Proteins found in ribosomes. They are believed to have a catalytic function in reconstituting biologically active ribosomal subunits.
A ribosomal protein that may play a role in controlling cell growth and proliferation. It is a major substrate of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES and plays a role in regulating the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of RNAs that contain an RNA 5' TERMINAL OLIGOPYRIMIDINE SEQUENCE.
Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A family of protein serine/threonine kinases which act as intracellular signalling intermediates. Ribosomal protein S6 kinases are activated through phosphorylation in response to a variety of HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Phosphorylation of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 by enzymes in this class results in increased expression of 5' top MRNAs. Although specific for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 members of this class of kinases can act on a number of substrates within the cell. The immunosuppressant SIROLIMUS inhibits the activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases.
The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A family of ribosomal protein S6 kinases that are considered the major physiological kinases for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6. Unlike RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, 90KDa the proteins in this family are sensitive to the inhibitory effects of RAPAMYCIN and contain a single kinase domain. They are referred to as 70kDa proteins, however ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of mRNAs for proteins in this class also results in 85kDa variants being formed.
A rare congenital hypoplastic anemia that usually presents early in infancy. The disease is characterized by a moderate to severe macrocytic anemia, occasional neutropenia or thrombocytosis, a normocellular bone marrow with erythroid hypoplasia, and an increased risk of developing leukemia. (Curr Opin Hematol 2000 Mar;7(2):85-94)
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The large subunit of the 80s ribosome of eukaryotes. It is composed of the 28S RIBOSOMAL RNA, the 5.8S RIBOSOMAL RNA, the 5S RIBOSOMAL RNA, and about 50 different RIBOSOMAL PROTEINS.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A multiribosomal structure representing a linear array of RIBOSOMES held together by messenger RNA; (RNA, MESSENGER); They represent the active complexes in cellular protein synthesis and are able to incorporate amino acids into polypeptides both in vivo and in vitro. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
The small subunit of the 80s ribosome of eukaryotes. It is composed of the 18S RIBOSOMAL RNA and 32 different RIBOSOMAL PROTEINS.
A species of GRAM-POSITIVE ENDOSPORE-FORMING BACTERIA in the family BACILLACEAE, found in soil, hot springs, Arctic waters, ocean sediments, and spoiled food products.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in hot springs of neutral to alkaline pH, as well as in hot-water heaters.
Within most types of eukaryotic CELL NUCLEUS, a distinct region, not delimited by a membrane, in which some species of rRNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) are synthesized and assembled into ribonucleoprotein subunits of ribosomes. In the nucleolus rRNA is transcribed from a nucleolar organizer, i.e., a group of tandemly repeated chromosomal genes which encode rRNA and which are transcribed by RNA polymerase I. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology & Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Constituent of the 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 120 nucleotides and 34 proteins. It is also a constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 5S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
A family of ribosomal protein S6 kinases that are structurally distinguished from RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, 70-KDA by their apparent molecular size and the fact they contain two functional kinase domains. Although considered RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, members of this family are activated via the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM and have been shown to act on a diverse array of substrates that are involved in cellular regulation such as RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 and CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Constituent of 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 3200 nucleotides. 23S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A group of uridine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each uridine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
The largest ribonucleoprotein component of RIBOSOMES. It contains the domains which catalyze formation of the peptide bond and translocation of the ribosome along the MESSENGER RNA during GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The small subunit of eubacterial RIBOSOMES. It is composed of the 16S RIBOSOMAL RNA and about 23 different RIBOSOMAL PROTEINS.
Protein factors uniquely required during the elongation phase of protein synthesis.
A serine threonine kinase that controls a wide range of growth-related cellular processes. The protein is referred to as the target of RAPAMYCIN due to the discovery that SIROLIMUS (commonly known as rapamycin) forms an inhibitory complex with TACROLIMUS BINDING PROTEIN 1A that blocks the action of its enzymatic activity.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.
Ribonucleic acid in fungi having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A genus of HALOBACTERIACEAE whose growth requires a high concentration of salt. Binary fission is by constriction.
The principal alkaloid of ipecac, from the ground roots of Uragoga (or Cephaelis) ipecacuanha or U. acuminata, of the Rubiaceae. It is used as an amebicide in many different preparations and may cause serious cardiac, hepatic, or renal damage and violent diarrhea and vomiting. Emetine inhibits protein synthesis in EUKARYOTIC CELLS but not PROKARYOTIC CELLS.
Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
One of the CYCLIC PEPTIDES from Streptomyces that is active against gram-positive bacteria. In veterinary medicine, it has been used in mastitis caused by gram-negative organisms and in dermatologic disorders.
The small ribonucleoprotein component of RIBOSOMES. It contains the MESSENGER RNA binding site and two TRANSFER RNA binding sites - one for the incoming AMINO ACYL TRNA (A site) and the other (P site) for the peptidyl tRNA carrying the elongating peptide chain.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.
Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
A process of GENETIC TRANSLATION whereby the formation of a peptide chain is started. It includes assembly of the RIBOSOME components, the MESSENGER RNA coding for the polypeptide to be made, INITIATOR TRNA, and PEPTIDE INITIATION FACTORS; and placement of the first amino acid in the peptide chain. The details and components of this process are unique for prokaryotic protein biosynthesis and eukaryotic protein biosynthesis.
A macrolide compound obtained from Streptomyces hygroscopicus that acts by selectively blocking the transcriptional activation of cytokines thereby inhibiting cytokine production. It is bioactive only when bound to IMMUNOPHILINS. Sirolimus is a potent immunosuppressant and possesses both antifungal and antineoplastic properties.
RNA transcripts of the DNA that are in some unfinished stage of post-transcriptional processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL) required for function. RNA precursors may undergo several steps of RNA SPLICING during which the phosphodiester bonds at exon-intron boundaries are cleaved and the introns are excised. Consequently a new bond is formed between the ends of the exons. Resulting mature RNAs can then be used; for example, mature mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER) is used as a template for protein production.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
An oligosaccharide antibiotic produced by various STREPTOMYCES.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.
The two dissimilar sized ribonucleoprotein complexes that comprise a RIBOSOME - the large ribosomal subunit and the small ribosomal subunit. The eukaryotic 80S ribosome is composed of a 60S large subunit and a 40S small subunit. The bacterial 70S ribosome is composed of a 50S large subunit and a 30S small subunit.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
A process of GENETIC TRANSLATION, when an amino acid is transferred from its cognate TRANSFER RNA to the lengthening chain of PEPTIDES.
A species of halophilic archaea distinguished by its production of acid from sugar. This species was previously called Halobacterium marismortui.
The large subunit of the eubacterial 70s ribosome. It is composed of the 23S RIBOSOMAL RNA, the 5S RIBOSOMAL RNA, and about 37 different RIBOSOMAL PROTEINS.
Esters of the hypothetical imidic acids. They react with amines or amino acids to form amidines and are therefore used to modify protein structures and as cross-linking agents.
Protein factors uniquely required during the initiation phase of protein synthesis in GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
Antifungal metabolite from several fungi, mainly Trichoderma viride; inhibits protein synthesis by binding to ribosomes; proposed as antifungal and antineoplastic; used as tool in cellular biochemistry.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Peptide Elongation Factor G catalyzes the translocation of peptidyl-tRNA from the A to the P site of bacterial ribosomes by a process linked to hydrolysis of GTP to GDP.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 28S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Peptide Elongation Factor 2 catalyzes the translocation of peptidyl-tRNA from the A site to the P site of eukaryotic ribosomes by a process linked to the hydrolysis of GTP to GDP.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A peptide initiation factor that binds specifically to the 5' MRNA CAP STRUCTURE of MRNA in the CYTOPLASM. It is a component of the trimeric complex EIF4F.
Proteins found in any species of archaeon.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.

Down-regulation of RpS21, a putative translation initiation factor interacting with P40, produces viable minute imagos and larval lethality with overgrown hematopoietic organs and imaginal discs. (1/4527)

Down-regulation of the Drosophila ribosomal protein S21 gene (rpS21) causes a dominant weak Minute phenotype and recessively produces massive hyperplasia of the hematopoietic organs and moderate overgrowth of the imaginal discs during larval development. Here, we show that the S21 protein (RpS21) is bound to native 40S ribosomal subunits in a salt-labile association and is absent from polysomes, indicating that it acts as a translation initiation factor rather than as a core ribosomal protein. RpS21 can interact strongly with P40, a ribosomal peripheral protein encoded by the stubarista (sta) gene. Genetic studies reveal that P40 underexpression drastically enhances imaginal disc overgrowth in rpS21-deficient larvae, whereas viable combinations between rpS21 and sta affect the morphology of bristles, antennae, and aristae. These data demonstrate a strong interaction between components of the translation machinery and showed that their underexpression impairs the control of cell proliferation in both hematopoietic organs and imaginal discs.  (+info)

Genome-wide bioinformatic and molecular analysis of introns in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (2/4527)

Introns have typically been discovered in an ad hoc fashion: introns are found as a gene is characterized for other reasons. As complete eukaryotic genome sequences become available, better methods for predicting RNA processing signals in raw sequence will be necessary in order to discover genes and predict their expression. Here we present a catalog of 228 yeast introns, arrived at through a combination of bioinformatic and molecular analysis. Introns annotated in the Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD) were evaluated, questionable introns were removed after failing a test for splicing in vivo, and known introns absent from the SGD annotation were added. A novel branchpoint sequence, AAUUAAC, was identified within an annotated intron that lacks a six-of-seven match to the highly conserved branchpoint consensus UACUAAC. Analysis of the database corroborates many conclusions about pre-mRNA substrate requirements for splicing derived from experimental studies, but indicates that splicing in yeast may not be as rigidly determined by splice-site conservation as had previously been thought. Using this database and a molecular technique that directly displays the lariat intron products of spliced transcripts (intron display), we suggest that the current set of 228 introns is still not complete, and that additional intron-containing genes remain to be discovered in yeast. The database can be accessed at http://www.cse.ucsc.edu/research/compbi o/yeast_introns.html.  (+info)

Purification and characterization of initiation factor IF-E2 from rabbit reticulocytes. (3/4527)

Initiation factor IF-E2 was isolated from rabbit reticulocytes and purified 120-fold to near homogeneity by ammonium sulfate fractionation, column chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and phosphocellulose, and, when suitable, by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. The factor is a complex protein containing three nonidentical polypeptides of molecular weight 57,000, 52,000, and 36,000. It behaves as a complex throughout its purification and during polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in nondenaturing buffer but its thress components are readily separated by electrophoresis in denaturing buffers. None of its components corresponds to any of the polypeptides of the other initiation factors or to any proteins of ribosomes washed in buffers containing a high salf concentration. A stoichiometric ratio of 1:1:1 was determined for the three polypeptides; based on the assumption of one copy each per complex, the calculated factor molecular weight is 145,000, a value in agreement with the measured value of 160,000. Initiation factor IF-E2 was radioactively labeled in vitro by reductive alkylation or by phosphorylation with a protein kinase also isolated from rabbit reticulocytes. Neither procedure causes a measurable change in the ability of the factor to form a ternary complex with GTP and the initiator methionyl-tRNA. 5'-Guanylyl-methylenediphosphonate may substitute for GTP, but only at relatively high concentrations. The binding of labeled initiation factor IF-E2 and methionyl-tRNA to the 40 S ribosomal subunit was studied by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Appreciable binding of the factor is seen only when all three components of the ternary complex are included in the reaction mixture. The binding of either the factor or methionyl-tRNA was not stimulated by the addition of globin messenger RNA and initiation factor IF-E3. It was shown that all three polypeptide components of initiation factor IF-E2 are bound to these nascent initiation complexes.  (+info)

Isolation of eukaryotic ribosomal proteins. Purification and characterization of the 60 S ribosomal subunit proteins L4, L5, L7, L9, L11, L12, L13, L21, L22, L23, L26, L27, L30, L33, L35', L37, and L39. (4/4527)

The proteins of the large subunit of rat liver ribosomes were separated into seven groups by stepwise elution from carboxymethylcellulose with LiCl at pH 6.5. Seventeen proteins (L4, L5, L7, L9, L11, L12, L13, L21, L22, L23, L26, L27, L30, L33, L35', L37, and L39) were isolated from three of the groups (B60, D60, G60) by ion exchange chromatography on carboxymethylcellulose and by filtration through Sephadex. The amount of protein obtained varied from 0.5 to 15 mg. Eight of the proteins (L9, L11, L13, L21, L22, L35', L37 and L39) had no detectable contamination; the impurities in the others were no greater than 9%. The molecular weight of the proteins was estimated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate; the amino acid composition was determined.  (+info)

Immunological comparison of the proteins of chicken and rat liver ribosomes. (5/4527)

A comparison of the proteins of chicken and rat liver ribosomes using immunochemical techniques was undertaken. The procedures included quantitative precipitation, passive hemagglutination, and immunodiffusion on Ouchterlony plates. The results indicate that antisera specific for chicken or rat liver ribosomes recognize only about 20% of common determinants. While there are important reservations, the results suggest extensive differences in the proteins of rat and chicken liver ribosomes. Despite those differences, rat and chicken liver ribosomal proteins maintain some homologous sequences present in bacterial ribosomal proteins. An enriched antibody preparation against chicken 80 S ribosomes inhibited the poly(U)-directed synthesis of polyphenylalanine and the elongation factor G (EF-G)-catalyzed binding of [3H]GDP to Escherichia coli ribosomes. Thus, chicken liver ribosomes, like ribosomes from rat liver and yeast, must have proteins homologous with those of E. coli ribosomes.  (+info)

Nuclear and nucleolar targeting of human ribosomal protein S25: common features shared with HIV-1 regulatory proteins. (6/4527)

The nuclear and nucleolar targeting properties of human ribosomal protein S25 (RPS25) were analysed by the expression of epitope-tagged RPS25 cDNAs in Cos-1 cells. The tagged RPS25 was localized to the cell nucleus, with a strong predominance in the nucleolus. At the amino terminus of RPS25, two stretches of highly basic residues juxtapose. This configuration shares common features with the nucleolar targeting signals (NOS) of lentiviral RNA-binding transactivators, including human immunodeficiency viruses' (HIV) Rev proteins. Deletion and site-directed mutational analyses demonstrated that the first NOS-like stretch is dispensable for both nuclear and nucleolar localization of RPS25, and that the nuclear targeting signal is located within the second NOS-like stretch. It has also been suggested that a set of continuous basic residues and the total number of basic residues should be required for nucleolar targeting. Signal-mediated nuclear/nucleolar targeting was further characterized by the construction and expression of a variety of chimeric constructs, utilizing three different backbones with RPS25 cDNA fragments. Immunofluorescence analyses demonstrated a 17 residue peptide of RPS25 as a potential nuclear/nucleolar targeting signal. The identified peptide signal may belong to a putative subclass of NOS, characterized by compact structure, together with lentiviral RNA-binding transactivators.  (+info)

Autoreactive human T cell lines recognizing ribosomal protein L7. (7/4527)

Sera of patients suffering from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) frequently contain oligoclonal IgG autoantibodies with high affinity for the ribosomal protein L7 (rpL7). The humoral autoimmune response to rpL7 apparently is driven by antigen and T cell dependent. In order to analyze the T cell response to rpL7 we cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes of healthy individuals and SLE patients in the presence of recombinant rpL7. After 10 days, the cytokine response to re-stimulation with rpL7 was examined using a spot-ELISA. Measuring IFN-gamma secretion, the T cells of two patients and four healthy donors showed a significant increase in the number of spots as compared to control cells. Secretion of IL-4 or IL-10 was not detected. From the antigen-stimulated primary cultures we established by limiting dilution cloning six rpL7-reactive, IFN-gamma-secreting T cell lines which show a CD3+CD4+CD8- phenotype. One line additionally was shown to be positive for HLA-DR and CD45R0, but negative for CD27 and CD31. The cell lines carry alphabeta TCR chains which differ from each other in sequence and specificity. rpL7 fragments rich in basic amino acids could be identified as epitopes recognized by the TCR of three cell lines. Recognition of rpL7 is HLA-DR6 restricted or respectively HLA-DP restricted in the two cell lines analyzed.  (+info)

Expression cloning for arsenite-resistance resulted in isolation of tumor-suppressor fau cDNA: possible involvement of the ubiquitin system in arsenic carcinogenesis. (8/4527)

Arsenic is a human carcinogen whose mechanism of action is unknown. Previously, this laboratory demonstrated that arsenite acts as a comutagen by interfering with DNA repair, although a specific DNA repair enzyme sensitive to arsenite has not been identified. A number of stable arsenite-sensitive and arsenite-resistant sublines of Chinese hamster V79 cells have now been isolated. In order to gain understanding of possible targets for arsenite's action, one arsenite-resistant subline, As/R28A, was chosen as a donor for a cDNA expression library. The library from arsenite-induced As/R28A cells was transfected into arsenite-sensitive As/S5 cells, and transfectants were selected for arsenite-resistance. Two cDNAs, asr1 and asr2, which confer arsenite resistance to arsenite-hypersensitive As/S5 cells as well as to wild-type cells, were isolated. asr1 shows almost complete homology with the rat fau gene, a tumor suppressor gene which contains a ubiquitin-like region fused to S30 ribosomal protein. Arsenite was previously shown to inhibit ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis. These results suggest that the tumor suppressor fau gene product or some other aspect of the ubiquitin system may be a target for arsenic toxicity and that disruption of the ubiquitin system may contribute to the genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of arsenite.  (+info)

K02945 RP-S1; small subunit ribosomal protein S1 K02967 RP-S2; small subunit ribosomal protein S2 K02982 RP-S3; small subunit ribosomal protein S3 K02986 RP-S4; small subunit ribosomal protein S4 K02988 RP-S5; small subunit ribosomal protein S5 K02990 RP-S6; small subunit ribosomal protein S6 K02992 RP-S7; small subunit ribosomal protein S7 K02994 RP-S8; small subunit ribosomal protein S8 K02996 RP-S9; small subunit ribosomal protein S9 K02946 RP-S10; small subunit ribosomal protein S10 K02948 RP-S11; small subunit ribosomal protein S11 K02950 RP-S12; small subunit ribosomal protein S12 K02952 RP-S13; small subunit ribosomal protein S13 K02954 RP-S14; small subunit ribosomal protein S14 K02956 RP-S15; small subunit ribosomal protein S15 K02959 RP-S16; small subunit ribosomal protein S16 K02961 RP-S17; small subunit ribosomal protein S17 K02963 RP-S18; small subunit ribosomal protein S18 K02965 RP-S19; small subunit ribosomal protein S19 K02968 RP-S20; small subunit ribosomal protein S20 K02970 ...
K02945 RP-S1; small subunit ribosomal protein S1 K02967 RP-S2; small subunit ribosomal protein S2 K02982 RP-S3; small subunit ribosomal protein S3 K02986 RP-S4; small subunit ribosomal protein S4 K02988 RP-S5; small subunit ribosomal protein S5 K02990 RP-S6; small subunit ribosomal protein S6 K02992 RP-S7; small subunit ribosomal protein S7 K02994 RP-S8; small subunit ribosomal protein S8 K02996 RP-S9; small subunit ribosomal protein S9 K02946 RP-S10; small subunit ribosomal protein S10 K02948 RP-S11; small subunit ribosomal protein S11 K02950 RP-S12; small subunit ribosomal protein S12 K02952 RP-S13; small subunit ribosomal protein S13 K02954 RP-S14; small subunit ribosomal protein S14 K02954 RP-S14; small subunit ribosomal protein S14 K02956 RP-S15; small subunit ribosomal protein S15 K02959 RP-S16; small subunit ribosomal protein S16 K02961 RP-S17; small subunit ribosomal protein S17 K02963 RP-S18; small subunit ribosomal protein S18 K02965 RP-S19; small subunit ribosomal protein S19 K02968 ...
16S ribosomal RNA, 30S ribosomal protein S2, 30S ribosomal protein S3, 30S ribosomal protein S4, 30S ribosomal protein S5, 30S ribosomal protein S6, 30S ribosomal protein S7, 30S ribosomal protein S8, 30S ribosomal protein S9, 30S ribosomal protein S10, 30S ribosomal protein S11, 30S ribosomal protein S12, 30S ribosomal protein S13, 30S ribosomal protein S14, 30S ribosomal protein S15, 30S ribosomal protein S16, 30S ribosomal protein S17, 30S ribosomal protein S18, 30S ribosomal protein S19, 30S ribosomal protein S20, 30S ribosomal protein Thx, RNA (5-R(*AP*AP*AP*AP*AP*GP*GP*AP*AP*AP*UP*A*AP*AP*AP*AP*UP*GP*CP*AP*GP*UP*UP*CP*AP*AP*UP*CP*UP*A)-3), tRNA-Gln, tRNA-Met, tRNA-Gln, capreomycin IA, 50S ribosomal protein L27, 50S ribosomal protein L28, 50S ribosomal protein L29, 50S ribosomal protein L30, 50S ribosomal protein L31, 50S ribosomal protein L32, 50S ribosomal protein L33, 50S ribosomal protein L34, 50S ribosomal protein L35, 50S ribosomal protein L36, 23S ribosomal RNA, 5S ribosomal RNA, ...
60S ribosomal protein L36a is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RPL36A gene. Cytoplasmic ribosomes, organelles that catalyze protein synthesis, consist of a small 40S subunit and a large 60S subunit. Together these subunits are composed of 4 RNA species and approximately 80 structurally distinct proteins. This gene encodes a ribosomal protein that is a component of the 60S subunit. The protein, which shares sequence similarity with yeast ribosomal protein L44, belongs to the L44E (L36AE) family of ribosomal proteins. Although this gene has been referred to as ribosomal protein L44 (RPL44), its official name is ribosomal protein L36a (RPL36A). This gene and the human gene officially named ribosomal protein L36a-like (RPL36AL) encode nearly identical proteins; however, they are distinct genes. As is typical for genes encoding ribosomal proteins, there are multiple processed pseudogenes of this gene dispersed through the genome. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000241343 - Ensembl, May ...
Human ribosomal protein L7 has been shown to be involved in the control of translation of distinct mRNAs. In this study we report the existence of an RNA carrying sequences that are complementary (antisense) to the entire coding (sense) region of L7 mRNA. L7 antisense transcripts are not polyadenylated and associate with the large subunit of the ribosome. The antisense sequence is encoded by an intronless gene segment distinct from the active copy of the L7 gene. Upon mitogenic stimulation of lymphocytes and monocytes from mice and humans, complex expression patterns of L7 transcripts are observed.
Cytoplasmic ribosomes, organelles that catalyze protein synthesis, consist of a small 40S subunit and a large 60S subunit. Together these subunits are composed of 4 RNA species and approximately 80 structurally distinct proteins. This gene encodes a ribosomal protein that is a component of the 60S subunit. The protein, which shares sequence similarity with yeast ribosomal protein L44, belongs to the L44E (L36AE) family of ribosomal proteins. This gene and the human gene officially named ribosomal protein L36a (RPL36A) encode nearly identical proteins; however, they are distinct genes. Although the name of this gene has been referred to as ribosomal protein L36a (RPL36A), its official name is ribosomal protein L36a-like (RPL36AL). As is typical for genes encoding ribosomal proteins, there are multiple processed pseudogenes of this gene dispersed through the genome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Primary Structure of Escherichia coli Ribosomal Protein S1 and Features of Its Functional Domains. AU - KIMURA, Makoto. AU - FOULAKI, Kirani. AU - SUBRAMANIAN, Alap‐Raman ‐R. AU - WITTMANN‐LIEBOLD, Brigitte. PY - 1982/3. Y1 - 1982/3. N2 - The complete covalent structure of ribosomal protein S1 of Eschericlziu coli has been determined and predictions made of its secondary structure. Protein S1 (E. coli MRE 600) is a single‐chain, acidic protein with 557 amino acid residues of the composition Asp43, Asn23, Thr25, Ser25, Glu60, Glnl4, Pro10, Gly48, Ala48, Val67, Met6, Ile30, Leu45, Tyr6, Phe17, His8, LYS43, Arg30, Trp7, Cys2 and an Mr, of 61159. The two ‐SH groups of S1 are located in the central region of the chain at positions 292 and 349, the latter being the reactive group whose modification results in the reported loss of the nucleic‐acid‐unfolding ability of S1, The central region also contains the majority of the tryptophan, histidine and methionine residues of ...
60S ribosomal protein L29 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RPL29 gene. Ribosomes, the organelles that catalyze protein synthesis, consist of a small 40S subunit and a large 60S subunit. Together these subunits are composed of 4 RNA species and approximately 80 structurally distinct proteins. This gene encodes a cytoplasmic ribosomal protein that is a component of the 60S subunit. The protein belongs to the L29E family of ribosomal proteins. The protein is also a peripheral membrane protein expressed on the cell surface that directly binds heparin. Although this gene was previously reported to map to 3q29-qter, it is believed that it is located at 3p21.3-p21.2. As is typical for genes encoding ribosomal proteins, there are multiple processed pseudogenes of this gene dispersed through the genome. RPL29 has been shown to interact with BLMH. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000162244 - Ensembl, May 2017 Human PubMed Reference:. Law PT, Tsui SK, Lam WY, Luk SC, Hwang DM, Liew CC, Lee ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nuclear and nucleolar localization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ribosomal proteins S22 and S25. AU - Timmers, A.C.J.. AU - Stuger, R.. AU - Schaap, P.J.. AU - van t Riet, J.. AU - Raue, H.A.. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. U2 - 10.1016/s0014-5793(99)00669-9. DO - 10.1016/s0014-5793(99)00669-9. M3 - Article. VL - 452. SP - 335. EP - 340. JO - FEBS Letters. JF - FEBS Letters. SN - 0014-5793. ER - ...
The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain. This section includes genomic Reference Sequences (RefSeqs) from all assemblies on which this gene is annotated, such as RefSeqs for chromosomes and scaffolds (contigs) from both reference and alternate assemblies. Model RNAs and proteins are also reported here.. ...
90-kDa Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases: A family of ribosomal protein S6 kinases that are structurally distinguished from RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, 70-KDA by their apparent molecular size and the fact they contain two functional kinase domains. Although considered RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, members of this family are activated via the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM and have been shown to act on a diverse array of substrates that are involved in cellular regulation such as RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 and CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN.
By differential hybridization, we identified a number of genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that are activated by addition of cyclic AMP (cAMP) to cAMP-depleted cells. A majority, but not all, of these genes encode ribosomal proteins. While expression of these genes is also induced by addition of the appropriate nutrient to cells starved for a nitrogen source or for a sulfur source, the pathway for nutrient activation of ribosomal protein gene transcription is distinct from that of cAMP activation: (i) cAMP-mediated transcriptional activation was blocked by prior addition of an inhibitor of protein synthesis whereas nutrient-mediated activation was not, and (ii) cAMP-mediated induction of expression occurred through transcriptional activation whereas nutrient-mediated induction was predominantly a posttranscriptional response. Transcriptional activation of the ribosomal protein gene RPL16A by cAMP is mediated through a upstream activation sequence element consisting of a pair of RAP1 binding ...
casSAR Dugability of B1YA33 | rpl2 | 50S ribosomal protein L2 - Also known as RL2_PYRNV, rpl2. One of the primary rRNA binding proteins. Required for association of the 30S and 50S subunits to form the 70S ribosome, for tRNA binding and peptide bond formation. It has been suggested to have peptidyltransferase activity; this is somewhat controversial. Makes several contacts with the 16S rRNA in the 70S ribosome. Part of the 50S ribosomal subunit. Forms a bridge to the 30S subunit in the 70S ribosome.
casSAR Dugability of A6T3K1 | rplB | 50S ribosomal protein L2 - Also known as RL2_JANMA, rplB. One of the primary rRNA binding proteins. Required for association of the 30S and 50S subunits to form the 70S ribosome, for tRNA binding and peptide bond formation. It has been suggested to have peptidyltransferase activity; this is somewhat controversial. Makes several contacts with the 16S rRNA in the 70S ribosome. Part of the 50S ribosomal subunit. Forms a bridge to the 30S subunit in the 70S ribosome.
casSAR Dugability of Q07KM1 | rplB | 50S ribosomal protein L2 - Also known as RL2_RHOP5, rplB. One of the primary rRNA binding proteins. Required for association of the 30S and 50S subunits to form the 70S ribosome, for tRNA binding and peptide bond formation. It has been suggested to have peptidyltransferase activity; this is somewhat controversial. Makes several contacts with the 16S rRNA in the 70S ribosome. Part of the 50S ribosomal subunit. Forms a bridge to the 30S subunit in the 70S ribosome.
The communication reports the cloning, sequencing, and analysis of the RPS3 gene from yeast, which codes for the ribosomal protein YS3. Sequence analyses of a 2.45 kb DNA fragment revealed an open reading frame with the potential to code for a 240 amino-acid long protein. The first 20 amino acids display a 90% identity to a 20 amino-acid long protein sequence of yeast ribosomal protein S3, that was obtained by protein sequencing of purified yeast ribosomal proteins. The promoter region of the RPS3 gene contains several upstream conserved sequence elements (UASrpg, T-rich region) that usually regulate transcription of ribosomal protein genes. Northern blot experiments demonstrate that this ORF is transcribed into an approximately 900 nt long mRNA. The major start site of transcription is located near position -20. The RPS3 gene is a single copy gene in yeast. Its disruption yields non viable haploid spores of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
산타크루즈바이오테크놀러지는 광범위한 유전자편집 제품을 제공하고 있으며 유전자침묵에 쓰이는 CRISPR/Cas9 Knockout 와 CRISPR Double Nickase plasmids를 제공합니다. Ribosomal Protein L39유전자침묵에는 Ribosomal Protein L39 CRISPR/Cas9 Knockout plasmids 와 Ribosomal Protein L39 Double Nickase Plasmids를 제공합니다. 또한 유전자활성화에 쓰이는 Ribosomal Protein L39 CRISPR/dCas9 Activation Plasmids와 CRISPR Lenti Activation Systems도 제공합니다. 유전자침묵과 활성화는 유전자연구에 유용하게 쓰이며 이는 항체와 결합하여 단백질의 검출에 유용하게 쓰입니다.
산타크루즈바이오테크놀러지는 광범위한 유전자편집 제품을 제공하고 있으며 유전자침묵에 쓰이는 CRISPR/Cas9 Knockout 와 CRISPR Double Nickase plasmids를 제공합니다. Ribosomal Protein L39L유전자침묵에는 Ribosomal Protein L39L CRISPR/Cas9 Knockout plasmids 와 Ribosomal Protein L39L Double Nickase Plasmids를 제공합니다. 또한 유전자활성화에 쓰이는 Ribosomal Protein L39L CRISPR/dCas9 Activation Plasmids와 CRISPR Lenti Activation Systems도 제공합니다. 유전자침묵과 활성화는 유전자연구에 유용하게 쓰이며 이는 항체와 결합하여 단백질의 검출에 유용하게 쓰입니다.
Ribosomal_L7_L12: Ribosomal protein L7/L12. Ribosomal protein L7/L12 refers to the large ribosomal subunit proteins L7 and L12, which are identical except that L7 is acetylated at the N terminus. It is a component of the L7/L12 stalk, which is located at the surface of the ribosome. The stalk base consists of a portion of the 23S rRNA and ribosomal proteins L11 and L10. An extended C-terminal helix of L10 provides the binding site for L7/L12. L7/L12 consists of two domains joined by a flexible hinge, with the helical N-terminal domain (NTD) forming pairs of homodimers that bind to the extended helix of L10. It is the only multimeric ribosomal component, with either four or six copies per ribosome that occur as two or three dimers bound to the L10 helix. L7/L12 is the only ribosomal protein that does not interact directly with rRNA, but instead has indirect interactions through L10. The globular C-terminal domains of L7/L12 are highly mobile. They are exposed to the cytoplasm and contain binding ...
Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 28S subunit protein that belongs to the ribosomal protein S14P family. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010 ...
Shop a large selection of Proteins A-Z products and learn more about enQuireBio™ Recombinant Human 40S ribosomal protein S27 Protein 500μg enQuireBio™ Recombinant
casSAR Dugability of Q3SZ47 | MRPL33 | 39S ribosomal protein L33, mitochondrial - Also known as RM33_BOVIN, MRPL33. Component of the mitochondrial ribosome large subunit (39S) which comprises a 16S rRNA and about 50 distinct proteins.
Ribosomal Protein S23 antibody LS-C268553 is an APC-conjugated rabbit polyclonal antibody to human Ribosomal Protein S23 (RPS23 ). Validated for ELISA and WB.
Recombinant E. coli 50S ribosomal protein L35 Protein. Synthesized in e. coli. Protein Tag: GST. Purity: Greater than 90% as determined by SDS-PAGE. From $88
Clostridium botulinum 50S ribosomal protein L35 (rpmI) datasheet and description hight quality product and Backed by our Guarantee
Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 39S subunit protein. Sequence analysis identified three transcript variants. Pseudogenes corresponding to this gene are found on chromosomes 6p, 10q, and Xp. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
To measure 40S ribosome biogenesis, we analyzed either nascent ribosomal proteins or ribosomal RNA (rRNA) in the livers of IFN-α-treated mice that were fasted and then refed for 3 hours in the presence of 35S-methionine or inorganic phosphate-32 (32Pi). Staining of ribosomal proteins (Fig. 2C) or rRNA (Fig. 2D) from livers of fS6/CRE+ and fS6/CRE− mice showed no difference in their steady-state levels. In both fS6/CRE+ and fS6/CRE− mice, increased phosphorylation of S6 was detected, as measured by its decreased mobility in both dimensions of electrophoresis (insets, Fig. 2C) (16). However, no newly synthesized35S-labeled 40S ribosomal proteins (Fig. 2C) nor32P-labeled 18S rRNA (Fig. 2D) were detected in livers of fS6/CRE+ mice. In addition, an rRNA species of 34S accumulated in the livers of fS6/CRE+ mice, most likely representing the 34S precursor of 18S rRNA (17). There was no difference in the production of 60S proteins (Fig. 2C) or 28S rRNA (Fig. 2D) in livers of fS6/CRE+ or ...
Protein synthesis is a highly regulated and energy consuming process, during which a large ribonucleoprotein particle called the ribosome, synthesizes new proteins. The eukaryotic ribosome consists of two unequal subunits called: small and large subunits. Both subunits are composed of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and ribosomal proteins (r-proteins).. Although rRNAs build the matrix of the ribosome and carries out catalysing of the peptide-bond formation between amino acids, r-proteins also appear to play important structural and functional roles. The primary role of r-proteins is to initiate the correct tertiary fold of rRNA and to organize the overall structure of the ribosome.. In this thesis, I focus on two proteins from the large subunit of the eukaryotic ribosome: r-proteins L5 and L15 from bakers yeast S. cerevisiae. Both r-proteins are essential for ribosome function. Their life cycle is primarily associated with rRNA interactions. As a consequence, the proteins show high sequence homology across ...
Ribosomal protein L4 (RPL4) is a large ribosomal subunit protein that is structurally conserved in all kingdoms of life. This protein is a component of the 90S pre-ribosomal particle that initiates ribosomal assembly on the primary (35S) transcript. Here I show that in vivo repression of Rpl4p synthesis in S. cerevisiae results in severe loss of 60S ribosomal subunits and affects progression of the cell cycle. Analysis of rRNA processing suggests that these effects are associated with a block in the processing of the 27SA3 precursor RNA into 5.8S and 25S rRNA as well as a delay in processing of 35S precursor. More surprisingly, depletion of Rpl4p results in a unique bi-budded phenotype, with multiple cell cycle defects mainly affecting mitotic exit. To further characterize the role of RPL4 in cell cycle progression, I isolated temperature-sensitive L4 mutants. To date I have analyzed one of these mutants. Six hours after a temperature shift of this mutant, cells are uniformly arrested in SG2 ...
Ribosomal protein L4 (RPL4) is a large ribosomal subunit protein that is structurally conserved in all kingdoms of life. This protein is a component of the 90S pre-ribosomal particle that initiates ribosomal assembly on the primary (35S) transcript. Here I show that in vivo repression of Rpl4p synthesis in S. cerevisiae results in severe loss of 60S ribosomal subunits and affects progression of the cell cycle. Analysis of rRNA processing suggests that these effects are associated with a block in the processing of the 27SA3 precursor RNA into 5.8S and 25S rRNA as well as a delay in processing of 35S precursor. More surprisingly, depletion of Rpl4p results in a unique bi-budded phenotype, with multiple cell cycle defects mainly affecting mitotic exit. To further characterize the role of RPL4 in cell cycle progression, I isolated temperature-sensitive L4 mutants. To date I have analyzed one of these mutants. Six hours after a temperature shift of this mutant, cells are uniformly arrested in SG2 ...
We have isolated several Zea mays cDNAs encoding the 40S subunit ribosomal protein S14. In maize, this ribosomal protein is encoded by a small multigene family, at least three members of which are expressed. S14 transcript levels are highest in mitotically active tissues, such as seedling shoot, developing endosperm, and tassel primordia, and lowest in tissues with little cell division, such as mature leaf and root. Very little S14 RNA is present in pollen, suggesting that translation of pollen mRNAs during pollen germination uses preformed ribosomes. During kernel development, the highest levels of S14 transcripts in endosperm tissue are found at 10-12 days postpollination; S14 RNA levels decline continuously from this point onward. The period of maximal expression of the S14 ribosomal protein gene appears to precede the onset of storage protein synthesis and does not correlate with the reported times of increased nucleolar volume or genome amplification.
Whole-cell matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a rapid method for identification of microorganisms that is increasingly used in microbiology laboratories. This identification is based on the comparison of the tested isolate mass spectrum with reference databases. Using Neisseria meningitidis as a model organism, we showed that in one of the available databases, the Andromas database, 10 of the 13 species-specific biomarkers correspond to ribosomal proteins. Remarkably, one biomarker, ribosomal protein L32, was subject to inter-strain variability. The analysis of the ribosomal protein patterns of 100 isolates for which whole genome sequences were available, confirmed the presence of inter-strain variability in the molecular weight of 29 ribosomal proteins, thus establishing a correlation between the sequence type (ST) and/or clonal complex (CC) of each strain and its ribosomal protein pattern. Since the molecular weight of three of the variable
Ribosomes, the organelles that catalyze protein synthesis, consist of a small 40S subunit and a large 60S subunit. Together these subunits are composed of 4 RNA species and approximately 80 structurally distinct proteins. RPS13 encodes a ribosomal protein that is a component of the 40S subunit. The protein belongs to the S15P family of ribosomal proteins. It is located in the cytoplasm. The protein has been shown to bind to the 5.8S rRNA in rat. The gene product of the E. coli ortholog (ribosomal protein S15) functions at early steps in ribosome assembly. This gene is co-transcribed with two U14 small nucleolar RNA genes, which are located in its third and fifth introns. As is typical for genes encoding ribosomal proteins, there are multiple processed pseudogenes of this gene dispersed through the genome.
BACKGROUND: Genome-wide assays performed in Arabidopsis and other organisms have revealed that the translation status of mRNAs responds dramatically to different environmental stresses and genetic lesions in the translation apparatus. To identify additional features of the global landscape of translational control, we used microarray analysis of polysomal as well as non-polysomal mRNAs to examine the defects in translation in a poly(A) binding protein mutant, pab2 pab8, as well as in a mutant of a large ribosomal subunit protein, rpl24b/shortvalve1. RESULTS: The mutation of RPL24B stimulated the ribosome occupancy of mRNAs for nuclear encoded ribosomal proteins. Detailed analysis yielded new insights into the translational regulon containing the ribosomal protein mRNAs. First, the ribosome occupancy defects in the rpl24b mutant partially overlapped with those in a previously analyzed initiation factor mutant, eif3h. Second, a group of mRNAs with incomplete coding sequences appeared to be uncoupled from
A free platform for explaining your research in plain language, and managing how you communicate around it - so you can understand how best to increase its impact.
Mitochondria have their own transcriptional and translational apparatus, even though they produce only a handful of proteins, therefore most of the proteins are imported from the cytoplasm. Trancription, translation and protein insertion into the membrane are interconnected: translational activators regulating mitochondrial translation are interacting with mitochondrial RNA polymerase via Nam1p and Sls1p proteins (Bryan et al. Genetics 2002), Puf proteins connect cytoplasmic translation and protein import into mitochondria by direct interaction with Tom20 subunit of the TOM protein import channel (Saint-Georges et al. PLoS ONE 2008 ...
Using antibodies to various nucleolar and ribosomal proteins, we define, by immunolocalization in situ, the distribution of nucleolar proteins in the different morphological nucleolar subcompartments. In the present study we describe the nucleolar localization of a specific ribosomal protein (S1) by immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy using a monoclonal antibody (RS1-105). In immunoblotting experiments, this antibody reacts specifically with the largest and most acidic protein of the small ribosomal subunit (S1) and shows wide interspecies cross-reactivity from amphibia to man. Beside its localization in cytoplasmic ribosomes, this protein is found to be specifically localized in the granular component of the nucleolus and in distinct granular aggregates scattered over the nucleoplasm. This indicates that ribosomal protein S1, in contrast to reports on other ribosomal proteins, is not bound to nascent pre-rRNA transcripts but attaches to preribosomes at later stages of rRNA ...
Abstract. RPLP1 is one of acidic ribosomal phosphoproteins encoded by RPLP1 gene, which plays an important role in the elongation step of protein synthesis. The cDNA of RPLP1 was cloned successfully for the first time from the Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) using RT-PCR technology, which was also sequenced, analyzed preliminarily and expressed in E.coli. The cDNA fragment cloned is 449bp in size, containing an open reading frame of 344bp encoding 114 amino acids. Alignment analysis indicated that the nucleotide sequence and the deduced amino acid sequence are highly conserved to other five species studied, including Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, Bos Taurus and Sus scrofa. The homologies for nucleotide sequences of Giant Panda PPLP1 to that of these species are 92.4%, 89.8%, 89.0%, 91.3% and 87.5%, while the homologies for amino acid sequences are 96.5%, 94.7%, 95.6%, 96.5% and 88.6%. Topology prediction showed there are three Casein kinase II phosphorylation sites and two ...
Diamond Blackfan anemia (DBA) is a lineage-selective inherited bone marrow failure syndrome characterized primarily by anemia and physical malformations. Recent advances in identifying the genetic abnormalities underlying DBA have demonstrated involvement of genes encoding both large (RPL) and small (RPS) ribosomal subunit proteins, including mutations of RPL5, RPL11, RPL35A, RPS7, RPS10, RPS17, RPS19, RPS24, and RPS26 in 50% to 60% of affected patients. Despite significant progress, identification of gene abnormalities in the remaining patients remains an important question since present data suggest that mutations in other members of the ribosomal protein gene complement do not explain those cases without an identified genetic lesion in these genes. Genetic studies have also raised new questions with the recognition of substantial variability in the manifestations of DBA, ranging from ribosomal protein mutations in otherwise asymptomatic individuals to those with classic severe red blood cell ...
Phosphorylation of acidic ribosomal proteins P1/P2-P0 is a common phenomenon in eukaryotic organisms. It was found previously that in Trichosporon cutaneum, unlike in other yeast species, in addition to the two acidic ribosomal proteins, two other proteins of 15 kDa and 19 kDa of the small ribosomal subunit were phosphorylated. Here we describe two protein kinases: CKI and CKII, which are engaged in the modification of T. cutaneum ribosomal proteins. The acidic ribosomal proteins and the protein of 19 kDa were modified by CKII associated with ribosomes, while the protein of 15 kDa was modified by CKI. Protein kinase CKI was purified from cell-free extract (CKIC) and from ribosomal fraction (CKIR). The molecular mass of CKIC was established at 33 kDa while that of CKIR at 35-37 kDa. A protein of 40 kDa copurified with CKIR but not CKIC. Heparin significantly increased 40 kDa protein phosphorylation level by CKIR. Microsequencing analysis revealed the presence of CKI recognition motifs in the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ribosomal protein genes are highly enriched among genes with allele-specific expression in the interspecific F1 hybrid catfish. AU - Chen, Ailu. AU - Wang, Ruijia. AU - Liu, Shikai. AU - Peatman, Eric. AU - Sun, Luyang. AU - Bao, Lisui. AU - Jiang, Chen. AU - Li, Chao. AU - Li, Yun. AU - Zeng, Qifan. AU - Liu, Zhanjian John. PY - 2016/6/1. Y1 - 2016/6/1. N2 - Interspecific hybrids provide a rich source for the analysis of allele-specific expression (ASE). In this work, we analyzed ASE in F1 hybrid catfish using RNA-Seq datasets. While the vast majority of genes were expressed with both alleles, 7-8 % SNPs exhibited significant differences in allele ratios of expression. Of the 66,251 and 177,841 SNPs identified from the datasets of the liver and gill, 5420 (8.2 %) and 13,390 (7.5 %) SNPs were identified as significant ASE-SNPs, respectively. With these SNPs, a total of 1519 and 3075 ASE-genes were identified. Gene Ontology analysis revealed that genes encoding cytoplasmic ...
Diamond Blackfan Anemia (DBA) is a congenital bone marrow failure syndrome associated with ribosomal gene mutations that lead to ribosomal insufficiency. DBA is characterized by anemia, congenital anomalies, and cancer predisposition. Treatment for DBA is associated with significant morbidity. Here, we report the identification of Nemo-like kinase (NLK) as a potential target for DBA therapy. To identify new DBA targets, we screen for small molecules that increase erythroid expansion in mouse models of DBA. This screen identified a compound that inhibits NLK. Chemical and genetic inhibition of NLK increases erythroid expansion in mouse and human progenitors, including bone marrow cells from DBA patients. In DBA models and patient samples, aberrant NLK activation is initiated at the Megakaryocyte/Erythroid Progenitor (MEP) stage of differentiation and is not observed in non-erythroid hematopoietic lineages or healthy erythroblasts. We propose that NLK mediates aberrant erythropoiesis in DBA and is ...
Diamond Blackfan Anemia (DBA) is a rare blood disorder, characterized by a failure of the bone marrow (the center of the bone where blood cells are made) to produce red blood cells. This failure causes DBA patients to become severely anemic. Click here to learn more about Diamond Blackfan Anemia.. The Daniella Maria Arturi Foundation (DMAF) was founded by Marie and Manny Arturi in early 1996 shortly after the loss of their daughter, Daniella, who was afflicted with a rare bone marrow failure disorder called Diamond Blackfan Anemia (DBA).. The mission of the Daniella Maria Arturi Foundation (DMAF) is to stimulate and support advanced clinical and laboratory research and clinical care initiatives in Diamond Blackfan Anemia (DBA), while increasing DBA awareness among the scientific, medical, lay and government communities. Click here to learn more about our foundation. ...
The kinetic approach to anemia yields arguably the most clinically relevant classification of anemia. This classification depends on evaluation of several hematological parameters, particularly the blood reticulocyte (precursor of mature RBCs) count.
To generate funds for the charitable and scientific purpose of furthering the knowledge of the disorder known as Diamond Blackfan Anemia (DBA). The DBAF is a 501(c)(3) not-for-profit corporation...
Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is a severe congenital anemia characterized by a defect in red blood cell production. The disease is associated with growth retardation, malformations, a predisposition for malignant disease and heterozygous mutations in either of the ribosomal protein (RP) genes RPS7, RPS17, RPS19, RPS24, RPL5, RPL11 and RPL35a.In a cellular model for DBA, siRNA knock-down of RPS19 results in a relative decrease of other ribosomal (r) proteins belonging to the small subunit (RPS20, RPS21, RPS24) when compared to r-proteins from the large ribosomal subunit (RPL3, RPL9, RPL30, RPL38). RPS19 mutant cells from DBA patients show a similar and coordinated down-regulation of small subunit proteins. The mRNA levels of the small subunit r-proteins remain relatively unchanged. We also show that RPS19 has an extensive number of transcriptional start sites resulting in mRNAs of variable 5UTR length. The short variants are translated more efficiently. Structural sequence variations in the ...
In recent years, studies concerning acidic ribosomal P2 proteins of parasites have mainly focused on Trypanosoma cruzi [37-39], Cryptosporidium parvum [29, 40], Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium falciparum [41, 42]. These studies confirmed that P2 protein could induce hosts to produce a strong humoral immune response, and the protein appears to constitute a potential target for host cell invasion inhibition in both T. gondii and P. falciparum infections [29, 41, 42]. Knowledge of P2 protein is very limited for the family Taeniidae, although there are few preliminary studies on T. solium [43-45] which confirmed that P2 is a main pathogenic factor of human cysticercosis, and demonstrated that a P2 fusion protein expressed in E. coli could be used as a diagnostic antigen for human neurocysticercosis [43]. In addition, Luo et al. (2003) [44] and Su et al. (2003) [45] showed that the recombinant P2 proteins of T. solium expressed in E. coli and Pichia pastoris were good immunogens. In the present ...
SCU48699 U48699 414bp mRNA PLN 10-APR-1996 Saccharomyces cerevisiae ribosomal protein S30 homolog (RPS30A) mRNA, complete cds. RPS30A; Rps30ap. SCU48700 U48700 1200bp DNA PLN 10-APR-1996 Saccharomyces cerevisiae ribosomal protein S30 homolog (RPS30) gene, complete cds. RPS30A; yrpS30. SCU51431 U51431 2760bp DNA PLN 10-APR-1996 Saccharomyces cerevisiae PHD5 gene, complete cds. PHD5; Phd5p. YSCL8004 U53876 40340bp DNA PLN 10-APR-1996 Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome XII cosmid 8004. L8004.4; L8004.5; L8004.6; KIN2; Probable Serine/Threonine protein kinase (Swiss; Prot. accession number P13186); ; L8004.7; CHA4; Transcriptional activator of CHA1 (Swiss Prot.; accession number P43634). Contains a Cys(6) zinc finger.; ; L8004.9; L8004.2; L8004.10; L8004.11; SEN2; tRNA-splicing endonuclease beta-subunit; L8004.13; L8004.1. YSCL9233 U53877 23223bp DNA PLN 10-APR-1996 Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome XII cosmid 9233. L9233.6; L9233.7; L9233.8; L9233.5; YAP3; Aspartic proteinase 3 (Swiss Prot. ...
Listeria monocytogenes serotype 4a 30S ribosomal protein S19 (rpsS) datasheet and description hight quality product and Backed by our Guarantee
article{a4771b6c-1150-427f-a70a-c2fe50a441ba, abstract = {Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is a congenital bone marrow failure syndrome characterized by a specific deficiency in erythroid progenitors. Since some patients with DBA develop a reduction in thrombocytes and granulocytes with age, we asked whether multipotent hematopoietic progenitors from DBA patients had normal proliferative capacity in liquid expansion cultures. CD34(+) cells derived from DBA patients showed deficient proliferation in liquid culture containing IL-3, IL-6, and SCF. Single CD34(+) CD38(-) cells from DBA patients exhibited deficient proliferation recruitment in a limiting dilution assay containing IL-3, IL-6, SCF, Tpo, FIL, and G-CSF or containing IL-3, IL-6, and SCF. Our findings suggest that the underlying hematopoietic defect in DBA may not be limited to the erythroid lineage. Since a fraction of DBA patients have a deficiency in ribosomal protein S19 (RPS19), we constructed lentiviral vectors containing the RPS19 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Replacement of Hydroxylated His39 in Ribosomal Protein uL15 with Ala or Thr Impairs the Translational Activity of Human Ribosomes. AU - Yanshina, D. D.. AU - Gopanenko, A. V.. AU - Karpova, G. G.. AU - Malygin, A. A.. N1 - Publisher Copyright: © 2020, Pleiades Publishing, Inc. Copyright: Copyright 2020 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2020/5/1. Y1 - 2020/5/1. N2 - Post-translational hydroxylation occurs in three mammalian ribosomal proteins, uS12, uL2, and uL15, which are located in the small (S) and large (L) subunits of the ribosome near the most important decoding and peptidyltransferase functional centers. We have used cell cultures, which produce protein uL15 labeled with the 3xFLAG epitope at the C-terminus (uL153xFLAG) or mutant forms of uL153xFLAG that contain His39Ala, His39Thr, or His40Ala substitutions, to examine the role of hydroxylated His39 of uL15 in maintaining the translational activity of ribosomes. It has been found that exogenous uL153xFLAG is able ...
cytosolic large ribosomal subunit, rRNA binding, structural constituent of ribosome, ribosomal large subunit assembly, translation
cytosolic large ribosomal subunit, RNA binding, structural constituent of ribosome, cytoplasmic translation, ribosomal large subunit assembly
Diamond Blackfan Anemia (DBA) was first recognized as a distinct entity in 1938, although it was called congenital hypoplastic anemia at that time. Diamond Blackfan Anemia (DBA) is a rare blood disorder, characterized by a failure of the bone marrow (the center of the bone where blood cells are made) to produce red blood cells. This failure causes DBA patients to become severely anemic. It is important to note that this anemia is not the result of a deficiency in iron, vitamin B-12, folate, or erythropoietin, which is a blood cell stimulating factor. Although a number of theories regarding the cause of DBA have been proposed, it is now widely accepted that DBA is a ribosomal protein disease. The disorder results from an intrinsic progenitor cell defect in which erythroid progenitors and precursors are highly sensitive to death by apoptosis (self-destruction). The accepted diagnostic criteria for DBA are:. ...
Diamond-Blackfan anemia: Find the most comprehensive real-world symptom and treatment data on Diamond-Blackfan anemia at PatientsLikeMe. 5 patients with Diamond-Blackfan anemia experience fatigue, insomnia, depressed mood, pain, and anxious mood.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Erythrocyte glutathione is a novel biomarker of Diamond-Blackfan anemia. AU - Utsugisawa, Taiju. AU - Uchiyama, Toshitaka. AU - Toki, Tsutomu. AU - Ogura, Hiromi. AU - Aoki, Takako. AU - Hamaguchi, Isao. AU - Ishiguro, Akira. AU - Ohara, Akira. AU - Kojima, Seiji. AU - Ohga, Shouichi. AU - Ito, Etsuro. AU - Kanno, Hitoshi. N1 - Funding Information: This work was supported in part by Health and Labor Sciences Research Grants (Research on Rare and Intractable Diseases) from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan (Grant number H26-NANCHITOU(NAN)-IPPAN-029 ) and by JSPS KAKENHI Grant number 13245575 . PY - 2016/7/1. Y1 - 2016/7/1. N2 - Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is a congenital red cell aplasia with mutations in ribosomal protein (RP) genes. Elevated activity of erythrocyte adenosine deaminase (eADA) has been utilized as a biomarker of DBA. We examined erythrocyte reduced glutathione (GSH) as well as eADA in 22 patients in 18 DBA families, in whom RP gene mutations had ...
SCU34347 U34347 2450bp DNA PLN 26-JUL-1996 Saccharomyces cerevisiae ribosomal protein S3 (RPS3) gene, complete cds. RPS3; ribosomal protein S3. YSCPROT L38903 2750bp DNA PLN 26-JUL-1996 Saccharomyces cerevisiae (clone H3.4) BUD6 gene, complete cds. BUD6. Please note that new sequences take about a week to appear in SGD. To obtain any of the yeast GenBank sequences use the NCBI retrieve e-mail server, retrieve at ncbi.nlm.nih.gov - send the word help and instructions will be returned. World Wide Web links for sequences: Only Yeast: http://genome-www.stanford.edu/cgi-bin/genbank_search BLAST & FASTA: http://genome-www.stanford.edu/Saccharomyces/ NCBI (GenBank): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Web/Search/ EBI (EMBL): http://www.ebi.ac.uk/ebi_docs/embl_db/ebi/topembl.html DDBJ: http://www.nig.ac.jp/ ...
The gene for the ribosomal protein L22 from Thermus thermophilus has been sequenced and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. A multiple sequence alignment was carried out for all proteins of the L22 family reported so far. The recombinant protein was purified and crystallized. The crystals belong to the space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with cell parameters of a = 32.6 A, b = 66.0 A, c = 67.8 A.. ...
The ATR-Chk1 axis has recently been implicated in cell-cycle arrest that is induced by a prolonged treatment with low levels of actinomycin D, a selective inhibitor of rRNA synthesis (Ma and Pederson, 2013). The exact mechanism of ATR induction by this treatment was not uncovered.. The phosphorylation of p53 at residues Ser15 and Ser37 observed in RPS19-deficient human CD34+ fetal liver cells is probably performed by multiple protein kinases, including ATR, ATM, Chk1 and Chk2, the activation of which was observed in these cells. Phosphorylation at these sites is known to stabilize and activate p53, but other mechanisms could also contribute to p53 activation (Ashcroft et al., 2000; Lane and Levine, 2010).. Changes in the expression of enzymes involved in nucleotide metabolism in models of DBA are consistent with the requirement of RP-deficient cells to catabolize the defective rRNA, produce more nucleotides to make new rRNAs and to make increased amounts of dNTPs sufficient for DNA repair. ...
Ribosomes are complex macromolecular machines that translate the genetic code. Over the past decade, numerous insights into the process of translation have been gained through structural studies of ribosomes using x-ray crystallography. However, a limiting factor in the study of ribosome dynamics and functional interactions is the ability to produce crystals of ribosomes in alternative arrangements or in complex with additional factors. For the purpose of crystallizing recalcitrant ribosome complexes, I conducted a phylogenetic screen for new crystal forms. Species were selected from environmental samples for superior growth and behavior in a laboratory setting, and new ribosome crystals were obtained using naturally inhibited ribosomes from dormant bacteria. The structure of the translational inhibitor ribosome modulation factor (RMF) bound to the E. coli ribosome shows how this small protein is able to inhibit translation and protect ribosomes from degradation by binding to the intersubunit ...
When she got invited to the International Zumba Convention to help spread awareness about Diamond Blackfan Anemia, she not only owned the stage, she stole everyones heart in the process. Audrey is only six-years-old and is from Kentucky. Diamond Blackfan Anemia (DBA) is a life threatening bone marrow disease, but instead of being sheltered, Audrey and her family have decided to spread the word about this disease in hopes to raise money to find a cure ...
Aim: Develop a system of care for assessment and education, regional outreach to caregivers and families, and data collection to improve care for patients with Diamond Blackfan Anemia. I served as director for Boston Childrens Hospital Center of Excellence for Diamond Blackfan Anemia ...
The genes for ribosomal proteins L4 and L22 from two erythromycin-resistant mutants of Escherichia coli have been isolated and sequenced. In the L4 mutant, an A-to-G transition in codon 63 predicted a Lys-to-Glu change in the protein. In the L22 strain, a 9-bp deletion removed codons 82 to 84, eliminating the sequence Met-Lys-Arg from the protein. Consistent with these DNA changes, in comparison with wild-type proteins, both mutant proteins had reduced first-dimension mobilities in two-dimensional polyacrylamide gels. Complementation of each mutation by a wild-type gene on a plasmid vector resulted in increased erythromycin sensitivity in the partial-diploid strains. The fraction of ribosomes containing the mutant form of the protein was increased by growth in the presence of erythromycin. Erythromycin binding was increased by the fraction of wild-type protein present in the ribosome population. The strain with the L4 mutation was found to be cold sensitive for growth at 20 degrees C, and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Stress response as implemented by hibernating ribosomes. T2 - a structural overview. AU - Matzov, Donna. AU - Bashan, Anat. AU - Yap, Mee Ngan F.. AU - Yonath, Ada. PY - 2019/9/1. Y1 - 2019/9/1. N2 - Protein synthesis is one of the most energy demanding cellular processes. The ability to regulate protein synthesis is essential for cells under normal as well as stress conditions, such as nutrient deficiencies. One mechanism for protein synthesis suppression is the dimerization of ribosomes into hibernation complexes. In most cells, this process is promoted by the hibernating promoting factor (HPF) and in a small group of Gram-negative bacteria (γ-proteobacteria), the dimer formation is induced by a shorter version of HPF (HPFshort) and by an additional protein, the ribosome modulation factor. In most bacteria, the product of this process is the 100S ribosome complex. Recent advances in cryogenic electron microscopy methods resulted in an abundance of detailed structures of near ...
Ribosomal proteins are assumed to stabilize specific RNA structures and promote compact folding of the large rRNA. The conformational dynamics of the protein between the bound and unbound state play an important role in the binding process. We have studied those dynamical changes in detail for the highly conserved complex between the ribosomal protein L11 and the GTPase region of 23S rRNA. The RNA domain is compactly folded into a well defined tertiary structure, which is further stabilized by the association with the C-terminal domain of the L11 protein (L11ctd). In addition, the N-terminal domain of L11 (L11ntd) is implicated in the binding of the natural thiazole antibiotic thiostrepton, which disrupts the elongation factor function. We have studied the conformation of the ribosomal protein and its dynamics by NMR in the unbound state, the RNA bound state and in the ternary complex with the RNA and thiostrepton. Our data reveal a rearrangement of the L11ntd, placing it closer to the RNA after ...
Abrogation of ribosome synthesis (ribosomal stress) leads to cell cycle arrest. However, the immediate cell response to cessation of ribosome formation and the transition from normal cell proliferation to cell cycle arrest have not been characterized. Furthermore, there are conflicting conclusions about whether cells are arrested in G2/M or G1, and whether the cause is dismantling ribosomal assembly per se, or the ensuing decreased number of translating ribosomes. To address these questions, we have compared the time kinetics of key cell cycle parameters after inhibiting ribosome formation or function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Within one-to-two hours of repressing genes for individual ribosomal proteins or Translation Elongation factor 3, configurations of spindles, spindle pole bodies began changing. Actin began depolarizing within 4 hours. Thus the loss of ribosome formation and function is sensed immediately. After several hours no spindles or mitotic actin rings were visible, but membrane ...
The structure of ribosomes may be 23nm. Bound and free ribosomes are structurally identical and interchangeable. The cells can adjust the numbers of ribosomes. Each ribosome has two subunits. The larger subunit is 60S and smaller subunit is 40S in eukaryotic ribosomes. Both ribosomal units joins by Mg++ ions to form functional 80S ribosome. The prokaryotic ribosome is 70S with subunits. The larger subunit is 50S and the smaller subunit is 30S. The ribosomal subunits are constructed in the nucleolus from RNA in eukaryotes. The rRNA is produced in the nucleus. Protein is imported from the cytoplasm. During protein synthesis, several ribosomes are attached to the same mRNA. It forms a structure called polysome. Thus single ribosome is translated many times.. Synthesis of Ribosomes. Eukaryotic ribosomes are synthesized in nucleolus. The 18S, 28S, and 5.8S RNAs are synthesized in nucleolus. 5S RNA is synthesized on the chromosome outside the nucleolus. The ribosomal proteins are synthesized in ...
1b) L-aspartate89-[ribosomal protein S12]-methanethiol + S-adenosyl-L-methionine + reduced acceptor = 3-methylthio-L-aspartate89-[ribosomal protein S12] + L-methionine + 5-deoxyadenosine + oxidized receptor. Other name(s): RimO; [ribosomal protein S12]-Asp89:sulfur-(sulfur carrier),S-adenosyl-L-methionine C3-methylthiotransferase. Systematic name: [ribosomal protein S12]-L-aspartate89:sulfur-(sulfur carrier),S-adenosyl-L-methionine C3-methylthiotransferase. Comments: This bacterial enzyme binds two [4Fe-4S] clusters [2,3]. A bridge of five sulfur atoms is formed between the free Fe atoms of the two [4Fe-4S] clusters [6]. In the first reaction the enzyme transfers a methyl group from AdoMet to the external sulfur ion of the sulfur bridge. In the second reaction the enzyme catalyses the reductive fragmentation of a second molecule of AdoMet, yielding a 5-deoxyadenosine radical, which then attacks the methylated sulfur atom of the polysulfide bridge, resulting in the transfer of a methylthiol ...
A sequence-specific modification of the human 5.8 S rRNA in isolated 60 S subunits, non-programmed 80 S ribosomes and ribosomes complexed with mRNA and tRNAs was studied with the use of a derivative of the nonaribonucleotide UCUGUGUUU bearing a perfluorophenylazide group on the C-5 atom of the 5′-terminal uridine. Part of the oligonucleotide moiety of the derivative was complementary to the 5.8 S rRNA sequence ACACA in positions 82-86 flanked by two guanines at the 5′-terminus. The target for the cross-linking was identified as nucleotide G89 on the 5.8 S RNA. In addition, several ribosomal proteins were modified by the oligonucleotide derivative bound to the 5.8 S rRNA and proteins L6 and L8 were among them. Application of these results to known cryo-electron microscopy images of eukaryotic 60 S subunits made it possible to suggest that the central part of the 5.8 S rRNA containing the sequence 82-86 and proteins L6 and L8 are located at the base of the L1 stalk of the 60 S subunit. The ...
Protein synthesis is a complex process performed by sophisticated cellular particles known as ribosomes. Although RNA constitutes the major structural and functional component, ribosomes from all kingdoms contain an extensive array of proteins with largely undefined functional roles. The work presented in this thesis addresses ribosomal complexity using mutants of Salmonella typhimurium to examine the physiological effects of ribosomal protein (r-protein) removal and orthologous replacement on bacterial fitness and ribosome function.. The results of paper I demonstrate that removal of small subunit protein S20 conferred two independent translation initiation defects: (i) a significant reduction in the rate and extent of mRNA binding and (ii) a drastic decrease in the yield of 70S complexes caused by an impairment in subunit association. The topographical location of S20 in mature 30S subunits suggests that these perturbations are the result of improper orientation of helix 44 of the 16S rRNA ...
39S ribosomal protein L30, mitochondrial is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MRPL30 gene. Mammalian mitochondrial ... Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: Q8TCC3 (Human 39S ribosomal protein L30, ... "Entrez Gene: MRPL30 mitochondrial ribosomal protein L30". Maruyama K, Sugano S (January 1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple method ... Zhang Z, Gerstein M (May 2003). "Identification and characterization of over 100 mitochondrial ribosomal protein pseudogenes in ...
McClain WH (November 1993). "Rules that govern tRNA identity in protein synthesis". Journal of Molecular Biology. 234 (2): 257- ... For instance, one can start with the gene for a protein that binds a certain sequence of DNA, and, by directing an unnatural ... Both classes of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are multidomain proteins. In a typical scenario, an aaRS consists of a catalytic ... Aminoacyl tRNA therefore plays an important role in RNA translation, the expression of genes to create proteins. ...
The ribosomal protein S1 binds to adenine sequences upstream of the RBS. Increasing the concentration of adenine upstream of ... A ribosome binding site, or ribosomal binding site (RBS), is a sequence of nucleotides upstream of the start codon of an mRNA ... Heat shock proteins[edit]. Secondary structures formed by the RBS can affect the translational efficiency of mRNA, generally ... "Ribosomal Binding Site Sequence Requirements". www.thermofisher.com. Retrieved 2015-10-16.. ...
Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit A (eIF3a) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EIF3A gene.[5][6][7] ... "Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Mol. Syst. Biol. 3: 89. doi:10.1038/msb4100134 ... protein binding. • structural molecule activity. • translation initiation factor activity. • receptor tyrosine kinase binding. ... protein biosynthesis. • IRES-dependent viral translational initiation. • negative regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade. • ...
Protein-Protein Interactions Involving the HSV Virion Host Shutoff Protein and Translation Factors eIF4H and eIF4A". J. Virol. ... "Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Mol. Syst. Biol. 3 (1): 89. doi:10.1038/ ... protein binding. • nucleic acid binding. • hydrolase activity. • ATP binding. • ATP-dependent RNA helicase activity. • ATPase ... Eukaryotic initiation factor 4A-II is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EIF4A2 gene.[5][6] ...
Each subunit is composed of one or more ribosomal RNA (rRNA) molecules and a variety of ribosomal proteins (r-protein or ... ribosomal proteins.[11] Eukaryotic ribosomes are between 25 and 30 nm (250-300 Å) in diameter with an rRNA-to-protein ratio ... The ribosomal proteins and rRNAs are arranged into two distinct ribosomal pieces of different size, known generally as the ... 2015), "Functions of Ribosomal Proteins in Assembly of Eukaryotic Ribosomes In Vivo" (in German), Annual review of biochemistry ...
40S ribosomal proteins[edit]. The table "40S ribosomal proteins" shows the individual protein folds of the 40S subunit colored ... The table "40S ribosomal proteins" crossreferences the human ribosomal protein names with yeast, bacterial and archaeal ... 40S ribosomal proteins Structure (Eukaryotic)[9] H. sapiens[8][10] Conservation[11] S. cerevisiae[12] Bacterial homolog (E. ... Historically, different nomenclatures have been used for ribosomal proteins. For instance, proteins have been numbered ...
28S ribosomal protein S26, mitochondrial is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MRPS26 gene. Mammalian mitochondrial ... 1999). "Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins. N-terminal amino acid sequencing, characterization, and identification of ... Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: Q9BYN8 (28S ribosomal protein S26, mitochondrial) ... Identification of the full complement of ribosomal proteins present". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (22): 19363-74. doi:10.1074/jbc. ...
39S ribosomal protein L40, mitochondrial is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MRPL40 gene. Mammalian mitochondrial ... 1999). "Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins. N-terminal amino acid sequencing, characterization, and identification of ... "Entrez Gene: MRPL40 mitochondrial ribosomal protein L40". Goldschmidt-Reisin S, Kitakawa M, Herfurth E, et al. ( ... Zhang Z, Gerstein M (2003). "Identification and characterization of over 100 mitochondrial ribosomal protein pseudogenes in the ...
39S ribosomal protein L22, mitochondrial is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MRPL22 gene. Mammalian mitochondrial ... This gene encodes a 39S subunit protein that belongs to the L22 ribosomal protein family. A pseudogene corresponding to this ... 1999). "Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins. N-terminal amino acid sequencing, characterization, and identification of ... Analysis of the complement of ribosomal proteins present". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (47): 43958-69. doi:10.1074/jbc.M106510200. PMID ...
39S ribosomal protein L10, mitochondrial is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MRPL10 gene. Mammalian mitochondrial ... 1999). "Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins. N-terminal amino acid sequencing, characterization, and identification of ... Analysis of the complement of ribosomal proteins present". J Biol Chem. 276 (47): 43958-69. doi:10.1074/jbc.M106510200. PMID ... Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: Q7Z7H8 (39S ribosomal protein L10, mitochondrial) ...
39S ribosomal protein L17, mitochondrial is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MRPL17 gene. Mammalian mitochondrial ... Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: Q9NRX2 (39S ribosomal protein L17, mitochondrial) ... "Entrez Gene: MRPL17 mitochondrial ribosomal protein L17". Kimura K, Wakamatsu A, Suzuki Y, et al. (2006). "Diversification of ... 2001). "The human mitochondrial ribosomal protein genes: mapping of 54 genes to the chromosomes and implications for human ...
39S ribosomal protein L39, mitochondrial is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MRPL39 gene. Mammalian mitochondrial ... "Entrez Gene: MRPL39 mitochondrial ribosomal protein L39". Maruyama K, Sugano S (1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple method to ... 2000). "Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins (2). Amino acid sequencing, characterization, and identification of ... 2001). "Heart-specific splice-variant of a human mitochondrial ribosomal protein (mRNA processing; tissue specific splicing)". ...
39S ribosomal protein L15, mitochondrial is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MRPL15 gene. Mammalian mitochondrial ... This gene encodes a 39S subunit protein that belongs to the EcoL15 ribosomal protein family. A pseudogene corresponding to this ... 2000). "Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins (2). Amino acid sequencing, characterization, and identification of ... Zhang Z, Gerstein M (2003). "Identification and characterization of over 100 mitochondrial ribosomal protein pseudogenes in the ...
39S ribosomal protein L24, mitochondrial is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MRPL24 gene. Mammalian mitochondrial ... "Entrez Gene: MRPL24 mitochondrial ribosomal protein L24". Maruyama K, Sugano S (1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple method to ... 2000). "Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins (4). Amino acid sequencing, characterization, and identification of ... 2001). "The human mitochondrial ribosomal protein genes: mapping of 54 genes to the chromosomes and implications for human ...
lolii and E. typhina ribosomal proteins. Although the presence of divergently evolved ribosomal proteins might be expected to ... lolii ribosomal proteins has not been suppressed despite the potential for ribosomal incompatibilities. Epichloë hybrida was ... lolii and E. typhina ribosomal protein genes have similar expression levels. It therefore appears that the gene expression of E ... lolii, while the ribosomal DNA only exists as the E. typhina rDNA sequence type, with the other parental type likely lost ...
1999). "Human bleomycin hydrolase binds ribosomal proteins". Biochemistry. 38 (22): 7111-7. doi:10.1021/bi990135l. PMID ... 2005). "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. Bibcode: ... "Human bleomycin hydrolase binds ribosomal proteins". Biochemistry. UNITED STATES. 38 (22): 7111-7. doi:10.1021/bi990135l. ISSN ... The protein contains the signature active site residues of the cysteine protease papain superfamily. BLMH has been shown to ...
... such as ribosomal RNAs, tRNAs and ribosomal proteins are also universally conserved. Sets of conserved sequences are often used ... Amino acid sequences can be conserved to maintain the structure or function of a protein or domain. Conserved proteins undergo ... Zuckerkandl, E; Pauling, LB (1965). Evolutionary Divergence and Convergence in Proteins. Evolving Genes and Proteins. pp. 96- ... "A new system for naming ribosomal proteins". Current Opinion in Structural Biology. 24: 165-169. doi:10.1016/j.sbi.2014.01.002 ...
As with ribosomal protein S27a, ribosomal protein L40 is also synthesized as a fusion protein with ubiquitin; similarly, ... Ribosomal protein S27a is a component of the 40S subunit of the ribosome and belongs to the S27AE family of ribosomal proteins ... 40S ribosomal protein S27a is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RPS27A gene. Ubiquitin, a highly conserved protein ... ribosomal protein S30 is synthesized as a fusion protein with the ubiquitin-like protein fubi. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ...
1991). "rig encodes ribosomal protein S15. The primary structure of mammalian ribosomal protein S15". FEBS Lett. 283 (2): 210-4 ... RPS15 ribosomal protein S15". Wool IG, Chan YL, Glück A (1996). "Structure and evolution of mammalian ribosomal proteins". ... The protein belongs to the S19P family of ribosomal proteins. It is located in the cytoplasm. This gene has been found to be ... 40S ribosomal protein S15 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RPS15 gene. Ribosomes, the organelles that catalyze ...
... ribosomal protein S17". Wool IG, Chan YL, Glück A (1996). "Structure and evolution of mammalian ribosomal proteins". ... The protein belongs to the S17E family of ribosomal proteins. It is located in the cytoplasm. As is typical for genes encoding ... 40S ribosomal protein S17 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RPS17 gene. Ribosomes, the organelles that catalyze ... Feo S, Davies B, Fried M (Jun 1992). "The mapping of seven intron-containing ribosomal protein genes shows they are unlinked in ...
Similar to ribosomal protein S30, ribosomal proteins S27a and L40 are synthesized as fusion proteins with ubiquitin. GRCh38: ... Fubi is a member of the ubiquitin family, and ribosomal protein S30 belongs to the S30E family of ribosomal proteins. Whereas ... It encodes a fusion protein consisting of the ubiquitin-like protein FUBI at the N-terminus and ribosomal protein S30 at the C- ... ribosomal protein S30". Wool IG, Chan YL, Glück A (1996). "Structure and evolution of mammalian ribosomal proteins". Biochem. ...
39S ribosomal protein L12, mitochondrial is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MRPL12 gene. Mammalian mitochondrial ... Analysis of the complement of ribosomal proteins present". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (47): 43958-69. doi:10.1074/jbc.M106510200. PMID ... 2001). "The human mitochondrial ribosomal protein genes: mapping of 54 genes to the chromosomes and implications for human ... Wang Z, Cotney J, Shadel GS (2007). "Human mitochondrial ribosomal protein MRPL12 interacts directly with mitochondrial RNA ...
Later it was shown that the proteins that contain DUF143, are ribosomal silencing factors that block the assembly of the two ... identified 238 DUFs in 355 essential proteins (in 16 model bacterial species), most of which represent single-domain proteins, ... proteins are conserved ribosomal silencing factors". PLOS Genetics. 8 (7): e1002815. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1002815. PMC ... As a result, these proteins and the DUF only become relevant when the cells starve. It is thus believed that many DUFs (or ...
39S ribosomal protein L20, mitochondrial is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MRPL20 gene. Mammalian mitochondrial ... Systematic analysis of protein components of the large ribosomal subunit from mammalian mitochondria". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (24 ... "Entrez Gene: MRPL20 mitochondrial ribosomal protein L20". Venter JC, Adams MD, Myers EW, et al. (2001). "The sequence of the ... Analysis of the complement of ribosomal proteins present". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (47): 43958-69. doi:10.1074/jbc.M106510200. PMID ...
Ribosome recycling step is responsible for the disassembly of the post-termination ribosomal complex. Once the nascent protein ... This process, known as peptide bond formation, is catalyzed by a ribozyme (the 23S ribosomal RNA in the 50S ribosomal subunit ... a protein of the large ribosomal subunit, and thereby blocks joining of the small subunit to form a functional 70S ribosome, ... proteins are conserved ribosomal silencing factors". PLOS Genetics. 8 (7): e1002815. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1002815. PMC ...
39S ribosomal protein L28, mitochondrial is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MRPL28 gene. Mammalian mitochondrial ... MRPL28 mitochondrial ribosomal protein L28". Kawakami Y, Robbins PF, Wang RF, et al. (1998). "The use of melanosomal proteins ... Analysis of the complement of ribosomal proteins present". J Biol Chem. 276 (47): 43958-69. doi:10.1074/jbc.M106510200. PMID ... 2001). "The human mitochondrial ribosomal protein genes: mapping of 54 genes to the chromosomes and implications for human ...
Some dsDNA bacteriophages encode ribosomal proteins, which are thought to modulate protein translation during phage infection. ... Several attempts have been made to map protein-protein interactions among phage and their host. For instance, bacteriophage ... "Numerous cultivated and uncultivated viruses encode ribosomal proteins". Nature Communications. 10 (1): 752. Bibcode:2019NatCo ... Phage display is a different use of phages involving a library of phages with a variable peptide linked to a surface protein. ...
In ribosomal protection, a resistance gene encodes a protein that can have several effects, depending on what gene is ... They inhibit protein synthesis by binding reversibly to the bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit and preventing the aminoacyl tRNA ... Twelve classes of ribosomal protection genes/proteins have been found. Possible mechanisms of action of these protective ... It can also be attributed to the nature of ribosomal protein synthesis pathways among bacteria. Incyclinide was announced to be ...
Protein-protein interactions. RsfS has been shown via a yeast two-hybrid screen to interact with ribosomal protein L14 in four ... MALSU1 is a gene on chromosome 7 in humans that encodes the protein MALSU1. This protein localizes to mitochondria and is ... Percentages indicate the identity shared by the human protein and the respective mammalian protein. Accession numbers are from ... Proteins Are Conserved Ribosomal Silencing Factors". PLOS Genetics. 8 (7): e1002815. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1002815. PMC ...
Orsay virus utilizes ribosomal frameshifting to express a novel protein that is incorporated into virions, in: Virology 450-451 ...
21 ribosomal proteins, and four RNA polymerase subunits,[22][23] involved in protein synthesis. For photosynthesis, the ... Protein targeting and importEdit. See also: Protein targeting. The movement of so many chloroplast genes to the nucleus means ... A protein kinase drifting around on the outer chloroplast membrane can use ATP to add a phosphate group to the Toc34 protein, ... Protein synthesisEdit. See also: Transcription and translation. Protein synthesis within chloroplasts relies on an RNA ...
Mutations in the RPS6KA3 gene can result in expression of an RSK2 protein (ribosomal S6 kinase 2) with reduced or absent kinase ... Mutations in the RPS6KA3 disturb the function of the protein, but it is unclear how a lack of this protein causes the signs and ... The RPS6KA3 gene makes a protein that is involved with signaling within cells. Researchers believe that this protein helps ... The protein RSK2 which is encoded by the RPS6KA3 gene is a kinase which phosphorylates some substrates like CREB and histone H3 ...
Transfer RNA (tRNA)-transfers specific amino acids to growing polypeptide chains at the ribosomal site of protein synthesis ... Grummt I. (1999). "Regulation of mammalian ribosomal gene transcription by RNA polymerase I.". Prog Nucleic Acid Res Mol Biol. ... Non-coding RNA or "RNA genes". These are a broad class of genes that encode RNA which is not translated into protein. The most ... Messenger RNA (mRNA). These are templates for the synthesis of proteins by ribosomes. ...
The rest of the genome encodes structural proteins at the 5' end and non-structural proteins at the 3' end in a single ... 1 ribosomal frameshifting, viral initiation, and ribosomal skipping. The virus exits the host cell by lysis, and viroporins. ... The 1A, 1B, 1C, and 1D proteins are the capsid proteins VP4, VP2, VP3, and VP1, respectively.Virus-coded proteases perform the ... VPg may also play an important role in specific recognition of viral genome by movement protein (MP). Movement proteins are non ...
... although there are many introns in their transfer RNA and ribosomal RNA genes,[146] and introns may occur in a few protein- ... Proteins related to the cytoskeleton components of other organisms exist in archaea,[89] and filaments form within their cells, ... January 2002). "Introns in protein-coding genes in Archaea". FEBS Lett. 510 (1-2): 27-30. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(01)03219-7. ... The proteins that archaea, bacteria and eukaryotes share form a common core of cell function, relating mostly to transcription ...
RPS15A: encoding protein 40S ribosomal protein S15a. *RSL1D1: encoding protein Ribosomal L1 domain-containing protein 1 ... UNKL: encoding protein RING finger protein unkempt-like. *VAT1L: encoding protein Vesicle amine transport protein 1 homolog (T ... LINC00273 encoding protein Long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 273. *LOC124220: encoding protein Zymogen granule protein 16 ... SHCBP1: encoding protein SHC SH2 domain-binding protein 1. *SLZ1: encoding protein SLX1 structure-specific endonuclease subunit ...
Hannon Bozorgmehr J (Oct 2019). "The origin of chromosomal histones in a 30S ribosomal protein". Gene. doi:10.1016/j.gene. ... who believed that transcription was activated by protein-DNA and protein-protein interactions on largely naked DNA templates, ... Histones are believed to have evolved from ribosomal proteins with which they share much in common, both being short and basic ... Nuclear protein Ataxia-Telangiectasia (NPAT), also known as nuclear protein coactivator of histone transcription, is a ...
This bacterial protein complex is a machine for folding other proteins, which get trapped within the shell. Fatty acid synthase ... random conical tilt series applied to the 50S ribosomal subunit of Escherichia coli". Journal of Microscopy. 146 (Pt 2): 113-36 ... Proteins in vitreous ice usually adopt a random distribution of orientations (or viewing angles), allowing a fairly isotropic ... Important information on protein synthesis, ligand binding and RNA interaction can be obtained using this novel technique at ...
ribosomal large subunit binding. • protein homodimerization activity. • ribosomal small subunit binding. • unfolded protein ... positive regulation of protein ubiquitination. • regulation of protein stability. • ribosomal large subunit biogenesis. • ... protein stabilization. • protein homooligomerization. • regulation of cell cycle. • positive regulation of protein localization ... protein oligomerization. • negative regulation of protein kinase activity by regulation of protein phosphorylation. • ...
2002). "Introns in protein-coding genes in Archaea". FEBS Lett. 510 (1-2): 27-30. PMID 11755525. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(01) ... a basin-wide ecological study using 16S ribosomal and functional genes and membrane lipids". Environ. Microbiol. 9 (4): 1001-16 ... Nguyen L, Paulsen IT, Tchieu J, Hueck CJ, Saier MH (2000). "Phylogenetic analyses of the constituents of Type III protein ... O'Connor EM, Shand RF (2002). "Halocins and sulfolobicins: the emerging story of archaeal protein and peptide antibiotics". J. ...
Translation takes place by -1 ribosomal frameshifting, viral initiation, and ribosomal skipping. The virus exits the host cell ... A unique feature of this genus is the presence of the L* protein that is made out of frame from the polyprotein and is present ... The 3' end of the genome encodes a polyA tail while the 5' end encodes a genome-linked protein. ...
The most commonly selected monomers (i.e. amino acids) for ribosomal protein synthesis are chemical derivatives of the α-amino ... DNA and proteins seemed the dominant macromolecules in the living cell, with RNA only aiding in creating proteins from the DNA ... where a nucleotide-based molecule is needed to synthesize protein, and a peptide-based (protein) molecule is needed to make ... The ability to catalyse the formation of peptide bonds between amino acids to produce short peptides or longer proteins. This ...
I. Isoenzyme and soluble protein patterns of axenic cultures of S. microadriaticum. Proc R Soc Lond B 207:405-27 ... Rowan R, Powers DA (1992) Ribosomal-RNA sequences and the diversity of symbiotic dinoflagellates (zooxanthellae). Proc Natl ... Iglesias-Prieto R, Govind NS, Trench RK (1993) Isolation and characterization of three membrane-bound chlorophyll-protein ... Heat stress causes inhibition of de novo synthesis of antenna proteins and photobleaching in cultured Symbiodinium. Proc Nat ...
18S and 28S ribosomal DNA, cytochrome oxidase II, and elongation factor 1-alpha) for 128 flea taxa from around the world. The ... fleas store muscle energy in a pad of the elastic protein named resilin before releasing it rapidly (like a human using a bow ... "Adult Cat Flea (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) Excretion of Host Blood Proteins in Relation to Larval Nutrition" (PDF). Journal of ...
Hansmann, S; Martin W (2000). "Phylogeny of 33 ribosomal and six other proteins encoded in an ancient gene cluster that is ... Winker, S; Woese CR (1991). "A definition of the domains Archaea, Bacteria and Eucarya in terms of small subunit ribosomal RNA ... Achenbach-Richter, L; Woese CR (1988). "The ribosomal gene spacer region in archaebacteria". Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 10: 211-214 ...
Translation takes place by ribosomal shunting. The virus exits the host cell by budding, and nuclear pore export. Birds serve ... The genome codes for 7 proteins. Viral replication is nucleo-cytoplasmic. Replication follows the dsDNA(RT) replication model. ...
... ribosomal RNA and protein combine to form a nucleoprotein called a ribosome. The ribosome binds mRNA and carries out protein ... Two kinds of non-coding RNAs help in the process of building proteins in the cell. They are transfer RNA (tRNA) and ribosomal ... Protein synthesis RNAs[change , change source]. Messenger RNA[change , change source]. The structure of a mature eukaryotic ... Genes code for proteins in bits called exons. The bits can be joined together in different ways to make different mRNAs. Thus, ...
RPS4Y1/RPS4Y2/RPS4X (Ribosomal protein S4). *DDX3Y (helicase) similar to DDX3X on X ... So CCDS's gene number prediction represents a lower bound on the total number of human protein-coding genes.[49] ... at least 72 of which code for proteins.[5] Traits that are inherited via the Y chromosome are called Y-linked traits, or ... with between 45 and 73 of these protein-coding. All single-copy Y-linked genes are hemizygous (present on only one chromosome) ...
... discovery of ribosomal frameshifting to make retroviral proteins (with Tyler Jacks[16]); isolation of a cellular receptor for ... Jacks, T. and Varmus, H.E. Expression of the Rous sarcoma virus pol gene by ribosomal frameshifting. Science 230:1237, 1985. ...
... fragments refer to fragments of proteins that are used to identify or quantify the source protein.[13] Often these are ... A common non-ribosomal peptide is glutathione, a component of the antioxidant defenses of most aerobic organisms.[9] Other ... For example, synthetic peptides can be used as probes to see where protein-peptide interactions occur- see the page on Protein ... Protein tag, describing addition of peptide sequences to enable protein isolation or detection ...
October 2017). "Multiplexed quantification of proteins and transcripts in single cells". Nature Biotechnology. 35 (10): 936-939 ... size selection is not applicable for depleting the highly abundant ribosomal RNA molecules (18S and 28s rRNA).[59] Single-cell ... In 2017, two approaches were introduced to simultaneously measure single-cell mRNA and protein expression through ...
Each subunit is composed of a protein chain tightly associated with a non-protein prosthetic heme group. Each protein chain ... Even after the loss of the nucleus in mammals, residual ribosomal RNA allows further synthesis of Hb until the reticulocyte ... In all proteins, it is the amino acid sequence that determines the protein's chemical properties and function. ... Protein alignment of human hemoglobin proteins, alpha, beta, and delta subunits respectively. The alignments were created using ...
... and ribosomal RNA (rRNA), that is the central component of the ribosome's protein-manufacturing machinery. ... binding protein. eIF-4E and eIF-4G block the decapping enzyme (DCP2), and poly(A)-binding protein blocks the exosome complex, ... Proteins that are needed in a particular region of the cell can also be translated there; in such a case, the 3' UTR may ... Proteins that bind to either the 3' or 5' UTR may affect translation by influencing the ribosome's ability to bind to the mRNA ...
... regulate G proteins in several different ways. Small GTPases act as molecular switches in ... and thus requires another class of regulatory proteins to accelerate this activity, the GTPase activating proteins (GAPs). ... GTP-Binding+Protein+Regulators at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... The inactive form of GTPases (GDP-form) are activated by a class of proteins called Guanosine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs ...
ribonucleic-protein complexes that catalyse the assembly of amino acids into proteins according to the messenger RNA ... An important step was later realization (in 1960) that the messenger RNA was not the same as the ribosomal RNA. None of this, ... DNA → RNA → Protein. Some critics thought that by using the word "dogma", Crick was implying that this was a rule that could ... Crick, Francis Harry Compton (1954). Polypeptides and proteins : X-ray studies. repository.cam.ac.uk (PhD thesis). University ...
Densmore III, L. D. & Dessauer, H. C. (1984). "Low levels of protein divergence detected between Gavialis and Tomistoma: ... Gatesy, J. & Amato, G. D. (1992). "Sequence Similarity of 12S Ribosomal Segment of Mitochondrial DNAs of Gharial and False ... Others suggested that it evolved much later than other crocodilians because of its low levels of blood proteins. As it shares ... Sequencing of a ribosomal segment of mitochondrial DNAs of gharial and false gharial revealed that they share 22 unique ...
cytosolic small ribosomal subunit. العمليات الحيوية. • translational initiation. • protein phosphorylation. • SREBP signaling ... Squatrito M، Mancino M، Sala L، Draetta GF (Jun 2006). "Ebp1 is a dsRNA-binding protein associated with ribosomes that ... "Double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase phosphorylation of the alpha-subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 ... "The inhibitor-1 C terminus facilitates hormonal regulation of cellular protein phosphatase-1: functional implications for ...
40S ribosomal protein S6. RS6_HUMAN. PF01092 Ribosomal protein S6e. 7. 40S ribosomal protein S7. RS7_HUMAN. PF01251 Ribosomal ... 60S ribosomal protein L3. RL3_HUMAN. PF00297 Ribosomal protein L3. 4. 60S ribosomal protein L4. RL4_HUMAN. PF00573 Ribosomal ... 60S ribosomal protein L6. RL6_HUMAN. PF01159 Ribosomal protein L6e. 6. 60S ribosomal protein L6. RL6_HUMAN. PF03868 Ribosomal ... 60S ribosomal protein L9. RL9_HUMAN. PF00347 Ribosomal protein L6. 9. 60S ribosomal protein L9. RL9_HUMAN. PF00347 Ribosomal ...
We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their ... InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites ... Ribosomal protein S16 is one of the proteins from the small ribosomal subunit. It belongs to a family of ribosomal proteins ... Ribosomal protein S16 (IPR000307). Short name: Ribosomal_S16 Overlapping homologous superfamilies *Ribosomal protein S16 domain ...
We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their ... InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites ... Ribosomal protein L13 (IPR005822). Short name: Ribosomal_L13 Family relationships *Ribosomal protein L13 (IPR005822) *Ribosomal ... Ribosomal protein L13 is one of the proteins from the large ribosomal subunit [PMID: 8119894]. In Escherichia coli, L13 is ...
Conserved Protein Domain Family Ribosomal_60s, This family includes archaebacterial L12, eukaryotic P0, P1 and P2 ...
RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN L14. A. 122. Geobacillus stearothermophilus. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: BACILLUS STEAROTHERMOPHILUS, rplN. ... L14 is one of the most conserved ribosomal proteins and appears to have a central role in the ribonucleoprotein complex ... ... L14 is one of the most conserved ribosomal proteins and appears to have a central role in the ribonucleoprotein complex. ... The crystal structure of ribosomal protein L14 reveals an important organizational component of the translational apparatus.. ...
... ,ARUP Laboratories is a national reference laboratory and a worldwide leader in innovative ... Ribosomal P ELISA Test Kit. 2. Total Protein. 3. Total Protein Reagent. 4. Total Protein Reagent Set. 5. Proteomelab™ XL-A/XL-I ... Proteomelab™ PA 800 Protein Characterization System. 7. Proteineer™. 8. RCRP high sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (hsCRP). 9. ... Retinol Binding Protein EIA Vitamin Assays 030-6110 RBP Bone and Minearl Metabolism. ...
minor allergen, ribosomal protein P2 [Cladosporium herbarum] minor allergen, ribosomal protein P2 [Cladosporium herbarum]. gi, ... The tool works with standard single letter nucleotide or protein codes including ambiguities and can match Prosite patterns in ... The tool works with standard single letter nucleotide or protein codes including ambiguities and can match Prosite patterns in ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... White boxes represent UTRs (untranslated regions). Orange: protein coding regions. The black lines connecting boxes represent ...
... PLoS Biol. 2004 May;2(5):E139. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0020139. ... Surprisingly, 11 of the 12 lines were each heterozygous for a mutation in a different ribosomal protein (RP) gene, while one ...
IPR008195, Ribosomal_L34Ae. IPR038562, Ribosomal_L34Ae_sf. IPR018065, Ribosomal_L34e_CS. Pfami. View protein in Pfam. ... View protein in InterPro. IPR008195, Ribosomal_L34Ae. IPR038562, Ribosomal_L34Ae_sf. IPR018065, Ribosomal_L34e_CS. ... Protein-protein interaction databases. STRING: functional protein association networks. More...STRINGi. 9986.ENSOCUP00000025964 ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ...
Unlike ribosomal protein bio-synthesis, non-ribosomal protein synthesis (NRPS) does not require mRNA. NRPs are a promising ... Non-ribosomal peptides (NRPs) are secondary metabolites produced by microorganisms, e.g. bacteria and fungi. ...
Protein-protein interaction databases. STRING: functional protein association networks. More...STRINGi. 9986.ENSOCUP00000022677 ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... Ribonucleoprotein, Ribosomal proteinUniRule annotation. ,p>Information which has been generated by the UniProtKB automatic ... 60S ribosomal protein L38ARBA annotation. Automatic assertion according to rulesi ...
Ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1), a critical mediator of cell growth, is overexpressed in breast cancer and is associated ... Regulation and localization of ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 isoforms Growth Factors. 2009 Feb;27(1):12-21. doi: 10.1080/ ... Ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1), a critical mediator of cell growth, is overexpressed in breast cancer and is associated ... Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases / genetics * Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases / metabolism* * Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 70-kDa / ...
We tested 95 ribosomal protein genes and found a wide continuum of effects, with 30% showing at least a 3-fold reduction in ... We used the yeast collection of genes fused to GFP as a rapid screen for examples of feedback regulation in ribosomal proteins ... Here, the authors screen for feedback regulation of ribosomal proteins by overexpressing a non- regulatable version of a gene ... Further analyses showed that the intron in the 5 UTR of RPS22B is required for regulation, presumably because the protein ...
... important roles for distinct ribosomal proteins are becoming evident ... The assignment of specific ribosomal functions toindividual ribosomal proteins is difficult due to the enormous cooperativity ... Kaltschmidt E and Wittmann HG (1970) Ribosomal proteins XII. Number of proteins in the small and large ribosomal subunits of E ... Figure 5. Ribosomal proteins located in the ribosomal tunnel and at the exit site. (a) Side view (from uL1 side) of 50S subunit ...
A ribosomal protein (r-protein or rProtein) is any of the proteins that, in conjunction with rRNA, make up the ribosomal ... proteins of the eukaryotic small ribosomal subunit proteins are also present in archaea (no ribosomal protein is exclusively ... 30S Ribosomal proteins at biochem.umd.edu Ribosomal+Protein at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings ( ... November 2012). "Inactivation of ribosomal protein genes in Bacillus subtilis reveals importance of each ribosomal protein for ...
A simple intact protein analysis by MALDI-MS for characterization of ribosomal proteins of two genome-sequenced lactic acid ... Hotta Y, Sato H, Hosoda A, Tamura H (2012) MALDI-TOF MS analysis of ribosomal proteins coded in S10 and spc operons rapidly ... Yutin N, Puigbo P, Koonin EV, Wolf YI (2012) Phylogenomics of prokaryotic ribosomal proteins. PLoS ONE 7:e36972. doi: 10.1371/ ... Tamura H, Hotta Y, Sato H (2013) Novel accurate bacterial discrimination by MALDI-time-of-flight MS based on ribosomal proteins ...
Ribosomal protein S25 dependency reveals a common mechanism for diverse internal ribosome entry sites and ribosome shunting. ... In yeast without RPS25A, which encodes a ribosomal 40S subunit protein, RAN translation crashed while normal translation was ... A small ribosomal subunit protein helps translate nucleotide repeats into poly-dipeptides. ... RNA Twist: C9ORF72 Intron Expansion Makes Aggregating Protein 8 Feb 2013. * Its And, Not Either-Or: C9ORF72 Mechanisms of ...
Compare Ribosomal Protein L12 ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews ... Ribosomal Protein L12 ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a well-established antibody-based tool for ... Your search returned 29 Ribosomal Protein L12 ELISA ELISA Kit across 2 suppliers. ...
Rabbit polyclonal Ribosomal protein L26 antibody validated for IHC and tested in Human. Immunogen corresponding to synthetic ... Anti-Ribosomal protein L26 antibody. See all Ribosomal protein L26 primary antibodies. ... Detection of Human Ribosomal protein L26 in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded section of human skin basal cell carcinoma by ... Detection of Human Ribosomal protein L26 in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded section of human ovarian carcinoma by ...
Studies show that the p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinases (S6K1 and S6K2) and p90 ribosomal protein S6 kinases (RSK) both ... Ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6 or eS6) is a component of the 40S ribosomal subunit and is therefore involved in translation. Mouse ... Ruvinsky I, Meyuhas O (June 2006). "Ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation: from protein synthesis to cell size". Trends in ... Ribosomal+Protein+S6 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Overview of all the structural ...
Abbreviations: TOR, target of rapamycin; RP, ribosomal protein; PKA, protein kinase A; MMS, methyl methanesulfonate. ... Sfp1 is a stress- and nutrient-sensitive regulator of ribosomal protein gene expression. Rosa M. Marion, Aviv Regev, Eran Segal ... Sfp1 is a stress- and nutrient-sensitive regulator of ribosomal protein gene expression ... Sfp1 is a stress- and nutrient-sensitive regulator of ribosomal protein gene expression ...
40S ribosomal protein S6. Details. Name. 40S ribosomal protein S6. Kind. protein. Organism. Humans. Polypeptides. Name. UniProt ... 40S ribosomal protein S6. P62753. Details. Drug Relations. Drug Relations. DrugBank ID. Name. Drug group. Pharmacological ...
protein coding gene. Chr10:128624529-128626747 (-). 129S1/SvImJ MGP_129S1SvImJ_G0017874. protein coding gene. Chr10:132383084- ... protein coding gene. Chr10:127066565-127074045 (-). AKR/J MGP_AKRJ_G0017812. protein coding gene. Chr10:130784895-130786985 (-) ... protein coding gene. Chr10:131673214-131677103 (-). CBA/J MGP_CBAJ_G0017606. protein coding gene. Chr10:142436861-142441041 (-) ... protein coding gene. Chr10:127439654-127441630 (-). C3H/HeJ MGP_C3HHeJ_G0017636. protein coding gene. Chr10:130950889-130953694 ...
Monoclonal Antibody for studying S6 Ribosomal Protein in the Protein Translation research area. ... S6 Ribosomal Protein (54D2) Mouse mAb (Biotinylated). S6 Ribosomal Protein (54D2) Mouse mAb (Biotinylated) #3944. PRINT. This ... S6 Ribosomal Protein (54D2) Mouse mAb (Biotinlyated) detects endogenous levels of total S6 ribosomal protein. ... as well as ribosomal proteins and elongation factors necessary for translation (2,3). Important S6 ribosomal protein ...
Compare mitochondrial ribosomal protein S16 ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, ... Bovine 28S ribosomal protein S16, mitochondrial (MRPS16) ELISA Kit *Detection Target: 28S ribosomal protein S16, mitochondrial ... Canine 28S ribosomal protein S16, mitochondrial (MRPS16) ELISA Kit *Detection Target: 28S ribosomal protein S16, mitochondrial ... Your search returned 13 mitochondrial ribosomal protein S16 ELISA ELISA Kit across 2 suppliers. ...
Rabbit polyclonal Mitochondrial ribosomal protein L11 antibody. Validated in WB and tested in Human. Immunogen corresponding to ... Anti-Mitochondrial ribosomal protein L11 antibody. See all Mitochondrial ribosomal protein L11 primary antibodies. ... This product Rabbit Anti-Mitochondrial ribosomal protein L11 antibody (ab127034) WB Goat Anti-Rabbit IgG H&L (HRP) (ab205718) ... Anti-Mitochondrial ribosomal protein L11 antibody (ab127034) at 1/1000 dilution + A431 whole cell lysate at 30 µg. Predicted ...
Here, we report that ribosomal S6 protein kinase 4 (RSK4) plays a pivotal role in promoting CSC properties and radioresistance ... Ribosomal S6 protein kinase 4 promotes radioresistance in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. ... Ribosomal S6 protein kinase 4 promotes radioresistance in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. ... Protein expression was normalized to β-actin levels. (. D. ) Representative IHC images and H-score of RSK4 protein expression ...
Browse our Ribosomal protein L26 Protein catalog backed by our Guarantee+. ... Ribosomal protein L26 Proteins available through Novus Biologicals. ... Alternate Names for Ribosomal protein L26 Proteins. Ribosomal protein L26 protein, RPL26 protein, ribosomal protein L26,60S ... Ribosomal protein L26 Proteins. We offer Ribosomal protein L26 Peptides and Ribosomal protein L26 Proteins for use in common ...
Furthermore, S1 is an acidic protein, whereas all other ribosomal proteins, with the exception of protein L7/L12, are basic. ... It is the only ribosomal protein that has a high affinity for mRNA (6). As a ribosomal protein, S1 is strikingly atypical. ... Protein S1 is the largest ribosomal protein, 68 kDa (1), present in the small subunit of the Escherichia coli 70S ribosome. It ... Other Ribosomal Proteins in the Immediate Neighborhood of S1 Protein.. We have determined the specific regions of other small- ...
  • Among the large ribosomal subunit , 18 proteins are universal, i.e. found in both bacteria, eukaryotes, and archea. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ribosomal protein L13 is one of the proteins from the large ribosomal subunit [ PMID: 8119894 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Studies have indicated that L14 occupies a central location between the peptidyl transferase and GTPase regions of the large ribosomal subunit. (rcsb.org)
  • The results concerning the proteins from small and large ribosomal subunit are compared. (springer.com)
  • Sequence alignment revealed that AgRPL44 is one of the proteins of the large ribosomal subunit 60S. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In the present study, we have used RT-PCR differential display and semiquantitative RT-PCR to provide evidence that the large ribosomal subunit proteins L21, L15, L13a, and L7a exhibit decreased expression in cataract compared with normal human lenses. (arvojournals.org)
  • RsfA silences translation by binding to the L14 protein of the large ribosomal subunit and, as a consequence, impairs subunit joining (as shown by molecular modeling, reporter gene analysis, in vitro translation assays, and sucrose gradient analysis). (prolekare.cz)
  • Moreover, YbeB was shown to co-sediment with the large ribosomal subunit (LRS) [7] , suggesting that it functions in protein translation. (prolekare.cz)
  • Taken together with previous results, 22 of the 54 E. coli ribosomal protein genes can be individually deleted from the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • We used the yeast collection of genes fused to GFP as a rapid screen for examples of feedback regulation in ribosomal proteins by overexpressing a non-regulatable version of a gene and observing the effects on the expression of the GFP-fused version. (nature.com)
  • We tested 95 ribosomal protein genes and found a wide continuum of effects, with 30% showing at least a 3-fold reduction in expression. (nature.com)
  • Autoregulation by one of the proteins in the operon is typically sufficient to control the expression of all the other genes in the operon by translational coupling, where translation of an upstream gene in an operon is required for translation of the downstream genes. (nature.com)
  • The labor-intensive and time-consuming 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequencing and/or multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) of conserved genes so far remain the favored molecular tools to characterize symbiotic bacteria. (springer.com)
  • Yeast cells modulate their protein synthesis capacity in response to physiological needs through the transcriptional control of ribosomal protein (RP) genes. (pnas.org)
  • By an uncharacterized mechanism, TOR promotes the transcription of ribosomal protein (RP) and ribosome biogenesis genes in favorable nutrient conditions ( 12 ), thereby promoting cell growth. (pnas.org)
  • Despite the high sequence conservation, annotation of ribosomal (r-) protein genes is often difficult because of their short lengths and biased sequence composition. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We developed an automated computational pipeline for identification of r-protein genes and applied it to 995 completely sequenced bacterial and 87 archaeal genomes available in the RefSeq database. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • As a result of this analysis, we performed a census of prokaryotic r-protein complements, enumerated missing and paralogous r-proteins, and analyzed the distributions of ribosomal protein genes among chromosomal partitions. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Phyletic patterns of bacterial and archaeal r-protein genes were mapped to phylogenetic trees reconstructed from concatenated alignments of r-proteins to reveal the history of likely multiple independent gains and losses. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In bacteria and archaea, genes encoding r-proteins are organized in genomic clusters that include several partially conserved operons and are often called ribosomal superoperons [8] , [9] . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • However, some of the r-protein genes are difficult targets for automatic annotation in sequenced genomes because they are short and compositionally biased. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • As is typical for genes encoding ribosomal proteins, there are multiple processed pseudogenes of this gene dispersed through the genome. (wikidoc.org)
  • 2002). "The human ribosomal protein genes: sequencing and comparative analysis of 73 genes" . (wikidoc.org)
  • Sublethal effects of imidacloprid on targeting muscle and ribosomal protein related genes in the honey bee Apis mellifera L. (nature.com)
  • The enriched GO terms were attributed to the up-regulated ribosomal protein genes. (nature.com)
  • To address this issue, we conditionally deleted the S6 gene, 1 of 33 40 S ribosomal protein genes ( 5 ), in the liver of adult mice. (sciencemag.org)
  • Map position of two genes, prmA and prmB, governing methylation of proteins L11 and L3. (springer.com)
  • Isono S, Isono K, Hirota Y (1978) Mutations affecting the structural genes and genes coding for modifying enzymes for ribosomal proteins in Escherichia coli . (springer.com)
  • The genes for ribosomal proteins L4 and L22 from two erythromycin-resistant mutants of Escherichia coli have been isolated and sequenced. (asm.org)
  • Interestingly, tau decreased protein synthesis of ribosomal genes but not their transcription in tau transgenic mice. (springer.com)
  • Although most bacteria contain multiple copies of rRNA operons, the ∼55 R proteins are usually encoded by single, highly conserved genes. (asm.org)
  • However, some genomes maintain both C + and C − forms of certain R-protein genes, in which case the protein products are considered paralogues. (asm.org)
  • The ribosomal proteins (RPs) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are encoded by 137 genes that are among the most transcriptionally active in the genome. (asm.org)
  • Sir2p, implicated in the silencing both of the silent mating type genes and of genes within the ribosomal DNA locus, does not influence the repression of either RP or rRNA genes. (asm.org)
  • The 137 ribosomal protein (RP) genes are among the most active in the genome ( 57 ). (asm.org)
  • Ribosomal protein genes (RPGs) are essential, tightly regulated, and highly expressed during embryonic development and cell growth. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ribosomes are essential components of all cells, prokaryotic and eukaryotic, and the sequences of ribosomal protein genes (RPGs) are conserved across all eukaryotes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Because ribosomes are necessary for the expression of all protein-coding genes, they are highly expressed in replicating cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Specific primers were designed and used to examine the mRNA levels of other genes important in protein synthesis. (arvojournals.org)
  • Although RPS3 is known to directly bind to and activate the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), which induces several anti-apoptotic genes such as XIAP, the knockdown of RPS3 unexpectedly reduced the levels of the XIAP protein, but not the mRNA level of XIAP and the transcription factor NF-κB activity. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The majority of the protein-coding genes encode primary components of the photosynthetic apparatus, including major subunits of photosystems I and II, cytochrome b 6 f , the NDH complex, and ATP synthase. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Assembly of proteins produced by both plastid and nuclear genes are necessary for the biogenesis and function of the chloroplast apparatus, requiring some degree of coordination between the protein synthesis machineries in the cytosol and plastids ( Tiller and Bock, 2014 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • Three complementary DNA encoding S19 ribosomal protein (S19), laminin-binding protein (LBP), and HLA class I (HLA-I) genes were isolated from a colon tumor-enriched subtraction library. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Abstract Heterozygous inactivating mutations in ribosomal protein genes (RPGs) are associated with hematopoietic and developmental abnormalities, activation of p53, and altered risk of cancer in humans and model organisms. (harvard.edu)
  • BACKGROUND: In fast-growing bacteria, the genomic location of ribosomal protein (RP) genes is biased towards the replication origin (oriC). (ruc.dk)
  • abstract = "In fast-growing bacteria, the genomic location of ribosomal protein (RP) genes is biased towards the replication origin (oriC). (ruc.dk)
  • p53 is a transcription factor and regulates the transcriptional expression of genes that encode proteins responsible for cellular senescence, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and DNA repair. (iupui.edu)
  • Ribosomes are the particles that catalyse mRNA-directed protein synthesis in all organisms. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • About two thirds of the bacterial ribosomal proteins have counterparts in archaeal and eukaryotic ribosomes. (els.net)
  • Both rRNA and ribosomal proteins are essential for assembly, structure and function of the ribosomes. (els.net)
  • Archaeal and bacterial ribosomes contain more than 50 proteins, including 34 that are universally conserved in the three domains of cellular life (bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The fact that they can both mutate to suppress certain alleles of the mRNA-specific translational activator PET122 strongly suggests that the PET122 protein promotes translation of the coxIII mRNA via an interaction with the small subunit of mitochondrial ribosomes. (genetics.org)
  • Ribosomes , the organelles that catalyze protein synthesis , consist of a small 40S subunit and a large 60S subunit. (wikidoc.org)
  • A proliferating eukaryotic cell expends 80% of its energy on the biosynthesis of protein synthetic components, most notably ribosomes. (sciencemag.org)
  • A change in the ratio of ribosomes to mRNA can modify the pattern of proteins synthesized ( 2 ), ultimately leading to deleterious effects on the cell. (sciencemag.org)
  • Möller W, Groene A, Terhorst C, Amons R (1972) 50S ribosomal proteins: Purification and partial characterization of two acidic proteins, A1 and A2, isolated from 50S ribosomes of Escherichia coli . (springer.com)
  • The fraction of ribosomes containing the mutant form of the protein was increased by growth in the presence of erythromycin. (asm.org)
  • Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIP) are RNA N -glycosidases that inactivate ribosomes by specifically depurinating a conserved adenine residue at the α-sarcin/ricin loop of 28S rRNA. (mdpi.com)
  • This review highlights how structural studies of eukaryotic stalk proteins provide insights into the recruitment of RIPs to the ribosomes. (mdpi.com)
  • Intracellular changes that precede the death of NM neurons include increased oxidative metabolism and mitochondrial volume, decreased cytoplasmic protein synthesis, and destruction of ribosomes. (jneurosci.org)
  • Six hours following afferent deprivation, dying NM neurons demonstrate complete loss of ribosomes and cessation of protein synthesis, suggesting that the rapid destruction of ribosomes leads to neuronal death. (jneurosci.org)
  • To study changes in the ribosomes of afferent-deprived NM neurons, we obtained a monoclonal antibody to ribosomal RNA. (jneurosci.org)
  • We have previously shown that ribosomal protein L3 is required for pokeweed antiviral protein (PAP), a type I ribosome inactivating protein, to bind to ribosomes and depurinate the α-sarcin/ricin loop (SRL) in yeast. (mdpi.com)
  • Although RPL1a and RPL1b encode identical proteins, Rpl1b-containing ribosomes confer more efficient translation of respiration-related proteins. (rupress.org)
  • Tau oligomers and filaments hinder protein synthesis in vitro, and they associate strongly with ribosomes in vivo. (springer.com)
  • Here, we investigated the consequences of tau interactions with ribosomes in transgenic mice, in cells, and in human brain tissues to identify tau as a direct modulator of ribosomal selectivity. (springer.com)
  • The production of ribosomes is a major drain on cellular energy and material resources, and so the synthesis of ribosomal components is tightly controlled in most, if not all, bacteria. (asm.org)
  • In rapidly growing cells, ribosomes that contain up to seven C + R proteins clearly place a major demand on zinc resources. (asm.org)
  • It is believed that the P protein-pentameric complex binds to eukaryotic 28 S rRNA and plays an important role in the GTPase-associated center of eukaryotic ribosomes ( 5 , 10 - 11 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Heterogeneity of P-proteins in ribosomal composition has been observed, and ribosomes from stationary phase-deficient P1/P2 proteins have been reported ( 15 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • After transfection, we analyzed the following properties of the mutated proteins: (i) protein stability, (ii) subcellular localization and (iii) assembly into ribosomes. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Changes in ribosomal protein composition and efficiency with which the ribosomes incorporate 35S-methionine has been noted in a mitoxantrone resistant MCF7 cell line when compared with a drug-susceptible parental cell line. (umd.edu)
  • This suggests that these ribosomes may participate in differential selective translation to allow for the cell to produce the necessary proteins during cellular stress. (umd.edu)
  • Ribosomal proteins are major constituents of ribosomes that catalyze protein synthesis in the cytoplasm. (arvojournals.org)
  • On the other hand, ribosomes are composed of small and large subunits and synthesize proteins from transcribed mRNAs. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The composition of autophagsomes was altered by targeting of ribosomes, viral mRNA and proteins to these double membrane vesicles. (uzh.ch)
  • The protein, which is a functional equivalent of the Escherichia coli L7 / L12 ribosomal protein, belongs to the L12P family of ribosomal proteins. (wikidoc.org)
  • The protein belongs to the S12E family of ribosomal proteins. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • RPS7 belongs to the S3P family of ribosomal proteins and is located in the cytoplasm. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Unlike ribosomal protein bio-synthesis, non-ribosomal protein synthesis (NRPS) does not require mRNA. (innovations-report.com)
  • In both cases the cis-regulatory segment resides in the 5' UTR of the gene as shown by placing that segment of the mRNA upstream of GFP alone and demonstrating it is sufficient to cause repression of GFP when the protein is over-expressed. (nature.com)
  • Although ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) has the major claim to certain aspects of ribosome function, such as decoding and peptidyltransferase activity, there are also protein‐dominated functional hot‐spots on the ribosome such as the messenger RNA (mRNA) entry pore, the translation factor‐binding site and the exit of the ribosomal tunnel. (els.net)
  • In addition to rRNA‐dominated functional hot‐spots such as the decoding centre and the peptidyl‐transferase centre, there are also protein‐dominated functional hot‐spots such as the entry pore for the mRNA on the 30S subunit, the docking site for G‐protein factors and the exit of the tunnel harbouring the nascent peptide chain. (els.net)
  • Phosphorylation of S6 ribosomal protein correlates with an increase in translation of mRNA transcripts that contain an oligopyrimidine tract in their 5' untranslated regions (2). (cellsignal.com)
  • These particular mRNA transcripts (5'TOP) encode proteins involved in cell cycle progression, as well as ribosomal proteins and elongation factors necessary for translation (2,3). (cellsignal.com)
  • It has been suggested that a pyrimidine-rich region upstream of the Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequence of mRNA interacts with protein S1 and serves as one of the ribosome recognition sites ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • It is the only ribosomal protein that has a high affinity for mRNA ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • Functional interactions among two yeast mitochondrial ribosomal proteins and an mRNA-specific translational activator. (genetics.org)
  • Livers of IFN-α-treated fS6/CRE + mice contained no detectable S6 mRNA, but mRNA for glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and other ribosomal proteins was present in similar amounts as in fS6/CRE − mice ( Fig. 1 D) ( 11 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • PAP mRNA and protein levels were elevated and L3Δ99 or L3Δ21 mRNA and protein levels were reduced in yeast co-transformed with PAP and L3Δ99 or with PAP and L3Δ21, respectively. (mdpi.com)
  • Ribosomal proteins are highly conserved components of basal cellular organelles, primarily involved in the translation of mRNA leading to protein synthesis. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The change in the primary structures of these four ribosomal proteins is believed to alter access to the mRNA tunnel in the ribosome. (umd.edu)
  • Here, we report that the ribosomal protein S1--which plays critical roles in translation initiation and elongation in Escherichia coli and is believed to stabilize mRNA on the ribosome--is a potent activator of transcriptional cycling in vitro. (semanticscholar.org)
  • PAP mRNA and protein levels are very high in these plants, indicating that L3δ suppresses the autoregulation of PAP mRNA expression. (apsnet.org)
  • The mRNA levels of the small subunit r-proteins remain relatively unchanged. (openthesis.org)
  • Ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1), a critical mediator of cell growth, is overexpressed in breast cancer and is associated with poor prognosis. (nih.gov)
  • Growth factors and mitogens induce the activation of p70 S6 kinase and the subsequent phosphorylation of the S6 ribosomal protein. (cellsignal.com)
  • Here, we report that ribosomal S6 protein kinase 4 (RSK4) plays a pivotal role in promoting CSC properties and radioresistance in ESCC. (jci.org)
  • Although p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) is known as an important downstream effector of the ribosomal protein S6 kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Ras/ERK) pathway, its endogenous role, and precise molecular function remain unclear. (sdbonline.org)
  • The Rps6kb1 gene encodes the 70 kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K), which is a serine/threonine kinase regulated by phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. (bmj.com)
  • Upon activation, this kinase phosphorylates S6 protein of ribosomal subunit 40S resulting in selective translation of unique family of mRNAs that contain oligopyrimidine tract on 5' transcriptional site (5′TOP). (bmj.com)
  • IL-7 treatment increased levels of phospho-ribosomal protein S6 in HIV-specific CD8 T cells, suggesting increased activation of the metabolic checkpoint kinase mTORC1. (jimmunol.org)
  • The Philadelphia chromosome results in the production of a fusion gene, Bcr-Abl , that encodes a cytoplasmic protein with constitutive tyrosine kinase activity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We have identified the S6 ribosomal protein as being phosphorylated in a Bcr-Abl kinase-, PI3K-, and mTOR-dependent manner in Bcr-Abl-expressing cell lines and CML cell lines. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The stress-activated protein kinase/Jun-terminal kinase SAPK/JNK is potently and preferentially activated by a variety of environmental stresses, including UV and gamma radiation, ceramides, inflammatory cytokines and, in some instances, by growth factors and GPCR agonists (6,7). (cellsignal.com)
  • Growth factors and mitogens induce the activation of p70 S6 kinase, which in turn phosphorylate the S6 ribosomal protein. (cellsignal.com)
  • The G1 phase arrest is associated with a reduced level of phosphorylated retinoblastoma (Rb) protein, cyclin E and cdk2 whereas the G2/M phase defect is associated with increased levels of p21, cyclin E, cdk4 and cdk6.RPS19 interacts with PIM-1 kinase. (openthesis.org)
  • Your search returned 13 mitochondrial ribosomal protein S16 ELISA ELISA Kit across 2 suppliers. (biocompare.com)
  • Recombinant fragment ccorresponding to a region within amino acids 1-142 of Human Mitochondrial ribosomal protein L11 (UniProt Q9Y3B7). (abcam.com)
  • Mitochondrial ribosomal protein L11 belongs to the ribosomal protein L11P family. (abcam.com)
  • Here, we report a mitochondrial ribosomal protein, RPS9M, is required for central cell maturation. (frontiersin.org)
  • [5] Among the 40 proteins found in various small ribosomal subunits , 15 subunits are universally conserved across prokaryotes and eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • [5] Typically 22 proteins are found in bacterial 30S subunits and 32 in yeast, human and most likely most other eukaryotic species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite their high conservation over billions of years of evolution, the absence of several ribosomal proteins in certain species shows that ribosomal subunits have been added and lost over the course of evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • All of them are different with three exceptions: one protein is found in both subunits (S20 and L26), L7 and L12 are acetylated and methylated forms of the same protein, and L8 is a complex of L7/L12 and L10. (wikipedia.org)
  • Positions of ribosomal proteins in the T. thermophilus 30S (top) and 50S subunits (bottom). (els.net)
  • In addition to three or four essential, highly conserved rRNA molecules, the large (50S) and small (30S) ribosomal subunits contain over 50 distinct ribosomal (r) proteins that interact with the rRNAs and with one another. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Together these subunits are composed of 4 RNA species and approximately 80 structurally distinct proteins. (wikidoc.org)
  • This energy is used not only to generate ribosomal components, but also to transport, process, and assemble them into mature ribosomal subunits ( 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • RPL5 which binds 5S RNA is necessary for rRNA maturation and structure of the 60S ribosomal subunits. (prospecbio.com)
  • Since the C -terminal domain of eukaryotic stalk proteins is involved in specific recognition of elongation factors and some eukaryote-specific RIPs (e.g., trichosanthin and ricin), we postulate that these RIPs may have evolved to hijack the translation-factor-recruiting function of ribosomal stalk in reaching their target site of rRNA. (mdpi.com)
  • Abiotic stress resistance, a novel moonlighting function of ribosomal protein RPL44 in the halophilic fungus Aspergillus glaucus. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Twenty-seven (out of 32) proteins of the eukaryotic small ribosomal subunit proteins are also present in archaea (no ribosomal subunit is exclusively found in archaea), confirming that they are more closely related to eukaryotes than to eubacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • This motif is found in a number of other translational protein factors, such as chloroplast and prokaryotic initiation factor 1 and eukaryotic initiation factor 2α. (pnas.org)
  • Recent studies have pointed to the involvement of the C -terminal domain of the eukaryotic stalk proteins in facilitating the toxic action of RIPs. (mdpi.com)
  • The eukaryotic 60 S-ribosomal stalk consists of P0, P1, and P2 proteins, which associate in a pentameric structure (P1 2 -P0-P2 2 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • When added to prokaryotic 23 S rRNA, this P-protein complex changes the specificity of the ribosome to the eukaryotic elongation factors ( 12 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 13 The eukaryotic ribosome is composed of a large (60S) and a small (40S) subunit consisting of three RNAs and 46 proteins and one RNA and 33 proteins, respectively. (arvojournals.org)
  • The YbeB (DUF143) family of uncharacterized proteins is encoded by almost all bacterial and eukaryotic genomes but not archaea. (prolekare.cz)
  • RsfA is unrelated to the eukaryotic ribosomal anti-association/60S-assembly factor eIF6, which also binds to L14, and is the first such factor in bacteria and organelles. (prolekare.cz)
  • RsfA helps cells to adapt to slow-growth/stationary phase conditions by down-regulating protein synthesis, one of the most energy-consuming processes in both bacterial and eukaryotic cells. (prolekare.cz)
  • RPS19 mutant cells from DBA patients show a similar and coordinated down-regulation of small subunit proteins. (openthesis.org)
  • This strong dependence on the P0-P1-P2 complex for the factors accessibility suggests a direct interaction between the protein complex and elongation factors. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 5′TOP mRNAs are coding the components of translational apparatus including ribosomal proteins and elongation factors. (bmj.com)
  • This group of mRNAs (5'TOP) encodes proteins involved in cell cycle progression and proteins that are part of the translational machinery, such as ribosomal proteins and elongation factors (10,11). (cellsignal.com)
  • Pharmacological inhibition of this pathway strongly and preferentially suppresses, in a 4EBP1/2-dependent manner, translation of mRNAs encoding ribosomal proteins and translation factors that comprise 5' terminal oligopyrimidine (TOP) motifs. (harvard.edu)
  • RPS19 mRNAs with mutations that introduce premature stop codons or eliminate it are rapidly turned over by the surveillance mechanisms possibly causing a decrease in the RPS19 protein level. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Monoclonal antibody is produced by immunizing animals with a recombinant fusion protein corresponding to full-length human S6 ribosomal protein. (cellsignal.com)
  • The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated antibody (S6 Ribosomal Protein (54D2) Mouse mAb #2317). (cellsignal.com)
  • View detailed Ribosomal Protein L22 antibody specifications by linking to the specific product blocks. (scbt.com)
  • During this second phase, NM neurons putatively destined to die, based on their failure to synthesize protein, are unlabeled by the Y10B antibody. (jneurosci.org)
  • By combining the use of a phosphospecific antibody recognizing a substrate motif of serine/threonine kinases with bioinformatics, we found that the translational regulators ribosomal protein S6 and 4E-BP1 are constitutively phosphorylated in CML cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The cocktail also includes Pin1 antibody to control protein loading. (cellsignal.com)
  • The Pin1 antibody detects endogenous levels of its target protein and is provided to control for protein loading. (cellsignal.com)
  • Many ribosomal proteins, particularly those of the large subunit, are composed of a globular, surfaced-exposed domain with long finger-like projections that extend into the rRNA core to stabilise its structure. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • In the large subunit, about 1/3 of the 23S rRNA nucleotides are at least in van der Waal's contact with protein, and L22 interacts with all six domains of the 23S rRNA. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Proteins S4 and S7, which initiate assembly of the 16S rRNA, are located at junctions of five and four RNA helices, respectively. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • In this way proteins serve to organise and stabilise the rRNA tertiary structure. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The 30S subunit usually contains 21 proteins and 16S rRNA, whereas the 50S subunit comprises up to 36 proteins together with 23S and 5S rRNA. (asm.org)
  • A major role of ribosomal proteins (R proteins) is to stabilize the rRNA ( 31 ), although several proteins play additional roles in ribosome function ( 8 ). (asm.org)
  • The P0 protein, equivalent to the L10 protein in prokaryotes, forms the base of the stalk and directly interacts with the 28 S rRNA, and constitutes the binding site for the two protein dimers, (P1-P2) 2 ( 4 - 6 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • It has been reported that binding of P1 and P2 to P0 protein induces the binding activity of P0 to rRNA ( 10 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Pokeweed antiviral protein (PAP), a ribosome-inactivating protein binds to L3 to depurinate the α--sarcin/loop of the large rRNA. (apsnet.org)
  • In yeast without RPS25A, which encodes a ribosomal 40S subunit protein, RAN translation crashed while normal translation was unaffected. (alzforum.org)
  • We have shown previously that carboxy-terminal deletions of PET122 are allele-specifically suppressed by mutations in an unlinked nuclear gene, termed PET123, that encodes a small subunit ribosomal protein. (genetics.org)
  • This gene encodes a ribosomal phosphoprotein that is a component of the 60S subunit. (wikidoc.org)
  • 1990). "A sequence previously identified as metastasis-related encodes an acidic ribosomal phosphoprotein, P2" . (wikidoc.org)
  • For example, the Escherichia coli genome encodes mostly C − R proteins but encodes both C + and C − forms of L31, whereas Bacillus subtilis uses either C + or C − R proteins in most cases but contains both forms of S14, L31, and L33 ( 30 ). (asm.org)
  • Recent ' de novo' proteomics experiments where the authors characterized in vivo ribosome-assembly intermediates and associated assembly factors from wild-type Escherichia coli cells using a general quantitative mass spectrometry (qMS) approach have confirmed the presence of all the known small and large subunit components and have identified a total of 21 known and potentially new ribosome-assembly-factors that co-localise with various ribosomal particles. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Escherichia coli, L13 is known to be one of the early assembly proteins of the 50S ribosomal subunit. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Arnold RJ, Reilly JP (1999) Observation of Escherichia coli ribosomal proteins and their posttranslational modifications by mass spectrometry. (springer.com)
  • Brosius J, Palmer ML, Kennedy PJ, Noller HF (1978) Complete nucleotide sequence of a 16S ribosomal RNA gene from Escherichia coli . (springer.com)
  • We have identified the S1 protein mass in the cryo-electron microscopic map of the Escherichia coli ribosome by comparing the map with a recent x-ray crystallographic structure of the 30S subunit, which lacks S1. (pnas.org)
  • Protein S1 is the largest ribosomal protein, 68 kDa ( 1 ), present in the small subunit of the Escherichia coli 70S ribosome. (pnas.org)
  • Colson C, Lhoest J, Urlings C (1979) Genetics of ribosomal protein methylation in Escherichia coli . (springer.com)
  • Cumberlidge AG, Isono K (1979) Ribosomal protein modification in Escherichia coli . (springer.com)
  • Hamel E, Koka M, Nakamoto T (1972) Requirement of an Escherichia coli 50S ribosomal protein component for effective interation of the ribosome with T and F factors and with guanosine triphosphate. (springer.com)
  • Heiland I, Wittmann-Liebold B (1979) Amino acid sequence of the ribosomal protein L21 of Escherichia coli . (springer.com)
  • Isono K, Cumberlidge AG, Isono S, Hirota Y (1977) Further temperature-sensitive mutants of Escherichia coli with altered ribosomal proteins. (springer.com)
  • Isono K, Isono S (1980) Ribosomal protein modification in Escherichia coli . (springer.com)
  • Isono K, Kitakawa M (1977) A new ribosomal protein locus in Escherichia coli . (springer.com)
  • Kitakawa M, Isono K (1977) Localization of the structural gene for ribosomal protein L19 ( rplS ) in Escherichia coli . (springer.com)
  • Ribosomal protein gene sequence changes in erythromycin-resistant mutants of Escherichia coli. (asm.org)
  • Yeast and other organisms live longer when they lack specific ribosomal proteins, especially of the large 60S subunit of the ribosome. (elifesciences.org)
  • Except for S1 (with a molecular weight of 61.2 kDa), the other proteins range in weight between 4.4 and 29.7 kDa. (wikipedia.org)
  • The conclusions support and supplement the concept about the presence of a trend in protein molecular evolution from universal (Gly, Ala) to specialized (Phe, Tyr, Trp, Cys) amino acids. (springer.com)
  • The ribosome, the molecular machine for protein biosynthesis, is the hallmark of cellular life forms [1] . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Recent research has provided evidence that in many different forms of autism spectrum disorders, the molecular mechanisms regulating the production of proteins are defective. (autismspeaks.org)
  • Molecular masses and top-down analyses were used to define the alterations in the ribosomal proteins in conjunction with high coverage bottom up and middle-down analyses. (umd.edu)
  • In this work we characterize YbeB's molecular function by identifying its binding site on the LRS and reveal a molecular mechanism of YbeB action: it is down-regulating protein synthesis under nutrient shortage by binding to protein L14 of the LRS, acting as a ribosomal silencing factor ("RsfA") by blocking ribosome subunit joining. (prolekare.cz)
  • In order to clarify the mechanisms responsible for the overexpression of XIAP in breast cancer, we initially examined the molecular actions of the natural product curcumin which downregulates the expression of XIAP ( 23 , 24 ), since we considered the possibility that curcumin may target the proteins related to the expression of XIAP. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • We report the partial complementation and subsequent comparative molecular analysis of two nonviable mutants impaired in chloroplast translation, one ( emb2394 ) lacking the RPL6 protein, and the other ( emb2654 ) carrying a mutation in a gene encoding a P-class pentatricopeptide repeat protein. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Thus, autophagy may support viral protein translation by promoting the clustering of the respective molecular machinery in autophagosomes in a cell line-dependent manner. (uzh.ch)
  • Over the past decade, many research teams have established both in vitro and in vivo models of DBA to better understand the pathological and molecular mechanisms of ribosomal protein deficiency [ 3 , 13 , 14 ]. (jcancer.org)
  • By taking advantage of our murine models, we hope to gain insight into the molecular mechanism of ribosomal protein deficiency and cancer development. (jcancer.org)
  • In addition to their function in the ribosome, many ribosomal proteins have some function 'outside' the ribosome [ PMID: 11290319 , PMID: 11114498 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Using regulatable rTg4510 tau transgenic mice, we determined that tau expression differentially shifts both the transcriptome and the nascent proteome, and that the synthesis of ribosomal proteins is reversibly dependent on tau levels. (springer.com)
  • The synthesis of ribosomal proteins (RPs) has long been known to be a process strongly linked to the growth status of the cell. (ovid.com)
  • All ribosomal proteins have been isolated and many specific antibodies have been produced. (wikipedia.org)
  • Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc. offers a broad range of Ribosomal Protein L22 antibodies. (scbt.com)
  • Select Ribosomal Protein L22 antibodies from monoclonal antibodies listed below. (scbt.com)
  • Select appropriate Ribosomal Protein L22 antibodies for your research by isotype, epitope, applications and species reactivity. (scbt.com)
  • Polyclonal antibodies are purified by protein A and peptide affinity chromatography. (cellsignal.com)
  • Important S6 ribosomal protein phosphorylation sites include several residues (Ser235, Ser236, Ser240, and Ser244) located within a small, carboxy-terminal region of the S6 protein (4,5). (cellsignal.com)
  • S6 'phosphorylation', a biochemical modification that can be measured quantitatively, is known to control the efficiency of S6 to regulate protein production. (autismspeaks.org)
  • In the July 29 Nature Neuroscience, they report that a small ribosomal subunit, RPS25, drives RAN translation of a GGGGCC expansion in yeast. (alzforum.org)
  • Knocking out RPS25 reduces dipeptide repeat proteins in yeast and human cells. (alzforum.org)
  • Using translatome analyses, we show that the translation of mitochondrial proteins is highly down-regulated in yeast lacking RP paralogs required for normal mitochondrial function (e.g. (rupress.org)
  • In lower eukaryotes, such as yeast and Trypanosoma, two additional subgroups are distinguished, comprising the P1α, P1β, P2α, and P2β proteins ( 7 , 8 ), whereas an additional P3 protein has been recognized in plants ( 9 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In yeast, each of the P1 or P2-null mutants is viable in rich medium and no significant effects are seen in the rates of peptide bond formation, although protein synthesis and growth rates are reduced ( 15 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Even though their protein sequences are strongly conserved, their mechanism of regulation is not conserved across yeast, Drosophila , and vertebrates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Together, we describe a novel translation assay that is directly applicable to large-scale RNA translation studies, and that enabled us to identify a non-canonical, mTOR-independent mode for translational regulation of ribosomal proteins and translation factors. (harvard.edu)
  • Non-ribosomal peptides (NRPs) are secondary metabolites produced by microorganisms, e.g. bacteria and fungi. (innovations-report.com)
  • We offer Ribosomal protein L26 Peptides and Ribosomal protein L26 Proteins for use in common research applications: ELISA, Protein Array, SDS-Page, Western Blot. (novusbio.com)
  • Our Ribosomal protein L26 Peptides and Ribosomal protein L26 Proteins can be used in a variety of model species: Human. (novusbio.com)
  • Choose from our Ribosomal protein L26 Peptides and Proteins. (novusbio.com)
  • We show that tau expression impairs protein translation by measuring protein synthesis in vivo in the brain with puromycin labeling of nascent peptides. (springer.com)
  • This is also reflected by the fact that several ribosomal proteins do not appear to be essential when deleted. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, several ribosomal proteins have been identified to have extraribosomal functions ( 19 , 20 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Several ribosomal proteins have been shown to induce and activate p53 via inhibition of MDM2. (thebiogrid.org)
  • 14 The catalytic functions specific to individual ribosomal proteins are largely unknown. (arvojournals.org)
  • Protein-protein interactions also exist to hold structure together by electrostatic and hydrogen bonding interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Is the Subject Area "Protein interactions" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
  • STRING - Known and Predicted Protein-Protein Interactions. (cellsignal.com)
  • Moreover, since regulation of protein synthesis is critical for learning and memory, aberrant tau-ribosome interactions in disease could explain the linkage between tauopathies and cognitive impairment. (springer.com)
  • View conserved domains detected in this protein sequence using CD-search. (nih.gov)
  • Hunt, L.T. and Dayhoff, M.O. 1976, In "Atlas of Protein Sequence and Structure" (ed. (springer.com)
  • Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (uniprot.org)
  • p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence. (uniprot.org)
  • Sequence analysis of the E. coli S1 protein indicates that a major portion of S1 consists of six similar structural motifs of ≈70 aa each ( 16 ). (pnas.org)
  • In the L22 strain, a 9-bp deletion removed codons 82 to 84, eliminating the sequence Met-Lys-Arg from the protein. (asm.org)
  • section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. (uniprot.org)
  • Genome duplication in eukaryotes created paralog pairs of ribosomal proteins (RPs) that show high sequence similarity/identity. (rupress.org)
  • 1 The nucleotide sequence data of human S19 ribosomal protein reported in this paper will appear in the GenBank sequence database under the accession number M81757. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In addition to this RNB-specific module, which was successfully tested on unknown field isolates, a subset of 13 ribosomal proteins extracted from genome data was found to be sufficient for the reliable identification of nodule isolates to rhizobial species as shown in the putatively ascribed ribosomal protein masses (PARPM) database. (springer.com)
  • The pipeline employs curated seed alignments of r-proteins to run position-specific scoring matrix (PSSM)-based BLAST searches against six-frame genome translations, mitigating possible gene annotation errors. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These alignments, available for download, can be used as search profiles to improve genome annotation of r-proteins and for further comparative genomics studies. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Assignment of Homology to Genome Sequences using a Library of Hidden Markov Models that Represent all Proteins of Known Structure. (supfam.org)
  • Ribosomal+Protein+S6 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: P62753 (Human 40S ribosomal protein S6) at the PDBe-KB. (wikipedia.org)
  • p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the 'basket' to save them, so that you can back to find or analyse them later. (uniprot.org)
  • Pathways leading to the induction of human eS6 phosphoryation been found to enhance IL-8 protein synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Explore pathways + proteins related to this product. (cellsignal.com)
  • Furthermore, S1 is an acidic protein, whereas all other ribosomal proteins, with the exception of protein L7/L12, are basic. (pnas.org)
  • Template:Infobox gene 60S acidic ribosomal protein P2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RPLP2 gene . (wikidoc.org)
  • Unlike most ribosomal proteins, which are basic, the encoded protein is acidic. (wikidoc.org)
  • Although less well-studied, autoregulation also occurs for proteins involved in post-transcriptional steps of gene expression. (nature.com)
  • We show that the level of expression of four transcriptional units encoding C − proteins is elevated under conditions of zinc deprivation. (asm.org)
  • Ribosomal protein S1 promotes transcriptional cycling. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Heat shock protein (HSP) 27 is one of the small HSPs, regulated at both the transcriptional and posttranslational levels (12). (cellsignal.com)
  • The mutated sequences are highly conserved in the corresponding proteins from a number of species. (asm.org)
  • Ribosomal protein 10 of the small subunit is encoded in the mitochondrion in soybean and many other angiosperms, whereas in several other species it is nuclear encoded and thus must be imported into the mitochondrial matrix to function. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Systematic analysis of gene neighborhoods shows that ribosomal superoperons are the largest partially conserved gene arrays in bacterial and archaeal genomes [10] , [11] . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Chandra Sanyal S, Liljas A. The end of the beginning: structural studies of ribosomal proteins. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Detailed structural information on ribosomal proteins has increased our understanding of the structure, function and evolution of the ribosome. (rcsb.org)
  • Genetic analyses have revealed that the mutation responsible for this alteration maps at a locus around 34 min of the current E. coli genetic map, which is clearly different from the location for the structural gene for protein L7/L12 which is situated at 89 min. (springer.com)
  • The authors performed structural and functional analysis to identify and characterize the ribosomal protein S19 (RPS-19) binding domain in the nucleocapsid (N) protein of hantavirus, the RNA virus responsible for causing haemorrhagic fever and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. (moleculardevices.com)
  • however, important roles for distinct ribosomal proteins are becoming evident. (els.net)
  • showed that the rpl1b Δ translatome is distinct from respiratory-competent rpl1a Δ cells, the former being deficient in the production of mitochondrial and cell wall proteins. (rupress.org)
  • Considering that tau associates with ribosomal proteins [ 19 ] and that pathological tau modifies the rate of translation [ 34 ], we hypothesized that tau alters ribosome function thereby promoting translation of distinct transcripts. (springer.com)
  • Seven R proteins are found in phylogenetically distinct forms both among different bacteria and within single genomes. (asm.org)
  • A long-standing problem is how cells that lack one of the highly similar ribosomal proteins (RPs) often display distinct phenotypes. (elifesciences.org)
  • Most of the proteins interact with multiple RNA elements, often from different domains. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • This synthetic defective phenotype suggests that the ribosomal proteins PET123 and MRP1 interact functionally with each other. (genetics.org)
  • The P2 protein can interact with P0 and P1 to form a pentameric complex consisting of P1 and P2 dimers, and a P0 monomer. (wikidoc.org)
  • Proteins that interact strongly with the 16S RNA early in subunit assembly stabilize the RNA chain against unfolding in 1 mM Mg2+ and actually promote the formation of a more compact teriary structure in 20 mM Mg2+. (sciencemag.org)
  • The RPS9M can interact with ANK6, an ankyrin-repeat protein in mitochondria previously reported to be required for fertilization. (frontiersin.org)
  • Under stressful cellular conditions, certain proteins interact with and rescue MDM2's inhibition of p53. (iupui.edu)
  • By employing RPL5 deletion mutagenesis and in vitro GST-fusion protein-protein association assays with purified proteins, this dissertation attempts to elucidate those regions of RPL5 that may interact with MDM2. (iupui.edu)
  • 14 proteins are only found in bacteria, while 27 proteins are only found in archea and eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • 23 r-proteins are bacteria-specific, 1 r-protein is archaea-specific and 11 r-proteins are eukaryotes-specific [6] . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Here we report a comprehensive reannotation of r-proteins in genomes of 995 bacteria and 87 archaea and discuss trends of their distribution across the different branches of life and patterns in their evolution. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Recombinant P2 (rPfP2) protein showed SDS-resistant oligomerization, which could be significantly abolished under reducing conditions. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Recombinant human RPS7 protein, fused to His-tag at N-terminus, was expressed in E.coli and purified by using conventional chromatography techniques. (creativebiomart.net)
  • RPS5 / Ribosomal Protein S5 Protein LS-G2044 is a Recombinant Human RPS5 / Ribosomal Protein S5 produced in E. coli with His tag(s). (lsbio.com)
  • The tool works with standard single letter nucleotide or protein codes including ambiguities and can match Prosite patterns in protein sequences. (nih.gov)
  • A small ribosomal subunit protein helps translate nucleotide repeats into poly-dipeptides. (alzforum.org)
  • Various cellular stresses can result in p53 activation, including hypoxia, DNA damage by agents such as UV or IR, oncogenic signaling, nucleotide depletion and nucleolar stress from perturbation of ribosomal biogenesis. (iupui.edu)
  • Most of them encode well-understood proteins involved in metabolism, transcription, translation, or replication. (prolekare.cz)
  • Considering the ribosomal and extra-ribosomal functions of the ribosomal proteins, we hypothesized that imidacloprid also causes cell dysfunction. (nature.com)
  • It is mutated in approximately 25% of the patients although doubts remain as to whether DBA clinical phenotype depends on the ribosomal function of RPS19 or on an extra-ribosomal role or on both. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Blocking cytoplasmic protein synthesis with cycloheximide had no effect on the biphasic change in Y10B labeling of afferent-deprived NM neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • This dissertation evaluated three proteomic workflows in order to successfully characterize the changes in the primary structures of cytoplasmic ribosomal proteins isolated from a mitoxantrone resistant breast cancer cell line that could serve some functional significance to the resistance when compared with a parental drug-susceptible cell line. (umd.edu)
  • Belongs to the ribosomal protein L24P family. (abcam.com)
  • Ribosomal proteins are among the most highly conserved proteins across all life forms. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, a few of these highly conserved proteins remain functionally uncharacterized and thus enigmatic. (prolekare.cz)
  • Even levels of ribosomal proteins, constituting a major investment in cellular machinery, changed only slightly. (rug.nl)
  • A decrease in RPS19 level has been shown to cause a defect in the maturation of 18S ribosomal RNA. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In most of those cases, both transcription factors and RNA-binding proteins, the normal function of the protein is to bind DNA or RNA and often to regulate gene expression. (nature.com)
  • The fact that they can regulate their own expression is not surprising given the advantages of such feedback processes, it only requires that the gene's own DNA or RNA be included in the target list for the protein. (nature.com)
  • There are also examples of proteins whose primary function is not in gene regulation but that have a secondary role in regulating their own expression. (nature.com)
  • Many of these are proteins that bind to RNA, but whose primary functions are not involved in controlling gene expression. (nature.com)
  • A ) RSK4 protein was highly expressed in ESCC rather than in esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) compared with expression in corresponding nontumor tissues. (jci.org)
  • Protein expression was normalized to β-actin levels. (jci.org)
  • D ) Representative IHC images and H-score of RSK4 protein expression in ESCC tumor tissues and adjacent nontumor tissues. (jci.org)
  • G ) Representative IHC images of RSK4 and ALDH1 protein expression in patients with ESCC from the Xijing cohort. (jci.org)
  • Correlation of IHC data on RSK4 and ALDH1 protein expression in 59 ESCC patients. (jci.org)
  • New gene expression is not necessary to initiate the change in ribosomal immunoreactivity that leads deafferented NM neurons toward cell death. (jneurosci.org)
  • The expression pattern and mutant phenotype of RPS9M are similar to those of ANK6 as well, suggesting that RPS9M may work together with ANK6 in controlling female gametophyte development, possibly by regulating the expression of some mitochondrial proteins. (frontiersin.org)
  • Persistent stimulation of CD8 T cells is associated with sustained upregulation of the inhibitory receptor programmed death 1 (PD-1) ( 2 - 6 ), increased expression of T cell Ig and mucin protein 3 (Tim-3) ( 7 ), as well as impaired cytokine production ( 8 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • One transcript exhibiting a decreased level of expression in cataract compared with normal lenses was identified as encoding ribosomal protein L21. (arvojournals.org)
  • Three additional ribosomal proteins, L15, L13a, and L7a, also exhibited decreased expression in cataract compared with normal human lenses. (arvojournals.org)
  • The results provide evidence that human age-related cataract is associated with decreased expression of L21 and other ribosomal proteins. (arvojournals.org)
  • These include decreased expression of protein phosphatase 2a regulatory subunit, 11 increased expression of metallothionein IIa, 11 and increased expression of osteonectin. (arvojournals.org)
  • The expression of the endogenous tobacco ribosomal protein L3 is up-regulated in these plants and they are resistant to the Fusarium mycotoxin DON. (apsnet.org)
  • Through several deletion constructs, it was shown that the C-terminal half of the P0 protein contains two neighboring sites for P1-P2 heterodimers ( 14 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • However, longevity is neither associated with the generation time of RP deletion mutants nor with bulk inhibition of protein synthesis. (elifesciences.org)
  • c) Ram mutations shown in orange and purple space‐fill representation that disrupt the interface between r‐proteins uS4 (cyan) and uS5 (blue) facilitate transition from the open to the closed form. (els.net)
  • The extensions of r‐proteins uL4 (orange) and uL22 (green) reach into the interior of the ribosome but do not come into contact with the macrolide erythromycin (ery) despite the fact that mutations (K63E in uL4) or deletions ( 82 MEK 84 in uL22) in these proteins confer resistance to this drug. (els.net)
  • Our mrp1 mutations are allele-specific suppressors of carboxyl-terminal truncations of the PET122 protein and do not bypass the requirement for residual function of PET122. (genetics.org)
  • These results indicated that the three mutants contain mutations in the gene rimL that codes for an acetylating enzyme specific for ribosomal protein L12. (springer.com)
  • Missense mutations associated with Diamond-Blackfan anemia affect the assembly of ribosomal protein S19 into the ribosome. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Our results indicate that some RPS19 mutations alter the capacity of the protein to localize in nucleolar structure and these mutated RPS19 are very unstable. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Mutations in RPS19 results in coordinated down-regulation of several small subunit r-proteins causing haploinsufficiency for the small ribosomal subunit. (openthesis.org)
  • Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is an inherited bone marrow failure syndrome associated with ribosomal protein (RP) gene mutations. (jcancer.org)
  • Ribosomal proteins are expressed as part of transcription units (operons) composed of other ribosomal proteins. (nature.com)
  • TOR signaling influences cell growth by regulating transcription, translation, and ribosome biogenesis, which collectively modulate cell mass by influencing protein synthesis ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • When nutrients become limiting (or cells are treated with rapamycin), the TOR pathway is inactivated, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis, changes in gene transcription, cell cycle arrest in G 1 , and up-regulation of ubiquitination and autophagy ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • We studied growth rate-dependent relative transcription and protein ratios, enzyme activities, and fluxes of L.lactis in glucose-limited chemostats, providing a high-quality and comprehensive data set. (rug.nl)
  • However, we observed hardly any changes in transcription, protein levels and enzyme activities. (rug.nl)
  • Then, using a transcriptomics-to-proteomics approach, we identified a tau-driven disparity between gene transcription and protein synthesis. (springer.com)
  • The control of R-protein gene transcription is also subject to stringent control ( 9 , 11 ), although feedback posttranscriptional control of translation initiation is an additional important control mechanism ( 12 ). (asm.org)
  • For instance, the ribosomal protein S3 (RPS3) is a component of the small 40S ribosomal subunit, but it is also a subunit in the transcription factor NF-κB, which controls inflammatory gene regulation ( 21 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Studies show that the p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinases (S6K1 and S6K2) and p90 ribosomal protein S6 kinases (RSK) both phosphorylate eS6 and that S6K1 and S6K2 predominate this function. (wikipedia.org)