Prokaryotic Initiation Factors: Peptide initiation factors from prokaryotic organisms. Only three factors are needed for translation initiation in prokaryotic organisms, which occurs by a far simpler process than in PEPTIDE CHAIN INITIATION, TRANSLATIONAL of eukaryotic organisms.Peptide Initiation Factors: Protein factors uniquely required during the initiation phase of protein synthesis in GENETIC TRANSLATION.Prokaryotic Initiation Factor-1: The smallest of the three prokaryotic initiation factors with a molecular size of approximately 8 kD. It binds near the A-site of the 30S subunit of RIBOSOMES and may play a role in preventing premature addition of aminoacyl-tRNA-linked PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTOR TU to the ribosome during the initiation of a peptide chain (PEPTIDE CHAIN INITIATION, TRANSLATIONAL).Ribosomes: Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-4E: A peptide initiation factor that binds specifically to the 5' MRNA CAP STRUCTURE of MRNA in the CYTOPLASM. It is a component of the trimeric complex EIF4F.Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2: Eukaryotic initiation factor of protein synthesis. In higher eukaryotes the factor consists of three subunits: alpha, beta, and gamma. As initiation proceeds, eIF-2 forms a ternary complex with Met-tRNAi and GTP.Eukaryotic Initiation Factors: Peptide initiation factors from eukaryotic organisms. Over twelve factors are involved in PEPTIDE CHAIN INITIATION, TRANSLATIONAL in eukaryotic cells. Many of these factors play a role in controlling the rate of MRNA TRANSLATION.Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-4G: A component of eukaryotic initiation factor-4F that is involved in multiple protein interactions at the site of translation initiation. Thus it may serve a role in bringing together various initiation factors at the site of translation initiation.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-4F: A trimeric peptide initiation factor complex that associates with the 5' MRNA cap structure of RNA (RNA CAPS) and plays an essential role in MRNA TRANSLATION. It is composed of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-4A; EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-4E; and EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-4G.Prokaryotic Initiation Factor-2: The largest of the three prokaryotic initiation factors with a molecular size of approximately 80 kD. It functions in the transcription initiation process by promoting the binding of formylmethionine-tRNA to the P-site of the 30S ribosome and by preventing the incorrect binding of elongator tRNA to the translation initiation site.Prokaryotic Initiation Factor-3: A prokaryotic initiation factor that plays a role in recycling of ribosomal subunits for a new round of translational initiation. It binds to 16S RIBOSOMAL RNA and stimulates the dissociation of vacant 70S ribosomes. It may also be involved in the preferential binding of initiator tRNA to the 30S initiation complex.Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-3: A multisubunit eukaryotic initiation factor that contains at least 8 distinct polypeptides. It plays a role in recycling of ribosomal subunits to the site of transcription initiation by promoting the dissociation of non-translating ribosomal subunits. It also is involved in promoting the binding of a ternary complex of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2; GTP; and INITIATOR TRNA to the 40S ribosomal subunit.Peptide Chain Initiation, Translational: A process of GENETIC TRANSLATION whereby the formation of a peptide chain is started. It includes assembly of the RIBOSOME components, the MESSENGER RNA coding for the polypeptide to be made, INITIATOR TRNA, and PEPTIDE INITIATION FACTORS; and placement of the first amino acid in the peptide chain. The details and components of this process are unique for prokaryotic protein biosynthesis and eukaryotic protein biosynthesis.Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-4A: A component of eukaryotic initiation factor 4F that as an RNA helicase involved in unwinding the secondary structure of the 5' UNTRANSLATED REGION of MRNA. The unwinding facilitates the binding of the 40S ribosomal subunit.Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2B: A guanine nucleotide exchange factor that acts to restore EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2 to its GTP bound form.Eukaryotic Cells: Cells of the higher organisms, containing a true nucleus bounded by a nuclear membrane.RNA Caps: Nucleic acid structures found on the 5' end of eukaryotic cellular and viral messenger RNA and some heterogeneous nuclear RNAs. These structures, which are positively charged, protect the above specified RNAs at their termini against attack by phosphatases and other nucleases and promote mRNA function at the level of initiation of translation. Analogs of the RNA caps (RNA CAP ANALOGS), which lack the positive charge, inhibit the initiation of protein synthesis.Reticulocytes: Immature ERYTHROCYTES. In humans, these are ERYTHROID CELLS that have just undergone extrusion of their CELL NUCLEUS. They still contain some organelles that gradually decrease in number as the cells mature. RIBOSOMES are last to disappear. Certain staining techniques cause components of the ribosomes to precipitate into characteristic "reticulum" (not the same as the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM), hence the name reticulocytes.eIF-2 Kinase: A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-1: A eukaryotic initiation factor that binds to 40S ribosomal subunits. Although initially considered a "non-essential" factor for eukaryotic transcription initiation, eukaryotic initiation factor-1 is now thought to play an important role in localizing RIBOSOMES at the initiation codon of MRNA.Poly(A)-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to the 3' polyadenylated region of MRNA. When complexed with RNA the proteins serve an array of functions such as stabilizing the 3' end of RNA, promoting poly(A) synthesis and stimulating mRNA translation.RNA Cap Analogs: Analogs of RNA cap compounds which do not have a positive charge. These compounds inhibit the initiation of translation of both capped and uncapped messenger RNA.Prokaryotic Cells: Cells lacking a nuclear membrane so that the nuclear material is either scattered in the cytoplasm or collected in a nucleoid region.Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-5: A eukaryotic initiation factor that interacts with the 40S initiation complex and promotes the hydrolysis of the bound GTP. The hydrolysis of GTP causes the release of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2 and EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-3 from the 40S subunit and the subsequent joining of the 60S ribosomal subunit to the 40S complex to form the functional 80S initiation complexBase Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Codon, Initiator: A codon that directs initiation of protein translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) by stimulating the binding of initiator tRNA (RNA, TRANSFER, MET). In prokaryotes, the codons AUG or GUG can act as initiators while in eukaryotes, AUG is the only initiator codon.RNA, Transfer, Met: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying methionine to sites on the ribosomes. During initiation of protein synthesis, tRNA(f)Met in prokaryotic cells and tRNA(i)Met in eukaryotic cells binds to the start codon (CODON, INITIATOR).Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.5' Untranslated Regions: The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.RNA Cap-Binding Proteins: Proteins that specifically bind to RNA CAPS and form nuclear cap binding protein complexes. In addition to stabilizing the 5' end of mRNAs, they serve a diverse array of functions such as enhancing mRNA transport out of the CELL NUCLEUS and regulating MRNA TRANSLATION in the CYTOPLASM.Polyribosomes: A multiribosomal structure representing a linear array of RIBOSOMES held together by messenger RNA; (RNA, MESSENGER); They represent the active complexes in cellular protein synthesis and are able to incorporate amino acids into polypeptides both in vivo and in vitro. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases: A serine threonine kinase that controls a wide range of growth-related cellular processes. The protein is referred to as the target of RAPAMYCIN due to the discovery that SIROLIMUS (commonly known as rapamycin) forms an inhibitory complex with TACROLIMUS BINDING PROTEIN 1A that blocks the action of its enzymatic activity.Ribosome Subunits, Small, Eukaryotic: The small subunit of the 80s ribosome of eukaryotes. It is composed of the 18S RIBOSOMAL RNA and 32 different RIBOSOMAL PROTEINS.Guanosine Triphosphate: Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Ribosomal Proteins: Proteins found in ribosomes. They are believed to have a catalytic function in reconstituting biologically active ribosomal subunits.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Cell-Free System: A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.RNA, Transfer: The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases: A family of protein serine/threonine kinases which act as intracellular signalling intermediates. Ribosomal protein S6 kinases are activated through phosphorylation in response to a variety of HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Phosphorylation of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 by enzymes in this class results in increased expression of 5' top MRNAs. Although specific for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 members of this class of kinases can act on a number of substrates within the cell. The immunosuppressant SIROLIMUS inhibits the activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases.RNA, Transfer, Amino Acyl: Intermediates in protein biosynthesis. The compounds are formed from amino acids, ATP and transfer RNA, a reaction catalyzed by aminoacyl tRNA synthetase. They are key compounds in the genetic translation process.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.PhosphoproteinsTranscription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.3' Untranslated Regions: The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Ribosome Subunits, Large, Eukaryotic: The large subunit of the 80s ribosome of eukaryotes. It is composed of the 28S RIBOSOMAL RNA, the 5.8S RIBOSOMAL RNA, the 5S RIBOSOMAL RNA, and about 50 different RIBOSOMAL PROTEINS.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Ribosomal Protein S6: A ribosomal protein that may play a role in controlling cell growth and proliferation. It is a major substrate of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES and plays a role in regulating the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of RNAs that contain an RNA 5' TERMINAL OLIGOPYRIMIDINE SEQUENCE.RNA Stability: The extent to which an RNA molecule retains its structural integrity and resists degradation by RNASE, and base-catalyzed HYDROLYSIS, under changing in vivo or in vitro conditions.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Guanosine Diphosphate: A guanine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.RNA, Ribosomal: The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)Activating Transcription Factor 4: An activating transcription factor that regulates the expression of a variety of GENES involved in amino acid metabolism and transport. It also interacts with HTLV-I transactivator protein.Sirolimus: A macrolide compound obtained from Streptomyces hygroscopicus that acts by selectively blocking the transcriptional activation of cytokines thereby inhibiting cytokine production. It is bioactive only when bound to IMMUNOPHILINS. Sirolimus is a potent immunosuppressant and possesses both antifungal and antineoplastic properties.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 70-kDa: A family of ribosomal protein S6 kinases that are considered the major physiological kinases for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6. Unlike RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, 90KDa the proteins in this family are sensitive to the inhibitory effects of RAPAMYCIN and contain a single kinase domain. They are referred to as 70kDa proteins, however ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of mRNAs for proteins in this class also results in 85kDa variants being formed.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.RNA, Double-Stranded: RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.RNA, Fungal: Ribonucleic acid in fungi having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Protein Synthesis Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit the synthesis of proteins. They are usually ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS or toxins. Mechanism of the action of inhibition includes the interruption of peptide-chain elongation, the blocking the A site of ribosomes, the misreading of the genetic code or the prevention of the attachment of oligosaccharide side chains to glycoproteins.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Puromycin: A cinnamamido ADENOSINE found in STREPTOMYCES alboniger. It inhibits protein synthesis by binding to RNA. It is an antineoplastic and antitrypanosomal agent and is used in research as an inhibitor of protein synthesis.Codon: A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).Peptide Elongation Factors: Protein factors uniquely required during the elongation phase of protein synthesis.Codon, Terminator: Any codon that signals the termination of genetic translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). PEPTIDE TERMINATION FACTORS bind to the stop codon and trigger the hydrolysis of the aminoacyl bond connecting the completed polypeptide to the tRNA. Terminator codons do not specify amino acids.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Protein Subunits: Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors: Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Ribosome Subunits: The two dissimilar sized ribonucleoprotein complexes that comprise a RIBOSOME - the large ribosomal subunit and the small ribosomal subunit. The eukaryotic 80S ribosome is composed of a 60S large subunit and a 40S small subunit. The bacterial 70S ribosome is composed of a 50S large subunit and a 30S small subunit.Polyadenylation: The addition of a tail of polyadenylic acid (POLY A) to the 3' end of mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). Polyadenylation involves recognizing the processing site signal, (AAUAAA), and cleaving of the mRNA to create a 3' OH terminal end to which poly A polymerase (POLYNUCLEOTIDE ADENYLYLTRANSFERASE) adds 60-200 adenylate residues. The 3' end processing of some messenger RNAs, such as histone mRNA, is carried out by a different process that does not include the addition of poly A as described here.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Hemin: Chloro(7,12-diethenyl-3,8,13,17-tetramethyl-21H,23H-porphine-2,18-dipropanoato(4-)-N(21),N(22),N(23),N(24)) ferrate(2-) dihydrogen.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Methionine: A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Edeine: Basic peptide antibiotic from Bacillus brevis. It exhibits broad-spectrum antibacterial activity and inhibits bacterial DNA synthesis.Peptide Elongation Factor 2: Peptide Elongation Factor 2 catalyzes the translocation of peptidyl-tRNA from the A site to the P site of eukaryotic ribosomes by a process linked to the hydrolysis of GTP to GDP.Poly A: A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Ribosome Subunits, Small, Bacterial: The small subunit of eubacterial RIBOSOMES. It is composed of the 16S RIBOSOMAL RNA and about 23 different RIBOSOMAL PROTEINS.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Heme: The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.Picornaviridae: A family of small RNA viruses comprising some important pathogens of humans and animals. Transmission usually occurs mechanically. There are nine genera: APHTHOVIRUS; CARDIOVIRUS; ENTEROVIRUS; ERBOVIRUS; HEPATOVIRUS; KOBUVIRUS; PARECHOVIRUS; RHINOVIRUS; and TESCHOVIRUS.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Multiprotein Complexes: Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Leucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.Nuclear Cap-Binding Protein Complex: A heterodimeric protein complex of RNA cap-binding proteins, which binds with high affinity to the 5' MRNA CAP STRUCTURE in the CELL NUCLEUS. The complex contains two subunits, one of 80-kDa molecular weight and another of 20-kDa molecular weight.Potyvirus: A large genus of plant viruses of the family POTYVIRIDAE which infect mainly plants of the Solanaceae. Transmission is primarily by aphids in a non-persistent manner. The type species is potato virus Y.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesGuanine NucleotidesDNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
Fraser CS (July 2015). "Quantitative studies of mRNA recruitment to the eukaryotic ribosome". Biochimie. 114: 58-71. doi: ... There exist many more eukaryotic initiation factors than prokaryotic initiation factors, reflecting the greater biological ... Eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs) are proteins or protein complexes involved in the initiation phase of eukaryotic ... multiple initiation factors, and cellular and viral mRNA. In mammals, eIF3 is the largest initiation factor, made up of 13 ...
... a homologue of prokaryotic IF2 protein. Eukaryotic translation Eukaryotic initiation factor Lytle JR, Wu L, Robertson HD ( ... A small number of eukaryotic mRNA have been shown to be translated by internal ribosome entry. Nucleotides 1-40 of the HCV mRNA ... HCV IRES independently binds two components of eukaryotic translation initiation machinery, the multiprotein initiation factor ... several eukaryotic initiation factors, and GTP with the 40S ribosomal subunit, recruitment to the 5' cap, and scanning along ...
... being bound by several eukaryotic initiation factors, including eIF1, eIF1A, and eIF3. The 40S ribosomal subunit is also ... It is structurally and functionally related to the 30S subunit of 70S prokaryotic ribosomes. However, the 40S subunit is much ... The mRNA binds in the cleft between the head and the body, and there are three binding sites for tRNA, the A-site, P-site and E ... The eukaryotic small ribosomal subunit (40S) is the smaller subunit of the eukaryotic 80S ribosomes, with the other major ...
... cap present on eukaryotic mRNAs. Contents. *1 Prokaryotes *1.1 Effect on translation initiation rate *1.1.1 Factors affecting ... Effect on translation initiation rate[edit]. Prokaryotic ribosomes begin translation of the mRNA transcript while DNA is still ... "Translation initiation by factor-independent binding of eukaryotic ribosomes to internal ribosomal entry sites". Comptes Rendus ... Factors affecting the efficiency of translation initiation[edit]. The level of complementarity of the mRNA SD sequence to the ...
"Translation initiation by factor-independent binding of eukaryotic ribosomes to internal ribosomal entry sites". Comptes Rendus ... Prokaryotic ribosomes begin translation of the mRNA transcript while DNA is still being transcribed. Thus translation and ... Ribosome recruitment in eukaryotes is generally mediated by the 5' cap present on eukaryotic mRNAs. The RBS in prokaryotes is a ... Bacterial mRNA are usually polycistronic and contain multiple ribosome binding sites. Translation initiation is the most highly ...
Complexes of initiation factors and elongation factors bring aminoacylated transfer RNAs (tRNAs) into the ribosome-mRNA complex ... is a mature mRNA chain. The mature mRNA finds its way to a ribosome, where it gets translated. In prokaryotic cells, which have ... In eukaryotic cells the primary transcript is pre-mRNA. Pre-mRNA must be processed for translation to proceed. Processing ... so the mRNA must be transported out of the nucleus into the cytoplasm, where it can be bound by ribosomes. The ribosome reads ...
... eukaryotic translation initiation factor 1A, X-linked". Fraser, Christopher S. (2015). "Quantitative studies of mRNA ... "Physical and functional interaction between the eukaryotic orthologs of prokaryotic translation initiation factors IF1 and IF2 ... recruitment to the eukaryotic ribosome". Biochimie. 114: 58-71. doi:10.1016/j.biochi.2015.02.017. PMC 4458453 . PMID 25742741. ... This gene encodes an essential eukaryotic translation initiation factor. The protein is a component of the 43S pre-initiation ...
General transcription factors are a group of proteins involved in transcription initiation and regulation. These factors ... Bacteria do not have a distinct nucleus that separates DNA from ribosome and mRNA is translated into protein as soon as it is ... Gene transcription occurs in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Unlike prokaryotic RNA polymerase that initiates the ... After escaping the promoter and shedding most of the transcription factors for initiation, the polymerase acquires new factors ...
Each ORF typically has its own ribosome binding site (RBS) so that ribosomes simultaneously translate ORFs on the same mRNA. ... The structures of both eukaryotic and prokaryotic genes involve several nested sequence elements. Each element has a specific ... The binding of different transcription factors, therefore, regulates the rate of transcription initiation at different times ... cap to the start of the mRNA and a poly-adenosine tail to the end of the mRNA. These additions stabilise the mRNA and direct ...
Initiation involves the small subunit of the ribosome binding to 5' end of mRNA with the help of initiation factors (IF), other ... The first product of transcription differs in prokaryotic cells from that of eukaryotic cells, as in prokaryotic cells the ... Ribosomes are made of a small and large subunit that surround the mRNA. In translation, messenger RNA (mRNA) is decoded to ... The ribosome latches onto the end of an mRNA molecule and moves along it, capturing loaded tRNA molecules and joining together ...
... end of the mRNA until the start codon. The ribosome can be trafficked to the start site by direct binding, initiation factors, ... Termination of elongation depends on eukaryotic release factors. The process is similar to that of prokaryotic termination, but ... 40S 60S 80S Eukaryotic initiation factor Eukaryotic elongation factors Eukaryotic release factors Hellen, Christopher U. T.; ... Elongation depends on eukaryotic elongation factors. At the end of the initiation step, the mRNA is positioned so that the next ...
... initiation factor-2 (IF-2) promotes the binding of the initiator tRNA to the small subunit of the ribosome in a GTP-dependent ... Prokaryotic IF-2 is a single polypeptide, while eukaryotic cytoplasmic IF-2 (eIF-2) is a trimeric protein. Bovine liver ... a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides". Gene. 138 (1-2): 171-4. doi: ... Translation initiation factor IF-2, mitochondrial is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MTIF2 gene. During the ...
Geneticin, also called G418, inhibits the elongation step in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic ribosomes. Macrolides, clindamycin ... protein synthesis inhibitors work at different stages of prokaryotic mRNA translation into proteins, like initiation, ... either the ribosome itself or the translation factor), taking advantages of the major differences between prokaryotic and ... Neomycin prevents ribosome assembly by binding to the prokaryotic 30S ribosomal subunit. Tetracyclines and Tigecycline (a ...
Messages that are being actively translated are bound by ribosomes, the eukaryotic initiation factors eIF-4E and eIF-4G, and ... Eukaryotic mRNA molecules often require extensive processing and transport, while prokaryotic mRNA molecules do not. A molecule ... Eukaryotic mRNA turnoverEdit. Inside eukaryotic cells, there is a balance between the processes of translation and mRNA decay. ... "Circularization of mRNA by Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factors" (w), Molecular Cell, 2 (1): 135-140, doi:10.1016/S1097- ...
Initiation involves the small subunit of the ribosome binding to the 5' end of mRNA with the help of initiation factors (IF). ... Prokaryotic ribosomes have a different structure from that of eukaryotic ribosomes, and thus antibiotics can specifically ... by the ribosome. Translation proceeds in three phases: Initiation: The ribosome assembles around the target mRNA. The first ... the stop codon induces the binding of a release factor protein that prompts the disassembly of the entire ribosome/mRNA complex ...
... a number of initiation factors must facilitate the synergy of the ribosome and the mRNA and ensure that the 5' UTR of the mRNA ... This family of helicases is found in a range of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms including humans, wherein they catalyse a ... Eukaryotic initiation factor Eukaryotic initiation factor 4F (eIF4F) Hippuristanol Rocaglamide Rogers GW, Komar AA, Merrick WC ... Gingras AC, Raught B, Sonenberg N (June 1999). "eIF4 initiation factors: effectors of mRNA recruitment to ribosomes and ...
Prokaryotic elongation factors Eukaryotic elongation factors Youngman EM, Green R (February 2007). "Ribosomal translocation: ... a primer was extended via reverse transcription along mRNA which was ribosome-bound. The primers from modified mRNA strands ... "GTP-binding membrane protein of Escherichia coli with sequence homology to initiation factor 2 and elongation factors Tu and G ... Leader peptidase A (LepA) is an elongation factor that is thought to back-translocate on the ribosome during the translation of ...
Elucidation of the interactions between the eukaryotic ribosome and initiation factors at an atomic level is essential for a ... "80S Ribosomes, Eukaryotic Ribosomes, Prokaryotic Ribosomes, Nucleic Acids, Sedimentation Coefficient". www. ... The ribosome selects aminoacylated transfer RNAs (tRNAs) based on the sequence of a protein-encoding messenger RNA (mRNA) and ... However, structural information on the eukaryotic initiation factors and their interactions with the ribosome is limited and ...
... primary transcript processing varies in mRNAs of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. For example, some prokaryotic bacterial ... These DNA sequences bind to factors that contribute to the destabilization of the initiation complex required to activate RNA ... cap is responsible for aligning the mRNA with the ribosome during translation. In eukaryotes, polyadenylation further modifies ... Pre-mRNA targeting and buildup in the speckles is a result of the loading of splicing factors to the pre-mRNA, and the ...
Ribosome Recycling Factor and Elongation Factor G (EF-G) function to release mRNA and tRNAs from ribosomes and dissociate the ... Prokaryotic initiation factors Prokaryotic elongation factors Prokaryotic factors Farabaugh, Philip J. (1978-08-24). "Sequence ... They exploit the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic translation mechanisms to selectively inhibit protein synthesis ... and the three prokaryotic initiation factors IF1, IF2, and IF3, which help the assembly of the initiation complex. Variations ...
Using Toeprinting assay, it has been shown that Protein Synthesis initiates from the A-site of the Ribosome (Eukaryotic) in the ... catalyzed by elongation factor EF-G. The ribosomal P-site plays a vital role in all phases of translation. Initiation involves ... and ribosome recycling involves release of deacylated tRNA. Binding a tRNA to the P-site in the presence of mRNA establishes ... where the tRNA binds has been examined and suggested to be directly involved in the binding of tRNA to the prokaryotic ribosome ...
50S, roughly equivalent to the 60S ribosomal subunit in eukaryotic cells, is the larger subunit of the 70S ribosome of ... provides a binding site for the G-protein factors (assists initiation, elongation, and termination), and helps protein folding ... there is a fourth step of the disassembly of the post-termination complex of ribosome, mRNA, and tRNA, which is a prerequisite ... 50S is the larger subunit of the 70S ribosome of prokaryotes. It is the site of inhibition for antibiotics such as macrolides, ...
"Crystal Structure of the Eukaryotic 40S Ribosomal Subunit in Complex with Initiation Factor 1". Science. 331 (6018): 730-736. ... mRNA binds to the P site of the ribosome first. The ribosome is able to identify the start codon by use of the Shine-Dalgarno ... Prokaryotic ribosomes are around 20 nm (200 Å) in diameter and are composed of 65% rRNA and 35% ribosomal proteins.[11] ... Ribosomes are the workplaces of protein biosynthesis, the process of translating mRNA into protein. The mRNA comprises a series ...
In addition, the ribosome has two other sites for tRNA binding that are used during mRNA decoding or during the initiation of ... tRNA first binds to the ribosome as part of a complex with elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) or its eukaryotic (eEF-1) or archaeal ... In most prokaryotic tRNAs and eukaryotic tRNAs, the CCA sequence is added during processing and therefore does not appear in ... of the ribosome along the mRNA. If the tRNA's anticodon matches the mRNA, another tRNA already bound to the ribosome transfers ...
Messages that are being actively translated are bound by ribosomes, the eukaryotic initiation factors eIF-4E and eIF-4G, and ... Eukaryotic mRNA molecules often require extensive processing and transport, while prokaryotic mRNA molecules do not. A molecule ... "Circularization of mRNA by Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factors" (w), Molecular Cell, 2 (1): 135-140, doi:10.1016/S1097- ... forming an mRNA-protein-mRNA bridge. Circularization is thought to promote cycling of ribosomes on the mRNA leading to time- ...
The prokaryotic small ribosomal subunit, or 30S, is the smaller subunit of the 70S ribosome found in prokaryotes. It is a complex of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and 19 proteins. This complex is implicated in the binding of Transfer RNA onto the messenger RNA (mRNA). The small subunit is responsible for the binding and the reading of the mRNA during translation. The whole subunit, both the rRNA and the 22 proteins, complexes with the larger 50S subunit to form the 70S prokaryotic ribosome in the cell. This 70S ribosome is then used to translate mRNA into proteins. The 30S subunit is an integral part of mRNA translation. It binds three Prokaryotic initiation factors: IF-1, IF-2, and IF-3. A portion of the 30S subunit (the 16S rRNA) guides the initiating (5')-AUG-(3') (start codon) codon of the mRNA into position by a recognizing a ...
Koesters R، Adams V، Betts D، Moos R، Schmid M، Siermann A، Hassam S، Weitz S، Lichter P، Heitz PU، von Knebel Doeberitz M، Briner J (Dec 1999). "Human eukaryotic initiation factor EIF2C1 gene: cDNA sequence, genomic organization, localization to chromosomal bands 1p34-p35, and expression". Genomics. 61 (2): 210-8. PMID 10534406. doi:10.1006/geno.1999.5951. الوسيط ...
Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2 (eIF2) is a eukaryotic initiation factor. It is required for most forms of eukaryotic translation initiation. eIF2 mediates the binding of tRNAiMet to the ribosome in a GTP-dependent manner. eIF2 is a heterotrimer consisting of an alpha (also called subunit 1), a beta (subunit 2), and a gamma (subunit 3) subunit. Once the initiation phase has completed, eIF2 is released from the ribosome bound to GDP as an inactive binary complex. To participate in another round of translation initiation, this GDP must be exchanged for GTP. eIF2 is an essential factor for protein synthesis that forms a ternary complex (TC) with GTP and the initiator Met-tRNAiMet. After its formation, the TC ...
... is a synthetic chemical compound which has been found to interfere with the growth of certain types of cancer cells in vitro. Its mechanism of action involves interruption of the binding of cellular initiation factor proteins involved in the translation of transcribed mRNA at the ribosome. The inhibition of these initiation factors prevents the initiation and translation of many proteins whose functions are essential to the rapid growth and proliferation of cancer cells. 4EGI-1 mimics the action of a class of cellular regulatory molecules that naturally inhibit the binding of two initiation factors necessary for interaction of transcribed mRNA with the subunits of ribosomal complexes. These naturally occurring regulatory molecules, or binding proteins (BPs), bind to ...
Sudo K, Takahashi E, Nakamura Y (Jan 1996). "Isolation and mapping of the human EIF4A2 gene homologous to the murine protein synthesis initiation factor 4A-II gene Eif4a2". Cytogenet Cell Genet. 71 (4): 385-8. doi:10.1159/000134145. PMID 8521730 ...
The 5' cap of eukaryotic messenger RNA is bound at all times by various Cap-binding complexes. In the nucleus freshly transcribed mRNA molecules are bound on the 5' cap by the nuclear cap-binding complex of Cbc1/Cbc2 in yeast or CBP20/CBP80 in metazoans. These aid in the export of the mRNA and protect it from decapping. They also serve as a marker for the so-called pioneer round of translation when the message is examined by nonsense mediated decay. After the first round of translation ("pioneer round"), CBC20/80 is replaced by the translation initiation factor eIF4E. The eIF4F complex (eIF4E, eIF4G and eIF4A) then regulates translation in response to the state of the cell via its phosphorylation state and again protects the message from decapping. When translationally repressed or marked for decay by various mechanisms the 5' cap is bound by the mRNA decapping enzyme DCP2. A host of proteins accompany it including UPF1, UPF2, UPF3A, Dcp1, ...
The Destroyer is an enchanted suit of armor forged by Odin, and when it first appeared it was hinted that the Destroyer had been created as a weapon to face some dark menace from the stars. It is first seen residing in the Temple of Darkness in Asia. The Destroyer is used by Thor's arch-foe Loki on several occasions, and each time has actually come close to killing Thor. First, it was used by a hunter whom Loki had lured to the temple using his mental powers. At one point Thor was imprisoned in the ground, but Loki saved him by making him intangible briefly before the Destroyer could strike him with an elemental transmutation beam. Thor forced the hunter's consciousness to leave the armor by using the hunter's body as a shield before the Destroyer could fire at Thor, then burying the Destroyer under thousands of tons of rock when the hunter tried to return to it.[2][3] It is next salvaged by Karnilla and animated by Sif, who attempted to use it to battle the Wrecker when Thor was temporarily ...
... , from its complete name polyadenylate binding protein I, is localized in the cell cytoplasm. As the name implies, its main function is to bind to the poly(A) tail of mature messenger RNAs (mRNAs). During protein synthesis, a stage known as translation, PABPI interacts with both the mRNA's poly(A) tail and eukaryotic initiation factor 4G (eIF4G), forming a round structure, which is thought to increase stability. Lodish, Harvey; Berk, Arnold; Kaiser, Chris; Krieger, Monty; Bretscher, Anthony; Ploegh, Hidde; Amon, Angelika; Scott, Matthew. Molecular Cell Biology (Print),format= requires ,url= (help) (7th ed.). New York: W. H. Freeman and Company. ISBN 978-1-4292-3413-9 ...
... belongs to a race of Rock Trolls who live in the dimension of Asgard in the "Domain of Trolls" in Nornheim. Like all trolls, Ulik has an innate hatred of the Asgardians as they were driven underground by the King of the Norse gods, Odin, and forbidden to live on the surface. Ulik is commanded by the Rock Troll King, Geirrodur, to steal Thor's enchanted hammer, Mjolnir, before an attempt to invade Asgard, leading to an extended series of battles with the Thunder God. Ulik proves to be a match for Thor, as the character possessing increasing strength and is equipped with knuckle dusters made of the metal uru (the same metal of which Mjolnir is composed). He nearly defeats Thor after going into the berserker state of mind, but is transported away by Geirrodur. Later on Earth he traps Thor in his guise as Don Blake, and tries to gain the power of Thor with his cane. Don tells him to strike it again, although Ulik says if this fails he will kill Blake, but when Ulik brings the cane down Don ...
Salinas (Spanish pronunciation: [saˈlinas], Salines) is a municipality in the southern part of Puerto Rico (U.S.) located in the southern coast of the island, south of Aibonito and Cayey; southeast of Coamo, east of Santa Isabel; and west of Guayama. Salinas is spread over 7 wards and Salinas Pueblo (the downtown area and the administrative center of the city).. It has long been a fishing spot for Puerto Ricans, known for its beaches, fish variety and the birthplace of the famous "mojito isleño".. Although Salinas doesn't have any commercial airports, there is a military training area there. Camp Santiago, which is Puerto Rico National Guard training center. Army National Guard, Air National Guard, State Guard, U.S. Army ROTC, U.S. Army Reserve & the U.S. Army conduct military training at Camp Santiago.. Salinas is also home to Miss Universe 2006, Zuleyka Rivera and to the former World Boxing Association Welterweight champion of the world, Angel Espada.. ...
The prokaryotic small ribosomal subunit, or 30S, is the smaller subunit of the 70S ribosome found in prokaryotes. It is a complex of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and 19 proteins. This complex is implicated in the binding of Transfer RNA onto the messenger RNA (mRNA). The small subunit is responsible for the binding and the reading of the mRNA during translation. The whole subunit, both the rRNA and the 22 proteins, complexes with the larger 50S subunit to form the 70S prokaryotic ribosome in the cell. This 70S ribosome is then used to translate mRNA into proteins. The 30S subunit is an integral part of mRNA translation. It binds three Prokaryotic initiation factors: IF-1, IF-2, and IF-3. A portion of the 30S subunit (the 16S rRNA) guides the initiating (5')-AUG-(3') (start codon) codon of the mRNA into position by a recognizing a ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RPL36A gene. Cytoplasmic ribosomes, organelles that catalyze protein synthesis, consist of a small 40S subunit and a large 60S subunit. Together these subunits are composed of 4 RNA species and approximately 80 structurally distinct proteins. This gene encodes a ribosomal protein that is a component of the 60S subunit. The protein, which shares sequence similarity with yeast ribosomal protein L44, belongs to the L44E (L36AE) family of ribosomal proteins. Although this gene has been referred to as ribosomal protein L44 (RPL44), its official name is ribosomal protein L36a (RPL36A). This gene and the human gene officially named ribosomal protein L36a-like (RPL36AL) encode nearly identical proteins; however, they are distinct genes. As is typical for genes encoding ribosomal proteins, there are multiple processed pseudogenes of this gene dispersed through the genome. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000241343 - Ensembl, May ...
Ribosoom (inglise ribosome) on nii eel- kui ka päristuumse raku tsütoplasmas esinev kaheosaline molekulaarne masin, mis koosneb ribosomaalse RNA (rRNA) ja valgu molekulidest. Selle ülesanne on katalüüsida peptiidahelate moodustumist, lähtudes raku DNA pealt transkribeeritud informatsiooni-RNA (mRNA, inglise messenger RNA) järjestusest.[1] Seda protsessi nimetatakse translatsiooniks.. Samalt valku kodeerivalt DNA järjestuselt võidakse mRNAd sünteesida korduvalt. Eukarüootides toimub seejärel mRNA töötlemine, mille käigus eemaldatakse intronid. Saadud lõpp-produktidele kinnituvad ribosoomid. Nad kasutavad RNA järjestust matriitsina, millele vastavalt seatakse õige koodon vastavusse õige aminohappega. Aminohappeid toovad kohale transport-RNA (tRNA) molekulid, mis sisenevad ribosoomi ja mille antikoodonid paarduvad mRNA järjestusele komplementaarsuse alusel. Ribosoomid on ribosüümid[2], sest peptiidsideme moodustamine toimub just rRNA abil, millel on peptidüüli transferaasi ...
Kyrpides NC, Woese CR: Archaeal translation initiation revisited: the initiation factor 2 and eukaryotic initiation factor 2B ... untranslated region of fis mRNA and the ribosome [95]. It binds to ribosomes at a site coinciding with that for EF-G and has a ... Pandit SB, Srinivasan N: Survey for g-proteins in the prokaryotic genomes: prediction of functional roles based on ... Bacterial release factor RF-3 is derived from the translocation factor EF-G family, whereas eukaryotic release factor eRF3 is a ...
Fraser CS (July 2015). "Quantitative studies of mRNA recruitment to the eukaryotic ribosome". Biochimie. 114: 58-71. doi: ... There exist many more eukaryotic initiation factors than prokaryotic initiation factors, reflecting the greater biological ... Eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs) are proteins or protein complexes involved in the initiation phase of eukaryotic ... multiple initiation factors, and cellular and viral mRNA. In mammals, eIF3 is the largest initiation factor, made up of 13 ...
2) Eukaryotic Release Factor (eRF)- GTP pairs w/ STOP codon. 3) GTP is hydrolyzed & peptide is released from P site 4) Ribosome ... 4) mRNA binds forming the pre-initiation complex. 5) pre-initiation complex binds the large ribosomal subunit (60S). 6) GTP is ... Differences between Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic Ribosomes - Different assembled size - Different size, # proteins, & RNA ... The loaded small subunit binds the large subunit (concluding initiation) - This process is guided by initiation factors ...
c) Initiation factors in prokaryotic transcription. *During elongation the ribosome. a) Moves from 5- end to 3- end of mRNA √ ... 1. Explain the post transcriptional modifications that take in eukaryotic tRNA. Also name the enzymes catalyzing the reactions. ... 1. Prokaryotic mRNA is usually identical to its primary transcript. [ T ]. 2. In RNA the number of purines are equal to the ... 5 capping - The cap is 7- methyl guanosine attached backward through a triphosphate linkage to the 5 end of mRNA catalysed by ...
... a homologue of prokaryotic IF2 protein. Eukaryotic translation Eukaryotic initiation factor Lytle JR, Wu L, Robertson HD ( ... A small number of eukaryotic mRNA have been shown to be translated by internal ribosome entry. Nucleotides 1-40 of the HCV mRNA ... HCV IRES independently binds two components of eukaryotic translation initiation machinery, the multiprotein initiation factor ... several eukaryotic initiation factors, and GTP with the 40S ribosomal subunit, recruitment to the 5 cap, and scanning along ...
Initiation in eukaryotes Translational control and post ... - A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide ... prokaryotic eukaryotic function. Initiation factor IF1 IF3 IF2 eIF3 eIF4c eIF6 eIF4B eIF4F eIF2B eIF2 eIF5 Bind to ribosome ... Eukaryotic ribosomes migrate from the 5 end of mRNA to the ribosome binding site, which includes an AUG initiation codon. 33. ... three initiation factors . 19. Size comparisons show that the ribosome is large enough to bind tRNAs and mRNA. 20. IF1 and IF3 ...
eIF1, eIF1A, and eIF3 all bind to the ribosome subunit-mRNA complex. They have been implicated in preventing the large ... There exist many more eukaryotic initiation factors than prokaryotic initiation factors due to the greater biological ... Home » FocusOn » Antibodies to eukaryotic Initiation Factors (eIF) - FocusOn 094 Antibodies to eukaryotic Initiation Factors ( ... Eukaryotic initiation factors (eIF) are proteins involved in the initiation phase of eukaryotic translation. They function in ...
... and 60S ribosomal subunits are assembled by eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs) into an 80S ribosome at the initiation codon ... Initiation on prokaryotic mRNAs involves factor-independent binding of small (30S) ribosomal subunits as a result of base ... Position of eukaryotic initiation factor eIF5B on the 80S ribosome mapped by directed hydroxyl radical probing ... Internal Initiation by Factor-Independent Binding of Ribosomes to the Initiation Codon.. The 5′NTRs of HCV and of the related ...
Kits and reagents for cell-free protein expression in just a few hours using mRNA templates in translational systems, or DNA ... are mRNA-based translation systems and DNA-based coupled transcription and translation systems from prokaryotic and eukaryotic ... initiation, elongation, and termination factors. The cell-free expression approach is the fastest way to correlate phenotype ( ... These tools include macromolecular components required for translation such as ribosomes, tRNAs, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, ...
... eukaryotic initiation factor 4E) is an mRNA cap binding factor which is essential for lining up the start codon on the ribosome ... Three initiation factors are involved for prokaryotic initiation: IF 1,2,3 ... The initiation factors dissociate from the ribosome-mRNA complex once initiation is complete. ... Eukaryotic cells contain both free and membrane bound ribosomes; whereas, prokaryotic cells contain only free ribosomes. The ...
In E. coli, this complex involves the small 30S ribosome, the mRNA template, three initiation factors (IFs; IF-1, IF-2, and IF- ... and specify any differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic translation.. Initiation of Translation. Protein synthesis ... During translation elongation, the mRNA template provides specificity. As the ribosome moves along the mRNA, each mRNA codon ... As the mRNA moves relative to the ribosome, the polypeptide chain is formed. Entry of a release factor into the A site ...
... cap present on eukaryotic mRNAs. Contents. *1 Prokaryotes *1.1 Effect on translation initiation rate *1.1.1 Factors affecting ... Effect on translation initiation rate[edit]. Prokaryotic ribosomes begin translation of the mRNA transcript while DNA is still ... "Translation initiation by factor-independent binding of eukaryotic ribosomes to internal ribosomal entry sites". Comptes Rendus ... Factors affecting the efficiency of translation initiation[edit]. The level of complementarity of the mRNA SD sequence to the ...
to function; DNA Repair; Ribosomes and rRNA; Prokaryotic transcription-initiation mechanisms and. sigma factors; Mutations and ... Eukaryotic transcription factors: DNA binding domains; Protein translocation; TB & Leprosy genomes;. Salient features of human ... mRNA structure and relation to function; Mechanisms of DNA replication; tRNA structure and relation. ... and function; Kinetics of reactions and factors that determine that rate of reactions; Protein. structure & function; Factors ...
... prokaryotic and eukaryotic mRNAs. These RNA-driven systems are widely used to identify mRNA species and characterize their ... ribosomes, amino acids, initiation, elongation and termination factors) but has not been treated with micrococcal nuclease. ... Coupled eukaryotic cell-free systems combine a prokaryotic phage RNA polymerase with eukaryotic extracts and utilize an ... mRNA Display. In mRNA display technology, a large DNA library encoding the polypeptide of interest is transcribed into mRNA. ...
Eukaryotic RNA polymerases. * General transcription factors and initiation of transcription by RNA polymerase II in eukaryotes ... The ribosome. * The organization of mRNAs and the initiation of translation. * The process of translation ... 5. Genomes: prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes. * Genomes and transcriptomes of prokaryotes and eukaryotes ... Chromatin and nucleosome structure, and the structure of eukaryotic genes, introns and exons ...
Translation takes place on ribosomes in the cell cytoplasm (see initiation factor). The ribosomes move along the mRNA `reading ... Bacterial ribosomes are smaller than eukaryotic ribosomes. In some cases, bacterial ribosomes contain less than have the total ... See also Cell cycle (prokaryotic), genetic regulation of; Chromosomes, prokaryotic; Cytoplasm, prokaryotic; Genetic regulation ... protein found in eukaryotic ribosomes. Bacteria also respond to fewer initiation factors than do eukaryotic cells. ...
Chain Initiation Requires an Initiator tRNA and Initiation Factors 1006 B. The Ribosome Decodes the mRNA, Catalyzes Peptide ... The Prokaryotic Ribosome Consists of Two Subunits 997 B. The Eukaryotic Ribosome Contains a Buried Prokaryotic Ribosome 1002 4 ... RISC RISC p Target mRNA 3 The siRNA binds to a complementary mRNA. RISC mRNA p 4 RISC cleaves the mRNA so that it cannot be ... Prokaryotic Repressors Often Include a DNA-Binding Helix 861 C. Eukaryotic Transcription Factors May Include Zinc Fingers or ...
A) Eukaryotic mRNAs get 5′ caps and 3′ tails.. B) Prokaryotic genes are expressed as mRNA, which is more stable in the cell.. C ... C) the presence of certain transcription factors.. D) the number of introns present in the mRNA.. E) the types of ribosomes ... B) a post-transcriptional mechanism to regulate mRNA.. C) the stimulation of translation by initiation factors.. D) post- ... D) Prokaryotes use ribosomes of different structure and size.. E) Eukaryotic coded polypeptides often require cleaving of ...
... untranslated regions of eukaryotic mRNAs (10, 11). These comparisons between the prokaryotic and eukaryotic ribosomes are ... Initiation factor 2 stabilizes the ribosome in a semirotated conformation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112, 15874-15879 (2015 ... A similar type of ribosome movement has been recently described in 3′ untranslated regions of eukaryotic mRNAs, where ribosome ... Initiation complexes were formed by incubating ribosomes (0.5 μM), mRNA (1.5 μM), IF1, IF2, and IF3 (0.75 μM each), GTP (1 mM ...
... other initiation factors are removed and the first amino acid/tRNA is at the P site of the ribosome.. ... prokaryotic vs. eukaryotic translation. Definition. transcription and translation can occur simultaneously in prokaryotic cells ... mRNA interpreted at ribosome in groups of three (codons) which each code for on amino acid (unambiguous). Each amino acid can ... initiation proteins (IF1, IF2, and IF3) with the small ribosomal unit interact with the mRNA molecule at the shine-palgarno ...
RT-PCR revealed that SeEF-1β mRNA is expressed at different levels in fat body and whole body during different developmental ... Other elongation factors and transcription factors were also influenced when EF-1β was suppressed. The results demonstrate ... To investigate the nature and function of elongation factor 1β from Spodoptera exigua (SeEF-1β), its cDNA was cloned. This ... Northern blotting revealed that SeEF-1β mRNA is expressed in brain, epidermis, fat body, midgut, Malpighian tubules, ovary and ...
Initiation factors contribute to the initiation complex along with the mRNA and initiator tRNA (fmet and met) which recognizes ... Prokaryotic protein synthesizing systems utilize initiator tRNAfMet molecules and eukaryotic systems initiator tRNAMet ... Translation begins with the binding of the ribosome to mRNA (FIG. 2). A number of protein factors associate with the ribosome ... during different phases of translation including initiation factors, elongation factors and termination factors. Formation of ...
A few eukaryotic mRNAs have internal ribosome-binding sites that utilize a specialized initiation mechanism similar to that ... more initiation factors take part in eukaryotic initiation than in bacterial initiation. ... 415.26 In prokaryotic cells, transcription and translation take place simultaneously. While mRNA is being transcribed from the ... 415.25 An mRNA molecule may be transcribed simultaneously by several ribosomes. (a) Four ribosomes are translating a eukaryotic ...
eIF4 initiation factors: effectors of mRNA recruitment to ribosomes and regulators of translation. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 68:913- ... A prokaryotic-like mode of cytoplasmic eukaryotic ribosome binding to the initiation codon during internal translation ... eukaryotic elongation factor 1A; eIF, eukaryotic initiation factor; EMSA, electrophoretic mobility shift assay; FMRP, fragile X ... Canonical eukaryotic initiation factors determine initiation of translation by internal ribosomal entry. Mol. Cell. Biol. 16: ...
The ribosome assembles so that the start codon (. AUG. ) is in the P-site. .. This is called the . translation initiation ... There are 5 different DNA polymerases described in prokaryotic cells. Eukaryotic cells have ~15.. They serve a variety of ... 1. Initiation. The mRNA attaches to the small ribosomal subunit.. Methionine. is brought to the start codon (. AUG. ) by the ... is encountered, a release factor binds to the A-site. .. The polypeptide chain is released.. The ribosome disassembles.. tRNA ...
  • Increasing the concentration of adenine upstream of the RBS will increase the rate of ribosome recruitment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Putlyaeva L.V., Schwartz A.M., Korneev K.V., Covic M., Uroshlev L.A., Makeev V.Y., Dmitriev S.E., Kuprash D.V. (2014) Upstream Open Reading Frames Regulate Translation of the Long Isoform of SLAMF1 mRNA That Encodes Costimulatory Receptor CD150 . (msu.ru)
  • These secondary structures are formed by H-bonding of the mRNA base pairs and are sensitive to temperature. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sizes of ribosomes and other cell structures are described in terms of Svedberg units (S), which are actually a measure of sedimentation rate in a centrifuge. (sciencing.com)