi Arabia were attributed to non-communicable diseases. Data about the magnitude ... Risk Factors of Non Communicable Diseases. risk factors of non-communicable diseases among university students in Taif City, ...
WHO Afghanistan facilitates a survey to assess the risk factors contributing to non-communicable diseases in the country ... WHO Afghanistan facilitates national survey to assess the risk factors contributing to noncommunicable diseases ... WHO Afghanistan supports a survey to assess risk factors associated with noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) in the country. The ... WHO Afghanistan facilitates national survey to assess the risk factors contributing to noncommunicable diseases ...
The data were categorized into people with no risk factors, 1-2 risk factors and 3-5 risk factors. The magnitude of the burden ... Prevalence of risk factors for noncommunicable diseases in adults: key findings from the Pakistan STEPS survey ... Prevalence of risk factors for noncommunicable diseases in adults: key findings from the Pakistan STEPS survey. East Mediterr ... Clustering of risk factors for noncommunicable diseases in Brazilian adolescents: prevalence and correlates.J Phys Act Health. ...
We determined the prevalence of selected NCDs and HIV infection, and NCD risk factors in northwestern Tanzania and southern ... The high prevalence of NCD risk factors and unrecognized and untreated hypertension represent major problems. The low ... obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiac failure, epilepsy and HIV, and investigated factors associated with hypertension using ... The burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is increasing in sub-Saharan Africa, but data available for intervention ...
Download Free Full-Text of an article WOMEN, OCCUPATION, MARITAL STATUS AND NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASE RISK FACTORS: FINDINGS ... The data show higher levels of some non-communicable disease risk factors in non-working as compared to working women. All non- ... Objective(s): To investigate the relationship between the presences of risk factors for non-communicable diseases and ... WOMEN, OCCUPATION, MARITAL STATUS AND NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASE RISK FACTORS: FINDINGS FROM THE TEHRAN LIPID AND GLUCOSE STUDY. ...
... particularly cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, respiratory conditions and cancers, are the most common causes of morbidity and ... Are the urban poor vulnerable to non-communicable diseases? A survey of risk factors for non-communicable diseases in urban ... The prevalence and associated factors of non-communicable disease risk factors among civil servants in Ibadan, Nigeria. PLoS ... Most of the selected risk factors for noncommunicable diseases were high and increased by age in both women and men. Overweight ...
We documented a strikingly high prevalence of a number of chronic non-communicable diseases and their risk factors in Iran, and ... The results of this study are extracted from the third national Surveillance of Risk Factors of Non-Communicable Diseases ( ... We documented a strikingly high prevalence of a number of chronic non-communicable diseases and their risk factors among ... Third national surveillance of risk factors of non-communicable diseases (SuRFNCD-2007) in Iran: methods and results on ...
NCD-RisC paper on global trends in risk factors for non-communicable diseases. The Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factor ... In general, it can be concluded that risk factors for non-communicable disease are increasing in most part of the world, ... Discover more results in the full paper: Global trends in risk factors for non-communicable diseases ... on major risk factors for non-communicable diseases. The Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development (AIGHD) and ...
  • In Tanzania, Uganda and probably elsewhere in Africa, major efforts are needed to strengthen health services for the PREVENTION, early detection and treatment of chronic diseases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In general, it can be concluded that risk factors for non-communicable disease are increasing in most part of the world, particularly in Africa. (pharmaccess.org)
  • And if you go into particularly Sub Saharan Africa you will see that they still have their burden of non-communicable diseases. (coursera.org)
  • This paper investigates the indirect effects of lifestyle risk factors associated with non-communicable diseases on labour force participation in South Africa utilising data from the National Income Dynamics Study. (hsrc.ac.za)
  • These results can be used to inform the South African National Department of Health to strengthen current health strategies with the aim of reducing lifestyle risk factors and thus promoting sustained labour force participation rates in South Africa. (hsrc.ac.za)
  • explained that the Africa Centres for Disease Control and Prevention-the new public health agency of the African Union, an intergovernmental agency that represents all 55 countries on the African continent-is dedicated to a vision of a fully integrated and prosperous Africa. (nap.edu)
  • The Africa Centres for Disease Control and Prevention was created in response to the health and disease transmission implications of the recently ratified continental free-trade agreement that ensures the free movement of goods, people, and services. (nap.edu)
  • A component of this integration is the creation of institutions, including the Africa Centres for Disease Control and Prevention and the creation of a new African Medicines Agency that will be analogous to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Varma explained. (nap.edu)
  • van Heerden A, Barnabas RV, Norris SA, Micklesfield LK, van Rooyen H, Celum C. High prevalence of HIV and non-communicable disease (NCD) risk factors in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. (springer.com)
  • The Charles Perkins Centre at the University of Sydney is a unique interdisciplinary education and research hub which seeks solutions to chronic disease through a complex systems approach. (coursera.org)
  • Through preconception counseling , health professionals can work with at-risk women on lifestyle modification to minimize weight gain, which can also "set them up for a healthier pregnancy the next time around. (wilsoncenter.org)
  • Doctors and community health centers could help identify at-risk women before conception by tracking what Dr. Kathleen Hill, maternal health team lead for USAID's flagship Maternal Child Survival Program , called the "fifth vital sign": asking every female patient if she wants to be pregnant within the next year. (wilsoncenter.org)
  • This analysis highlights the impact of reducing risk factors on global health. (acc.org)
  • Periodic National Family Health Surveys provide information on selected risk factors during 2005-16 among adults aged 15-49 years. (waocp.org)
  • Background: To increase the global impact of health promotion related to non-communicable diseases, health professionals need evidence-based core competencies in health assessment and lifestyle behavior change. (diva-portal.org)
  • Summary: Assessment of the curricula in health professional education programs with respect to health promotion competencies is a compelling and potentially cost-effective initial means of preventing and reversing non-communicable diseases. (diva-portal.org)
  • BACKGROUND The epidemic of cardiovascular diseases in Chile, requires the development of strategies in health promotion and prevention. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The entire family should be involved in the process of maintaining good health and disease prevention for all family members. (emerald.com)
  • CDC's Global Noncommunicable Disease Program will work throughout the agency and alongside partners to implement mobile phone surveys in ten countries and test whether using mobile phones to collect health data is useful. (cdc.gov)
  • New York City had also taken the lead in promoting healthier eating habits, as part of its overall efforts to make reduction of non-communicable diseases a public health priority, he said. (un.org)
  • Allowing that trend to continue would be "a calamity of the first magnitude", he said, calling on Governments at all levels to prioritize the fight against the global health epidemic and non-communicable diseases. (un.org)
  • Echoing Mr. Bloomberg's concerns, General Assembly President Nassir Abdulaziz Al-Nasser said the public health pendulum had swung too far, focusing too much on a few diseases, while denying attention and help to those who suffered and died from less dramatic but no less fatal diseases of the body and mind. (un.org)
  • Burden of disease studies-crucial for informing public health policies. (hrbchdr.com)
  • I really learnt alot on introduction to global health, from learning the greatest challenges in healthcare to Global burden of diseases. (coursera.org)
  • An excellent foundation […], we must act together to carry out its provisions and bring non-communicable diseases into our broader global health and development agenda," he declared. (un.org)
  • The Assembly noted with "grave concern" the vicious cycle by which poverty, chronic diseases and other risk factors fed off each other, creating a deadly spiral of sickness and deprivation, which, among other things, negatively affected women, exacerbated the impacts of HIV/AIDS, wreaked havoc on fragile health-care systems and undermined development gains. (un.org)
  • Air pollution also has emerged as a growing health risk in India, which has some of the most polluted air in the world. (eurekalert.org)
  • Urbanization and aging have led to increasing poor health conditions related to non-communicable diseases in all states. (eurekalert.org)
  • Varma stated that discussions of diseases or health challenges with policy makers should be linked to the concepts of universal health care and health security. (nap.edu)
  • Populations with lower schooling levels and lack of private health insurance present higher prevalence of various NCD and greater degrees of limitation due to these diseases. (springer.com)
  • Non-Communicable Diseases (NCD), or chronic diseases, are one of the main health problems worldwide. (springer.com)
  • A World Health Organisation (W.H.O.) report estimates that about 70-80 per cent of patients seen by health professionals in Samoa have non-communicable diseases. (samoaobserver.ws)
  • Identifying those at risk of developing such diseases could prevent the development of serious, debilitating, fatal and or costly health conditions later in life. (samoaobserver.ws)
  • Chronic diseases pose an ever-increasing challenge to all health care systems. (wma.net)
  • Strengthening health systems and effective preventative measures for disease in general would see an improvement in healthcare in general. (wma.net)
  • Top health officials from the 20 leading and emerging economies are planning to simulate their response to a possible global disease outbreak. (kff.org)
  • Subjects in the NCD Risks group not already receiving care for the condition will be referred to a primary health clinic for care. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In an exploration project together with Microsoft Research, indices for each risk factor were built and tracked over time on Twitter data and internet search traffic for keywords such as 'stop smoking' were also analyzed. (unglobalpulse.org)