Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Atherosclerosis: A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Metabolic Syndrome X: A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.United StatesLogistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Dyslipidemias: Abnormalities in the serum levels of LIPIDS, including overproduction or deficiency. Abnormal serum lipid profiles may include high total CHOLESTEROL, high TRIGLYCERIDES, low HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL, and elevated LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Diabetes Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with the disease of diabetes mellitus. Due to the impaired control of BLOOD GLUCOSE level in diabetic patients, pathological processes develop in numerous tissues and organs including the EYE, the KIDNEY, the BLOOD VESSELS, and the NERVE TISSUE.Cholesterol, HDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Homocysteine: A thiol-containing amino acid formed by a demethylation of METHIONINE.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cholesterol, LDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Cause of Death: Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.JapanQuestionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Hypercholesterolemia: A condition with abnormally high levels of CHOLESTEROL in the blood. It is defined as a cholesterol value exceeding the 95th percentile for the population.TriglyceridesDiabetic Angiopathies: VASCULAR DISEASES that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS.Hyperlipidemias: Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Primary Prevention: Specific practices for the prevention of disease or mental disorders in susceptible individuals or populations. These include HEALTH PROMOTION, including mental health; protective procedures, such as COMMUNICABLE DISEASE CONTROL; and monitoring and regulation of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS. Primary prevention is to be distinguished from SECONDARY PREVENTION and TERTIARY PREVENTION.Coronary Artery Disease: Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Kidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Calcinosis: Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.Arteriosclerosis: Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.Vascular Diseases: Pathological processes involving any of the BLOOD VESSELS in the cardiac or peripheral circulation. They include diseases of ARTERIES; VEINS; and rest of the vasculature system in the body.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Cardiovascular System: The HEART and the BLOOD VESSELS by which BLOOD is pumped and circulated through the body.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Hypolipidemic Agents: Substances that lower the levels of certain LIPIDS in the BLOOD. They are used to treat HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.Risk Reduction Behavior: Reduction of high-risk choices and adoption of low-risk quantity and frequency alternatives.Waist Circumference: The measurement around the body at the level of the ABDOMEN and just above the hip bone. The measurement is usually taken immediately after exhalation.Carotid Arteries: Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.Tunica Media: The middle layer of blood vessel walls, composed principally of thin, cylindrical, smooth muscle cells and elastic tissue. It accounts for the bulk of the wall of most arteries. The smooth muscle cells are arranged in circular layers around the vessel, and the thickness of the coat varies with the size of the vessel.Carotid Intima-Media Thickness: A measurement of the thickness of the carotid artery walls. It is measured by B-mode ULTRASONOGRAPHY and is used as a surrogate marker for ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.African Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit HMG-CoA reductases. They have been shown to directly lower cholesterol synthesis.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Mortality: All deaths reported in a given population.Carotid Artery Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Tunica Intima: The innermost layer of an artery or vein, made up of one layer of endothelial cells and supported by an internal elastic lamina.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Heart Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.Antihypertensive Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.Hyperhomocysteinemia: Condition in which the plasma levels of homocysteine and related metabolites are elevated (>13.9 µmol/l). Hyperhomocysteinemia can be familial or acquired. Development of the acquired hyperhomocysteinemia is mostly associated with vitamins B and/or folate deficiency (e.g., PERNICIOUS ANEMIA, vitamin malabsorption). Familial hyperhomocysteinemia often results in a more severe elevation of total homocysteine and excretion into the urine, resulting in HOMOCYSTINURIA. Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, osteoporotic fractures and complications during pregnancy.Metabolic Diseases: Generic term for diseases caused by an abnormal metabolic process. It can be congenital due to inherited enzyme abnormality (METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS) or acquired due to disease of an endocrine organ or failure of a metabolically important organ such as the liver. (Stedman, 26th ed)Kidney Diseases: Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.Epidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.Asian Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.Cerebrovascular Disorders: A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).SwedenFinlandNetherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Albuminuria: The presence of albumin in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Cardiovascular Agents: Agents that affect the rate or intensity of cardiac contraction, blood vessel diameter, or blood volume.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Brachial Artery: The continuation of the axillary artery; it branches into the radial and ulnar arteries.Fibrinogen: Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Renal Dialysis: Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Overweight: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Myocardial Ischemia: A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Waist-Hip Ratio: The waist circumference measurement divided by the hip circumference measurement. For both men and women, a waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) of 1.0 or higher is considered "at risk" for undesirable health consequences, such as heart disease and ailments associated with OVERWEIGHT. A healthy WHR is 0.90 or less for men, and 0.80 or less for women. (National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2004)Renal Insufficiency, Chronic: Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level for more than three months. Chronic kidney insufficiency is classified by five stages according to the decline in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA). The most severe form is the end-stage renal disease (CHRONIC KIDNEY FAILURE). (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002)Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Uric Acid: An oxidation product, via XANTHINE OXIDASE, of oxypurines such as XANTHINE and HYPOXANTHINE. It is the final oxidation product of purine catabolism in humans and primates, whereas in most other mammals URATE OXIDASE further oxidizes it to ALLANTOIN.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Women's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.Glomerular Filtration Rate: The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Lipoprotein(a): A lipoprotein that resembles the LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS but with an extra protein moiety, APOPROTEIN (A) also known as APOLIPOPROTEIN (A), linked to APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100 on the LDL by one or two disulfide bonds. High plasma level of lipoprotein (a) is associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.Obesity, Abdominal: A condition of having excess fat in the abdomen. Abdominal obesity is typically defined as waist circumferences of 40 inches or more in men and 35 inches or more in women. Abdominal obesity raises the risk of developing disorders, such as diabetes, hypertension and METABOLIC SYNDROME X.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Peripheral Vascular Diseases: Pathological processes involving any one of the BLOOD VESSELS in the vasculature outside the HEART.BrazilRural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Food Habits: Acquired or learned food preferences.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Nutrition Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.Folic Acid: A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.Morbidity: The proportion of patients with a particular disease during a given year per given unit of population.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Aspirin: The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)Carotid Artery, Common: The two principal arteries supplying the structures of the head and neck. They ascend in the neck, one on each side, and at the level of the upper border of the thyroid cartilage, each divides into two branches, the external (CAROTID ARTERY, EXTERNAL) and internal (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL) carotid arteries.Causality: The relating of causes to the effects they produce. Causes are termed necessary when they must always precede an effect and sufficient when they initiate or produce an effect. Any of several factors may be associated with the potential disease causation or outcome, including predisposing factors, enabling factors, precipitating factors, reinforcing factors, and risk factors.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated: Minor hemoglobin components of human erythrocytes designated A1a, A1b, and A1c. Hemoglobin A1c is most important since its sugar moiety is glucose covalently bound to the terminal amino acid of the beta chain. Since normal glycohemoglobin concentrations exclude marked blood glucose fluctuations over the preceding three to four weeks, the concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin A is a more reliable index of the blood sugar average over a long period of time.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Lipoproteins: Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.Epidemiologic Studies: Studies designed to examine associations, commonly, hypothesized causal relations. They are usually concerned with identifying or measuring the effects of risk factors or exposures. The common types of analytic study are CASE-CONTROL STUDIES; COHORT STUDIES; and CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Indians, North American: Individual members of North American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia.Anticholesteremic Agents: Substances used to lower plasma CHOLESTEROL levels.Vegetables: A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.DenmarkVasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.IndiaInsulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.GermanyHispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.Adiponectin: A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Great BritainCreatinineHypertriglyceridemia: A condition of elevated levels of TRIGLYCERIDES in the blood.Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System: Telephone surveys are conducted to monitor prevalence of the major behavioral risks among adults associated with premature MORBIDITY and MORTALITY. The data collected is in regard to actual behaviors, rather than on attitudes or knowledge. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) established the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) in 1984.Physical Fitness: The ability to carry out daily tasks and perform physical activities in a highly functional state, often as a result of physical conditioning.ItalyContinental Population Groups: Groups of individuals whose putative ancestry is from native continental populations based on similarities in physical appearance.NorwayEstrogen Replacement Therapy: The use of hormonal agents with estrogen-like activity in postmenopausal or other estrogen-deficient women to alleviate effects of hormone deficiency, such as vasomotor symptoms, DYSPAREUNIA, and progressive development of OSTEOPOROSIS. This may also include the use of progestational agents in combination therapy.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Fatty Acids, Omega-3: A group of fatty acids, often of marine origin, which have the first unsaturated bond in the third position from the omega carbon. These fatty acids are believed to reduce serum triglycerides, prevent insulin resistance, improve lipid profile, prolong bleeding times, reduce platelet counts, and decrease platelet adhesiveness.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Diagnostic Techniques, Cardiovascular: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases or dysfunction of the cardiovascular system or its organs or demonstration of their physiological processes.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.MassachusettsWeight Loss: Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Vascular Stiffness: Loss of vascular ELASTICITY due to factors such as AGING; and ARTERIOSCLEROSIS. Increased arterial stiffness is one of the RISK FACTORS for many CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Diet, Mediterranean: A diet typical of the Mediterranean region characterized by a pattern high in fruits and vegetables, EDIBLE GRAIN and bread, potatoes, poultry, beans, nuts, olive oil and fish while low in red meat and dairy and moderate in alcohol consumption.
"Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors". Retrieved 2012-05-03.. *^ "Lower your cholesterol". National Health Service. Retrieved ... Cardiovascular disease[edit]. Main article: Saturated fat and cardiovascular disease. There are strong, consistent, and graded ... which in turn is a risk factor for some types of cardiovascular disease.[50][51][52][53][54] ... which may be caused by many factors, are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.[56][57] However, other ...
"Journal of the American Heart Association: Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease. 4 (9). ISSN 2047-9980. PMC 4599506 . ... Risk factors[edit]. Hypertension, or abnormally high blood pressure, often signifies an elevated level of both psychological ... Sometimes the PACs can indicate heart disease or an increased risk for other cardiac arrhythmias. In this case the underlying ... risk factor for complications, and potential therapeutic target". The American Journal of Cardiology. 91: 9-14 - via Elsevier ...
"Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors". Retrieved 2012-05-03. "Lower your cholesterol". National Health Service. Retrieved 2012- ... The consumption of saturated fat is generally considered a risk factor for dyslipidemia, which in turn is a risk factor for ... advise that saturated fat is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The World Health Organization in May 2015 recommends ... Many reviews recommend a diet low in saturated fat and argue it will lower risks of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, or death ...
"Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors". Retrieved 2012-05-03. "Lower your cholesterol". National Health Service. Retrieved 2012- ... In particular many fast foods are high in saturated fats which are widely held to be a risk factor in heart disease. In 2010, ... Besides the risks posed by trans fats, high caloric intake, and low fiber intake, another cited health risk is food poisoning. ... and consequently have a higher risk of becoming obese. Fast food is only a minuscule factor that contributes to childhood ...
Jun 1999). "Impaired glucose tolerance is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, but not impaired fasting glucose. The ... are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Of the two, impaired glucose tolerance better predicts cardiovascular disease ... Earlier and more frequent screening should be conducted in at-risk individuals. The risk factors for which are listed below: * ... "Association between prediabetes and risk of cardiovascular disease and all cause mortality: systematic review and meta-analysis ...
Phillips GB (July 1978). "Sex hormones, risk factors and cardiovascular disease". The American Journal of Medicine. 65 (1): 7- ... It has not been contested that cardiovascular risk factors tend to cluster together; the matter of contention has been the ... Metabolic syndrome is associated with the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. In the US about a ... HPA-axis dysfunction may explain the reported risk indication of abdominal obesity to cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 ...
Risk Factors, and Cardiovascular Disease". Scandinavian Journal of Work and Environmental Health. 25 (2): 85-99. doi:10.5271/ ... cardiovascular disease, breast cancer, miscarriage, preterm birth, and low birth weight of their newborns. Chronic sleep ... Another study found that the 2003 ACGME reform restrictions were associated with a small reduction in the relative risk for ... fixed nights increase the odds by a factor of 3. The public and the medical education establishment recognize that long hours ...
"Duration of lactation and risk factors for maternal cardiovascular disease". Obstetrics & Gynecology. 113 (5): 974-82. doi: ... Adults who were breastfed as babies may be less likely to develop risk factors for heart disease such as obesity and high blood ... "Breastfeeding during infancy and the risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood". Epidemiology. 15 (5): 550-556. doi:10.1097/ ... There are benefits for mothers too: women who don't breastfeed have increased risk of developing heart disease, hypertension, ...
... is associated with an increased risk of death in general, particularly from cardiovascular disease.[8][11] ... Risk factors[edit]. The incidence of diabetic nephropathy is higher in diabetics with one or more of the following conditions:[ ... It is associated with an increased risk of death in general, particularly from cardiovascular disease.[8][25] ... Lewis G, Maxwell AP (2014). "Risk factor control is key in diabetic nephropathy". Practitioner. 258 (1768): 13-7, 2. PMID ...
Hyperuricemia may increase risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Hyperuricemia may be a consequence of insulin resistance in ... Borghi, C.; Verardi, F. M.; Pareo, I.; Bentivenga, C.; Cicero, A. F. (2014). "Hyperuricemia and cardiovascular disease risk". ... "High serum uric acid as a novel risk factor for type 2 diabetes". Diabetes Care. 31 (2): 361-362. doi:10.2337/dc07-1276. PMID ... Moderate intake of purine-rich vegetables, however, is not associated with an increased risk of gout. One treatment for gout in ...
Cardiovascular disease markers or risk factors?". World Journal of Cardiology. 7 (8): 449-53. doi:10.4330/wjc.v7.i8.449. ISSN ... A review of the UKPDS, ACCORD (Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes), ADVANCE and VADT (Veterans Affairs Diabetes ... Practitioners must consider an individual patient's health, their risk of hypoglycemia, and their specific health risks when ... increase the risk of long-term vascular complications of diabetes such as coronary disease, heart attack, stroke, heart failure ...
"Is prehypertension a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases?". Stroke. 36 (9): 1859-63. doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000177495.45580.f1 ... A primary risk factor for prehypertension is being overweight. Other risk factors include a family history of hypertension, a ... November 2001). "Impact of high-normal blood pressure on the risk of cardiovascular disease". N. Engl. J. Med. 345 (18): 1291-7 ... February 2007). "Prehypertension and cardiovascular disease risk in the Women's Health Initiative". Circulation. 115 (7): 855- ...
Barrett-Connor, E. (1995). "Testosterone and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in men". Diabete Metab. 21 (3): 156-61. ... Anabolic steroids such as testosterone also increase the risk of cardiovascular disease or coronary artery disease. Acne is ... Along with this the use of anabolic steroids also leads to an increased risk for prostate cancer. Female-specific side effects ... Tokar, Steve (February 2006). "Liver Damage And Increased Heart Attack Risk Caused By Anabolic Steroid Use". University of ...
As of 2014 it appeared that with respect to the risk of death for people with cardiovascular disease, the kind of carbohydrates ... "Effects of Ketogenic Diets on Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Evidence from Animal and Human Studies". Nutrients. 9 (5): e517. doi ... low-fat diets on body weight and cardiovascular risk factors: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials". The British ... diets relatively higher in fiber and whole grains lead to reduced risk of death from cardiovascular disease compared to diets ...
"Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors". World Heart Federation. 2017년 5월 30일. 2012년 5월 3일에 확인함.. ... Labarthe D (2011). 》Chapter 17 What Causes Cardiovascular Diseases?》. 》Epidemiology and prevention of cardiovascular disease: a ... 2006). "Low-fat dietary pattern and risk of cardiovascular disease: the Women's Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Dietary ... "Saturated Fat and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors, Coronary Heart Disease, Stroke, and Diabetes: a Fresh Look at the Evidence". 》 ...
... better chronic disease state management, including hypertension and other cardiovascular disease risk factors;[7] strong ... "Impact of pharmacist care in the management of cardiovascular disease risk factors: a systematic review and meta-analysis of ... Participate in the evaluation and management of diseases and health conditions in collaboration with other health care ... specialized monitoring of disease states, such as dosing drugs in kidney and liver failure ...
Saleh, Jumana (2015-08-26). "Glycated hemoglobin and its spinoffs: Cardiovascular disease markers or risk factors?". World ... A review of the UKPDS, ACCORD (Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes), ADVANCE and VADT (Veterans Affairs Diabetes ... Practitioners must consider an individual patient's health, their risk of hypoglycemia, and their specific health risks when ... increase the risk of long-term vascular complications of diabetes such as coronary disease, heart attack, stroke, heart failure ...
May 1999). "Influence of pattern of drinking on cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular risk factors--a review". Addiction. ... Other risk factors that influence the development of alcohol abuse or alcoholism include social and genetic factors. Several ... are known potent risk factors for suicide.[8] Binge drinking is also associated with an increased risk of unplanned sex, ... Dec 2008). "Cardiovascular risk is more related to drinking pattern than to the type of alcoholic drinks". Neth J Med. 66 (11 ...
Ellen Dornelas Dimsdale, D.E. (2008). Psychological stress and cardiovascular disease. Journal of the American College of ... and management of psychosocial risk factors in cardiac practice. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 45, 637-51 ... Dimsdale, D.E. (2008). Psychological stress and cardiovascular disease. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 51, 1237 ... and management of psychosocial risk factors in cardiac practice. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 45, 637-51. ...
As of 2014 it appeared that with respect to the risk of death for people with cardiovascular disease, the kind of carbohydrates ... The study found the LCD was shown to have favorable effects on body weight and major cardiovascular risk factors (but concluded ... A 2012 systematic review studying the effects of low-carbohydrate diet on weight loss and cardiovascular risk factors showed ... Hu, T; Bazzano, LA (April 2014). "The low-carbohydrate diet and cardiovascular risk factors: evidence from epidemiologic ...
These are also risk factors for renal disease progression and for cardiovascular disease. Diabetes has several complications of ... renal disease, and peripheral arterial disease. It is the most important risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality ... Hypertension is a risk factor for renal injury and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Renal risk appears to be more closely ... Hypertension is a risk factor for all clinical manifestations of atherosclerosis since it is a risk factor for atherosclerosis ...
"Inflammation and Infection Do Not Promote Arterial Aging and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Lean Horticulturalists" ... "Age Doesn't Mean Heart Disease For Bolivian Tribe". NPR. Retrieved 2009-08-14.. Missing or empty ,series=. (help). ... it appears that they do not develop heart disease as they age in the same ways as people in the developed world.[8] [9] ... "An epigenetic clock analysis of race/ethnicity, sex, and coronary heart disease". Genome Biol. 17 (1): 171. doi:10.1186/s13059 ...
LDL levels are a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. A phase 2b study of statin patients was presented at the 2014 ... The Phase 3 SPIRE trials plan to enroll 17,000 patients to measure cardiovascular risk.[needs update] High risk and statin ...
This leads to obesity, which is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, studies have shown that consuming ... "Cardiovascular disease resulting from a diet and lifestyle at odds with our paleolithic genome: how to become a 21st-century ... Malaria, a mosquito-borne infectious disease of humans and other animals, is a potentially deadly disease that causes fever, ... leaving behind the detrimental effects of the disease. Evolutionary baggage from our ancestors may be causing disease in ...
"Parental cardiovascular disease as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in middle-aged adults: a prospective study of ... the aggregate effect of genes on cardiovascular disease risk beyond that of traditional cardiovascular risk factors has not ... Psychosocial factors affect risk of heart disease.. 1980s. High levels of HDL cholesterol reduce risk of heart disease. No ... Overview of the risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Wilson PWF. In: UpToDate [Textbook of Medicine]. Basow DS (Ed). ...
A risk exists of muscle damage (myopathy and rhabdomyolysis) with statins. Hypercholesterolemia is not a risk factor for ... cardiovascular risk, and the liver and kidney functions of the patient, evaluated against the balancing of risks and benefits ... Pollack, Andrew (29 January 2013) F.D.A. Approves Genetic Drug to Treat Rare Disease The New York Times, Retrieved 31 January ... Similar to statins, the risk of muscle damage exists.. *Niacin, like fibrates, is also well suited for lowering triglycerides ...
... *"Stop, Drop, and Roll" - The Technical Substantiation Behind Public Fire ... Fire Protection Research Foundation report: "Risk Factors for Fire Fighter Cardiovascular Disease - Executive Summary" (PDF, ... Data on traditional risk factors as well as new biomarkers were collected and analyzed to determine their ability to predict ... Current screening tests are not adequate to identify firefighters at high risk of an on-duty cardiovascular event. ...
Risk factors for developing cardiovascular disease in women Investigación y Educación en Enfermería ... Factors in the Transition from Legal to Illicit Drug Use in Young Adults from Northern Mexico - Duration: 1:01. Investigación y ... Influential Factors in Adherence to the Therapeutic Regime in Hypertension and Diabetes - Duration: 2:29. Investigación y ... State of Mental Health and Associated Factors in Nursing Students from Southeastern Iran - Duration: 1:40. Investigación y ...
Daskalopoulou S.S., Mikhailidis D.P. (2018) Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Peripheral Arterial Disease. In: Geroulakos G., ... Cardiovascular disease and risk management. Sec. 9. In standards of medical care in diabetes 2017. Diabetes Care. 2017;40(Suppl ... European guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice. Eur Heart J. 2003;24:1601-10.CrossRefPubMed ... Smoking and vascular risk: are all forms of smoking harmful to all types of vascular disease? Public Health. 2013;127:435-41. ...
Get the facts on how to manage heart disease here. Also learn about causes, risk factors, and the general outlook for people ... Heart disease is a broad term that covers many heart-related problems and conditions, from an abnormal heartbeat and birth ... What causes heart disease?. Heart disease is a collection of diseases and conditions that cause cardiovascular problems. Each ... What are some risk factors for heart disease?. There are many risk factors for heart disease. Some are controllable, and others ...
... Adam A. Lucero,1 Danielle M. Lambrick,2 James A. ... Adam A. Lucero, Danielle M. Lambrick, James A. Faulkner, et al., "Modifiable Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among ...
... are associated with smaller regional brain volumes that may be early indicators of Alzheimers disease and dementia according ... Specific cardiovascular risk factors, such as alcohol consumption, smoking, obesity and diabetes, ... Prior studies have linked cardiovascular risk factors and cognitive decline, but the new study focused on specific risk factors ... Specific cardiovascular risk factors may predict Alzheimers disease. Radiological Society of North America ...
Early fetal growth and risk factors for cardiovascular disease BMJ 2014; 348 :g175 ... Early fetal growth and risk factors for cardiovascular disease. BMJ 2014; 348 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.g175 (Published ... 1 Why would anyone link growth of the fetus in the first trimester to risk factors for the cardiovascular killers of middle age ... have concluded that fetal growth restriction is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular-and many other-diseases in ...
... prevention of cardiovascular disease with a heavy emphasis on risk factor modification. Cardiovascular Innovations and ... The recognition that psychosocial risk factors contribute to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease has led to the ... and a pathophysiological basis for a strong link between a number of psychosocial risk factors and cardiovascular disease, ... effective control and rehabilitation in cardiovascular disease, and promote cardiovascular innovations and applications for the ...
FIGURE 2. Values for Million Hearts community-level risk factors for cardiovascular disease among adults - United States, 2005- ... TABLE 2. Current values for Million Hearts community-level risk factors for cardiovascular disease among adults - United States ... Million Hearts: Prevalence of Leading Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors - United States, 2005-2012. Matthew D. Ritchey, DPT1 ... Million Hearts: strategies to reduce the prevalence of leading cardiovascular disease risk factors-United States, 2011. MMWR ...
Cardiovascular risk factors in childhood and carotid artery intima-media thickness in adulthood: the Cardiovascular Risk in ... Prevalence of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Among US Adolescents, 1999−2008. Ashleigh L. May, Elena V. Kuklina, Paula W. ... Overweight and obesity during adolescence are associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. ... Prevalence of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Among US Adolescents, 1999−2008. Ashleigh L. May, Elena V. Kuklina, Paula W. ...
Intergenerational cardiovascular disease risk factors involve both maternal and paternal BMI.. Labayen I1, Ruiz JR, Ortega FB, ... Intergenerational Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Involve Both Maternal and Paternal BMI. Diabetes Care. 2010 Apr;33(4):894 ... To examine the association between parental BMI and offspring cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. ... CVD risk factors included total (sum of five skinfolds) and central (waist circumference) body fat, blood pressure, ...
Breastfeeding in infancy and adult cardiovascular disease risk factors.. Parikh NI1, Hwang SJ, Ingelsson E, Benjamin EJ, Fox CS ... Several prior studies relating breastfeeding to cardiovascular risk factors have been limited by lack of adjustment for ... and cardiovascular risk factors.. RESULTS: In Third Generation participants (n = 962, mean age = 41 years, 54% were women), 26 ... and cardiovascular risk factors, including body mass index (BMI), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, total cholesterol ...
... Tanuseputro P, Manuel DG, Leung M, Nguyen K, Johansen H; Canadian ... Background - This paper provides an update of the prevalence of important cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in ... the actual burden of disease caused by a risk factor is also modified by the magnitude of the increased risk to mortality and ... To improve awareness of the impact of CVD risk factor variations on disease burden, smoking-attributable mortality (SAM) has ...
... should be mindful of risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The results, published in the Journal of the American Geriatric ... Targeting cardiovascular disease risk factors may be important across a lifetime NIH-funded study suggests efforts to prevent ... Targeting cardiovascular disease risk factors may be important across a lifetime. NIH/National Institute of Neurological ... "The latest findings from the REGARDS study reveal that no age group is immune to risk factors related to cardiovascular disease ...
... for Cardiovascular Disease in the Queensland Construction Industry Behavioural Risk Factors (SNAPO) for Cardiovascular Disease ... Behavioural Risk Factors (SNAPO) for Cardiovascular Disease in the Queensland Construction Industry. ... industry and individual barriers to minimising behavioural risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Griffith was successful in ... in Queensland as a high-risk industry due to a higher-than-average prevalence of a number of chronic disease risk factors. ...
Gestational Hypertension and Preeclampsia: Nontraditional Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease. A Cardio-Endo Connection ... Increasing among women and more impactful traditional risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) include ... Source Reference: Sharma G "Gestational Hypertension and Preeclampsia: Nontraditional Risk Factors For Cardiovascular Disease" ... High-risk co-management clinics for postpartum cardiovascular disease counseling need to be created, with the participation of ...
Family composition should be considered when family CVD risk factors are used to predic … ... Correlations of cardiovascular disease risk factors between African American siblings J Pediatr. 2000 Apr;136(4):511-9. doi: ... Study design: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors were assessed in 267 pairs of African American siblings (visit 1) and ... Family composition should be considered when family CVD risk factors are used to predict CVD risk in children. ...
For better preventive strategies we aimed to investigate the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors and their ... The study established a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors in Estonian adults (20-65 years of age). Younger ... The prevalence of all risk factors increased with age amongst both genders. The proportion of individuals having increased ... More Russians and other ethnic minorities compared to ethnic Estonians had calculated 10-year CHD risk ≥ 10%.Conclusions: ...
Bloedon L, Balikai S, Chittams J, et al.. Flaxseed and Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Results from a Double Blind, Randomized, ... making it a possible functional food for reducing cardiovascular risk factors. A double blind, randomized, controlled clinical ... at the University of Pennsylvania Health System explored the effects of flaxseed on various cardiovascular risk factors in ...
CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS. For our analysis, we selected six cardiovascular risk factors that were of greatest concern to ... circumstances and adult cardiovascular disease have either ignored risk factor status7 or simply controlled for risk factor ... Mean values of risk factors for cardiovascular disease among 5645 working men by own social class and fathers social class ( ... Association of cardiovascular disease risk factors with socioeconomic position during childhood and during adulthood BMJ 1996; ...
... had larger associations with cardiovascular mortality than novel risk factors in elderly persons with chronic kidney disease. ... Future research should investigate whether aggressive lifestyle intervention in patients with chronic kidney disease can reduce ... Cardiovascular mortality risk in chronic kidney disease: comparison of traditional and novel risk factors JAMA. 2005 Apr 13;293 ... Traditional cardiovascular risk factors had larger associations with cardiovascular mortality than novel risk factors in ...
4. Appreciate the contemporary evidence base for cardiovascular risk and critically evaluate risk modification guidelines. ... Cardiovascular disease (CVD) continues to be the leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Students wishing to work in ... Knowledge and critical appraisal of core factors of CVD, from risk identification or diagnosis, to acute and chronic treatment ... 1. Relate cardiovascular disease processes to clinical manifestations and their impact upon normal function. ...
... more aggressive treatment for those at risk, including many with diabetes. ... to confirm an inherited form of heart disease can be done as part of the lipid panel analysis, and will assure quicker, ... Anuurad E, Boffa MB, Koschinsky ML, Berglund L. Lipoprotein(a): a unique risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Clin Lab Med. ... Lipoprotein(a)-An Independent Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease?. From PROMIS, genetic variants that were exclusively ...
Dietary Risk Factors of Cardiovascular Diseases. Wenbiao Wu. College of Food Science, Southwest University, PRC ... Home / Shop / Books / Medicine and Health / Dietary Risk Factors of Cardiovascular Diseases. ... There are several approved dietary risk factors for CVDs in our daily diets and foods. The dietary risk factors include ... It seems that the association of all these risk factors in blood with CVDs has been well established, though some controversial ...
Whereas the first module focuses on different physiological aspects of the heart and the cardiovascular system, the second ... Most cardiovascular diseases can be prevented by addressing behavioral risk factors, the understanding of these risk factors, ... Risk Factors and Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases. Whereas the first module focuses on different physiological aspects of ... independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. Studying the mechanisms by which it causes ...
  • Because it is a red processed meat and due to its nutritional composition, including high sodium content, a potential association between cured ham consumption and a higher risk of hypertension could be expected. (unav.edu)
  • Multivariable-adjusted Cox regression models were fitted to assess the association between cured ham consumption and subsequent hypertension risk using the category of lowest consumption as the reference. (unav.edu)
  • 1serv/week) was not significantly associated with hypertension risk in this prospective cohort (HR=0.88, 95% CI: 0.70-1.10, p linear trend=0.40). (unav.edu)
  • Conclusions: Our results showed that cured ham consumption was not associated with a significantly higher or lower risk of hypertension in a prospective cohort of Spanish middle-aged adult university graduates. (unav.edu)
  • Further longitudinal and experimental studies are needed to disentangle the association between cured ham consumption and the risk of hypertension. (unav.edu)
  • This study investigates the association between a multidimensional healthy lifestyle score and all-cause mortality risk, including in the score some less-studied lifestyle-related factors. (unav.edu)
  • Newswise - Hamilton, ON (September 2, 2013) - Despite living with the highest risk factors for heart disease, people in high income countries suffer less from serious cardiovascular disease, says an international study by the global PURE (Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology ) collaboration and led by McMaster University researchers. (newswise.com)
  • Although trends in some measures are encouraging, further reductions of CVD risk factors will be needed to meet Million Hearts goals by 2017. (cdc.gov)
  • The 2017 review showed that inadequately controlled trials (e.g., failing to control for other lifestyle factors) that were included in earlier meta-analyses explain the prior results. (wikipedia.org)
  • Certain biomarkers of cardiovascular disease may be risk factors for age-related macular degeneration (AMD), according to Andrew K. Vine, MD, FRCSC, who presented the results of a case-control study during the American Academy of Ophthalmology annual meeting. (ophthalmologytimes.com)
  • We therefore determined frequency and severity of MDD in CVD and studied whether MDD without CVD or other somatic diseases influences classical and inflammatory biomarkers of cardiovascular risk. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • GMS is supported a T32 training grant in Academic Nutrition (Grant Number DK007703) from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. (plos.org)
  • Alnaeb ME, Youssef F, Mikhailidis DP, Hamilton G. Short-term lipid-lowering treatment with atorvastatin improves renal function but not renal blood flow indices in patients with peripheral arterial disease. (springer.com)