Riboflavin: Nutritional factor found in milk, eggs, malted barley, liver, kidney, heart, and leafy vegetables. The richest natural source is yeast. It occurs in the free form only in the retina of the eye, in whey, and in urine; its principal forms in tissues and cells are as FLAVIN MONONUCLEOTIDE and FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE.Riboflavin Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of riboflavin from two molecules of 6,7-dimethyl-8-ribityllumazine, utilizing a four-carbon fragment from one molecule which is transferred to the second molecule. EC Mononucleotide: A coenzyme for a number of oxidative enzymes including NADH DEHYDROGENASE. It is the principal form in which RIBOFLAVIN is found in cells and tissues.Flavins: Derivatives of the dimethylisoalloxazine (7,8-dimethylbenzo[g]pteridine-2,4(3H,10H)-dione) skeleton. Flavin derivatives serve an electron transfer function as ENZYME COFACTORS in FLAVOPROTEINS.Glutathione Reductase: Catalyzes the oxidation of GLUTATHIONE to GLUTATHIONE DISULFIDE in the presence of NADP+. Deficiency in the enzyme is associated with HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA. Formerly listed as EC Dinucleotide: A condensation product of riboflavin and adenosine diphosphate. The coenzyme of various aerobic dehydrogenases, e.g., D-amino acid oxidase and L-amino acid oxidase. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p972)Vitamin B Complex: A group of water-soluble vitamins, some of which are COENZYMES.Bulbar Palsy, Progressive: A motor neuron disease marked by progressive weakness of the muscles innervated by cranial nerves of the lower brain stem. Clinical manifestations include dysarthria, dysphagia, facial weakness, tongue weakness, and fasciculations of the tongue and facial muscles. The adult form of the disease is marked initially by bulbar weakness which progresses to involve motor neurons throughout the neuroaxis. Eventually this condition may become indistinguishable from AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS. Fazio-Londe syndrome is an inherited form of this illness which occurs in children and young adults. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1091; Brain 1992 Dec;115(Pt 6):1889-1900)Thiamine: 3-((4-Amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl)-5-(2- hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazolium chloride.Nutritional Requirements: The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.Pteridines: Compounds based on pyrazino[2,3-d]pyrimidine which is a pyrimidine fused to a pyrazine, containing four NITROGEN atoms.Ultraviolet Therapy: The use of ultraviolet electromagnetic radiation in the treatment of disease, usually of the skin. This is the part of the sun's spectrum that causes sunburn and tanning. Ultraviolet A, used in PUVA, is closer to visible light and less damaging than Ultraviolet B, which is ionizing.Photosensitizing Agents: Drugs that are pharmacologically inactive but when exposed to ultraviolet radiation or sunlight are converted to their active metabolite to produce a beneficial reaction affecting the diseased tissue. These compounds can be administered topically or systemically and have been used therapeutically to treat psoriasis and various types of neoplasms.Egg White: The white of an egg, especially a chicken's egg, used in cooking. It contains albumin. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Vitamins: Organic substances that are required in small amounts for maintenance and growth, but which cannot be manufactured by the human body.Pyridoxine: The 4-methanol form of VITAMIN B 6 which is converted to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. Although pyridoxine and Vitamin B 6 are still frequently used as synonyms, especially by medical researchers, this practice is erroneous and sometimes misleading (EE Snell; Ann NY Acad Sci, vol 585 pg 1, 1990).Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Pyridoxaminephosphate Oxidase: An enzyme catalyzing the deamination of pyridoxaminephosphate to pyridoxal phosphate. It is a flavoprotein that also oxidizes pyridoxine-5-phosphate and pyridoxine. EC Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxypropane structure.Butyric Acid: A four carbon acid, CH3CH2CH2COOH, with an unpleasant odor that occurs in butter and animal fat as the glycerol ester.Fatigue: The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.Transferases: Transferases are enzymes transferring a group, for example, the methyl group or a glycosyl group, from one compound (generally regarded as donor) to another compound (generally regarded as acceptor). The classification is based on the scheme "donor:acceptor group transferase". (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Nutrition Policy: Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Recommended Dietary Allowances: The amounts of various substances in the diet recommended by governmental guidelines as needed to sustain healthy life.Food, Fortified: Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Electronic Mail: Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.Food Dispensers, Automatic: Mechanical food dispensing machines.Editorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Postal Service: The functions and activities carried out by the U.S. Postal Service, foreign postal services, and private postal services such as Federal Express.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Manufactured Materials: Substances and materials manufactured for use in various technologies and industries and for domestic use.Facility Regulation and Control: Formal voluntary or governmental procedures and standards required of hospitals and health or other facilities to improve operating efficiency, and for the protection of the consumer.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Cosmetics: Substances intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions. Included in this definition are skin creams, lotions, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail polishes, eye and facial makeup preparations, permanent waves, hair colors, toothpastes, and deodorants, as well as any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. (U.S. Food & Drug Administration Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition Office of Cosmetics Fact Sheet (web page) Feb 1995)Investigational New Drug Application: An application that must be submitted to a regulatory agency (the FDA in the United States) before a drug can be studied in humans. This application includes results of previous experiments; how, where, and by whom the new studies will be conducted; the chemical structure of the compound; how it is thought to work in the body; any toxic effects found in animal studies; and how the compound is manufactured. (From the "New Medicines in Development" Series produced by the Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association and published irregularly.)Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Cercaria: The free-swimming larval forms of parasites found in an intermediate host.Vitamin A: Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.Vitamin B 12: A cobalt-containing coordination compound produced by intestinal micro-organisms and found also in soil and water. Higher plants do not concentrate vitamin B 12 from the soil and so are a poor source of the substance as compared with animal tissues. INTRINSIC FACTOR is important for the assimilation of vitamin B 12.Vitamin D: A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.Vitamin E: A generic descriptor for all TOCOPHEROLS and TOCOTRIENOLS that exhibit ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of ISOPRENOIDS.Reference Standards: A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.Spectrophotometry, Atomic: Spectrophotometric techniques by which the absorption or emmision spectra of radiation from atoms are produced and analyzed.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Nitric Acid: Nitric acid (HNO3). A colorless liquid that is used in the manufacture of inorganic and organic nitrates and nitro compounds for fertilizers, dye intermediates, explosives, and many different organic chemicals. Continued exposure to vapor may cause chronic bronchitis; chemical pneumonitis may occur. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Sonication: The application of high intensity ultrasound to liquids.Calibration: Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.

Energy depletion differently affects membrane transport and intracellular metabolism of riboflavin taken up by isolated rat enterocytes. (1/773)

Isolated rat enterocytes, both normal and those de-energized with rotenone, were used to study the energy dependence of membrane and intracellular intestinal riboflavin transport in vitro. Membrane and intracellular transport were investigated by using short (3 min) and long (20 min) incubation times, respectively. For both types of cells and incubation times, [3H]-riboflavin uptake presented a saturable component prevailing at physiologic intraluminal concentrations. At 3 min incubation, saturable [3H]-riboflavin transport was apparently an energy-independent process with high affinity and low capacity. Values of the saturable component and its apparent constants, Km and Jmax, did not differ in normal and de-energized enterocytes. At 20 min incubation, saturable [3H]-riboflavin transport was a strictly energy-dependent process in which values of the saturable component were significantly greater in normal than in de-energized enterocytes. Km values did not differ in the two types of cells and were unmodified over 3 min, whereas in normal enterocytes, Jmax at 20 min [6.25 +/- 0.2 pmol/(mg protein. 20 min)] was significantly greater than at 3 min [2.67 +/- 0.33 pmol/(mg protein. 3 min)] and compared with de-energized enterocytes at 20 min [2.54 +/- 0.16 pmol/(mg protein. 20 min)]. Both membrane and intracellular events were inhibited by unlabeled riboflavin and analogs, which are good substrates for flavokinase, thus demonstrating the paramount role of this enzyme in riboflavin intestinal transport.  (+info)

Physiological consequence of disruption of the VMA1 gene in the riboflavin overproducer Ashbya gossypii. (2/773)

The vacuolar ATPase subunit A structural gene VMA1 of the biotechnologically important riboflavin overproducer Ashbya gossypii was cloned and disrupted to prevent riboflavin retention in the vacuolar compartment and to redirect the riboflavin flux into the medium. Cloning was achieved by polymerase chain reaction using oligonucleotide primers derived form conserved sequences of the Vma1 proteins from yeast and filamentous fungi. The deduced polypeptide comprises 617 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 67.8 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence is highly similar to that of the catalytic subunits of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (67 kDa), Candida tropicalis (67 kDa), and Neurospora crassa (67 kDa) with 89, 87, and 60% identity, respectively, and shows about 25% identity to the beta-subunit of the FoF1-ATPase of S. cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe. In contrast to S. cerevisiae, however, where disruption of the VMA1 gene was conditionally lethal, and to N. crassa, where viable disruptants could not be isolated, disruption of the VMA1 gene in A. gossypii did not cause a lethal phenotype. Disruption of the AgVMA1 gene led to complete excretion of riboflavin into the medium instead of retention in the vacuolar compartment, as observed in the wild type.  (+info)

Reactive oxygen species-induced apoptosis and necrosis in bovine corneal endothelial cells. (3/773)

PURPOSE: The loss of corneal endothelial cells associated with aging and possibly other causes has been speculated to be related to exposure to reactive oxygen species (ROS). The current study was conducted to investigate, by use of photosensitizers, the underlying mechanisms involved in the death of bovine corneal endothelial cells (BCENs) caused by ROS. METHODS: BCEN cells in primary culture were treated with a photosensitizer (riboflavin or rose bengal) with light exposure. The patterns of cell damage and death were assessed using an acridine orange-ethidium bromide differential staining method, TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay, and transmission electron microscopy. The cytotoxicity was assayed by mitochondrial function using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) testing. Antioxidants, including catalase, L-histidine, salicylic acid, and superoxide dismutase, were used to determine the types of ROS involved. Activation of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB was examined by fluorescent immunocytochemistry with anti-p65 antibody. RESULTS: Light-irradiated riboflavin or rose bengal resulted in a significant decrease in viability of BCEN cells. Chromosomal condensation and fragmentation were observed in apoptotic cells, and membrane lysis and damage of cell ultrastructures were observed in necrotic cells. Riboflavin induced apoptosis at 30 minutes and thereafter and induced necrosis after 2 hours. Rose bengal was shown to cause similar effects within half the time required for the effects of riboflavin. Catalase and salicylic acid were found to provide protection for BCENs from cytotoxic effects of riboflavin, and L-histidine was found to protect BCENs from cytotoxicity induced by rose bengal. Kinetic studies using immunocytochemistry showed that NF-kappaB was translocated into the nucleus within 15 minutes and 30 minutes after treatment with rose bengal and riboflavin, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The cytotoxic effects of photo-irradiated riboflavin and rose bengal are shown to be mediated by two distinct but parallel pathways, one leading to apoptosis and the other to necrosis. Possible involvement of NF-kappaB in cell death is suggested. These findings provide potential leads for future investigation into the molecular mechanisms of loss of corneal endothelial cells related to aging, oxidative stress, and possibly other similar causes.  (+info)

Vitamin dificiencies and neural tube defects. (4/773)

Serum folate, red cell folate, white blood cell vitamin C, riboflavin saturation index, and serum vitamin A were determined during the first trimester of pregnancy in over 900 cases. For each of these there was a social classes I + II showed the highest levels which differed significantly from other classes, except for serum folate. In 6 mothers who gave birth to infants with neural tube defects, first trimester serum folate, red cell folate, white blood cell vitamin C, and riboflavin values were lower than in controls. In spite of small numbers the differences were significant for red cell folate (P less than 0-001) and white blood cell vitamin C (P less than 0-05). These findings are compatible with the hypothesis that nutritional deficiencies are significant in the causation of congenital defects of the neural tube in man.  (+info)

Anti-mitochondrial flavoprotein autoantibodies of patients with myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy (anti-M7): interaction with flavin-carrying proteins, effect of vitamin B2 and epitope mapping. (5/773)

Vitamin B2 and flavin cofactors are transported tightly bound to immunoglobulin in human serum. We reasoned that anti-mitochondrial flavoprotein autoantibodies (alpha Fp-AB) present in the serum of patients with myocarditis and cardiomyopathy of unknown aetiology may form immunoglobulin aggregates with these serum proteins. However, immunodiffusion and Western blot assays demonstrated that the flavin-carrying proteins were not recognized by alpha Fp-AB. Apparently the flavin moiety in the native protein conformation was inaccessible to alpha Fp-AB. This conclusion was supported by the absence of an immunoreaction between the riboflavin-binding protein from egg white and alpha FP-AB. Intravenous application of vitamin B2 to rabbits immunized with 6-hydroxy-D-nicotine oxidase, a bacterial protein carrying covalently attached FAD, did not neutralize alpha Fp-AB which had been raised in the serum of the animals. FAD-carrying peptides generated from 6-hydroxy-D-nicotine oxidase by trypsin and chymotrypsin treatment were not recognized by the alpha Fp-AB, but those generated by endopeptidase Lys were. This demonstrates that the epitope recognized by alpha Fp-AB comprises, besides the flavin moiety, protein secondary structure elements.  (+info)

Riboflavin and riboflavin-derived cofactors in adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa. (6/773)

BACKGROUND: Thyroid hormones, riboflavin, riboflavin cofactors, and organic acids were assessed in girls with anorexia nervosa. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine the effect of malnutrition and low thyroid hormone concentrations on erythrocyte and plasma riboflavin metabolism and their relation with urinary organic acid excretion. DESIGN: Seventeen adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa [body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2): 14.8 +/- 2.2] and 17 age-matched, healthy girls (control subjects; BMI: 20.5 +/- 2.2) took part in the feeding study. Erythrocyte and plasma riboflavin as well as riboflavin cofactors (flavin mononucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide) were assessed by HPLC, whereas urinary organic acids were assessed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Anorectic patients who began a feeding program had higher erythrocyte riboflavin (3.5 +/- 2.2 compared with <0.1 nmol/mol hemoglobin; P < 0.001), lower plasma flavin adenine dinucleotide (57.8 +/- 18.5 compared with 78.5 +/- 54.3 nmol/L; P < 0.05), and higher urinary ethylmalonic acid (7.12 +/- 4.39 compared with 1.3 +/- 2.8 micromol/mmol creatinine; P < 0.001) and isovalerylglycine (7.65 +/- 4.78 compared with 3.8 +/- 0.9 micromol/mmol creatinine; P < 0.05) concentrations than did control subjects. Triiodothyronine concentrations were low and negatively correlated with plasma riboflavin concentrations (r = -0.69, P < 0.01). Not all patients showed improvements in these biochemical indexes after 30 d of refeeding. CONCLUSIONS: The low triiodothyronine concentrations observed in anorexia nervosa could alter the extent of riboflavin conversion into cofactors, thus leading to high erythrocyte riboflavin concentrations, low plasma flavin adenine dinucleotide concentrations, and high rates of ethylmalonic acid and isovalerylglycine excretion.  (+info)

The ribR gene encodes a monofunctional riboflavin kinase which is involved in regulation of the Bacillus subtilis riboflavin operon. (7/773)

A 3.5 kb EcoRI-BamHI fragment of Bacillus subtilis chromosomal DNA carrying the ribR gene, involved in regulation of the B. subtilis riboflavin operon, was cloned in the B. subtilis-Escherichia coli shuttle vector pCB20. DNA sequence analysis of this fragment revealed several ORFs, one of which encodes a polypeptide of 230 amino acids with up to 45% sequence identity with FAD synthetases from a number of micro-organisms, such as Corynebacterium ammoniagenes, E. coli and Pseudomonas fluorescens, and also to the ribC gene product of B. subtilis. The ribR gene was amplified by PCR, cloned and expressed in E. coli. Measurement of flavokinase activity in cell extracts demonstrated that ribR encodes a monofunctional flavokinase which converts riboflavin into FMN but not to FAD, and is specific for the reduced form of riboflavin.  (+info)

Function of coenzyme F420 in aerobic catabolism of 2,4, 6-trinitrophenol and 2,4-dinitrophenol by Nocardioides simplex FJ2-1A. (8/773)

2,4,6-Trinitrophenol (picric acid) and 2,4-dinitrophenol were readily biodegraded by the strain Nocardioides simplex FJ2-1A. Aerobic bacterial degradation of these pi-electron-deficient aromatic compounds is initiated by hydrogenation at the aromatic ring. A two-component enzyme system was identified which catalyzes hydride transfer to picric acid and 2,4-dinitrophenol. Enzymatic activity was dependent on NADPH and coenzyme F420. The latter could be replaced by an authentic preparation of coenzyme F420 from Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum. One of the protein components functions as a NADPH-dependent F420 reductase. A second component is a hydride transferase which transfers hydride from reduced coenzyme F420 to the aromatic system of the nitrophenols. The N-terminal sequence of the F420 reductase showed high homology with an F420-dependent NADP reductase found in archaea. In contrast, no N-terminal similarity to any known protein was found for the hydride-transferring enzyme.  (+info)

  • Riboflavin and niacin are both popular energy drink ingredients but in many ways one outshines the other. (greeneyedguide.com)
  • Niacin can walk into any room it wants but riboflavin needs help. (greeneyedguide.com)
  • Riboflavin has to wait til it reaches the small intestine to get absorbed, but Niacin gets absorbed in the stomach too, as if it has a VIP Pass to cut the line and get into the club (the bloodstream) sooner. (greeneyedguide.com)
  • Niacin is absorbed faster and more efficiently (% absorption-wise) than riboflavin. (greeneyedguide.com)
  • One very large study suggests that riboflavin at nutritional doses may be helpful for cataracts , but in this study it was combined with another B vitamin-niacin ( vitamin B 3 )-so it's hard to say which vitamin was responsible for the effect. (skyridgemedcenter.com)
  • In a large, double-blind placebo-controlled study, 3,249 people were given either placebo or one of four nutrient combinations ( vitamin A - zinc , riboflavin- niacin , vitamin C - molybdenum , or selenium - beta-carotene - vitamin E ) for a period of 6 years. (skyridgemedcenter.com)
  • 13 Those receiving the riboflavin-niacin supplement showed a significant (44%) reduction in the incidence of cataracts. (skyridgemedcenter.com)
  • However, it is unclear whether the benefits seen in this group were due to niacin, riboflavin, or the combination of the two. (skyridgemedcenter.com)
  • Strangely, there was a small, but statistically significantly higher incidence of a special type of cataract (called a subcapsular cataract) in the niacin-riboflavin group. (skyridgemedcenter.com)
  • Collagen cross-linking by applying riboflavin topically then shining UV light is a method to slow progression of corneal ectasia by strengthening corneal tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • The concentration of riboflavin in the popular DMEM/Ham's Nutrient Mixture F-12 (50:50) used as a starting formulation for development of proprietary serum-free, or protein-free cell culture media for Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell based biomanufacturing of heterologous proteins is 0.59 µM. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Serum-free and protein-free cell culture systems, especially those developed for biomanufacturing of heterologous proteins and tissue engineering appear to benefit from the addition of exogenous riboflavin in a concentration range from 0.5 to 1.0 µM. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • This may explain the range of concentrations of riboflavin used in traditional media, where variables such as serum and protein use and storage of the medium affect riboflavin. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Below are the list of possible Riboflavin-binding protein products. (mybiosource.com)
  • Also known as Riboflavin-binding protein (RBP). (mybiosource.com)
  • Riboflavin has to be consumed with food because stomach acids need to free it from a protein it's usually attched to. (greeneyedguide.com)
  • The enzymes included help break down carbohydrates, fats, fiber, and protein more easily, while also promoting nutrient absorption and en. (hcgcompletediet.com)
  • The chiral recognition mechanism of Riboflavin Binding Protein (RfBP) stationary phase has been investigated by studying the influence of temperature on the retention process.The effect of temperature on retention and resolution of two analytes was studied at temperatures between 15°C and 50°C and van't Hoff plots of lnk and lnα versus 1/T were acquired. (usda.gov)
  • In humans, there is no evidence for riboflavin toxicity produced by excessive intakes, in part because it has lower water solubility than other B vitamins, because absorption becomes less efficient as doses increase, and because what excess is absorbed is excreted via the kidneys into urine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The current USP method for riboflavin impurity analysis is non-quantitative, and calls for the use of ion-pair chromatography to separate the riboflavin from four major impurity peaks. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Such ability to transport riboflavin in a specific manner, together with its high expression in the small intestine, indicates that RFT2 may play a role in the intestinal absorption of riboflavin. (nih.gov)
  • Synthetic riboflavin - often listed on vitamin supplements as vitamin B2 - is readily eliminated by your body, as evidenced by a bright, yellow fluorescent colour to your urine. (drbenkim.com)
  • If healthy, your body will effciently eliminate excess riboflavin through your urine. (drbenkim.com)
  • Identification and comparative functional characterization of a new human riboflavin transporter hRFT3 expressed in the brain. (nih.gov)
  • Current studies show that a combination of riboflavin, thiamin, folic acid and vitamin B12 may reduce precancerous spots on the cervix. (priceplow.com)
  • RESULTS: UVA/riboflavin cross-linked corneas displayed 28% ± 17% increase in the material tangent modulus compared with dextran treatment alone, and altered collagen architecture within the first 300 µm of stromal depth consisting of 5% increase in the thickness of collagen fibrils, no significant changes to interfibrillar spacing, and an 8% to 12% decrease in number of fibrils per unit area. (elsevier.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS: The data support a model wherein collagen fibril diameter and structural density are fundamental parameters in defining tissue stiffening following UVA/riboflavin CXL and provide benchmarks against which modifications to the Dresden CXL protocol can be evaluated. (elsevier.com)
  • Preliminary evidence suggests that riboflavin supplements may offer benefits for two illnesses: migraine headaches and cataracts. (skyridgemedcenter.com)
  • According to a 3-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 55 people with migraines, riboflavin can significantly reduce the frequency and duration of migraine attacks. (skyridgemedcenter.com)
  • METHODS: Porcine corneas were treated following the "Dresden" protocol, the current gold standard for clinical treatment, consisting of dropwise application of 0.1% riboflavin in 20% dextran followed by 30 minutes of ultraviolet-A (UVA) irradiation. (elsevier.com)
  • Killing is abolished when (1) riboflavin, (2) tryptophan and tyrosine, or (3) riboflavin, tryptophan and tyrosine are deleted from medium prior to irradiation with any of the above fluorescent lamps. (elsevier.com)
  • Riboflavin functions as a coenzyme, meaning that it is required for enzymes (proteins) to perform normal physiological actions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chemistry and bioavailability of riboflavin in cell culture plays an important role in the stability and utility of media used for biomanufacturing of heterologous proteins and tissue engineering. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • This paper presented a facile and efficient HPTLC method for quantifying riboflavin fortification in rice noodle that was a staple food popular in Asian countries. (springer.com)
  • Bui LTT, Small DM (2009) Riboflavin in Asian noodles: the impact of processing, storage and the efficacy of fortification of three product styles. (springer.com)
  • We have newly identified rat riboflavin transporter 2 (rRFT2) and its human orthologue (hRFT2), and carried out detailed functional characterization of rRFT2. (nih.gov)
  • Functional characteristics of the human ortholog of riboflavin transporter 2 and riboflavin-responsive expression of its rat ortholog in the small intestine indicate its involvement in riboflavin absorption. (nih.gov)
  • Identification and functional characterization of a novel human and rat riboflavin transporter, RFT1. (nih.gov)
  • Part of an ABC transporter complex that transports riboflavin into the cell (PubMed:25938806). (mybiosource.com)