Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Atherosclerosis: A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Metabolic Syndrome X: A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.United StatesLogistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Dyslipidemias: Abnormalities in the serum levels of LIPIDS, including overproduction or deficiency. Abnormal serum lipid profiles may include high total CHOLESTEROL, high TRIGLYCERIDES, low HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL, and elevated LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Diabetes Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with the disease of diabetes mellitus. Due to the impaired control of BLOOD GLUCOSE level in diabetic patients, pathological processes develop in numerous tissues and organs including the EYE, the KIDNEY, the BLOOD VESSELS, and the NERVE TISSUE.Cholesterol, HDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Homocysteine: A thiol-containing amino acid formed by a demethylation of METHIONINE.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cholesterol, LDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Cause of Death: Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.JapanQuestionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Hypercholesterolemia: A condition with abnormally high levels of CHOLESTEROL in the blood. It is defined as a cholesterol value exceeding the 95th percentile for the population.TriglyceridesDiabetic Angiopathies: VASCULAR DISEASES that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS.Hyperlipidemias: Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Primary Prevention: Specific practices for the prevention of disease or mental disorders in susceptible individuals or populations. These include HEALTH PROMOTION, including mental health; protective procedures, such as COMMUNICABLE DISEASE CONTROL; and monitoring and regulation of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS. Primary prevention is to be distinguished from SECONDARY PREVENTION and TERTIARY PREVENTION.Coronary Artery Disease: Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Kidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Calcinosis: Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.Arteriosclerosis: Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.Vascular Diseases: Pathological processes involving any of the BLOOD VESSELS in the cardiac or peripheral circulation. They include diseases of ARTERIES; VEINS; and rest of the vasculature system in the body.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Cardiovascular System: The HEART and the BLOOD VESSELS by which BLOOD is pumped and circulated through the body.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Hypolipidemic Agents: Substances that lower the levels of certain LIPIDS in the BLOOD. They are used to treat HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.Risk Reduction Behavior: Reduction of high-risk choices and adoption of low-risk quantity and frequency alternatives.Waist Circumference: The measurement around the body at the level of the ABDOMEN and just above the hip bone. The measurement is usually taken immediately after exhalation.Carotid Arteries: Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.Tunica Media: The middle layer of blood vessel walls, composed principally of thin, cylindrical, smooth muscle cells and elastic tissue. It accounts for the bulk of the wall of most arteries. The smooth muscle cells are arranged in circular layers around the vessel, and the thickness of the coat varies with the size of the vessel.Carotid Intima-Media Thickness: A measurement of the thickness of the carotid artery walls. It is measured by B-mode ULTRASONOGRAPHY and is used as a surrogate marker for ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.African Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit HMG-CoA reductases. They have been shown to directly lower cholesterol synthesis.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Mortality: All deaths reported in a given population.Carotid Artery Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Tunica Intima: The innermost layer of an artery or vein, made up of one layer of endothelial cells and supported by an internal elastic lamina.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Heart Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.Antihypertensive Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.Hyperhomocysteinemia: Condition in which the plasma levels of homocysteine and related metabolites are elevated (>13.9 µmol/l). Hyperhomocysteinemia can be familial or acquired. Development of the acquired hyperhomocysteinemia is mostly associated with vitamins B and/or folate deficiency (e.g., PERNICIOUS ANEMIA, vitamin malabsorption). Familial hyperhomocysteinemia often results in a more severe elevation of total homocysteine and excretion into the urine, resulting in HOMOCYSTINURIA. Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, osteoporotic fractures and complications during pregnancy.Metabolic Diseases: Generic term for diseases caused by an abnormal metabolic process. It can be congenital due to inherited enzyme abnormality (METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS) or acquired due to disease of an endocrine organ or failure of a metabolically important organ such as the liver. (Stedman, 26th ed)Kidney Diseases: Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.Epidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.Asian Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.Cerebrovascular Disorders: A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).SwedenFinlandNetherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Albuminuria: The presence of albumin in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Cardiovascular Agents: Agents that affect the rate or intensity of cardiac contraction, blood vessel diameter, or blood volume.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Brachial Artery: The continuation of the axillary artery; it branches into the radial and ulnar arteries.Fibrinogen: Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Renal Dialysis: Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Overweight: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Myocardial Ischemia: A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Waist-Hip Ratio: The waist circumference measurement divided by the hip circumference measurement. For both men and women, a waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) of 1.0 or higher is considered "at risk" for undesirable health consequences, such as heart disease and ailments associated with OVERWEIGHT. A healthy WHR is 0.90 or less for men, and 0.80 or less for women. (National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2004)Renal Insufficiency, Chronic: Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level for more than three months. Chronic kidney insufficiency is classified by five stages according to the decline in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA). The most severe form is the end-stage renal disease (CHRONIC KIDNEY FAILURE). (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002)Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Uric Acid: An oxidation product, via XANTHINE OXIDASE, of oxypurines such as XANTHINE and HYPOXANTHINE. It is the final oxidation product of purine catabolism in humans and primates, whereas in most other mammals URATE OXIDASE further oxidizes it to ALLANTOIN.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Women's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.Glomerular Filtration Rate: The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Lipoprotein(a): A lipoprotein that resembles the LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS but with an extra protein moiety, APOPROTEIN (A) also known as APOLIPOPROTEIN (A), linked to APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100 on the LDL by one or two disulfide bonds. High plasma level of lipoprotein (a) is associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.Obesity, Abdominal: A condition of having excess fat in the abdomen. Abdominal obesity is typically defined as waist circumferences of 40 inches or more in men and 35 inches or more in women. Abdominal obesity raises the risk of developing disorders, such as diabetes, hypertension and METABOLIC SYNDROME X.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Peripheral Vascular Diseases: Pathological processes involving any one of the BLOOD VESSELS in the vasculature outside the HEART.BrazilRural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Food Habits: Acquired or learned food preferences.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Nutrition Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.Folic Acid: A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.Morbidity: The proportion of patients with a particular disease during a given year per given unit of population.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Aspirin: The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)Carotid Artery, Common: The two principal arteries supplying the structures of the head and neck. They ascend in the neck, one on each side, and at the level of the upper border of the thyroid cartilage, each divides into two branches, the external (CAROTID ARTERY, EXTERNAL) and internal (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL) carotid arteries.Causality: The relating of causes to the effects they produce. Causes are termed necessary when they must always precede an effect and sufficient when they initiate or produce an effect. Any of several factors may be associated with the potential disease causation or outcome, including predisposing factors, enabling factors, precipitating factors, reinforcing factors, and risk factors.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated: Minor hemoglobin components of human erythrocytes designated A1a, A1b, and A1c. Hemoglobin A1c is most important since its sugar moiety is glucose covalently bound to the terminal amino acid of the beta chain. Since normal glycohemoglobin concentrations exclude marked blood glucose fluctuations over the preceding three to four weeks, the concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin A is a more reliable index of the blood sugar average over a long period of time.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Lipoproteins: Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.Epidemiologic Studies: Studies designed to examine associations, commonly, hypothesized causal relations. They are usually concerned with identifying or measuring the effects of risk factors or exposures. The common types of analytic study are CASE-CONTROL STUDIES; COHORT STUDIES; and CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Indians, North American: Individual members of North American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia.Anticholesteremic Agents: Substances used to lower plasma CHOLESTEROL levels.Vegetables: A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.DenmarkVasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.IndiaInsulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.GermanyHispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.Adiponectin: A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Great BritainCreatinineHypertriglyceridemia: A condition of elevated levels of TRIGLYCERIDES in the blood.Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System: Telephone surveys are conducted to monitor prevalence of the major behavioral risks among adults associated with premature MORBIDITY and MORTALITY. The data collected is in regard to actual behaviors, rather than on attitudes or knowledge. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) established the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) in 1984.Physical Fitness: The ability to carry out daily tasks and perform physical activities in a highly functional state, often as a result of physical conditioning.ItalyContinental Population Groups: Groups of individuals whose putative ancestry is from native continental populations based on similarities in physical appearance.NorwayEstrogen Replacement Therapy: The use of hormonal agents with estrogen-like activity in postmenopausal or other estrogen-deficient women to alleviate effects of hormone deficiency, such as vasomotor symptoms, DYSPAREUNIA, and progressive development of OSTEOPOROSIS. This may also include the use of progestational agents in combination therapy.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Fatty Acids, Omega-3: A group of fatty acids, often of marine origin, which have the first unsaturated bond in the third position from the omega carbon. These fatty acids are believed to reduce serum triglycerides, prevent insulin resistance, improve lipid profile, prolong bleeding times, reduce platelet counts, and decrease platelet adhesiveness.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Diagnostic Techniques, Cardiovascular: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases or dysfunction of the cardiovascular system or its organs or demonstration of their physiological processes.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.MassachusettsWeight Loss: Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Vascular Stiffness: Loss of vascular ELASTICITY due to factors such as AGING; and ARTERIOSCLEROSIS. Increased arterial stiffness is one of the RISK FACTORS for many CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Diet, Mediterranean: A diet typical of the Mediterranean region characterized by a pattern high in fruits and vegetables, EDIBLE GRAIN and bread, potatoes, poultry, beans, nuts, olive oil and fish while low in red meat and dairy and moderate in alcohol consumption.
"Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors". Retrieved 2012-05-03.. *^ "Lower your cholesterol". National Health Service. Retrieved ... Cardiovascular disease. Main article: Saturated fat and cardiovascular disease. There are strong, consistent, and graded ... which in turn is a risk factor for some types of cardiovascular disease. ... which may be caused by many factors, are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. However, other ...
"Journal of the American Heart Association: Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease. 4 (9). ISSN 2047-9980. PMC 4599506 . ... Risk factors. Hypertension, or abnormally high blood pressure, often signifies an elevated level of both psychological ... Sometimes the PACs can indicate heart disease or an increased risk for other cardiac arrhythmias. In this case the underlying ... risk factor for complications, and potential therapeutic target". The American Journal of Cardiology. 91: 9-14 - via Elsevier ...
"Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors". Retrieved 2012-05-03. "Lower your cholesterol". National Health Service. Retrieved 2012- ... The consumption of saturated fat is generally considered a risk factor for dyslipidemia, which in turn is a risk factor for ... advise that saturated fat is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The World Health Organization in May 2015 recommends ... Many reviews recommend a diet low in saturated fat and argue it will lower risks of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, or death ...
"Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors". Retrieved 2012-05-03. "Lower your cholesterol". National Health Service. Retrieved 2012- ... In particular many fast foods are high in saturated fats which are widely held to be a risk factor in heart disease. In 2010, ... Besides the risks posed by trans fats, high caloric intake, and low fiber intake, another cited health risk is food poisoning. ... and consequently have a higher risk of becoming obese. Fast food is only a minuscule factor that contributes to childhood ...
Jun 1999). "Impaired glucose tolerance is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, but not impaired fasting glucose. The ... are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Of the two, impaired glucose tolerance better predicts cardiovascular disease ... Earlier and more frequent screening should be conducted in at-risk individuals. The risk factors for which are listed below: * ... "Association between prediabetes and risk of cardiovascular disease and all cause mortality: systematic review and meta-analysis ...
Phillips GB (July 1978). "Sex hormones, risk factors and cardiovascular disease". The American Journal of Medicine. 65 (1): 7- ... It has not been contested that cardiovascular risk factors tend to cluster together; the matter of contention has been the ... Metabolic syndrome is associated with the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. In the US about a ... HPA-axis dysfunction may explain the reported risk indication of abdominal obesity to cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 ...
Risk Factors, and Cardiovascular Disease". Scandinavian Journal of Work and Environmental Health. 25 (2): 85-99. doi:10.5271/ ... cardiovascular disease, breast cancer, miscarriage, preterm birth, and low birth weight of their newborns. Chronic sleep ... Another study found that the 2003 ACGME reform restrictions were associated with a small reduction in the relative risk for ... fixed nights increase the odds by a factor of 3. The public and the medical education establishment recognize that long hours ...
"Duration of lactation and risk factors for maternal cardiovascular disease". Obstetrics & Gynecology. 113 (5): 974-82. doi: ... Adults who were breastfed as babies may be less likely to develop risk factors for heart disease such as obesity and high blood ... "Breastfeeding during infancy and the risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood". Epidemiology. 15 (5): 550-556. doi:10.1097/ ... There are benefits for mothers too: women who don't breastfeed have increased risk of developing heart disease, hypertension, ...
... is associated with an increased risk of death in general, particularly from cardiovascular disease. ... Risk factors. The incidence of diabetic nephropathy is higher in diabetics with one or more of the following conditions:[ ... It is associated with an increased risk of death in general, particularly from cardiovascular disease. ... Lewis G, Maxwell AP (2014). "Risk factor control is key in diabetic nephropathy". Practitioner. 258 (1768): 13-7, 2. PMID ...
Hyperuricemia may increase risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Hyperuricemia may be a consequence of insulin resistance in ... Borghi, C.; Verardi, F. M.; Pareo, I.; Bentivenga, C.; Cicero, A. F. (2014). "Hyperuricemia and cardiovascular disease risk". ... "High serum uric acid as a novel risk factor for type 2 diabetes". Diabetes Care. 31 (2): 361-362. doi:10.2337/dc07-1276. PMID ... Moderate intake of purine-rich vegetables, however, is not associated with an increased risk of gout. One treatment for gout in ...
Cardiovascular disease markers or risk factors?". World Journal of Cardiology. 7 (8): 449-53. doi:10.4330/wjc.v7.i8.449. ISSN ... A review of the UKPDS, ACCORD (Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes), ADVANCE and VADT (Veterans Affairs Diabetes ... Practitioners must consider an individual patient's health, their risk of hypoglycemia, and their specific health risks when ... increase the risk of long-term vascular complications of diabetes such as coronary disease, heart attack, stroke, heart failure ...
"Is prehypertension a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases?". Stroke. 36 (9): 1859-63. doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000177495.45580.f1 ... A primary risk factor for prehypertension is being overweight. Other risk factors include a family history of hypertension, a ... November 2001). "Impact of high-normal blood pressure on the risk of cardiovascular disease". N. Engl. J. Med. 345 (18): 1291-7 ... February 2007). "Prehypertension and cardiovascular disease risk in the Women's Health Initiative". Circulation. 115 (7): 855- ...
Barrett-Connor, E. (1995). "Testosterone and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in men". Diabete Metab. 21 (3): 156-61. ... Anabolic steroids such as testosterone also increase the risk of cardiovascular disease or coronary artery disease. Acne is ... Along with this the use of anabolic steroids also leads to an increased risk for prostate cancer. Female-specific side effects ... Tokar, Steve (February 2006). "Liver Damage And Increased Heart Attack Risk Caused By Anabolic Steroid Use". University of ...
As of 2014 it appeared that with respect to the risk of death for people with cardiovascular disease, the kind of carbohydrates ... "Effects of Ketogenic Diets on Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Evidence from Animal and Human Studies". Nutrients. 9 (5): e517. doi ... low-fat diets on body weight and cardiovascular risk factors: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials". The British ... diets relatively higher in fiber and whole grains lead to reduced risk of death from cardiovascular disease compared to diets ...
"Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors". World Heart Federation. 2017년 5월 30일. 2012년 5월 3일에 확인함.. ... Labarthe D (2011). 》Chapter 17 What Causes Cardiovascular Diseases?》. 》Epidemiology and prevention of cardiovascular disease: a ... 2006). "Low-fat dietary pattern and risk of cardiovascular disease: the Women's Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Dietary ... "Saturated Fat and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors, Coronary Heart Disease, Stroke, and Diabetes: a Fresh Look at the Evidence". 》 ...
... better chronic disease state management, including hypertension and other cardiovascular disease risk factors; strong ... "Impact of pharmacist care in the management of cardiovascular disease risk factors: a systematic review and meta-analysis of ... Participate in the evaluation and management of diseases and health conditions in collaboration with other health care ... specialized monitoring of disease states, such as dosing drugs in kidney and liver failure ...
Saleh, Jumana (2015-08-26). "Glycated hemoglobin and its spinoffs: Cardiovascular disease markers or risk factors?". World ... A review of the UKPDS, ACCORD (Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes), ADVANCE and VADT (Veterans Affairs Diabetes ... Practitioners must consider an individual patient's health, their risk of hypoglycemia, and their specific health risks when ... increase the risk of long-term vascular complications of diabetes such as coronary disease, heart attack, stroke, heart failure ...
May 1999). "Influence of pattern of drinking on cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular risk factors--a review". Addiction. ... Other risk factors that influence the development of alcohol abuse or alcoholism include social and genetic factors. Several ... are known potent risk factors for suicide. Binge drinking is also associated with an increased risk of unplanned sex, ... Dec 2008). "Cardiovascular risk is more related to drinking pattern than to the type of alcoholic drinks". Neth J Med. 66 (11 ...
Ellen Dornelas Dimsdale, D.E. (2008). Psychological stress and cardiovascular disease. Journal of the American College of ... and management of psychosocial risk factors in cardiac practice. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 45, 637-51 ... Dimsdale, D.E. (2008). Psychological stress and cardiovascular disease. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 51, 1237 ... and management of psychosocial risk factors in cardiac practice. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 45, 637-51. ...
As of 2014 it appeared that with respect to the risk of death for people with cardiovascular disease, the kind of carbohydrates ... The study found the LCD was shown to have favorable effects on body weight and major cardiovascular risk factors (but concluded ... A 2012 systematic review studying the effects of low-carbohydrate diet on weight loss and cardiovascular risk factors showed ... Hu, T; Bazzano, LA (April 2014). "The low-carbohydrate diet and cardiovascular risk factors: evidence from epidemiologic ...
These are also risk factors for renal disease progression and for cardiovascular disease. Diabetes has several complications of ... renal disease, and peripheral arterial disease. It is the most important risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality ... Hypertension is a risk factor for renal injury and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Renal risk appears to be more closely ... Hypertension is a risk factor for all clinical manifestations of atherosclerosis since it is a risk factor for atherosclerosis ...
"Inflammation and Infection Do Not Promote Arterial Aging and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Lean Horticulturalists" ... "Age Doesn't Mean Heart Disease For Bolivian Tribe". NPR. Retrieved 2009-08-14.. Missing or empty ,series=. (help). ... it appears that they do not develop heart disease as they age in the same ways as people in the developed world.  ... "An epigenetic clock analysis of race/ethnicity, sex, and coronary heart disease". Genome Biol. 17 (1): 171. doi:10.1186/s13059 ...
LDL levels are a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. A phase 2b study of statin patients was presented at the 2014 ... The Phase 3 SPIRE trials plan to enroll 17,000 patients to measure cardiovascular risk.[needs update] High risk and statin ...
This leads to obesity, which is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, studies have shown that consuming ... "Cardiovascular disease resulting from a diet and lifestyle at odds with our paleolithic genome: how to become a 21st-century ... Malaria, a mosquito-borne infectious disease of humans and other animals, is a potentially deadly disease that causes fever, ... leaving behind the detrimental effects of the disease. Evolutionary baggage from our ancestors may be causing disease in ...
"Parental cardiovascular disease as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in middle-aged adults: a prospective study of ... the aggregate effect of genes on cardiovascular disease risk beyond that of traditional cardiovascular risk factors has not ... Psychosocial factors affect risk of heart disease.. 1980s. High levels of HDL cholesterol reduce risk of heart disease. No ... Overview of the risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Wilson PWF. In: UpToDate [Textbook of Medicine]. Basow DS (Ed). ...
A risk exists of muscle damage (myopathy and rhabdomyolysis) with statins. Hypercholesterolemia is not a risk factor for ... cardiovascular risk, and the liver and kidney functions of the patient, evaluated against the balancing of risks and benefits ... Pollack, Andrew (29 January 2013) F.D.A. Approves Genetic Drug to Treat Rare Disease The New York Times, Retrieved 31 January ... Similar to statins, the risk of muscle damage exists.. *Niacin, like fibrates, is also well suited for lowering triglycerides ...
... *"Stop, Drop, and Roll" - The Technical Substantiation Behind Public Fire ... Fire Protection Research Foundation report: "Risk Factors for Fire Fighter Cardiovascular Disease - Executive Summary" (PDF, ... Data on traditional risk factors as well as new biomarkers were collected and analyzed to determine their ability to predict ... Current screening tests are not adequate to identify firefighters at high risk of an on-duty cardiovascular event. ...
Risk factors for developing cardiovascular disease in women Investigación y Educación en Enfermería ... Factors in the Transition from Legal to Illicit Drug Use in Young Adults from Northern Mexico - Duration: 1:01. Investigación y ... Influential Factors in Adherence to the Therapeutic Regime in Hypertension and Diabetes - Duration: 2:29. Investigación y ... State of Mental Health and Associated Factors in Nursing Students from Southeastern Iran - Duration: 1:40. Investigación y ...
Daskalopoulou S.S., Mikhailidis D.P. (2018) Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Peripheral Arterial Disease. In: Geroulakos G., ... Cardiovascular disease and risk management. Sec. 9. In standards of medical care in diabetes 2017. Diabetes Care. 2017;40(Suppl ... European guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice. Eur Heart J. 2003;24:1601-10.CrossRefPubMed ... Smoking and vascular risk: are all forms of smoking harmful to all types of vascular disease? Public Health. 2013;127:435-41. ...
Get the facts on how to manage heart disease here. Also learn about causes, risk factors, and the general outlook for people ... Heart disease is a broad term that covers many heart-related problems and conditions, from an abnormal heartbeat and birth ... What causes heart disease?. Heart disease is a collection of diseases and conditions that cause cardiovascular problems. Each ... What are some risk factors for heart disease?. There are many risk factors for heart disease. Some are controllable, and others ...
... Adam A. Lucero,1 Danielle M. Lambrick,2 James A. ... Adam A. Lucero, Danielle M. Lambrick, James A. Faulkner, et al., "Modifiable Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among ...
... are associated with smaller regional brain volumes that may be early indicators of Alzheimers disease and dementia according ... Specific cardiovascular risk factors, such as alcohol consumption, smoking, obesity and diabetes, ... Prior studies have linked cardiovascular risk factors and cognitive decline, but the new study focused on specific risk factors ... Specific cardiovascular risk factors may predict Alzheimers disease. Radiological Society of North America ...
Early fetal growth and risk factors for cardiovascular disease BMJ 2014; 348 :g175 ... Early fetal growth and risk factors for cardiovascular disease. BMJ 2014; 348 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.g175 (Published ... 1 Why would anyone link growth of the fetus in the first trimester to risk factors for the cardiovascular killers of middle age ... have concluded that fetal growth restriction is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular-and many other-diseases in ...
... prevention of cardiovascular disease with a heavy emphasis on risk factor modification. Cardiovascular Innovations and ... The recognition that psychosocial risk factors contribute to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease has led to the ... and a pathophysiological basis for a strong link between a number of psychosocial risk factors and cardiovascular disease, ... effective control and rehabilitation in cardiovascular disease, and promote cardiovascular innovations and applications for the ...
FIGURE 2. Values for Million Hearts community-level risk factors for cardiovascular disease among adults - United States, 2005- ... TABLE 2. Current values for Million Hearts community-level risk factors for cardiovascular disease among adults - United States ... Million Hearts: Prevalence of Leading Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors - United States, 2005-2012. Matthew D. Ritchey, DPT1 ... Million Hearts: strategies to reduce the prevalence of leading cardiovascular disease risk factors-United States, 2011. MMWR ...
Cardiovascular risk factors in childhood and carotid artery intima-media thickness in adulthood: the Cardiovascular Risk in ... Prevalence of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Among US Adolescents, 1999−2008. Ashleigh L. May, Elena V. Kuklina, Paula W. ... Overweight and obesity during adolescence are associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. ... Prevalence of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Among US Adolescents, 1999−2008. Ashleigh L. May, Elena V. Kuklina, Paula W. ...
Intergenerational cardiovascular disease risk factors involve both maternal and paternal BMI.. Labayen I1, Ruiz JR, Ortega FB, ... Intergenerational Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Involve Both Maternal and Paternal BMI. Diabetes Care. 2010 Apr;33(4):894 ... To examine the association between parental BMI and offspring cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. ... CVD risk factors included total (sum of five skinfolds) and central (waist circumference) body fat, blood pressure, ...
Breastfeeding in infancy and adult cardiovascular disease risk factors.. Parikh NI1, Hwang SJ, Ingelsson E, Benjamin EJ, Fox CS ... Several prior studies relating breastfeeding to cardiovascular risk factors have been limited by lack of adjustment for ... and cardiovascular risk factors.. RESULTS: In Third Generation participants (n = 962, mean age = 41 years, 54% were women), 26 ... and cardiovascular risk factors, including body mass index (BMI), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, total cholesterol ...
... Tanuseputro P, Manuel DG, Leung M, Nguyen K, Johansen H; Canadian ... Background - This paper provides an update of the prevalence of important cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in ... the actual burden of disease caused by a risk factor is also modified by the magnitude of the increased risk to mortality and ... To improve awareness of the impact of CVD risk factor variations on disease burden, smoking-attributable mortality (SAM) has ...
... should be mindful of risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The results, published in the Journal of the American Geriatric ... Targeting cardiovascular disease risk factors may be important across a lifetime NIH-funded study suggests efforts to prevent ... Targeting cardiovascular disease risk factors may be important across a lifetime. NIH/National Institute of Neurological ... "The latest findings from the REGARDS study reveal that no age group is immune to risk factors related to cardiovascular disease ...
... for Cardiovascular Disease in the Queensland Construction Industry Behavioural Risk Factors (SNAPO) for Cardiovascular Disease ... Behavioural Risk Factors (SNAPO) for Cardiovascular Disease in the Queensland Construction Industry. ... industry and individual barriers to minimising behavioural risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Griffith was successful in ... in Queensland as a high-risk industry due to a higher-than-average prevalence of a number of chronic disease risk factors. ...
Gestational Hypertension and Preeclampsia: Nontraditional Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease. A Cardio-Endo Connection ... Increasing among women and more impactful traditional risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) include ... Source Reference: Sharma G "Gestational Hypertension and Preeclampsia: Nontraditional Risk Factors For Cardiovascular Disease" ... High-risk co-management clinics for postpartum cardiovascular disease counseling need to be created, with the participation of ...
Family composition should be considered when family CVD risk factors are used to predic … ... Correlations of cardiovascular disease risk factors between African American siblings J Pediatr. 2000 Apr;136(4):511-9. doi: ... Study design: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors were assessed in 267 pairs of African American siblings (visit 1) and ... Family composition should be considered when family CVD risk factors are used to predict CVD risk in children. ...
For better preventive strategies we aimed to investigate the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors and their ... The study established a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors in Estonian adults (20-65 years of age). Younger ... The prevalence of all risk factors increased with age amongst both genders. The proportion of individuals having increased ... More Russians and other ethnic minorities compared to ethnic Estonians had calculated 10-year CHD risk ≥ 10%.Conclusions: ...
Bloedon L, Balikai S, Chittams J, et al.. Flaxseed and Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Results from a Double Blind, Randomized, ... making it a possible functional food for reducing cardiovascular risk factors. A double blind, randomized, controlled clinical ... at the University of Pennsylvania Health System explored the effects of flaxseed on various cardiovascular risk factors in ...
CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS. For our analysis, we selected six cardiovascular risk factors that were of greatest concern to ... circumstances and adult cardiovascular disease have either ignored risk factor status7 or simply controlled for risk factor ... Mean values of risk factors for cardiovascular disease among 5645 working men by own social class and fathers social class ( ... Association of cardiovascular disease risk factors with socioeconomic position during childhood and during adulthood BMJ 1996; ...
... had larger associations with cardiovascular mortality than novel risk factors in elderly persons with chronic kidney disease. ... Future research should investigate whether aggressive lifestyle intervention in patients with chronic kidney disease can reduce ... Cardiovascular mortality risk in chronic kidney disease: comparison of traditional and novel risk factors JAMA. 2005 Apr 13;293 ... Traditional cardiovascular risk factors had larger associations with cardiovascular mortality than novel risk factors in ...
4. Appreciate the contemporary evidence base for cardiovascular risk and critically evaluate risk modification guidelines. ... Cardiovascular disease (CVD) continues to be the leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Students wishing to work in ... Knowledge and critical appraisal of core factors of CVD, from risk identification or diagnosis, to acute and chronic treatment ... 1. Relate cardiovascular disease processes to clinical manifestations and their impact upon normal function. ...
... more aggressive treatment for those at risk, including many with diabetes. ... to confirm an inherited form of heart disease can be done as part of the lipid panel analysis, and will assure quicker, ... Anuurad E, Boffa MB, Koschinsky ML, Berglund L. Lipoprotein(a): a unique risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Clin Lab Med. ... Lipoprotein(a)-An Independent Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease?. From PROMIS, genetic variants that were exclusively ...
Dietary Risk Factors of Cardiovascular Diseases. Wenbiao Wu. College of Food Science, Southwest University, PRC ... Home / Shop / Books / Medicine and Health / Dietary Risk Factors of Cardiovascular Diseases. ... There are several approved dietary risk factors for CVDs in our daily diets and foods. The dietary risk factors include ... It seems that the association of all these risk factors in blood with CVDs has been well established, though some controversial ...
Whereas the first module focuses on different physiological aspects of the heart and the cardiovascular system, the second ... Most cardiovascular diseases can be prevented by addressing behavioral risk factors, the understanding of these risk factors, ... Risk Factors and Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases. Whereas the first module focuses on different physiological aspects of ... independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. Studying the mechanisms by which it causes ...
HypertensionStudyMortalityCoronaryAtherosclerosisHypertensionAbstractDevelopment of cardiovascular diseaseAdultsCONCLUSIONSHigh-density lipEpidemiologyChronic diseaseHigher risk of cardiovascular diseaseModifiable cardiovascular risk factorsOutcomesObesityInflammationIschemicHeart diseaseVascularBehavioural risk factors for cardiovascular2017AssessBiomarkers of cardiovascularDisordersAtheroscleroticFuture cardiovascularType 2 diabetMajor cardiovascularCerebrovascularAdulthoodMetabolic syndromeDeathsKidney DiseasesEpidemiological studiesAdversePredictorCholesterolReduce cardiovascular riskIntake and cardiovascular diseaseMyocardial infarctionIncrease cardiovascular riskIndicesPotentially modifiable
- Because it is a red processed meat and due to its nutritional composition, including high sodium content, a potential association between cured ham consumption and a higher risk of hypertension could be expected. (unav.edu)
- Multivariable-adjusted Cox regression models were fitted to assess the association between cured ham consumption and subsequent hypertension risk using the category of lowest consumption as the reference. (unav.edu)
- 1serv/week) was not significantly associated with hypertension risk in this prospective cohort (HR=0.88, 95% CI: 0.70-1.10, p linear trend=0.40). (unav.edu)
- Conclusions: Our results showed that cured ham consumption was not associated with a significantly higher or lower risk of hypertension in a prospective cohort of Spanish middle-aged adult university graduates. (unav.edu)
- Further longitudinal and experimental studies are needed to disentangle the association between cured ham consumption and the risk of hypertension. (unav.edu)
- Peripheral arterial disease: a missed opportunity to administer statins so as to reduce cardiac morbidity and mortality. (springer.com)
- To improve awareness of the impact of CVD risk factor variations on disease burden, smoking-attributable mortality (SAM) has been estimated for the first time for each health region in Canada. (ices.on.ca)
- Combining smoking prevalence data from the 2000/01 CCHS, mortality data from the 1995 to 1997 Canadian Mortality Database, and relative risk estimates (relating smoking and smoking-associated deaths) from the American Cancer Society's Cancer Prevention Study II, SAM values were generated using population-attributable risk techniques. (ices.on.ca)
- Cardiovascular and all-cause SAM were estimated at 18,209 and 44,271 annual deaths, and contributed to 23% and 22% of total CVD and all-cause mortality in Canada, respectively. (ices.on.ca)
- While prevalence data for risk factors in a population give an initial understanding of some of the contributing causes of a disease, the actual burden of disease caused by a risk factor is also modified by the magnitude of the increased risk to mortality and morbidity, and is best represented by its estimated attributable mortality and morbidity. (ices.on.ca)
- Cardiovascular diseases are still a major public health concern in Estonia despite the decline in the mortality rate during the past decade. (mdpi.com)
- Elderly persons with chronic kidney disease have substantial risk for cardiovascular mortality, but the relative importance of traditional and novel risk factors is unknown. (nih.gov)
- To compare traditional and novel risk factors as predictors of cardiovascular mortality. (nih.gov)
- Cardiovascular mortality among those with and without chronic kidney disease. (nih.gov)
- The cardiovascular mortality risk rate was 32 deaths/1000 person-years among those with chronic kidney disease vs 16/1000 person-years among those without it. (nih.gov)
- Traditional cardiovascular risk factors had larger associations with cardiovascular mortality than novel risk factors in elderly persons with chronic kidney disease. (nih.gov)
- Cardiovascular disease (CVD) continues to be the leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally. (chester.ac.uk)
- The relative impact of diabetes on coronary heart disease, peripheral vascular disease, or stroke incidence was the same in men and women, but for cardiovascular mortality and cardiac failure the impact is greater for women. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Its primary objective is to determine whether cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in individuals with type 2 diabetes can be reduced by long-term weight reduction, achieved by an ILI that includes diet, physical activity, and behavior modification ( 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease suffer from significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Cases of incident cardiovascular disease and vascular mortality were carefully recorded over a 10-year period (1990 to 2000). (ahajournals.org)
- Romania has some of the highest mortality figures in the world attributable to ischemic heart disease and stroke among both men and women. (dovepress.com)
- Coronary heart disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among adults in both North America and Europe. (diversalertnetwork.org)
- Understanding the effects of metabolic risk factors on CVD mortality and burden of disease are important inputs for policy and priority setting related to disease prevention. (plos.org)
- The literature on shift work, morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease, and changes in traditional risk factors is reviewed. (sjweh.fi)
- Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of mortality among adults in Poland. (dovepress.com)
- Chronic noncommunicable diseases (CNCDs) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality and are seen as a major health problem in Brazil. (scielo.br)
- CONCLUSIONS: Previously reported differences in CVD mortality between Sami and non-Sami, and Sami men and women, can only partly be explained by different exposure to the psychosocial and behaviour risk factors investigated in this study. (diva-portal.org)
- However, Sami men showed significantly lower mortality risks for cancers but higher for external cause of injury and Sami women higher risks for diseases of the circulatory system (CVD) and of the respiratory system. (diva-portal.org)
- In many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) morbidity and mortality associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have grown exponentially over recent years. (rti.org)
- Due to the limited evidence currently available, we can draw no conclusions as to the effectiveness of multiple risk factor interventions on combined CVD events and mortality. (rti.org)
- Larger studies with longer follow-up periods are required to confirm whether multiple risk factor interventions lead to reduced CVD events and mortality in LMIC settings. (rti.org)
- Sex-specific differences in pathophysiology, prevalence, and impact of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors may explain the high cardiovascular mortality rates in women. (ovid.com)
- Homocysteine predicts cardiovascular events in ESRD, but evidence that this sulfur amino acid is directly implicated in the high cardiovascular mortality of uremic patients is still lacking. (asnjournals.org)
- In 1977, cardiovascular risk factors were measured in 7092 Caucasian males and females from six general practices: age, smoking, serum cholesterol, blood pressure, body mass index and a family history of CVD were related to subsequent CVD mortality and morbidity. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- 1 Despite declining mortality rates, the burden of disease due to CVD continues to be a public health concern. (jaoa.org)
- The transition from infectious diseases to non-communicable diseases (NCDs), primarily CVDs, as the primary cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide- combined with the economic burden associated with heart-related diseases-prompted the World Health Organization (WHO) and its regional offices to identify CVDs' risk factors (WHO, 2016). (stanford.edu)
- There has only been one study of hospitalised asthmatic subjects which has examined all cause mortality 5 and this study did not report risk factors by type of death. (bmj.com)
- Control of modifiable cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors has substantially reduced CVD mortality, but risk factor levels in populations may change and need continuous monitoring. (biomedcentral.com)
- A different 2017 systematic review of controlled randomized controlled trials concluded that replacing saturated fats with mostly n-6 polyunsaturated fats is unlikely to reduce coronary heart disease (CHD) events, CHD mortality or total mortality. (wikipedia.org)
- Coronary artery disease (CAD). (healthline.com)
- The journal publishes basic research that has clinical applicability in order to promote timely communication of the latest insights relating to coronary artery disease, heart failure, hypertension, cardiac arrhythmia, prevention of cardiovascular disease with a heavy emphasis on risk factor modification. (ingentaconnect.com)
- In Switzerland alone, the risk to develop a coronary heart disease during life time is around 25% for men and 18% for women. (coursera.org)
- This study wants to determine whether chronic obstructive pulmonary disease might be a risk factor for coronary atherosclerosis and other cardiac markers independent of conventional cardiovascular risk factors. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Coronary artery disease has often been linked causally to COPD, but the exact pathophysiological mechanisms underpinning this association remain speculative. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- The objective of this retrospective case-control study is to determine whether COPD might be a risk factor for coronary atherosclerosis, impaired left ventricular ejection fraction, and major adverse cardiovascular events independent of conventional cardiovascular risk factors. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Coronary heart disease, even when considered separately from other cardiovascular diseases, was still by far the nations single leading cause of death (451,326). (bio-medicine.org)
- Smoking, which raises the risk of coronary heart disease death two to three times, remains highly prevalent. (bio-medicine.org)
- An important current trend that may increase the future burden of coronary heart disease (CHD) is a significant increase in the prevalence of childhood obesity. (bmj.com)
- This study evaluated the potential impacts of supplementation with betalain-rich extracts of foods on some atherosclerotic risk factors in coronary artery disease patients. (rsc.org)
- The primary outcomes were atherothrombotic brain infarction (ABI), all strokes, MI, and coronary artery disease (CAD). (ahajournals.org)
- CAD was defined by occurrence of angina pectoralis, MI, coronary insufficiency, or death from coronary heart disease. (ahajournals.org)
- A field study by World Health Organization (WHO), World Bank and Harvard University in 1990 found a changing pattern of diseases caused by unhealthy lifestyle changes that may eventually lead to metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, coronary arterial diseases, depression, and traffic accidents ( Kinsella and Phillips, 2005 ). (intechopen.com)
- The interest on this issue is motivated by the striking risk differential for coronary heart disease between the dialysis population and the general population. (asnjournals.org)
- Background: Epidemiological studies have shown that microalbuminuria is an important risk factor for arteriosclerosis, coronary heart disease and other vascular diseases in persons with type 2 diabetes. (uni-muenchen.de)
- Review of the contemporary literature reveals evidence from large epidemiological datasets and meta-analyses of small-scale longitudinal studies and periodontal intervention studies, which shows that after adjustment for variables known to increase cardiovascular risk, there remains a significant increase in both incidence and prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) in subjects with periodontal disease. (bjcardio.co.uk)
- This study aims to provide current estimates of the prevalence of these risk factors in Germany according to sex and history of coronary heart disease (CHD) or stroke. (biomedcentral.com)
- In addition, the study presents risk factor prevalences among persons with and without prior coronary heart disease (CHD) or stroke. (biomedcentral.com)
- therefore increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases, the blood vessels which supplies the heart that is coronary arteries diseases, also to brain that is cerebra-vascular disease and very importantly to the lower and upper limbs of body known as peripheral vascular diseases. (top-doctors.us)
- 2016 ESC/EAS guidelines for the management of dyslipidaemias: The Task Force for the Management of Dyslipidaemias of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) Developed with the special contribution of the European Assocciation for Cardiovascular Prevention & Rehabilitation (EACPR). (springer.com)
- to other risk factors which develop spontaneously, such as atherosclerosis. (coursera.org)
- Conclusions- Osteoprotegerin is an independent risk factor for the progression of atherosclerosis and onset of cardiovascular disease. (ahajournals.org)
- In recent years, our understanding of the pathological processes underlying atherosclerosis has been enriched by several promising hypotheses about new risk conditions such as infectious agents, inflammatory and immune processes, or iron overload, to list just a few. (ahajournals.org)
- Studies on the impact of risk factors in childhood and on the effect of potentially beneficial interventions have been facilitated by the development of a number of non-invasive diagnostic techniques that can detect "atherosclerosis" at a preclinical stage (or at least the changes in arterial structure and/or function indicative of vascular damage). (bmj.com)
- In the last three decades intensive investigations have lead to a paradigm shift in the interpretation of atherosclerosis, from a purely metabolic process (i.e. mainly driven by hypercholesterolemia) to a disease where inflammation is the dominant alteration. (uninet.edu)
- The risk of atherosclerosis and ischemic vascular diseases rises when total cholesterol is elevated and the level of low density lipoprotein (LDL, bad cholesterol) is high relative to the level of the high density lipoprotein (HDL, the good cholesterol). (infobarrel.com)
- It behooves divers to be aware of the risk factors for cardiovascular disease, especially atherosclerosis, and of specific measures they can take to mitigate them. (diversalertnetwork.org)
- In the general population, substantial evidence has been accrued that atherosclerosis underlies a systemic microinflammatory process and that serum C reactive protein (CRP) is a reliable risk marker of atherosclerotic complications. (asnjournals.org)
- Peanuts, peanut oil, and fat free peanut flour reduced cardiovascular disease risk factors and the development of atherosclerosis in Syrian golden hamsters. (biomedsearch.com)
- The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of fat free peanut flour (FFPF), peanuts, and peanut oil on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and the development of atherosclerosis in male Syrian golden hamsters. (biomedsearch.com)
- The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study for example, has reported that the host response to oral bacterial infection has bearing on systemic atherothrombotic events, and that systemic exposure to more than one oral pathogen involved in periodontitis is related to an increased risk for CHD. (bjcardio.co.uk)
- Since atherosclerosis is generally considered a disease that affects the entire body, then it makes sense that the small arteries in the penis would become blocked sooner than the larger arteries in the heart," said Dr. Araujo. (acc.org)
- Presents an abstract of the article `Association between multiple cardiovascular risk factors and atherosclerosis in children and young adults,' by G.S. Berenson, S.R. Srinivasa, W. Bao, et al, from the `New England Journal of Medicine' dated June 4, 1998. (ebscohost.com)
- Atherosclerosis and cardiac risk factors in young persons. (ebscohost.com)
- Presents a summary of the study `Association between multiple cardiovascular risk factors and atherosclerosis in children and young adults,' by G.S. Berenson, et al, which appeared from the `New England Journal of Medicine,' dated June 4, 1998. (ebscohost.com)
- Carotid artery intima-media thickness--a new noninvasive gold standard for assessing the anatomic extent of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk? (ebscohost.com)
- Focuses on carotid artery intima-media thickness measurement (IMT), one of the methods of choice for assessing the anatomic extent of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk. (ebscohost.com)
- Research indicates that being overweight or obese may place adolescents at increased risk for CVD risk factors such as hypertension, 5 abnormal lipid levels, 6 prediabetes/diabetes, 7 and increased C-reactive protein. (aappublications.org)
- The current study focuses on CVD risk factors using nationally representative data to determine prevalence of biological CVD risk factors (prehypertension/hypertension, borderline-high/high LDL-C, low HDL-C, and prediabetes/diabetes) by weight status (normal weight, overweight, obese) and their trends among US adolescents aged 12 to 19 years. (aappublications.org)
- The incidence of pregnancies in women with heart disease is rising, mainly due to an increased number of women with congenital heart disease reaching childbearing age, advancing maternal age, and an increased incidence of risk factors, including diabetes, hypertension, preeclampsia (PE), and multifetal pregnancies. (medpagetoday.com)
- However, many women are at risk of developing future cardiovascular disease from pregnancy-related complications such as PE, gestational hypertension (GH), gestational diabetes (GD), preterm labor, etc., and are often lost to follow-up. (medpagetoday.com)
- Increasing among women and more impactful traditional risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) include diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, smoking, obesity, and physical inactivity. (medpagetoday.com)
- This module not only discusses the risks such as aging, smoking, hypertension, lipids and diabetes, but also explains which preventive measures can be employed to minimize the risk of a heart attack, for example, by focusing on physical exercise to increase life expectancy and the personal health. (coursera.org)
- Half of the participants will receive the high-nitrate dehydrated vegetable intervention, while the other half will receive the low-nitrate dehydrated vegetable intervention.This project will advance the current hypothesis on the therapeutic link between dietary nitrate and high blood pressure, and potentially derive impactful recommendations for individuals at risk of hypertension. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- n = 1,819) was associated with increased risks of hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. (medpagetoday.com)
- University of Alabama at Birmingham investigators and their colleagues found that the development of risk factors including hypertension, diabetes and high cholesterol remains high in adults over age 45, even extending up to ages over 75 years. (medindia.net)
- 1 In the young, there is a correlation between the intensity of exposure to risk factors such as cigarette smoking, hypertension, dyslipidaemia and diabetes mellitus and the extent and severity of arterial fatty streaks or raised plaques (fig 1). (bmj.com)
- Skipping Cholesterol I will touch upon three traditional risk factor, hypertension, smoking and diabetes. (uninet.edu)
- Hypertension is a complex phenotype because causative factors implicated in hypertension in ESRD, renin angiotensin and sympathetic systems over-activity and chronic volume overload have other pressure independent effects on the CV system, pro-inflammatory and growth promoting effects. (uninet.edu)
- Correlation analyses identified hypertension, diabetes, urine protein/creatinine ratio (as an index of small vessel disease) and age as having significant associations with the outcome variables. (natap.org)
- 1 Because screening and treatment efforts are to be directed for this new category of hypertension in the US population, we sought to determine the risk of cardiovascular diseases associated with prehypertension. (ahajournals.org)
- Methods - Using data from the National Population Health Survey and the Canadian Community Health Survey, we examined national trends in heart disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity and smoking prevalence from 1994 to 2005, adjusting for age and sex. (ices.on.ca)
- Interpretation - During the study period, heart disease, hypertension, diabetes and obesity increased for all or most income groups in Canada. (ices.on.ca)
- While abdominal obesity (83.3%), overweight and obesity (68%), hypertension (65.1%), hypercholesterolemia (33.3%), and low level of physical activity (29.1%) were the most common CVD risk factors among patients over 65 years old, abdominal obesity (36.2%), overweight and obesity (36.1%), and current smoking were the most common CVD risk factors among patients up to the age of 35. (dovepress.com)
- The encounter with the western society and the acculturation process has for many native populations had serious health consequences, causing a dramatic increase of lifestyle related diseases such as cancer, diabetes, stroke, obesity and hypertension as well as a dramatic increase of suicide and drug abuse. (diva-portal.org)
- Two trials recruited healthy participants and the other 11 trials recruited people with varying risks of CVD, such as participants with known hypertension and type 2 diabetes. (rti.org)
- There is some evidence that multiple risk factor interventions may lower blood pressure levels, body mass index and waist circumference in populations in LMIC settings at high risk of hypertension and diabetes. (rti.org)
- Dissociation of aortic pulse wave velocity with risk factors for cardiovascular disease other than hypertension: a systematic review. (biomedsearch.com)
- The prognostic value of cfPWV may relate to a process of arterial ageing unrelated to classic risk factors other than hypertension. (biomedsearch.com)
- We review the sex differences in traditional risk factors (dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, and smoking) and nontraditional risk factors (menopause and hormones, pregnancy, inflammation and autoimmune diseases, anemia, depression, and migraines) and their prognostic and therapeutic implications. (ovid.com)
- Recent research indicates that with respect to traditional risk factors such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, and smoking, women appear to have a similar risk of CVD when compared to men. (ovid.com)
- Hypertension is a complex phenotype because causative factors implicated in hypertension, such as angiotensin II, sympathetic activity, and chronic volume overload, besides triggering hypertension, exert inflammatory and growth-promoting effects on the cardiovascular system. (asnjournals.org)
- Prevalence of hypertension (p = 0.004), insulin resistance (p = 0.005) and MetS (p = 0.000) was significantly different between patients with RA who were normal, overweight and obese, and BMI differed significantly according to the number of risk factors present (p = 0.000). (bmj.com)
- Other factors such as adult obesity and a smoking habit are also positively associated with hypertension and CVD. (stanford.edu)
- Recent data suggest the hypovitaminosis D association with metabolic syndrome, immune diseases, diabetes and hypertension. (scielo.br)
- Cardiovascular disease risk factors for hypertension, diabetes mellitus and a serum lipid profile were analysed and reported by body mass index category. (diva-portal.org)
- CVD risk factors (hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes) and MetS are closely related to obesity. (biomedcentral.com)
- Dr. Howard's team discovered that development of cardiovascular disease risk factors remains high among adults older than 65. (eurekalert.org)
- Thus, favoring the development of cardiovascular disease. (coursera.org)
- Interestingly, though, participants' LDL cholesterol, which is one of the strongest predictors we have to predict the development of cardiovascular disease, improved with typical but not lower red meat intake. (healthcanal.com)
- Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death among adults in the United States. (aappublications.org)
- NIH funded study suggests that all adults, including those over 65, should be mindful of risk factors for cardiovascular disease. (eurekalert.org)
- As life expectancy continues to increase, we need to improve risk factor prevention and management for stroke and heart disease across the lifespan, including for those adults over the age of 65," said Claudia Moy, Ph.D., acting director of the Office of Clinical Research at NINDS, and one of the study authors. (eurekalert.org)
- The latest findings from the REGARDS study reveal that no age group is immune to risk factors related to cardiovascular disease and that prevention efforts should target all adults. (eurekalert.org)
- The study established a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors in Estonian adults (20-65 years of age). (mdpi.com)
- A double blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial by researchers at the University of Pennsylvania Health System explored the effects of flaxseed on various cardiovascular risk factors in adults. (nih.gov)
- If risk of disease in adulthood is substantially influenced by either biological programming in utero 1 2 or circumstances in early life 3 4 5 then what remains for attempts to encourage healthy lifestyles in adults? (bmj.com)
- A 2005 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Study (CDC) shows that fewer than one in three U.S. adults consumes fruit two or more times per day, and only 27.2 percent eat vegetables three or more times per day. (bio-medicine.org)
- To reduce the future burden of CHD, we need to define prevention and intervention strategies that decrease the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in children and young adults and thereby hope to retard atherogenic processes. (bmj.com)
- however, its effects on other cardiovascular disease risk factors in adults with diabetes are unknown. (springer.com)
- We aimed to estimate the effect of peer support interventions on cardiovascular disease risk factors other than glycemic control in adults with diabetes. (springer.com)
- We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing peer support interventions to a control condition in adults affected by diabetes that measured any cardiovascular disease risk factors [Body Mass Index, smoking, diet, physical activity, cholesterol level, glucose control and blood pressure]. (springer.com)
- Additional studies need to be conducted to further understand the effect of peer support interventions on high-risk cardiovascular disease risk factors in adults with diabetes. (springer.com)
- ConclusionsThe fast-food and refined grains/poultry dietary patterns were associated with high prevalence of CVD risk factors among Kuwaiti adults. (medworm.com)
- The current findings underscore the need for prospective studies to further explore dietary pattern and CVD risk factor relationships among at-risk Kuwait adults. (medworm.com)
- Our objective was to determine the long-term risk of cardiovascular diseases associated with this new category in a well-defined cohort of adults. (ahajournals.org)
- The overall objective of this study is to determine if 90 days of supplementing with CardioFlex Q10 can reduce CVD risk factors in adults, independent of other dietary or physical activity changes. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- The purpose of this study is to determine whether or not daily supplementation with the dietary supplement CardioFlex Q10 for 90 days can reduce cardiovascular risk factors in healthy adults. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- To describe the temporal variation on risk and protective factors for cardiovascular diseases in adults (≥18 years old). (scielo.br)
- Favorable changes in cardiovascular risk and protective factors were mostly observed among men, young adults, and those with more than eight schooling years. (scielo.br)
- To determine the effectiveness of a comprehensive lifestyle intervention program that integrated dietary modification, physical activity, stress management, and behavior modification counseling to reduce the risk of CVD in at-risk adults. (jaoa.org)
- Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been the leading cause of death in US adults for the past century. (jaoa.org)
- The study assessed the health-promoting effects of a Mediterranean-style eating pattern, without intended weight loss, for adults who are overweight and at risk for developing heart disease. (healthcanal.com)
- The results indicate that ultrasonic techniques can detect functional differences in the carotid arteries of children and adolescents that are associated with the risk of cardiovascular disease as adults. (ahajournals.org)
- Conclusions - The high prevalence of potentially modifiable CVD risk factors and the large variation that exists between subgroups of the Canadian population suggest that the burden of CVD could be reduced through risk factor modification. (ices.on.ca)
- Conclusions- Prehypertension appears to be associated with an increased risk of MI and CAD but not stroke. (ahajournals.org)
- Conclusions: CVD risk factors are associated with poor bone health in the Puerto Rican population. (tufts.edu)
- Conclusions: Patients suffering from MDD are at specific risk for CVD. (uni-muenchen.de)
- High-density lipoprotein, vascular risk, cancer and infection: a case of quantity and quality? (springer.com)
- In their young to middle-aged adult children enrolled in the Framingham Third Generation, we examined the relations between maternal breastfeeding history (yes, no) and cardiovascular risk factors, including body mass index (BMI), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, total cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting blood glucose, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels. (nih.gov)
- Plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-C/LDL-C-ratio, very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, fibrinogen, factor VII coagulant activity (FVIIc), blood pressure, and body weight were determined before and after intervention. (nature.com)
- Human clinical trials have demonstrated the cardiovascular protective properties of peanuts and peanut oil in decreasing total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) without reducing high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). The cardiovascular effects of the nonlipid portion of peanuts has not been evaluated even though that fraction contains arginine, flavonoids, folates, and other compounds that have been linked to cardiovascular health. (biomedsearch.com)
- A CVD risk factor index (CVDRF‐I) was computed from: waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, high‐density lipoprotein cholesterol and glucose. (csic.es)
- Effects of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in developing cardiovascular diseases. (ebscohost.com)
- Newswise - Hamilton, ON (September 2, 2013) - Despite living with the highest risk factors for heart disease, people in high income countries suffer less from serious cardiovascular disease, says an international study by the global PURE (Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology ) collaboration and led by McMaster University researchers. (newswise.com)
- The results identified the construction industry in Queensland as a high-risk industry due to a higher-than-average prevalence of a number of chronic disease risk factors. (edu.au)
- Extensive evidence has demonstrated that many antioxidants such as vitamin C, vitamin E, carotenoids and polyphenols have protective effects in preventing cardiovascular disease (CVD), a chronic disease that is mediated by oxidative stress and inflammation. (mdpi.com)
- This underscores the need to synchronize guidelines for general chronic disease prevention that provide a simpler public health message. (tufts.edu)
- While these studies suggest that red meat consumption is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease, they are not designed to show that red meat is causing cardiovascular disease. (purdue.edu)
- Can traditional risk factors explain the higher risk of cardiovascular disease in South Asians compared to Europeans in Norway and New Zealand? (bmj.com)
- Canadian Cardiovascular Outcomes Research Team. (ices.on.ca)
- These data demonstrate that adverse outcomes of pregnancy are common and highlight the need for antenatal surveillance, risk stratification, and close long-term follow-up of patients with these complications. (medpagetoday.com)
- A retrospective case-control study matching COPD patients and controls one to one for smoking history and conventional cardiovascular risk factors will be performed to study the association between COPD and cardiovascular outcomes. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Cardiovascular disease risk factors other than glycemic control outcomes were secondary outcomes in most studies and baseline values were normal or mildly elevated. (springer.com)
- In this article, we use risk factors for cardiovascular disease as a prototypical trait for which behavioral genetic approaches provide powerful tools for understanding how risk factors, behavior, and health outcomes are related. (tudelft.nl)
- Population-based risk assessment requires data on population exposure to risk factors and on the magnitude of their effects on different disease outcomes , . (plos.org)
- Uncontrolled hyperphosphatemia and high calcium phosphate product constitute risk factors for cardiovascular calcifications, cardiac ischemia, and adverse cardiovascular outcomes, yet inflammation may be an even more important trigger of vascular calcification than these metabolic derangements. (asnjournals.org)
- OAK BROOK, Ill. - Specific cardiovascular risk factors, such as alcohol consumption, smoking, obesity and diabetes, are associated with smaller regional brain volumes that may be early indicators of Alzheimer's disease and dementia according to a study published online in the journal Radiology . (eurekalert.org)
- By comparing the initial visit in which cardiovascular risk factors were identified to the MRI results and cognitive scores, the team was able to distinguish the specific risk factors of alcohol consumption, smoking, diabetes, and obesity and their relationship to smaller volumes in the three targeted regions of the brain. (eurekalert.org)
- The study found that risk factors of alcohol use and diabetes were associated with smaller total brain volume, while smoking and obesity were linked with reduced volumes of the posterior cingulate cortex, the area of the brain connected with memory retrieval as well as emotional and social behavior. (eurekalert.org)
- Overweight and obesity during adolescence are associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. (aappublications.org)
- Currently, the most prevalent CVD risk factors observed among adolescents are overweight and obesity. (aappublications.org)
- New research has found that fructose, the sugar often blamed for the obesity epidemic, does not itself have any impact on an emerging marker for the risk of cardiovascular disease known as postprandial triglycerides. (medindia.net)
- 2 In obesity, many of the risk factors for CHD are clustered together. (bmj.com)
- In addition to socio-economic status, obesity and overweight also modified the trends in risk factors. (ices.on.ca)
- Recent studies have demonstrated an association between estrogen and clustered risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD), such as lipid and glucose metabolism and obesity-related phenotypes, as well as occurrence and severity of CVD. (rti.org)
- Central obesity and insulin resistance as the initial preconditions and its consequences related to metabolic diseases and cardiovascular diseases are frequently found among the elderly. (intechopen.com)
- 2 - 4 These modifiable risk factors include type 2 diabetes mellitis, high blood pressure, hypercholesterolemia, overweight/obesity, being sedentary, and smoking/tobacco exposure. (jaoa.org)
- The selection of an optimal cut-off for various obesity indices is particularly important to predict CVD risk factors and MetS. (biomedcentral.com)
- ROC analyses were used to evaluate the predictive ability and determine the optimal cut-off values of the obesity indices for CVD risk factors and MetS. (biomedcentral.com)
- Moreover, WC is superior to other obesity indices in predicting CVD risk factors and MetS in males, whereas, WHtR is superior to other obesity indices in predicting CVD risk factors and MetS in females. (biomedcentral.com)
- In our study, the predictive ability and the optimal cut-off values of five obesity indices (BMI, WC, WHR, WHtR and BAI) for CVD risk factors and MetS are comprehensively investigated. (biomedcentral.com)
- WC and WHtR are superior to other obesity indices in predicting CVD risk factors and MetS in our study, with optimal cut-off values of WC and WHtR of 85 (male)/80 (female) and 0.5, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
- In addition to shared risk factors (for example, smoking, obesity and high blood pressure), the link between ED and CVD can also be explained by the fact that the penis is a vascular organ- just like the heart. (acc.org)
- Due to their fat content, fast foods are implicated in poor health and various serious health issues such as obesity and cardiovascular diseases. (wikipedia.org)
- Baseline differences in pathology of the heart, lung and kidney, antioxidants and gene expression, along with levels of systemic inflammation and coagulation markers were analyzed to understand distinct disease-related phenotypes. (epa.gov)
- Serum osteoprotegerin showed a strong association with numerous vascular risk factors, including age, diabetes, markers of systemic inflammation, chronic infection, and smoking. (ahajournals.org)
- Overall it is reasonable to say that factors other than dialysis treatment are implicated in inflammation in ESRD. (uninet.edu)
- In this presentation I will discuss how traditional and non traditional risk factors impinge upon inflammation and cardiovascular risk. (uninet.edu)
- In other words I will try to assemble an inflammation driven perspective of cardiovascular risk in ESRD. (uninet.edu)
- Its blood level goes up when there is inflammation or other factor that activates its synthesis. (infobarrel.com)
- It disappears from the blood when inflammation or the activating factor disappears. (infobarrel.com)
- Reducing or preventing inflammation is an important step that one can take to prevent cardiovascular diseases and other chronic diseases. (infobarrel.com)
- Nutrition can be used to reduce inflammation and support cardiovascular health. (infobarrel.com)
- Clinicians should be aware of other novel risk factors including inflammation, anemia, migraines, and depression, and further studies are warranted in order to identify therapeutic implications for these conditions and CVD risk. (ovid.com)
- As discussed in detail elsewhere ( 5 ), inflammation in ESRD is a multifactorial process, and it seems likely that this process, at least in part, mediates the effect of most traditional and nontraditional risk factors. (asnjournals.org)
- The determination of the impact of exercise on the primary cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor (inflammation) in individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). (bmj.com)
- It's sometimes called ischemic heart disease. (healthline.com)
- To assess the changes in cardiovascular risk factors and ischemic heart disease in a group of subjects over 65 years of age during 1 year in an urban community of Romania. (dovepress.com)
- We studied 515 subjects (264 women and 251 men) with a mean age of 73.41±6.44 years, followed up over the course of 1 year in order to determine the changes that occurred in cardiovascular risk factors and in the evolution of ischemic heart disease. (dovepress.com)
- At the beginning and after 1 year, we determined the following parameters: anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, smoking status, lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipid cholesterol, low-density lipid cholesterol), fasting plasma glucose, and the presence of ischemic heart disease. (dovepress.com)
- Who gets heart disease? (healthline.com)
- Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) . (healthline.com)
- In the United States, 1 in every 4 deaths in is the result of a heart disease. (healthline.com)
- Heart disease doesn't discriminate. (healthline.com)
- Almost half of Americans are at risk for heart disease, and the numbers are rising. (healthline.com)
- Learn more about the increase in heart disease rates. (healthline.com)
- While heart disease can be deadly, it's also preventable in most people. (healthline.com)
- What are the different types of heart disease? (healthline.com)
- Heart disease encompasses a wide range of cardiovascular problems. (healthline.com)
- Several diseases and conditions fall under the umbrella of heart disease. (healthline.com)
- What are the symptoms of heart disease? (healthline.com)
- Different types of heart disease may result in a variety of different symptoms. (healthline.com)
- Read more about the signs and symptoms of heart disease. (healthline.com)
- Women often experience different signs and symptoms of heart disease than men, specifically with regards to CAD and other cardiovascular diseases. (healthline.com)
- Symptoms of heart disease in women can also be confused with other conditions, such as depression , menopause , and anxiety. (healthline.com)
- Read more about the common signs and symptoms of heart disease in women - and find out why many women say they wouldn't call 911 if they thought they were having a heart attack. (healthline.com)
- What causes heart disease? (healthline.com)
- Current guidelines concentrate on management of cardiovascular disorders in pregnancy, such as native valvular heart disease, prosthetic valve disease, congenital heart disease, arrhythmias, diseases of the aorta, and dilated cardiomyopathies. (medpagetoday.com)
- April 6, 2005 - Aerobic exercise and stress management training can reduce levels of depression and emotional distress, as well as improve markers of cardiovascular risk in patients with heart disease, according to a study in the April 6 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association . (healingwell.com)
- At the same time, the study found that people in low income countries, although living with fewer risk factors for heart disease, have a higher incidence of serious cardiovascular disease including death. (newswise.com)
- Results - An estimated 1.29 million Canadians reported having heart disease in 2005, representing increases of 19% for men and 2% for women, relative to 1994. (ices.on.ca)
- She noted that women of all ages should consider having their cardiovascular risk assessed anyway because heart disease is the leading cause of death for women. (stroke.org)
- Using a Cox proportional hazards model to estimate hazard ratios adjusted for age and risk factors in adulthood, such as cigarette smoking, the results suggest that there is a positive association between birth weight and heart disease. (stanford.edu)
- The article focuses on a research analysis made by several Great Britain surveys, which shows that many of the food habits that led to heart disease in later life are acquired in childhood and also reports that in 47 percent of boys and over 36 percent of girls aged 13 go without breakfast. (ebscohost.com)
- In particular many fast foods are high in saturated fats which are widely held to be a risk factor in heart disease. (wikipedia.org)
- In 2010, heart disease was the number 1 ranking cause of death. (wikipedia.org)
- We already know that vascular risk factors damage the brain and can result in cognitive impairment," said Kevin S. King, M.D., assistant professor of radiology at the Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California in Los Angeles. (eurekalert.org)
- But our findings give us a more concrete idea about the relationship between specific vascular risk factors and brain health. (eurekalert.org)
- Confirmatory analyses of associations between pet ownership and cardio-vascular disease risk factors are still required. (mja.com.au)
- 1-4 Some of these concepts may well give rise to new approaches in prevention or provide access to routine assessment of personal vascular risks and may be relevant to the efficacious application of the risk-lowering strategies currently available. (ahajournals.org)
- The risk is accelerated after menopause, possibly because of vascular and lipid profile changes. (ovid.com)
- I then move the focus on vascular calcifications and alterations in calcium phosphate metabolism ( i.e. , on a risk factor peculiar to chronic renal failure) to end with emerging risk factors. (asnjournals.org)
- Due to narrowing of blood vessel when forced blood starts to flow in vessels it may cause vascular diseases occur. (top-doctors.us)
- This is a king of risk factor of vascular diseases and almost for all diseases. (top-doctors.us)
- This team of consultants were engaged by the Department to deliver an 18-month research consultancy aimed at reducing organisational, industry and individual barriers to minimising behavioural risk factors for cardiovascular disease. (edu.au)
- Although trends in some measures are encouraging, further reductions of CVD risk factors will be needed to meet Million Hearts goals by 2017. (cdc.gov)
- The 2017 review showed that inadequately controlled trials (e.g., failing to control for other lifestyle factors) that were included in earlier meta-analyses explain the prior results. (wikipedia.org)
- 3. Assess the role of fundamental therapeutic strategies in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. (chester.ac.uk)
- Using Hill's criteria for causality to assess the relationship between vitamin D and cardiovascular disease, researchers conclude that vitamin D can be classified as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. (vitamindcouncil.org)
- Aim: We aimed to assess the interrelationships between cardiovascular risk factors, autoimmunity, insulin resistance and treatment in Graves disease. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
- To assess the association of body mass index (BMI) with modifiable cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). (bmj.com)
- If the evidence is clear that periodontal disease is a cardiovascular risk factor, prospective intervention studies will need to assess whether intervention to prevent periodontitis in the general population reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease. (bjcardio.co.uk)
- This prospective study-the first to explicitly test whether ED can be used to reclassify patients according to their future risk of developing CVD beyond the Framingham risk score, which is the standard predictive tool used to assess heart attack risk-followed 1,057 men ages 40 to 70 years old for approximately 12 years. (acc.org)
- Multivariable logistic regression model was used to assess independent associations between behavioral risk factors during pregnancy and maternal socio-economic characteristics. (lse.ac.uk)
- Certain biomarkers of cardiovascular disease may be risk factors for age-related macular degeneration (AMD), according to Andrew K. Vine, MD, FRCSC, who presented the results of a case-control study during the American Academy of Ophthalmology annual meeting. (ophthalmologytimes.com)
- We therefore determined frequency and severity of MDD in CVD and studied whether MDD without CVD or other somatic diseases influences classical and inflammatory biomarkers of cardiovascular risk. (uni-muenchen.de)
- The aim of this module is to equip the student with a clinically-based understanding of relevant cardiovascular disorders, the risk factors and an analysis of these disorders, and the investigative techniques and therapeutic strategies used to manage such risk. (chester.ac.uk)
- The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force has recommendations on healthful diet and physical activity, screening for diabetes and lipid disorders and use of aspirin to prevent CVD in patients who are at increased risk. (enewspf.com)
- The full report is titled "Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy and Maternal Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factor Development. (annals.org)
- Background: Cardiovascular disorders (CVD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) are the most frequent diseases worldwide responsible for premature death and disability. (uni-muenchen.de)
- The 2008 Update includes enhanced content for diabetes, a major cardiovascular risk factor, and end-stage renal disease and chronic kidney disease, which are commonly associated with diabetes and high blood pressure. (bio-medicine.org)
- However, results from large randomized controlled trials did not support long-term use of single antioxidant supplements for CVD prevention due to their null or even adverse effects on major cardiovascular events or cancer. (mdpi.com)
- There is growing evidence demonstrating that CVD risk factors present during childhood persist into adulthood. (aappublications.org)
- 8 , 9 Because CVD risks present during this period may track into adulthood, 10 it is important to have an understanding of the problem among adolescents. (aappublications.org)
- To investigate strength of associations between risk factors for cardiovascular disease and socioeconomic position during childhood and adulthood. (bmj.com)
- Moreover, these risk factors usually persist or track into adulthood, so that their effect on the cardiovascular system may be present and influential for several decades. (bmj.com)
- Unhealthy childhood habits raise cardiovascular risk in adulthood. (ebscohost.com)
- Cardiovascular risk factors, CVD, and associated deaths were identified in Danish registries. (medpagetoday.com)
- While CVD deaths appear to be decreasing, the prevalence of many related risk factors is holding steady or increasing. (bio-medicine.org)
- Globally, roughly 17 million deaths are caused by cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes each year . (plos.org)
- Some epidemiological studies found a lower risk of cardiovascular disease among wine drinkers than among drinkers of other types of ethanol. (nature.com)
- The effects of systolic blood pressure (SBP), serum total cholesterol (TC), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and body mass index (BMI) on the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have been established in epidemiological studies, but consistent estimates of effect sizes by age and sex are not available. (plos.org)
- Although the major metabolic risk factors for these diseases have been characterized in epidemiological studies, consistent measurements of their effects by age, sex and region are not available. (plos.org)
- Follow-up via telephone interview for major adverse cardiovascular events. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- More importantly in these patients serum CRP represents a strong predictor of adverse cardiovascular events. (uninet.edu)
- Many clinicians use CRP as a more reliable indicator of pending cardiovascular adverse event(s) compared to blood cholesterol level. (infobarrel.com)
- In patients with ESRD, serum CRP represents a strong predictor of death ( 4 ) and adverse cardiovascular events. (asnjournals.org)
- Because of each region's connection to memory retrieval, gray matter volume loss in these areas may be a predictor of Alzheimer's disease and dementia. (eurekalert.org)
- Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV), a measure of large artery stiffness, is an important predictor of cardiovascular events. (biomedsearch.com)
- Subjects' status for behavioural risk factors (exercise and smoking) was associated primarily with current socioeconomic circumstances, while status for physiological risk factors (serum cholesterol, blood pressure, body mass index, and FEV1) was associated to varying extents with both past and present socioeconomic circumstances. (bmj.com)
- Campbell also said more analysis is needed as the evaluation of blood pressure and cholesterol are not the sole determinants for someone to develop cardiovascular disease. (purdue.edu)
- Good cholesterol profile and healthy cardiovascular system can also be supported by various healthy foods. (infobarrel.com)
- It is used in subjects with poor cholesterol profile and in people who are at risk for cardiovascular diseases. (infobarrel.com)
- Effect estimates in prior global comparative risk assessment (CRA) analyses of metabolic risk factors including systolic blood pressure (SBP), serum total cholesterol (TC), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and body mass index (BMI) were based on the Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration (APCSC) and selected other cohort pooling studies - . (plos.org)
- There's still a lot of work to be done in terms of better understanding cardiovascular risk in women," he said, particularly risk factors other than high blood pressure, high cholesterol and diabetes. (stroke.org)
- The subjects examined were in either the upper (high risk) or lower (low risk) race-, sex-, and age-specific tertile for both serum total cholesterol (TC) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) during a 1981-82 community survey. (ahajournals.org)
- General practitioners (GPs) have become used to asking their patients fairly detailed questions about the traditional risk factors, such as smoking habits, and measuring blood pressure, cholesterol and glucose to allow cardiovascular risk to be calculated. (bjcardio.co.uk)
- Since some risk factors for cardiovascular disease are 'silent,' men may be more likely to notice ED than high blood pressure or high cholesterol. (acc.org)
- Studies show that supplementation of certain nutrients such as antioxidants, amino acids, electrolytes, vitamins and minerals may effectively reduce cardiovascular risk factors. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- There is some suggestion that the treatment of periodontal disease might reduce cardiovascular risk, but little current evidence to support that this might reduce cardiovascular events. (bjcardio.co.uk)
- Myocardial infarction (heart attack) is the most prominent under the Cardiovascular diseases. (coursera.org)
- Whereas the first module focuses on different physiological aspects of the heart and the cardiovascular system, the second module considers several external risk factors which can cause a myocardial infarction. (coursera.org)