A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE, order Euphorbiales, subclass Rosidae. The seed of Ricinus communis L. is the CASTOR BEAN which is the source of CASTOR OIL; RICIN; and other lectins.
The largest genus of TICKS in the family IXODIDAE, containing over 200 species. Many infest humans and other mammals and several are vectors of diseases such as LYME DISEASE, tick-borne encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, TICK-BORNE), and KYASANUR FOREST DISEASE.
Common name for Ricinus communis, a species in the family EUPHORBIACEAE. It is the source of CASTOR OIL.
The immature stage in the life cycle of those orders of insects characterized by gradual metamorphosis, in which the young resemble the imago in general form of body, including compound eyes and external wings; also the 8-legged stage of mites and ticks that follows the first moult.
Infestations with soft-bodied (Argasidae) or hard-bodied (Ixodidae) ticks.
Members of the class Arachnida, especially SPIDERS; SCORPIONS; MITES; and TICKS; which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.
A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus ANAPLASMA, family ANAPLASMATACEAE, formerly called Ehrlichia phagocytophila or Ehrlichia equi. This organism is tick-borne (IXODES) and causes disease in horses and sheep. In humans, it causes human granulocytic EHRLICHIOSIS.
Bacterial, viral, or parasitic diseases transmitted to humans and animals by the bite of infected ticks. The families Ixodidae and Argasidae contain many bloodsucking species that are important pests of man and domestic birds and mammals and probably exceed all other arthropods in the number and variety of disease agents they transmit. Many of the tick-borne diseases are zoonotic.
A genus of tick-borne protozoan parasites that infests the red blood cells of mammals, including humans. There are many recognized species, and the distribution is world-wide.
Gram-negative helical bacteria, in the genus BORRELIA, that are the etiologic agents of LYME DISEASE. The group comprises many specific species including Borrelia afzelii, Borellia garinii, and BORRELIA BURGDORFERI proper. These spirochetes are generally transmitted by several species of ixodid ticks.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
A family of bacteria which inhabit RED BLOOD CELLS and cause several animal diseases.
A species of protozoa infecting humans via the intermediate tick vector IXODES scapularis. The other hosts are the mouse PEROMYSCUS leucopus and meadow vole MICROTUS pennsylvanicus, which are fed on by the tick. Other primates can be experimentally infected with Babesia microti.
A protein phytotoxin from the seeds of Ricinus communis, the castor oil plant. It agglutinates cells, is proteolytic, and causes lethal inflammation and hemorrhage if taken internally.
Blood-sucking acarid parasites of the order Ixodida comprising two families: the softbacked ticks (ARGASIDAE) and hardbacked ticks (IXODIDAE). Ticks are larger than their relatives, the MITES. They penetrate the skin of their host by means of highly specialized, hooked mouth parts and feed on its blood. Ticks attack all groups of terrestrial vertebrates. In humans they are responsible for many TICK-BORNE DISEASES, including the transmission of ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; TULAREMIA; BABESIOSIS; AFRICAN SWINE FEVER; and RELAPSING FEVER. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp543-44)
Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.
A group of tick-borne diseases of mammals including ZOONOSES in humans. They are caused by protozoa of the genus BABESIA, which parasitize erythrocytes, producing hemolysis. In the U.S., the organism's natural host is mice and transmission is by the deer tick IXODES SCAPULARIS.
An infectious disease caused by a spirochete, BORRELIA BURGDORFERI, which is transmitted chiefly by Ixodes dammini (see IXODES) and pacificus ticks in the United States and Ixodes ricinis (see IXODES) in Europe. It is a disease with early and late cutaneous manifestations plus involvement of the nervous system, heart, eye, and joints in variable combinations. The disease was formerly known as Lyme arthritis and first discovered at Old Lyme, Connecticut.
Oil obtained from seeds of Ricinus communis that is used as a cathartic and as a plasticizer.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, helical bacteria, various species of which produce RELAPSING FEVER in humans and other animals.
A tick-borne disease characterized by FEVER; HEADACHE; myalgias; ANOREXIA; and occasionally RASH. It is caused by several bacterial species and can produce disease in DOGS; CATTLE; SHEEP; GOATS; HORSES; and humans. The primary species causing human disease are EHRLICHIA CHAFFEENSIS; ANAPLASMA PHAGOCYTOPHILUM; and Ehrlichia ewingii.
Encephalitis caused by neurotropic viruses that are transmitted via the bite of TICKS. In Europe, the diseases are caused by ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, TICK-BORNE, which give rise to Russian spring-summer encephalitis, central European encephalitis, louping ill encephalitis, and related disorders. Powassan encephalitis occurs in North America and Russia and is caused by the Powassan virus. ASEPTIC MENINGITIS and rarely encephalitis may complicate COLORADO TICK FEVER which is endemic to mountainous regions of the western United States. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp14-5)
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria often surrounded by a protein microcapsular layer and slime layer. The natural cycle of its organisms generally involves a vertebrate and an invertebrate host. Species of the genus are the etiological agents of human diseases, such as typhus.
A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS that causes encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers and is found in eastern and western Europe and the former Soviet Union. It is transmitted by TICKS and there is an associated milk-borne transmission from viremic cattle, goats, and sheep.
Arthropods, other than insects and arachnids, which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
Eighteen carbon fatty acids that comprise the great majority of CASTOR OIL, which is from the seed of RICINUS.
Infections with bacteria of the family ANAPLASMATACEAE.
A widely distributed genus of TICKS, in the family IXODIDAE, including a number that infest humans and other mammals. Several are vectors of diseases such as TULAREMIA; ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; COLORADO TICK FEVER; and ANAPLASMOSIS.
Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.
Small, often pleomorphic, coccoid to ellipsoidal organisms occurring intracytoplasmically in circulating LYMPHOCYTES. They are the etiologic agents of tick-borne diseases of humans; DOGS; CATTLE; SHEEP; GOATS; and HORSES.
The family Cervidae of 17 genera and 45 species occurring nearly throughout North America, South America, and Eurasia, on most associated continental islands, and in northern Africa. Wild populations of deer have been established through introduction by people in Cuba, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and other places where the family does not naturally occur. They are slim, long-legged and best characterized by the presence of antlers. Their habitat is forests, swamps, brush country, deserts, and arctic tundra. They are usually good swimmers; some migrate seasonally. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1362)
An NAD-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. It is a FLAVOPROTEIN that contains IRON and MOLYBDENUM and is involved in the first step of nitrate assimilation in PLANTS; FUNGI; and BACTERIA. It was formerly classified as EC 1.6.6.1.
Glycoprotein molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes, that react with molecules of antilymphocyte sera, lectins, and other agents which induce blast transformation of lymphocytes.
A specific species of bacteria, part of the BORRELIA BURGDORFERI GROUP, whose common name is Lyme disease spirochete.
The science of developing, caring for, or cultivating forests.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A subfamily of MURIDAE found nearly world-wide and consisting of about 20 genera. Voles, lemmings, and muskrats are members.
Infections with bacteria of the genus BORRELIA.
Created 1 January 1993 as a result of the division of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).
Lectins purified from the germinating seeds of common wheat (Triticum vulgare); these bind to certain carbohydrate moieties on cell surface glycoproteins and are used to identify certain cell populations and inhibit or promote some immunological or physiological activities. There are at least two isoforms of this lectin.
A family of hardbacked TICKS, in the subclass ACARI. Genera include DERMACENTOR and IXODES among others.
Created as a republic in 1918 by Czechs and Slovaks from territories formerly part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The country split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia 1 January 1993.
A pesticide or chemical agent that kills mites and ticks. This is a large class that includes carbamates, formamides, organochlorines, organophosphates, etc, that act as antibiotics or growth regulators.
Infections by the genus BARTONELLA. Bartonella bacilliformis can cause acute febrile anemia, designated Oroya fever, and a benign skin eruption, called verruga peruana. BARTONELLA QUINTANA causes TRENCH FEVER, while BARTONELLA HENSELAE is the etiologic agent of bacillary angiomatosis (ANGIOMATOSIS, BACILLARY) and is also one of the causes of CAT-SCRATCH DISEASE in immunocompetent patients.
An order of slender, flexuous, helically coiled bacteria, with one or more complete turns in the helix.
Glycoprotein moieties on the surfaces of cell membranes that bind concanavalin A selectively; the number and location of the sites depends on the type and condition of the cell.
A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.
Infestations by PARASITES which live on, or burrow into, the surface of their host's EPIDERMIS. Most ectoparasites are ARTHROPODS.
Glycosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of galactose with an alcohol to form an acetal. They include both alpha- and beta-galactosides.
An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
Parasitic plants that form a bushy growth on branches of host trees which are in the order Santalales. It includes the Christmas mistletoe family (VISCACEAE), the showy mistletoe family (LORANTHACEAE) and the catkin mistletoe family (Eremolepidaceae). The composition of toxins, lectins, tyramine, phenethylamines, and other compounds may be affected by the host.
An idiopathic disorder characterized by the loss of filiform papillae leaving reddened areas of circinate macules bound by a white band. The lesions heal, then others erupt.
A genus of gram-negative bacteria whose organisms are obligate parasites of vertebrates. Species are transmitted by arthropod vectors with the host range limited to ruminants. Anaplasma marginale is the most pathogenic species and is the causative agent of severe bovine anaplasmosis.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.
7-Hydroxycoumarins. Substances present in many plants, especially umbelliferae. Umbelliferones are used in sunscreen preparations and may be mutagenic. Their derivatives are used in liver therapy, as reagents, plant growth factors, sunscreens, insecticides, parasiticides, choleretics, spasmolytics, etc.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE. Members contain jatrophone and other diterpenes.
A plant genus of the family NYMPHAEACEAE. The common name of lotus is also used for LOTUS and NELUMBO.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.
Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.
A genus of gram-negative bacteria characteristically appearing in chains of several segmenting organisms. It occurs in man and arthropod vectors and is found only in the Andes region of South America. This genus is the etiologic agent of human bartonellosis. The genus Rochalimaea, once considered a separate genus, has recently been combined with the genus Bartonella as a result of high levels of relatedness in 16S rRNA sequence data and DNA hybridization data.
Proteins and peptides found in SALIVA and the SALIVARY GLANDS. Some salivary proteins such as ALPHA-AMYLASES are enzymes, but their composition varies in different individuals.
A species of gram-negative bacteria that is the etiologic agent of bacillary angiomatosis (ANGIOMATOSIS, BACILLARY). This organism can also be a cause of CAT-SCRATCH DISEASE in immunocompetent patients.
A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised mostly of two major phenotypes: purple non-sulfur bacteria and aerobic bacteriochlorophyll-containing bacteria.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A family of the order Rodentia containing 250 genera including the two genera Mus (MICE) and Rattus (RATS), from which the laboratory inbred strains are developed. The fifteen subfamilies are SIGMODONTINAE (New World mice and rats), CRICETINAE, Spalacinae, Myospalacinae, Lophiomyinae, ARVICOLINAE, Platacanthomyinae, Nesomyinae, Otomyinae, Rhizomyinae, GERBILLINAE, Dendromurinae, Cricetomyinae, MURINAE (Old World mice and rats), and Hydromyinae.
Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).
Created 1 January 1993 as a result of the division of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
N-Glycosidases that remove adenines from RIBOSOMAL RNA, depurinating the conserved alpha-sarcin loop of 28S RIBOSOMAL RNA. They often consist of a toxic A subunit and a binding lectin B subunit. They may be considered as PROTEIN SYNTHESIS INHIBITORS. They are found in many PLANTS and have cytotoxic and antiviral activity.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
Bites and stings inflicted by insects.
Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
Ribosome inactivating proteins consisting of two polypeptide chains, the toxic A subunit and a lectin B subunit, linked by disulfide bridges. The lectin portion binds to cell surfaces and facilitates transport into the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM.

Lectins as membrane components of mitochondria from Ricinus communis. (1/117)

1. Mitochondria were isolated from developing endosperm of Ricinus communis and were fractionated into outer membrane and inner membrane. The relative purity of the two membrane fractions was determined by marker enzymes. The fractions were also examined by negative-stain electron microscopy. 2. Membrane fractions were sequentially extracted in the following way. (a) Suspension in 0.5M-potassium phosphate, pH7.1; (b)suspension in 0.1M-EDTA (disodium salt)/0.05M-potassium phosphate, pH7.1; (c) sonication in 0.05M-potassium phosphate, pH7.1;(d)sonication in aq. Triton X-100 (0.1%). The membranes were pelleted by centrifugation at 100 000g for 15 min, between each step. Agglutination activity in the extracts was investigated by using trypsin-treated rabbit erythrocytes. 3. The addition of lactose to inner mitochondrial membrane resulted in the solubilization of part of the lectin activity, indicating that the protein was attached to the membrane via its carbohydrate-binding site. Pretreatment of the membranes with lactose before tha usual extraction procedure showed that lactose could extract lectins that normally required more harsh treatment of the membrane for solubilization. 4. Lectins extracted from inner membranes were purified by affinity chromatography on agarose gel. Polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of purified samples in sodium dodecyl sulphate indicated that at least part of the lectin present in inner mitochondrial membrane was identical with the R. communis agglutinin of mol.wt. 120 000.  (+info)

Expression of Ricinus communis receptors on epithelial cells in oral carcinomas and oral wounds. (2/117)

The histological distribution of receptors for Ricinus communis Fraction 1 (RCA1) in oral carcinomas and in oral epithelial cells during wound healing has been studied by use of fluorescein-tagged RCA1. Biopsies from 15 human oral carcinomas and adjacent normal mucosa showed RCA1 receptors at the cell membranes in the basal and spinous layer of the normal epithelium, whereas receptors could not be demonstrated in invading islands of the tumors. In healing oral wounds from eight humans and three monkeys, RCA1 receptors were demonstrated both in normal epithelium adjacent to the wounds and in the epithelial outgrowth from the wound margin. Titrations, however, showed that the epithelial outgrowth reacted more weakly than did the normal adjacent epithelium. These results support previous in vitro studies showing changes in carbohydrate composition of moving normal cells and of malignant cells, a finding that may be of interest in relation to formation of metastases.  (+info)

Nitrate reductases from leaves of Ricinus (Ricinus communis L.) and spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) have different regulatory properties. (3/117)

The activity of nitrate reductase (+Mg(2+), NR(act)) in illuminated leaves from spinach, barley and pea was 50-80% of the maximum activity (+EDTA, NR(max)). However, NR from leaves of Ricinus communis L. had a 10-fold lower NR(act), while NR(max) was similar to that in spinach leaves. The low NR(act) of Ricinus was independent of day-time and nitrate nutrition, and varied only slightly with leaf age. Possible factors in Ricinus extracts inhibiting NR were not found. NR(act) from Ricinus, unlike the spinach enzyme, was very low at pH 7.6, but much higher at more acidic pH with a distinct maximum at pH 6.5. NR(max) had a broad pH response profile that was similar for the spinach and the Ricinus enzyme. Accordingly, the Mg(2+)-sensitivity of NR from Ricinus was strongly pH-dependent (increasing sensitivity with increasing pH), and as a result, the apparent activation state of NR from a Ricinus extract varied dramatically with pH and Mg(2+)concentration. Following a light-dark transition, NR(act) from Ricinus decreased within 1 h by 40%, but this decrease was paralleled by NR(max). In contrast to the spinach enzyme, Ricinus-NR was hardly inactivated by incubating leaf extracts with ATP plus okadaic acid. A competition analysis with antibodies against the potential 14-3-3 binding site around ser 543 of the spinach enzyme revealed that Ricinus-NR contains the same site. Removal of 14-3-3 proteins from Ricinus-NR by anion exchange chromatography, activated spinach-NR but caused little if any activation of Ricinus-NR. It is suggested that Mg(2+)-inhibition of Ricinus-NR does not require 14-3-3 proteins. The rather slow changes in Ricinus-NR activity upon a light/dark transient may be mainly due to NR synthesis or degradation.  (+info)

Ultrastructural localization of lectin-binding sites on the zonae pellucidae and plasma membranes of mammalian eggs. (4/117)

Receptors for Ricinus communis agglutinin I (RCAI), concanavalin A (Con A), and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) were localized on the zonae pellucidae and plasma membranes of hamster, mouse, and rat eggs with ferritin-lectin conjugates. Intact eggs labeled with the ferritin conjugates showed dense concentrations of RCAI and WGA receptors in the outermost regions of their zonae pellucidae and sparse distributions of Con A receptors throughout the zonae. Ferritin-lectin labeling was specific, since inhibitory saccharides effectively blocked labeling. The asymmetric density of RCAI receptors across the zona was confirmed by ferritin-RCAI and fluorescein-RCAI labeling of mechanically isolated zonae pellucidae, indicating that the RCAI-binding sites are more densely distributed in the exterior zona regions. Plasma membranes of rodent eggs contained RCAI, WGA, and Con A receptors. These receptors were found to be more or less randomly distributed on surfaces of aldehyde-fixed eggs or on eggs labeled near 0 degrees C. However, eggs incubated at 25 degrees C showed aggregated WGA- and Con A-binding site distributions on their plasma membranes. This indicates that lectin-induced receptor redistribution occurs at this temperature. The possibility that plasma membrane receptor mobility is a requirement for sperm-egg fusion is discussed.  (+info)

Leaf development in Ricinus communis during drought stress: dynamics of growth processes, of cellular structure and of sink-source transition. (5/117)

Dicot leaf growth is characterized by partly transient tip-to-base gradients of growth processes, structure and function. These gradients develop dynamically and interact with dynamically developing stress conditions like drought. In Ricinus communis plants growing under well-watered and drought conditions growth rates peaked during the late night and minimal values occurred in the late afternoon. During this diurnal course the leaf base always showed much higher rates than the leaf tip. The amplitude of this diurnal course decreased when leaves approached maturity and during drought stress without any significant alteration of the diurnal pattern and it increased during the first days after rewatering. Unique relationships between leaf size and cytological structure were observed. This provided the framework for the analysis of changes in assimilation, transpiration and dark respiration, chlorophyll, protein, carbohydrate, and amino acid concentrations, and of activities of sink-source-related enzymes at the leaf tip and base during leaf development in well-watered and drought-stressed plants. Gas exchange was dominated by physiological rather than by anatomical properties (stomatal density). Tip-to-base gradients in carbohydrate concentrations per dry weight and sink-source-related enzymes were absent, whereas significant gradients were found in amino acid concentrations per dry weight. During drought stress, growing leaves developed source function at smaller leaf size, before specific physiological adaptations to drought occurred. The relevance of the developmental status of individual leaves for the drought-stress response and of the structural changes for the biochemical composition changes is discussed.  (+info)

Characterization of group N streptococcus lipoteichoic acid. (6/117)

Lipoteichoic acid was extracted from the group N organism Streptococcus lactis ATCC 9936 with hot aqueous phenol and purified by gel chromatography followed by affinity chromatography using Ricinus communis lectin as the specific absorbent. The teichoic acid moiety of the lipoteichoic acid was calculated to contain 16 to 17 glycerol phosphate units, approximately half of which were substituted with alpha-D-galactosyl residues; the glycolipid moiety contained O-alpha-D-glucosyl-1 yields 2-O-alpha-D-glucosyl-1 yields 1-glycerol. The finding of 2-O-alpha-D-galactosyl glycerol in the lipid fraction of hydrofluoric acid hydrolysates suggests that fatty acids also occur as substituents on the main chain of the lipoteichoic acid. The reactivity of the lipoteichoic acid with R. communis lectin was studied by the quantitative precipitin method and compared with the reactivity of Lactobacillus fermenti lipoteichoic acid, which has a lower degree of alpha-D-galactosyl substitution. Group N antiserum reacted strongly with the S. lactis lipoteichoic acid and cross-reacted with L. fermenti lipoteichoic acid. From inhibition studies it is concluded that the antibodies are specific for alpha-D-galactosyl substituents. In addition to lipoteichoic acid, a fraction was obtained by gel chromatography which contained galactose and reacted with group N antiserum but could be distinguished from the lipoteichoic acid by immunoelectrophoresis.  (+info)

The ricinosomes of senescing plant tissue bud from the endoplasmic reticulum. (7/117)

The ricinosome (synonym, precursor protease vesicle) is a novel organelle, found so far exclusively in plant cells. Electron microscopic studies suggest that it buds off from the endoplasmic reticulum in senescing tissues. Biochemical support for this unusual origin now comes from the composition of the purified organelle, which contains large amounts of a 45-kDa cysteine endoprotease precursor with a C-terminal KDEL motif and the endoplasmic reticulum lumen residents BiP (binding protein) and protein disulfide isomerase. Western blot analysis, peptide sequencing, and mass spectrometry demonstrate retention of KDEL in the protease proform. Acidification of isolated ricinosomes causes castor bean cysteine endopeptidase activation, with cleavage of the N-terminal propeptide and the C-terminal KDEL motif. We propose that ricinosomes accumulate during senescence by programmed cell death and are activated by release of protons from acidic vacuoles.  (+info)

Lipolytic activity of ricin from Ricinus sanguineus and Ricinus communis on neutral lipids. (8/117)

The present study was carried out with a view of determining ricin lipolytic activity on neutral lipids in emulsion and in a membrane-like model. Using 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanol tributyrate (BAL-TC(4)) as substrate, the lipolytic activity of ricin was found to be proportional to ricin and substrate concentrations, with an apparent K(m) (K(m,app)) of 2.4 mM, a k(cat) of 200 min(-1) and a specific activity of 1.0 unit/mg of protein. This work was extended to p-nitrophenyl (pNP) fatty acid esters containing two to twelve carbon atoms. Maximum lipolytic activity was registered on pNP decanoate (pNPC(10)), with a K(m,app) of 3.5 mM, a k(cat) of 173 min(-1) and a specific activity of 3.5 units/mg of protein. Ricin lipolytic activity is pH and galactose dependent, with a maximum at pH 7.0 in the presence of 0.2 M galactose. Using the monolayer technique with dicaprin as substrate, ricin showed a lipolytic activity proportional to the ricin concentration at 20 mN/m, which is dependent on the surface pressure of the lipid monolayer and is detectable up to 30 mN/m, a surface pressure that is of the same order of magnitude as that of natural cell membranes. The methods based on pNPC(10) and BAL-TC(4) hydrolysis are simple and reproducible; thus they can be used for routine studies of ricin lipolytic activity. Ricin from Ricinus communis and R. sanguineus were treated with diethyl p-nitrophenylphosphate, an irreversible serine esterase inhibitor, and their lipolytic activities on BAL-TC(4) and pNPC(10), and cytotoxic activity, were concurrently recorded. A reduction in lipolytic activity was accompanied by a decrease in cytotoxicity on Caco2 cells. These data support the idea that the lipolytic activity associated with ricin is relevant to a lipase whose activity is pH and galactose dependent, sensitive to diethyl p-nitrophenylphosphate, and that a lipolytic step may be involved in the process of cell poisoning by ricin. Both colorimetric tests used in this study are sensitive enough to be helpful in the detection of possible lipolytic activities associated with other cytotoxins or lectins.  (+info)

Malaria and filariases are prevalent in Sudan and their control depends largely on preventive measures against mosquito vectors. The present work aimed to investigate the larvicidal, adults emergence inhibition and oviposition deterrent effects of aqueous extracts from leaves of Ricinus communis L. against the mosquitoes, Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus as a biological control means. The larval mortality was observed after 24 hours. The LC50 values calculated were 403.65, 445.66 and 498.88ppm against 2nd, 3rd and 4th instar larvae of An. arabiensis and 1091.44, 1364.58 and 1445.44ppm against 2nd, 3rd and 4th larval instars of Cx. quinquefasciatus. 50% of adult emergence inhibition (EI50) were 374.97 and 1180.32ppm against 3rd instar larvae of An. arabiensis and Cx. quinquefasciatus. The extract showed oviposition deterrent effect against both species. Results reveal that the crude extract of R. communis possesses remarkable larvicidal, adult emergence inhibition and oviposition ...
Read Cloning and characterization of the calreticulin gene from Ricinus communis L., Plant Molecular Biology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
The numerous health benefits associated with Ricinus Communis seeds (Ogiri-okpei) are as a result of the numerous vitamins identified and phytochemical content of Ogiri-okpei.proximate, minerals and vitamin composition of Ricinus Communis were investigated using standard analysis. Result shows that the spices Ricinus Communis seeds contains the following phytochemicals respectively; Phytate4.36±0.06, Tannins 0.64±0.02 , Saponins0.34±0.02, Flavonoid0.13±0.01, Alkaloid 0.84±0.00, Phenol 0.08±0.00, Steroid 0.08±0.00. Other important minerals like calcium, magnesium, sodium, phosphorus and iron were present as well as vitamins (niacin, thiamin, riboflavin, ascorbic acid and vitamin A).
Ricinus Communis(Ricino. Castor Oil)GENERAL SYMPTOMS OR Pathogenesis of Ricinus communis1 Anemia. Deep adynamia. Collapse.Seizures 2. Muscle contractions. Very painful cramps.SPECIAL of Ricinus communis3 Dizziness. Severe headache. Sudden occipital headache, with waves of blood to the head.
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Surolia, Avadhesha and Bachhawat, BK and Vithyathil, PJ and Podder, SK (1978) Unique subunit structure for Ricinus communis agglutinin. In: Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics, 15 (4). pp. 248-250. Full text not available from this repository. (Request a copy ...
Instructions for use: Wiggle brush towards base of the lash to create volume, then comb through to the tips to separate, lengthen and define Use tip of applicator to create flawless, clump-free definition on the lower lash line 9ml/ 0.32fl.oz. Made in Italy Ingredients: Aqua (Water), Copernicia Cerifera Cera/Copernicia Cerifera (Carnauba) Wax, Octyldodecanol, Cera Alba/Beeswax, Glyceryl Stearate, Glycerin, Stearic Acid, Polyvinyl Alcohol, Pvp, Sorbitan Sesquioleate, Lecithin, Ricinus Communis Seed Oil/Ricinus Communis (Castor) Seed Oil, Propylene Glycol, Silica, Triethanolamine, Tocopheryl Acetate, Retinyl Palmitate, Sodium Hydroxide, Tetrasodium Edta,Sodium Dehydroacetate, Benzyl Alcohol, Phenoxyethanol, Propylparaben, Metylparaben [+/ May Contain: Ci 77499 (Iron Oxide)].
Instructions for use: Turn the rotating base to release Hot Lips formula into the sponge Apply Hot Lips by first painting the lips with just a small amount of lipstick Then fully load the applicator to fill inside of the lips 2.8ml/0.095 fl.oz. Ingredients: Ricinus Communis Seed Oil (Ricinus Communis (Castor) Seed Oil), Caprylic/Capric Triglyceride, Dicalcium Phosphate, Stearalkonium Bentonite, Silica Silylate, Propylene Carbonate, Synthetic Fluorphlogopite, Disteardimonium Hectorite, Aroma (Flavor), Tocopheryl Acetate, Pentaerythrityl Tetra-Di-T-Butyl Hydroxyhydrocinnamate. May Contain[+/‐]:Ci 77891 (Titanium Dioxide), Ci 77491/77492/77499 (Iron Oxides), Ci 45410 (Red 28 Lake), Ci 15985 (Yellow 6 Lake), Ci 19140 (Yellow 5 Lake), Ci 42090 (Blue 1 Lake), Ci 15850 (Red 6/ Red 7 Lake)
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100% natural solid shampoo bar, citrus essential oil blends that not only smell divine but have cleansing and nourishing properties, whilst honey adds extra shine & moisture to your hair Ingredients: Sodium Olivate (Olive Oil), Water, Sodium Cocoate ( Coconut Oil), Ricinus Communis Seed Oil (Castor Oil), Sodium Hyd
S Curl Texturizer Wave & Curl Creme: Deionized Water (Aqua), Mineral Oil (Paraffinum Liquidum), Petrolatum, Cetearyl Alcohol, Propylene Glycol, Ceteareth-20, Sodium Hydroxide, Cetyl Alcohol, Laneth-15, PEG-75 Lanolin. S Curl Color Alarm Neutralizing Shampoo: Deionized Water (Aqua), Sodium Laureth Sulfate, Cocamidopropyl Betaine, Cocamide MEA, PPG-5-Ceteth-10 Phosphate, PEG-30 Glyceryl Cocoate, Olive Oil PEG-7 Esters, Guar Hydroxypropyltrimonium Chloride, Citric Acid, Sodium Hydroxymethylglycinate, Glycol Stearate, Fragrance (Parfum), Limonene, Phenolsulfonphthalein. S Curl Stylin Spray: Deionized Water (Aqua), Glycerin, Cetearyl Alcohol, Propylene Glycol, Argan Oil (Argania Spinosa Kernel Oil), Olive Oil (Olea Europaea Fruit Oil), Castor Oil (Ricinus Communis Seed Oil), Acetamide MEA, Ceteth-20, Olealkonium Chloride, Stearalkonium Chloride, Panthenol (Provitamin B5), Simethicone, DMDM Hydantoin, Disodium EDTA, Fragrance (Parfum), Amyl Cinnamal, Linalool, Butylphenyl Methylpropional, Blue 1 (CI ...
Described as cherry candy with a soft hint of colour. *Castor (Ricinus Communis) Seed Oil, *Sunflower (Helianthus Annus) Oil, Candelilla (Euphorbia Cerifera) Wax,*Shea (Butyrospermum Park) Butter, *Jojoba (Simmondsia Chinensis) Seed Oil, Essential Oil and/or Organic Flavor, Mica, Iron Oxides, Vitamin E (gluten free) *C
Ingredients: olive (Olea Europaea) oil, distilled water, lye (sodium hydroxide), castor (Ricinus Communis) seed oil, fragrance, vanilla stabilizer, sugar, potash (potassium hydroxide), colorants (mica, titanium dioxide, iron oxide, synthetic fluorphogopite, tin oxide).. Handcrafted soap contains no synthetic preservatives or artificial hardeners, so they need a little care to ensure that you get the most out of it. Store handcrafted soap in a cool, dry place before first use. To extend the life of any soap, please use a soap dish or soap lift to keep it dry when not in use.. Lye and potash are part of the chemical reaction that turns oil into soap. No lye or potash remains in the final product and it is safe to use!. Allergens:. ...
XOXO - HALAL LIPSTICK (TL19) 4 Points $49.99 Blush Apricot Coral Finish: Creamy Ingredients: Ricinus Communis Seed Oil, Lanolin Oil, Octyldodecanol, Propylene Glycol Ricinoleate, Euphorbia Cerifera Cera, Isopropyl Lanolate, Oleyl Alcohol, Lanolin, Ozokerite, Mica, Paraffin, Polybutene, Copernicia Cerifera Cera, Ascorbyl Palmitate, Ethylhexyl Palmitate, Glycine Soja Oil, Lactic Acid, Palmitoyl Oligopeptide, Sorbitan Isostearate, Tocopherol, Tribehenin, Vanillin.…
40 g. Ingredients: ricinus communis seed oil, silica, betula alba oil, bismuth subgallate, polysorbate -80.. Instruction for use: apply a thin layer on clean and dry skin.. Do not use if you are allergic to any of ingredients ...
p,To bring out the colour of your eyes, use this eyeliner pencil followed by a coat of mascara. You can also create a smokey eye effect by gently smudging the eyeliner along the lash line.,/p,,ul,,li,Net weight: 1g,/li,,li,Ingredients: Ricinus Communis Seed Oil, Ozokerite, Cera Alba, Ethylhexyl Palmitate, Bis-Diglyceryl Polyacyladipate-2, Euphorbia Cerifera Cera, Hydrogenated Polyisobutene, Copernicia Cerifera Cera, Synthetic Wax, Phenoxyethanol, Caprylyl Glycol, Ethylhexylglycerin, Piroctone Olamine, Rosin. May contain: Mica, CI 77891, CI 42090, CI 19140, CI 77510, CI 77007, CI 77742, CI 77288, CI 77491, CI 77492, CI 77499, CI 75470, CI 45410, CI 15850, CI 15985, CI 77002, CI 77120.,/li,,li,Colour: Charcoal,/li,,li,Warning: For external use only. Avoid contact with eyes. In the unlikely event of irritation, please discontinue use. If necessary, consult your healthcare practitioner.,/li,,/ul,,p,Disclaimer: All efforts have been made to ensure that the ingredient list for this product is correct, ...
1. Mitochondria were isolated from developing endosperm of Ricinus communis and were fractionated into outer membrane and inner membrane. The relative purity of the two membrane fractions was determined by marker enzymes. The fractions were also examined by negative-stain electron microscopy. 2. Membrane fractions were sequentially extracted in the following way. (a) Suspension in 0.5M-potassium phosphate, pH7.1; (b)suspension in 0.1M-EDTA (disodium salt)/0.05M-potassium phosphate, pH7.1; (c) sonication in 0.05M-potassium phosphate, pH7.1;(d)sonication in aq. Triton X-100 (0.1%). The membranes were pelleted by centrifugation at 100 000g for 15 min, between each step. Agglutination activity in the extracts was investigated by using trypsin-treated rabbit erythrocytes. 3. The addition of lactose to inner mitochondrial membrane resulted in the solubilization of part of the lectin activity, indicating that the protein was attached to the membrane via its carbohydrate-binding site. Pretreatment of ...
Ricinus communis Carmencita Pink - This evergreen tropical shrub can grow so fast that it can be used as a very large and dramatic annual in the garden. A remarkably architectural plant, it can be used to great effect in the center of island beds or at the back of large borders. Height to 6 feet. Do not allow plants to become potbound as this will result in stunted growth and premature blooms.
Ricinus Communis. Castor-Oil Plant or Palma Christi. Illustration from The National Encyclopaedia (William Mackenzie, c 1900). - Licences available from £2.99
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This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. Click on an acronym to view each weed list, or click here for a composite list of Weeds of the U.S. ...
Mitsui & Co has teamed up with Swiss-based Louis Dreyfus Commodities to build a large canola oil crushing plant in Canada with total investment cost of $120 million. The plant will start operations in the first half of 2009.
Sabonete de barbear The Wanderer 142ml. Você já se viu vagando por uma floresta na montanha pela manhã e viu o orvalho se transformar em névoa? Você já sentiu o fluxo de água fria suavizando as rochas do leito do rio e sentiu o ar encher seus pulmões, sentindo-se o rei do mundo? Onde alguns procuram o deserto acidentado, outros podem preferir a pureza e a rica simplicidade da natureza. Há uma sensação de requinte, força e independência nessa simplicidade, assim como na mistura clássica e perfumada de bergamota, frutas cítricas, musgo de carvalho, manjericão e patchouli, sabonete de barbear The Wanderer.. Os sabonetes à base de Gypsy Man a Tallow garantem-lhe uma experiência de topo graças à sua suavidade, protecção, hidratação e pós-barba inigualável.. Ingredientes: ácido esteárico, glicerina, água (água), sebo bovino, Caprae Lac (leite de cabra), manteiga de butyrospermum parkii (karité), hidróxido de potássio, óleo de semente de Ricinus communis (rícino), ...
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Silky cleansing milk with emollient-rich organic Olive Oil & Plant Glycerin instantly melts makeup, dirt & debris. Skin looks & feels clean, radiant & renewed.
Es wird über die Bestimmung der Strömungsgeschwindigkeit in kleinsten peripheren Arterien berichtet. Mit Hilfe einer Eastman-Kodak-Hochfrequenzkamera wird in die Arteria carotis communis injiziertes...
Castor Oil Plant - Ricinus communis Habit: Shrub with glossy red to green leaves. Male yellow flowers and red female flowers on the same stalk. Spread: Poisonous seeds are spread in water and on muddy tyres. The seeds of castor oil plant are enclosed within a spiny capsule. Incredibly, they contain castor oil (!) which…
The properties of a discrete membranous fraction isolated on sucrose gradients from castor bean endosperm have been examined. This fraction was previously shown to be the exclusive site of phosphorylcholine-glyceride transferase. The distribution of NADPH-cytochrome c reductase and antimycin insensitive NADH-cytochrome c reductase across the gradient followed closely that of the phosphorylcholine-glyceride transferase. This fraction also had NADH diaphorase activity and contained cytochromes b5 and P 450. On sucrose gradients containing 1 mM EDTA this fraction had a mean isopycnic density of 1.12 g/cm3 and sedimented separately from the ribosomes; electron micrographs showed that it was comprised of smooth membranes. When magnesium was included in the gradients to prevent the dissociation of membrane-bound ribosomes, the isopycnic density of the membrane fraction with its associated enzymes was increased to 1.16 g/cm3 and under these conditions the electron micrographs showed that the membranes ...
Mellor, R. B., Roberts, Lynne M. and Lord, J.M. (1980) N-Acetylglucosamine Transfer Reactions and Glycoprotein Biosynthesis in Castor Bean Endosperm. Journal of Experimental Botany, 31(4), pp. 993-1003. ISSN (print) 0022-0957 ...
Product Ingredients Original: Ricinus Communis Seed Oil (castor oil/non-fragrant oil/emollient), Petrolatum (emollient), Euphorbia Cerifera Wax (candelilla wax/emollient/texture-enhancing), Lanolin (emollient), C10-30 Cholesterol/Lanosterol Esters (emollient/skin replenishing), Cera Alba, (beeswax/texture-enhancing), Ozokerite (texture-enhancing), Ethylhexyl Palmitate (emollient), Copernicia Cerifera Wax (carnauba wax/emollient/texture-enhancing), Butyrospermum Parkii Butter (shea butter/emollient/antioxidant), Jojoba Esters (emollient), Triticum Vulgare Germ Oil (wheat germ oil/non-fragrant oil/emollient), Bisabolol (skin-soothing), Tetrahexyldecyl Ascorbate (vitamin C/antioxidant), Tocopheryl Acetate (vitamin E/antioxidant), Trihydroxystearin (emollient), Hydrogenated Polyisobutene (emollient/texture-enhancing).. Hint: Ricinus Communis Seed Oil (castor oil/non-fragrant oil/emollient), Petrolatum (emollient), Euphorbia Cerifera Wax (candelilla wax/emollient/texture-enhancing), Lanolin ...
Castor is a non-edible oilseed crop, primarily grown for oil containing an unusual hydroxy fatty acid and ricinoleic acid (80-90%) of the total fatty acids. Commercial exploitation of heterosis in castor was successful in India due to the development of stable pistillate lines from a dominant and epistatic
Find Castor Bean Seeds manufacturers, suppliers, wholesalers, dealers, distributors in Karnataka India - Castor Bean Seeds verified companies listings from Karnataka with catalogs,phone numbers, addresses, best deals and more
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ENTRY T20067 Est Genome DEFINITION Ricinus communis (castor bean) (EST) ANNOTATION KAAS TAXONOMY TAX:3988 LINEAGE Eukaryota; Viridiplantae; Streptophyta; Embryophyta; Tracheophyta; Spermatophyta; Magnoliophyta; eudicotyledons; core eudicotyledons; rosids; eurosids I; Malpighiales; Euphorbiaceae; Acalyphoideae; Acalypheae; Ricinus DATA_SOURCE dbEST ...
Purified Native Ricinus Communis Ricin B Chain Protein from Creative Biomart. Native Ricinus Communis Ricin B Chain Protein can be used for research.
Ricinus communis (castor bean) Agglutinin (RCA120)-biotin conjugate Secondary Antibodies RCA15-BTN Ricinus communis (castor bean) Agglutinin (RCA120)-biotin conjugate Secondary Antibodies RCA15-BTN
Ricinus communis commonly called Castor Oil plant originated in India.This shrub has many varieties. Lately, I have been seeing Castor Oil plants popping up and wondered if the seeds were flying. I ke
Research Abstract: Castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) seeds serve as raw material for the production of nonedible oil used in medicine and industry, whereas the presence of allergenic and toxic proteins in the residue left after oil extraction precludes the use of this protein-rich by-product in animal feeding. To better understand the enzymes involved in the biosynthesis and degradation of fatty acids and to identify proteins with toxic/anti-nutritional properties, extracts of developing and germinating seeds were prepared and prefractionated according to solubility properties of the proteins. An enriched plastid organelle fraction embracing mostly plastids and mitochondria was also prepared. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) reference maps of these fractions were obtained from which nearly 400 proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight-time of flight (MALDI-TOF-TOF) mass spectrometry after a search in a National Center for Biotechnology ...
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Castor bean tick (Ixodes ricinus) Stock Footage. csp37107312 - Castor bean tick (Ixodes ricinus). Affordable Royalty Free Stock Photography. Downloads for just $2.50, with thousands of images added daily. Subscriptions available for just $39.00. Our stock photo image search engine contains royalty free photos, vector clip art images, clipart illustrations.
The condition might be treated by sucking pomegranate fruits skin. Eating dates while drinking boiled water might dilute and it removes the cough, thereby relieves treat bronchitiss symptoms. One must also drink mint juice or try licking approximately one 12 tola honey up to 4 times in a day; or drink tulsi juice mixed with sugar. Tea has its own curing material which acts as a bronchodilator. These are the natural ways for curing bronchitis. Keep warm castor oil plant leaves in a pan. Cool them, then sleep by spreading on your chest for the whole night (Precaution: castor oil plant is highly poisonous). We worked as diligently as an owl in producing this composition on Bronchitis S Symptoms. So only if you do read it, and appreciate its contents will we feel our efforts havent gone in vain ...
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By this invention, compositions and methods of use of Ricinus communis cDNAs encoding β-ketoacyl-ACP synthase, are provided. Also of interest are plants, plant parts and plant cells comprising the nucleic acid sequences.
This study compared the effectiveness of Ricinus communis (RC) with Nystatin (NYS) and Miconazole (MIC) in the treatment of institutionalised elderly with denture stomatitis (DS). They (n = 30) were randomly distributed into three groups: MIC, NYS or RC. Clinical and mycological evaluations were per …
For centuries, ricin, the toxin contained in the seeds (beans) of the castor oil plant (Ricinus communis), has been used for homicidal purposes, although it has never been released or used in battle as a biological weapon of war. The plant is found primarily in Asia and Africa but has taken root in all temperate and subtropical regions around...
For centuries, ricin, the toxin contained in the seeds (beans) of the castor oil plant (Ricinus communis), has been used for homicidal purposes, although it has never been released or used in battle as a biological weapon of war. The plant is found primarily in Asia and Africa but has taken root in all temperate and subtropical regions around...
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Plant phenolics have shown to activate apoptotic cell death in different tumourigenic cell lines. In this study, we evaluated the effects of juniper berry extract (Juniperus communis L.) on p53 protein, gene expression and DNA fragmentation in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. In addition, we analyzed the phenolic composition of the extract. We found that juniper berry extract activated cellular relocalization of p53 and DNA fragmentation-dependent cell death. Differentially expressed genes between treated and non-treated cells were evaluated with the cDNA-RDA (representational difference analysis) method at the early time point of apoptotic process when p53 started to be activated and no caspase activity was detected. Twenty one overexpressed genes related to cellular stress, protein synthesis, cell survival and death were detected. Interestingly, they included endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress inducer and sensor HSPA5 and other ER stress-related genes CALM2 and YKT6 indicating that ER stress response
The market research report 2020 Global Essential Oils Plant Extracts For Livestock Market comprises of market growth, trends, forecasts, key competitor analysis and new business opportunities.
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Alibaba China refined soybean oil plants 22226 Insert Part Number Deal Oil Expeller, Oil Press and Oil Refinery Machine Supplier is your source for OEM Auxiliary Machine For Oil Press and accessories. We sell GenuineAuxiliary Machine For Oil Press at discount prices.
The U.S. is accusing Iran of an attack on Saudi Arabia's largest oil plants, after multiple drones bombed production fields. The attack destroyed the source of an estimated 8 million barrels of crude oil produced there every day, which is about 10% of the world's daily supply of crude oil. Roxana Saberi reports.
Castor Oil Plant, Palma Christi. This plant is dangerously poisonous. It is a very ornamental plant when in leaf. The reddish flowers produce soft spiny fruits in interesting bunches attractive to children. The seeds are very toxic. .One seed can cause severe poisoning. ...
The plant is around 3ft tall,having put on all of its growth this year.It has a central green,thick,non pliable stem with branches of equal thickness,they are smooth and green.It has a trumpet shaped white flowers that never seem to open fully,but,when they drop off a large,spiny shell appears,like an elongated conker shell,these spines mean buisiness! We are waiting for the shells to burst open to reveal the contents but I feel it will be a single nut. The leaves are similar to a castor oil plant but more pointy on the edges and slightly hairy. Can anyone identify if we have a friend or a foe??? So far the pig hasnt eaten it but ...
Lektiny jsou velká skupina proteinů neimunitního původu, které dokáží s vysokou mírou specifity rozpoznávat a vázat cukry, ať už volné nebo vázané na glykoproteinech nebo glykolipidech. Na rozdíl od glykosyltransferáz lektiny nekatalyzují žádnou chemickou reakci, tedy nevykazují enzymatickou aktivitu. Lektiny se účastní mnoha dějů, ve kterých je nutné specifické rozpoznávání (imunologické reakce, kontakt buněk ve tkáních, interakce patogenů s hostitelem atd.). První objevené lektiny byly pro jejich schopnost aglutinovat (shlukovat, srážet) červené krvinky pojmenovány aglutininy (WGA - wheat germ agglutinin, RCA - Ricinus communis agglutinin). ...
SUSSEL, A.A.B.; POZZA, E.A.; CASTRO, H.A. and LASMAR, E.B.C. Gray mold incidence and severity under different temperature, wetness period and conidial concentration. Summa phytopathol. [online]. 2011, vol.37, n.1, pp.30-34. ISSN 0100-5405. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-54052011000100005.. The effect of temperature (15, 20, 25 and 28 ºC), wetness period (0, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours) and conidia concentration (0, 1x102, 1x103, 1x104, 1x105 and 1x106 conidia/mL-1) on the incidence and severity of gray mold caused by Amphobotrys ricini in castor bean (Ricinus communis) bunches were evaluated. The conidia concentration effect was evaluated fixing the temperature at 25ºC and the wetness duration at 48 hour. The temperature and wetness duration were evaluated fixing the conidial concentration at 1x105 conidia mL-1. The plants were evaluated as to the incidence of fruit wiht symptons and severity in each bunch. The area under incidence progress curve (AUIPC) and under severity progress curve ...
Version 1.1 of The Plant List has been superseded and should no longer be used.. The new version is available at http://www.worldfloraonline.org. The new version is enhanced, using more data sources including Taxonomic Expert Networks and will be more frequently updated.. ...
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Oil palm, currently the worlds main vegetable oil crop, is characterised by a large productivity and a long life span (≥25 years). Peak oil yields of 12 t ha −1 yr −1 have been achieved in small plantations, and maximum theoretical yields as calculated with simulation models are 18.5 t oil ha −1 yr −1, yet average productivity worldwide has stagnated around 3 t oil ha −1 yr −1. Get Price ...
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Officials of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency have begun a long- delayed study on how to clean up contamination at a Broward County oil recycling plant described as one of the worst
Part 3 of an audio series debating the reasons for the right-wing rising in Brazil, contextualising and analysing the rise of Bolsonaro and the right-wing in Brazil. Part 1 | Part 2 Anarkismo.net is an anarchist publishing project composed of groups who agree with the Anarkismo statement Anarkismo.net is a international anarchist-communist news service
Below are some castor bean seeds. Not sure what type, I just know they will be tall! I got these in a trade also. These seeds are kinda creepy looking… Like a big fat tick that just got done gorging itself. The plants (and seeds) are very poisonous, maybe its a good thing they look kinda like big ticks! Watch out all you nasty squirrels, dont be digging around the wrong plants! ...
Mice were pluriinfested with nymphs and rabbits, with adultIxodes ricinus. As determined by immunoblotting, |50% of sera from these animals reacted agai
Ricinus Communis 3x: Increases quantity of milk in nursing women.. Dosage: Adults one tablespoon, 3-4 times daily. Or as directed by the physician.. Size: 30ml. Manufacturer: Holistic remedies in collaboration with Bioforce A.g Switzerland. Rate: Rs. 75 (10% OFF) BUY NOW!!. ...

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  • Borrelia burgdorferi from Ixodes ricinus ticks on Ameland. (prohealth.com)
  • Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from the North Sea Island of Ameland, the Netherlands, were screened for the presence of Borrelia spirochaetes. (prohealth.com)
  • The presence of most questing I. ricinus larvae at ground level would favour the transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., since this is where the highly reservoir-competent rodents and shrews usually occur. (springer.com)
  • Transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. from mammal reservoirs to the primary vector of Lyme borreliosis, Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae), in Sweden. (springer.com)
  • In Europe, the sheep tick, Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae), is the primary vector of medically and economically important disease agents (e.g., the tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) complex of viruses, Rickettsia, Babesia, and Anaplasma species and the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex, the causative agents of Lyme borreliosis). (wiley.com)
  • Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus ticks in Scandinavia. (uio.no)
  • Genotyping some Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolates from Ixodes ricinus ticks in Russia and Ukraine. (prohealth.com)
  • Publication date: Available online 6 December 2019Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Hein Sprong, Sander Moonen, Sipke E. van Wieren, Tim R. HofmeesterAbstractCattle grazing has been suggested to reduce the risk for Lyme borreliosis by decreasing the density of questing Ixodes ricinus infected with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. (medworm.com)
  • Risk indicators for the tick Ixodes ricinus and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Sweden. (diva-portal.org)
  • The distributional area of the tick Ixodes ricinus (L.), the primary European vector to humans of Lyme borreliosis spirochaetes (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato) and tick-borne encephalitis virus, appears to be increasing in Sweden. (diva-portal.org)
  • Ixodes ricinus nymphs from 13 localities in different parts of Sweden were examined for the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l. and found to be infected with Borrelia afzelii and Borrelia garinii. (diva-portal.org)
  • Tick sampling localities were characterized on the basis of the density of Borrelia-infected I. ricinus nymphs, presence of specific mammals, dominant vegetation and climate. (diva-portal.org)
  • Densities of I. ricinus nymphs and Borrelia-infected nymphs were significantly correlated, and nymphal density can thus serve as a general indicator of risk for exposure to Lyme borreliosis spirochaetes. (diva-portal.org)
  • In May 1996, 164 pooled and single samples containing 913 larvae, nymphs and adults of Ixodes ricinus from urban, suburban and wooded biotopes of southern Poland were examined for the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. (aaem.pl)
  • Five Borrelia strains were isolated from the adult I. ricinus ticks. (aaem.pl)
  • Indirect immunofluorescence was performed, using an antiserum obtained from rabbits, immunized with sonicated, whole Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes isolated from Swedish Ixodes ricinus ticks. (diva-portal.org)
  • Borrelia-positive I. ricinus were found in all 23 provinces. (diva-portal.org)
  • On average, 10% of the nymphs and 15% of the adult I. ricinus were positive for Borrelia. (diva-portal.org)
  • Of 41 non-I. ricinus ticks, none was positive for Borrelia. (diva-portal.org)
  • This study shows that Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato is present throughout the distributional area of I. ricinus in Sweden. (diva-portal.org)
  • The three-host tick, Ixodes ricinus , is the most common tick in Europe and is responsible for transmission of human Lyme borreliosis (caused by spirochetes of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato) and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). (frontiersin.org)
  • The recognition of host species for tick larvae and the reservoirs of Borrelia , Rickettsia and Anaplasma species were simultaneously carried out by analysis of the blood meals of 880 questing nymphal I. ricinus ticks collected in forest parks of Szczecin city and rural forests in northwestern Poland that are endemic areas for Lyme borreliosis. (springer.com)
  • The present paper is a study concerning molecular identification of I. ricinus hosts and Borrelia hosts by analysis of the blood meal in ticks in northwestern Poland using PCR-RFLP protocol with 12S rDNA gene fragment as molecular target. (springer.com)
  • To determine whether Bartonella henselae is present in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks, we analyzed the prevalence of B. henselae DNA among tick stages compared to the prevalence of DNA from Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the pathogen most frequently transmitted by ticks. (asm.org)
  • The medical importance and distribution of other sporadically occurred genospecies is also discussed.Key words: Ixodes ricinus - Borrelia afzelii - B. garinii - B. burgdorferi s. s. (eurekamag.com)
  • Differential immune responses to Borrelia burgdorferi in European wild rodent species influence spirochete transmission to Ixodes ricinus L. (Acari: Ixodidae). (asm.org)
  • In Europe, the causative agent, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex, is principally vectored by Ixodes ricinus ticks. (gla.ac.uk)
  • In this study, 746 questing Ixodes (I.) ricinus ticks from eastern Slovakia and 187 ticks from southern Poland were investigated for infection with Borrelia (B.) burgdorferi sensu lato and different outer surface protein A (OspA) types by an improved restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the ospA gene. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Which forest bird species are the main hosts of the tick, Ixodes ricinus, the vector of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, during the breeding season? (semanticscholar.org)
  • Detection of three genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in different regions of Poland. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus commonly infest dogs and are vectors of various canine vector borne pathogens including Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, both transmitted by I. ricinus, and Babesia canis transmitted by â ¦ There a number of other infectious agents transmitted by Ixodes species including Babesia divergens, B.bovis, B.ovis, Rickettsia conorii, Anaplasma marginale, Ehrlichia phagocytophila and Staphylococcus aureus. (edendelasmercedes.com)
  • The vertical distribution in the vegetation of questing Ixodes ricinus ticks was investigated in two different vegetation types ('high' and 'low' vegetation) at two localities in south-central Sweden during 1992-1993 (Toro) and 1995 (Bogesund). (springer.com)
  • of the spotted fever group, in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks, taking into account tick characteristics. (asm.org)
  • We tested the hypotheses that cattle grazing used in woodland management decreases the density of questing I. ricinus, and that it decreases the nympal infection prevalence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato. (medworm.com)
  • Ricinus communis, the castor bean or castor oil plant, is a species of perennial flowering plant in the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Castor bean (Ricinus communis) is an oilseed crop that belongs to the spurge (Euphorbiaceae) family, which comprises approximately 6,300 species that include cassava (Manihot esculenta), rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) and physic nut (Jatropha curcas). (nih.gov)
  • This name is the accepted name of a species in the genus Ricinus (family Euphorbiaceae ). (theplantlist.org)
  • Ricinus communis L. is a member of Euphorbiaceae, widespread throughout tropical, sub-tropical and warm temperate regions. (wur.nl)
  • Ricinus communis is a perennial shrub of the Euphorbiaceae family 1 . (scialert.net)
  • Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae family) is a soft wooden small tree developed throughout tropics and warm temperature regions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The botanical name of eranda is Ricinus communis and it belongs to family Euphorbiaceae. (indianmedicinalplants.info)
  • Extract of Ricinus communis exhibited acaricidal and insecticidal activities against the adult of Haemaphysalis bispinosa Neumann (Acarina: Ixodidae) and hematophagous fly Hippobosca maculata Leach (Diptera: Hippoboscidae). (wikipedia.org)
  • Ixodes ricinus L. (Acari: Ixodidae), the most common European tick, is the main vector of various agents of medical and veterinary importance such as viruses (e.g. tick-borne encephalitis and looping-ill viruses), bacteria (i.e. (biologists.org)
  • Adult Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks collected near Ljubljana, Slovenia, were tested for the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) by using PCR assays based on the 16S rRNA gene. (asm.org)
  • Contact toxicity and residual activity of different permethrin-based fabric impregnation methods for Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae), Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae), and Lepisma saccharina (Thysanura: Lepismatidae). (semanticscholar.org)
  • The castor bean tick, Ixodes ricinus is an animal of the Ixodidae family. (edendelasmercedes.com)
  • We used a murine model to assess the vector competence of Ixodes ricinus for Bartonella birtlesii . (plos.org)
  • These results confirm the vector competence of I. ricinus for B. birtlesii and represent the first in vivo demonstration of a Bartonella sp. (plos.org)
  • Results of the study confirm the vector competence of I. ricinus and represent the first in vivo demonstration of a Bartonella sp. (plos.org)
  • The main vector Ixodes ricinus is found along the Norwegian coastline as far north as the Arctic Circle. (hindawi.com)
  • In Norway, Ixodes ricinus ticks are the main vector for A. phagocytophilum , and although HGA is not a common disease in Norway [ 4 - 6 ], A. phagocytophilum antibodies have been detected in sheep, roe deer, red deer, and moose [ 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In Europe, the tick Ixodes ricinus is the primary vector of medically important pathogens (e.g. (wiley.com)
  • These results provide evidence that I. ricinus is a competent vector for B. henselae . (cdc.gov)
  • During the past decades, the abundance of the main tick vector, Ixodes ricinus in Scandinavia, seems to have increased due to factors as increased roe deer abundance, changes in habitat structure and climatic factors. (uio.no)
  • This study identified I. ricinus as the likely vector for these ehrlichial pathogens of humans in this part of Europe. (asm.org)
  • In Slovenia, as in other European countries, I. ricinus is the main vector of the causative agents of Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis ( 9 , 11 ). (asm.org)
  • In Europe, the tick I. ricinus is known as a vector of the agent causing tick-borne fever ( Ehrlichia phagocytophila ) ( 14 ). (asm.org)
  • Larvae of Ixodes ricinus are occasionally B. burgdorferi ( s.l ) infected, but their vector competence has never been studied. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study provides evidence of transovarial and transstadial transmission of the parasite within Ixodes ricinus, which suggests that this tick could be a vector and reservoir of EU1. (cdc.gov)
  • 1. A population model for the tick Ixodes ricinus, the most significant vector of pathogens in Europe, is used to explore the relative impact of changes in climate, host density and acaricide-treated hosts on tick abundance and seasonality. (stir.ac.uk)
  • The incidence of Tick-borne encephalitis is increasing in many European countries and several reports have emphasized the expansion of the main vector, Ixodes ricinus . (diva-portal.org)
  • Background: Ixodes ricinus is the main vector in Europe of human-pathogenic Lyme borreliosis (LB) spirochaetes, the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and other pathogens of humans and domesticated mammals. (edendelasmercedes.com)
  • Ixodes ricinus is a tick species which is widespread in Europe and can transmit various bacterial, protozoal and viral pathogens of medical and veterinary importance, including the causal agents of Lyme borreliosis, tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus and babesiosis. (frontiersin.org)
  • DNA analysis of blood meals from unfed nymphal Ixodes ricinus allows for the identification of tick host and tick-borne pathogens in the host species. (springer.com)
  • DNA analysis of blood meal from unfed nymphal Ixodes ricinus allows identification of the hosts on which the larvae fed as well as tick-borne pathogens in the host species. (springer.com)
  • In Europe, both pathogens are transmitted by Ixodes ricinus . (biomedcentral.com)
  • The occurrence of Ixodes ricinus ticks and important tick-borne pathogens in areas with high tick-borne encephalitis prevalence in different altitudinal levels of the Czech Republic Part II. (eurekamag.com)
  • Three years long research study (2011-2013) on population density of Ixodes ricinus and the infection rate of the pathogens that they transmit was conducted in four topographically distant areas in the Czech Republic. (eurekamag.com)
  • The hypothesized potential of both IrSPI ( I. ricinus serine protease inhibitor) and IrLip1 ( I. ricinus lipocalin 1) as protective antigens decreasing tick feeding and/or the transmission of tick-borne pathogens was based on their presumed involvement in dampening the host immune response to tick feeding. (canlyme.com)
  • Like I. ricinus, it can also transmit a variety of pathogens to dogs, including Babesia and Ehrlichia [3, 4]. (edendelasmercedes.com)
  • Ixodes ricinus, the castor bean tick, is a chiefly European species of hard-bodied tick.It may reach a length of 11 mm (0.43 in) when engorged with a blood meal, and can transmit both bacterial and viral pathogens such as the causative agents of Lyme disease and tick-borne encephalitis. (edendelasmercedes.com)
  • This product is the Unconjugated Ricinus Communis Agglutinin II (RCA II, RCA60, ricin) and has sugar specificity against Galactose, N-Acetylgalactosamine, and Lactose. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Ricinus communis agglutinin II is an extremely toxic glycoprotein consisting of two disulfide-linked chains of about 28 kDa and 32 kDa, termed A and B chain, respectively. (creativebiomart.net)
  • H. ricini larvae feed primarily on plants from the genus Passiflora subgenus Granadilla (Brown, 1981). (tolweb.org)
  • carriage in I. ricinus ticks in Belgium but, for the first time, reports two potentially zoonotic species belonging to this genus. (ugent.be)
  • Antihistamine and anti-inflammatory properties were found in ethanolic extract of Ricinus communis root bark. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study investigated the effects of Alkaloid-Rich Fraction (ARF) of methanol extract of Ricinus communis seed on inflammatory reactions, immune response and its hepatoprotective potentials on male wistar albino rats challenged with CCl 4 in order to maximize its health benefits. (scialert.net)
  • It has also been reported that m ethanolic extract of Ricinus communis seeds possesses antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis , Staphylococcus aureus , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli 9 . (scialert.net)
  • The aims of this study were to identify DNA of CNM in small mammals, the ticks parasitizing them and questing ticks in areas with sympatric existence of Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus in Germany. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The map shows the current known distribution of Ixodes ricinus in Europe at 'regional' administrative level (NUTS3), as of January 2018. (europa.eu)
  • Our aim was to create a model able to predict the distribution of Ixodes ricinus nymphs in southern Scandinavia and to assess how this relates to risk of human exposure. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • I. ricinus has three active life stages: larva, nymph, and adult (Fig. 1 ), and each requires a single blood meal from a vertebrate host. (wiley.com)
  • Infection of adult I. ricinus ticks on 10 localities fluctuated from 4.0 to 15.0% and over 10% of adult ticks in forests and in some urban and suburban parks of the city Katowice were infected. (aaem.pl)
  • In early summer of 1996, 101 unfed adult I. ricinus ticks were collected by flagging vegetation. (asm.org)
  • Multiple infections in questing nymphs and adult female Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in a recreational forest in Denmark. (openrepository.com)
  • Questing nymphal and adult I. ricinus ticks were collected (i) at the edge of a forest in Eberdingen near Stuttgart (Germany), (ii) in an alder marsh outside the village Klasdorf located south of Berlin (Germany), (iii) near the town of Lembach in the northern Vosges region of France, and (iv) on pastured meadows on Madeira Island (Portugal) in 2004 by passing a flannel flag over the vegetation. (asm.org)
  • A new ixodid that had long been confused with Ixodes ricinus is described by the first 2 authors from adult males and females collected from cattle and occasionally from horses in Argentina and Uruguay as I. pararicinus sp. (eurekamag.com)
  • In Europe, the most important hosts of adult female I. ricinus are cervids. (uio.no)
  • This should lead to increased awareness of signs and symptoms compatible with Lyme borreliosis in persons living in or visiting areas where I. ricinus is present. (diva-portal.org)
  • Here, we present data on the prevalence of B. henselae and Lyme disease spirochetes in 654 questing ticks ( I. ricinus ) collected at four locations in Europe, suggesting that ticks might serve as potential vectors for the transmission of B. henselae to humans. (asm.org)
  • Seeds of Ricinus are highly toxic and for the purification, seeds are fomented in coconut water for three hours. (planetayurveda.com)
  • In vitro screening of local accessions of castor bean seeds ( Ricinus communis l. (ajol.info)
  • Ricinus communis seeds are widely consumed for nutritional and medicinal benefits. (scialert.net)
  • To examine its potency as anti-tick vaccine candidate, we set up three models of I. ricinus infestation on immunized animals: nymphs on mice, and adults and nymphs on rabbits. (nih.gov)
  • However, and contrary to our expectations, vaccination failed to afford protection against the infestation of mice and sheep by I. ricinus nymphs and larvae, respectively. (canlyme.com)
  • The high immediate efficacy of 98% evaluated at 48 hours post-treatment was particularly interesting, meaning that Effitix has a curative effect against ticks (Ixodes ricinus) and provides a rapid control of existing Ixodes ricinus infestation on a dog at the time of treatment. (edendelasmercedes.com)
  • Draft genome sequence of the oilseed species Ricinus communis. (nih.gov)
  • Secondary Antibodies-Ricinus communis (castor bean) Agglutinin (RCA120)-biotin conjugate-Alpha Diagnostic International Inc. (4adi.com)
  • A total number of 1804 I. ricinus ticks were collected and the prevalence of the pathogen was determined by species-specific qPCR. (hindawi.com)
  • This master thesis describes the prevalence and genotype composition of B. burgdorferi s.l. in host-seeking I. ricinus ticks at different locations in Scandinavia. (uio.no)
  • Compared with the prevalence of ~25% in the questing I. ricinus ticks, twice the prevalence in the rodents provides evidence for their role as reservoir hosts for CNM. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The study examined both in vivo and in vitro response of L. major infection to combined therapy of Ricinus communis and Azadirachta indica extracts in BALB/c mice as the mouse model. (springer.com)
  • The aim of this study was to identify environmental factors influencing questing I. ricinus nymph abundance and B. burgdorferi s.l. infection in questing nymphs using a large-scale survey across Scotland. (gla.ac.uk)
  • The results obtained from the study indicate that I. ricinus larvae feed not only on small or medium animals but also on large animals and they (i.e. roe deer, red deer and wild boars) were the most prevalent in all study areas as the essential hosts for larvae of I. ricinus . (springer.com)
  • In this study, we modelled the spatial distribution of I. ricinus and associated Chlamydiales over Switzerland from 2009 to 2019. (medworm.com)
  • Using climate and remote sensing environmental data and boosted regression tree modelling, we predicted the overall spatial distribution of I. ricinus nymphs in Scandinavia. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • We aim to determine the contribution of red deer (Cervus elaphus) space use on the spatial distribution of I. ricinus, after accounting for landscape factors. (uio.no)
  • We analysed the spatial distribution of I. ricinus with generalised mixed effects models (GLMMs) based on data from extensive field surveys of questing density in two coastal regions in Norway, from which home range data from 73 red deer with GPS collars were available. (uio.no)
  • In this study, the authors used a murine model to assess the ability of the tick Ixodes ricinus to transmit Bartonella bacteria to mice. (plos.org)
  • Larval and nymphal I. ricinus were fed on a B. birtlesii -infected mouse. (plos.org)
  • To test these hypotheses, we compared the densities of questing I. ricinus between twenty pairs of plots in grazed and ungrazed forest areas. (medworm.com)
  • I. ricinus mammals" should read " I. ricinus ticks. (asm.org)
  • Blood, transudate and organ samples (spleen, kidney, liver, skin) of 91 small mammals and host-attached ticks from altogether 50 small mammals as well as questing I. ricinus ticks (n=782) were screened with a real-time PCR for DNA of CNM. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Iris is a specific elastase inhibitor expressed in the salivary glands of the hard tick Ixodes ricinus. (nih.gov)
  • We used a membrane-feeding technique to infect I. ricinus with B. henselae and demonstrate transmission of B. henselae within I. ricinus across developmental stages, migration or multiplication of B. henselae in salivary glands after a second meal, and transmission of viable and infective B. henselae from ticks to blood. (cdc.gov)
  • In this study, subtractive and full-length cDNA libraries were constructed by use of mRNA extracted from salivary glands of unfed and 5-day engorged Ixodes ricinus . (rero.ch)
  • The geographical distribution of I. ricinus in Sweden was analysed with respect to vegetation zones and climate. (diva-portal.org)
  • The northern limit of I. ricinus and B. burgdorferi s.l. in Sweden corresponds roughly to the northern limit of the southern boreal vegetation zone, and is characterized climatically by snow cover for a mean duration of 150 days and a vegetation period averaging 170 days. (diva-portal.org)
  • The zoogeographical distribution of I. ricinus in Sweden can be classified as southerly-central, with the centre of the distribution south of the Limes Norrlandicus. (diva-portal.org)
  • Between 1988-1991, a total of 3,141 Ixodes ricinus ticks, 2,740 adults and 401 nymphs, was collected from different localities in 23 of the 25 provinces of Sweden. (diva-portal.org)
  • We measured the presence of I. ricinus tick nymphs at 159 stratified random lowland forest and meadow sites in Denmark, Norway and Sweden by dragging 400 m transects from August to September 2016, representing a total distance of 63.6 km. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • In this study we have generated strategies for detection of broad types of tick-borne flaviviruses in pools of I. ricinus sampled in Sweden. (diva-portal.org)
  • Immunization with native I. ricinus TPEs thus conferred a strong immune response in calves and significantly reduced the feeding success of both nymphs and adults. (frontiersin.org)
  • 1. A cDNA sequence encoding a Ricinus communis β-ketoacyl-ACP synthase protein, wherein said cDNA sequence comprises the mature protein encoding portion of said synthase protein, and wherein said mature protein has a molecular weight of approximately 50 kD. (google.com)
  • This is the first report on an anti-tick vaccine trial on I. ricinus using a protein able to interact with both host immunity and haemostasis, as a vaccinating antigen. (nih.gov)
  • In this study, the efficacy of immunization with recombinant ferritin 2 and native tick protein extracts (TPEs) against Ixodes ricinus infestations in calves was assessed in two immunization experiments. (frontiersin.org)
  • Methanolic extracts of the leaves of Ricinus communis were used in antimicrobial testing against eight pathogenic bacteria in rats and showed antimicrobial properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • EU1 and Babesia microti in Ixodes ricinus ticks in Belgium. (ugent.be)
  • E. Christy Jeyaseelan and P. T. Justin Jashothan, " In vitro control of Staphylococcus aureus (NCTC 6571) and Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) by Ricinus communis L," Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine , vol. 2, no. 9, pp. 717-721, 2012. (hindawi.com)
  • A. Kadri, N. Gharsallah, M. Damak, and R. Gdoura, "Chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant properties of essential oil of Ricinus communis L ," Journal of Medicinal Plants Research , vol. 5, no. 8, pp. 1466-1470, 2011. (hindawi.com)
  • Blood was collected from the calves before the first and after the second immunization and fed to I. ricinus females and nymphs using an in vitro artificial tick feeding system. (frontiersin.org)
  • An affinity-purified plant lectin from Ricinus communis (RCA II ) was shown to exhibit differential toxicity toward SV40-transformed 3T3 fibroblasts grown in vitro . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Les réponses des accessions ont été évaluées en conditions in vitro sur la base de paramètres morphologiques, biochimiques et de survie des vitroplants. (ajol.info)
  • The aim of the present study was to appraise the antimicrobial activity of Ricinus communis L. essential oil against different pathogenic microorganisms and the cytotoxic activity against HeLa cell lines. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The present study showed the potential antimicrobial and anticarcinogenic properties of the essential oil of Ricinus communis L., indicating the possibilities of its potential use in the formula of natural remedies for the topical treatment of infections. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We showed that larvae of I. ricinus transmit B. afzelii and B. miyamotoi to rodents and calculated that rodents have a considerable chance of acquiring infections from larvae compared to nymphs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis (CNM) has been described in the hard tick Ixodes ricinus and rodents as well as in some severe cases of human disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The aim of this study was to examine whether the larvae of I. ricinus can transmit B. burgdorferi ( s.l ) and B. miyamotoi to vertebrate hosts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 1. Ixodes ricinus can be mistaken for other tick species such as Ixodes hexagonus and Ixodes persulcatus. (edendelasmercedes.com)
  • It is also The Ixodes ricinus species complex comprises certain medically important ticks in the northern hemisphere, including Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes pacificus in North America and Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes persulcatus in Eurasia (Gray et al. (edendelasmercedes.com)
  • The extensive space use of large hosts provides a much larger dispersal potential for I. ricinus than that of smaller mammalian hosts. (uio.no)
  • Locations within which Ricinus communis is naturalised include Australia, USA, Mexico, South America, New Zealand and many oceanic islands with warm climates. (lucidcentral.org)
  • The density of I. ricinus adults, but not nymphs, was lower in areas grazed by cattle than in ungrazed areas. (medworm.com)
  • Questing I. ricinus density was predicted by several landscape features, such as elevation, distance to the fjord and topographic slope. (uio.no)
  • Dobson A & Randolph SE (2011) Modelling the effects of recent changes in climate, host density and acaricide treatments on population dynamics of Ixodes ricinus in the UK, Journal of Applied Ecology, 48 (4), pp. 1029-1037. (stir.ac.uk)
  • Results indicate that I. ricinus high habitat suitability is determined by higher temperature and vegetation index (NDVI) values, lower temperature during driest months and a higher percentage of artificial and forests areas. (medworm.com)
  • In order to find a host I. ricinus adopts an ambush strategy, known as "questing," that involves climbing up vegetation and waiting to grab on to a passing host. (wiley.com)
  • To find a blood meal, I. ricinus first climbs onto low vegetation to quest for a passing vertebrate host. (biologists.org)
  • Ricinus is a fast growing tree which is evergreen, herbaceous and semi-woody large shrub gain height up to 5mt and width is 4.5m wide. (planetayurveda.com)
  • Ricinus communis is a long-lived ( perennial ) shrub with can grow to the size of a small tree in suitable conditions. (lucidcentral.org)
  • This research aims to identify host species of I. ricinus larvae, keeping in mind that immature stages of this tick species may feed not only on small animals but have the widest range of host species (L'Hostis et al. (springer.com)
  • Euseius ricinus is a species of mite in the family Phytoseiidae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genome-wide survey and expression profiles of the AP2/ERF family in castor bean (Ricinus communis L. (biomedcentral.com)

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