Ribosomes: Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.Ribosomal Proteins: Proteins found in ribosomes. They are believed to have a catalytic function in reconstituting biologically active ribosomal subunits.RNA, Ribosomal: The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)Ribosome Subunits, Large, Eukaryotic: The large subunit of the 80s ribosome of eukaryotes. It is composed of the 28S RIBOSOMAL RNA, the 5.8S RIBOSOMAL RNA, the 5S RIBOSOMAL RNA, and about 50 different RIBOSOMAL PROTEINS.Protein Subunits: Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.Imidoesters: Esters of the hypothetical imidic acids. They react with amines or amino acids to form amidines and are therefore used to modify protein structures and as cross-linking agents.Peptide Chain Initiation, Translational: A process of GENETIC TRANSLATION whereby the formation of a peptide chain is started. It includes assembly of the RIBOSOME components, the MESSENGER RNA coding for the polypeptide to be made, INITIATOR TRNA, and PEPTIDE INITIATION FACTORS; and placement of the first amino acid in the peptide chain. The details and components of this process are unique for prokaryotic protein biosynthesis and eukaryotic protein biosynthesis.Ribosome Subunits: The two dissimilar sized ribonucleoprotein complexes that comprise a RIBOSOME - the large ribosomal subunit and the small ribosomal subunit. The eukaryotic 80S ribosome is composed of a 60S large subunit and a 40S small subunit. The bacterial 70S ribosome is composed of a 50S large subunit and a 30S small subunit.Peptide Initiation Factors: Protein factors uniquely required during the initiation phase of protein synthesis in GENETIC TRANSLATION.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Ribosome Subunits, Small, Eukaryotic: The small subunit of the 80s ribosome of eukaryotes. It is composed of the 18S RIBOSOMAL RNA and 32 different RIBOSOMAL PROTEINS.Poly U: A group of uridine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each uridine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Polyribosomes: A multiribosomal structure representing a linear array of RIBOSOMES held together by messenger RNA; (RNA, MESSENGER); They represent the active complexes in cellular protein synthesis and are able to incorporate amino acids into polypeptides both in vivo and in vitro. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Ribosome Subunits, Small, Bacterial: The small subunit of eubacterial RIBOSOMES. It is composed of the 16S RIBOSOMAL RNA and about 23 different RIBOSOMAL PROTEINS.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Prokaryotic Initiation Factor-3: A prokaryotic initiation factor that plays a role in recycling of ribosomal subunits for a new round of translational initiation. It binds to 16S RIBOSOMAL RNA and stimulates the dissociation of vacant 70S ribosomes. It may also be involved in the preferential binding of initiator tRNA to the 30S initiation complex.Puromycin: A cinnamamido ADENOSINE found in STREPTOMYCES alboniger. It inhibits protein synthesis by binding to RNA. It is an antineoplastic and antitrypanosomal agent and is used in research as an inhibitor of protein synthesis.RNA, Transfer: The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Ribosome Subunits, Large, Bacterial: The large subunit of the eubacterial 70s ribosome. It is composed of the 23S RIBOSOMAL RNA, the 5S RIBOSOMAL RNA, and about 37 different RIBOSOMAL PROTEINS.RNA, Ribosomal, 18S: Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.Germanium: A rare metal element with a blue-gray appearance and atomic symbol Ge, atomic number 32, and atomic weight 72.63.BenzoxepinsPeptide Biosynthesis: The production of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS by the constituents of a living organism. The biosynthesis of proteins on RIBOSOMES following an RNA template is termed translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). There are other, non-ribosomal peptide biosynthesis (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NUCLEIC ACID-INDEPENDENT) mechanisms carried out by PEPTIDE SYNTHASES and PEPTIDYLTRANSFERASES. Further modifications of peptide chains yield functional peptide and protein molecules.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.RNA, Transfer, Met: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying methionine to sites on the ribosomes. During initiation of protein synthesis, tRNA(f)Met in prokaryotic cells and tRNA(i)Met in eukaryotic cells binds to the start codon (CODON, INITIATOR).Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-3: A multisubunit eukaryotic initiation factor that contains at least 8 distinct polypeptides. It plays a role in recycling of ribosomal subunits to the site of transcription initiation by promoting the dissociation of non-translating ribosomal subunits. It also is involved in promoting the binding of a ternary complex of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2; GTP; and INITIATOR TRNA to the 40S ribosomal subunit.Ribosome Subunits, Large: The largest ribonucleoprotein component of RIBOSOMES. It contains the domains which catalyze formation of the peptide bond and translocation of the ribosome along the MESSENGER RNA during GENETIC TRANSLATION.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.RNA, Fungal: Ribonucleic acid in fungi having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.RNA Precursors: RNA transcripts of the DNA that are in some unfinished stage of post-transcriptional processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL) required for function. RNA precursors may undergo several steps of RNA SPLICING during which the phosphodiester bonds at exon-intron boundaries are cleaved and the introns are excised. Consequently a new bond is formed between the ends of the exons. Resulting mature RNAs can then be used; for example, mature mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER) is used as a template for protein production.Architecture as Topic: The art and science of designing buildings and structures. More generally, it is the design of the total built environment, including town planning, urban design, and landscape architecture.RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional: Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Edeine: Basic peptide antibiotic from Bacillus brevis. It exhibits broad-spectrum antibacterial activity and inhibits bacterial DNA synthesis.RNA, Ribosomal, 23S: Constituent of 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 3200 nucleotides. 23S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Ribosomal Protein S6: A ribosomal protein that may play a role in controlling cell growth and proliferation. It is a major substrate of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES and plays a role in regulating the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of RNAs that contain an RNA 5' TERMINAL OLIGOPYRIMIDINE SEQUENCE.RNA, Transfer, Amino Acyl: Intermediates in protein biosynthesis. The compounds are formed from amino acids, ATP and transfer RNA, a reaction catalyzed by aminoacyl tRNA synthetase. They are key compounds in the genetic translation process.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Cell Nucleolus: Within most types of eukaryotic CELL NUCLEUS, a distinct region, not delimited by a membrane, in which some species of rRNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) are synthesized and assembled into ribonucleoprotein subunits of ribosomes. In the nucleolus rRNA is transcribed from a nucleolar organizer, i.e., a group of tandemly repeated chromosomal genes which encode rRNA and which are transcribed by RNA polymerase I. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology & Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Anthropology, Physical: The comparative science dealing with the physical characteristics of humans as related to their origin, evolution, and development in the total environment.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.RNA, Ribosomal, 5.8S: Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 5.8S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cell Fractionation: Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.Guanosine Triphosphate: Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Phenylalanine: An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.Ribosome Subunits, Small: The small ribonucleoprotein component of RIBOSOMES. It contains the MESSENGER RNA binding site and two TRANSFER RNA binding sites - one for the incoming AMINO ACYL TRNA (A site) and the other (P site) for the peptidyl tRNA carrying the elongating peptide chain.Viomycin: A strongly basic peptide, antibiotic complex from several strains of Streptomyces. It is allergenic and toxic to kidneys and the labyrinth. Viomycin is used in tuberculosis as several different salts and in combination with other agents.RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-1: A eukaryotic initiation factor that binds to 40S ribosomal subunits. Although initially considered a "non-essential" factor for eukaryotic transcription initiation, eukaryotic initiation factor-1 is now thought to play an important role in localizing RIBOSOMES at the initiation codon of MRNA.Peptide Elongation Factors: Protein factors uniquely required during the elongation phase of protein synthesis.RNA, Ribosomal, 5S: Constituent of the 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 120 nucleotides and 34 proteins. It is also a constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 5S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Cross-Linking Reagents: Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.Artemia: A genus of CRUSTACEA of the order ANOSTRACA, found in briny pools and lakes and often cultured for fish food. It has 168 chromosomes and differs from most crustaceans in that its blood contains hemoglobin.Peptidyl Transferases: Acyltransferases that use AMINO ACYL TRNA as the amino acid donor in formation of a peptide bond. There are ribosomal and non-ribosomal peptidyltransferases.Trichodermin: Antifungal metabolite from several fungi, mainly Trichoderma viride; inhibits protein synthesis by binding to ribosomes; proposed as antifungal and antineoplastic; used as tool in cellular biochemistry.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Pactamycin: Antibiotic produced by Streptomyces pactum used as an antineoplastic agent. It is also used as a tool in biochemistry because it inhibits certain steps in protein synthesis.Methionine: A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Ribonucleoproteins: Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).RNA, Transfer, Phe: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying phenylalanine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.Dental Cements: Substances used to bond COMPOSITE RESINS to DENTAL ENAMEL and DENTIN. These bonding or luting agents are used in restorative dentistry, ROOT CANAL THERAPY; PROSTHODONTICS; and ORTHODONTICS.Geobacillus stearothermophilus: A species of GRAM-POSITIVE ENDOSPORE-FORMING BACTERIA in the family BACILLACEAE, found in soil, hot springs, Arctic waters, ocean sediments, and spoiled food products.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)PolynucleotidesEukaryotic Initiation Factor-2: Eukaryotic initiation factor of protein synthesis. In higher eukaryotes the factor consists of three subunits: alpha, beta, and gamma. As initiation proceeds, eIF-2 forms a ternary complex with Met-tRNAi and GTP.Maleic Anhydrides: Used in copolymerization reactions, in the Diels-Alder(diene)synthesis, in the preparation of resins, pharmaceuticals and agricultural chemicals. It is a powerful irritant and causes burns.Prokaryotic Initiation Factors: Peptide initiation factors from prokaryotic organisms. Only three factors are needed for translation initiation in prokaryotic organisms, which occurs by a far simpler process than in PEPTIDE CHAIN INITIATION, TRANSLATIONAL of eukaryotic organisms.Ribonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.Centrifugation, Zonal: Centrifugation using a rotating chamber of large capacity in which to separate cell organelles by density-gradient centrifugation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Eukaryotic Initiation Factors: Peptide initiation factors from eukaryotic organisms. Over twelve factors are involved in PEPTIDE CHAIN INITIATION, TRANSLATIONAL in eukaryotic cells. Many of these factors play a role in controlling the rate of MRNA TRANSLATION.Peptide Chain Elongation, Translational: A process of GENETIC TRANSLATION, when an amino acid is transferred from its cognate TRANSFER RNA to the lengthening chain of PEPTIDES.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Peptide Elongation Factor G: Peptide Elongation Factor G catalyzes the translocation of peptidyl-tRNA from the A to the P site of bacterial ribosomes by a process linked to hydrolysis of GTP to GDP.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Ribonuclease T1: An enzyme catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of RNA at the 3'-position of a guanylate residue. EC 3.1.27.3.RNA, Ribosomal, 28S: Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 28S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.TritiumLiver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.N-Formylmethionine: Effective in the initiation of protein synthesis. The initiating methionine residue enters the ribosome as N-formylmethionyl tRNA. This process occurs in Escherichia coli and other bacteria as well as in the mitochondria of eucaryotic cells.Oligoribonucleotides: A group of ribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Ribosome Subunits, Large, Archaeal: The large subunit of the archaeal 70s ribosome. It is composed of the 23S RIBOSOMAL RNA, the 5S RIBOSOMAL RNA, and about 40 different RIBOSOMAL PROTEINS.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Centrifugation, Isopycnic: A technique used to separate particles according to their densities in a continuous density gradient. The sample is usually mixed with a solution of known gradient materials and subjected to centrifugation. Each particle sediments to the position at which the gradient density is equal to its own. The range of the density gradient is usually greater than that of the sample particles. It is used in purifying biological materials such as proteins, nucleic acids, organelles, and cell types.Haloarcula marismortui: A species of halophilic archaea distinguished by its production of acid from sugar. This species was previously called Halobacterium marismortui.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Codon, Initiator: A codon that directs initiation of protein translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) by stimulating the binding of initiator tRNA (RNA, TRANSFER, MET). In prokaryotes, the codons AUG or GUG can act as initiators while in eukaryotes, AUG is the only initiator codon.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Carcinoma, Krebs 2Guanine NucleotidesAmino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.GTP Phosphohydrolase-Linked Elongation Factors: Factors that utilize energy from the hydrolysis of GTP to GDP for peptide chain elongation. EC 3.6.1.-.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Models, Structural: A representation, generally small in scale, to show the structure, construction, or appearance of something. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Karyopherins: A family of proteins involved in NUCLEOCYTOPLASMIC TRANSPORT. Karyopherins are heteromeric molecules composed two major types of components, ALPHA KARYOPHERINS and BETA KARYOPHERINS, that function together to transport molecules through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Several other proteins such as RAN GTP BINDING PROTEIN and CELLULAR APOPTOSIS SUSCEPTIBILITY PROTEIN bind to karyopherins and participate in the transport process.Sparsomycin: An antitumor antibiotic produced by Streptomyces sparsogenes. It inhibits protein synthesis in 70S and 80S ribosomal systems.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Capreomycin: Cyclic peptide antibiotic similar to VIOMYCIN. It is produced by Streptomyces capreolus.Dihydrostreptomycin Sulfate: A semi-synthetic aminoglycoside antibiotic that is used in the treatment of TUBERCULOSIS.Prokaryotic Initiation Factor-2: The largest of the three prokaryotic initiation factors with a molecular size of approximately 80 kD. It functions in the transcription initiation process by promoting the binding of formylmethionine-tRNA to the P-site of the 30S ribosome and by preventing the incorrect binding of elongator tRNA to the translation initiation site.DEAD-box RNA Helicases: A large family of RNA helicases that share a common protein motif with the single letter amino acid sequence D-E-A-D (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp). In addition to RNA helicase activity, members of the DEAD-box family participate in other aspects of RNA metabolism and regulation of RNA function.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Peptide Chain Termination, Translational: A process of GENETIC TRANSLATION whereby the terminal amino acid is added to a lengthening polypeptide. This termination process is signaled from the MESSENGER RNA, by one of three termination codons (CODON, TERMINATOR) that immediately follows the last amino acid-specifying CODON.Mechlorethamine: A biologic alkylating agent that exerts its cytotoxic effects by forming DNA ADDUCTS and DNA interstrand crosslinks, thereby inhibiting rapidly proliferating cells. The hydrochloride is an antineoplastic agent used to treat HODGKIN DISEASE and LYMPHOMA.Electrophoresis: An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.Active Transport, Cell Nucleus: Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.RNA Helicases: A family of proteins that promote unwinding of RNA during splicing and translation.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Lithium: An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.Endoribonucleases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of RNA. It includes EC 3.1.26.-, EC 3.1.27.-, EC 3.1.30.-, and EC 3.1.31.-.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Cell-Free System: A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-5: A eukaryotic initiation factor that interacts with the 40S initiation complex and promotes the hydrolysis of the bound GTP. The hydrolysis of GTP causes the release of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2 and EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-3 from the 40S subunit and the subsequent joining of the 60S ribosomal subunit to the 40S complex to form the functional 80S initiation complexNucleoproteins: Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.GTP-Binding Protein gamma Subunits: Heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein subunits that tightly associate with GTP-BINDING PROTEIN BETA SUBUNITS. A dimer of beta and gamma subunits is formed when the GTP-BINDING PROTEIN ALPHA SUBUNIT dissociates from the GTP-binding protein heterotrimeric complex. The beta-gamma dimer can play an important role in signal transduction by interacting with a variety of second messengers.Cryoelectron Microscopy: Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.Electrophoresis, Disc: Electrophoresis in which discontinuities in both the voltage and pH gradients are introduced by using buffers of different composition and pH in the different parts of the gel column. The term 'disc' was originally used as an abbreviation for 'discontinuous' referring to the buffers employed, and does not have anything to do with the shape of the separated zones.GTP-Binding Protein beta Subunits: Heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein subunits that tightly associate with GTP-BINDING PROTEIN GAMMA SUBUNITS. A dimer of beta and gamma subunits is formed when the GTP-BINDING PROTEIN ALPHA SUBUNIT dissociates from the GTP-binding protein heterotrimeric complex. The beta-gamma dimer can play an important role in signal transduction by interacting with a variety of second messengers.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Potassium Chloride: A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Methyltransferases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from one compound to another. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.1.1.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Lithium Chloride: A salt of lithium that has been used experimentally as an immunomodulator.Chloroplasts: Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chloramphenicol: An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)Deinococcus: A genus of gram-positive aerobic cocci found in the soil, that is highly resistant to radiation, especially ionizing radiation (RADIATION, IONIZING). Deinococcus radiodurans is the type species.Phosphorus Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of phosphorus that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. P atoms with atomic weights 28-34 except 31 are radioactive phosphorus isotopes.Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-4F: A trimeric peptide initiation factor complex that associates with the 5' MRNA cap structure of RNA (RNA CAPS) and plays an essential role in MRNA TRANSLATION. It is composed of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-4A; EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-4E; and EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-4G.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Ethylmaleimide: A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.Eukaryotic Cells: Cells of the higher organisms, containing a true nucleus bounded by a nuclear membrane.RNA Nucleotidyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the template-directed incorporation of ribonucleotides into an RNA chain. EC 2.7.7.-.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Anticodon: The sequential set of three nucleotides in TRANSFER RNA that interacts with its complement in MESSENGER RNA, the CODON, during translation in the ribosome.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional: Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Electrophoresis, Cellulose Acetate: Electrophoresis in which cellulose acetate is the diffusion medium.Uracil NucleotidesGlobins: A superfamily of proteins containing the globin fold which is composed of 6-8 alpha helices arranged in a characterstic HEME enclosing structure.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Edetic Acid: A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.5' Untranslated Regions: The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Bacillus: A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.Protein Synthesis Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit the synthesis of proteins. They are usually ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS or toxins. Mechanism of the action of inhibition includes the interruption of peptide-chain elongation, the blocking the A site of ribosomes, the misreading of the genetic code or the prevention of the attachment of oligosaccharide side chains to glycoproteins.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Aminoglycosides: Glycosylated compounds in which there is an amino substituent on the glycoside. Some of them are clinically important ANTIBIOTICS.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Hemin: Chloro(7,12-diethenyl-3,8,13,17-tetramethyl-21H,23H-porphine-2,18-dipropanoato(4-)-N(21),N(22),N(23),N(24)) ferrate(2-) dihydrogen.Carcinoma, Ehrlich Tumor: A transplantable, poorly differentiated malignant tumor which appeared originally as a spontaneous breast carcinoma in a mouse. It grows in both solid and ascitic forms.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)GTP Phosphohydrolases: Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Chromatography, DEAE-Cellulose: A type of ion exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-CELLULOSE) as a positively charged resin. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Nucleic Acid Denaturation: Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.RNA Caps: Nucleic acid structures found on the 5' end of eukaryotic cellular and viral messenger RNA and some heterogeneous nuclear RNAs. These structures, which are positively charged, protect the above specified RNAs at their termini against attack by phosphatases and other nucleases and promote mRNA function at the level of initiation of translation. Analogs of the RNA caps (RNA CAP ANALOGS), which lack the positive charge, inhibit the initiation of protein synthesis.Codon: A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Yeasts: A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.Archaea: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.Ultracentrifugation: Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Methylation: Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Guanosine Diphosphate: A guanine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
"Recognition of Cognate Transfer RNA by the 30S Ribosomal Subunit". Science. New York. 292 (5518): 897-902. doi:10.1126/science. ... and Hygromycin B on the 30S Ribosomal Subunit". Cell. 103 (7): 1143-1154. doi:10.1016/s0092-8674(00)00216-6. PMID 11163189. ... "Functional insights from the structure of the 30S ribosomal subunit and its interactions with antibiotics". Nature. 407 (6802 ... "Structure of the 30S ribosomal subunit". Nature. 407 (6802): 327-339. doi:10.1038/35030006. PMID 11014182. Ramakrishnan, V.; ...
Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% ... 39S ribosomal protein L17, mitochondrial is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MRPL17 gene. Mammalian mitochondrial ... 2001). "The human mitochondrial ribosomal protein genes: mapping of 54 genes to the chromosomes and implications for human ... 2000). "Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins (2). Amino acid sequencing, characterization, and identification of ...
Systematic analysis of protein components of the large ribosomal subunit from mammalian mitochondria". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (24 ... Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% ... 39S ribosomal protein L4, mitochondrial is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MRPL4 gene. Mammalian mitochondrial ... 2001). "The human mitochondrial ribosomal protein genes: mapping of 54 genes to the chromosomes and implications for human ...
2001). "The large subunit of the mammalian mitochondrial ribosome. Analysis of the complement of ribosomal proteins present". J ... Systematic analysis of protein components of the large ribosomal subunit from mammalian mitochondria". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (24 ... Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% ... 39S ribosomal protein L20, mitochondrial is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MRPL20 gene. Mammalian mitochondrial ...
This gene encodes a 39S subunit protein that belongs to the L18P ribosomal protein family. Three polymorphic sites exist in ... Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% ... 39S ribosomal protein L18, mitochondrial is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MRPL18 gene. Mammalian mitochondrial ... Koc EC, Burkhart W, Blackburn K, Moyer MB, Schlatzer DM, Moseley A, Spremulli LL (Nov 2001). "The large subunit of the ...
2001). "The large subunit of the mammalian mitochondrial ribosome. Analysis of the complement of ribosomal proteins present". J ... Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% ... 39S ribosomal protein L55, mitochondrial is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MRPL55 gene. Mammalian mitochondrial ... This gene encodes a 39S subunit protein. Multiple transcript variants encoding two different isoforms were identified through ...
2000). "A proteomics approach to the identification of mammalian mitochondrial small subunit ribosomal proteins". J. Biol. Chem ... Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% ... "The small subunit of the mammalian mitochondrial ribosome. Identification of the full complement of ribosomal proteins present ... 28S ribosomal protein S25, mitochondrial is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MRPS25 gene. Mammalian mitochondrial ...
Ribosomes and ribosomal subunits are found in these bodies. Table 1. Genome features of selected Chlamydia species and strains ...
21 September 2000). "Structure of the 30S ribosomal subunit". Nature. London: Nature Publishing Group. 407 (6802): 327-339. ...
Each subunit is composed of one or more ribosomal RNA (rRNA) molecules and a variety of ribosomal proteins (r-protein or ... Ribosomes consist of two major components: the small ribosomal subunit, which reads the RNA, and the large subunit, which joins ... Their small subunit has a 16S RNA subunit (consisting of 1540 nucleotides) bound to 21 proteins. The large subunit is composed ... Each ribosome is divided into two subunits: a smaller subunit which binds to a larger subunit and the mRNA pattern, and a ...
It is not stably associated with polysomes or ribosomal subunits. ENSG00000274829 GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000140694, ...
It associates with polyribosomes, predominantly with 60S large ribosomal subunits. This encoded protein may self-associate or ... "Specific sequences in the fragile X syndrome protein FMR1 and the FXR proteins mediate their binding to 60S ribosomal subunits ... "Specific sequences in the fragile X syndrome protein FMR1 and the FXR proteins mediate their binding to 60S ribosomal subunits ...
Systematic analysis of protein components of the large ribosomal subunit from mammalian mitochondria". The Journal of ... Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% ... 39S ribosomal protein L33, mitochondrial is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MRPL33 gene. Mammalian mitochondrial ... This gene encodes a 39S subunit protein. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been ...
Both subunits contain dozens of ribosomal proteins arranged on a scaffold composed of ribosomal RNA (rRNA). The small subunit ... Eukaryotic ribosomes have two unequal subunits, designated small subunit (40S) and large subunit (60S) according to their ... The 60S subunit contains a 28S rRNA that is homologous to the prokaryotic 23S ribosomal RNA. In addition, it contains a 5.8S ... The 40S subunit contains a 18S ribosomal RNA (abbreviated 18S rRNA), which is homologous to the prokaryotic 16S rRNA. ...
Mehta, Roopal; Champney, W. Scott (2003). "Neomycin and Paromomycin Inhibit 30S Ribosomal Subunit Assembly in Staphylococcus ... Neomycin binds to the 30S subunit of the ribosome and inhibits translation of proteins from mRNA. Neomycin exhibits a high ...
Trotta CR, Lund E, Kahan L, Johnson AW, Dahlberg JE (May 2003). "Coordinated nuclear export of 60S ribosomal subunits and NMD3 ... Thomas F, Kutay U (2003). "Biogenesis and nuclear export of ribosomal subunits in higher eukaryotes depend on the CRM1 export ... "Biogenesis and nuclear export of ribosomal subunits in higher eukaryotes depend on the CRM1 export pathway". J. Cell Sci. 116 ( ... 60S ribosomal export protein NMD3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NMD3 gene. NMD3 has been shown to interact with ...
This gene encodes a 28S subunit protein that has been called mitochondrial ribosomal protein S35 in the literature. GRCh38: ... 2000). "A proteomics approach to the identification of mammalian mitochondrial small subunit ribosomal proteins". J. Biol. Chem ... Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% ... "The small subunit of the mammalian mitochondrial ribosome. Identification of the full complement of ribosomal proteins present ...
28S ribosomal protein S29, mitochondrial, also known as death-associated protein 3 (DAP3), is a protein that in humans is ... The DAP3 gene encodes a 46 kDa protein located in the lower area of the small mitoribosomal subunit. This protein contains a P- ... Pseudogenes for this gene are also found in chromosomes 1 and 2. DAP3 is a 28S subunit protein of mitoribosomes and localizes ... Kenmochi N, Suzuki T, Uechi T, Magoori M, Kuniba M, Higa S, Watanabe K, Tanaka T (2001). "The human mitochondrial ribosomal ...
This gene encodes a 28S subunit protein that is one of the more highly conserved mitochondrial ribosomal proteins among mammals ... Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% ... "The small subunit of the mammalian mitochondrial ribosome. Identification of the full complement of ribosomal proteins present ... 28S ribosomal protein S33, mitochondrial is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MRPS33 gene. Mammalian mitochondrial ...
"The small subunit of the mammalian mitochondrial ribosome. Identification of the full complement of ribosomal proteins present ... Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% ... 28S ribosomal protein S35, mitochondrial is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MRPS35 gene. Mammalian mitochondrial ... "Entrez Gene: MRPS35 mitochondrial ribosomal protein S35". Otsuki T, Ota T, Nishikawa T, et al. (2007). "Signal sequence and ...
2001). "The small subunit of the mammalian mitochondrial ribosome. Identification of the full complement of ribosomal proteins ... This gene encodes a 28S subunit protein that belongs to the ribosomal protein S21P family. Pseudogenes corresponding to this ... Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% ... 28S ribosomal protein S21, mitochondrial is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MRPS21 gene. Mammalian mitochondrial ...
The 43S PIC contains the small ribosomal subunit (40S) bound by the initiation factors eIF1, eIF1A, eIF3, and the eIF2-Met- ... Eukaryotic translation 40S ribosomal subunit eIF3 Sonenberg, Nahum; Hinnebusch, Alan G. (2009). "Regulation of Translation ... and is followed by joining of the large 60S ribosomal subunit to form the 80S ribosome. Due to its size and complexity, the 43S ... Start codon recognition occurs through base-pairing between the Met-tRNAiMet and AUG in the ribosomal P-site and a number of ...
Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% ... 28S ribosomal protein S30, mitochondrial is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MRPS30 gene. Mammalian mitochondrial ... This gene encodes a 28S subunit protein that is similar to the chicken pro-apoptotic protein p52. Transcript variants using ... Cavdar Koc E, Burkhart W, Blackburn K, Moseley A, Spremulli LL (May 2001). "The small subunit of the mammalian mitochondrial ...
... the large subunit ribosomal ribonucleic acid. "Escherichia coli 16S ribosomal RNA". "Halobacterium salinarum 18S ribosomal RNA ... Small subunit ribosomal ribonucleic acid (SSU rRNA) is the smallest of the two major RNA components of the ribosome. Associated ... with a number of ribosomal proteins, the SSU rRNA forms the small subunit of the ribosome. SSU rRNA sequences are widely used ... "Arabidopsis thaliana 16S ribosomal RNA (chloroplast)". Woese, Carl R.; Kandler, O; Wheelis, M (1990). "Towards a natural system ...
This gene encodes a 28S subunit protein that belongs to the ribosomal protein S17P family. The encoded protein is moderately ... Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% ... "The small subunit of the mammalian mitochondrial ribosome. Identification of the full complement of ribosomal proteins present ... 28S ribosomal protein S17, mitochondrial is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MRPS17 gene. Mammalian mitochondrial ...
21 ribosomal proteins, and four RNA polymerase subunits,[22][23] involved in protein synthesis. For photosynthesis, the ... Five subunits of the TOC complex have been identified-two GTP-binding proteins Toc34 and Toc159, the protein import tunnel ... Toc159 is another GTP binding TOC subunit, like Toc34. Toc159 has three domains. At the N-terminal end is the A-domain, which ... Among land plants, the contents of the chloroplast genome are fairly similar[8]-they code for four ribosomal RNAs, 30-31 tRNAs ...
The large ribosomal subunit has a role in protein folding both in vitro and in vivo. The large ribosomal subunit provides a ... The large ribosomal subunit (50S) is approximately twice as massive as the small ribosomal subunit (30S). The model of Hm 50S, ... It includes the 5S ribosomal RNA and 23S ribosomal RNA. 50S, roughly equivalent to the 60S ribosomal subunit in eukaryotic ... Prokaryotic small ribosomal subunit (30S) Ribosomal RNA 23S methyl RNA motif Ban N, Nissen P, Hansen J, Moore P, Steitz T (2000 ...
The prokaryotic small ribosomal subunit, or 30S, is the smaller subunit of the 70S ribosome found in prokaryotes. It is a ... Then the large ribosomal subunit will bind and protein synthesis will continue. The binding of the large subunit causes a ... Prokaryotic large ribosomal subunit (50S) Ribosomal RNA Antibiotics Schluenzen F, Tocilj A, Zarivach R, Harms J, Gluehmann M, ... The small ribosomal subunit is made up of 16S rRNA and 19 full proteins. There is also one polypeptide chain that measures in ...
Eukaryotic large ribosomal subunit (60S). References[edit]. *^ 40S+Ribosomal+Subunits at the US National Library of Medicine ... The eukaryotic small ribosomal subunit (40S) is the smaller subunit of the eukaryotic 80S ribosomes, with the other major ... 40S ribosomal proteins[edit]. The table "40S ribosomal proteins" shows the individual protein folds of the 40S subunit colored ... In the figure "Crystal Structure of the Eukaryotic 40S Ribosomal Subunit from T. thermophila", the ribosomal RNA core is ...
Wickerhamomyces anomalus isolate Lev6 large subunit ribosomal RNA gene, partial ... Wickerhamomyces anomalus isolate Lev6 large ... Wickerhamomyces anomalus isolate Lev6 large subunit ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence. GenBank: MG576227.1 ...
Database on the structure of small ribosomal subunit RNA.. Van de Peer Y1, Nicolaï S, De Rijk P, De Wachter R. ... The Antwerp database on small ribosomal subunit RNA offers over 4300 nucleotide sequences (August 1995). All these sequences ...
ribosomal subunit export from cell nucleus, ribosomal subunit export out of nucleus, ribosomal subunit transport from nucleus ... Gene Ontology Term: ribosomal subunit export from nucleus. GO ID. GO:0000054 Aspect. Biological Process. Description. The ... ribosomal subunit-nucleus export, ribosome export from nucleus View GO Annotations in other species in AmiGO ... directed movement of a ribosomal subunit from the nucleus into the cytoplasm.. Synonyms. ...
As cryptic morphology, low parasitaemia and selective growth in culture have recurrently biased survey, we used 18S ribosomal ... Ribosomal RNA Is the Subject Area "Ribosomal RNA" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
50S ribosomal subunit export from nucleus, 60S ribosomal subunit export from nucleus, ribosomal large subunit export from cell ... ribosomal large subunit export out of nucleus, ribosomal large subunit transport from nucleus to cytoplasm, ribosomal large ... Gene Ontology Term: ribosomal large subunit export from nucleus. GO ID. GO:0000055 Aspect. Biological Process. Description. The ... directed movement of a ribosomal large subunit from the nucleus into the cytoplasm.. Synonyms. ...
Crystal Structure of 30S ribosomal subunit from Thermus thermophilus. Demirci, H., Belardinelli, R., Carr, J., Murphy IV, F., ... Crystal Structure of 30S ribosomal subunit from Thermus thermophilus. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb4LFB/pdb ...
Crystal Structure of 30S ribosomal subunit from Thermus thermophilus. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb4JI7/pdb ... RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S2. B. 256. Thermus thermophilus HB8. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: rpsB, rps2, TTHA0861. ... RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S3. C. 239. Thermus thermophilus HB8. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: rpsC, rps3, TTHA1686. ... RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S4. D. 209. Thermus thermophilus HB8. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: rpsD, rps4, TTHA1665. ...
a) Position of protein S1 with respect to the16S rRNA, and (b) with respect to other small-subunit ribosomal proteins of the ... Protein S1 is the largest ribosomal protein, 68 kDa (1), present in the small subunit of the Escherichia coli 70S ribosome. It ... We have determined the specific regions of other small-subunit ribosomal proteins that interact with the S1 protein (Figs. 2b ... Visualization of protein S1 within the 30S ribosomal subunit and its interaction with messenger RNA. Jayati Sengupta, Rajendra ...
We determined almost complete small-subunit ribosomal DNA sequences of 50 reference strains belonging to the genera ... Phylogeny of the genus Corynebacterium deduced from analyses of small-subunit ribosomal DNA sequences Int J Syst Bacteriol. ... We determined almost complete small-subunit ribosomal DNA sequences of 50 reference strains belonging to the genera ... The variability of chemotaxonomic characteristics within the genus Corynebacterium suggests that small-subunit ribosomal DNA ...
... Lee J.C., Henry B., Yeh Y.C. ... Specific binding of purified proteins from the large ribosomal subunits of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to 5.8 S rRNA was examined ...
Ribosomal RNA large subunit methyltransferase CfrAdd BLAST. 349. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). ... Ribosomal RNA large subunit methyltransferase CfrUniRule annotation. Manual assertion according to rulesi ... sp,A5HBL2,CFR_STAAU Ribosomal RNA large subunit methyltransferase Cfr OS=Staphylococcus aureus OX=1280 GN=cfr PE=1 SV=1 ... "A new mechanism for chloramphenicol, florfenicol and clindamycin resistance: methylation of 23S ribosomal RNA at A2503.". ...
... ribosomal subunit, connects to events on the small (30S) subunit remain unclear at a molecular level. ... on the small ribosomal subunit, where mRNA decoding occurs, but does not contact the head domain of the 30S subunit. ... Control of Ribosomal Subunit Rotation by Elongation Factor G Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... In the structures, EF-G/GMPPCP binds the ribosome in three different states of ribosomal subunit rotation but is more ordered ...
The canonical translation initiation pathway begins with cap-dependent attachment of the small ribosomal subunit (SSU) to the ... ribosomal scanning; SSU; 40S ribosomal subunit; cap-dependent initiation; eIF4A; eIF4F; 5′UTR; 5′ UTR ... Migration of Small Ribosomal Subunits on the 5′ Untranslated Regions of Capped Messenger RNA by Nikolay E. Shirokikh 1,*, Yulia ... "Migration of Small Ribosomal Subunits on the 5′ Untranslated Regions of Capped Messenger RNA." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 20, no. 18: ...
Antibodies for proteins involved in ribosomal small subunit biogenesis pathways, according to their Panther/Gene Ontology ... Antibodies for proteins involved in ribosomal small subunit biogenesis pathways; according to their Panther/Gene Ontology ...
Two new small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene lineages within the subclass gymnamoebia. Publication Status is Submitted Or In ... dactylopodia; glycostyles; gymnamoebae; paramoebidae; parasome; protist; scales; small-subunit ribosomal rna; subpseudopodia; ... Phylogenetic analysis of small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences for gymnamoebae of the families Vexilliferidae, ...
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The nucleotide sequence of RPS26, the gene encoding a homologue of ribosomal protein small subunit S26 in Saccharomyces ... FLO11 mediated filamentous growth of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae depends on the expression of the ribosomal RPS26 genes. ... The Saccharomyces cerevisiae homologue of ribosomal protein S26. Wu, M., Tan, H.M. Gene (1994) [Pubmed] ... FLO11 mediated filamentous growth of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae depends on the expression of the ribosomal RPS26 genes ...
Small Subunit Ribosomal DNA Suggests that the Xenophyophorean Syringammina corbicula1 is a Foraminiferan. Authors. *. JAN ... To establish the phylogenetic position of Xenophyophorea, we analysed the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequence of ...
Conformational changes in 16S ribosomal RNA induced by 30S ribosomal subunit proteins from Escherichia coli ... Conformational changes in 16S ribosomal RNA induced by 30S ribosomal subunit proteins from Escherichia coli ... Conformational changes in 16S ribosomal RNA induced by 30S ribosomal subunit proteins from Escherichia coli ... Conformational changes in 16S ribosomal RNA induced by 30S ribosomal subunit proteins from Escherichia coli ...
Partial small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA sequences were amplified from both roots and spores using ei … ... Ribosomal small subunit sequence variation within spores of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, Scutellospora sp Mol Ecol. 1999 ... Partial small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA sequences were amplified from both roots and spores using either the universal ...
... Protect your Galaxy S8 with an impact-resistant, ... Ribosomal subunit. Computer model showing the structure of the RNA (ribonucleic acid) molecules in a 50S (large) ribosomal sub- ... Ribosomal Subunit, Molecular Model galaxy s8 case by Laguna Design. Protect your Galaxy S8 with an impact-resistant, slim- ... There are no comments for Ribosomal Subunit, Molecular Model. Click here to post the first comment. ...
In eukaryotes, 40S and 60S ribosomal subunits are assembled in the nucleus from rRNAs and ribosomal proteins, exported as ... two different small subunit ribosomal proteins that assemble into pre-40S subunits in the nucleus are retained in the nucleus ... small subunit ribosomal proteins used as markers for the localization of 40S subunits. We suggest that the nuclear retention of ... Gadal, O., D. Strauss, J. Kessl, B. Trumpower, D. Tollervey et al., 2001 Nuclear export of 60s ribosomal subunits depends on ...
  • Dominant mutants of NMD3 (also referred to as SRC5 ) ( 30 ) have also been identified as suppressors of the growth defect of a temperature-sensitive mutation in QSR1/GRC5 ( 31 ), encoding the large ribosomal subunit protein identified as L10 in the current ribosomal protein nomenclature of Mager et al. (asm.org)
  • The amino group of an aminoacyl-tRNA (binds to A site) attacks the carbon of a carbonyl group of a peptidyl-tRNA (binds to P site) and finally yields a peptide extended by one amino acid esterified to the A site tRNA bound to the ribosomal A site and a deacylated tRNA in the P site. (wikipedia.org)
  • The binding site of the f-Met-tRNA on the 30S ribosomal subunit is referred to as the "D-site" This step is required in order for protein synthesis to occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • By applying single-molecule FRET and X-ray crystallography, we have determined that conditional-lethal, streptomycin-dependence mutations in ribosomal protein S12 interfere with tRNA selection by allowing conformational distortions of the decoding site that impair GTPase activation of EF-Tu during the tRNA selection process. (rcsb.org)
  • These observations encourage a refinement of the current model for decoding, wherein ribosomal protein S12 and the decoding site collaborate to optimize codon recognition and substrate discrimination during the early stages of the tRNA selection process. (rcsb.org)
  • P i form, with EF-G domain IV decoupling tRNA movement from the 30 S subunit platform and allowing the intrinsic dynamics of the 30 S subunit head domain to translocate tRNAs into the peptidyl and exit sites. (sciencemag.org)
  • Phenylalanyl-tRNA was bound by 40S ribosomal subunits in the presence of poly(U) by either enzymic or non-enzymic reactions. (biochemj.org)
  • Hypophysectomy of rats resulted in a decreased binding of aminoacyl-tRNA by 40S ribosomal subunits. (biochemj.org)
  • The interaction of edeine with the small subunit indicates its role in inhibiting initiation and shows its involvement with P‐site tRNA. (embopress.org)
  • Tetracycline blocks stable binding of aminoacyl-tRNA to the bacterial ribosomal A-site. (mpg.de)
  • Kinetics of fMet-tRNA binding to 30S ribosomal subunit Inhibition of ribosomal binding of fMet-tRNA by an antibiotic may reduce the level of initiation complex formed at equilibrium. (chempedia.info)
  • The faster reaction on 50S subunits with fMet‐tRNA fMet , compared with oligonucleotide substrate analogues, suggests that full‐size transfer RNA in the P site is important for maintaining the active conformation of the peptidyl transferase centre. (embopress.org)
  • In the GTP analog-bound state, IF2 interacts mostly with the 30S subunit and extends to the initiator tRNA in the peptidyl (P) site, whereas in the GDP-bound state IF2 steps back and adopts a 'ready-to-leave' conformation. (nature.com)
  • Structure of the 80S ribosome from Saccharomyces cerevisiae--tRNA-ribosome and subunit-subunit interactions. (proteopedia.org)
  • Spahn CM, Beckmann R, Eswar N, Penczek PA, Sali A, Blobel G, Frank J. Structure of the 80S ribosome from Saccharomyces cerevisiae--tRNA-ribosome and subunit-subunit interactions. (proteopedia.org)
  • Although the knowledge of the binding sites of the structural components (r-proteins) in the mature ribosomal subunits might not fully reflect how these "endpoints" are established in vivo, the final structure is very helpful to better understand features like hierarchical interrelationship of r-protein assembly events and/or their requirement for specific maturation events. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Carter AP, Clemons WM, Brodersen DE et al (2000) Functional insights from the structure of the 30S ribosomal subunit and its interactions with antibiotics. (chempedia.info)
  • We suggest that the proximal consequence of these LTV1 mutations is inhibition of the cytoplasmic maturation of 40S subunits and that nuclear retention of pre-40S subunits is a downstream consequence of the failure to release and recycle critical factors back to the nucleus. (genetics.org)
  • Each drug also showed a concentration-dependent inhibition of 30S subunit formation. (asm.org)
  • However, inhibition is likely to result from interaction of the tetracyclines with the 30S ribosomal subunit because these antibiotics are known to bind strongly to a single site on the 30S subunit (85). (chempedia.info)
  • Herein, we deploy a genetic system to starve cells of an essential ribosomal protein, which results in the accumulation of assembly intermediates that are competent for maturation. (pdbj.org)
  • These antibiotics halt 50S subunit assembly and cause accumulation of a precursor particle, which later becomes degraded by cellular ribonucleases ( 19 ). (asm.org)
  • Growth in the presence of each antibiotic led to a reduction in 30S subunit amounts and to the accumulation of a 21S particle, suggestive of the presence of a precursor to the 30S subunit ( 17 ). (asm.org)
  • Single mutations of U to A at 571 or A to U at 865 dramatically altered the structural stability of the 30S subunit and also impaired the function of the subunit in translation. (nebraska.edu)
  • When the mutations were combined to create a compensatory pairing, the normal structure of the 30S subunit was restored, and the function of the mutant subunit in translation returned to wild-type levels. (nebraska.edu)
  • Translocation requires multiple steps that involve large-scale rearrangements of the ribosome that are directed by EF-G. The structural basis for how the GTPase active site in EF-G, composed of mobile "switch" elements that coordinate the guanosine 5′-triphosphate (GTP) and positioned by the large (50 S ) ribosomal subunit, connects to events on the small (30 S ) subunit remain unclear at a molecular level. (sciencemag.org)
  • There are no comments for Ribosomal Subunit, Molecular Model . (fineartamerica.com)
  • Polysome profiling showed that the key molecular event contributing to this metabolically efficient, high-yielding phenotype is a perturbation of the ratio of 60S to 40S ribosomal subunits from approximately 1:1 to 2:1, and correspondingly of 25S:18S ratios from 2:1 to 3:1. (aston.ac.uk)
  • In fact, H. lesteri is the first marine species of Henneguya to be characterized at the molecular level: we determined 1966 bp of the small-subunit (18S) rDNA. (int-res.com)
  • Finally, this molecular mechanism would allow BipA to interact with both the ribosome and the small ribosomal subunit during stress response. (osti.gov)
  • The previous methods for [ 3 H]uridine labeling of cells and sucrose gradient sedimentation of ribosomal subunits were used, except the centrifugation time was 5.25 h ( 6 ). (asm.org)
  • It has been implicated in the selection of the translation start site on the 30S subunit ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • In the structures, EF-G/GMPPCP binds the ribosome in three different states of ribosomal subunit rotation but is more ordered in the intermediate and fully rotated states than in the unrotated state. (sciencemag.org)
  • that binds Crm1 directly in a Ran-GTP-dependent manner ( T homas and K utay 2003 ) and is thought to recruit Crm1 to the pre-60S subunit in the nucleoplasm. (genetics.org)
  • UV-crosslinking/immunoblot assays have verified the interaction of the CTE region with molecules immunologically reactive to antibodies recognizing the ribosomal L10-like protein. (elsevier.com)
  • We delineated the regions of FMR1 that mediate its binding to 60S ribosomal subunits and the interactions among the FMR1-FXR family members. (asm.org)
  • To select for specific interactions, an excess of the 30S subunits over tetracycline has been used. (mpg.de)
  • In this view, ribosomal subunits themselves are considered to be regulatory elements or filters that mediate interactions between particular mRNAs and components of the translation machinery. (pnas.org)
  • Differences in these interactions affect how efficiently individual mRNAs compete for ribosomal subunits. (pnas.org)
  • The hypothesis further predicts that these competitive interactions between mRNAs and ribosomal subunits may be modulated by ribosome heterogeneity, manifested as differences in the affinity for mRNAs of various sites on the ribosomal subunits. (pnas.org)
  • Naturally, the question of whether or not a 27-nucleotide fragment could faithfully mimic the complete 30S subunit had to be answered. (chempedia.info)
  • LoBuglio KF, Rogers SO, Wang CJK (1991) Variation in ribosomal DNA among isolates of the mycorrhizal fungus Cenococcum geophilum . (springer.com)