Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)United States Environmental Protection Agency: An agency in the Executive Branch of the Federal Government. It was created as an independent regulatory agency responsible for the implementation of federal laws designed to protect the environment. Its mission is to protect human health and the ENVIRONMENT.Hazardous Substances: Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.Toxicity Tests: An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Toxicology: The science concerned with the detection, chemical composition, and biological action of toxic substances or poisons and the treatment and prevention of toxic manifestations.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Ecotoxicology: The study of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION and the toxic effects of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS on the ECOSYSTEM. The term was coined by Truhaut in 1969.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Environmental Pollutants: Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Nursing Assessment: Evaluation of the nature and extent of nursing problems presented by a patient for the purpose of patient care planning.Animal Testing Alternatives: Procedures, such as TISSUE CULTURE TECHNIQUES; mathematical models; etc., when used or advocated for use in place of the use of animals in research or diagnostic laboratories.Risk Management: The process of minimizing risk to an organization by developing systems to identify and analyze potential hazards to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences, and by attempting to handle events and incidents which do occur in such a manner that their effect and cost are minimized. Effective risk management has its greatest benefits in application to insurance in order to avert or minimize financial liability. (From Slee & Slee: Health care terms, 2d ed)Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.United StatesMaximum Allowable Concentration: The maximum exposure to a biologically active physical or chemical agent that is allowed during an 8-hour period (a workday) in a population of workers, or during a 24-hour period in the general population, which does not appear to cause appreciable harm, whether immediate or delayed for any period, in the target population. (From Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)Carcinogens, Environmental: Carcinogenic substances that are found in the environment.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Carcinogenicity Tests: Tests to experimentally measure the tumor-producing/cancer cell-producing potency of an agent by administering the agent (e.g., benzanthracenes) and observing the quantity of tumors or the cell transformation developed over a given period of time. The carcinogenicity value is usually measured as milligrams of agent administered per tumor developed. Though this test differs from the DNA-repair and bacterial microsome MUTAGENICITY TESTS, researchers often attempt to correlate the finding of carcinogenicity values and mutagenicity values.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Dental Caries Susceptibility: The predisposition to tooth decay (DENTAL CARIES).Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level: The highest dosage administered that does not produce toxic effects.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Toxicogenetics: The study of existing genetic knowledge, and the generation of new genetic data, to understand and thus avoid DRUG TOXICITY and adverse effects from toxic substances from the environment.Pesticides: Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Geriatric Assessment: Evaluation of the level of physical, physiological, or mental functioning in the older population group.Dioxins: Chlorinated hydrocarbons containing heteroatoms that are present as contaminants of herbicides. Dioxins are carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic. They have been banned from use by the FDA.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Benzene: Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Soil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Xenobiotics: Chemical substances that are foreign to the biological system. They include naturally occurring compounds, drugs, environmental agents, carcinogens, insecticides, etc.Guidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Consumer Product SafetyPublic Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Needs Assessment: Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.Health Status Indicators: The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Accidental Falls: Falls due to slipping or tripping which may result in injury.Medical History Taking: Acquiring information from a patient on past medical conditions and treatments.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Genetic Testing: Detection of a MUTATION; GENOTYPE; KARYOTYPE; or specific ALLELES associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing.Genetic Counseling: An educational process that provides information and advice to individuals or families about a genetic condition that may affect them. The purpose is to help individuals make informed decisions about marriage, reproduction, and other health management issues based on information about the genetic disease, the available diagnostic tests, and management programs. Psychosocial support is usually offered.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.European Union: The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)Trichloroethylene: A highly volatile inhalation anesthetic used mainly in short surgical procedures where light anesthesia with good analgesia is required. It is also used as an industrial solvent. Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of the vapor can lead to cardiotoxicity and neurological impairment.Nutrition Assessment: Evaluation and measurement of nutritional variables in order to assess the level of nutrition or the NUTRITIONAL STATUS of the individual. NUTRITION SURVEYS may be used in making the assessment.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Forecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Hazardous Waste: Waste products which threaten life, health, or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported, disposed of, or otherwise managed.Pharmacokinetics: Dynamic and kinetic mechanisms of exogenous chemical and DRUG LIBERATION; ABSORPTION; BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT; TISSUE DISTRIBUTION; BIOTRANSFORMATION; elimination; and DRUG TOXICITY as a function of dosage, and rate of METABOLISM. LADMER, ADME and ADMET are abbreviations for liberation, absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination, and toxicology.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Dental Caries: Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Water Pollutants: Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.Mutagenicity Tests: Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.Food Safety: Activities involved in ensuring the safety of FOOD including avoidance of bacterial and other contamination.Mutagens: Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Great BritainEnvironment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Pesticide Residues: Pesticides or their breakdown products remaining in the environment following their normal use or accidental contamination.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Animals, LaboratoryUncertainty: The condition in which reasonable knowledge regarding risks, benefits, or the future is not available.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Decision Support Techniques: Mathematical or statistical procedures used as aids in making a decision. They are frequently used in medical decision-making.Skin Absorption: Uptake of substances through the SKIN.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Endpoint Determination: Establishment of the level of a quantifiable effect indicative of a biologic process. The evaluation is frequently to detect the degree of toxic or therapeutic effect.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Government Regulation: Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.Petroleum Pollution: Release of oil into the environment usually due to human activity.Educational Measurement: The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.Technology Assessment, Biomedical: Evaluation of biomedical technology in relation to cost, efficacy, utilization, etc., and its future impact on social, ethical, and legal systems.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Safety: Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.Consensus: General agreement or collective opinion; the judgment arrived at by most of those concerned.Arsenic: A shiny gray element with atomic symbol As, atomic number 33, and atomic weight 75. It occurs throughout the universe, mostly in the form of metallic arsenides. Most forms are toxic. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), arsenic and certain arsenic compounds have been listed as known carcinogens. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.EuropeGovernment Agencies: Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Threshold Limit Values: Standards for limiting worker exposure to airborne contaminants. They are the maximum concentration in air at which it is believed that a particular substance will not produce adverse health effects with repeated daily exposure. It can be a time-weighted average (TLV-TWA), a short-term value (TLV-STEL), or an instantaneous value (TLV-Ceiling). They are expressed either as parts per million (ppm) or milligram per cubic meter (mg/m3).Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Metals, Heavy: Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (U.S.): An institute of the CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION which is responsible for assuring safe and healthful working conditions and for developing standards of safety and health. Research activities are carried out pertinent to these goals.Ethylene Oxide: A colorless and flammable gas at room temperature and pressure. Ethylene oxide is a bactericidal, fungicidal, and sporicidal disinfectant. It is effective against most micro-organisms, including viruses. It is used as a fumigant for foodstuffs and textiles and as an agent for the gaseous sterilization of heat-labile pharmaceutical and surgical materials. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p794)Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.MiningTetrachlorodibenzodioxin: A chemical by-product that results from burning or incinerating chlorinated industrial chemicals and other hydrocarbons. This compound is considered an environmental toxin, and may pose reproductive, as well as, other health risks for animals and humans.Obstetric Nursing: A nursing specialty involving nursing care given to the pregnant patient before, after, or during childbirth.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Body Burden: The total amount of a chemical, metal or radioactive substance present at any time after absorption in the body of man or animal.Data Interpretation, Statistical: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.Probability: The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.Forensic Psychiatry: Psychiatry in its legal aspects. This includes criminology, penology, commitment of mentally ill, the psychiatrist's role in compensation cases, the problems of releasing information to the court, and of expert testimony.Hydrobiology: The study of aquatic life inhabiting bodies of water, including growth, morphology, physiology, genetics, distribution, and interactions with other organisms and the environment. It includes MARINE HYDROBIOLOGY.Cosmetics: Substances intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions. Included in this definition are skin creams, lotions, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail polishes, eye and facial makeup preparations, permanent waves, hair colors, toothpastes, and deodorants, as well as any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. (U.S. Food & Drug Administration Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition Office of Cosmetics Fact Sheet (web page) Feb 1995)Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Workplace: Place or physical location of work or employment.Preventive Dentistry: The branch of dentistry concerned with the prevention of disease and the maintenance and promotion of oral health.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Decision Trees: A graphic device used in decision analysis, series of decision options are represented as branches (hierarchical).Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Pressure Ulcer: An ulceration caused by prolonged pressure on the SKIN and TISSUES when one stays in one position for a long period of time, such as lying in bed. The bony areas of the body are the most frequently affected sites which become ischemic (ISCHEMIA) under sustained and constant pressure.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Safety Management: The development of systems to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences in an institutional setting. The concept includes prevention or reduction of adverse events or incidents involving employees, patients, or facilities. Examples include plans to reduce injuries from falls or plans for fire safety to promote a safe institutional environment.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)Epidemiologic Studies: Studies designed to examine associations, commonly, hypothesized causal relations. They are usually concerned with identifying or measuring the effects of risk factors or exposures. The common types of analytic study are CASE-CONTROL STUDIES; COHORT STUDIES; and CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES.Guideline Adherence: Conformity in fulfilling or following official, recognized, or institutional requirements, guidelines, recommendations, protocols, pathways, or other standards.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Osteoporotic Fractures: Breaks in bones resulting from low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration characteristic of OSTEOPOROSIS.Endocrine Disruptors: Exogenous agents, synthetic and naturally occurring, which are capable of disrupting the functions of the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM including the maintenance of HOMEOSTASIS and the regulation of developmental processes. Endocrine disruptors are compounds that can mimic HORMONES, or enhance or block the binding of hormones to their receptors, or otherwise lead to activating or inhibiting the endocrine signaling pathways and hormone metabolism.Primary Prevention: Specific practices for the prevention of disease or mental disorders in susceptible individuals or populations. These include HEALTH PROMOTION, including mental health; protective procedures, such as COMMUNICABLE DISEASE CONTROL; and monitoring and regulation of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS. Primary prevention is to be distinguished from SECONDARY PREVENTION and TERTIARY PREVENTION.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions: Disorders that result from the intended use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS. Included in this heading are a broad variety of chemically-induced adverse conditions due to toxicity, DRUG INTERACTIONS, and metabolic effects of pharmaceuticals.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Preoperative Care: Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Expert Testimony: Presentation of pertinent data by one with special skill or knowledge representing mastery of a particular subject.Air Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.International Agencies: International organizations which provide health-related or other cooperative services.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Containment of Biohazards: Provision of physical and biological barriers to the dissemination of potentially hazardous biologically active agents (bacteria, viruses, recombinant DNA, etc.). Physical containment involves the use of special equipment, facilities, and procedures to prevent the escape of the agent. Biological containment includes use of immune personnel and the selection of agents and hosts that will minimize the risk should the agent escape the containment facility.Biological Assay: A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Epidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Conservation of Energy Resources: Planned management, use, and preservation of energy resources.Violence: Individual or group aggressive behavior which is socially non-acceptable, turbulent, and often destructive. It is precipitated by frustrations, hostility, prejudices, etc.Methylene Chloride: A chlorinated hydrocarbon that has been used as an inhalation anesthetic and acts as a narcotic in high concentrations. Its primary use is as a solvent in manufacturing and food technology.Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Epidemiological Monitoring: Collection, analysis, and interpretation of data about the frequency, distribution, and consequences of disease or health conditions, for use in the planning, implementing, and evaluating public health programs.Endocrine System: The system of glands that release their secretions (hormones) directly into the circulatory system. In addition to the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, included are the CHROMAFFIN SYSTEM and the NEUROSECRETORY SYSTEMS.Plant Weeds: A plant growing in a location where it is not wanted, often competing with cultivated plants.Air Pollution: The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Dermatitis, Allergic Contact: A contact dermatitis due to allergic sensitization to various substances. These substances subsequently produce inflammatory reactions in the skin of those who have acquired hypersensitivity to them as a result of prior exposure.Aircraft: A weight-carrying structure for navigation of the air that is supported either by its own buoyancy or by the dynamic action of the air against its surfaces. (Webster, 1973)Patient Selection: Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Referral and Consultation: The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Security Measures: Regulations to assure protection of property and equipment.Reference Standards: A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.CaliforniaFuzzy Logic: Approximate, quantitative reasoning that is concerned with the linguistic ambiguity which exists in natural or synthetic language. At its core are variables such as good, bad, and young as well as modifiers such as more, less, and very. These ordinary terms represent fuzzy sets in a particular problem. Fuzzy logic plays a key role in many medical expert systems.Fractures, Bone: Breaks in bones.

Does risk factor epidemiology put epidemiology at risk? Peering into the future. (1/30946)

The multiple cause black box paradigm of the current risk factor era in epidemiology is growing less serviceable. This single level paradigm is likely to be displaced. The signs are that the growing strength of molecular epidemiology on the one side, and of a global epidemiology based on information systems on the other, will come to dominate epidemiology and segregate it into separate disciplines. At the same time, the links with public health interests grow weaker. A multilevel ecoepidemiology has the potential to bind these strands together.  (+info)

Hepatitis B--are surgeons putting patients at risk? (2/30946)

The 1993 Department of Health guidelines permit a surgeon who is hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive but e-antigen (HBeAg) negative to perform exposure prone procedures, unless demonstrated to have infected patients. However, there is increasing evidence of transmission of hepatitis B to patients from health care workers in this supposedly low infectivity category. The Occupational Physician must decide whether existing guidelines represent an adequate risk assessment and indeed whether this is an acceptable risk for patients. If an NHS Trust continues to follow these guidelines it may be in breach of its duty of care to patients. Yet refusing to allow such carriers to operate without testing for additional serological markers may be unlawful discrimination. Further research is clearly needed as well as an urgent review of the guidelines.  (+info)

Contact dermatitis in Alstroemeria workers. (3/30946)

Hand dermatitis is common in workers in the horticultural industry. This study determined the prevalence of hand dermatitis in workers of Alstroemeria cultivation, investigated how many workers had been sensitized by tulipalin A (the allergen in Alstroemeria) and took stock of a wide range of determinants of hand dermatitis. The 12-month period prevalence of major hand dermatitis amounted to 29.5% whereas 7.4% had minor dermatitis. Of these workers, 52.1% were sensitized for tulipalin A. Several personal and work-related determinants played a role in the multifactorial aetiology of hand dermatitis. Factors which showed a significant relationship with major hand dermatitis were: female sex, atopic dermatitis, chapped hands and the frequency of washing hands. It may be concluded that the Alstroemeria workers are a population at risk of developing contact dermatitis and it might be useful to carry out an educational campaign to lower the high prevalence.  (+info)

Irritant contact dermatitis due to 1-bromo-3-chloro-5,5-dimethylhydantoin in a hydrotherapy pool. Risk assessments: the need for continuous evidence-based assessments. (4/30946)

A physiotherapist working in hydrotherapy presented to occupational health with irritant contact dermatitis. Subsequent investigation revealed that the likely causative agent was 1-bromo 3-chloro 5,5 dimethylhydantoin which was used to disinfect the hydrotherapy pool. A COSHH risk assessment had been performed which failed to take full account of current knowledge and this agent had been introduced into the workplace. The development of adverse health effects among staff and other pool users lead to a review of this risk assessment and eventually a return to less hazardous chlorine-based disinfection. Had an evidence-based approach been combined with an appropriate COSHH assessment prior to and following changes in the workplace then unnecessary risk to employees would not have occurred.  (+info)

Validation of the Rockall risk scoring system in upper gastrointestinal bleeding. (5/30946)

BACKGROUND: Several scoring systems have been developed to predict the risk of rebleeding or death in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB). These risk scoring systems have not been validated in a new patient population outside the clinical context of the original study. AIMS: To assess internal and external validity of a simple risk scoring system recently developed by Rockall and coworkers. METHODS: Calibration and discrimination were assessed as measures of validity of the scoring system. Internal validity was assessed using an independent, but similar patient sample studied by Rockall and coworkers, after developing the scoring system (Rockall's validation sample). External validity was assessed using patients admitted to several hospitals in Amsterdam (Vreeburg's validation sample). Calibration was evaluated by a chi2 goodness of fit test, and discrimination was evaluated by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. RESULTS: Calibration indicated a poor fit in both validation samples for the prediction of rebleeding (p<0.0001, Vreeburg; p=0.007, Rockall), but a better fit for the prediction of mortality in both validation samples (p=0.2, Vreeburg; p=0.3, Rockall). The areas under the ROC curves were rather low in both validation samples for the prediction of rebleeding (0.61, Vreeburg; 0.70, Rockall), but higher for the prediction of mortality (0.73, Vreeburg; 0.81, Rockall). CONCLUSIONS: The risk scoring system developed by Rockall and coworkers is a clinically useful scoring system for stratifying patients with acute UGIB into high and low risk categories for mortality. For the prediction of rebleeding, however, the performance of this scoring system was unsatisfactory.  (+info)

Risk factors for injuries and other health problems sustained in a marathon. (6/30946)

OBJECTIVES: To identify risk factors for injuries and other health problems occurring during or immediately after participation in a marathon. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was undertaken of participants in the 1993 Auckland Citibank marathon. Demographic data, information on running experience, training and injuries, and information on other lifestyle factors were obtained from participants before the race using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Information on injuries and other health problems sustained during or immediately after the marathon were obtained by a self administered questionnaire. Logistic regression analyses were undertaken to identify significant risk factors for health problems. RESULTS: This study, one of only a few controlled epidemiological studies that have been undertaken of running injuries, has identified a number of risk factors for injuries and other health problems sustained in a marathon. Men were at increased risk of hamstring and calf problems, whereas women were at increased risk of hip problems. Participation in a marathon for the first time, participation in other sports, illness in the two weeks before the marathon, current use of medication, and drinking alcohol once a month or more, were associated with increased self reported risks of problems. While increased training seemed to increase the risk of front thigh and hamstring problems, it may decrease the risk of knee problems. There are significant but complex relations between age and risk of injury or health problem. CONCLUSIONS: This study has identified certain high risk subjects and risk factors for injuries and other health problems sustained in a marathon. In particular, subjects who have recently been unwell or are taking medication should weigh up carefully the pros and cons of participating.  (+info)

Factors influencing tackle injuries in rugby union football. (7/30946)

OBJECTIVES: To assess the influence of selected aspects of lifestyle, personality, and other player related factors on injuries in the tackle. To describe the detailed circumstances in which these tackles occurred. METHODS: A prospective case-control study was undertaken in which the tackling and tackled players ("the cases") involved in a tackle injury were each matched with "control" players who held the same respective playing positions in the opposing teams. A total of 964 rugby matches involving 71 senior clubs drawn from all districts of the Scottish Rugby Union (SRU) were observed by nominated linkmen who administered self report questionnaires to the players identified as cases and controls. Information on lifestyle habits, match preparation, training, and coaching experience was obtained. A validated battery of psychological tests assessed players' trait anger and responses to anger and hostility. The circumstances of the tackles in which injury occurred were recorded by experienced SRU coaching staff in interviews with involved players after the match. RESULTS: A total of 71 tackle injury episodes with correct matching of cases and controls were studied. The following player related factors did not contribute significantly to tackle injuries: alcohol consumption before the match, feeling "below par" through minor illness, the extent of match preparation, previous coaching, or practising tackling. Injured and non-injured players in the tackle did not differ in their disposition toward, or expression of, anger or hostility. Some 85% of tackling players who were injured were three quarters, and 52% of injuries occurred when the tackle came in behind the tackled player or within his peripheral vision. Either the tackling or tackled player was sprinting or running in all of these injury episodes. One third of injuries occurred in differential speed tackles--that is, when one player was travelling much faster than the other at impact. The player with the lower momentum was injured in 80% of these cases. Forceful or crunching tackles resulting in injury mostly occurred head on or within the tackled player's side vision. CONCLUSIONS: Attention should be focused on high speed tackles going in behind the tackled player's line of vision. Comparative information on the circumstances of the vast majority of tackles in which no injury occurs is required before any changes are considered to reduce injuries in the tackle.  (+info)

Rider injury rates and emergency medical services at equestrian events. (8/30946)

BACKGROUND: Horse riding is a hazardous pastime, with a number of studies documenting high rates of injury and death among horse riders in general. This study focuses on the injury experience of cross country event riders, a high risk subset of horse riders. METHOD: Injury data were collected at a series of 35 equestrian events in South Australia from 1990 to 1998. RESULTS: Injury rates were found to be especially high among event riders, with frequent falls, injuries, and even deaths. The highest injury rates were among the riders competing at the highest levels. CONCLUSION: There is a need for skilled emergency medical services at equestrian events.  (+info)

  • It is important to assess factors such as the types of accommodations and activities as well as the reason and duration of travel as a part of the risk assessment. (cdc.gov)
  • Risk for suicide is re-evaluated throughout the course of care to assess the patient's response to personal situational changes and clinical interventions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The PRAM is a tool that applies the risk model from NISTIR 8062 and helps organizations analyze, assess, and prioritize privacy risks to determine how to respond and select appropriate solutions. (nist.gov)
  • Assess the risk for the chemical to cause cancer or other illnesses in the general population. (in.gov)
  • How can multinational companies better assess their risk of business bribery and corruption in their operations overseas? (rand.org)
  • The objective of this index is to help firms assess the propensity for government bribery and its associated business risk and to provide data to inform compliance processes. (rand.org)
  • The Facility Risk Assessment is used to clearly assess all the factors which affect the security, reliability and energy efficiency of your IT operations, and to make qualified recommendations for optimization measures which will increase the security and efficiency of your data center. (fujitsu.com)
  • Depending on your preference, you can choose to use either the colored scale or the numerical scale (whereby you multiply the two numbers together) in order to assess the overall risk for each hazard. (amazonaws.com)
  • A team from the University of Leicester, led by Professor Melanie Davies from the Department of Cardiovascular Sciences and Professor Kamlesh Khunti from the Department of Health Sciences, has developed an easy way for people to assess their risk of having diabetes. (redorbit.com)
  • to assess the risk to nurses and other healthcare personnel of an individual who is exhibiting signs of potentially dangerous behavior. (cdc.gov)
  • For a financial advisor to develop an accurate and effective risk assessment or profile, he or she must determine and assess each of the above-mentioned characteristics independently in order to compare them to each other and then combine them into a sensible investment risk level for a given client. (investopedia.com)
  • This new publication explains how scientific methodologies are used to assess risk from human activities and the resultant objects and wastes, on people and the environment. (google.com)
  • An important task of Wageningen Bioveterinary Research (WBVR) is the conduction of risk analyses to assess the probability of infection via various exposure routes. (wur.nl)
  • The firm must also assess the scope of this risk. (fi.se)
  • Use the table below to assess the Risk banding for your event. (rsc.org)
  • The Breast Milk Project ( Arcaro ) has evaluated the epigenetic status of breast epithelial cells as well as the prevalence of environmental contaminants in the milk to assess exposures and subsequent risk. (umass.edu)
  • I n the current insurance market, it has become crucial to assess risk using a more scientific approach. (itweb.co.za)
  • This comprehensive template will help you identify, assess and document your planned response to risks of material misstatement and make your audit more effective and more efficient. (aicpa.org)
  • The PREDICT program will develop a management team and workforce that is able to continuously look for hazards, assess and manage risk, and recognize and handle situational changes. (intertek.com)
  • Governments should assess their risk to a variety of fraud, many of which are identified in the Tools by Business Area section of this ToolKit. (agacgfm.org)
  • are not the failure of internal controls, examination of financials, or Sarbanes-Oxley, but they are the result of a more fundamental flaw in governance: Failure to assess, and advise the board of an understandable assessment of, risks to the enterprise of these organizations. (lexology.com)
  • Two such persons in most organizations would be the chief legal officer who is trained to assess and report risks and the chief financial officer who often must quantify risks. (lexology.com)
  • To keep up with the changing threat landscape, enterprises should periodically assess and advance their maturity in each of these areas, making program maturity assessments essential. (techtarget.com)
  • A doctor or surgery team should always assess your risk of VTE when being admitted to the hospital, especially for surgery or disabling conditions. (healthline.com)
  • At the RSA Conference 2019 here on March 5, Palo Alto Networks Chief Security Officer Rick Howard ran a session on an advanced method known as "Superforecasting" that can help organizations go beyond basic heat maps to better evaluate and define risk. (eweek.com)
  • The large-scale shift toward actuarial risk assessment has provoked both excitement and concern. (upenn.edu)
  • Mayson tries to distinguish three separate concerns about actuarial risk assessment: concerns about the act of prediction itself, concerns about specific methodologies, and concerns with the state's response to predictions. (upenn.edu)
  • The HIMSS Risk Assessment Toolkit provides resources to help organizations understand risk assessments, including a step-by-step Security Risk Assessment Guide/Data Collection Matrix. (himss.org)
  • ENISA, supported by a group of subject matter expert comprising representatives from Industries, Academia and Governmental Organizations, has conducted, in the context of the Emerging and Future Risk Framework project, an risks assessment on cloud computing business model and technologies. (europa.eu)
  • The report provide also a set of practical recommendations.Produced by ENISA with contributions from a group of subject matter expert comprising representatives from Industry, Academia and Governmental Organizations, a risk assessment of cloud computing business model and technologies. (europa.eu)
  • Fraud professionals can use this tool to assist organizations in identifying fraud risks and developing a fraud risk response. (acfe.com)
  • Organizations must now be information security conscious and must develop and implement proper security controls based on the results of their internal risk assessment and vulnerability assessment. (informit.com)
  • The Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission in its 2004 report on managing enterprise risk state that it must be effect from the top by an entity's board of directors. (lexology.com)
  • How can we as cyber-security practitioners forecast risk in our organizations? (eweek.com)
  • In this course students will learn the practical skills necessary to perform regular risk assessments for their organizations. (sans.org)
  • This can prioritize risks of exposure routes based on the calculated probabilities. (wur.nl)
  • By conducting a risk assessment and vulnerability assessment, an organization can uncover known weaknesses and vulnerabilities in its existing IT infrastructure, prioritize the impact of these vulnerabilities based on the value and importance of affected IT and data assets, and then implement the proper security controls and security countermeasures to mitigate those identified weaknesses. (informit.com)
  • Prioritize risk remediation efforts as a result of performing a risk assessment. (sans.org)
  • For example, if you estimate the probability as very low and the impact as medium, that risk will get mapped to the 2% box. (amazonaws.com)
  • Risk is the probability that a hazard will result in an adverse consequence. (acs.org)
  • In our discussion, we'll focus on rating risks using probability of occurrence and severity of consequences scales. (acs.org)
  • Applying appropriate control measures to your highest risks should reduce the probability of occurrence and severity of consequences. (acs.org)
  • Many risk assessments use "probability of occurrence" and "severity of consequences" scales to rate risks associated with laboratory experiments. (acs.org)
  • As the formula indicates, the higher the assessed probability of occurrence and severity of consequences, the greater the risk rating will be. (acs.org)
  • MRAT is a web-based assessment tool that calculates the probability of municipal sewer and stormwater infrastructure failures. (ibc.ca)
  • With a heat map, an organization builds a risk register and identifies when a given item is high impact and high probability and then they are stacked in a graph. (eweek.com)
  • Quantitative risk assessment requires calculations of two components of risk (R): the magnitude of the potential loss (L), and the probability (p) that the loss will occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even though for some risks R i , R j {\displaystyle R_{i},R_{j}} , we might have R i = R j {\displaystyle R_{i}=R_{j}} , if the probability p ( L j ) {\displaystyle p(L_{j})} is small compared to p ( L i ) {\displaystyle p(L_{i})} , its estimation might be based only on a smaller number of prior events, and hence, more uncertain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The basic principles of quantifying short-term risk have changed dramatically, as a result of developments in the market and in analysis techniques. (itweb.co.za)
  • While identifying hazards and risk levels are important, setting out a plan to address hazards and lower the level of risk is the most critical part of the risk assessment process. (amazonaws.com)
  • Hazards and risk must be considered, assessed and managed for all events run on behalf of the Royal Society of Chemistry. (rsc.org)
  • Reports from local citizens about health symptoms and suspicious odors, dust and other contaminants can bring high-risk situations to IDEM's attention. (in.gov)
  • EPA conducts site-by-site risk assessments to address the unique contaminants and range of potential health effects at Superfund sites. (epa.gov)
  • NSF toxicology experts conduct human health and environmental risk assessments for a variety of chemicals, including drinking water additives and contaminants, industrial chemicals, dietary supplement ingredients, food additives, food contact materials, medical devices, cosmetics and consumer products. (nsf.org)
  • That is, as new toxic air contaminants (TACs) are added, risk values changed, or procedures revised, the document will be updated. (aqmd.gov)
  • This also serves to remind the user of this document that Rule 1402 (PDF)- Control of Toxic Air Contaminants from Existing Sources was amended on March 17, 2000 to establish an Action Risk Level of 25-in-one million for the entire facility. (aqmd.gov)
  • Ventilation is defined as 'the removal of heated air, smoke and other airborne contaminants from a structure, and their replacement with a supply of fresher air' - this generic risk assessment examines the hazards, risks and control measures that relate to ventilation, and includes the use of positive pressure ventilation as either a defensive or offensive part of firefighting. (tsoshop.co.uk)
  • We have prepared an example risk assessment for a flail hedge cutter to illustrate how you can gather the information you need to evaluate risks associated with a machine before it is built. (hse.gov.uk)
  • Risk assessment tools provide a standard against which to evaluate individuals for potential violence, enabling all healthcare providers to share a common frame of reference and understanding. (cdc.gov)
  • WBVR performs import risk assessment studies to evaluate the risk of trade flows. (wur.nl)
  • Dose-response modelling is a specific risk assessment that aims to evaluate infection probabilities of animals via various exposure routes. (wur.nl)
  • Risk is equal to a person's exposure multiplied by the toxicity of the chemical. (in.gov)
  • As exposure to or toxicity of a chemical increases, human health risks also increase. (in.gov)
  • Biomonitoring approaches, identification of toxic metallic species for hazard identification, dose-effect relationships, construction of dose-response curves, and the development of benchmark doses for various metallic species are discussed in relation to protecting sensitive subpopulations, because not all individuals within a general population are at equal risk for toxicity. (diva-portal.org)
  • In addition to the statement made in the Risk Assessment Report of a need for more data on sediments, more freshwater and marine toxicity tests should also be valuable for a more convincing risk assessment. (europa.eu)
  • Thus, there is a risk of toxicity to sediment living and/or feeding organisms, in addition, through fixation on humic substances, persistence in the environment and bio-accumulation may occur. (europa.eu)
  • These analytical problems compromise any use of the aquatic toxicity data in this risk assessment. (europa.eu)
  • The effect assessment part derives the PNEC directly from the available toxicity data assuming that the equilibrium partitioning method is not appropriate for MDA. (europa.eu)
  • This process is called 'Risk Assessment' and it is a legal requirement. (bath.ac.uk)
  • A risk assessment is a systematic process of evaluating the potential risks that may be involved in a projected activity or undertaking. (bath.ac.uk)
  • The assessment process is ethically complex: the concept of "imminent suicide" (implying the foreseeability of an inherently unpredictable act) is a legal construct in a clinical guise, which can be used to justify the rationing of emergency psychiatric resources or intrusion into patients' civil liberties . (wikipedia.org)
  • The assessment of human failures is implicit in that process. (hse.gov.uk)
  • A risk assessment is a process to identify potential hazards and analyze what could happen if a hazard occurs. (ready.gov)
  • Although these incentives have increased participation in health risk assessment programs, Intel received another bump in participation following its announcement that employees who complete the risk assessment process will receive a $250 annual health insurance premium reduction. (shrm.org)
  • In accordance with the Institute of Internal Auditors, Standards for the Professional Practice of Internal Auditing, our audits are based on an on-going risk assessment process, which begins with the identification and refinement of the audit population. (uidaho.edu)
  • how to further enhance the transparency of the overall risk assessment process during the risk assessment phases - consisting of initiation, assessment and publication of the opinion. (europa.eu)
  • How could EFSA engage stakeholders more closely in the risk assessment process whilst ensuring efficiency? (europa.eu)
  • All of EFSA's scientific outputs are published online and the Authority uses a range of online and offline tools to better explain the risk assessment process and its work. (europa.eu)
  • The goal of this course is to provide an overview of the risk review process, as described by the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) Oversight Procedure (OP) documents, including particularly OP-40. (apta.com)
  • Because risk identification and rating establish priorities, this assessment should be incorporated early in the experimental process. (acs.org)
  • During the lengthy U.S. federal review process, the FDA in December 2012 released an environmental assessment finding of "no significant impact," the last step required before making a final decision. (counterpunch.org)
  • Risk modeling is a process that can be applied in any number of environments or business situations, including investments, operations, e-commerce, insurance, and fraud. (agacgfm.org)
  • In considering the risk modeling process described above, steps 2 through 5 are generally referred to as risk assessment. (agacgfm.org)
  • They can part of a due-diligence process for existing householders or businesses, or can be required in England and Wales to provide independent evidence to a planning application on the flood risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • and sets out policies for local authorities to ensure flood risk is taken into account during the planning process to prevent inappropriate development in high risk areas and to direct development away from areas at highest risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • The authors also discuss selected Natech accidents, including recent examples, and provide specific 'lessons learned' from each, as well as an analysis of all essential elements of Natech risk assessment, such as plant layout, substance hazards, and equipment vulnerability. (oreilly.com)
  • To receive automatic notifications that risk assessments or pest lists have been posted to this website for review and comment, we encourage interested stakeholders to subscribe to the APHIS Stakeholder Registry "Risk Analysis and Assessments " topic. (usda.gov)
  • The result is an in-depth and independent analysis that outlines some of the information security benefits and key security risks of cloud computing. (europa.eu)
  • Monte Carlo simulations also allow for a sensitivity analysis that can identify risk factors (environmental factors, exposure variables, etc.) that most strongly influence risk. (usgs.gov)
  • Not unlike risk models used by insurance companies, criminal justice risk assessment tools are based on statistical analysis of large, aggregated data sets of criminal behavior over time. (upenn.edu)
  • Import risk analysis contributes to the assessment of the risk of import flows and other possible routes along which pathogens can enter the country. (wur.nl)
  • The Risk Premium Project (RPP) represents an extensive, thorough and up-to-date analysis of the theory and empirics of risk assessment for property-casualty insurance. (casact.org)
  • We do not seek to deter organisers from undertaking a risk assessment that defines the exact level/extent of risk eg a numerical risk analysis matrix and attaching it to their "red" assessment for their own records. (rsc.org)
  • Find out how RiskGrades TM can measure the financial risk of Barclays PLC (BCS) compared to other stocks using the stock analysis below. (nasdaq.com)
  • It proposes a framework that integrates economic location analysis and risk analysis, emphasizing the reduction of uncertainty. (routledge.com)
  • These are complicated issues, and scholars such as Richard Berk and Sandra Mayson provide deeper analysis on how we should think of fairness and justice in risk assessment. (brookings.edu)
  • The risk analysis further involves grouping similar risks and identifying the variables and factors that contribute to higher risk. (itweb.co.za)
  • Our analysis suggests that mean serum 25(OH)D levels of about 75 to 110 nmol/l provide optimal benefits for all investigated endpoints without increasing health risks. (nih.gov)
  • More costly analysis of flood risk can be achieved through detailed flood modelling to challenge the agency's modelled levels and corresponding flood zones. (wikipedia.org)
  • The context above creates an environment whereby large companies incur more IT project risk than is desired. (amazonaws.com)
  • It is produced in the context of the Emerging and Future Risk Framework project. (europa.eu)
  • Supporters of actuarial tools advocate for their use to support and improve the information and context provided to a judge, allowing the judge to combine information about the individual and the judge's individual experiences and observations with a more formulaic, data-driven assessment of how an individual is likely to act in the future. (upenn.edu)
  • This, as with all generic risk assessments provides a starting point for Fire and Rescue Authorities to conduct their own assessments within the context of local conditions and existing organisational arrangements. (tsoshop.co.uk)
  • Health risk assessment" includes variations, such as the type and severity of response, with or without a probabilistic context. (wikipedia.org)
  • As such, line managers are responsible for making sure that risk assessments are completed for all works that they oversee, supervise or manage. (bath.ac.uk)
  • Superfund's risk managers use risk assessment information and other site factors to select the best cleanup strategies to manage risks to acceptable levels. (epa.gov)
  • It provides the automation requirements to manage the revenue leakage risks through three main modules: Configuration, Usage and Rating & Billing Verification. (prweb.com)
  • Learn how to identify and manage operational risk, litigation risk and reputational risk. (kdnuggets.com)
  • Understanding such risks supplies crucial information--to frame legislation, manage major habitats, businesses and industries, and create development programmes. (google.com)
  • Our resources are available on an as-needed basis and are ready for immediate deployment, allowing you to cost-effectively manage risk. (saiglobal.com)
  • Not only is it a strict legal requirement to effectively manage the risks created by such events, but it is necessary that we demonstrate the highest standards of professionalism at all our events, and in so doing, meet a duty of care towards everyone involved. (rsc.org)
  • Manage risks that could be negative for your company's performance with this standard. (iso.org)
  • Rapid identification of individuals with possible risk of EVD followed by donning of personal protective equipment and isolation of patients for detailed risk assessment are important elements of a system to proactively manage patients at the point of first interaction. (emoryhealthcare.org)
  • Report version : October 2000 carried out in the framework of Council Regulation (EEC) 793/93 on the evaluation and control of the risks of existing substances1. (europa.eu)
  • Opinion on the results of the Risk Assessment of: 4,4'-Methylenedianiline (C13H14N2) [MDA], CAS N° : 101-77-9, EINECS N°: 202-974-4 carried out in the framework of Council Regulation (EEC) 793/93 on the evaluation and control of the risks of existing substances - Opinion expressed at the 15th CSTEE plenary meeting, Brussels, 5th of May 2000. (europa.eu)
  • Flood Risk Assessments are required to be completed according to the National Planning Policy Framework, which replaces Planning Policy Statement PPS 25: Development and Flood Risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • 5) Personal protective clothes and equipment - Only after all the previous measures have been tried and found ineffective in controlling risks to a reasonably practicable level, must personal protective equipment (PPE) be used. (bath.ac.uk)
  • Depending on level of risk, it may be appropriate to recommend no specific interventions, mosquito avoidance measures only, or mosquito avoidance measures plus chemoprophylaxis. (cdc.gov)
  • Risk level can be described semantically (in words) e.g. as Nonexistent, Mild, Moderate, Severe, or Extreme, and the clinical response can be determined accordingly. (wikipedia.org)
  • Others urge use of numbers to describe level of relative or (preferably) absolute risk of completed suicide. (wikipedia.org)
  • In PIC 2, at the organisation level the company needs to formulate a view on how risk seeking or risk averse it is when it comes to IT investments. (amazonaws.com)
  • The first element of a risk assessment is risk capacity, the maximum level of risk that an individual can afford to take based on his or her financial circumstances. (investopedia.com)
  • Sometimes confused with risk capacity, risk tolerance differs in that it is the client's mental and emotional ability to tolerate chances taken on investments, given the level of risk, and how psychologically capable the client is at handling losses or overall volatility in both the short term and long term. (investopedia.com)
  • It involves subject matter experts for objectivity and can be used at a high level for risk profiling or at a granular level for specific resources. (gartner.com)
  • Facilities that submit HRAs in accordance with these requirements may also do so under the designation as a Potentially High Risk Level Facility. (aqmd.gov)
  • A Potentially High Risk Level Facility is one that has risks exceeding the Significant Risk Level and has a previously approved HRA. (aqmd.gov)
  • The sections below list the recently approved HRAs and related AB 2588 documents, including those for Potentially High Risk Level Facilities. (aqmd.gov)
  • This is especially pertinent because - as the Toronto Star noted five years ago - this first Frankenfish "has a slightly elevated level of 'insulin-like growth factor 1,' a hormone related to growth hormone that has been linked in some studies with higher cancer risk. (counterpunch.org)
  • Participants will learn how to identify chronic, acute, and protective factors when determining the level of risk and how to handle a person who reports feeling suicidal or expresses a desire to end his or her life. (goodtherapy.org)
  • At the strategic level policies are made specifying acceptable levels of risk, procedures to be followed within the organisation, priorities and allocation of resources. (wikipedia.org)
  • AstraZeneca, the London-based pharmaceutical company, asks its U.S. employees to complete an annual health assessment using the Mayo Clinic's online questionnaire. (shrm.org)
  • Contribute your privacy risk assessment tool. (nist.gov)
  • Use the Risk Assessment Tool complete your risk assessment. (ready.gov)
  • There are many danger assessment tools available for research, but clinicians need a quick manageable tool. (cdc.gov)
  • Note: This risk assessment tool was clinically tested and evaluated by community mental health clinicians and a sample of clients in 6 catchment areas of Erie County, NY with a total population of 1.2 million, and approved that that county's Department of Mental Health for broad implementation. (cdc.gov)
  • Click to download a printable sample Danger Assessment Tool . (cdc.gov)
  • Breast Cancer risk assessment tool developed by the National Institute of Cancer. (merlot.org)
  • Interactive tool for measuring the risk of invasive breast cancer for the use of health professionals. (merlot.org)
  • You just viewed Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool . (merlot.org)
  • The ACFE's Fraud Risk Assessment tool is an invaluable resource for fraud examiners to use in identifying and addressing their clients' or employers' vulnerabilities to internal fraud. (acfe.com)
  • This new tool allows for activities and risks to be filtered for relevance across humanities/ low risk departments and across variable risk departments (applied scientific, medicine, dentistry, SEFS, service depts. (ucc.ie)
  • Intertek's Dynamic Risk Assessment Tool, PREDICT, addresses behavior issues to improve recognition and control of hazardous situations. (intertek.com)
  • Insurance Bureau of Canada (IBC) is the founder of a ground-breaking technology known as the municipal risk assessment tool, or MRAT. (ibc.ca)
  • The role of current or past alcohol and drug use in raising suicide risk will be discussed, and participants will learn the importance of using a suicide-specific assessment tool instead of relying on their "clinical gut. (goodtherapy.org)
  • The Australian Type 2 Diabetes Risk Assessment Tool was developed by the Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute on behalf of the Australian, state and territory governments as part of the COAG initiative to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes. (health.gov.au)
  • If you have problems accessing this interactive version of the tool, or if you rely on assistive technology (such as a screenreader), you may use the non-interactive version of the diabetes risk assessment tool. (health.gov.au)
  • More and more jurisdictions across the country are deploying predictive assessment tools (often called risk assessment tools) to guide decisions about pretrial detention, sentencing, prison classification, parole, and probation supervision. (upenn.edu)
  • A variety of predictive assessment tools have been implemented across the country in pre-trial detention decisions, in sentencing hearings, and to assist in probation and parole decisions. (upenn.edu)
  • Describing the talk as the "Minority Report" panel, moderator Sandra Mayson of the Quattrone Center captures the visceral ambivalence felt by many about proactively limiting an individual's physical freedom based on predictive assessments of future actions, rather than actual past acts. (upenn.edu)
  • Berk, who has designed and assessed multiple machine-learned risk assessment programs in use today, reminds us that predictive risk assessment has always been part of the judicial role. (upenn.edu)
  • Thus, Berk frames the discussion not in terms of whether we should limit freedoms based on predictive risk assessments - we already do. (upenn.edu)
  • Too often, risk frameworks generate ambiguous, color-coded assessments grounded in subjective analyses. (rand.org)
  • Would you rather have your sentence determined by a computer algorithm, which dispassionately weights factors that predict your future risk of crime (such as age or past arrests) or by the subjective assessment of a judge? (brookings.edu)
  • Disparate false-positive rates will be present every time there are disparate rates of reoffending, regardless of racial bias and regardless of whether the risk score is made by a computer algorithm or by the subjective assessment of a judge. (brookings.edu)
  • But one of the most important policy questions is simple: do risk assessments increase or decrease racial disparities compared to the subjective decisions of judges? (brookings.edu)
  • In many ways, this important undertaking is subjective, relying on the experience and expertise of those conducting the assessment. (agacgfm.org)
  • As part of managing the health and safety of your activities, you must control the risks associated with them. (bath.ac.uk)
  • increasing safety signage, and performing risk assessments. (bath.ac.uk)
  • one "office safety" risk assessment would be appropriate. (bath.ac.uk)
  • This course gives participants the knowledge and skills to effectively use the basic risk assessment technique for the improvement of the Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) conditions in enterprises. (ilo.org)
  • On the other hand, underestimating suicidality as a result of a dismissive attitude or lack of clinical skill jeopardizes patient safety and risks clinician liability. (wikipedia.org)
  • Risk assessment helps you build safety into your design . (hse.gov.uk)
  • minimise risks by selecting safety measures that you can integrate into the design. (hse.gov.uk)
  • BS EN ISO 14121-1 Safety of machinery. (hse.gov.uk)
  • June 13, 2012 By Stephen Pepper Leave a Comment One of the most important safety considerations as a youth worker is knowing how to do a risk assessment. (amazonaws.com)
  • This approach is typically applied to multiple machines and is a cost-effective method for performing plant-wide machine safety assessments. (ul.com)
  • A machine safety assessment includes all inspection and activities from the hazard assessment, plus inspection and observation of a machine in operation to identify existing hazards, machine safeguarding, safety systems and risk reduction measures. (ul.com)
  • A machine risk assessment includes all inspections and activities in our machine hazard and machine safety assessments plus interviews and discussion with your staff including engineering, operators, maintenance and safety personnel (as available), and completion of an ANSI/RIA risk assessment document in addition to the safety report. (ul.com)
  • agree, but the risk assesement we are discussing here is not about safety, but security. (mail-archive.com)
  • The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is holding a conference on Transparency in Risk Assessment on 3 October 2013 in Parma, Italy, from 09:00 to 16:15. (europa.eu)
  • Severity of consequences assigns a rating based on the impact of an identified risk to safety, resources, work performance, property, and/or reputation. (acs.org)
  • The draft risk assessment revealed "unique safety issues that FDA has failed to consider, which is why we are calling on the agency to terminate its review," she said. (counterpunch.org)
  • This section provides tools and protocols for triage of patients to quickly identify individuals who require a more detailed risk assessment, while ensuring the safety of the care team. (emoryhealthcare.org)
  • In the engineering of complex systems, sophisticated risk assessments are often made within safety engineering and reliability engineering when it concerns threats to life, environment or machine functioning. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dose dependent risk tends to be classified as health risk and dose independent risk as safety risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • Generally, the more individual risk factors for VTE you have, the greater your risk of developing the condition. (healthline.com)
  • Cybersecurity: Managing Risk in the Information age, Harvard online short course - Nov 2, 2017. (kdnuggets.com)
  • However, a 2017 survey of peer reviewers found over half of 400 audits they reviewed did not comply with the risk assessment standards. (aicpa.org)
  • 3) Engineering controls - for example use work equipment or other measures to prevent falls where you cannot avoid working at height, install or use additional machinery to control risks from dust or fume or separate the hazard from operators by methods such as enclosing or guarding dangerous items of machinery/equipment. (bath.ac.uk)
  • Though risk assessment projects use different methods and techniques, all go through four basic steps to characterize risk. (in.gov)
  • 2.Risk assessment - methods. (who.int)
  • Explore the latest methods for detecting, preventing and mitigating risks in plants. (aiche.org)
  • Risk assessment tools can meet this challenge through algorithmic machine learning, says Berk, in which computers, using complex mathematical calculations, find associations in a given dataset between certain characteristics and the outcome of concern - for example, arrest for violent crime. (upenn.edu)
  • Together, this information will allow for two types of risk assessment associated with respiratory allergy: the risk that exposure to a material will (1) induce sensitization in an individual and (2) elicit allergic reactions in a previously sensitized individual. (nih.gov)
  • In discussions on national security, risk is frequently not well defined , and is often used for purposes (sufficiency and threat analyses) better served by other components of strategy. (rand.org)
  • This allows firms to adjust their risk assessment and compliance practices to better suit country-specific conditions. (rand.org)
  • Considering that many of the inputs to risk assessments, such as past arrests, are subject to racially disparate policing practices, it would not be surprising if risk scores carried some of this bias over. (brookings.edu)
  • Our team of field evaluators, trainers and engineers can support risk assessments and evaluations for manufacturers, machine builders and asset owners, tailoring our program to your specific machines and installations. (ul.com)
  • This portion of the risk assessment is a quantification of the client's total ability to absorb a loss, whether the loss is small, moderate, or large. (investopedia.com)
  • The capacity for risk also provides the advisor with an understanding of how the client's portfolio will function and the rate of change financially if a specific investment results in either a loss or a gain. (investopedia.com)
  • Essentially, the attitude to risk is the client's understanding of risk in terms of what it entails and how it will affect the client's life and finances. (investopedia.com)
  • Typically, a financial advisor further develops a risk assessment by determining the client's attitude toward risk at the outset, then reassessing the client's risk attitude after determining the client's risk capacity and risk requirements. (investopedia.com)
  • Quiz: Is your audit addressing your client's risks? (aicpa.org)
  • Dynamic Risk Assessment workshop is customized to the client's specific needs. (intertek.com)
  • Some experts recommend abandoning suicide risk assessment as it is so inaccurate. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition suicide risk assessment is often conflated with assessment of self-harm which has little overlap with completed suicide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Suicide risk assessment should distinguish between acute and chronic risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • Students will learn the elements of risk assessment and the data necessary for performing an effective risk assessment. (sans.org)