An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.
The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.
The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with the disease of diabetes mellitus. Due to the impaired control of BLOOD GLUCOSE level in diabetic patients, pathological processes develop in numerous tissues and organs including the EYE, the KIDNEY, the BLOOD VESSELS, and the NERVE TISSUE.
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.
Telephone surveys are conducted to monitor prevalence of the major behavioral risks among adults associated with premature MORBIDITY and MORTALITY. The data collected is in regard to actual behaviors, rather than on attitudes or knowledge. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) established the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) in 1984.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)
A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A condition with abnormally high levels of CHOLESTEROL in the blood. It is defined as a cholesterol value exceeding the 95th percentile for the population.
A thiol-containing amino acid formed by a demethylation of METHIONINE.
A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.
Abnormalities in the serum levels of LIPIDS, including overproduction or deficiency. Abnormal serum lipid profiles may include high total CHOLESTEROL, high TRIGLYCERIDES, low HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL, and elevated LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
Glucose in blood.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.
Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.
Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.
Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.
The measurement around the body at the level of the ABDOMEN and just above the hip bone. The measurement is usually taken immediately after exhalation.
Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.
A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.
A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.
The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.
The middle layer of blood vessel walls, composed principally of thin, cylindrical, smooth muscle cells and elastic tissue. It accounts for the bulk of the wall of most arteries. The smooth muscle cells are arranged in circular layers around the vessel, and the thickness of the coat varies with the size of the vessel.
A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.
NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).
Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.
Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.
The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.
Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.
Pathological processes involving any of the BLOOD VESSELS in the cardiac or peripheral circulation. They include diseases of ARTERIES; VEINS; and rest of the vasculature system in the body.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.
Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
The relating of causes to the effects they produce. Causes are termed necessary when they must always precede an effect and sufficient when they initiate or produce an effect. Any of several factors may be associated with the potential disease causation or outcome, including predisposing factors, enabling factors, precipitating factors, reinforcing factors, and risk factors.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.
The confinement of a patient in a hospital.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)
Condition in which the plasma levels of homocysteine and related metabolites are elevated (>13.9 µmol/l). Hyperhomocysteinemia can be familial or acquired. Development of the acquired hyperhomocysteinemia is mostly associated with vitamins B and/or folate deficiency (e.g., PERNICIOUS ANEMIA, vitamin malabsorption). Familial hyperhomocysteinemia often results in a more severe elevation of total homocysteine and excretion into the urine, resulting in HOMOCYSTINURIA. Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, osteoporotic fractures and complications during pregnancy.
Crafts, trades, professions, or other means of earning a living.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".
The innermost layer of an artery or vein, made up of one layer of endothelial cells and supported by an internal elastic lamina.
Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.
Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.
Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.
Reduction of high-risk choices and adoption of low-risk quantity and frequency alternatives.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
The capital is Seoul. The country, established September 9, 1948, is located on the southern part of the Korean Peninsula. Its northern border is shared with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.
Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
A disorder of HEMOSTASIS in which there is a tendency for the occurrence of THROMBOSIS.
The status of health in urban populations.
Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.
The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.
Falls due to slipping or tripping which may result in injury.
A lipoprotein that resembles the LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS but with an extra protein moiety, APOPROTEIN (A) also known as APOLIPOPROTEIN (A), linked to APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100 on the LDL by one or two disulfide bonds. High plasma level of lipoprotein (a) is associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.
Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.
Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.
The status of health in rural populations.
The formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) within a vein.
Groups of individuals whose putative ancestry is from native continental populations based on similarities in physical appearance.
Pathological processes involving any one of the BLOOD VESSELS in the vasculature outside the HEART.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
The waist circumference measurement divided by the hip circumference measurement. For both men and women, a waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) of 1.0 or higher is considered "at risk" for undesirable health consequences, such as heart disease and ailments associated with OVERWEIGHT. A healthy WHR is 0.90 or less for men, and 0.80 or less for women. (National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2004)
Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.
The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
Generic term for diseases caused by an abnormal metabolic process. It can be congenital due to inherited enzyme abnormality (METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS) or acquired due to disease of an endocrine organ or failure of a metabolically important organ such as the liver. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Studies designed to examine associations, commonly, hypothesized causal relations. They are usually concerned with identifying or measuring the effects of risk factors or exposures. The common types of analytic study are CASE-CONTROL STUDIES; COHORT STUDIES; and CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES.
The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.
Former kingdom, located on Korea Peninsula between Sea of Japan and Yellow Sea on east coast of Asia. In 1948, the kingdom ceased and two independent countries were formed, divided by the 38th parallel.
The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.
A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.
Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.
Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.
The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.
Specific practices for the prevention of disease or mental disorders in susceptible individuals or populations. These include HEALTH PROMOTION, including mental health; protective procedures, such as COMMUNICABLE DISEASE CONTROL; and monitoring and regulation of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS. Primary prevention is to be distinguished from SECONDARY PREVENTION and TERTIARY PREVENTION.
Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Sexual activities of humans.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.
The proportion of patients with a particular disease during a given year per given unit of population.
The presence of albumin in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.
A measurement of the thickness of the carotid artery walls. It is measured by B-mode ULTRASONOGRAPHY and is used as a surrogate marker for ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest, are not intermediate variables, and are not associated with the factor(s) under investigation. They give rise to situations in which the effects of two processes are not separated, or the contribution of causal factors cannot be separated, or the measure of the effect of exposure or risk is distorted because of its association with other factors influencing the outcome of the study.
Compounds, usually hormonal, taken orally in order to block ovulation and prevent the occurrence of pregnancy. The hormones are generally estrogen or progesterone or both.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.
Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.
A parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch in southeast Asia, consisting of 11 states (West Malaysia) on the Malay Peninsula and two states (East Malaysia) on the island of BORNEO. It is also called the Federation of Malaysia. Its capital is Kuala Lumpur. Before 1963 it was the Union of Malaya. It reorganized in 1948 as the Federation of Malaya, becoming independent from British Malaya in 1957 and becoming Malaysia in 1963 as a federation of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore (which seceded in 1965). The form Malay- probably derives from the Tamil malay, mountain, with reference to its geography. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p715 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p329)
Abnormal cardiac rhythm that is characterized by rapid, uncoordinated firing of electrical impulses in the upper chambers of the heart (HEART ATRIA). In such case, blood cannot be effectively pumped into the lower chambers of the heart (HEART VENTRICLES). It is caused by abnormal impulse generation.
The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.
The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Infection occurring at the site of a surgical incision.
Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.

Does risk factor epidemiology put epidemiology at risk? Peering into the future. (1/106621)

The multiple cause black box paradigm of the current risk factor era in epidemiology is growing less serviceable. This single level paradigm is likely to be displaced. The signs are that the growing strength of molecular epidemiology on the one side, and of a global epidemiology based on information systems on the other, will come to dominate epidemiology and segregate it into separate disciplines. At the same time, the links with public health interests grow weaker. A multilevel ecoepidemiology has the potential to bind these strands together.  (+info)

Comparative total mortality in 25 years in Italian and Greek middle aged rural men. (2/106621)

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Mortality over 25 years has been low in the Italian and very low in the Greek cohorts of the Seven Countries Study; factors responsible for this particularity were studied in detail. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTINGS: 1712 Italian and 1215 Greek men, aged 40-59 years, cohorts of the Seven Countries Study, representing over 95% of the populations in designated rural areas. DESIGN: Entry (1960-61) data included age, systolic blood pressure (SBP), smoking habits, total serum cholesterol, body mass index (BMI), arm circumference, vital capacity (VC), and forced expiratory volume in 3/4 seconds (FEV); the same data were obtained 10 years later. Multivariate Cox analysis was performed with all causes death in 25 years as end point. MAIN RESULTS: Italian men had higher entry levels of SBP, arm circumference, BMI, and VC; Greek men had higher cholesterol levels, smoking habits, and FEV. Mortality of Italian men was higher throughout; at 25 years cumulative mortality was 48.3% and 35.3% respectively. Coronary heart disease and stroke mortality increased fivefold in Italy and 10-fold in Greece between years 10 and 25. The only risk factor with a significantly higher contribution to mortality in Italian men was cholesterol. However, differences in entry SBP (higher in Italy) and FEV (higher in Greece) accounted for, according to the Lee method, 75% of the differential mortality between the two populations. At 10 years increases in SBP, cholesterol, BMI, and decreases in smoking habits, VC, FEV, and arm circumference had occurred (deltas). SBP increased more and FEV and VC decreased more in Italy than in Greece. Deltas, fed stepwise in the original model for the prediction of 10 to 25 years mortality, were significant for SBP, smoking, arm circumference, and VC in Greece, and for SBP and VC in Italy. CONCLUSION: Higher mortality in Italian men is related to stronger positive effects of entry SBP and weaker negative (protective) effects of FEV; in addition 10 year increases in SBP are higher and 10 year decreases in FEV are larger in Italy. Unaccounted factors, however, related to, for example, differences in the diet, may also have contributed to the differential mortality of these two Mediterranean populations.  (+info)

Physician advice and individual behaviors about cardiovascular disease risk reduction--seven states and Puerto Rico, 1997. (3/106621)

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) (e.g., heart disease and stroke) is the leading cause of death in the United States and accounted for 959,227 deaths in 1996. Strategies to reduce the risk for heart disease and stroke include lifestyle changes (e.g., eating fewer high-fat and high-cholesterol foods) and increasing physical activity. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force and the American Heart Association (AHA) recommend that, as part of a preventive health examination, all primary-care providers counsel their patients about a healthy diet and regular physical activity. AHA also recommends low-dose aspirin use as a secondary preventive measure among persons with existing CVD. To determine the prevalence of physician counseling about cardiovascular health and changes in individual behaviors, CDC analyzed data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) for seven states and Puerto Rico. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicate a lower prevalence of counseling and behavior change among persons without than with a history of heart disease or stroke.  (+info)

Risk of major liver resection in patients with underlying chronic liver disease: a reappraisal. (4/106621)

OBJECTIVE: To explore the relation of patient age, status of liver parenchyma, presence of markers of active hepatitis, and blood loss to subsequent death and complications in patients undergoing a similar major hepatectomy for the same disease using a standardized technique. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Major liver resection carries a high risk of postoperative liver failure in patients with chronic liver disease. However, this underlying liver disease may comprise a wide range of pathologic changes that have, in the past, not been well defined. METHODS: The nontumorous liver of 55 patients undergoing a right hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma was classified according to a semiquantitative grading of fibrosis. The authors analyzed the influence of this pathologic feature and of other preoperative variables on the risk of postoperative death and complications. RESULTS: Serum bilirubin and prothrombin time increased on postoperative day 1, and their speed of recovery was influenced by the severity of fibrosis. Incidence of death from liver failure was 32% in patients with grade 4 fibrosis (cirrhosis) and 0% in patients with grade 0 to 3 fibrosis. The preoperative serum aspartate transaminase (ASAT) level ranged from 68 to 207 IU/l in patients with cirrhosis who died, compared with 20 to 62 in patients with cirrhosis who survived. CONCLUSION: A major liver resection such as a right hepatectomy may be safely performed in patients with underlying liver disease, provided no additional risk factors are present. Patients with a preoperative increase in ASAT should undergo a liver biopsy to rule out the presence of grade 4 fibrosis, which should contraindicate this resection.  (+info)

Use of wood stoves and risk of cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract: a case-control study. (5/106621)

BACKGROUND: Incidence rates for cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract in Southern Brazil are among the highest in the world. A case-control study was designed to identify the main risk factors for carcinomas of mouth, pharynx, and larynx in the region. We tested the hypothesis of whether use of wood stoves is associated with these cancers. METHODS: Information on known and potential risk factors was obtained from interviews with 784 cases and 1568 non-cancer controls. We estimated the effect of use of wood stove by conditional logistic regression, with adjustment for smoking, alcohol consumption and for other sociodemographic and dietary variables chosen as empirical confounders based on a change-in-estimate criterion. RESULTS: After extensive adjustment for all the empirical confounders the odds ratio (OR) for all upper aero-digestive tract cancers was 2.68 (95% confidence interval [CI] : 2.2-3.3). Increased risks were also seen in site-specific analyses for mouth (OR = 2.73; 95% CI: 1.8-4.2), pharyngeal (OR = 3.82; 95% CI: 2.0-7.4), and laryngeal carcinomas (OR = 2.34; 95% CI: 1.2-4.7). Significant risk elevations remained for each of the three anatomic sites and for all sites combined even after we purposefully biased the analyses towards the null hypothesis by adjusting the effect of wood stove use only for positive empirical confounders. CONCLUSIONS: The association of use of wood stoves with cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract is genuine and unlikely to result from insufficient control of confounding. Due to its high prevalence, use of wood stoves may be linked to as many as 30% of all cancers occurring in the region.  (+info)

Helicobacter pylori infection, garlic intake and precancerous lesions in a Chinese population at low risk of gastric cancer. (6/106621)

BACKGROUND: Cangshan County of Shandong Province has one of the lowest rates of gastric cancer (GC) in China. While intestinal metaplasia (IM) and dysplasia (DYS) are less common in Cangshan than in areas of Shandong at high risk of GC, these precursor lesions nevertheless affect about 20% of adults age > or = 55. SUBJECTS AND SETTING: In order to evaluate determinants of IM and DYS in Cangshan County, a low risk area of GC a survey was conducted among 214 adults who participated in a gastroscopic screening survey in Cangshan County in 1994. METHOD: A dietary interview and measurement of serum Helicobacter pylori antibodies were performed. RESULTS: The prevalence of H. pylori was lowest (19%) among those with normal gastric mucosa, rising steadily to 35% for superficial gastritis (SG), 56% for chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG), 80% for IM, and 100% for DYS. The prevalence odds of precancerous lesions were compared with the odds of normal histology or SG. The odds ratio (OR) or CAG associated with H. pylori positivity was 4.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] : 1.7-10.0), while the OR of IM/DYS associated with H. pylori positivity was 31.5 (95% CI: 5.2-187). After adjusting for H. pylori infection, drinking alcohol was a risk factor for CAG (OR = 3.2, 95% CI: 1.1-9.2) and IM/DYS (OR = 7.8, 95% CI: 1.3-47.7). On the other hand, consumption of garlic showed non-significant protective effects and an inverse association with H. pylori infection. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study suggest that infection with H. pylori is a risk factor and garlic may be protective, in the development and progression of advanced precancerous gastric lesions in an area of China at relatively low risk of GC.  (+info)

Precancerous lesions in two counties of China with contrasting gastric cancer risk. (7/106621)

BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide and shows remarkable geographical variation even within countries such as China. Linqu County in Shandong Province of northeast China has a GC rate that is 15 times higher than that of Cangshan County in Shandong, even though these counties are within 200 miles of each other. METHOD: In order to evaluate the frequency of precancerous gastric lesions in Linqu and Cangshan Counties we examined 3400 adults in Linqu County and 224 adults in Cangshan County. An endoscopic examination with four biopsies was performed in each individual of the two populations. RESULTS: The prevalence of intestinal metaplasia (IM) and dysplasia (DYS) was 30% and 15.1%, respectively, in Linqu compared to 7.9% and 5.6% in Cangshan (P < 0.01). Within these histological categories, advanced grades were found more often in Linqu than in Cangshan. The prevalences of IM and DYS were more common at each biopsy site in Linqu, where the lesions also tended to affect multiple sites. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study support the concept that IM and DYS are closely correlated with risks of GC and represent late stages in the multistep process of gastric carcinogenesis.  (+info)

Serum triglyceride: a possible risk factor for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. (8/106621)

BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine the relationship between ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and serum concentrations of lipids and apolipoproteins. METHODS: A cohort of 21 520 men, aged 35-64 years, was recruited from men attending the British United Provident Association (BUPA) clinic in London for a routine medical examination in 1975-1982. Smoking habits, weight, height and blood pressure were recorded at entry. Lipids and apolipoproteins were measured in stored serum samples from the 30 men who subsequently died of ruptured AAA and 150 matched controls. RESULTS: Triglyceride was strongly related to risk of ruptured AAA. In univariate analyses the risk in men on the 90th centile of the distribution relative to the risk in men on the 10th (RO10-90) was 12 (95% confidence interval [CI] : 3.8-37) for triglyceride, 5.5 (95% CI: 1.8-17) for apolipoprotein B (apoB) (the protein component of low density lipoprotein [LDL]), 0.15 (95% CI : 0.04-0.56) for apo A1 (the protein component of high density lipoprotein [HDL]), 3.7 (95% CI: 1.4-9.4) for body mass index and 3.0 (95% CI: 1.1-8.5) for systolic blood pressure. Lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) was not a significant risk factor (RO10-90 = 1.6, 95% CI: 0.6-3.0). In multivariate analysis triglyceride retained its strong association. CONCLUSION: Triglyceride appears to be a strong risk factor for ruptured AAA, although further studies are required to clarify this. If this and other associations are cause and effect, then changing the distribution of risk factors in the population (by many people stopping smoking and adopting a lower saturated fat diet and by lowering blood pressure) could achieve an important reduction in mortality from ruptured AAA.  (+info)

How is Chronic Disease and Sociodemographic Risk Factors abbreviated? CDSRF stands for Chronic Disease and Sociodemographic Risk Factors. CDSRF is defined as Chronic Disease and Sociodemographic Risk Factors very rarely.
This study examined independent contributions of executive functioning (EF), state regulation (SR), and social risk factors to symptom dimensions of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in two cohorts, which included 221 Norwegian children and 294 Finnish adolescents. Independent contributions of EF and SR were shown in the Norwegian cohort and EF contributed independently in the Finnish cohort. When controlling for each symptom dimension, cognitive functioning and social risk factors were differentially associated with inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms. The results show the need to include both social risk factors and cognitive functioning to obtain a better understanding of ADHD symptoms.. ...
Ageing exerts differential effects on arterial stiffness and wave reflections. However, the impact of cardiovascular risk factors on arterial stiffness and wave reflections and, particularly, how such effects are influenced by ageing has not been assessed within a single large population, covering a sufficiently wide age range. Therefore, we determined the extent to which age alters the impact of traditional cardiovascular risk factors on arterial stiffness and wave reflections. Aortic stiffness and wave reflections were assessed in 4421 individuals (age range 18 to 92 years). When treated as continuous variables, clinic systolic, diastolic, and pulse pressures and glucose levels were independently associated with stiffness, and, with the exception of diastolic pressure, these associations were more marked in older individuals. In contrast, clinic systolic and diastolic pressures and smoking were independently associated with wave reflections, with stronger associations observed in younger ...
The STEPS Noncommunicable Disease Risk Factors Survey uses a survey methodology developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) to help countries establish noncommunicable disease surveillance systems. Some surveys are conducted at the country level and others at the subnational level. The methodology prescribes three steps-questionnaire, physical measurements, and biochemical measurements. Core topics covered by most surveys are demographics, health status, and health behaviors. These provide data on socioeconomic risk factors and metabolic, nutritional, and lifestyle risk factors. Details may differ from country to country and from year to year. This Egyptian national survey included smoking, alcohol consumption, diet, physical activity, physical measurements, and biochemical measurements.. Only reports are currently available. No data have been released.. ...
BACKGROUND: Although diabetes is a well-known risk factor of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases, the cardiovascular disease risk of glycemia below the current diabetic threshold remains uncertain. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 652,901 Korean men aged 30 to 64 years from the Korean National Health Insurance System were categorized into 8 groups by fasting blood glucose (FBG) level at baseline and were followed up for cardiovascular diseases occurrence during 1992-2001. Over the follow-up period of 8.8 years, 10,954 stroke and 3766 myocardial infarction events occurred. In age-adjusted analyses, there was evidence of linear associations between FBG and myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, and intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke. However, with additional adjustment for socioeconomic position, behaviors, and other cardiovascular disease risk factors, the associations with myocardial infarction and intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke were markedly attenuated with increased risk only at the ...
Led by Shivani Patel, PhD, researcher in the Hubert Department of Global Health at Rollins School of Public Health, the team studied data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) national surveys from 2009 to 2010. The goal was to determine the extent to which national cardiovascular mortality could be expected to decrease if all states were successful at reducing those risk factor levels to specified target levels.. Cardiovascular disease remains a leading cause of death nationally. The top five leading preventable risk factors for heart disease are elevated cholesterol, diabetes, hypertension, obesity and smoking. The fraction of cardiovascular deaths that could have been prevented in 2009 to 2010 were reported under two scenarios: complete elimination of risk factors, and a more realistic goal of reduction of risk factors to the best achieved levels in U.S. states in 2009-2010.. Findings suggest that about half of deaths could be prevented if the modifiable risk factors ...
In this large, representative cohort of very old subjects aged 80 years and older, traditional cardiovascular risk factors did not show an association with all-cause or cardiovascular mortality. This pattern was observed both in subjects with and without cardiovascular disease. The presence of frailty, on the other hand, was able to identify patients at high risk for mortality. However, within the strata of robust and frail subjects, traditional cardiovascular risk factors were not able to further identify patients at risk of mortality. Only a history of cardiovascular disease showed a strong association with mortality in robust subjects.. The current study showed that classic cardiovascular risk factors were not associated with mortality in the oldest old. In the Leiden 85 Plus study, de Ruijter et al. [17] showed that classic risk factors included in the Framingham risk score could not identify patients at risk for cardiovascular mortality. This study was performed on a subpopulation of ...
Background and aims: Carotid plaque is a specific sign of atherosclerosis and adults with carotid plaque are at increased risk for cardiovascular outcomes. Atherosclerosis has roots in childhood and pediatric guidelines provide cut-off values for cardiovascular risk factors. However, it is unknown whether these cut-offs predict adulthood advanced atherosclerosis. Methods: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study is a follow-up of children that begun in 1980 when 2653 participants with data for the present analyses were aged 3-18 years. In 2001 and 2007 follow-ups, in addition to adulthood cardiovascular risk factors, carotid ultrasound data was collected. Long-term burden, as the area under the curve, was evaluated for childhood (6-18 years) risk factors. To study the associations of guideline-based cut-offs with carotid plaque, both childhood and adult risk factors were classified according to clinical practice guidelines. Results: Carotid plaque, defined as a focal structure of the ...
The relationship between two well-established biological risk factors for schizophrenia has been discovered by John Hopkins researchers.
The relationship between depression and demographic risk factors, individual lifestyle factors, and health complications in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, Yusuf Kayar, Nuk
It is well established that hypercholesterolemia is a risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD), and routine screening is recommended for standard lipids and other major modifiable risk factors, including blood pressure, diabetes, obesity, and lifestyle habits.1 Advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of CHD have led to the discovery of several nonlipid risk factors that may enhance our ability to identify and manage patients who are most likely to have a future cardiovascular event. Information about a constellation of risk factors provides better predictive power than a single risk factor, but whether novel markers should be added to conventional risk factor screening is debated. Three candidate markers have potential use in practice to alter strategies for the prevention of CHD: C-reactive protein (CRP), homocysteine, and lipoprotein A.. There is increasing recognition that the underpinnings of atherosclerosis involve chronic inflammation and the deposition of cholesterol in ...
This is the first study on children concerning the changes of the cardiovascular risk factor profile in obesity in relation to the degree of weight reduction. In agreement with previous reports,7,8 our study showed that up to two thirds of our obese children already had one or more unfavourable cardiovascular risk factors.. In our sample, a significant improvement of cardiovascular risk factor profile associated with obesity (hypertension, increase in LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, decrease in HDL cholesterol) was shown due to a reduction of SDS-BMI of at least 0.5 over the time period of one year, while a reduction of SDS-BMI below showed no significant improvement except a lowering of LDL cholesterol in the group of children with a reduction of SDS-BMI of at least 0.25. A reduction of LDL cholesterol despite an improvement of other cardiovascular risk factors is probably caused by diet and not due to effective weight loss. Since hypertriglyceridaemia and decreased HDL cholesterol are ...
This study investigated the associations between circulating plasma biomarkers, which were previously identified by proteomics or immunohistochemistry experiments in human carotid plaques and adverse cardiovascular outcome in patients undergoing coronary angiography. The prognostic value of the majority of these proteins, including OGN and NGAL/MMP9 complex, for MACE had not yet been investigated. Higher circulating OGN and NGAL/MMP9 complex levels were associated with incident MACE during the first year of follow-up, independently of conventional cardiovascular risk factors. Adding OGN or NGAL/MMP9 to a model containing conventional cardiovascular risk factors improved risk classification and discriminatory ability, although the latter was not statistically significant. These associations with incident MACE and improvements in predictive ability were independent of CRP.. In previous proteomic experiments, we have identified a series of novel potential markers of vulnerable atherosclerotic ...
Breast cancer is a devastating disease. The specter of breast cancer frightens most women because it causes substantial morbidity and mortality despite our ever-increasing ability to provide earlier diagnosis and improved treatments. Breast cancer incidence rates are increasing worldwide, yet the relatively well-established risk factors account for no more than 50 to 55% of the breast cancer risk of westernized populations. 1-3 As a result, breast cancer epidemiologists have continued to search for additional risk factors, particularly lifestyle and environmental exposures, that are amenable to intervention.. Ovarian hormones, and particularly estrogens, play a major role in the development of breast cancer. 4 In fact, most accepted breast cancer risk factors can be interpreted as surrogate measures of a womans cumulative exposure to estrogen and possibly, progesterone. These risk factors include early age at menarche, late age at menopause, nulliparity or late age at first birth, lack of or ...
Previous studies have suggested that breast cancer risk factors are associated with estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) expression status of the tumors.We pooled tumor marker and epidemiological risk factor data from 35,568 invasive breast cancer case patients from 34 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Logistic regression models were used in case-case analyses to estimate associations between epidemiological risk factors and tumor subtypes, and case-control analyses to estimate associations between epidemiological risk factors and the risk of developing specific tumor subtypes in 12 population-based studies. All statistical tests were two-sided.In case-case analyses, of the epidemiological risk factors examined, early age at menarche (≤12 years) was less frequent in case patients with PR(-) than PR(+) tumors (P = .001). Nulliparity (P = 3 × 10(-6)) and increasing age at first birth (P = 2 × 10(-9)) were less frequent in ER(-) than in ER(+) ...
Background: Obesity is a known risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD) and plays a role in other CHD risk factors including dyslipidemia, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. With nearly two-thirds of the adult US population being overweight and obese, it is important to know how these individuals perceive their CHD risk.. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between self-reported CHD risk factors and perceived CHD risk among overweight and obese adults.. Methods: Demographic data, CHD risk factors, and perceived lifetime CHD risk were collected via electronic surveys using REDCap, an Internet-based data capture tool, of overweight and obese adults enrolled in a Weight Loss Research Registry. CHD risk factors were assessed using an investigator-developed survey of self-reported diagnoses of hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes, family history of CHD, and current smoking status. A risk factor ranking was assigned to each participant ranging from 0 ...
Synonyms for epidemiological association in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for epidemiological association. 106 synonyms for association: group, company, club, order, union, class, society, league, band, set, troop, pack, camp, collection, gathering, organization.... What are synonyms for epidemiological association?
Background: Job strain is associated with an increased coronary heart disease risk, but few large-scale studies have examined the relationship of this psychosocial characteristic with the biological risk factors that potentially mediate the job strain - heart disease association. Methodology and Principal Findings: We pooled cross-sectional, individual-level data from eight studies comprising 47,045 participants to investigate the association between job strain and the following cardiovascular disease risk factors: diabetes, blood pressure, pulse pressure, lipid fractions, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, obesity, and overall cardiovascular disease risk as indexed by the Framingham Risk Score. In age-, sex-, and socioeconomic status-adjusted analyses, compared to those without job strain, people with job strain were more likely to have diabetes (odds ratio 1.29; 95% CI: 1.11-1.51), to smoke (1.14; 1.08-1.20), to be physically inactive (1.34; 1.26-1.41), and to be obese (1.12; ...
Few studies have evaluated risk factors among stroke patients in our population. This study is aimed at exploring risk factors among black stroke patients. A total of 524 stroke patients seen at University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital between January 2005 and June 2011 were evaluated to ascertain risk factors. Prestroke risk factors were obtained from patient’s medical history and hospital records. Risk factors such as hypertension were gotten from case history, with hypertension defined as blood pressure (BP) of ≥ 140/90 mmHg or features of long standing hypertension. History of smoking, alcohol intake, transient ischaemic attack (TIA) were also noted. Hypertension was the commonest risk factor, found in 87% of patients, followed by hypercholesterolaemia 15.1%, past history of stroke 11.5%, diabetes 10.1%, alcohol 8.8%, smoking 6.8%, TIA 5.3%, heart failure 2.4% and preeclampsia-eclampsia 2.0%, while 19.7% had more than one risk factor. About 53% had no prior knowledge of being
Guwatudde D, Mutungi G, Wesonga R, Kajjura R, Kasule H, Muwonge J, Ssenono V, Bahendeka SK.. The Epidemiology of Hypertension in Uganda: Findings from the National Non-Communicable Diseases Risk Factor Survey. PLoS One. 2015; 10(9): e0138991 ...
A recent study suggests that stiffness of the aorta may be a key risk factor for dementia. The findings are important, as aortal stiffness is something that people may be able to manage via lifestyle changes and medication even later in life. Participants in the study included 356 people with an average age of 78 who t
Background: Previous studies have examined individual risk factors in relation to peripheral arterial disease (PAD) but the combined effects of these factors are largely unknown. We investigated the degree to which clinical risk factors may explain the risk of PAD among men.. Methods: We prospectively followed 45,596 men from the Health Professional Follow-up Study without a history of cardiovascular disease at baseline during a 22-year period (1986-2008). We defined four clinical risk factors - smoking, history of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia - that were updated biennially during follow-up. Cox proportional hazard models were used to compare PAD risk across individual and joint risk factors.. Results: During 874,769 person-years of follow-up, 497 confirmed PAD cases occurred. All four clinical risk factors were significantly and independently associated with a higher risk of PAD after multivariate adjustment (Figure). Risk of PAD more than doubled (hazard ratio: 2.14; ...
Among men in this cohort, smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and type 2 diabetes account for the majority of risk associated with development of clinically significant PAD.
Recent research highlights why only a mask mandate and economic measures can save the lives of people who have this newly identified key risk factor for COVID-19 infection.
Hepatitis C virus itself is a causal risk factor for chronic kidney disease beyond traditional risk factors: a 6-year nationwide cohort study across Taiwan. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
RESULTS Among 5163 men who reported taking medication for diabetes, 1092 deaths (603 CVD deaths) occurred in an average of 12 yr of follow-up. Among 342,815 men not taking medication for diabetes, 20,867 deaths were identified, 8965 ascribed to CVD. Absolute risk of CVD death was much higher for diabetic than nondiabetic men of every age stratum, ethnic background, and risk factor level-overall three times higher, with adjustment for age, race, income, serum cholesterol level, sBP, and reported number of cigarettes/day (P , 0.0001). For men both with and without diabetes, serum cholesterol level, sBP, and cigarette smoking were significant predictors of CVD mortality. For diabetic men with higher values for each risk factor and their combinations, absolute risk of CVD death increased more steeply than for nondiabetic men, so that absolute excess risk for diabetic men was progressively greater than for nondiabetic men with higher risk factor levels.. ...
The Berrien County Behavioral Risk Factor Survey (BRFS) is a telephone survey conducted every three years of Berrien County residents ages 18 years and older.
Rationale: Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) is a critical determinant of morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have identified several cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, which may partly arise from a shared genetic basis with CAD, and thus be useful for discovery of CAD genes. Objective: We aimed to improve discovery of CAD genes, and inform the etiologic relationship between CAD and several CVD risk factors using a shared polygenic signal-informed statistical framework. Methods and Results: Using genome-wide association studies (GWAS) summary statistics and shared polygenic pleiotropy-informed conditional and conjunctional false discovery rate (FDR) methodology, we systematically investigated genetic overlap between CAD and 8 traits related to CVD risk factors: low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), type 2 diabetes (T2D), C-reactive protein (CRP), body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and type 1 diabetes ...
Design, setting and participants: A CVD risk-factor survey was carried out in rural south-eastern Australia from 2004 to 2006. Using a stratified random sample, data for 1116 participants aged 35-74 years were analysed. Applying the Framingham risk equations to risk-factor data, 5-year probabilities of a coronary heart disease event, stroke and cardiovascular event were calculated. The effect of different changes in risk factors were modelled to assess the extent to which cardiovascular diseases can be prevented by changing the risk factors at a population level (population strategy), among the high-risk individuals (high-risk strategy) or both ...
The same things that would put a man at risk of heart disease also put women at risk. These risk factors include increasing age, abnormal cholesterol, high blood pressure, diabetes, inactivity, smoking, excess body fat, chronic stress, and heredity. An interesting study released by Mayo Clinic also identified poor dental hygiene as another risk factor for heart disease. Inflammation of gum tissue can be an indicator for other inflammation in the body, including coronary arteries.. While the risk factors are the same, heart disease affects women in different ways than men. On average, heart disease affects men about ten years earlier in life, suggesting that women may be protected from heart disease prior to menopause. However, heart disease can strike before and during menopause, affecting young and middle-aged women with certain risk factors. So it is important to know the signs and symptoms no matter what your age is.. A study released in the American Heart Associations publication ...
Results Carotid plaque was present in 162 (49.1%) of the Spanish patients. The SCORE and Framingham score were each strongly associated with plaque (P ,0.0001). In predicting plaque presence, the area under the curve (AUC) (SE) of the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve for the Framingham score was larger than for the SCORE (0.799 (0.024) versus 0.747 (0.027), P =0.003). The optimal cut-off value and corresponding sensitivity and specificity for the Framingham score and SCORE were 11.0, 64% and 81% and 0.5, 86% and 58%, respectively. Based on optimal cut-off values, a high Framingham score but not SCORE was associated with carotid plaque independent of age, sex, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein concentrations. Whereas a conventional Framingham score value of ≥20 correctly classified only 25% as being at high CVD risk, this proportion increased to 64% in those with a Framingham score of ,11; the percentage of patients without plaque incorrectly classified as being ...
The Risk Factor Assessment Branch develops, evaluate, and disseminates research methods, technologies, and resources for assessing cancer-related risk factors in the population.
When Is Blood Pressure Considered High is a thoughtful condition. Do you have When Is Blood Pressure Considered High or are you at risk for When Is Blood Pressure Considered High. But if you treat it carefully you can provent When Is Blood Pressure Considered High. But bont worry about When Is Blood Pressure Considered High? Youve come to the right place. This quick guide for When Is Blood Pressure Considered High. These suggestion will get you started.
BACKGROUND: Although primary care physicians understand the importance of preventive services for patients with multiple risk factors (MRF) for coronary heart disease, physician intervention is limited. This study investigated (1) physicians views of challenges faced in managing patients with MRF; (2) the counseling and management methods they utilize; and (3) possible strategies to enhance MRF intervention in the primary care setting. METHODS: Two focus groups were conducted with primary care physicians from varying settings to gain insight into these issues noted above. Each group was co-facilitated by a physician and a behavioral scientist using a previously developed semistructured interview guide. The group discussions were tape recorded and subsequently transcribed. Transcripts were analyzed using the constant comparative method for analysis. RESULTS: Physicians are challenged by knowledge limitations (contribution of individual risk factors to overall risk); limited support (guidelines,
Our analysis demonstrates that participants with persistent CAC = 0 had an overall lower cardiovascular risk factor profile. The healthy arterial aging group had a significantly lower level for all of the individual cardiovascular risk factors and a higher level for all of the healthy lifestyle factors, except Mediterranean diet. The absence of traditional CVD risk factors was also associated with persistent CAC = 0 when compared with participants with ≥3 CVD risk factors. However, there was no single modifiable traditional cardiovascular risk factor whose absence was strongly associated with healthy arterial aging. This is similar to a large cross-sectional cohort study of almost 17,000 participants by Boutouyrie et al. (19) in which sex, dyslipidemia, and smoking were not significantly associated with arterial aging, which was classified as an increased central arterial stiffness. In addition, Lehmann et al. (20) found a significant inverse trend between the number of cardiovascular risk ...
Mortality reduction in patients with diabetes mellitus is complex, and multifactorial intervention strategies assume a special importance due to high prevalence of other comorbid conditions.1 Unlike its role in microvascular complication prevention, aggressive glucose control, by itself, probably contributes only modestly in reducing macrovascular events like myocardial infarction.2 Optimal medical therapy (OMT) to simultaneously target other risk factors (like hypertension and dyslipidemia) with medications and lifestyle modification, in addition to blood sugar control are needed for cardiovascular complication and mortality reduction in diabetic patients.. There arent many randomized control trials that have evaluated the benefit of simultaneous risk factor control. The Steno-2 trial compared simultaneous intensive risk factor modification (with the goal A1C , 6.5%, cholesterol , 175 mg/dl, triglyceride level , 150 mg/dl, blood pressure , 130/80 mm Hg) to lenient control in 160 diabetic ...
BACKGROUND:: Secular trends in cardiovascular risk factors have been described, but few studies have examined simultaneously the effects of both ageing and secular trends within the same cohort. METHODS:: Development of cardiovascular risk factors over the past three decades was analysed using serial measurements from 10 308 participants aged from 35 to 80 years over 25 years of follow-up from five clinical examination phases of the Whitehall II study. Changes of body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure and total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol distribution characteristics were analysed with quantile regression models in the 57-61 age group. Age-related trajectories of risk factors were assessed by fitting mixed-effects models with adjustment for year of birth to reveal secular trends. RESULTS:: Average body mass index and waist circumference increased faster with age in women than in men, but the unfavourable secular trend was more marked in men. Distributions showed a ...
Background: Atherosclerosis is a systemic multifocal disease with a preference for the branching points of the arteries. In this study, we quantitatively measured carotid and femoral plaque volume in subjects with cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) and/or established atherosclerotic disease using a 3D ultrasound technique. Methods: In this prospective, single-centre study, we included 404 patients (median age 64; 56.9% men) with at least one CVRF or established cardiovascular disease. Plaque volume was measured using 3D ultrasound equipped with an automated software. Results: We found a strong correlation of plaque volume with CVRF and the number of vascular beds involved. The strongest associations with total and femoral plaque volume were noted for smoking, hypertension, age, as well as for the presence of peripheral arterial occlusive disease (p < 0.05). Carotid plaque volume was best predicted by hyperlipidaemia, hypertension, age, as well as the presence of cerebrovascular disease and coronary
Compared with people with healthy kidneys, people with chronic kidney disease have more cardiovascular complications, including heart attack and stroke. Traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease include high blood pressure, diabetes, and abnormal cholesterol levels. Many people with chronic kidney disease have these traditional cardiovascular risk factors. More recently, researchers have identified other newer risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The newer risk factors include high blood levels of substances that indicate inflammation: homocysteine, C-reactive protein, and fibrinogen. The blood levels of specific fats are also newer risk factors: low levels of apolipoprotein A1 and high levels of apolipoprotein B or lipoprotein(a). The frequency of these newer cardiovascular risk factors in people with chronic kidney disease is unknown ...
See related article, pages 1752-1758. The concept of coronary risk equivalents has gained increased acceptance in recent years. In the 2001 National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines, diabetes mellitus, peripheral arterial disease, abdominal aortic aneurysm, and symptomatic carotid artery disease were cited as coronary risk equivalents.1 These conditions carry a 10-year risk of coronary heart disease events of ,20%.. In 2004, the tent containing coronary risk equivalent conditions was expanded by the NCEP committee to symptomatic carotid disease or ,50% obstruction of a carotid artery.2 In addition, whereas in 2001, the low-density lipoprotein target for coronary risk equivalents was ,100 mg/dL, in 2004, an optional target of ,70 mg/dL was established for high-risk patients.. In this issue of Stroke, Dhamoon et al, using data from the Northern Manhattan Study, provide further ammunition to support the enlargement of the coronary risk equivalent ...
We developed different types of risk prediction models to obtain an estimate of the discriminative power of very basic risk factors such as age, gender and BMI and the additive value of less conventional risk factors such as a genetic risk score and uCTX-II levels. We showed that all risk factor groups by themselves have limited and rather similar predictive value. Addition of either clinical/questionnaire-based variables, a genetic risk score or a biochemical marker, uCTX-II level to age, gender and BMI added little to none predictive value to the model. When adding knee pain and the baseline KL score (KL score of 1 as risk factor compared with 0 as reference) for the knee to the model, the AUC increased dramatically up to 0.86 in the independent validation study RS-II and to 0.76 in the Chingford Study.. The only model that achieves possible usefulness in daily practice is the one that incorporates X-ray information at baseline, ranging from AUC=0.76 in the Chingford Study to AUC=0.86 in ...
BACKGROUND: To identify new treatments to prevent stroke, it is important that we have reliable data on potential novel risk factors. METHODS: We studied seven novel vascular risk factors [apo-lipoprotein (b), C-reactive protein, Chlamydia pneumoniae, fibrin-D dimer, fibrinogen, Helicobacter pylori and lipoprotein (a)] and compared the amount of published data on their relations with ischaemic stroke versus acute coronary events by systematic review of all studies published up to 2003. RESULTS: From a total of 22,875 abstracts reviewed, 266 eligible studies were identified (167 case-control studies and 99 cohort studies). Two hundred and eleven (79%) studies included coronary events as an outcome for the purpose of a risk factor analysis. In 186 (70%) studies, coronary events were the only outcome that was analysed. Only 73 (27%) studies included stroke or TIA as an outcome event, and only 45 studies (17%) reported risk factor analyses for ischaemic stroke separately. These results were qualitatively
&lt;I&gt;Aim:&lt;/I&gt; The effectiveness of the support of a healthcare practitioner and a family member in producing changes in cardiovascular risk factor modification was tested in a randomised, controlled trial in patients with hypertension. &lt;br&gt;&lt;I&gt;Methods:&lt;/I&gt; The primary outcome measured after the 24-week intervention was blood pressure change. Secondary outcomes included patients' adherence to the programme, their knowledge about hypertension, exercise capacity, body weight, self-reported ability to control stress, adherence to medication and salt restriction, as well as symptoms. &lt;br&gt;&lt;I&gt;Results:&lt;/I&gt; There were no marked improvements in blood pressure regulation in either group. The differences between the experimental and control groups were 3 mmHg (CI -6.18-12.18) for systolic blood pressure and 4 mmHg (CI -1.48-9.48) for diastolic blood pressure. The estimated blood pressure
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a disease in which a waxy substance called plaque builds up inside the coronary arteries. These arteries supply oxygen-rich blood to your heart muscle. You can read more information on this at the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute website.. We had this requirement come in from a partner on how we could store all the patient vital data within Dynamics 365 and calculate a risk score. Our example shows how to use North52s business rules engine for Dynamics 365 to set up a Multi-Sheet Decision Table to evaluate the patients risk score of Coronary Heart Disease.. Each Decision Table Sheet will evaluate specific Risk Factors with a variety of Conditions and decide if that risk factor applies to the patient. A final Decision Table Sheet will then provide a Risk Score based on the individual Risk Factors.. For this article it is assumed that you have at least basic familiarity with Decision Tables and/or have read the following articles:. ...
AIMS: To compare data on cardiovascular risk factor changes in lipids, insulin, proinsulin, fibrinolysis, leptin and C-reactive protein, and on diabetes incidence, in relation to changes in lifestyle.. METHODS: The study was a randomized lifestyle intervention trial conducted in northern Sweden between 1995 and 2000, in 168 individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and body mass index above 27 at start. The intensive intervention group (n = 83) was subjected to a 1-month residential lifestyle programme. The usual care group (n = 85) participated in a health examination ending with a single counselling session. Follow-up was conducted at 1, 3 and 5 years.. RESULTS: At 1-year follow-up, an extensive cardio-metabolic risk factor reduction was demonstrated in the intensive intervention group, along with a 70% decrease of progress to type 2 diabetes. At 5-year follow-up, most of these beneficial effects had disappeared. Reported physical activity and fibre intake as well as high-density ...
Socioeconomic gradients in adiposity were not present during childhood for previous generations, but have emerged in contemporary children. It is unknown whether this translates to socioeconomic gradients in associated cardiovascular risk factors in children, with consequent implications for inequalities in coronary heart disease (CHD) and diabetes when these children reach adulthood. Using data from 7772 participants aged 10-years from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, we examined the association between maternal education and a large number of cardiovascular risk factors (cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, apolipoprotein, adiponectin, leptin, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and systolic and diastolic blood pressure), and examined whether inequalities were mediated by adiposity, measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-assessed total fat mass. There were socioeconomic differences in a number of the cardiovascular risk factors
Increased Serum Sodium and Serum Osmolarity Are Independent Risk Factors for Developing Chronic Kidney Disease; 5 Year Cohort Study. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
There is really no way to know for sure if youre going to get breast cancer, though certain risk factors can make it more likely. However, having one or more risk factors does not necessarily mean that you will get breast cancer. In fact, you can have all the risk factors and never get breast cancer, or you can have no known risk factors and still get the disease.. If you agree with any of the following bolded statements, you may be at an increased risk of developing breast cancer. Some risk factors are out of your control, such as your age or family history. Others, like drinking one or more alcoholic drinks a day or taking hormones, are factors you can control.. Each time you agree with a statement, ask yourself if you are doing all that you can to control that particular risk factor. It may seem difficult, but your efforts can have a big payoff in terms of your health and quality of life. Ask your doctors and loved ones to help think of ways that you can lower your risk for breast ...
Over a third of people with HIV have non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in the absence of hepatitis B or C, according to the results of a meta-analysis and systematic review published in AIDS. Metabolic disorders including high body mass index (BMI), diabetes and elevated lipids were key risk factors. The study also revealed high prevalences of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and liver fibrosis, possible outcomes of NAFLD, with metabolic disorders once again shown as the most important factors.. NAFLD is common in HIV-monoinfected patients. Metabolic disorders are key risk factors for NAFLD independent of HIV parameters and predict its complications, comment the authors. Our systematic review underlines the need for additional data on NAFLD in HIV infection as well as a better standardised assessment and management of the disease.. Liver disease is now a leading cause of serious illness and death in people with HIV. Until now, much of the liver disease occurring in people living ...
Objectives. This study examined socioeconomic differentials in risk of death from a number of specific causes in a large cohort of White men in the United States. Methods. For 300 685 White men screened for the multiple Risk Factors Intervention Trial between 1973 and 1975, data were collected on median income of White households in the zip...
Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2014 Jan 21;10:55-62. doi: 10.2147/VHRM.S53557. eCollection 2014.. Roed T1, Kristoffersen US2, Knudsen A3, Wiinberg N4, Lebech AM1, Almdal T5, Thomsen RW6, Kjær A2, Weis N7.. Abstract. OBJECTIVE: Chronic hepatitis C is a global health problem and has been associated with coronary artery disease. Our aim was to examine the prevalence of coronary artery disease risk markers including endothelial biomarkers in patients with chronic hepatitis C and matched comparisons without manifest cardiovascular disease or diabetes in a cross-sectional design.. METHODS: Sixty patients with chronic hepatitis C (mean age 51 years) were recruited from the Department of Infectious Diseases at Copenhagen University Hospital, and compared with 60 age-matched non-hepatitis C virus-infected individuals from a general population survey. We examined traditional coronary artery disease risk factors, metabolic syndrome, carotid intima media thickness, and a range of endothelial biomarkers.. RESULTS: ...
NEW YORK, May 30, 2011 /PRNewswire/ -- announces that a new market research report is available in its catalogue:. Epidemiology: Major Abdominal Surgery - A key risk factor for deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism [1]. [1]. Introduction. In 2010, Datamonitor estimates that there were 7.4 million major abdominal surgeries in the seven major markets. This number is not expected to change significantly, growing to 8.1 million surgeries in 2020.. Features and benefits. * Gain insight to market potential, including a robust 10-year epidemiology forecast of major abdominal surgeries.. * Understand the key epidemiologic risk factors associated with major abdominal surgery and how it is related to deep vein thrombosis.. Highlights. Datamonitors epidemiologists expect to see a ...
Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). In Taiwan, CVD is dominated by strokes but there is no robust evidence for a causal relationship between CKD and stroke. This study aimed to explore such causal association. Methods We conducted a nationwide retrospective cohort study based on the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database from 2004 to 2007. Each patient identified was individually tracked for a full three years from the index admission to identify those in whom any type of stroke developed. The study cohort consisted of patients hospitalized with a principal diagnosis of CKD and no traditional cardiovascular risk factors at baseline (n = 1393) and an age-matched control cohort of patients hospitalized for appendectomies (n = 1393, a surrogate for the general population). Cox proportional hazard regression and propensity score model were used to compare the three-year stroke-free survival rate of
Gastric cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths in the world. Although certain dietary factors and lifestyles have been suggested to be associated with gastric carcinogenesis, there have been few investigations focusing on rural areas. A case-control study was therefore carried out to investigate the risk factors of gastric cardia cancer (GCC) in rural areas of Linzhou. A total of 470 newly diagnosed cases of GCC and 470 healthy controls were included. Face-to-face interviews were conducted, using a uniform questionnaire containing questions on demographics, per capita income, living habits, dietary habits and family history of tumors. The relationship between putative risk factors and GCC was assessed by odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) derived from conditional logistic regression model by the COXREG command using SPSS 12.00. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate simultaneously the effects of multiple factors and other
Y chromosome haplogroup as a novel biological risk factor for coronary artery disease - The results of tracking paternal lineages in the west of Scotland primary prevention study (WOSCOPS ...
Looking for online definition of heart disease risk factor in the Medical Dictionary? heart disease risk factor explanation free. What is heart disease risk factor? Meaning of heart disease risk factor medical term. What does heart disease risk factor mean?
BACKGROUND: Much controversy surrounds the association of traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors with venous thromboembolism (VTE).. METHODS: We performed an individual level random-effect meta-analysis including 9 prospective studies with measured baseline cardiovascular disease risk factors and validated VTE events. Definitions were harmonized across studies. Traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors were modeled categorically and continuously using restricted cubic splines. Estimates were obtained for overall VTE, provoked VTE (ie, VTE occurring in the presence of 1 or more established VTE risk factors), and unprovoked VTE, pulmonary embolism, and deep-vein thrombosis.. RESULTS: The studies included 244 865 participants with 4910 VTE events occurring during a mean follow-up of 4.7 to 19.7 years per study. Age, sex, and body mass index-adjusted hazard ratios for overall VTE were 0.98 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.89-1.07) for hypertension, 0.97 (95% CI: 0.88-1.08) for ...
Ionizing radiation is a well-established risk factor for brain tumors. During recent years, microwave exposure from the use of cellular telephones has been discussed as a potential risk factor.
Results:. Study 1: 10-year cardiovascular mortality was significantly and linearly associated with glycemic control (fasting blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin A1 levels) independently of the mode of treatment. A high fasting blood glucose level significantly predicted cardiovascular mortality in multiple logistic regression analysis independently of other risk factors. Study 2: Glycated hemoglobin A1c was the most important single risk factor associated with coronary heart disease death or all coronary heart disease events. In multiple logistic regression analysis, glycated hemoglobin A1c was significantly associated with coronary heart disease death after adjustment for other cardiovascular risk factors. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Coronary heart disease risk prediction in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. AU - Chambless, Lloyd E.. AU - Folsom, Aaron R.. AU - Sharrett, A. Richey. AU - Sorlie, Paul. AU - Couper, David. AU - Szklo, Moyses. AU - Nieto, F. Javier. PY - 2003/9/1. Y1 - 2003/9/1. N2 - Risk prediction functions for incident coronary heart disease (CHD) were estimated using data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study, a prospective study of CHD in 15,792 persons recruited in 1987-1989 from four U.S. communities, with follow-up through 1998. Predictivity of which individuals had incident CHD was assessed by increase in area under ROC curves resulting from adding nontraditional risk factors and markers of subclinical disease to a basic model containing only traditional risk factors. We also assessed the increase in population attributable risk. The additional factors were body mass index; waist-hip ratio; sport activity index; forced expiratory volume; plasma ...
The goal of the present study was to assess the improvement in discrimination that would be gained by adding the recommended nontraditional risk markers to the 2013 cPCE. The present study found that among the 4 ACC/AHA-recommended nontraditional risk markers studied, the CAC score provides the highest (albeit, modest) improvement in discrimination over and beyond the cPCE (Central Illustration). The superiority of the CAC score seems to be consistent across all possible ASCVD strata. To our knowledge, this study is the first to assess whether nontraditional risk markers improve risk prediction afforded by the cPCE.. Previous studies showed that CAC score, ABI, hsCRP levels, and FH improve discrimination and classification of risk over the Framingham risk score but to varying degrees (15-18). Our group (19), as well as a report by the Rotterdam study (15), showed that among these 4 risk markers, CAC score provided the greatest improvement in discrimination across the whole CHD risk spectrum and ...
No. 1: Comparative Effectiveness of Percutaneous Coronary Interventions and Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting for Patients with Coronary Artery Disease. View final report.. No. 2: Future Research Needs for the Treatment of Common Hip Fractures. View final report.. No. 3: Future Research Needs for the Integration of Mental Health/Substance Abuse and Primary Care. View final report.. No. 4: Future Research Needs for Comparative Effectiveness of Treatments of Localized Prostate Cancer. View final report.. No. 5: Future Research Needs To Reduce the Risk of Primary Breast Cancer in Women. View final report.. No. 6: Future Research Needs for Outcomes of Weight Gain in Pregnancy. View final report.. No. 7: Future Research Needs for the Management of Gestational Diabetes. View final report.. No. 8: Future Research Needs for Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors or Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers Added to Standard Medical Therapy for Treating Stable Ischemic Heart Disease. View final report.. No. 9: ...
Twenty nine percent of the 700,000 strokes that occur yearly nationwide are among stroke survivors. Blacks, both nationally and among Harlem residents, have a twofold increase in recurrent strokes. Harlem Latinos have a threefold increase in risk relative to Whites.. Primary risk factors for recurrent stroke include hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and under use of anti-thrombotic agents. Controlling risk factors can be particularly challenging for low-income, minority populations who lack the resources needed to adhere to necessary therapies. In Harlem, 72% of adults studied six months post stroke did not have these three risk factors treated adequately.. We propose to determine if participation in a recurrent stroke prevention educational intervention, versus usual care, can activated stroke survivors to at reduce primary risk factors for recurrent strokes while providing an effective, low-cost, sustainable recurrent stroke prevention program in neighborhoods like Harlem, whose residents bear a ...
0006] According to an aspect of the invention, a computer-assisted method provides identification of predictive key risk indicators (KRIs) for organizations and/or firms through the application of specific statistical and quantitative methods that are well integrated with qualitative adjustment. The method may include the steps of: 1) identifying a set of key risks using a first triangulation process with risk information for an identified risk; 2) identifying risk indicators associated with the identified risks using a second triangulation process; 3) conducting, by a risk management computer system, quantitative and statistical analysis to identify a set of statistical associations and a set of predictive relationships of the risk indicators and the key risks through correlation testing and regression modeling; and 4) selecting a set of predictive key risk indicators from the set of statistical associations and the set of predictive relationships. Additionally, the method may also include the ...
BACKGROUND: Limited comparative, prospective data exist regarding cardiovascular risk factors in HIV-infected women starting antiretroviral therapy in Africa.. METHODS: In 7 African countries, 741 women with CD4 ,200 cells/mm were randomized to tenofovir/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) plus either nevirapine (NVP, n = 370) or lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r, n = 371). Lipids and blood pressure (BP) were evaluated at entry, 48, 96, and 144 weeks. Multivariable linear and logistic regression models were used to evaluate mean risk factor changes and clinically relevant risk factor changes.. RESULTS: At entry, both NVP and LPV/r groups were similar regarding age [mean = 33.5 (SD = 7.1) years], CD4 [129 (67) cells/mm], and HIV-1 RNA [5.1 (0.6) log10 copies/mL]. Nearly, all women had normal lipids and BP except for high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol. Over 144 weeks, the LPV/r compared with NVP group had significantly greater mean lipid increases (eg, non-HDL: +29 vs. +13 mg/dL) and smaller HDL increases ...
Physical activity is consistently associated with a reduced risk of colorectal cancer in epidemiologic studies. This association among higher risk subgroups, such as those with a first-degree family history of colorectal cancer or high body mass index remains unclear. We searched MEDLINE for studies examining physical activity and colorectal cancer risk among higher risk subgroups through July 11, 2017. Fifteen and three studies were eligible for inclusion for body mass index and first-degree family history of colorectal cancer subgroups, respectively. Estimates of the highest to lowest comparison of physical activity for each subgroup of risk were pooled using random-effects models. The pooled associations of physical activity and colorectal cancer risk for those without and with a first-degree family history of colorectal cancer were 0.56 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.39-0.80) and 0.72 (95% CI = 0.39-1.32), respectively (pheterogeneity = 0.586). The pooled associations of physical activity and
On the basis of clinical and pathologic criteria, endometrial carcinoma has been distinguished as types I (mainly endometrioid) and II (nonendometrioid). Limited data suggest that these subtypes have different risk factor profiles. The authors prospectively evaluated risk factors for types I (n = 1,312) and II (n = 138) incident endometrial carcinoma among 114,409 women in the National Institutes of Health (NIH)-AARP Diet and Health Study (1995-2006). For individual risk factors, relative risks were estimated with Cox regression by subtype, and P(heterogeneity) was assessed in case-case comparisons with type I as the referent. Stronger relations for type I versus Type II tumors were seen for menopausal hormone therapy use (relative risk (RR) of 1.18 vs. 0.84; P(heterogeneity) = 0.01) and body mass index of ≥30 vs. |30 kg/m2 (RR of 2.93 vs. 1.83; P(heterogeneity) = 0.001). Stronger relations for type II versus type I tumors were observed for being black versus white (RR of 2.18 vs. 0.66; P
Our data suggest that inclusion of walnuts in the diet, with or without dietary counseling to adjust caloric intake, improved diet quality and may also improve EF, reduce total and LDL cholesterol in this sample of adults at risk for diabetes. Inclusion of walnuts in the diet, with or without dietary counseling to adjust caloric intake, did not affect anthropometric measures, insulin response, and blood pressure in these participants at risk for diabetes. No differential treatment effects were observed in our outcome measures, whether or not the participants received dietary counseling to adjust caloric intake to compensate for the inclusion of walnuts in their diet.. The inclusion of 56 g walnuts/day in the diet, with or without dietary counseling to adjust caloric intake, significantly improved diet quality as measured by the 2010 HEI in this sample of adults at risk for type 2 diabetic. Improving diet quality has been associated with a reduction of cardiometabolic risk and chronic diseases in ...
Recent studies in the field demonstrate an increasing impact of cardiovascular disease (CVD) on morbidity and mortality in HIV relative to AIDS-related diagnoses. Studies continue to support an approximately 1.5 to two-fold increased risk of IHD conferred by HIV, with specific risk varying by sex and virologic/immunologic status. Risk factors include both traditional CVD risk factors and novel, HIV-specific factors including inflammation and immune activation. Specific antiretroviral therapy (ART) drugs may increase CVD risk, yet the net effect of ART with viral suppression is beneficial with regard to CVD risk. Management of cardiovascular risk and prevention of CVD is complex, because current general population strategies target traditional CVD risk factors only. Extensive investigation is being directed at developing tailored CVD risk prediction algorithms and interventions to reduce CVD risk in HIV.. SUMMARY ...
Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death in America, with well-established and identifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are the primary driver for first cardiovascular event, and risk factor modification has been a significant driver for reduction of cardiovascular death in certain populations in recent decades.1,2 However, there remains significant opportunity to improve clinician and patient participation in evidence-based screening and preventative care. According to registry-based studies, 40-60% of patients with cardiovascular risk factors are non-adherent to at least one key component of primary prevention.3 Among those with established atherothrombotic disease, up to 90% are taking antiplatelet, lipid-lowering or anti-hypertensive therapy. However, fewer than 50% are fully adherent to all medications with a class 1 indication in secondary prevention, which is associated with marked increase in risk for recurrent events and death.4. The Million Hearts Initiative ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The fibroblast growth factor-23 and Vitamin D emerge as nontraditional risk factors and may affect cardiovascular risk. AU - Masson, S.. AU - Agabiti, N.. AU - Vago, T.. AU - Miceli, M.. AU - Mayer, F.. AU - Letizia, T.. AU - Wienhues-Thelen, U.. AU - Mureddu, G. F.. AU - Davoli, M.. AU - Boccanelli, A.. AU - Latini, R.. PY - 2015/3/1. Y1 - 2015/3/1. N2 - Objectives: Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) and vitamin D are hormones involved in phosphate homoeostasis. They also directly influence cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. We examined whether the relationships between levels of vitamin D or FGF-23, cardiac phenotype and outcome were independent of established cardiac biomarkers in a large cohort of community-dwelling elderly subjects. Design and Setting: Plasma levels of FGF-23 and vitamin D were measured in 1851 men and women (65-84 years) resident in the Lazio region of Italy. Participants were referred to eight cardiology centres for clinical examination, electrocardiography, ...
A high body mass index (BMI) is associated with an increased risk of mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD); however, a low BMI may also be associated with an increased mortality risk. There is limited information on the relation of incident CHD risk across a wide range of BMI, particularly in women. We examined the relation between BMI and incident CHD overall and across different risk factors of the disease in the Million Women Study. 1.2 million women (mean age = 56 years) participants without heart disease, stroke, or cancer (except non-melanoma skin cancer) at baseline (1996 to 2001) were followed prospectively for 9 years on average. Adjusted relative risks and 20-year cumulative incidence from age 55 to 74 years were calculated for CHD using Cox regression. After excluding the first 4 years of follow-up, we found that 32,465 women had a first coronary event (hospitalization or death) during follow-up. The adjusted relative risk for incident CHD per 5 kg/m2 increase in BMI was 1.23 (95%
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and chronic kidney disease (CKD) have high prevalences in Taiwan and worldwide, but the role of HCV infection in causing CKD remains uncertain. This cohort study aimed to explore this association. This nationwide cohort study examined the association of HCV with CKD by analysis of sampled claims data from Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database from 1998 to 2004. ICD-9 diagnosis codes were used to identify diseases. We extracted data of 3182 subjects who had newly identified HCV infection and no traditional CKD risk factors and data of randomly selected 12728 matched HCV-uninfected control subjects. Each subject was tracked for 6 years from the index date to identify incident CKD cases. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to determine the risk of CKD in the HCV-infected and control groups. The mean follow-up durations were 5.88 years and 5.92 years for the HCV-infected and control groups, respectively. Among the sample of 15910 subjects, 251 subjects
Results Modelbase indicated that baseline age, smoking, hypertension, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and diabetes were all significantly associated with plaque progression; the summarised population attributable risk (PAR) was 28.4%. Modelbase + change indicated that status changes in age, hypertension, and high LDL-C were significant; the summarised PAR was 37.9%. Compared with Modelbase, Modelbase + change exhibited a significant increase in c-statistics (P = 0.001), from 0.668 (95% CI: 0.645-0.691) to 0.688 (95%CI: 0.665-0.710). The NRI was 2.17% (95% CI: 1.29-3.05, P = 0.073) among participants without atherosclerosis progression, and was 6.57% (95% CI: 5.04-8.11, P , 0.001) among those with progression. The summarised NRI was 8.74 (95% CI: 7.51-9.94, P , 0.001). Adverse change in hypertension and elevated LDL-C accelerated atherosclerosis progression, but favourable change in their status failed to slow progression. We ...
The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of rosiglitazone and/or exercise training on novel cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. One hundred overweight/obese type 2 diabetes mellitus patients, with inadequ
06/12/2015 - The USPSTF posted a draft research plan n use of nontraditional risk factors in cardiovascular disease risk assessment.
American Cancer Society (ACS). October 18, 2016. A new study from American Cancer Society researchers finds eleven of the 15 cancers with the most impact on healthy years of life lost in the United States are closely-associated with two preventable risk factors: smoking and alcohol. The study, appearing early online in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine, also finds the cancer burden is 20% to 30% higher in African Americans than in all races/ethnicities combined.. To measure cancer burden, researchers led by Joannie Lortet-Tieulent calculated the disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost to cancer, i.e. the loss of life in full health because of cancer. This measure combines mortality, incidence, survival, and quality of life into a single summary indicator.. They estimated the U.S. burden of cancer in 2011 at over 9.8 million DALYs, which was equally shared among men and women (4.9 million DALYs for each sex). DALYs lost to cancer were mostly related to premature death due to cancer ...
Background: Epidemiological studies have shown that microalbuminuria is an important risk factor for arteriosclerosis, coronary heart disease and other vascular diseases in persons with type 2 diabetes. In the present study we examined the prevalence and risk factors for micro- and macroalbuminuria and examined glycemic control as well as treatment of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors in persons with known type 2 diabetes in Germany. Methods: The presented data were derived from the `KORA Augsburg Diabetes Family Study, conducted between October 2001 and September 2002. Participants were adults aged 29 years and older with previously diagnosed type 2 diabetes (n = 581). Microalbuminuria was defined as an albumin-creatinine ratio of 30 to 300 mg/g, and macroalbuminuria as an albumin-creatinine ratio of more than 300 mg/g. Results: Microalbuminuria was revealed in 27.2% and macroalbuminuria in 9.0% of the 581 included diabetic persons. Multivariable regression analysis identified HBA1c, ...
The Stanford Five-City Project was initiated in 1978 to evaluate the effects of community-wide health education on coronary heart disease risk factors in two control San Luis Obispo and Modesto and two treatment Monterey and Salinas cities. This paper examines sex differences in the prevalence of smoking, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension...
© 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd Objective: To examine the effect on cardiovascular (CVD) risk factors of interventions to alter consultations between practitioners and patients with type 2 diabetes. Search Strategy: Electronic and manual citation searching to identify relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Inclusion Criteria: RCTs that compared usual care to interventions to alter consultations between practitioners and patients. The population was adults aged over 18 years with type 2 diabetes. Trials were set in primary care. Data extraction and synthesis: We recorded if explicit theory-based interventions were used, how consultations were measured to determine whether interventions had an effect on these and calculated weighted mean differences for CVD risk factors including glycated haemoglobin (HbA 1c ), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), total cholesterol (TC), LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) and HDL cholesterol (HDL-C).
MRFIT). Known by its acronym, this large randomized trial of preventive interventions initially was thought to demonstrate the inadequacy of preventive interventions, such as cholesterol-lowering regimens, because death rates were not significantly different between the groups with and without intervention. However, more detailed analysis revealed that apparent similarity of intervention and control groups was due, in part at least, to contamination of the control group by publicized intervention methods that many adopted, although it was not meant to be part of their regimen; and that intervention did significantly reduce death rates from coronary heart disease, but the death rates due to violent causes, such as traffic crashes and suicide, were significantly elevated in the intervention group, raising the possibility that lower cholesterol levels were associated with adverse modification of mood. A brief description and formalities for access to data sets from the MRFIT studies are at ...
The strength of the present nested case-control design compared with a conventional case-control design is that information on risk factors is collected before the event. This eliminates the risk of recall bias when patients who have suffered a serious event like stroke are interviewed and ensures that information also is available in severely affected and deceased subjects. The drawback is that lifestyle, including tobacco habits, may change from the time of the baseline data collection to the time of the event, which would tend to dilute the strength of any existing correlation, resulting in lower ORs. The time from baseline to the stroke event averaged 4.5 years. This reduces the likelihood that many participants have drastically changed their lifestyles, particularly because mean age at baseline was 55 years, an age when tobacco habits are relatively stable. Few participants reported a history of ischemic heart disease at the time of the risk factor survey, and an ECG was not obtained. ...
In this study, a newly developed risk assessment model for stroke onset was shown by several statistical indicators to be superior to the gold-standard Framingham Stroke Risk Score. This new stroke risk score model(NEW-STROKE) was developed using a novel, model-building technology, called synthesis analysis, that allowed for the incorporation of seven additional literature-derived risk factors into the original FSRS.. Compared with the discrimination of these two models, the NEW-STROKE model had higher modified C-statistics than the original FSRS model in the overall group and in the female subgroup in the presence of censoring for survival time. This observation illustrates that the NEW-STROKE model has higher precision in both the overall group and the female subgroup in predicting stroke risk score. When evaluating calibration, the NEW-STROKE model outperformed the original FSRS model as evidenced by smaller Hosmer-Lemeshow chi-square values (,20) after recalibration in the overall group and ...
Few studies have examined how various lifestyle factors in midlife predict longevity, and none of these studies have examined the impact of physical fitness. The present study aimed to examine longevity in relation to smoking, overweight and physical fitness. We prospectively studied longevity (defined as reaching at least 85 years of age) in relation to smoking status, body mass index and physical fitness in 821 healthy men between 51 and 59 years of age. Of these, 369 were smokers, 320 were overweight, and 31 were obese. The associations were adjusted for age, systolic blood pressure and cholesterol level, using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Deaths were registered until the 31st of December, 2006. Physical fitness was measured as the total work performed in a maximal exercise tolerance bicycle test. 252 men survived to the age of 85 years (30.7%). Smoking status was significantly and independently related to longevity; 37.2% of the non-smokers survived to the age of 85, and 22.8% of the
TY - JOUR. T1 - Metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease in a working population. T2 - A retrospective cohort study. AU - Gumbiner, Barry. AU - Andresen, Elena M.. AU - Hearne, F. Terry. AU - Michaelson, T. Erik. AU - Bryson, Michael. AU - Lednar, Wayne M.. AU - Cass, Roger. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1996/3. Y1 - 1996/3. N2 - Risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) appear to cluster in individuals, possibly because of a single, underlying metabolic disorder. We describe the prevalence of metabolic risk factors for CVD in a young working population and the tendency for individuals with some risk factors to acquire additional factors. This was a retrospective three year follow up study of baseline CVD risk factors assessing (1) incidence of risk factors and (2) fatal CVD. The study group consisted of 9,747 Eastman Kodak employees, who participated in a worksite-based cardiovascular screening program in Rochester, New York, which ...
p,Background: Reduced socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with an increased risk of stroke, although the mechanism is not clear. It may be that those with lower SES have a greater burden of classic vascular risk factors.,/p, ,p,Methods: Our aim was to quantify the extent to which classic vascular risk factors explain the association between SES and stroke incidence. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies examining the association of SES and stroke incidence, where classic vascular risk factors were considered. Searching MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library from 1980 onwards we identified 17 studies, 12 of these studies provided sufficient information to allow a meta-analysis. From each study the increased risk of stroke incidence, where the lowest socioeconomic category was compared with the highest, was recorded and pooled. The stroke incidence risks, adjusted for grouped classic risk factors, were also pooled. Review Manager 5 software was used for all analyses ...
Effective for dates of service beginning October 1, 2015, Harvard Pilgrim will not cover the counseling risk factor reduction codes CPT 99401-99404 and 99411-99412 when they are billed in conjunction with a preventive exam or a problem-oriented visit. Because these services are already included as part of a preventive exam or problem-oriented visit, they should not be reimbursed as separate procedures.. For more information, please refer to Harvard Pilgrims updated Evaluation and Management Payment Policy.. ...
The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS-SOL) is the largest study to date to examine the prevalence of heart disease risk factors-high blood pressure, high cholesterol, obesity, diabetes, and smoking-within a diverse Hispanic/Latino population. Findings from HCHS-SOL also showed that the prevalence of risk factors varies across and within Hispanic/Latino populations. For example, people of Puerto Rican background experienced higher rates of heart disease risk factors compared to other Hispanic/Latino groups.. Participants who were more acculturated (born in the United States or lived in the United States for 10 years or longer or preferred using English rather than Spanish) were significantly more likely to have three or more risk factors as well as self-reported heart disease or stroke. And those with lower education or with annual incomes less than $20,000 were more likely to have multiple heart disease risk factors than those with higher education and incomes.. Heart ...
Embargoed until 6am on Thursday 10 April 2014. London, UK, Thursday 10 April 2014: Two new studies presented today at the International Liver CongressTM 2014 have provided more evidence to clarify the role of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) as an independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD).. In the first long-term study[1], in patients at high CVD risk, NAFLD was shown to contribute to the progression of early atherosclerosis independently of traditional CVD risk factors. In a second long-term study[2], NAFLD was confirmed as a significant long-term risk factor for the development of diabetes mellitus (DM). Importantly, those patients showing signs of an improvement in the fatty appearance of their liver in response to treatment then had a reduced risk of going on to develop diabetes. NAFLD describes a range of conditions where there is a build-up of fat in the liver cells in people who do not drink alcohol excessively. It is rapidly becoming the most ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Potential risk factors[edit]. Temperature and heat exposure[edit]. The temperature and heat levels of the body are directly ... Common groups at risk of becoming victim to this phenomenon include avid listeners of music and others who listen or work with ... Melnick, W. (1991). HUMAN TEMPORARY THRESHOLD SHIFT (TTS) AND DAMAGE RISK. [Article]. Journal of the Acoustical Society of ... This factor is particularly interesting due to the fact that a large population of people listen to music while exercising. ...
Causes and Risk Factors[edit]. The cause of PNES has not yet been established. One hypothesis is that they are a learned ... The risk factors for FND can include trauma, illness exposure, symptom monitoring, and abnormal beliefs and expectations about ... McDade G, Brown SW (March 1992). "Non-epileptic seizures: management and predictive factors of outcome". Seizure. 1 (1): 7-10. ... easiest factor to distinguish), seizures having a gradual onset, a fluctuating course of disease severity, the eyes being ...
Risk factors[edit]. *Age, especially young children[8][9][11] *Primary dentition stage (2-3 years old, when children's motor ... Kania MJ, Keeling SD, McGorray SP, Wheeler TT, King GJ (1996). "Risk factors associated with incisor injury in elementary ... depends on one's activity status and also the surrounding environment factor but these are the main predisposing risk factor ... are the significant risk factors. Prevention[edit]. Prevention in general is relatively difficult as it's nearly impossible to ...
Risk factors[edit]. Risk factors for developing antiphospholipid syndrome include:[citation needed] ... The lupus anticoagulant will inhibit all the contact activation pathway factors (factor VIII, factor IX, factor XI and factor ... Further studies for factor V Leiden variant and the prothrombin G20210A mutation, factor VIII levels, MTHFR mutation. ... Distinguishing a lupus antibody from a specific coagulation factor inhibitor (e.g.: factor VIII) is normally achieved by ...
Risk factors. No quieren (They do not want to) by Francisco Goya (1746-1828) depicts an elderly woman wielding a knife in ... Risk-targeted interventions. For one such method, see trauma risk management.. Risk-targeted interventions are those that ... 8.7% (lifetime risk); 3.5% (12-month risk) (US)[5]. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)[note 1] is a mental disorder that can ... and familial stressors increase risk for PTSD as well as risk for biological markers of risk for PTSD after a traumatic event ...
Risk factors[edit]. While all horses undertaking intense exercise experience some degree of EIPH, some horses consistently ... Other contributing factors may include upper airway obstruction, increased blood viscosity, abnormalities of cardiac origin ( ... In the case of horses that consistently demonstrate greater severity of EIPH this is most likely due to congenital factors, ... In horses that experience isolated episodes of increased severity of EIPH, possible contributing factors may include, amongst ...
Risk factors[edit]. *Children with spina bifida. Up to 68% will have a reaction.[24] ... the risk of a potentially life-threatening allergic reaction by a patient has been deemed by Johns Hopkins Hospital to be ... and hospital housekeeping personnel-who frequently use latex gloves and other latex-containing medical supplies are at risk for ...
Risk factors[edit]. Sexsomnia affects individuals of all age groups and backgrounds but present as an increased risk for ... Determining factors[edit]. Determining factors include but are not limited to: *a family history of somnambulism, or ... Though it is not possible for a definitive diagnosis of sexsomnia, a series of factors are considered to determine the presence ...
Risk factors[edit]. Intracranial aneurysms may result from diseases acquired during life, or from genetic conditions. Lifestyle ... Coarctation of the aorta is also a known risk factor,[5] as is arteriovenous malformation.[7] Genetic conditions associated ... The risk of rupture from a cerebral aneurysm varies according to the size of an aneurysm, with the risk rising as the aneurysm ... Other risk factors that contributes to the formation of aneurysm are: cigarette smoking, hypertension, female gender, family ...
Risk factors[edit]. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding ... It has been suggested the otherwise immunocompetent patients taking infliximab may be at a higher risk for fungemia. ...
Risk factors[edit]. It is generally accepted that DLD is strongly influenced by genetic factors.[30] The best evidence comes ... of four-year-olds with early language delays who have no other presenting risk factors.[29] However, for children who still ... and DLD results when a child inherits a particularly detrimental combination of risk factors, each of which may have only a ... Associated factors[edit]. It has long been noted that males are more affected by DLD than females, with a sex ratio of affected ...
Risk factors[edit]. Stress can be created by influences such as work, school, peers or co-workers, family and death. Other ...
Risk factors[edit]. The primary source of infection is ingestion of fecally contaminated food or water. Attack rates are ... The most important determinant of risk is the traveler's destination. High-risk destinations include developing countries in ... additional risk factors include drinking untreated surface water and failure to maintain personal hygiene practices and clean ... Boulware, DR (2003). "Medical risks of wilderness hiking". American Journal of Medicine. 114 (March): 288-93. doi:10.1016/S0002 ...
Risk factors[edit]. Not all patients with diabetes go on to develop diabetic nephropathy. The main risk factors that increase ... NF-kB and the activation of growth factors TGF-B and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). These factors, along with the ... Lewis G, Maxwell AP (February 2014). "Risk factor control is key in diabetic nephropathy". The Practitioner. 258 (1768): 13-7, ... Lewis G, Maxwell AP (February 2014). "Risk factor control is key in diabetic nephropathy". The Practitioner. 258 (1768): 13-7, ...
Risk factors[edit]. All ethnic groups and income levels are susceptible to the illness. The CDC states that CFS is "at least as ... Viral infection is a significant risk factor for CFS, with 22% of people with mononucleosis have chronic fatigue six months ... Hempel, S.; Chambers, D.; Bagnall, A.-M.; Forbes, C. (1 July 2008). "Risk factors for chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic ... Hempel S, Chambers D, Bagnall AM, Forbes C (July 2008). "Risk factors for chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis: a ...
Risk factors[edit]. Risk factors associated with placental disease are as follows:[3] ... Risk factors such as diabetes, chronic blood pressure and multiple pregnancies can increase the risk of developing placental ... lack of important growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and placental growth factor (PlGF), has an ... Ananth C, Vintzileos A (2011). "Ischemic placental disease: epidemiology and risk factors". European Journal of Obstetrics & ...
2012). "Elevated factor VIII levels and risk of venous thrombosis". Br J Haematol. 157 (6): 653-63. doi:10.1111/j.1365- ... Goldhaber, Samuel Z. (2010). "Risk Factors for Venous Thromboembolism". Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 56 (1): ... These may have particular specific risk factors:[4] *Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, cavernous sinus thrombosis and jugular ... 2012). "Non-O Blood Type Is the Commonest Genetic Risk Factor for VTE: Results from a Meta-Analysis of the Literature". Semin. ...
Risk factors[edit]. Affected individuals are typically 20 to 50 years old.[3][4] The female to male ratio is 2:1.[4][5][6] By ... or a combination of these factors;[6] meningitis,[4] CSF pleocytosis, cranial nerve palsies, hemiparesis, transverse myelitis ...
The presence 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 of any of the following risk factors corresponds to a PONV respective risk of 10, 20, 40, 60, ... Postoperative nausea and vomiting results from patient factors, surgical & anesthetic factors. Surgical factors that confer ... Risk factors[edit]. A 2008 study compared 121 Japanese patients who experienced PONV after being given the general anesthetic ... Patient factors that confer increased risk for PONV include female gender, Obesity, age less than 16 years, past history of ...
Risk factors[edit]. A select few of the populations at risk include: *People with indwelling implants, prostheses, drains, and ... Furthermore, with MRSA's high contagion rate,[10] a common risk factor is individuals who are in constant contact with someone ... As many as 22% of people infected with MRSA do not have any discernable risk factors.[20]:637 ... Fritz SA, Garbutt J, Elward A, Shannon W, Storch GA (June 2008). "Prevalence of and risk factors for community-acquired ...
Critique of risk factor research[edit]. Two UK academics, Stephen Case and Kevin Haines, among others, criticized risk factor ... Individual risk factors[edit]. Individual psychological or behavioural risk factors that may make offending more likely include ... is caused by four main risk factors namely; personality, background, state of mind and drugs. These factors may lead to the ... Risk factors[edit]. The two largest predictors of juvenile delinquency are: *parenting style, with the two styles most likely ...
Risk factors[edit]. In many patients, normal tension glaucoma is common in individuals with a generalized reduced perfusion of ... the female gender is also a risk factor.[4] Diagnosis[edit]. While tonometry, the measuring of IOP and thus a classical ... The rationale: the lower the IOP, the less the risk of ganglion cell loss and thus in the long run of visual function. The ...
Risk factors[edit]. Antibiotics[edit]. C. difficile colitis is associated most strongly with the use of these antibiotics: ... Risk factors. Antibiotics, proton pump inhibitors, hospitalization, other health problems, older age[1]. ... Long-term hospitalization or residence in a nursing home within the previous year are independent risk factors for increased ... Low serum albumin levels is a risk factor for the development of C. difficile infection and when infected for severe disease.[ ...
Risk factors[edit]. See also: Suicide § Risk factors. There are numerous indicators that one can look for when trying to detect ... There are also situations in which the risk for suicidal ideation may be heightened. The risk factors for suicidal ideation can ... 2005). "The internal struggle between the wish to die and the wish to live: a risk factor for suicide". American Journal of ... If signs, symptoms, or risk factors are detected early then the individual might seek treatment and help before attempting to ...
High meat intake is also a risk factor for developing diverticular disease.. ... risk factors, and pathogenesis". UpToDate. Retrieved 13 March 2017. (Subscription required (help)).. ... "Eating Nuts, Popcorn Not Linked With Higher Risk of Diverticulosis". Newswise. 21 August 2008. Retrieved 26 August 2008.. ... It has been hypothesized that the increased consumption of animal proteins increases the risk of diverticular disease by ...
Risk factors[edit]. Known risk factors for pre-eclampsia include:[6][20] ... Risk factors. Obesity, prior hypertension, older age, diabetes mellitus[2][4]. Diagnostic method. BP , 140 mmHg systolic or 90 ... Risk factors for pre-eclampsia include obesity, prior hypertension, older age, and diabetes mellitus.[2][4] It is also more ... Environmental factors, e.g. air pollution[13]. Those with long term high blood pressure have a risk 7 to 8 times higher than ...
Risk factors[edit]. There are a number of risk factors for insulin resistance, including being overweight or obese or having a ... Risk factors for insulin resistance include obesity, sedentary lifestyle, family history of diabetes, various health conditions ... Lifestyle factors[edit]. Dietary factors likely contribute to insulin resistance, however, causative foods are difficult to ... Various genetic factors can increase risk, such as a family history of diabetes, and there are some specific medical conditions ...
... risks are associated more with socioeconomic factors than with the biological effects of age.[6] Risks of low birth weight, ... Risk factors[edit]. Culture[edit]. Rates of teenage pregnancies are higher in societies where it is traditional for girls to ... age in itself is not a risk factor, and poor outcomes are associated more with socioeconomic factors rather than with biology.[ ... Low educational expectations have been pinpointed as a risk factor.[90] A girl is also more likely to become a teenage parent ...
Risk factors[edit]. Preexisting diabetes mellitus of a pregnant mother is a risk factor that has been described for the fetus ...
The overall picture represents the risk factors of the risk scenario.[15] ... Factor Analysis of Information Risk (FAIR) defines vulnerability as:[11] The probability that an asset will be unable to resist ... "An Introduction to Factor Analysis of Information Risk (FAIR)", Risk Management Insight LLC, November 2006 Archived 2014-11-18 ... Vulnerability and risk factor models[edit]. A resource (either physical or logical) may have one or more vulnerabilities that ...
Medical history should in any case include questions about risk factors during pregnancy, the familial rate and the presence of ... These last two are both important factors influencing bone development.[27]. Environmental factorsEdit. Environmental factors ... Biomechanical factorsEdit. Biomechanical factors include fetal head constraint during pregnancy.[27] It has been found by Jacob ... Several research groups have found evidence that these environmental factors are responsible for an increase in the risk of ...
This is a type of safeguard to the system, almost like a two-factor authentication method. First, the B cells have to encounter ... The result is a low serum antibody level and risk of infections. ... into plasma cells is dependent upon the transcription factors ...
The contributing factors in the variability of success include the pre-surgical size of the tonsils, palate, uvula and tongue ... See Uvulopalatoplasty One of the risks is that by cutting the tissues, excess scar tissue can "tighten" the airway and make it ... The Vancouver Sleep and Breathing Centre May 30, 2006 Risks associated with LAUP surgeries. ...
A risk exists of muscle damage (myopathy and rhabdomyolysis) with statins. Hypercholesterolemia is not a risk factor for ... cardiovascular risk, and the liver and kidney functions of the patient, evaluated against the balancing of risks and benefits ... Similar to statins, the risk of muscle damage exists.. *Niacin, like fibrates, is also well suited for lowering triglycerides ... mortality in persons older than 70 years and risks from statin drugs are more increased after age 85.[2] ...
Dietary factors also influence the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks in excess is ... Nieto-Martínez, R; González-Rivas, JP; Medina-Inojosa, JR; Florez, H (22 November 2017). "Are Eating Disorders Risk Factors for ... Management of type 2 diabetes focuses on lifestyle interventions, lowering other cardiovascular risk factors, and maintaining ... family history as a risk factor and screening tool". Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology. 3 (4): 722-6. doi:10.1177/ ...
Carbon offset emission factors handbook: Specified Gas Emitters Regulation (PDF), 2015, retrieved 2018-03-15. ... One of the risks of LNG is a rapid phase transition explosion (RPT), which occurs when cold LNG comes into contact with water.[ ... "LNG: Benefits and Risks of Liquified Natural Gas". Archived from the original on 2013-08-08. Retrieved 2013-02-25.. ... Guidance on Risk Analysis and Safety Implications of a Large Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Spill Over Water - (Adobe Acrobat *. ...
Because of this "risk-pooling" effect, digital communication systems that use ECC tend to work well above a certain minimum ... rectangular (or uniform) interleavers (similar to the method using skip factors described above) ... The iterative decoding algorithm works best when there are not short cycles in the factor graph that represents the decoder; ...
... greatly reducing pain and risk of injury during impact. Proper punching form is the most important factor to prevent this type ...
Furthermore, it is no longer recommended to use in the United States for initial treatments due to pill burden and risk of ...
7 Risks and problems *7.1 Negative outcomes *7.1.1 Adequacy of regulation and CAM safety ... Other factors. There are also reasons why a placebo treatment group may outperform a "no-treatment" group in a test which are ... Even low-risk medications such as antibiotics can have potential to cause life-threatening anaphylactic reactions in a very few ... Social factors. Authors have speculated on the socio-cultural and psychological reasons for the appeal of alternative medicines ...
is the discount factor): 6. +. 6. δ. +. 6. δ. 2. +. 6. δ. 3. .. .. .. {\displaystyle 6+6\delta +6\delta ^{2}+6\delta ^{3}...}. ...
Risks. risks. Risk factors. Contoh. Heart disease - Smoking; high blood pressure; high cholesterol; obesity; family history ( ... Cause of the disease (if known). Try to separate from risk factors, although some overlap is common. ... Lifetime morbid risk (the proportion of people who will eventually develop the disorder at some time in their life whether or ... risks = ,diagnosis = ,differential = ,prevention = ,treatment = ,medication = ,prognosis = ,frequency = ,deaths = }} Data ...
Runyan CW, Bangdiwala SI, Linzer MA, Sacks JJ, Butts J (September 1992). "Risk factors for fatal residential fires". N. Engl. J ... although smoking was a risk factor for fatal fires.[16] Claims process[edit]. After a loss, the insured is expected to take ... Special "all risk"[6] - special-form coverage is the most inclusive of the three options. The difference with "special form" ... Major factors in price estimation include location, coverage, and the amount of insurance, which is based on the estimated cost ...
Another factor that contributes to the sustaining of muscle strength in hibernating bears is the occurrence of periodic ... It is currently recommended that patients at risk of or suffering from sarcopenia consume a diet high in protein, engage in ... The equivalent nitrogen content (in gram) of urea (in mmol) can be estimated by the conversion factor 0.028 g/mmol. Furthermore ... HMB supplementation may be useful in the prevention of muscle atrophy induced by bed rest or other factors. Further studies are ...
... risk factors, susceptibility patterns and antimicrobial management". The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. 14 (9): 751-9. ... "Pathogenic Properties (Virulence Factors) of Some Common Pathogens" (PDF).. *^ "Clindamycin" (PDF). Davis. 2017. Retrieved ... They have a polysaccharide capsule that acts as a virulence factor for the organism; more than 90 different serotypes are known ... and immunogenic cell wall components are all major virulence factors. After S. pneumoniae colonizes the air sacs of the lungs, ...
Body count is only one factor - but I made separate points (1) he has a low body count, (2) he's not a notable serial killer ( ... Should the headline mention that the giant "iceberg" poses a serious risk to oil platforms in its drift path ? (from CBC ...
2009). "Coeliac disease-associated risk variants in TNFAIP3 and REL implicate altered NF-kappaB signalling". Gut. 58 (8): 1078- ... Sutton AL, Zhang X, Ellison TI, Macdonald PN (September 2005). "The 1,25(OH)2D3-regulated transcription factor MN1 stimulates ...
2010). «Genetic risk factors for hepatopulmonary syndrome in patients with advanced liver disease». Gastroenterology. 139 (1): ...
... where the risk to the patient from lack of knowledge about disease progress is much greater than the risk from the test ... One of the factors most responsible for the acceptance of positron imaging was the development of radiopharmaceuticals. In ... FDG-PET imaging of atherosclerosis to detect patients at risk of stroke is also feasible and can help test the efficacy of ... Since the tracers are radioactive, the elderly and pregnant are unable to use it due to risks posed by radiation. ...
De Swert LF (1999). "Risk factors for allergy". Eur. J. Pediatr. 158 (2): 89-94. doi:10.1007/s004310051024. PMID 10048601. ... As a causal factor in pathologyEdit. Sensitization has been implied as a causal or maintaining mechanism in a wide range of ... a b Croner S (1992). "Prediction and detection of allergy development: influence of genetic and environmental factors". J. ... Moreover, there is increasing evidence that, despite a range of genetic risks for addiction across the population, exposure to ...
Plants respond and adapt to environmental factors, such as light and mechanical stress from wind. Leaves need to support their ... Optical masking of chlorophyll by anthocyanins reduces risk of photo-oxidative damage to leaf cells as they senesce, which ... Other factors include the need to balance water loss at high temperature and low humidity against the need to absorb ... but also to other factors such as grazing animals (such as deer), available nutrients, and ecological competition from other ...
Education of the general public about the risk factors for Ebola infection and of the protective measures individuals may take ... EVD has a risk of death in those infected of between 25% and 90%.[1][139] As of September 2014[update], the average risk of ... Health-care workers treating people with Ebola are at greatest risk of infection.[59] The risk increases when they do not have ... The CDC recommends monitoring for the symptoms of Ebola disease for those both at "low risk" and at higher risk.[123] ...
... many factors such as the size of nostril, the size of the lesion, and the preferences of the surgeon cause the selection of one ... reoperation has lower success rate and increases the risk of pituitary insufficiency.[14] ...
The reasons for low use are many, but a lack of dental providers who participate in Medicaid is a key factor.[53][54] Few ... The states pay a monthly capitated rate per member to the MCOs that provide comprehensive care and accept the risk of managing ... Several political factors influence the cost and eligibility of tax-funded health care, according to a study conducted by ... Factors Contributing to Low Use of Dental Services by Low-Income Populations. Washington, DC: U.S. General Accounting Office. ...
International Wildfowl Inquiry Volume i Factors Affecting the General Status of Wild Geese and Wild Duck. Cambridge University ... Niels C., Rattenborg (1999). "Half-awake to the risk of predation". Nature. 397 (6718): 397-398. Bibcode:1999Natur.397..397R. ... Sandilands, Al (2011). Birds of Ontario: Habitat Requirements, Limiting Factors, and Status: Volume 1-Nonpasserines: Loons ... The mallard is omnivorous and very flexible in its choice of food.[61] Its diet may vary based on several factors, including ...
... caused by other factors such as disease and overhunting by humans.[16][17] New research suggests that the extinction of the ... which allowed them a more nutritious diet and a decreased risk of famine.[21][23][67] Many of the famines experienced by ... "Slowly digested and absorbed carbohydrate in traditional bushfoods: a protective factor against diabetes?". Am J Clin Nutr. 45 ...
... probably with the help of an unknown GDP exchange factor. A domain of Toc159 might be the exchange factor that carry out the ... When replication forks form, the strand not being copied is single stranded, and thus at risk for A → G deamination. Therefore ...
Natural Hazards and Risk. 0 (2): 1524-1537. doi:10.1080/19475705.2017.1347896. ISSN 1947-5705.. ... and have been adapted throughout history for a wide number of factors, from building materials available, to weather conditions ...
Risk factors for the development of acne, other than genetics, have not been conclusively identified. Possible secondary ... High levels of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) are also associated with worsened acne.[42] Both ... Pregnancy category refers to an evaluation of a substance's risk of injury to a fetus if used by the mother during pregnancy.[ ... These gene candidates include certain variations in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-1 alpha, and CYP1A1 genes, ...
Safety from sexual harassment and privacy were likely two main goals of sex-separation of public toilets, and factors such as ... "Unisex toilets put girls at risk of sexual harassment, claims women's rights group". The Independent. February 18, 2019. ... where safety was considered not to be at risk, or where women were not valued by society.[1]:260-261 ... is not recommended in contexts where it may increase the risk of violence against women or transgender people, or where it is ...
Some people are at increased risk for breast cancer. ... Risk Factors You Cannot Change. *Getting older. The risk for ... Having a risk factor does not mean you will get the disease, and not all risk factors have the same effect. Most women have ... Risk Factors You Can Change. *Not being physically active. Women who are not physically active have a higher risk of getting ... If you have breast cancer risk factors, talk with your doctor about ways you can lower your risk and about screening for breast ...
Risk factors are those characteristics associated with child maltreatment and abuse, they may or may not be direct causes. ... Risk Factors for Victimization. Individual Risk Factors. *Children younger than 4 years of age ... Risk Factors for Perpetration. Individual Risk Factors. *Caregivers with drug or alcohol issues ... Identifying and understanding protective factors are equally as important as researching risk factors. ...
Many risk factors may increase your chance of developing colorectal cancer. This guide will help you learn about possible ... Colorectal Cancer Risk Factors. A risk factor is anything that affects your chance of getting a disease such as cancer. ... Different cancers have different risk factors. Some risk factors, like smoking, can be changed. Others, like a persons age or ... Colorectal cancer risk factors you cannot change. Being older. Your risk of colorectal cancer goes up as you age. Younger ...
Human Factors in Risk Assessment. When we address human factors in relation to health and safety, were aiming to optimise ... Organisations need to take a proportionate approach to human factors in risk assessment based on their hazard and risk profile. ... Key Principles in integrating Human Factors in Risk Assessment:. *Through your risk assessment, you should have identified ... The approach you take to human factors in risk assessment should be proportionate to hazards you face. For most industries a ...
Violence as a Risk Factor for Secondary Conditions in Women with Disabilities. ... The combination of those factors may help to explain the educational difference uncovered in our findings in that, with greater ... Since data were gathered in face-to-face interviews, the intimidation and stigmatization factors may have been intensified for ...
RISK EXPOSURE PREVALENCE BY:. Selected risk factors, age and sex. * LMIC countries by WHO region. xls, 243kb ... Estimates are available for risk factor exposures, mortality, and Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) by age, sex, risk ... Risk factors estimates for 2004. Along with The global burden of disease: 2004 update, WHO also analyzed the mortality and ... Risk factor and disease or injury cause, by age and sex. * WHO regions. xls, 2.35Mb ...
Risk Factors for Type 2 Violence Unit 4: Risk Factors for Type 3 Violence Unit 5: Prevention Strategies for Organizations Unit ... Clinical Risk Factors. The clinical setting is one of intensified emotions. Patients who are at risk of perpetrating violence ... Unit 3: Risk Factors for Type 2 Violence Workplace Violence Prevention for Nurses About This Course Unit 1: Definitions, Types ...
Environmental Risk Factors. Environmental risk factors are those that are attributable to the layout, design. and amenities of ... Environmental risks fall into four categories and include factors that:. *Provide opportunity to gain access or avoid detection ... Unit 3: Risk Factors for Type 2 Violence. *Unit 4: Risk Factors for Type 3 Violence ... Unit 3: Risk Factors for Type 2 Violence. *Unit 4: Risk Factors for Type 3 Violence ...
For example, unprotected exposure to strong sunlight is a risk factor for skin cancer; smoking is a risk factor for lung, mouth ... Some risk factors have a direct role in causing cancer, but in other cases the risk may be due to something else that goes ... Some risk factors, such as smoking, can be controlled. Others, like a persons age, cant be changed. See also ,b>gene,/b>, ,b> ... along with the risk factor. For example, older age is linked to higher risk of many types of cancers, but the actual cause ...
A better understanding of the epidemiology and risk factors for penile cancer may help improve the incidence rates and outcomes ... Risk factors for penile cancer include lack of circumcision, phimosis, balanitis, obesity, lichen sclerosus, smoking, low ... Molecular markers such as altered oncogenes, genome hypermutations, and immune factors have shown promise in penile cancer risk ... Cite this: Penile Cancer Epidemiology and Risk Factors - Medscape - Mar 01, 2019. ...
There are certain risk factors for tooth loss. Are there any you can control? WebMD can help you learn more about them and what ... 9 Risk Factors for Tooth Loss Reviewed by Michael Friedman, DDS on March 10, 2019 ... In the Journal of Periodontology, dental experts list nine risk factors for tooth loss due to periodontal disease. ... Some of those factors -- such as your age and sex -- wont budge. But others -- like whether you brush your teeth or smoke -- ...
A risk factor is something that increases your chance of getting a disease or health problem. Some risk factors for stroke you ... Risk factors are things that increase your chance of getting a disease or condition. This article discusses the risk factors ... Some risk factors for stroke that you can change are:. *Not smoking. If you do smoke, quit. Ask your doctor for help quitting. ... Changing the risk factors that you have control over will help you live a longer, healthier life. ...
Learn more about who is at risk for prostate cancer at WebMD. ... there are a number of known risk factors for prostate cancer, ... "Prostate Cancer Risk Factors.". Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention: "Sedentary Behavior and Prostate Cancer Risk in ... Youre born with them, so they fall in the category of risk factors you cant control. They run in families, but they only ... Whos At Risk for Prostate Cancer?. All men are at risk of having prostate cancer. About one man in nine will be diagnosed with ...
A better understanding of the epidemiology and risk factors for penile cancer may help improve the incidence rates and outcomes ... Risk factors for penile cancer include lack of circumcision, phimosis, balanitis, obesity, lichen sclerosus, smoking, low ... A wide range of risk factors have been identified, some of which are modifiable. HPV vaccination adopted by certain countries ... Molecular markers such as altered oncogenes, genome hypermutations, and immune factors have shown promise in penile cancer risk ...
The American Diabetes Association (ADA) says risk factors for prediabetes include:. *A history of diabetes during pregnancy ( ... home/diabetes center/ diabetes a-z list/ health tip: risk factors for prediabetes article ... Progression to full-blown diabetes isnt inevitable, the ADA says, suggesting you can lessen your risk by exercising regularly ...
Dementia: New risk factor examined. A number of risk factors are known for dementia; these include hypertension, a sedentary ... "Histoplasmosis: Causes, risk factors, and treatment." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 24 Jun. 2017. Web.. 20 Sep. 2018 ... We describe symptoms as they appear in several parts of the body, as well as causes, risk factors, prevention, and treatment. ... Risk factors. The Histoplasma capsulatum fungus is responsible for the histoplasmosis infection. ...
In this article, learn more about pneumoconiosis, its symptoms, risk factors, and management. ... Risk factors. Coal dust from mining may cause pneumoconiosis. There are clear risk factors for pneumoconiosis and a range of ... "Pneumoconiosis: Symptoms, risk factors, and management." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 8 Oct. 2017. Web.. 16 Dec. ... Sissons, C. (2017, October 8). "Pneumoconiosis: Symptoms, risk factors, and management." Medical News Today. Retrieved from. ...
Learn more about the risk factors for melanoma, many of which are thought to occur as a result of sunburns or excessive ... The most common risk factor for melanoma is exposure to UV light from the sun or indoor tanning beds or booths. Many skin ... Understanding and being realistic about your risk factors for melanoma is an important step in prevention. ... In addition to UV light exposure, there are several other risk factors for melanoma. ...
However, there are many other risk factors associated with increased lung cancer incidence. ... Smoking remains the biggest risk to developing lung cancer, and is responsible for more than 85% of cases. Without smoking, it ... Lung Cancer Risk Factors. News-Medical. 04 August 2020. ,,. ... Lung Cancer Risk Factors. News-Medical, viewed 04 August 2020, ...
Table 1: Relative risk, prevalence and population attributable risk of selected risk factors for TB. ... "risk factors," and "transmission," as text words AND infectious diseases, Tuberculosis and risk factors as MeSH or subject ... The risk of TB disease among individuals with LTBI (diagnosed as TST positive) relative to a person with no risk factors varies ... Only major risk factors related to TB infection and disease were identified, relevant literature was reviewed, and factors ...
While certain risk factors are associated with increased risk for depression, people suffering from depression may ... While certain risk factors are associated with increased risk for depression, people suffering from depression may suffer from ... Risk Factors for Depression. Psych Central. Retrieved on July 10, 2020, from ... Risk Factors for Depression. By Josepha Chong, MD Last updated: 20 Apr 2020. ~ 2 min read ...
Learn what factors may be putting you at risk of addiction. ... Another risk factor for addiction is the age at which you begin ... Even if you have many risks factors for addiction, you can combat or avoid it. Risk factors can increase your chance of ... Heredity is a major risk factor for addiction. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, up to half of your risk of ... If you have a lot of risk factors for addiction, talk to your doctor. They can help you learn more about addiction, your risk ...
Create healthcare diagrams like this example called Risk Factors in minutes with SmartDraw. SmartDraw includes 1000s of ... Risk Factors. Create healthcare diagrams like this example called Risk Factors in minutes with SmartDraw. SmartDraw includes ... Risk Factors. Mothers with thyroid abnormalities, mental retardation, or seizures. Mothers with any of these conditions are ... Babies born smaller than normal for their gestational age are at risk for cerebral palsy because of factors that kept them from ...
GEOPOLITICAL RISK, AND OTHER HAZARDS. Trend Micro group face a number of potential business interruption risks that are beyond ... terrorist attacks and other geopolitical risks prolonged continuation of these adverse factors may hurt our results of ... WE FACE NEW RISKS RELATED TO OUR ANTI-VIRUS AND OTHER SECURITY PRODUCTS AND SERVICES. A broad range of our security products ... Factors which could cause our quarterly financial results to fluctuate include:. *timing of sales of our products and services ...
Environmental factors such as diet have long been suspected of contributing to the high incidence of cardiovascular disease in ... Graham IM, Daly LE, Refsum HM, et al.: Plasma homocysteine as a risk factor for vascular disease: the European Concerted Action ... Coronary Heart Disease Cardiovascular Risk Factor Saturated Fatty Acid Cocoa Butter National Cholesterol Education Program ... Boushey CI, Beresford SA, Omenn GS, Motlusky AG: A quantitative assessment of plasma homocysteine as a risk factor for vascular ...
However, the risk of a musculoskeletal injury is an unfavourable consequence in physical training. Age, gender, injury history ... Hayes D. Risk factors in sport. Human Factors 16: 454-458, 1974PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Athletes, coaches and supervisors should be aware of the risk factors concerning the specific type of activity they are ... Altogether, a complex network of risk factors for athletic injuries has been found. However, no prospective study including all ...
... associated with ovarian cancer risk were located quite a distance away from those associated with risk of other cancers, which ... researchers say that women at greatest risk due to these and other inherited changes may be offered increased surveillance or ... researchers have just identified four chromosome locations with genetic changes that are likely to alter a womans risk of ... that has helped move researchers a major step closer to individualized risk assessment for ovarian cancer. ...
... and cancer risk, the risk factors themselves interplay with each other in complex ways. Approaches to cancer prevention will ... For some factors, the researchers have concluded that an effect on risk is unlikely. With coffee for example the researchers ... Also important to note is the fact that though the report is assessing the strength of the link between individual risk factors ... what factors increase the risk of cancer. They have tried to distinguish between evidence that is strong enough to suggest that ...
The UW Alzheimers Disease Research Center seeks to advance research in genetic risk, develop neuroimaging biomarkers for ... and lifestyle factors that affect a persons risk for developing the disease. ... Having one APOE ε4 alleles increases the risk of developing Alzheimers by 3 to 4 times, and two copies of APOE-ε4 (one from ... Overall, 65 year olds have a 10 percent risk of developing symptoms. In other words, 1 in 10 people over age 65 will develop it ...
The purpose of this article is to examine the risk and protective factors for different types of violent behavior in a sample ... The purpose of this article is to examine the risk and protective factors for different types of violent behavior in a sample ... Concurrent Risk Factors for Adolescent Violence. by Hilary Saner, Phyllis L. Ellickson ... illuminate the multiple and cumulative nature of the different risk factors, and characterize gender differences in explanatory ...
  • But it stands to reason that more exposure to UV rays increases the risk. (
  • Family History - Having an immediate family member with depression increases the risk of developing depression. (
  • The death of a baby's twin or triplet further increases the risk. (
  • Having one APOE ε4 alleles increases the risk of developing Alzheimer's by 3 to 4 times, and two copies of APOE- ε4 (one from each parent) raises the risk by more than 10 times. (
  • Isolation increases the risk for depression. (
  • In fact, AF increases the risk of stroke 4- to 5-fold. (
  • Translation: A build-up of calcium in the urine, which increases the risk of kidney stone formation, said Dr. Brian Stork, a urologist and spokesperson for the American Urological Association. (
  • This combination increases the risk for RMIs. (
  • There is some evidence that a history of depression also increases the risk of vascular dementia. (
  • We know from the Gutenberg Health Study conducted at Mainz that the number of years of education increases the risk of developing myopia,' said Professor Norbert Pfeiffer, Director of the Department of Ophthalmology at the Mainz University Medical Center. (
  • A risk factor is something that increases the risk of developing cancer. (
  • Smoking more than 20 cigarettes a day increases the risk of TB by two to four times while silicosis increases the risk about 30 fold. (
  • It is probably this interference and blockage of macrophage function that increases the risk of tuberculosis. (
  • Given that silicosis greatly increases the risk of tuberculosis, more research about the effect of various indoor or outdoor air pollutants on the disease would be necessary. (
  • A body mass index (BMI) below 18.5 increases the risk by 2 to 3 times. (
  • The causes of late-onset Alzheimer's are not yet completely understood, but they likely include a combination of genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors that affect a person's risk for developing the disease. (
  • Using an approach called genome-wide association study (GWAS), researchers have identified a number of regions of interest in the genome (an organism's complete set of DNA, including all of its genes) that may increase a person's risk for late-onset Alzheimer's to varying degrees. (
  • There are several factors that raise a person's risk of developing coronary heart disease and its often life threatening complications. (
  • Smoking - The greater a person's number of pack years (packs per year), the greater their risk of developing coronary artery disease. (
  • Studies of families have found that having a first-degree relative (like a parent or sibling) with an eating disorder increases a person's risk of developing an eating disorder. (
  • A person's risk of developing the condition doubles approximately every five years over the age of 65. (
  • Risk factors can increase a person's risk, but they do'nt necessarily cause the disease. (
  • 2 However, the influence of a particular risk factor can vary depending on a person's gender and stage of life. (
  • However, it is well known that a child or young person's stage of development and gender contribute to the risk. (
  • No one can live in another person's home, and cannot determine what they can or cannot risk. (
  • Once the researchers compared the twins to one another, they found that genetics play a vital role in the development of any of the three disorders, explaining 38 percent to 53 percent of a person's risk. (
  • Although genetics play an important role in these disorders, Munn-Chernoff noted that a person's environment still influences a person's risk for alcoholism or bulimia. (
  • While certain risk factors are associated with increased risk for depression, people suffering from depression may suffer from different types of depression and even display different signs and symptoms depending on the gender, age, and ethnic and cultural groups. (
  • Dr. Hill commented that these results are important "in showing that risk markers for alcohol dependence and other substance use disorders can be identified long before individuals develop symptoms of these disorders. (
  • Overall, 65 year olds have a 10 percent risk of developing symptoms. (
  • If you don't have any signs or symptoms, but are worried about your risk of cancer, discuss your concerns with your doctor. (
  • These factors may interact differently in different people, so two people with the same eating disorder can have very diverse perspectives, experiences, and symptoms. (
  • The risk of severe complications is higher when you have symptoms on the right side of your abdomen. (
  • That said, there are several well-known risk factors-and understanding what they are can help you take action if you ever develop symptoms of the disease. (
  • Stroke risk factors and symptoms. (
  • Common genetic factors may be behind both alcoholism and specific symptoms of eating disorders - particularly the binge eating and purging habits of bulimia nervosa, according to new research. (
  • The reason for these differences is not well understood, but researchers believe that higher rates of vascular disease in these groups may also put them at greater risk for developing Alzheimer's. (
  • However, researchers have just identified four chromosome locations with genetic changes that are likely to alter a woman's risk of developing ovarian cancer. (
  • Spanning three continents and over 24,000 women, these findings have come from a large genome-wide associated study (GWAS) that has helped move researchers a major step closer to individualized risk assessment for ovarian cancer. (
  • Although more needs to be learned about the function of the specific chromosomal regions involved in susceptibility, researchers say that women at greatest risk due to these and other inherited changes may be offered increased surveillance or preventative measures in the future. (
  • Biological Psychiatry is now publishing an article in which researchers evaluated and identified childhood risk factors for the development of future substance use disorders (SUD). (
  • The researchers performed a systematic search to find previously published systematic reviews and meta-analyses that had assessed the associations between these risk factors and Alzheimer's disease or dementia. (
  • The researchers wanted to provide an updated summary of several modifiable risk factors for Alzheimer's disease. (
  • The researchers first decided which risk factors to assess. (
  • Still, researchers have found broad similarities in understanding some of the major risks for developing eating disorders. (
  • Researchers have identified several cholangiocarcinoma risk factors that are believed to increase an individual's likelihood of developing bile duct cancer. (
  • This week, researchers published a series of scientific papers identifying six new genetic factors they believe increase the risk of developing breast cancer. (
  • Those don't increase the risk of cancer nearly as much as the BRCA1 or two genes, but the researchers say that these regions may be found in many more women. (
  • Researchers set out to create a customized model to get a better idea of Indonesian women and their risks for osteoporosis. (
  • Today, researchers better understand the likelihood of a person to develop Sjögren's syndrome if they're related to someone who has it: The odds are not necessarily higher, but they are more likely to develop an autoimmune disease such as rheumatoid arthritis or lupus, which is a risk factor for Sjögren's syndrome. (
  • Researchers think there are some genetic factors behind the common types of vascular dementia, and that these are linked to the underlying cardiovascular diseases. (
  • The CREAM researchers interpret this as evidence that this newly discovered risk-related gene is actually involved in the development of short-sightedness. (
  • Few factors have as yet been clearly identified by researchers as increasing the risk that a child or a young person will be sexually abused. (
  • Researchers led by Greg Rosenfeld, MD, at the University of British Columbia, conducted a study comparing same-day CTC and colonoscopy among 90 subjects aged 50 and older who were at average risk for colorectal cancer (CRC). (
  • The researchers also found different attendance patterns associated with each risk factor. (
  • Researchers screened more than 100 diverse factors in people's daily lives for links to depression. (
  • The researchers found 18 factors linked with lower chances of depression and 11 with higher chances. (
  • Adolescents and young adults with a range of cardiometabolic risk factors have an increased chance of dying before they turn 55, researchers found. (
  • However, researchers have identified a variety of other risk factors that can increase the risk of developing mesotehlioma, like a history of smoking. (
  • Retrieved on July 13, 2020 from (
  • If you have a strong family history of breast cancer or inherited changes in your BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, you may have a high risk of getting breast cancer. (
  • Studies have identified several inherited genes that appear to raise the risk of prostate cancer. (
  • Two categories of genes influence whether a person develops a disease: risk genes and deterministic genes. (
  • It is estimated that less than 1 percent of Alzheimer's cases are caused by deterministic genes (genes that cause a disease, rather than increase the risk of developing a disease). (
  • There is another way that lymphoma is genetic though-it can cause changes in your DNA's existing genes that raise your cancer risk. (
  • In addition, uncovering these childhood risk markers aids in the search for genes associated with the development of substance use disorders. (
  • The new genes appear to create only a moderate increase in breast cancer risk, but are present in a large percentage of the population. (
  • Scientists found two genes - BRCA1, BRCA2 - that if they had certain mutations dramatically increase the risk of breast cancer. (
  • Dr. HUNTER: Well, some of them variance in genes, some of them genetic regions that we use new technologies to scan the human genome for inherited variants that are associated with increased risk of breast cancer. (
  • The other groups concern additional genetic regions and the variance in those genes associated with breast cancer risk. (
  • And these new technologies allow us to look at gene variants that convey much lower degrees of risk than BRCA1 and BRCA2, which are the classic, very high-risk genes. (
  • And so, this is really the first reports of probably a series of reports as we really access these lower-risk genes for the first time. (
  • So by definition, the risks had to be very high for the variance from those genes in order to create those families with a very high burden. (
  • Several different genes appear to increase the risk of developing Sjögren's syndrome. (
  • Some of these risk factors (eg lifestyle) can be controlled, but others (eg age and genes) cannot. (
  • Some things can increase your risk of getting dementia, including your age, genes and lifestyle. (
  • Experiencing trauma early in life and having certain genes can put you at higher risk for depression. (
  • Research has shown that schizophrenia is a polygenic disorder and that genetic vulnerability to schizophrenia is multifactorial, caused by the interactions of several genes with environmental risk factors. (
  • An older 2003 review of linkage studies also listed seven genes as likely to increase risk for a later diagnosis of the disorder. (
  • Prevention programmes will need to take into account the variety of health determinants and the interplay between all the different risk factors. (
  • We also prepare annual BRFSS reports, newsletters, and fact sheets on health risks, prevention efforts, and chronic disease in Indiana. (
  • Better and earlier identification of those at highest risk makes it possible to develop targeted intervention/prevention efforts for these children, possibly enabling them to avoid [this] outcome. (
  • quicklist: 1 category: Stroke Risk Factors title: Preeclampsia url: text: This condition is a significant risk factor during and after pregnancy, so if you're trying to put a bun in the oven, prevention is key. (
  • We know that even younger women who take birth control pills and smoke have a very elevated risk of both heart attack and stroke," says Prevention advisor Steven Nissen, MD, chairman of the department of cardiovascular medicine at The Cleveland Clinic. (
  • If you'd like to learn more about cholangiocarcinoma risk factors, the bile duct cancer experts at Moffitt can help you assess your individual risk profile and provide advice on prevention and early detection. (
  • The second part of the article is devoted to stress prevention measures and more broadly to the prevention of psychosocial risk factors. (
  • Prevention is possible but there are many risk factors needing attention. (
  • quicklist: 4 category: Stroke Risk Factors title: Atrial Fibrillation url: text: This is the most common heart rhythm problem and a major modifiable risk factor for stroke. (
  • 35 there is an increased risk of T2DM.2 Obesity is the most significant modifiable risk factor for T2DM.3 It is a complex risk factor as it is associated with the behavioral factors and socio-economical circumstances that in turn influence the underlying behavioral problem leading to weight gain. (
  • This can increase the risk of MCC. (
  • Talk with your doctor about other birth control options that do not increase the risk of blood clots. (
  • Scientists have identified factors that increase the risk of Alzheimer's. (
  • ETS, otherwise known as passive smoking or second-hand smoking, where smoke is inhaled from someone else's cigarette, pipe, or cigar, can increase the risk of developing lung cancer even though you are not smoking yourself. (
  • Conditions which alter the immune response increase the risk of progression to disease with HIV coinfection, the most important of these. (
  • Other mental illnesses, such as alcoholism in family members, can also increase the risk for depression. (
  • The following can increase the risk of cancer: alcoholic drinks (they say that evidence that alcoholic drinks are a cause of particular cancers has strengthened), red meat, processed meats (meats preserved by smoking, salting, or curing) which includes bacon, ham and salami (which are linked to colorectal cancer), a diet very high in calcium, salt and salty foods, beta-carotene supplements (high doses increase risk of lung cancer in smokers). (
  • Buying into the message of the socially-defined "ideal body" may increase the risk of an eating disorder by increasing the likelihood of dieting and food restriction. (
  • Conditions that affect the way the blood clots, such as Factor V Leiden, may increase the risk of ischemic colitis. (
  • Some diseases caused by abnormal chromosomes may increase the risk of leukemia. (
  • Gene mutations are changes to a gene, which can increase the risk of developing cancer. (
  • It cannot be passed on to children and does not increase the risk of developing other cancers. (
  • Some types of HPV can increase the risk of developing cancer. (
  • One risk factor may not increase the risk for all types of leukemia. (
  • Some research suggests that having many sunburns, especially in childhood, might increase the risk of getting melanoma. (
  • The presence of one or more risk factors is not a cause of sexual assault, but it can increase the risk that sexual assault will occur. (
  • Although the etiology cannot be pinpointed on a single cause it is proved that obesity, socioeconomic conditions and genetic factors increase the risk of T2DM. (
  • Other disease states that increase the risk of developing tuberculosis are Hodgkin lymphoma, end-stage renal disease, chronic lung disease, malnutrition, and alcoholism. (
  • Different cancers have different risk factors. (
  • This latest study, which is being presented at the Alzheimer's Association International Conference in London, combined the work of 29 globally renowned experts to identify the nine modifiable lifestyle factors that contribute to increased dementia risk - all of which add up to 35% of overall impact. (
  • The greatest known risk factor for Alzheimer's is increasing age, but Alzheimer's is not a normal part of aging. (
  • While age increases risk, it is not a direct cause of Alzheimer's. (
  • After age 65, the risk of Alzheimer's doubles every five years. (
  • The risk of developing Alzheimer's or vascular dementia appears to be increased by many conditions that damage the heart and blood vessels. (
  • One promising line of research suggests that strategies for overall healthy aging may help keep the brain healthy and may even reduce the risk of developing Alzheimer's. (
  • Most cases of Alzheimer's disease-type dementia result from a mix of genetic, environmental and lifestyle factors. (
  • About 20 gene variants are known to confer low levels of increased risk for late-onset Alzheimer's disease, while others endow resilience. (
  • APOE ε4 increases risk for late-onset Alzheimer's disease and is also associated with an earlier age of disease onset. (
  • They have confirmed about 20 gene variants that seem to slightly raise Alzheimer's risk after age 65. (
  • The estimate is based on a large, well-conducted review that looked at how seven lifestyle-related risk factors relate to the risk of Alzheimer's disease. (
  • The review determined how strongly the risk factors, which included obesity and smoking, were associated with Alzheimer's disease and the proportion of people worldwide and in the US whose condition could be attributed to these factors. (
  • The study found that approximately half of all cases of Alzheimer's disease were associated with one or more of the risk factors - diabetes, midlife high blood pressure, midlife obesity, depression, physical inactivity, smoking and low education. (
  • Although this important research updates knowledge on potential risk factors for Alzheimer's disease, it should be stressed that associations between these lifestyle factors and Alzheimer's does not mean that they cause the disease. (
  • This was a systematic review that investigated how seven potentially modifiable risk factors affected the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease. (
  • It should be noted that in this case the term 'risk' does not necessarily mean that a factor causes Alzheimer's disease - it relates to the chance of people in different groups having Alzheimer's disease. (
  • For example, when examining the risk associated with smoking it would examine the proportion of smokers and non-smokers with Alzheimer's disease, but this does not necessarily mean that Alzheimer's disease is directly caused by smoking. (
  • They also wanted to estimate how reducing the number of people with each risk factor would affect the number of people who go on to have Alzheimer's disease. (
  • They looked for systematic reviews and meta-analyses, written in English and published between 2005 and 2011, which had examined the associations between these risk factors and Alzheimer's disease or dementia. (
  • Studies show that a woman's risk for breast cancer increases with the more alcohol she drinks. (
  • There was not enough data available to include dietary factors or alcohol consumption in the findings, but experts believe both could be similarly influential. (
  • Alcohol consumption has also been linked to increased lung cancer risk. (
  • Along with well-established risk factors (such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), malnutrition, and young age), emerging variables such as diabetes, indoor air pollution, alcohol, use of immunosuppressive drugs, and tobacco smoke play a significant role at both the individual and population level. (
  • The risk of infection following TB exposure is primarily governed by exogenous factors and is determined by an intrinsic combination of the infectiousness of the source case, proximity to contact and social and behavioural risk factors including smoking, alcohol, and indoor air pollution. (
  • Diabetes, alcohol, malnutrition, tobacco smoke, and indoor air pollution are factors which impact a larger section of the population and accelerate progression to TB disease. (
  • Regardless of your upbringing or moral code, many factors can raise your risk of becoming addicted to alcohol and other drugs. (
  • According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse , up to half of your risk of addiction to alcohol, nicotine, or other drugs is based on genetics. (
  • For children and teens, lack of parental involvement can lead to greater risk-taking or experimentation with alcohol and other drugs. (
  • In addition, while it is well-known that individual risk is increased with the number of relatives with alcohol dependence, scientists have not been in a position to identify who among these individuals might have greater or lesser risk. (
  • Dr. Shirley Hill and her colleagues recruited children with either high or low familial risk for developing alcohol dependence and followed them annually over an eleven-year span. (
  • The article is "Childhood Risk Factors for Young Adult Substance Dependence Outcome in Offspring from Multiplex Alcohol Dependence Families: A Prospective Study" by Shirley Y. Hill, Stuart R. Steinhauer, Jeannette Locke-Wellman, and Richard Ulrich. (
  • The most consistently reported factors include: limited supervision by parents, use of drugs and alcohol by parents, having parents with mental health problems, and being in a family where the mother's spouse is not the child's biological father (i.e. a stepfather family). (
  • Environmental risk factors are those that are attributable to the layout, design, and amenities of the physical workspace. (
  • When diseases tend to run in families, either heredity (genetics), environmental factors, or both, may play a role. (
  • Although the main causes of lung cancer stems from environmental factors, the evidence for genetic susceptibility to lung cancer is compelling as genome-wide association studies have shown several regions associated with cancer risk and accumulation of familial cases have been observed in clinical studies. (
  • However, knowledge in this area is still lacking because environmental factors often cover or confuse results in familial lung cancer studies. (
  • Environmental factors can also raise your risk of addiction. (
  • Environmental factors such as diet have long been suspected of contributing to the high incidence of cardiovascular disease in Western societies. (
  • Full-length and Brief Reports of novel results, Commentaries, Case Studies of unusual significance, and Correspondence and Comments judged to be of high impact to the field are published, particularly those addressing genetic and environmental risk factors, neural circuitry and neurochemistry, and important new therapeutic approaches. (
  • It seems to run in families, but there may be environmental factors involved. (
  • The fraction of cancer attributable to lifestyle and environmental factors in the UK in 2010. (
  • A person who develops Sjögren's syndrome most likely inherits the risk from one or both of their parents, but in addition, there's been some sort of environmental impact-such as a viral or bacterial infection-that causes it to become active. (
  • The team has uncovered nine new genetic risk factors which work together with education-related behavior as the most important environmental factor causing myopia to generate the disorder. (
  • In addition to the genetic causes of myopia there are also environmental factors, the most significant of which are education-related behavior patterns. (
  • Aware that environmental effects and hereditary factors reinforce one another in the development of myopia, the scientists devised a novel research concept for their investigations. (
  • They used a statistical analysis technique that takes into account both the effects of the environmental and hereditary factors and does so in equal measure and simultaneously. (
  • This represents significant initial headway towards understanding how genetic causes interact with the level of education as an environmental factor to produce the heterogeneity of myopia. (
  • In the first stage, they screened a wide range of lifestyle and environmental factors for links with depression in more than 112,000 older British adults. (
  • Environmental factors included how much green space and noise or air pollution the people lived around. (
  • It's always a combination of both, but these studies are designed to tap into that, and even though we didn't find significant environmental risk factors, it doesn't mean that they're not important. (
  • Risk factors of schizophrenia include multiple genetic and environmental risk factors. (
  • The combination of genetic and environmental factors leads to deficits in the neural circuits that affect sensory input and cognitive functions. (
  • A genetic predisposition on its own, without interacting environmental factors, will not give rise to the development of schizophrenia. (
  • Environmental risk factors are many, and include pregnancy complications, prenatal stress and nutrition, and adverse childhood experiences. (
  • An environmental risk factor may act alone or in combination with others. (
  • This is a complex process involving multiple environmental factors that have influence on a range of developmental periods that interact with a genetic susceptibility. (
  • It has been suggested that apart from gene-environment interactions, environment-environment interactions also be taken into account as each environmental risk factor on its own is not enough to promote the development of schizophrenia. (
  • Twin studies have shown that an identical twin has around a 50% risk of also developing the disorder, which means that the development of schizophrenia is around 50% of the time more associated with environmental factors. (
  • Some non-cancerous breast diseases such as atypical hyperplasia or lobular carcinoma in situ are associated with a higher risk of getting breast cancer. (
  • People with autoimmune diseases (like lupus) sometimes take medicines that suppress the immune system, which might increase their risk for other diseases. (
  • And as with many other diseases, your risk of breast cancer goes up as you get older. (
  • Global status report on noncommunicable diseases 2010: Description of the global burden of NCDs, their risk factors and determinants. (
  • However at the population level impact of this risk factor could vary depending on the local prevalence of the HIV. (
  • They decided not to look at diet owing to the variability in dietary factors studied and the absence of data on prevalence of dietary habits. (
  • Prevalence of different risk factors varies by region and country, this is partly why overall cancer incidence rates, and the most common types of cancer, also vary by region and country. (
  • Worldwide cancer incidence and mortality reflects smoking prevalence, among other factors. (
  • Birth control pills (particularly the estrogen content) can raise your risk of blood clots. (
  • IV (intravenous) drug abuse carries a high risk of stroke from blood clots (cerebral embolisms). (
  • The search strategy for this paper included searching PubMed, Medline, and EMBASE databases for known risk factors. (
  • Only English language papers were included in the search, and the searches were limited to studies of risk factors influencing TB infection and disease. (
  • The main factors that influence your risk include being a woman and getting older. (
  • Some forms of hormone replacement therapy (those that include both estrogen and progesterone) taken during menopause can raise risk for breast cancer when taken for more than five years. (
  • Similarly, conditions which prolong the length of exposure to an infectious patient include health system-related factor such as delay in diagnosis. (
  • Lifestyle factors - Lifestyle factors that raise the risk of coronary artery disease include lack of exercise, stress, obesity, and a diet rich in saturated fats and low in antioxidants. (
  • Successful traders understand the factors that influence options pricing, which include the so-called " Greeks "-a set of risk measures so named after the Greek letters that denote them, which indicate how sensitive an option is to time-value decay, changes in implied volatility, and movements in the price its underlying security. (
  • Risk factors for a certain type of cancer might include smoking, diet, family history, or many other things. (
  • The most consistently reported factors include: being female, being between the ages of 6 and 11 (for intrafamilial sexual abuse alone), being between the ages of 12 and 17 (for extrafamilial sexual abuse alone), having experienced physical or sexual abuse in the past, and having special needs (handicap, intellectual disability, chronic illness, mental health problems). (
  • Other predisposing factors include a history of umbilical catheterization and cardiac, endocrine, and pulmonary causes. (
  • The remaining 65% of dementia risk is thought to be beyond the individual's control. (
  • There is a link between head injury and future risk of dementia. (
  • There are a number of things that can put someone at risk of developing vascular dementia. (
  • Age is the strongest risk factor for vascular dementia. (
  • Men are at slightly higher risk of developing vascular dementia than women. (
  • Someone can reduce their risk of dementia by keeping these conditions under control, through taking prescribed medicines (even if they feel well) and following professional advice about their lifestyle. (
  • Aside from these cardiovascular risk factors, there is good evidence that keeping mentally active throughout life reduces dementia risk. (
  • What do we mean by risk factors for dementia? (
  • A risk factor is something that affects your chance of developing dementia. (
  • Find out more about what a risk factor is and how risks for dementia are identified. (
  • Read our top six tips for reducing your risk of dementia, including keeping active, eating healthily, and exercising your mind. (
  • The newspapers are full of headlines about things that can help prevent dementia or things that increase your risk. (
  • In every grade, children experiencing any risk were more often chronic absentees-that is, they missed 10 percent or more of the school year-than those who did not encounter any risks," they write in the report, released in late January. (
  • Persons with chronic kidney failure and also on hemodialysis have an increased risk. (
  • Women who have inherited these genetic changes are at higher risk of breast and ovarian cancer. (
  • A woman's risk for breast cancer is higher if she has a mother, sister, or daughter (first-degree relative) or multiple family members on either her mother's or father's side of the family who have had breast or ovarian cancer. (
  • Women who had radiation therapy to the chest or breasts (for instance, treatment of Hodgkin's lymphoma) before age 30 have a higher risk of getting breast cancer later in life. (
  • Women who took the drug diethylstilbestrol (DES), which was given to some pregnant women in the United States between 1940 and 1971 to prevent miscarriage, have a higher risk. (
  • Women who are not physically active have a higher risk of getting breast cancer. (
  • Older women who are overweight or obese have a higher risk of getting breast cancer than those at a normal weight. (
  • The risk of MCC is much higher for whites than for African Americans or Hispanics. (
  • For example, older age is linked to higher risk of many types of cancers, but the actual cause appears to be gene mutation (change), which is more likely to occur with age. (
  • Men have a higher risk of getting heart disease than women, except in older adults. (
  • If your parents had a stroke, you are at higher risk. (
  • Men whose relatives have had prostate cancer are considered to be at higher risk. (
  • Caucasian women are at higher risk of endometrial cancer. (
  • People exposed to ETS who have never smoked before are believed to have a lung cancer risk 31% higher than those who have never smoked and were not exposed to ETS. (
  • Overall, about 10-15% of those infected go on to develop active disease at some stage later in life [ 2 ], but the risk of progression is much higher at about 10% per year [ 8 , 9 ] in HIV-positive and other immunocompromized individuals. (
  • An infant who has seizures faces a higher risk of being diagnosed later in childhood with cerebral palsy. (
  • The risk of cerebral palsy is higher among babies who weigh less than 5 ½ pounds at birth or are born less than 37 weeks into pregnancy. (
  • Junior (15 to 16 years) and senior athletes seem to be at a higher risk of injury in many types of sport. (
  • Men are, however, more likely to participate in vigorousexercise and sport and it is not known if men are at a generally higher risk of injury when the exposure is taken into account. (
  • Previous injuries may necessarily not cause a repetition of injury if treated adequately, but certain individuals may be at a higher risk of injury due to injury-prone biological characteristics. (
  • Higher levels of lipoprotein(a) or Lp(a) also raises the risk of coronary artery disease. (
  • Blood coagulation factors - Individuals who consume more dietary fat tend to have higher levels of coagulation factor VII. (
  • A handful of states have enacted rating reforms for the individual health insurance market, prohibiting or restricting insurers from charging higher premiums based on health status or the risk of having future medical claims. (
  • The more you smoke, the higher your risk. (
  • Our hormones, pregnancies, childbirth, as well as other gender-specific factors put us higher risk of this potentially fatal blockage in the brain. (
  • Tell your doctor about your migraines if you haven't already, since there is an association between higher migraine frequency and stroke risk. (
  • Smokers are at higher risk of stroke than people who do not smoke. (
  • Gender-Earlier in life, men are at higher risk of stroke than women. (
  • Your risk of stroke is higher if a family member has had a stroke. (
  • African Americans have a much higher risk for death and disability from a stroke than whites. (
  • You are at higher risk for having a second stroke after you have already had a stroke. (
  • risk is 2.1-2.7 times higher in women with the highest circulating oestrogen levels, a cohort study showed. (
  • Among people of African-Caribbean descent, the risk of diabetes and stroke - but not heart disease - is also higher. (
  • Children with hereditary retinoblastoma have a higher risk of developing tumours in the pineal gland (called trilateral retinoblastoma). (
  • Men have a higher risk for melanoma overall, but women have a higher risk before age 50. (
  • People with very pale skin, those who freckle easily, and those with red or blond hair are at higher risk. (
  • People whose parents or siblings have had melanoma are at higher risk of melanoma. (
  • People who have a weak immune system, such as people who have had an organ transplant, are at higher risk for melanoma. (
  • Menopause can really take a hit on your body, sending your hormones and everything else out of whack and ultimately put you at a higher risk for a serious injury such as a hip fracture. (
  • The more risk factors you have, the higher your risk for getting type 2 diabetes. (
  • Identifying risk factors helps to better plan preventive interventions in the area of sexual assault by making it possible to target higher-risk groups and act on the risk factors concerned. (
  • Metabolic syndrome risk increased with age and was higher among black participants and those with less than a high school education. (
  • In a retrospective case-control study of patients admitted for ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, factors which were independently associated with subsequent readmission at 30 days included higher admission stroke severity, greater number of hospitalizations within the year prior to the stroke, and the absence of hyperlipidemia. (
  • The disease likely develops from multiple factors, such as genetics, lifestyle and environment. (
  • We've got the doctor-approved scoop on bladder cancer causes and risk factors, including lifestyle choices, family history, genetics, and more. (
  • Some risk factors, like tobacco use, are lifestyle related and can be avoided, but others, like age and genetics, cannot be controlled. (
  • It is a comprehensive consideration of all the evidence on food, nutrition, weight gain, overweight, obesity and physical activity on risk of cancer. (
  • The seven risk factors included diabetes, midlife hypertension (high blood pressure), midlife obesity, smoking, depression, physical activity and cognitive inactivity/low educational attainment. (
  • Although obesity has consistently been reported as a risk factor for the metabolic syndrome ( 14 , 15 ), the association of health behaviors and dietary composition with the development of metabolic syndrome is less well studied, particularly in young adults. (
  • Cite) Modifiable risk factors: The modifiable risk factors for diabetes mellitus are obesity, lack of physical activity, unhealthy eating habits and social and economic condition. (
  • Watch Moving Forward to learn more about how increasing what protects people from violence and reducing what puts people at risk for it benefits everyone. (
  • Most people with risk factors never get MCC, while others with this disease may have few or no known risk factors. (
  • People who get a lot of sun exposure are at greater risk for MCC. (
  • The risk of MCC goes up as people get older. (
  • People with HIV , the virus that causes AIDS, often have weakened immune systems and are also at increased risk for MCC. (
  • People who have occupations that involve working with soil are more at risk of histoplasmosis. (
  • There are a number of materials people will regularly come into contact with through their work that may increase lung cancer risk. (
  • Sure, scientists can point to a few risk factors, but most people who develop the disease don't even have a family history. (
  • Family history may be a factor for some people. (
  • Peer pressure is another risk factor for addiction, especially among young people. (
  • However, having a particular version of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene on chromosome 19-does increase risk, but only for people of European ancestry. (
  • Systematic reviews on risk factors tend to report their findings in terms of ' relative risks ', which express the risk of a disease in people with a risk factor relative to people without this risk factor (e.g. smokers vs. non-smokers). (
  • While doctors have an idea of what may increase your risk of cancer, the majority of cancers occur in people who don't have any known risk factors. (
  • People from racial and ethnic minority groups, especially those who are undergoing rapid Westernization, may be at increased risk for developing an eating disorder due to complex interactions between stress, acculturation, and body image. (
  • People with this blood disease are at increased risk of developing acute myeloid leukemia. (
  • Lack of physical activity-People who do not get moderate exercise regularly are at increased risk of having a stroke. (
  • Risk for stroke after a heart attack has been shown to be elevated for people over age 75. (
  • People who have been diagnosed with type 1 neurofibromatosis have an elevated risk of developing schwannoma, meningioma and glioma. (
  • People who have been diagnosed with type 2 neurofibromatosis have a heightened risk of developing meningioma, vestibular schwannoma and spinal cord ependymoma. (
  • Many people who have one or more risk factors never develop bile duct cancer, while others are diagnosed with cholangiocarcinoma despite having no known risk factors. (
  • Had these additional risk factors been communicated, this might have led to the delivery being attended by a team of people, including those of appropriate seniority, ensuring a more timely and robust resuscitation process. (
  • About one in five (18%) Texas adults who access the internet, or as many as 2,348,206 people, engage in at least 7 of the 15 behaviors or experience life events that may put them at increased risk of being victimized by online fraud. (
  • On the other hand, eating too much poultry and red meat can also put you at risk for stones: One 2014 study in the journal Nutritional Epidemiology found that vegetarians and fish-eaters were 30 to 50 percent less likely to have kidney stones than people who ate about 100 grams of meat per day (think: a steak and a half). (
  • One oft-cited study published in the American Journal of Epidemiology in 1996 found that people living in this area had nearly double the risk of stones as people living in cooler regions of the United States. (
  • People with diabetes are at greater risk for a stroke than someone without diabetes. (
  • A family history only affects risk in a small proportion of people. (
  • However, some people with leukemia do not have any identifiable risk factors. (
  • Some people with 1 or more risk factors never develop cancer. (
  • Other people can develop cancer and have no risk factors. (
  • While most moles are harmless, people who have many moles or abnormal moles (dysplastic nevi) are at increased risk for melanoma. (
  • In some families, people share specific gene changes that increase their risk. (
  • People with certain rare, inherited conditions, such as xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), are at increased risk for melanoma. (
  • Over 26 million people in the United States have diabetes and many more are at risk of developing diabetes. (
  • Individual risk factors must not serve to blame people who have been victimized , but to prevent sexual assault by helping to target people who are at greater risk and to act on the factors concerned. (
  • The community and societal factors identified as being associated with an increased risk that children and young people will be sexually abused show that sexual abuse is a social phenomenon that concerns the population as a whole. (
  • Various societal factors have been associated with an increased risk of being sexually abused as a child, in particular: hypersexualization of young people in a society, a history of denial in a society that child sexual abuse occurs, traditional norms regarding gender roles, the presence of an ideology of male sexual entitlement, weak legal sanctions against child sexual abuse, and social norms that support sexual abuse. (
  • Average-risk individuals are those people over the age 50 with no personal or family history of CRC. (
  • They looked at behaviors and social factors that people are able to change, including exercise, sleep, TV and computer use, diet, social activities, and social support. (
  • For people with genetic risk factors for depression, frequency of confiding in others and sleep duration were the most protective. (
  • Furthermore, the same genetic risk factors for alcoholism seemed to make people vulnerable to binging and purging as well. (
  • People with silicosis have an approximately 30-fold greater risk for developing TB. (
  • The risk of developing TB is estimated to be between 20-37 times greater in people living with HIV than among those without HIV infection. (
  • People with diabetes mellitus are at increased risk of contracting tuberculosis, and they have a poorer response to treatment, possibly due to poorer drug absorption. (
  • Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) rays is thought to be a major risk factor for most skin cancers, including MCC. (
  • The increased risk may be related to skin damage caused by sun exposure over time and the fact that people's immune systems tend to become weaker as they get older. (
  • The risk of progression from exposure to the tuberculosis bacilli to the development of active disease is a two-stage process governed by both exogenous and endogenous risk factors. (
  • Exogenous factors play a key role in accentuating the progression from exposure to infection among which the bacillary load in the sputum and the proximity of an individual to an infectious TB case are key factors. (
  • There are number of factors that can affect your risk of getting bladder cancer, including lifestyle and exposure to certain chemicals. (
  • These studies limited the true understanding of the total risk factor package for women living in the equatorial regions with the greatest exposure to Vitamin D from sunlight. (
  • Irregular, infrequent, absent or anovulatory menstrual cycles may reflect exposure to oestrogen unopposed by progesterone, and so may be associated with increased uterine cancer risk. (
  • For example, sun exposure is a risk factor, and you can protect yourself from the sun. (
  • Any workplace or household exposure to asbestos leads to a greater risk of developing mesothelioma. (
  • It's important to be aware of all asbestos products and understand when you might be at high risk for exposure. (
  • If you have breast cancer risk factors, talk with your doctor about ways you can lower your risk and about screening for breast cancer. (
  • The factors listed below may be applicable to those with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, or OSFED. (
  • One of the strongest risk factors for an eating disorder is perfectionism, especially a type of perfectionism called self-oriented perfectionism, which involves setting unrealistically high expectations for yourself. (
  • When we address human factors in relation to health and safety, we're aiming to optimise human performance and reduce human failures. (
  • A risk factor is something that increases your chance of getting a disease or health problem. (
  • While age, family history and heredity are all risk factors we can't change, research is beginning to reveal clues about other risk factors we may be able to influence through general lifestyle and wellness choices and effective management of other health conditions. (
  • Specific groups such as health care workers and indigenous population are also at an increased risk of TB infection and disease. (
  • This paper summarizes these factors along with health system issues such as the effects of delay in diagnosis of TB in the transmission of the bacilli. (
  • Underlying mental health issues can increase your risk of addiction. (
  • W. H. Frost, "Risk of persons in familial contact with pulmonary tuberculosis," American Journal of Public Health , vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 426-432, 1933. (
  • The procedures of hazard evaluation are described and examples of assessments at selected workplaces are included, together with the list of hazardous biological factors (sources, occurrence, modes of transmission and possible effects on human health) and Polish regulatory texts. (
  • 8. FP7 - ICT - 614440 modelling health risk factors disorder 1 (as a risk factor) disorder 2 (as a probable consequence) leads to under certain conditions with a probability x E. Kaldoudi, et al. (
  • Available at: (
  • Health, health care, and factors associated with homelessness were assessed using multiple logistic regression with a Monte Carlo algorithm to estimate exact standard errors of the model coefficients and p-values. (
  • Those in poor health or who are ethnic or racial minorities were more likely than others to be exposed to "cumulative risk. (
  • This can speed up the process of addiction and raise your risk of serious complications, including overdose. (
  • The Risk: Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT). (
  • But oestrogen unopposed by progesterone (e.g. after menopause, or during use of oestrogen-only hormone replacement therapy) increases endometrial cancer risk. (
  • Who Is at High Risk for Breast Cancer? (
  • So not surprisingly with today's high risk factor correlations, it is difficult to create unique return streams. (
  • The risk of malignant transformation is unclear, but some authors have reported rates as high as 30% after a significant lag time, [ 23 ] which presents an opportunity for early intervention. (
  • A particular high-risk population is currently Chinese men, due to the large population in China and the increased trend of cigarette smoking. (
  • The purpose of this article is to examine the risk and protective factors for different types of violent behavior in a sample of high school age adolescents drawn from the general population, illuminate the multiple and cumulative nature of the different risk factors, and characterize gender differences in explanatory variables that foster involvement in violent activities. (
  • Ideally, these individual risk factors will now be fully investigated through high-quality trials. (
  • While some of these factors such as older age, male gender and genetic predisposition are non-modifiable, there are also several lifestyle factors that can be adjusted to reduce the risk of the coronary artery disease such as smoking and high blood pressure. (
  • High blood cholesterol or dyslipidemia - In particular, high blood cholesterol levels combined with high levels of low density lipoprotein (LDL) are associated with coronary artery disease risk. (
  • High blood pressure - High blood pressure is associated with an increased risk for coronary artery disease, especially an increased systolic blood pressure. (
  • A persistently uncontrolled high level of blood sugar is a risk factor for the development of coronary artery disease. (
  • Measuring Risk briefly discusses measurement concepts and challenges, and then provides a high-level discussion of risk factor measurements. (
  • quicklist: 5 category: Stroke Risk Factors title: High Blood Pressure url: text: "The link between high blood pressure and stroke is one of the most profound in all of medicine," says Dr. Nissen. (
  • Poor diet- A diet that is high in trans fat, saturated fat, and low in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and fiber increases your risk of having a stroke. (
  • It is a risk for diabetics to adopt this diet as fruits have high sugar content. (
  • But most women with breast cancer either don't have a family history or just had a single family member who's been diagnosed with breast cancer and don't come from these very high-risk families. (
  • But a new report finds that children in families experiencing multiple risk factors-such as poverty or having a teenage mother-are more likely to have high absenteeism during their early years in school than children without those risks. (
  • A study by Blowey et al of 764 neonates diagnosed with hypertension indicated that the greatest hypertension risk was a high severity of illness as reflected in the APR-DRG (All Patient Refined Diagnosis Related Groups) scoring system. (
  • Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, coexisting renal disease, and renal failure also posed high risks. (
  • Although potential predisposing factors, such as duration of line placement and line position (low versus high), have been studied, these studies have not been conclusive, leading to the assumption that the cause of hypertension in such cases is related to thrombus formation at the time of line placement, which is probably related to disruption of the vascular endothelium of the umbilical artery. (
  • Determining who is at risk for the metabolic syndrome has been an equally high priority ( 9 - 14 ). (
  • Important segregation should be made between lower risk, common variants (identified by candidate studies or genome-wide association studies (GWAS)) and high risk, rare variants (which could be caused by de novo mutations) and copy-number variations (CNVs). (
  • There is also a very high 3 fold increased risk of infection with TB for patients who have diabetes mellitus. (
  • Organisations need to take a proportionate approach to human factors in risk assessment based on their hazard and risk profile. (
  • HSE's approach to risk assessment is presented in the 'Controlling the risks in the workplace' (PDF). (
  • Regulary review your risk assessment to see if any further improvements can be made. (
  • The approach you take to human factors in risk assessment should be proportionate to hazards you face. (
  • It is not a methodology for performing an enterprise (or individual) risk assessment. (
  • It is in direct competition with the other risk assessment frameworks, if complementary to many of them. (
  • As a standards body, The Open Group aims to evangelize the use of FAIR within the context of these risk assessment or management frameworks. (
  • Risk assessment questionnaires provided information on the children's behaviors, recent home improvements, and use of imported products. (
  • As women get older, our risk for atrial fibrillation increases. (
  • Having an irregular heartbeat (atrial fibrillation) is the most powerful and treatable heart risk factor of stroke. (
  • Some drugs, including rheumatoid arthritis drugs that work by blocking tumor necrosis factor-alpha (an inflammation-causingcytokine), raise the risk of activating a latent infection due to the importance of this cytokine in the immune defense against TB. (
  • We've invested more than $4.9 billion in cancer research since 1946, all to find more - and better - treatments, uncover factors that may cause cancer, and improve cancer patients' quality of life. (
  • This article explores the causes, risk factors, and available treatments for histoplasmosis. (
  • Other factors, including well-known measures of RA, and established drugs treatments did not have much value for predicting pain in our study. (
  • Risk factors are characteristics that may increase the likelihood of experiencing or perpetrating child abuse and neglect, but they may or may not be direct causes. (
  • These characteristics of our market create significant risks and uncertainties for our business success. (
  • These components have characteristics (factors) that, in combination with one another, drive risk. (
  • We find that the extracted common factor successfully models the time series and cross-sectional characteristics of carry returns. (
  • Risk factors for sexual assault are conditions, circumstances or characteristics associated with an individual or his or her environment that increase the likelihood of the individual becoming a perpetrator or a victim of sexual assault. (
  • OBJECTIVE -The aim of this study was to describe the association of the metabolic syndrome with demographic characteristics and to identify modifiable risk factors for development of the metabolic syndrome. (
  • Furthermore, these risk factors along with demographic characteristics have most often been evaluated individually instead of in a multivariable setting, which could more appropriately identify multifactorial origins of the syndrome. (
  • Thus, we investigated whether demographic characteristics and risk factors correlated with the metabolic syndrome in cross-sectional studies and based on a priori knowledge predicted development of the syndrome over 15 years. (
  • While this model requires validation, these two clinical characteristics are available at the time of admission, can be used to identify this at-risk population, and can be used to inform the development of appropriately powered prospective studies," the authors wrote. (
  • How far and even whether your tumor will spread depends on a host of factors. (
  • Their efforts were crowned with success as they were able to classify nine previously unknown genetic risk factors. (
  • A combination of individual, relational, community, and societal factors contribute to the risk of child abuse and neglect. (
  • Various individual, relationship, community and societal factors are associated with an increased risk that a child or an adult will become a victim of sexual assault. (
  • Having a first-degree male relative with breast cancer also raises a woman's risk. (
  • If you have OCD, you're also at increased risk of other anxiety disorders, including major depression and social phobias. (
  • Risk factors for all eating disorders involve a range of biological, psychological, and sociocultural issues. (
  • Being teased or bullied - especially about weight - is emerging as a risk factor in many eating disorders. (
  • 29% were at risk for clinical eating disorders. (
  • More information on the interaction between the movements made by neck, shoulders and hands is in our OSH Answers document on Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders - Risk Factors . (
  • eating disorders, metabolic disorder set in a vicious cycle leading to increased BMI thus increased risk for T2DM. (
  • The report, issued by the World Cancer Research Fund, has involved hundreds of experts who have reviewed all the evidence we have to date about the link between food, nutrition, weight gain, overweight and physical activity and the risk of cancer. (
  • Being overweight or obese is a possible risk factor for leukemia. (
  • You should also get tested if you are younger than 45, overweight, and have one or more risk factors for diabetes (see the diabetes risk checklist below). (
  • It's a good idea to discuss your child's diabetes risk with his or her doctor, especially if your child is overweight or diabetes runs in your family. (
  • A risk factor is anything that raises your chance of getting a disease such as cancer. (
  • Lp(a) is a combination of LDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein a complex that is referred to as the ugly cholesterol since it raises the risk of heart attacks and strokes. (
  • This raises the risk for stroke. (
  • During January-March 2014, we reviewed risk factors CMRs were lower, but still substantial, for patients receiv- for dissemination and summarized all coccidioidomycosis ing steroids ( cases in patients with primary immunodeficiency (PID). (
  • Patients with exogenous immunosuppres- consideration of underlying host genetic factors. (
  • However, our research suggests that colonoscopy is the preferred test for screening average-risk patients," he said. (
  • CTC is an alternative to colonoscopy, which is the most commonly used test for CRC screening in patients who are at average risk of developing colon cancer. (
  • However, there are other factors that patients claim could be a potential cause or influencing factor to their malignant mesothelioma cancer. (
  • Early Childhood Experience - Early childhood trauma, such as loss of a parent before adolescence, child neglect, physical, emotional or sexual abuse, and parental divorce are all linked to increased risk for adult depression. (
  • The study suggests that social support can be an important factor in preventing depression. (
  • A research team led by Drs. Karmel W. Choi and Jordan W. Smoller at Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard University analyzed 106 factors in people's daily lives to see whether they could find other factors that affect depression risk. (
  • The team applied a novel, two-stage approach to identify factors that can affect the risk of developing depression. (
  • and those without these known risk factors for depression. (
  • How much time they spent on the computer and how much salt they consumed showed the highest increase in risk for depression. (
  • The factor that most increased risk of depression was how much television they watched. (
  • For the second stage of the study, the team used a method called Mendelian randomization to narrow down the list to those factors with a causal connection to depression risk. (
  • Visiting with family and friends also appeared to have a protective effect, suggesting that social interactions may be key to reducing risk of depression. (
  • More research is needed to determine how the factors identified in this study might contribute to depression. (
  • Controlled clinical trials will be needed to test whether changing these factors can help prevent depression. (
  • Certain oral contraceptives (birth control pills) also have been found to raise breast cancer risk. (
  • Having the first pregnancy after age 30, not breastfeeding, and never having a full-term pregnancy can raise breast cancer risk. (
  • Research suggests that other factors such as smoking, being exposed to chemicals that can cause cancer, and changes in other hormones due to night shift working also may increase breast cancer risk. (
  • Molecular markers such as altered oncogenes, genome hypermutations, and immune factors have shown promise in penile cancer risk stratification and prognostication. (
  • Geographically there is a lot of variation in lung cancer risk, both globally and within nations. (
  • This risk increases with the duration and amount of smoking, but duration has the biggest effect on lung cancer risk. (
  • While examining the usual suspects in a region on chromosome 8, we found that SNP's (single nucleotide polymorphisms) associated with ovarian cancer risk were located quite a distance away from those associated with risk of other cancers, which suggest that they may act through a different mechanism. (
  • The report presents findings and recommendations to decrease cancer risk. (
  • Professor Michael Marmot, an epidemiologist at University College London, chairman of the panel that produced this report, features in much of the coverage as suggesting that the direct link between increased weight and increased cancer risk was even stronger than that associated with smoking. (
  • Think Pink, Live Green: A Step-by-Step Guide to Reducing Your Risk of Breast Cancer teaches you the biology of breast development and how modern life affects breast cancer risk. (
  • Uterine cancer risk is strongly related to age. (
  • This is probably their mechanism of association with uterine cancer risk. (
  • Cancer risk factors are overall similar worldwide. (
  • Any substance or condition that increases cancer risk is referred to as a risk factor. (
  • If you do develop preeclampsia, you are at an increased risk of future hypertension and stroke. (
  • Note that women, but not men, had a greater risk of all-cause death associated with hypertension and elevated total and non-HDL cholesterol. (
  • Those factors -- in addition to hypertension, elevated body mass index, and large waist circumference -- were also related to a greater risk of death from endogenous causes. (
  • Diabetes mellitus is also a contributing factor of development of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, renal failure, blindness, and stroke as individuals' age. (
  • 1 ] Studies with endometrial cancer as the endpoint are now rare, because the risks of oestrogen-only HRT users are now well-known, so users are closely monitored and their treatment stopped or changed if endometrial hyperplasia develops. (
  • And recent research backs up these recommendations: A recent meta-analysis published in The American Journal of Medicine found that a whole foods diet reduces cardiovascular risk factors more so than diets that just focus on being low-fat. (
  • Identifying and understanding protective factors are equally as important as researching risk factors. (
  • Anatomical considerations, motor performance requirements and psychological factors are particularly important. (
  • and probable constitutional factors that may determine in an important way the efficiency with which a drug-specific immune response can be translated into a systemic allergic reaction. (
  • In any event, it is important to emphasize that risk factors are not determinative. (
  • Understanding your risk factors is important because it will help your doctor determine your need to be screened for hypothyroidism. (
  • It is very important to know that musculoskeletal injuries (MSIs), and specifically, repetitive motion injuries (RMIs) rarely originate from one event or a particular factor. (
  • Heart disease is the second most important risk factor for stroke, and the major cause of death among survivors of stroke. (
  • Mutations or changes in the retinoblastoma 1 (RB1) gene is the most important risk factor for retinoblastoma. (
  • Risk factors are generally listed in order from most to least important. (
  • Patient satisfaction is believed to be an important factor in determining uptake and compliance with any screening test, so investigators sought to compare patient satisfaction following both CTC and colonoscopy. (
  • CONCLUSIONS -BMI and weight gain are important risk factors for the metabolic syndrome. (
  • Diabetes mellitus is also an important risk factor that is growing in importance in developing countries. (
  • However, there are many other risk factors associated with increased lung cancer incidence. (
  • However, the study's estimates of incidence and risk factors that were used to derive this figure are based on global and US rates of risk factors that may not be specifically attributable to a UK population. (
  • In fact, the incidence of type 2 diabetes and its risk factors are increasing among children. (
  • This article discusses the risk factors for stroke and things you can do to lessen your risk. (
  • Some risk factors for stroke you cannot change. (
  • The risk of stroke goes up with age. (
  • Learn the risk factors for stroke and take steps to protect yourself. (
  • Read on to see how you can lower your stroke risk. (
  • quicklist: 2 category: Stroke Risk Factors title: Oral Contraception url: text: Taking birth control pills puts you at risk for stroke. (
  • quicklist: 3 category: Stroke Risk Factors title: Migraine with Aura url: text: Women are four times more likely to get migraines than men. (
  • While evidence is lacking about whether decreasing migraine frequency could decrease stroke risk, it may not be a bad idea to treat them, the guidelines say. (
  • Controlling AF can help lower your stroke risk. (
  • If you lower your blood pressure, you lower your risk of stroke. (
  • This is one of the greatest modifiable risk factors for stroke. (
  • and amphetamines, increases your risk for stroke. (
  • Age-Your risk of having a stroke increases as you age. (
  • Genetic Factors-Certain inherited traits may put a person at increased risk for stroke. (
  • Who is at risk for a stroke? (
  • But your chance of having a stroke increases if you have certain risk factors. (
  • Some risk factors for stroke can be changed or managed, while others can't. (
  • Heart disease and stroke have many of the same risk factors. (
  • Some types of heart disease can raise your risk for stroke. (
  • Over time, this can raise your risk for stroke. (
  • Someone with a family history of stroke, heart disease or diabetes has an increased risk of developing these conditions. (
  • To identify factors associated with a greater risk for readmission, Bushnell and colleagues examined data from the Joint Commission Primary Stroke Center-certified hospital at Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center. (
  • Progression to full-blown diabetes isn't inevitable, the ADA says, suggesting you can lessen your risk by exercising regularly, quitting smoking and losing any extra weight. (
  • How do I know if I'm at risk for diabetes? (
  • See the Diabetes Risk Checklist below to learn whether you're at risk. (
  • And if you are, find out what you can do to reduce your diabetes risk. (
  • You should be tested if you've ever been told you're at risk for diabetes. (
  • You may also be at increased diabetes risk if you are of Latin American, African American, Pacific Island or Native American heritage. (
  • Talk with your doctor about your diabetes risk and how to get tested. (
  • Can children be at risk for type 2 diabetes? (
  • Shedding even a few pounds-5 to 7% of your body weight, which translates to 10 to 15 pounds for a 200-pound person-reduces your diabetes risk. (
  • Print this list and place a checkmark next to each diabetes risk factor that applies to you. (
  • Heredity is a major risk factor for addiction. (
  • 37% of uterine cancer cases each year in the UK are linked to major lifestyle and other risk factors. (
  • Sunlight, the main source of UV rays, is a major risk factor for melanomas (and other skin cancers). (
  • HIV is a major risk factor for tuberculosis. (
  • Smokers have been advised not to take beta-carotene supplements as studies have shown an increased risk of lung cancer associated with this dietary supplement. (
  • There is evidence of a convincing or probable causal link between certain foods and a reduced risk of some cancers including: foods containing dietary fibre, vegetables and fruits, milk, calcium supplements (which protect against colorectal cancer) and selenium supplements (which protect against prostate cancer). (
  • Using other types of tobacco including cigars, pipe tobacco, snuff or chewing tobacco also poses increased risks of developing lung cancer, mouth cancer and oesophageal cancer. (
  • Protective factors may lessen the likelihood of children being abused or neglected. (
  • Being a woman and getting older are the main risk factors for breast cancer. (
  • If you're concerned about your risk of developing hypothyroidism, there are two main factors to consider-age and sex. (
  • However, the more risk factors you have, the greater your likelihood of developing shingles. (
  • The greater the number of sexual assault risk factors, the greater is the likelihood that a person will be a perpetrator or a victim of sexual assault. (
  • Certain individual factors have been associated with an increased likelihood of being sexually abused as a child. (
  • Community factors associated with an increased likelihood of being sexually abused as a child have been studied to only a limited extent thus far. (
  • After multivariate adjustment, there were only three factors associated with the likelihood of readmission -- initial NIHSS score, the number of prior hospitalizations, and the presence of hyperlipidemia, which was associated with a reduced likelihood being readmitted (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.22-0.89). (
  • The paternal age is a factor in schizophrenia because of the increased likelihood of mutations in the chromosomes of cells that produce sperm. (
  • Create healthcare diagrams like this example called Risk Factors in minutes with SmartDraw. (
  • Ask your child's healthcare team questions about risks . (
  • To make the decisions that are right for you, ask your healthcare team questions about risks . (
  • Talk with your healthcare provider about your risk factors for melanoma. (
  • Talk with your healthcare provider about the best ways to reduce your risks. (
  • 2011) Vulnerability and protective factors for child abuse and maltreatment. (
  • Protective factors were being a college graduate or married. (
  • We work to build protective factors to offset the risk factors. (
  • The families with risk factors, such as low income or single parents, are impacted as we build in protective factors, like good community support. (