DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Gene Amplification: A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques: Laboratory techniques that involve the in-vitro synthesis of many copies of DNA or RNA from one original template.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.DNA, Ribosomal Spacer: The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Taq Polymerase: A heat stable DNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE from the bacteria Thermus aquaticus. It is widely used for the amplification of genes through the process of POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION. EC 2.7.7.-.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).DNA Probes: Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Chromosomal Puffs: Regions along polytene chromosomes that are uncondensed and active in DNA REPLICATION or RNA transcription (GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION).Electrophoresis, Agar Gel: Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.Ligase Chain Reaction: A DNA amplification technique based upon the ligation of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES. The probes are designed to exactly match two adjacent sequences of a specific target DNA. The chain reaction is repeated in three steps in the presence of excess probe: (1) heat denaturation of double-stranded DNA, (2) annealing of probes to target DNA, and (3) joining of the probes by thermostable DNA ligase. After the reaction is repeated for 20-30 cycles the production of ligated probe is measured.RNA, Ribosomal: The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.DNA, Protozoan: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.RNA, Ribosomal, 18S: Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.RNA, Ribosomal, 5.8S: Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 5.8S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.Ethacridine: A topically applied anti-infective agent.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Gene Dosage: The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.Oligonucleotide Probes: Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.Minute virus of mice: The type species of PARVOVIRUS prevalent in mouse colonies and found as a contaminant of many transplanted tumors or leukemias.RNA, Ribosomal, 28S: Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 28S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase: DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.Methylnitronitrosoguanidine: A nitrosoguanidine derivative with potent mutagenic and carcinogenic properties.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique: Technique that utilizes low-stringency polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with single primers of arbitrary sequence to generate strain-specific arrays of anonymous DNA fragments. RAPD technique may be used to determine taxonomic identity, assess kinship relationships, analyze mixed genome samples, and create specific probes.DNA Fingerprinting: A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.Potassium Acetate: A potassium salt used to replenish ELECTROLYTES, for restoration of WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE, as well as a urinary and systemic alkalizer, which can be administered orally or by intravenous infusion. Formerly, it was used in DIURETICS and EXPECTORANTS.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.RNA Polymerase I: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. The enzyme functions in the nucleolar structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salts than RNA polymerase II and III and is not inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Chromosome Aberrations: Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.DNA, Circular: Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Chromosomes, Human, Pair 20: A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Genes, myc: Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (myc) originally isolated from an avian myelocytomatosis virus. The proto-oncogene myc (c-myc) codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Truncation of the first exon, which appears to regulate c-myc expression, is crucial for tumorigenicity. The human c-myc gene is located at 8q24 on the long arm of chromosome 8.Molecular Diagnostic Techniques: MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques used in the diagnosis of disease.Diptera: An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).Oncogenes: Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.Pol1 Transcription Initiation Complex Proteins: Factors that form a preinitiation complex at promoters that are specifically transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE I.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Bacillus Phages: Viruses whose host is Bacillus. Frequently encountered Bacillus phages include bacteriophage phi 29 and bacteriophage phi 105.Paraffin Embedding: The infiltrating of tissue specimens with paraffin, as a supporting substance, to prepare for sectioning with a microtome.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Pneumocystis: A genus of ascomycetous FUNGI, family Pneumocystidaceae, order Pneumocystidales. It includes various host-specific species causing PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in humans and other MAMMALS.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Cell Nucleolus: Within most types of eukaryotic CELL NUCLEUS, a distinct region, not delimited by a membrane, in which some species of rRNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) are synthesized and assembled into ribonucleoprotein subunits of ribosomes. In the nucleolus rRNA is transcribed from a nucleolar organizer, i.e., a group of tandemly repeated chromosomal genes which encode rRNA and which are transcribed by RNA polymerase I. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology & Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Deoxyribonucleases, Type II Site-Specific: Enzyme systems containing a single subunit and requiring only magnesium for endonucleolytic activity. The corresponding modification methylases are separate enzymes. The systems recognize specific short DNA sequences and cleave either within, or at a short specific distance from, the recognition sequence to give specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. Enzymes from different microorganisms with the same specificity are called isoschizomers. EC 3.1.21.4.RNA, Ribosomal, 23S: Constituent of 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 3200 nucleotides. 23S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Parvovirus: A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, infecting a variety of vertebrates including humans. Parvoviruses are responsible for a number of important diseases but also can be non-pathogenic in certain hosts. The type species is MINUTE VIRUS OF MICE.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Chromosomes, Human: Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Human papillomavirus 18: A type of human papillomavirus especially associated with malignant tumors of the genital and RESPIRATORY MUCOSA.Chlamydia Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDIA.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Fixatives: Agents employed in the preparation of histologic or pathologic specimens for the purpose of maintaining the existing form and structure of all of the constituent elements. Great numbers of different agents are used; some are also decalcifying and hardening agents. They must quickly kill and coagulate living tissue.Sirtuin 2: A sirtuin family member found primarily in the CYTOPLASM. It is a multifunctional enzyme that contains a NAD-dependent deacetylase activity that is specific for HISTONES and a mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase activity.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Ascomycota: A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Karyotyping: Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.Chlamydia trachomatis: Type species of CHLAMYDIA causing a variety of ocular and urogenital diseases.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Templates, Genetic: Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Mycobacterium: A genus of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. Most species are free-living in soil and water, but the major habitat for some is the diseased tissue of warm-blooded hosts.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Streptomyces: A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.DNA, Helminth: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of helminths.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Mycological Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of fungi.Genes, erbB-2: The erbB-2 gene is a proto-oncogene that codes for the erbB-2 receptor (RECEPTOR, ERBB-2), a protein with structural features similar to the epidermal growth factor receptor. Its name originates from the viral oncogene homolog (v-erbB) which is a truncated form of the chicken erbB gene found in the avian erythroblastosis virus. Overexpression and amplification of the gene is associated with a significant number of adenocarcinomas. The human c-erbB-2 gene is located at 17q21.2.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Nucleolus Organizer Region: The chromosome region which is active in nucleolus formation and which functions in the synthesis of ribosomal RNA.Specimen Handling: Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.Chromosome Deletion: Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.Papillomaviridae: A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.Silent Information Regulator Proteins, Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A set of nuclear proteins in SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE that are required for the transcriptional repression of the silent mating type loci. They mediate the formation of silenced CHROMATIN and repress both transcription and recombination at other loci as well. They are comprised of 4 non-homologous, interacting proteins, Sir1p, Sir2p, Sir3p, and Sir4p. Sir2p, an NAD-dependent HISTONE DEACETYLASE, is the founding member of the family of SIRTUINS.Pneumonia, Pneumocystis: A pulmonary disease in humans occurring in immunodeficient or malnourished patients or infants, characterized by DYSPNEA, tachypnea, and HYPOXEMIA. Pneumocystis pneumonia is a frequently seen opportunistic infection in AIDS. It is caused by the fungus PNEUMOCYSTIS JIROVECII. The disease is also found in other MAMMALS where it is caused by related species of Pneumocystis.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Formaldehyde: A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Basidiomycota: A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.DNA, Intergenic: Any of the DNA in between gene-coding DNA, including untranslated regions, 5' and 3' flanking regions, INTRONS, non-functional pseudogenes, and non-functional repetitive sequences. This DNA may or may not encode regulatory functions.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Bovine papillomavirus 1: A species of DELTAPAPILLOMAVIRUS infecting cattle.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Physarida: An order of protozoa characterized by a peridium and capillitium that are calcareous and a spore mass that is usually dark-colored.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Oligonucleotides: Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Dependovirus: A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, which are dependent on a coinfection with helper adenoviruses or herpesviruses for their efficient replication. The type species is Adeno-associated virus 2.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.DNA, Recombinant: Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Oncogene Proteins, Viral: Products of viral oncogenes, most commonly retroviral oncogenes. They usually have transforming and often protein kinase activities.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Cricetulus: A genus of the family Muridae consisting of eleven species. C. migratorius, the grey or Armenian hamster, and C. griseus, the Chinese hamster, are the two species used in biomedical research.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Strongylida: An order of nematodes of the subclass SECERNENTEA. Characteristics include an H-shaped excretory system with two subventral glands.Saxifragaceae: The saxifrage plant family of the order ROSALES, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. The leaves are alternate and sometimes deeply lobed or form rosettes. The flowers have both male and female parts and 4 or 5 sepals and petals; they are usually in branched clusters. The fruit is a capsule with many seeds.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.DNA, Single-Stranded: A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.Keratinocytes: Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Environmental Microbiology: The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Receptor, erbB-2: A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Physarum: A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Characteristics include the presence of violet to brown spores.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Naegleria: A free-living soil amoeba pathogenic to humans and animals. It occurs also in water and sewage. The most commonly found species in man is NAEGLERIA FOWLERI which is the pathogen for primary amebic meningoencephalitis in primates.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Trichosporon: A mitosporic fungal genus causing opportunistic infections, endocarditis, fungemia, a hypersensitivity pneumonitis (see TRICHOSPORONOSIS) and white PIEDRA.Myxozoa: Single-celled, aquatic endoparasitic worms that are currently considered belonging to the phylum CNIDARIA. They have a complex life cycle and parasitize a wide range of hosts including FISHES; ANNELIDA; and BRYOZOA.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Spirochaetaceae: A family of spiral bacteria of the order SPIROCHAETALES.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Self-Sustained Sequence Replication: An isothermal in-vitro nucleotide amplification process. The process involves the concomitant action of a RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE, a ribonuclease (RIBONUCLEASES), and DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASES to synthesize large quantities of sequence-specific RNA and DNA molecules.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Dinoflagellida: Flagellate EUKARYOTES, found mainly in the oceans. They are characterized by the presence of transverse and longitudinal flagella which propel the organisms in a rotating manner through the water. Dinoflagellida were formerly members of the class Phytomastigophorea under the old five kingdom paradigm.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Sirtuins: A homologous family of regulatory enzymes that are structurally related to the protein silent mating type information regulator 2 (Sir2) found in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Sirtuins contain a central catalytic core region which binds NAD. Several of the sirtuins utilize NAD to deacetylate proteins such as HISTONES and are categorized as GROUP III HISTONE DEACETYLASES. Several other sirtuin members utilize NAD to transfer ADP-RIBOSE to proteins and are categorized as MONO ADP-RIBOSE TRANSFERASES, while a third group of sirtuins appears to have both deacetylase and ADP ribose transferase activities.Polyploidy: The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.Methylococcus: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, spherical cells usually occurring in pairs. The resting stage is considered a cyst. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Molecular Probe Techniques: The use of devices which use detector molecules to detect, investigate, or analyze other molecules, macromolecules, molecular aggregates, or organisms.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Endophytes: An endosymbiont that is either a bacterium or fungus living part of its life in a plant. Endophytes can benefit host plants by preventing pathogenic organisms from colonizing them.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Cell Transformation, Viral: An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.Platyhelminths: A phylum of acoelomate, bilaterally symmetrical flatworms, without a definite anus. It includes three classes: Cestoda, Turbellaria, and Trematoda.Plankton: Community of tiny aquatic PLANTS and ANIMALS, and photosynthetic BACTERIA, that are either free-floating or suspended in the water, with little or no power of locomotion. They are divided into PHYTOPLANKTON and ZOOPLANKTON.Simplexvirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.Water Pollution, Chemical: Adverse effect upon bodies of water (LAKES; RIVERS; seas; groundwater etc.) caused by CHEMICAL WATER POLLUTANTS.Streptococcus bovis: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly found in the alimentary tract of cows, sheep, and other ruminants. It occasionally is encountered in cases of human endocarditis. This species is nonhemolytic.Gram-Positive Rods: A large group of rod-shaped bacteria that retains the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Ribosomes: Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.Acanthamoeba: A genus of free-living soil amoebae that produces no flagellate stage. Its organisms are pathogens for several infections in humans and have been found in the eye, bone, brain, and respiratory tract.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
"16S ribosomal DNA amplification for phylogenetic study". Journal of Bacteriology 173 (2): 697-703. PMC 207061. PMID 1987160. ... "Primers, 16S ribosomal DNA - François Lutzoni's Lab". lutzonilab.net. Arquivado dende o orixinal o 2012-12-27.. ... The Ribosomal Database Project[editar , editar a fonte]. The Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) é unha base de datos revisados ... Kolbert CP, Persing DH (June 1999). "Ribosomal DNA sequencing as a tool for identification of bacterial pathogens". Current ...
and Other Lactic Acid Bacteria in the Human Intestine as Determined by Specific Amplification of 16S Ribosomal DNA. Appl ... Pada umumnya, paparan energi radiasi dapat menyebabkan mutasi gen dan putusnya rantai DNA.[45] Apabila terjadi pada intensitas ... DNA dan RNA) bakteri melayang-layang di daerah sitoplasma yang bernama nukleoid.[17] Salah satu struktur bakteri yang penting ... bertahan terhadap mekanisme perusakan materi genetik tersebut melalui sistem adaptasi dan adanya proses perbaikan rantai DNA ...
... and detection of a newly described Asian taeniid using cloned ribosomal DNA fragments and sequence amplification by the ... Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is highly sensitive (~2.5 times that of multiplex PCR), without false positive, ... of a newly described Asian taeniid from Taenia saginata using enzymatically amplified non-transcribed ribosomal DNA repeat ... Identification often requires histological observation of the uterine branches and PCR detection of ribosomal 5.8S gene. The ...
... based on DNA sequences from ITS nuclear ribosomal DNA and plastid trnL intron and trnL-F intergenic spacers". Journal of Plant ... Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. PCR Protocols: a Guide to Methods and ... 2012). "Nuclear Ribosomal Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) Region as a Universal DNA Barcode Marker for Fungi". PNAS. 109 (16 ... Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) refers to the spacer DNA situated between the small-subunit ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and large- ...
January 1988). "Primer-directed enzymatic amplification of DNA with a thermostable DNA polymerase". Science. 239 (4839): 487-91 ... Fish SA; Shepherd TJ; McGenity TJ; Grant WD (May 2002). "Recovery of 16S ribosomal RNA gene fragments from ancient halite". ... Ancient DNA (aDNA) is DNA isolated from ancient specimens. It can be also loosely described as any DNA recovered from ... Another problem with ancient DNA samples is contamination by modern human DNA and by microbial DNA (most of which is also ...
Weisburg WG, Barns SM, Pelletier DA, Lane DJ (January 1991). "16S ribosomal DNA amplification for phylogenetic study". J. ... Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) is a DNA sequence that codes for ribosomal RNA. Ribosomes are assemblies of proteins and rRNA molecules ... Keil RL, Roeder GS (1984). "Cis-acting, recombination-stimulating activity in a fragment of the ribosomal DNA of S. cerevisiae ... Hillis, D. M.; Dixon, M. T. (1991). "Ribosomal DNA: Molecular evolution and phylogenetic inference". The Quarterly Review of ...
Weisburg WG, Barns SM, Pelletier DA, Lane DJ (January 1991). "16S ribosomal DNA amplification for phylogenetic study". Journal ... Kolbert CP, Persing DH (June 1999). "Ribosomal DNA sequencing as a tool for identification of bacterial pathogens". Current ... 16S ribosomal DNA - François Lutzoni's Lab Eden PA, Schmidt TM, Blakemore RP, Pace NR (April 1991). "Phylogenetic analysis of ... Bacterial Sequencing The Ribosomal Database Project Ribosomes and Ribosomal RNA: (rRNA) SILVA rRNA database Greengenes: 16S ...
5S ribosomal DNA and telomere DNA. Certain organisms, such as yeast, rely on chromosomal DNA replication to produce eccDNA ... The HPV DNA genome undergoes three distinct stages of replication: establishment, maintenance and amplification. HPV infects ... Extrachromosomal DNA was found to be structurally different from nuclear DNA. Cytoplasmic DNA is less methylated than DNA found ... It is also referred to as extranuclear DNA or cytoplasmic DNA. Most DNA in an individual genome is found in chromosomes but DNA ...
... ribosomal subunit of bacteria. The technique involves an enzymatic amplification using primers directed at the conserved ... Amplified rDNA (Ribosomal DNA) Restriction Analysis is the extension of the technique of RFLP (restriction fragment length ... Identification of Acinetobacter Genomic Species by Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33:11-15. ... Overnight digestion (10-16 hours) of about 300-500 ng of amplicon DNA in a 20 μL system with 4-5 units of Restriction Enzyme ...
Usually, each member of this DNA library has a T7 RNA polymerase transcription site and a ribosomal binding site at the 5' end ... The PCR amplification step will enrich the population from the mRNA-display library that has higher affinity for the ... a piece of mRNA is ligated with a single stranded DNA with the help from T4 DNA ligase. This is not a standard T4 DNA ligase ... The synthesis of an mRNA display library starts from the synthesis of a DNA library. A DNA library for any protein or small ...
... restriction and sequence analysis of tRNA and 16S-23S rRNA gene spacers and amplified 16S ribosomal DNA restriction analysis ( ... which are based on amplification of highly conserved housekeeping genes and can be used to study the genetic relatedness ... The DNA taken up may be used to repair DNA damage or as a means to exchange genetic information by horizontal gene transfer. ... The other reliable identification test at genus level is chromosomal DNA transformation assay. In this assay, a naturally ...
... the sequence of DNA which encodes the ribosomal RNA molecule).[48] Since ribosomes are present in all living organisms, using ... and subject to the challenge of excluding host DNA from amplification and the reduced eukaryotic and viral biomass in the human ... it was estimated that the total global environmental DNA sequencing effort had produced less than 1 percent of the total DNA ... "Microbial DNA in Human Body Can Be Used to Identify Individuals". Retrieved 2015-05-17.. ...
RISA involves PCR amplification of a region of the rRNA gene operon between the small (16S) and large (23S) subunits called the ... This product is electrophoresed in a polyacrylamide gel, and the DNA is visualized following staining. The result is a complex ... Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) intergenic spacer analysis (RISA) is a method of microbial community analysis that provides a means of ... banding pattern that provides a community-specific profile, with each DNA band corresponding to a bacterial population on the ...
Recent sequencing technologies normally require DNA samples to be amplified via polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Amplification ... The main application of SortMeRNA is filtering ribosomal RNA from metatranscriptomic data. TagCleaner TagCleaner. The ... It aligns short DNA sequences (reads) to the whole human genome at a rate of over 1500 million 60bit/s reads per hour, which is ... EdgeR EdgeR is a R package for analysis of differential expression of data from DNA sequencing methods, like RNA-Seq, SAGE or ...
The ribosomal DNA contains one transcriptional unit with a cluster of genes coding for the 18S, 5.8S and 28S rRNAs and two ... 1990). Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. In: PCR Protocols: A Guide to ... where total genomic DNA from a suspected sugarcane plant has been used as template DNA. ELISA has been used as a diagnostic ... Lee, I.M., Hammond, R.W., Davis, R.E. and Gunderson D.E. (1993) Universal amplification and analysis of pathogen 16SrDNA for ...
... the sequence of DNA which encodes the ribosomal RNA molecule).[47] Since ribosomes are present in all living organisms, using ... and subject to the challenge of excluding host DNA from amplification and the reduced eukaryotic and viral biomass in the human ... it was estimated that the total global environmental DNA sequencing effort had produced less than 1 percent of the total DNA ... Microbial DNA inhabiting a person's human body can uniquely identify the person. A person's privacy may be compromised if the ...
The foreign DNA can be detected by looking for atypical GC context areas. One of the first foreign DNA segments detected this ... The primers used for the amplification of the 16S to 23S region in the B. gladioli genome are as follows: GLA-f 5'-( ... According to Furuya et al., the ribosomal RNA gene is highly conserved and universally distributed in all living things, and ... Members of the Burkholderia genus are able to capture and retain foreign DNA. ...
... overexpression stimulates gene amplification,[12] presumably through DNA over-replication.. There have been several studies ... upregulates ribosomal RNA and proteins), apoptosis (downregulates Bcl-2), differentiation, and stem cell self-renewal. Myc is a ... DNA binding. • protein dimerization activity. • transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • protein complex ... Through its bHLH DNA-binding motif, Myc interacts with DNA, while the leucine zipper TF-binding motif allows the dimerization ...
... of a newly described Asian taeniid from Taenia saginata using enzymatically amplified non-transcribed ribosomal DNA repeat ... Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is highly sensitive (~2.5 times that of multiplex PCR), without false positives, ... laborious histological observation of the uterine branches and PCR detection of ribosomal 5.8S gene are sometimes necessary. ... "Evaluation of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification method using fecal specimens for differential detection of Taenia ...
Their repetitive arrangement within the genome provides excessive amounts of template DNA for PCR, even in the smallest ... resist standard PCR amplification and give new insights into mollusk substitution rate heterogeneity". BMC Evolutionary Biology ... 18S ribosomal RNA (abbreviated 18S rRNA) is a part of the ribosomal RNA. The S in 18S represents Svedberg units. 18S rRNA is a ... The 18S gene is part of the ribosomal functional core and is exposed to similar selective forces in all living beings. Thus, ...
... number and diversity of microbes that were being discovered through the powerful tool of PCR-amplification of 16S ribosomal RNA ... A number of speakers referred to microbial contributions to mammalian or plant DNA samples as 'contamination'. In his lecture, ... Number 6 in a series of 7 VHS recordings, 'A Decade of PCR: Celebrating 10 Years of Amplification,' released by Cold Spring ... amplification and reduction) and (2) acquisition of novel strains from the environment, which may be passed on to offspring. ...
Amplification of the region of DNA encoding this gene and overexpression of this kinase are seen in some breast cancer cell ... Ribosomal protein S6 kinase beta-1 (S6K1), also known as p70S6 kinase (p70S6K, p70-S6K), is an enzyme (specifically, a protein ... Amplification of the region of DNA encoding this gene and overexpression of this kinase are seen in some breast cancer cell ... "Entrez Gene: RPS6KB1 ribosomal protein S6 kinase, 70kDa, polypeptide 1". Chung J, Grammer TC, Lemon KP, Kazlauskas A, Blenis J ...
Using genetic markers in ribosomal DNA, the researchers developed PCR assays to selectively amplify O. bifurcum DNA from human ... "PCR assay for the specific amplification of Oesophagostomum bifurcum DNA from human faeces." Int. J. Parasitol. 30.2 (2000): ... "PCR assay for the specific amplification of Oesophagostomum bifurcum DNA from human faeces." International Journal for ... Furthermore, cycle threshold values, which correspond to parasite-specific DNA load, correlated with measured intensity of ...
cDNA synthesis: DNA sequencing technology is more mature, so the RNA is reverse transcribed to cDNA. Reverse transcription ... Poly(A) selection ignores noncoding RNA and introduces 3' bias, which is avoided with the ribosomal depletion strategy. The ... manner without RNA conversion to cDNA or other biasing sample manipulations such as ligation and amplification. A variety of ... A lot of emphasis has been given to RNA-Seq data after the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) and The Cancer Genome Atlas ( ...
Discrimination between the DNA of the pathogen and the plant is based on the amplification of ITS sequences, spacers located in ... "Phylogenetic utility of the internal transcribed spacers of nuclear ribosomal DNA in plants: An example from the Compositaogy ... A DNA-binding dye binds to all double-stranded (ds) DNA in PCR, causing fluorescence of the dye. An increase in DNA product ... Rychlik W, Spencer WJ, Rhoads RE (1990). "Optimization of the annealing temperature for DNA amplification in vitro". Nucleic ...
... (TRFLP or sometimes T-RFLP) is a molecular biology technique for profiling of microbial communities based on the position of a restriction site closest to a labelled end of an amplified gene. The method is based on digesting a mixture of PCR amplified variants of a single gene using one or more restriction enzymes and detecting the size of each of the individual resulting terminal fragments using a DNA sequencer. The result is a graph image where the x-axis represents the sizes of the fragment and the y-axis represents their fluorescence intensity. TRFLP is one of several molecular methods aimed to generate a fingerprint of an unknown microbial community. Other similar methods include DGGE, TGGE, ARISA, ARDRA, PLFA, etc. These relatively high throughput methods were developed in order to reduce the cost and effort in analyzing microbial communities using a clone library. The method was first described by Liu and colleagues in 1997 which employed ...
... is a genus of bacteria. Its type species is Anaerococcus prevotii. These bacteria are Gram-positive, anaerobic, indole-negative cocci. Its genome was sequenced in August 2009. It can cause infection and is a normal part of the human microbiome. It is a pathogen of humans found in ovarian abscesses, chronic wounds and vaginal discharge. It can be present in urinary tract infections, chronic ulcers, pleural empyema, blood infections, and soft tissue infections. It is involved in polymicrobial infections. Anaerococcus senegalensis Anaerococcus murdochii Anaerococcus vaginalis Anaerococcus tetradius Anaerococcus prevotii Anaerococcus octavius Anaerococcus lactolyticus Parte, A.C. "Anaerococcus". Retrieved 27 March 2017. "BacMap". Retrieved 27 March 2017. Murphy, Elizabeth Carmel; Frick, Inga-Maria (2013). "Gram-positive anaerobic cocci - commensals and opportunistic pathogens". FEMS Microbiology Reviews. 37 (4): 520-553. doi:10.1111/1574-6976.12005. ISSN 1574-6976 ...
Ben Hanelt, D. Van Schyndel, C. M. Adema, L. A. Lewis, E. S. Loker. The Phylogenetic Position of Rhopaluva ophiocomae (Orthonectida) Based on 18s Ribosomal DNA Sequence Analysis. -Molecular Biology and Evolution, 1996,. 13 (9), lk 1187-1191. Veebiversioon. ...
Using a variety of molecular techniques, including immuno-electron microscopy, intermolecular chemical cross-linking, and X-ray crystallography, the location of the 5S rRNA within the large ribosomal subunit has been determined to great precision. In bacteria and archaea, the large ribosomal subunit (LSU) itself is composed of two RNA moieties, the 5S rRNA and another larger RNA known as 23S rRNA, along with numerous associated proteins.[3] In eukaryotes, the LSU contains 5S, 5.8S, and 28S rRNAs and even more proteins.[12][13] The structure of LSU in 3-dimensions shows one relatively smooth surface and the opposite surface having three projections, notably the L1 protuberance, the central protuberance (CP), and the L7/L12 stalk. The L1 protuberance and L7/L12 stalk are arranged laterally surrounding CP. The 5S rRNA is located in the CP and participates in formation and structure of this projection. The other major constituents of the central ...
... is a species of bacteria. It is pale yellow-pigmented, Gram-positive, short rod- or coccus-shaped (diameter between 0.8-1 µm). It is non-motile and non-spore-forming. The type strain is CH7T (=KCTC 9997T =DSM 17585T). Ho-Won Chang; Jin-Woo Bae; Young-Do Nam; Hyuk-Yong Kwon; Ja Ryeong Park; Kee-Sun Shin; Kyoung-Ho Kim; Zhe-Xue Quan; Sung-Keun Rhee; Kwang-Guk An & Yong-Ha Park (November 2007). "Arthrobacter subterraneus sp. nov., isolated from deep subsurface water of the South Coast of Korea". Journal of microbiology and biotechnology. 17 (11): 1875-1879. PMID 18092474. Whitman, William B., et al., eds. Bergey's manual® of systematic bacteriology. Vol. 5. Springer, 2012. Arthrobacter subterraneus at the Encyclopedia of Life LPSN Type strain of Arthrobacter subterraneus at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase Biology ...
... was defined in 1990 as a group of Gram-negative, rod-shaped, chemoheterotrophic, strictly aerobic bacteria. They possess ubiquinone 10 as their major respiratory quinone, contain glycosphingolipids (GSLs) instead of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in their cell envelopes, and typically produce yellow-pigmented colonies. By 2001, the genus included more than 20 species that were quite diverse in terms of their phylogenetic, ecological, and physiological properties. As a result, Sphingomonas was subdivided into four genera: Sphingomonas, Sphingobium, Novosphingobium, Sphingosinicella, and Sphingopyxis. These genera are commonly referred to collectively as sphingomonads. The sphingomonads are widely distributed in nature, having been isolated from many different land and water habitats, as well as from plant root systems, clinical specimens, and other sources; this is due to their ability to survive in low concentrations of nutrients, as well as to metabolize a wide variety of carbon sources. ...
... is a heterokont order. David J. Patterson Kostka M, Hampl V, Cepicka I, Flegr J (October 2004). "Phylogenetic position of Protoopalina intestinalis based on SSU rRNA gene sequence". Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 33 (1): 220-4. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2004.05.009. PMID 15324850. Patterson, D.J. (1985). "The fine structure of Opalina ranarum (Family Opalinidae): Opalinid phylogeny and classification". Protistologica. 21: 413-428. "www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov". Retrieved 2009-06-17 ...
ទីតាំងជាទូទៅនៃការទទួលយកបានភាគច្រើនជា root នៃ មែកធាងនៃជីវិត គឺរវាង monophyletic ដែន បាក់តេរី និង clade បានបង្កើតឡើងដោយ អាកឃី និង ការី នៃអ្វីដែលត្រូវបានសំដៅដល់ថាជា«ដើមឈើប្រពៃណីនៃជីវិត "ដោយផ្អែកលើការសិក្សាម៉ូលេគុលជាច្រើន។ [៣៩] [៤០] [៤១] [៤២] [៤៣] [៤៤] មួយជនជាតិភាគតិចតូចណាស់នៃការសិក្សាបានសន្និដ្ឋានខុសគ្នាគឺថាជា root គឺស្ថិតនៅក្នុងបាក់តេរីដែនទាំងនៅក្នុង phylum នេះ Firmicutes [៤៥] ឬថា phylum នេះ Chloroflexi គឺ ...
Huisman, J.M., Sherwood, A.R. & Abbott, I.A. (2003) Morphology, reproduction, and the 18S rRNA gene sequence of Pihiella liagoraciphila gen. et sp. nov. (Rhodophyta), the so-called 'monosporangial discs' associated with members of the Liagoraceae (Rhodophyta), and proposal of the Pihiellales ord. nov. J. Phycol. 39: 978-987 ...
DDR2, ili CD167b (klaster diferencijacije 167b), je ljudski gen [1], koji je član broj 2 familije diskoidin domen receptora. Receptor tirozin kinaze (RTK) igraju ključnu ulogu u komunikaciji ćelija sa njihovim mikro okruženjem. Ti molekuli su vezani za regulaciju ćelijskog rasta, diferencijacije i metabolizma. U više slučajeva biohemijski mehanizam kojim RTK sprovodi signal kroz membranu je pokazan da se sastoji od ligand indukovane oligomerizacije receptora, i naknadne intracelularna fosforilacije. Ova autofosforilacija dovodi do naknadne fosforilacije citosolnih proteina, kao i do asocijacije sa drugim molekulima koji su vezani za pleiotropske efekte transdukcije signala. RTK proteini imaju trojnu strukturu koja se sastoji od ekstracelularnog, transmembranskog, i citoplazmatičnog regiona. Ovaj gen kodira pripadnika nove RTK podklase sa različitim ekstracelularnim regionom koji okružuje domen sličan faktoru VIII. Alternativno spajanje (engl. splicing) ovog gena na 5' UTR dovodi do ...
Holleman W., 1987. Description of a new genus and species of tripterygiid fish (Perciformes: Blennioidei) from the Indo-Pacific, and the reallocation of Vauclusella acanthops (Whitley, 1965). Cybium v. 11 (núm. 2). 173-181. ...
β-குவானிடினோபுரோப்பியானிக் அமிலம் (β-Guanidinopropionic acid) என்பது C4H9N3O2 என்ற மூலக்கூற்று வாய்ப்பாடு கொண்ட ஒரு கரிம வேதியியல் சேர்மமாகும். குவானிடினோபுரோப்பியானிக் அமிலம், பீட்டா- குவானிடினோபுரோப்பியானிக் அமிலம், β-கு.பு.அ. என்ற பலவகைப் பெயர்களால் இச்சேர்மம் அழைக்கப்படுகிறது. இது ஓர் உணவுத்திட்ட சேர்க்கைப் பொருளாகப் பயன்படுத்தப்படுகிறது. வெண்மை நிற படிகத் தூளாகக் காணப்படும் ...
जेंव्हा,अनेक बदल असलेल्या मोठ्या वर्गांविषयी लेखनापुर्वी,(genus व त्यावरील),सर्वात आवडीवे व संबंधीत साहित्य गोळा करुन त्यास संक्षेपात लिहा परंतु,अधिक विस्तृत माहितीसाठी, इतर लेखास त्याचा दुवा द्या.जर लेखाविषयी काहीच म्हणावयाचे नसल्यास,सर्व विषय एकत्र हाताळण्यासाठी अनेक सामान्य विधाने करु नका(जसे-वनस्पतींविषयी खरी असलेली सामान्य माहिती). एखाद्या वनस्पतीच्या एका विशिष्ट ...
... in the control of ribosomal DNA amplification as overexpression of PNC1 substantially reduces ribosomal DNA amplification rate ... signaling stimulates ribosomal DNA amplification in budding yeast, linking external nutrient availability to ribosomal DNA copy ... Regulation of ribosomal DNA amplification by TOR. Carmen V. Jack, Cristina Cruz, Ryan M. Hull, Markus A. Keller, Markus Ralser ... Regulation of ribosomal DNA amplification by TOR. Carmen V. Jack, Cristina Cruz, Ryan M. Hull, Markus A. Keller, Markus Ralser ...
16S ribosomal DNA amplification for phylogenetic study.. W G Weisburg, S M Barns, D A Pelletier, D J Lane ... 16S ribosomal DNA amplification for phylogenetic study. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Journal of ... One pair of primers is capable of amplifying nearly full-length 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) from many bacterial genera; the ... A set of oligonucleotide primers capable of initiating enzymatic amplification (polymerase chain reaction) on a ...
Amplification of bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA with polymerase chain reaction.. K H Wilson, R B Blitchington, R C Greene ... Amplification of bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA with polymerase chain reaction. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page ...
Pg 16S Ribosomal DNA Amplification by PCR. DNA was extracted from aorta, heart, and liver tissues (Clontech). The extracted DNA ... Pg 16S Ribosomal DNA Amplification by PCR. No Pg 16S rRNA was amplified from animals at 10 and 14 weeks of Pg injections. ... Detection of putative periodontal pathogens in subgingival specimens by 16S ribosomal DNA amplification with the polymerase ... Pg 16S ribosomal DNA amplification with polymerase chain reaction, ELISA for systemic proinflammatory mediators, and ...
DNA Extraction and 16S Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) Amplification. The same 10 sows per group were used to analyze gut microbiota both ... Genomic DNA was extracted from fecal samples using the E.Z.N.A.® Soil DNA Kit (Omega Bio-tek, Norcross, GA, United States), ... The PCR amplification program consisted of an initial activation step with 95°C for 3 min, followed by 27 cycles at 95°C for 30 ... PCR amplification was performed using 16S rRNA universal primers targeting the V3-V4 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. The ...
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) -Based Amplification of Bacterial 16S Ribosomal DNA (16S rDNA). The 16S rDNA of the five ... Genomic DNA Extraction. Pure genomic DNA was extracted from each Bacillus strain identified by MALDI-TOF-MS with the Wizard® ... The 16S rDNA amplification and sequencing have also identified the 18 COPS, 35A COPS, 35R COPS, 38 COPS, and 40A COPS strains ... Genomic DNA Purification Kit (Promega, Charbonnières-les-Bains, France) and then quantified with a Nanodrop Lite (Biowave II, ...
b) DNA extraction, PCR amplification, amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis screening and sequencing. DNA was extracted ... These isolates were initially screened using light microscopy and amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA). ... 1999). DNA sequence data are therefore well placed to provide more insight into the green algal diversity on the Antarctic ... 1998 MODELTEST: testing the model of DNA substitution. Bioinformatics 14, 817-818. (doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/14.9.817). ...
Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. In: PCR protocols: A guide to methods and ... region of nuclear ribosomal DNA. The phylogenetic tree obtained supported the traditional classification systems of Bas (1969) ... DNA sequencing with chain-terminating inhibitors. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA74: 5463-5467.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... of JapaneseAmanita species based on nucleotide sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region of nuclear ribosomal DNA. ...
Development of Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Targeting 18S Ribosomal DNA for Rapid Detection of Azumiobodo hoyamushi ( ... Development of Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Targeting 18S Ribosomal DNA for Rapi ... A. hoyamushi LAMP assay amplified the DNA of 0.01 parasites per reaction and detected A. hoyamushi in 10 ng of ascidian DNA. To ... Full text: Available Index: WPRIM (Western Pacific) Main subject: Urochordata / RNA, Ribosomal, 18S / Predictive Value of Tests ...
Regulation of ribosomal DNA amplification by the TOR pathway.. Jack CV, Cruz C, Hull RM ... Unexpected DNA loss mediated by the DNA binding activity of ribonuclease A.. Donà F, Houseley J ... Multi-tissue DNA methylation age predictor in mouse.. Stubbs TM, Bonder MJ, Stark AK ...
Species-specific amplification by PCR of ribosomal DNA from some equine strongyles. Parasitology, 119, 69-80.PubMedCrossRef ... The occurrence of Toxocara malaysiensis in cats in China, confirmed by sequence-based analyses of ribosomal DNA. Parasitology ... A molecular systematic framework for equine strongyles based on ribosomal DNA sequence data. International Journal for ... using genetic markers in nuclear ribosomal DNA. Molecular and Cellular Probes, 21, 97-102. DOI: 10.1016/j.mcp.2006.08.004. ...
16S ribosomal DNA amplification for phylogenetic study. J Bacteriol.1991;173 :697- 703. ... For genetic sequencing, genomic DNA was extracted using a routine method. A 1500 base pair fragment of the 16S ribosomal RNA ( ... 28 Amplification products were purified and sequenced on a Beckman CEQ 8000 automated DNA sequencer using Beckman DTCS reagents ... DNA sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene of the Kingella species isolates. A, Phylogenetic tree of Kingella isolates showing ...
16S ribosomal DNA amplification for phylogenetic study. J Bacteriol. 1991;173:697-703.PubMed ...
16S ribosomal DNA amplification for phylogenetic study. J Bacteriol. 1991;173:697-703. DOIPubMed ... We performed PCR amplification in 25-μL (total) reaction mixtures using the MasterTaq DNA Polymerase Kit (Eppendorf AG, Hamburg ... We isolated DNA from lizard blood using a DNeasy Blood & Tissue Kit (QIAGEN, Hilden Germany) and isolated DNA from ticks by ... KY031322-3) and compared them with DNA fragments in the GenBank database. The closest related (99% identity) 16S rRNA sequences ...
... was used for DNA amplification in 10 μl of a reaction mixture containing 0.5 ng of template DNA, 20 ng of labelled Eco primer, ... 1997) Phylogenetic relationship of the twenty-one DNA groups of the genus Acinetobacter as revealed by 16S ribosomal DNA ... Comparison of Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis, Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Analysis, and Amplified Fragment ... Comparison of Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis, Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Analysis, and Amplified Fragment ...
1991 16S ribosomal DNA amplification for phylogenetic study. J. Bacteriol. 173: 697-703. ... based on 16S ribosomal DNA sequences. Insect Mol. Biol. 1: 25-36. ... This DNA was then used as template in a PCR reaction using the primer pairs 16SAf/16SAr and 16SBf/16SBr of Werren et al. (1995 ... 1985 Dating of the humanape splitting by a molecular clock of mitochondrial DNA. J. Mol. Evol. 22: 160-174. ...
1991). "16S ribosomal DNA amplification for phylogenetic study." j Bacteriol173(2): 697-703. Yazdani, S. S. and R. Gonzalez ( ... All PCR amplifications were performed with the high fidelity DNA polymerase Phusion, NEB biolabs, to avoid mutations due to ... DNA will be purified to remove impurities using a published protocol. Briefly, NaCl will be added to the DNA sample to adjust ... DNA isolation and library construction. The FastDNA® SPIN kit for Soil (Qbiogene) will be used to isolate metagenomic DNA of ˜4 ...
Weisburg WG, Barns SM, Pelletier DA, Lane DJ (January 1991). "16S ribosomal DNA amplification for phylogenetic study". J. ... Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) is a DNA sequence that codes for ribosomal RNA. Ribosomes are assemblies of proteins and rRNA molecules ... Keil RL, Roeder GS (1984). "Cis-acting, recombination-stimulating activity in a fragment of the ribosomal DNA of S. cerevisiae ... Hillis, D. M.; Dixon, M. T. (1991). "Ribosomal DNA: Molecular evolution and phylogenetic inference". The Quarterly Review of ...
Weisburg WG, Barns SM, Pelletier DA, Lane DJ (January 1991). "16S ribosomal DNA amplification for phylogenetic study". Journal ... Kolbert CP, Persing DH (June 1999). "Ribosomal DNA sequencing as a tool for identification of bacterial pathogens". Current ... 16S ribosomal DNA - François Lutzonis Lab Eden PA, Schmidt TM, Blakemore RP, Pace NR (April 1991). "Phylogenetic analysis of ... Bacterial Sequencing The Ribosomal Database Project Ribosomes and Ribosomal RNA: (rRNA) SILVA rRNA database Greengenes: 16S ...
The data on forum domains formed by DNA double-strand break (DSB) hotspots are reviewed including forum domain identification ... rapid amplification of forum domains termini. rDNA. ribosomal DNA. TAD. topologically associating domain ... The data on the DSB hotspots in human ribosomal DNA gene clusters and their possible association with chromosomal ... Isolation and characterization of specific fraction of human chromosomal DNA-forum DNA, Dokl. Akad. Nauk USSR, 303, 491-493. ...
16S ribosomal DNA amplification for phylogenetic study. J Bacteriol 173: 7.[Crossref]. ... Identification of pathogenic Leptospira species by conventional or real-time PCR and sequencing of the DNA gyrase subunit B ... Molecular evolution and mosaicism of leptospiral outer membrane proteins involves horizontal DNA transfer. J Bacteriol 186: ...
Genetic Diagnosis of Fasciola Species Based on 18S Ribosomal DNA Sequences ... DNA isolation and enzymatic amplification: Genomic DNA was isolated from the apical end of adult flukes. After of cutting this ... DNA was extracted and purified using DNA extraction kit (MBST, Iran) according to manufacture protocol. The DNA concentration ... Genetic Diagnosis of Fasciola Species Based on 18S Ribosomal DNA Sequences. Journal of Biological Sciences, 8: 1166-1173.. DOI: ...
Epigenetic as well as DNA changes are involved. Evolution may have no foresight, but it is at least partially directed by ... Jack, C.V.; Cruz, C.; Hull, R.M.; Ralser, M.; Houseley, J. Regulation of ribosomal DNA amplification by the tor pathway. Proc. ... "Signaling pathways that sense environmental nutrients control genome change at the ribosomal DNA. This demonstrates that not ... DNA sequences are not directly available for selection other than through their functional consequences in the production of ...
0.45 U Taq DNA polymerase, and 1 µl of template DNA. The PCR amplification program consisted of one cycle of 94°C for 5 minutes ... Ribosomal DNA sequences of bifidobacteria: implications for sequence-based identification of the human colonic microflora. ... and the amplification efficiency of the competitive DNA and target DNA must be the same. There are many other measurement ... Human colonic biota studied by ribosomal DNA sequence analysis. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62: 2273-2278. Woese, C. R. 1987. ...
Extensive ribosomal DNA amplification during Andean common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) evolution. Theor Appl Genet 112: 924- ... Population variation in the A chromosome distribution of satellite DNA and ribosomal DNA in the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis ... 2012). A DNA plasmid harbouring an 807-bp region of the 18S rDNA gene of Triatoma infestans (accession Y18750) was used as a ... 2005), which show ribosomal genes on both sex chromosomes (Fig. 2E). An ancestral configuration of rDNA loci on both sex ...
  • 2002). "Genome-wide screening for trait conferring genes using DNA microarrays. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • We discuss the ancestral position of ribosomal genes in the tribe Rhodniini and the possible mechanisms involved in the variation of the rDNA clusters, including the loss of rDNA loci on the Y chromosome, transposition and ectopic pairing. (scielo.br)
  • Chromosomal polymorphism of ribosomal genes in the genus Oryza . (springer.com)
  • Oligonucleotide sequences selected from the 16S rRNA genes of various species of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria were evaluated as specific PCR amplification primers and probes. (nih.gov)
  • The specificities of primer pairs for eubacterial, Nitrosospira and Nitrosomonas rRNA genes were established with sequence databases, and the primer pairs were used to amplify DNA from laboratory cultures and environmental samples. (nih.gov)
  • Lakewater and sediment samples were analysed using a nested PCR technique in which eubacterial rRNA genes were subjected to a secondary amplification with Nitrosomonas or Nitrosospira specific primers. (nih.gov)
  • Enrichments of lakewater and sediment samples, incubated for two weeks in the presence of ammonium, produced nitrite and were found to contain DNA from both Nitrosospira and Nitrosomonas as determined by nested PCR amplification and probing of 16S rRNA genes. (nih.gov)
  • Knowledge of microbial diversity has increased dramatically in recent years, in part as a result of sequencing of rRNA genes from DNA obtained directly from uncultured microbiota, often by use of PCR and rRNA-specific primers ( 2 , 21 ). (asm.org)
  • These hypotheses remain untested, as several attempts to cultivate P. lebouriae have been unsuccessful (Aika Yamaguchi, Mona Hoppenrath, personal communication), and PCR amplification of plastid genes in P. lebouriae has consistently failed with PCR primers used successfully in other taxa. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The presence of two Wolbachia strains in Dactylopius coccus from Mexico was revealed by PCR amplification of wsp and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. (g3journal.org)
  • Multiple Genes at 17Q23 Undergo Amplification and Overexpression in Breast Cancer. (patentgenius.com)
  • The presented method utilizes primers specific for the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) genes. (jove.com)
  • Instead, multiple genes associated with DNA replication and modulation of chromatin structure were isolated. (asm.org)
  • The presence of Wolbachia was monitored by Giemsa staining of cytological preparations, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of Wolbachia 16S ribosomal DNA, and by simultaneous PCR amplification of ribosomal protein genes from Wolbachia and mosquito host cell genomes. (bioone.org)
  • Of these 151 core genes, 39 were putative genes encoding the 30S and 50S ribosomal subunits, whilst among recognized cell division genes, only one gene, the major ftsZ , was present. (uoguelph.ca)
  • The GEN-PROBE TMA reaction replicates a specific region of the small ribosomal subunit from trichomonas vaginalis via DNA and RNA intermediates and generates RNA amplicon molecules. (cdc.gov)
  • These include pulsed-field gel electrophoresis ( 14 , 25 ), ribotyping ( 9 , 12 , 25 ), and PCR-based fingerprinting techniques such as random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis (RAPD) ( 15 ), repetitive extragenic palindromic sequence-based PCR ( 26 ), amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) ( 35 ), and RNA spacer fingerprinting ( 11 ). (asm.org)
  • We report here a survey of 16S rDNA sequences that were obtained from negative extraction controls, that is, DNA extraction and purification performed without added sample, and the correspondence of these sequences to some recovered from diverse environmental settings. (asm.org)
  • Positive DNA isolates were sequenced and were from a single species of myxosporean. (biomedcentral.com)
  • With respect to morphology and DNA sequencing analyses, fungal isolates obtained from brown rot were homologous with Gnomoniopsis sp. (sisef.it)
  • In situations where the amount of available sample DNA is limited, or where there is a low level of pathogen DNA mixed with a high level of host DNA, and we wish to identify the pathogen, it can be helpful to amplify the target organism by PCR. (nanoporetech.com)
  • Eukaryotic genomes contain abundant multicopy sequences, ranging from low copy segmental duplications to the giant tandem arrays found at key functional regions such as centromeres, telomeres, and the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • The need to revise the available data on DNase I-hypersensitive sites in various genomes, including endogenous DNA breaks of different nature, is discussed. (springer.com)
  • A new non-alignment based approach, Relative Complexity Measure (RCM), has been introduced to tackle this problem and proven to work in fungi and mitochondrial DNA.Result: In this work, we present an application of the RCM method to reconstruct robust phylogenetic trees using sequence data for genus Galanthus obtained from different regions in Turkey. (biomedsearch.com)
  • QPCR allows the controlled amplification of specific targets while CDCE provides for a very accurate and sensitive quantification of amplification products. (mit.edu)
  • Here, the authors describe a rapid and efficient LAMP-based method targeting the 18S rDNA gene for detection of A. hoyamushi using ascidian DNA for the diagnosis of AsSTS. (bvsalud.org)
  • Detection of bifidobacteria can be achieved using DNA extracted from human faeces as template in PCR reactions. (scribd.com)
  • The implications of the detection of Nitrosomonas DNA only after enrichment culture are discussed. (nih.gov)
  • 8. A method of claim 1 where the detection is a sequential detection of different types of dNTP to provide the sequence of a target DNA. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The method is suited for reliable and sensitive detection of DNA contamination in most eukaryotes and prokaryotes. (jove.com)
  • During the detection step, light emitted from the labeled RNA: DNA hybrids is measured as photon signals in a luminometer, and are reported as Relative Light Units (RLU). (cdc.gov)
  • A total of 1253 ixodid ticks (254 tick pools) collected between the end of 1995 and the spring of 1997 from six California counties (El Dorado, Los Angeles, Orange, Santa Cruz, Shasta and Sonoma) were examined for the presence of Bartonella DNA by PCR of the citrate synthase gene. (google.com)
  • Distribution of highly repeated DNA sequences in species of the genus Secale . (springer.com)
  • Evolutionary trends of different repetitive DNA sequences during speciation in the genus Secale . (springer.com)
  • DNA sequence data are therefore well placed to provide more insight into the green algal diversity on the Antarctic continent. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • DNA sequence data were used to examine phylogenetic relationships between six species of economically important Tetranychidae mites:Eotetranychus carpini (Oudemans),E. pruni (Reck),Tetranychus pacificus McGregor,T. mcdanieli McGregor,T. turkestani Ugarov & Nikolski andT. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In the present study, a LAMP assay based on directly heat-treated samples was found to be as efficient as DNA extraction using a commercial kit for detecting A. hoyamushi. (bvsalud.org)
  • The GEN-PROBE APTIMA trichomonas vaginalis assay combines the technologies of target capture, Transcription-Mediated Amplification (TMA), and Dual Kinetic Assay (DKA). (cdc.gov)
  • 5 ) used DNA microarrays to study genomewide gene expression differences associated with the evolution of one of the Paquin and Adams cultures as well as two others similarly derived by Rosenzweig ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • Hormone Therapy Failure in Human Prostate Cancer: Analysis by Complementary DNA and Tissue Microarrays. (patentgenius.com)