A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is found in soil and which causes formation of root nodules on some, but not all, types of field pea, lentil, kidney bean, and clover.
A species of gram-negative bacteria and nitrogen innoculant of PHASEOLUS VULGARIS.
A species of gram-negative bacteria and an nitrogen inoculum that displays a high intrinsic tolerance to acidity.
The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.
The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that causes formation of root nodules on some, but not all, types of sweet clover, MEDICAGO SATIVA, and fenugreek.
A family of gram-negative bacteria which are saprophytes, symbionts, or plant pathogens.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
Knobbed structures formed from and attached to plant roots, especially of LEGUMES, which result from symbiotic infection by nitrogen fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA. Root nodules are structures related to MYCORRHIZAE formed by symbiotic associations with fungi.
A plant species of the family FABACEAE widely cultivated for ANIMAL FEED.
The formation of a nitrogen-fixing cell mass on PLANT ROOTS following symbiotic infection by nitrogen-fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, nonsporeforming rods which usually contain granules of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A plant genus in the family FABACEAE which is the source of edible beans and the lectin PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria usually containing granules of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate. They characteristically invade the root hairs of leguminous plants and act as intracellular symbionts.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria in the family PHYLLOBACTERIACEAE. They are able to invade root-hairs of a wide range of plants, inciting the production of PLANT ROOT NODULES.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. It is distinct from Sweet Clover (MELILOTUS), from Bush Clover (LESPEDEZA), and from Red Clover (TRIFOLIUM).
A variable annual leguminous vine (Pisum sativum) that is cultivated for its rounded smooth or wrinkled edible protein-rich seeds, the seed of the pea, and the immature pods with their included seeds. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1973)
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A plant species of the family FABACEAE used to study GENETICS because it is DIPLOID, self fertile, has a small genome, and short generation time.
A plant species of the genus VICIA, family FABACEAE. The seed is used for food and contains THIOCYANATES such as prunasin, cyanoalanine, cyanogen, and vicine.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
An enzyme system that catalyzes the fixing of nitrogen in soil bacteria and blue-green algae (CYANOBACTERIA). EC 1.18.6.1.
A hemoglobin-like oxygen-binding hemeprotein present in the nitrogen-fixing root nodules of leguminous plants. The red pigment has a molecular weight approximately 1/4 that of hemoglobin and has been suggested to act as an oxido-reduction catalyst in symbiotic nitrogen fixation.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.
Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and the stems, leafs, and roots of plants. Some biotypes are pathogenic and cause the formation of PLANT TUMORS in a wide variety of higher plants. The species is a major research tool in biotechnology.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that contains tephrorin, tephrosone, and C-prenylflavonoids.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that is widely used as ground cover and forage and known for the edible beans, VICIA FABA.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised mostly of two major phenotypes: purple non-sulfur bacteria and aerobic bacteriochlorophyll-containing bacteria.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An enzyme found in bacteria. It catalyzes the reduction of FERREDOXIN and other substances in the presence of molecular hydrogen and is involved in the electron transport of bacterial photosynthesis.
A species of gram-negative bacteria functioning as a nitrogen inoculum for dry beans, especially species in the genus PHASEOLUS.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. The gums and tanning agents obtained from Acacia are called GUM ARABIC. The common name of catechu is more often used for Areca catechu (ARECA).
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that contains kukulkanin, a CHALCONE.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria, in the family BURKHOLDERIACEAE, that are mobile by means of peritrichous FLAGELLA. The genus was formerly called Wautersia and species in this genus were formerly in the genus RALSTONIA.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.
A family of small, gram-negative organisms, often parasitic in humans and other animals, causing diseases that may be transmitted by invertebrate vectors.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, L-glutamate, and NH3 to ADP, orthophosphate, and L-glutamine. It also acts more slowly on 4-methylene-L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 6.3.1.2.
A plant family of the order Urticales, subclass Hamamelidae, class Magnoliopsida. It is most notable for the members, Cannabis and Hops.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Beneficial microorganisms (bacteria or fungi) encapsulated in carrier material and applied to the environment for remediation and enhancement of agricultural productivity.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
5,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxy-flavone, one of the FLAVONES.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine from a nucleoside diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.

Thermostability reinforcement through a combination of thermostability-related mutations of N-carbamyl-D-amino acid amidohydrolase. (1/1949)

For the improvement of N-carbamyl-D-amino acid amidohydrolase (DCase), which can be used for the industrial production of D-amino acids, the stability of DCase from Agrobacterium sp. KNK712 was improved through various combinations of thermostability-related mutations. The thermostable temperature (defined as the temperature on heat treatment for 10 min that caused a decrease in the DCase activity of 50%) of the enzyme which had three amino acids, H57Y, P203E, and V236A, replaced was increased by about 19 degrees C. The mutant DCase, designated as 455M, was purified and its enzymatic properties were studied. The enzyme had highly increased stability against not only temperature but also pH, the optimal temperature of the enzyme being about 75 degrees C. The substrate specificity of the enzyme for various N-carbamyl-D-amino acids was changed little in comparison with that of the native enzyme. Enzymochemical parameters were also measured.  (+info)

Mutation in GDP-fucose synthesis genes of Sinorhizobium fredii alters Nod factors and significantly decreases competitiveness to nodulate soybeans. (2/1949)

We mutagenized Sinorhizobium fredii HH103-1 with Tn5-B20 and screened about 2,000 colonies for increased beta-galactosidase activity in the presence of the flavonoid naringenin. One mutant, designated SVQ287, produces lipochitooligosaccharide Nod factors (LCOs) that differ from those of the parental strain. The nonreducing N-acetylglucosamine residues of all of the LCOs of mutant SVQ287 lack fucose and 2-O-methylfucose substituents. In addition, SVQ287 synthesizes an LCO with an unusually long, C20:1 fatty acyl side chain. The transposon insertion of mutant SVQ287 lies within a 1.1-kb HindIII fragment. This and an adjacent 2.4-kb HindIII fragment were sequenced. The sequence contains the 3' end of noeK, nodZ, and noeL (the gene interrupted by Tn5-B20), and the 5' end of nolK, all in the same orientation. Although each of these genes has a similarly oriented counterpart on the symbiosis plasmid of the broad-host-range Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234, there are significant differences in the noeK/nodZ intergenic region. Based on amino acid sequence homology, noeL encodes GDP-D-mannose dehydratase, an enzyme involved in the synthesis of GDP-L-fucose, and nolK encodes a NAD-dependent nucleotide sugar epimerase/dehydrogenase. We show that expression of the noeL gene is under the control of NodD1 in S. fredii and is most probably mediated by the nod box that precedes nodZ. Transposon insertion into neoL has two impacts on symbiosis with Williams soybean: nodulation rate is reduced slightly and competitiveness for nodulation is decreased significantly. Mutant SVQ287 retains its ability to form nitrogen-fixing nodules on other legumes, but final nodule number is attenuated on Cajanus cajan.  (+info)

The nolL gene from Rhizobium etli determines nodulation efficiency by mediating the acetylation of the fucosyl residue in the nodulation factor. (3/1949)

The nodulation factors (Nod factors) of Rhizobium etli and R. loti carry a 4-O-acetyl-L-fucosyl group at the reducing end. It has been claimed, based on sequence analysis, that NolL from R. loti participates in the 4-O-acetylation of the fucosyl residue of the Nod factors, as an acetyl-transferase (D. B. Scott, C. A. Young, J. M. Collins-Emerson, E. A. Terzaghi, E. S. Rockman, P. A. Lewis, and C. E. Pankhurst. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 9:187-197, 1996). Further support for this hypothesis was obtained by studying the production of Nod factors in an R. etli nolL::Km mutant. Chromatographic and mass spectrometry analysis of the Nod factors produced by this strain showed that they lack the acetyl-fucosyl substituent, having a fucosyl group instead. Acetyl-fucosylation was restored upon complementation with a wild-type nolL gene. These results indicate that the nolL gene determines 4-O-acetylation of the fucosyl residue in Nod factors. Analysis of the predicted NolL polypeptide suggests a transmembranal location and that it belongs to the family of integral membrane transacylases (J. M. Slauch, A. A. Lee, M. J. Mahan, and J. J. Mekalanos. J. Bacteriol. 178:5904-5909, 1996). NolL from R. loti was also proposed to function as a transporter; our results show that NolL does not determine a differential secretion of Nod factors from the cell. We also performed plant assays that indicate that acetylation of the fucose conditions efficient nodulation by R. etli of some Phaseolus vulgaris cultivars, as well as of an alternate host (Vigna umbellata).  (+info)

Metabolic engineering of poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates): from DNA to plastic. (4/1949)

Poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) (PHAs) are a class of microbially produced polyesters that have potential applications as conventional plastics, specifically thermoplastic elastomers. A wealth of biological diversity in PHA formation exists, with at least 100 different PHA constituents and at least five different dedicated PHA biosynthetic pathways. This diversity, in combination with classical microbial physiology and modern molecular biology, has now opened up this area for genetic and metabolic engineering to develop optimal PHA-producing organisms. Commercial processes for PHA production were initially developed by W. R. Grace in the 1960s and later developed by Imperial Chemical Industries, Ltd., in the United Kingdom in the 1970s and 1980s. Since the early 1990s, Metabolix Inc. and Monsanto have been the driving forces behind the commercial exploitation of PHA polymers in the United States. The gram-negative bacterium Ralstonia eutropha, formerly known as Alcaligenes eutrophus, has generally been used as the production organism of choice, and intracellular accumulation of PHA of over 90% of the cell dry weight have been reported. The advent of molecular biological techniques and a developing environmental awareness initiated a renewed scientific interest in PHAs, and the biosynthetic machinery for PHA metabolism has been studied in great detail over the last two decades. Because the structure and monomeric composition of PHAs determine the applications for each type of polymer, a variety of polymers have been synthesized by cofeeding of various substrates or by metabolic engineering of the production organism. Classical microbiology and modern molecular bacterial physiology have been brought together to decipher the intricacies of PHA metabolism both for production purposes and for the unraveling of the natural role of PHAs. This review provides an overview of the different PHA biosynthetic systems and their genetic background, followed by a detailed summation of how this natural diversity is being used to develop commercially attractive, recombinant processes for the large-scale production of PHAs.  (+info)

Sequence and molecular analysis of the Rhizobium etli glsA gene, encoding a thermolabile glutaminase. (5/1949)

We sequenced a 2.1 kb fragment of DNA carrying the structural glsA gene, which codes for the Rhizobium etli thermolabile glutaminase (A). The glsA gene complements the R. etli LM16 mutant that lacks glutaminase A activity, and is expressed in the heterologous host Sinorhizobium meliloti. The deduced amino acid sequence consists of 309 residues, with a calculated molecular mass of 33 kDa. The amino acid sequence shares 53% and 43% identity with two hypothetical glutaminases of E. coli; 42% identity with liver-type; 38% identity with kidney-type glutaminase; 41% and 40% identity hypothetical glutaminases of Bacillus subtilis; and 41% and 37% identity with two putative glutaminases of Caenorhabditis elegans. The glsA gene represents the first glutaminase gene cloned and sequenced in prokaryotes.  (+info)

Isolation and characterization of the catalase gene from Rhizobium sp. SNU003, a root nodule symbiont of Canavalia lineata. (6/1949)

A catalase gene from Rhizobium sp. SNU003, a root nodule symbiont of Canavalia lineata, was cloned and its nucleotide sequence was determined. The Rhizobium DNA of about 280 bp was amplified using two PCR primers synthesized from the conserved sequences of the type I catalase gene. The nucleotide sequence of the amplified fragment revealed three regions that were conserved in the catalase, showing it as being part of the catalase gene. A genomic Southern hybridization using this fragment as a probe showed that the 5.5 kb PstI, 1.8 kb EcoRI, and 0.7 kb StyI fragments hybridized strongly with the probe. The Rhizobium genomic library constructed into the EMBL3 vector was screened, and one catalase clone was selected. The nucleotide sequence of the 5.5 kb PstI fragment from the clone revealed an open reading frame of 1455 bp, encoding a polypeptide of 485 amino acids with a molecular mass of 54,958 Da and a pI of 6.54. The predicted amino acid sequence of the catalase is 66.3% identical to that of Bacteroides fragilis, but was only 53.3% identical to the Rhizobium meliloti catalase.  (+info)

Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234 and R. fredii USDA257 share exceptionally broad, nested host ranges. (7/1949)

Genetically, Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234 and R. fredii USDA257 are closely related. Small differences in their nodulation genes result in NGR234 secreting larger amounts of more diverse lipo-oligosaccharidic Nod factors than USDA257. What effects these differences have on nodulation were analyzed by inoculating 452 species of legumes, representing all three subfamilies of the Leguminosae, as well as the nonlegume Parasponia andersonii, with both strains. The two bacteria nodulated P. andersonii, induced ineffective outgrowths on Delonix regia, and nodulated Chamaecrista fasciculata, a member of the only nodulating genus of the Caesalpinieae tested. Both strains nodulated a range of mimosoid legumes, especially the Australian species of Acacia, and the tribe Ingeae. Highest compatibilities were found with the papilionoid tribes Phaseoleae and Desmodieae. On Vigna spp. (Phaseoleae), both bacteria formed more effective symbioses than rhizobia of the "cowpea" (V. unguiculata) miscellany. USDA257 nodulated an exact subset (79 genera) of the NGR234 hosts (112 genera). If only one of the bacteria formed effective, nitrogen-fixing nodules it was usually NGR234. The only exceptions were with Apios americana, Glycine max, and G. soja. Few correlations can be drawn between Nod-factor substituents and the ability to nodulate specific legumes. Relationships between the ability to nodulate and the origin of the host were not apparent. As both P. andersonii and NGR234 originate from Indonesia/Malaysia/Papua New Guinea, and NGR234's preferred hosts (Desmodiinae/Phaseoleae) are largely Asian, we suggest that broad host range originated in Southeast Asia and spread outward.  (+info)

Autoinducer binding by the quorum-sensing regulator TraR increases affinity for target promoters in vitro and decreases TraR turnover rates in whole cells. (8/1949)

TraR is an Agrobacterium transcriptional regulator whose activity requires the pheromone N-3-oxooctanoyl-L-homoserine lactone. TraR was purified as a complex with the pheromone and contained one pheromone molecule per protein monomer. TraR-pheromone complexes bound to a single DNA site and activated two promoters that flank this site. Promoter expression was elevated 30-fold by using a supercoiled template. Pheromone binding increased the affinity of TraR for this binding site. Pheromone also increased TraR abundance in vivo by causing a 20-fold decrease in TraR turnover rates.  (+info)

Rhizobium, Agrobacterium and Allorhizobium are genera within the bacterial family Rhizobiaceae, together with Sinorhizobium. The species of Agrobacterium, Agrobacterium tumefaciens (syn. Agrobacterium radiobacter), Agrobacterium rhizogenes, Agrobacterium rubi and Agrobacterium vitis, together with Allorhizobium undicola, form a monophyletic group with all Rhizobium species, based on comparative 16S rDNA analyses. Agrobacterium is an artificial genus comprising plant-pathogenic species. The monophyletic nature of Agrobacterium, Allorhizobium and Rhizobium and their common phenotypic generic circumscription support their amalgamation into a single genus, Rhizobium. Agrobacterium tumefaciens was conserved as the type species of Agrobacterium, but the epithet radiobacter would take precedence as Rhizobium radiobacter in the revised genus. The proposed new combinations are Rhizobium radiobacter, Rhizobium rhizogenes, Rhizobium rubi, Rhizobium undicola and Rhizobium vitis.
Rhizobium fredii is a fast-growing rhizobium isolated from the primitive Chinese soybean cultivar Peking and from the wild soybean Glycine soja. This rhizobium harbors nif genes on 150- to 200-megadalton plasmids. By passage on acridine orange plates, we obtained a mutant of R. fredii USDA 206 cured of the 197-megadalton plasmid (USDA 206C) which carries both nif and nod genes. This strain, however, has retained its symbiotic effectiveness. Probing EcoRI digests of wild-type and cured plasmid DNA with a 2.2-kilobase nif DH fragment from Rhizobium meliloti has shown four homologous fragments in the wild-type strain (4.2, 4.9, 10, and 11 kilobases) and two fragments in the cured strain (4.2 and 10 kilobases). EcoRI digests of total DNA show four major bands of homology (4.2, 4.9, 5.8, and 13 kilobases) in both the wild-type and cured strains. The presence of major bands of homology in the total DNA not present in the plasmid DNA indicated chromosomal nif genes. Probing of HindIII digests of total and
Nodulation (nod) gene expression in Rhizobium meliloti requires plant inducers and the activating protein product of the nodD gene. We have examined three genes in R. meliloti which have nodD activity and sequence homology. These three nodD genes are designated nodD1, nodD2 and nodD3, and have distinctive properties. The nodD1 gene product activates expression of the nodABC operon, as measured by a nodC-lacZ fusion or by transcript analysis, in the presence of crude seed or plant wash or the inducer, luteolin. The nodD3 gene product can cause a high basal (uninduced) level of nodC-lacZ expression and nodABC transcripts which is relatively unaffected by inducers. The effect of nodD3 is dependent on the presence of another gene, syrM (symbiotic regulator). By primer extension analysis we determined that the transcription start site is the same for nodD1 plus luteolin or nodD3-syrM mediated expression of nodA and nodH mRNAs. syrM also enhances the expression of another symbiotically important ...
Other names: A. rhizogenes, ATCC 11325, Agrobacterium biovar 2, Agrobacterium genomic group 10, Agrobacterium genomic species 10, Agrobacterium genomosp. 10, Agrobacterium rhizogenes, Agrobacterium rhizogenes (RI plasmid PRI1724), Agrobacterium rhizogenes (RI plasmid PRI8196), Agrobacterium rhizogenes (RI plasmid PRIA4B), CFBP 5520, CIP 104328, DSM 30148, ICMP 5794, IFO 13257, JCM 20919, LMG 150, NBRC 13257, NCPPB 2991, Rhizobium rhizogenes, Rhizobium sp. LMG 9509 ...
Other names: A. rhizogenes, ATCC 11325, Agrobacterium biovar 2, Agrobacterium genomic group 10, Agrobacterium genomic species 10, Agrobacterium genomosp. 10, Agrobacterium rhizogenes, Agrobacterium rhizogenes (RI plasmid PRI1724), Agrobacterium rhizogenes (RI plasmid PRI8196), Agrobacterium rhizogenes (RI plasmid PRIA4B), CFBP 5520, CIP 104328, DSM 30148, ICMP 5794, IFO 13257, JCM 20919, LMG 150, NBRC 13257, NCPPB 2991, Rhizobium rhizogenes, Rhizobium sp. LMG 9509 ...
Pesticide properties for Agrobacterium radiobacter strain K1026, including approvals, environmental fate, eco-toxicity and human health issues
The Rhizobium common nod gene products NodABC are involved in the synthesis of the core lipochitooligosaccharide (Nod factor) structure, whereas the products of the host-specific nod genes are necessary for diverse structural modifications, which vary in different Rhizobium species. The sulfate group attached to the Rhizobium meliloti Nod signal is necessary for activity on the host plant alfalfa, while its absence renders the Nod factor active on the non-host plant vetch. This substituent is therefore a major determinant of host specificity. The exact biosynthetic pathway of Nod factors has not been fully elucidated. In particular, it is not known why some chemical modifications are introduced with high fidelity whereas others are inaccurate, giving rise to a family of different Nod factor structures produced by a single Rhizobium strain. Using protein extracts and partially purified recombinant NodH protein obtained from Escherichia coli expressing the R. meliloti nodH gene, we demonstrate ...
The plant supplies the rhizobia with energy in the form of amino acids and the . Legumes can become infected with nitrogen-fixing bacteria known as rhizobia. These bacteria live in the soil, and when a legume grows nearby a molecular communication ensues that enables the legume roots to become infected. In a process guided by both the bacteria and the plant, the rhizobia invade . Wally Eberhart, Corbis, NTB scanpix.. Update in progress: This page lists all of the current validly-published binomial names for the rhizobia , which currently consists of species in genera. Most of these bacterial species are in the Rhizobiacae family in the . The biological reduction of atmospheric Nto ammonium (nitrogen fixation) provides about of the biospheres available nitrogen. Most of this ammonium is contributed by legume- rhizobia symbioses, which are initiated by the infection of legume hosts by bacteria ( rhizobia ), resulting in formation of root nodules. Rhizobia are nitrogen-fixing bacteria that form ...
The role of soil microorganisms in plant growth, nutrient utilization, drought tolerance as well as biocontrol activity cannot be over-emphasized, especially in this era when food crisis is a global challenge. This research was therefore designed to gain genomic insights into plant growth promoting (PGP) Rhizobium species capable of enhancing soybean (Glycine max L.) seeds germination under drought condition. Rhizobium sp. strain R1, Rhizobium tropici strain R2, Rhizobium cellulosilyticum strain R3, Rhizobium taibaishanense strain R4 and Ensifer meliloti strain R5 were found to possess the entire PGP traits tested. Specifically, these rhizobial strains were able to solubilize phosphate, produce exopolysaccharide (EPS), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC), siderophore and indole-acetic-acid (IAA). These strains also survived and grew at a temperature of 45 °C and in an acidic condition with a pH 4. Consequently, all the Rhizobium strains enhanced the germination of soybean seeds (PAN 1532 R) under
Monoclonal antibodies were used as cytochemical markers to study surface interactions between endosymbiotic Rhizobium bacteroids from pea root nodules and the encircling peribacteroid membranes, which are of plant origin. Monoclonal antibodies that react with Rhizobium lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or with a plant membrane glycoprotein were used as markers for material from the bacteroid outer membrane or the peribacteroid membrane, respectively. Membrane-enclosed bacteroids were isolated from nodule homogenates by sucrose gradient centrifugation, and the encircling peribacteroid membrane was released by mild osmotic shock treatment. Using an immunochemical technique (sandwich ELISA), it was shown that 1-5% of the LPS antigen released into the peribacteroid fraction by mild osmotic shock treatment was physically associated with peribacteroid membrane through a detergent-sensitive linkage. This association could be visualized when freshly prepared peribacteroid material was immobilized on gold grids ...
Rhizobium is a genus of Gram-negative soil bacteria that fix nitrogen. Rhizobium species form an endosymbiotic nitrogen-fixing association with roots of legumes and Parasponia. The bacteria colonize plant cells within root nodules, where they convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia and then provide organic nitrogenous compounds such as glutamine or ureides to the plant. The plant, in turn, provides the bacteria with organic compounds made by photosynthesis. This mutually beneficial relationship is true of all of the rhizobia, of which the Rhizobium genus is a typical example. Beijerinck in the Netherlands was the first to isolate and cultivate a microorganism from the nodules of legumes in 1888. He named it Bacillus radicicola, which is now placed in Bergeys Manual of Determinative Bacteriology under the genus Rhizobium. Rhizobium forms a symbiotic relationship with certain plants such as legumes, fixing nitrogen from the air into ammonia, which acts as a natural fertilizer for the plants. ...
Agrobacterium infection, which is widely used to generate transgenic plants, is often accompanied by T-DNA-linked mutations and transpositions in flowering plants. It is not known if Agrobacterium infection also affects the rates of point mutations, somatic homologous recombinations (SHR) and frame-shift mutations (FSM). We examined the effects of Agrobacterium infection on five types of somatic mutations using a set of mutation detector lines of Arabidopsis thaliana. To verify the effect of secreted factors, we exposed the plants to different Agrobacterium strains, including wild type (Ach5), its derivatives lacking vir genes, oncogenes or T-DNA, and the heat-killed form for 48 h post-infection; also, for a smaller set of strains, we examined the rates of three types of mutations at multiple time-points. The mutation detector lines carried a non-functional β-glucuronidase gene (GUS) and a reversion of mutated GUS to its functional form resulted in blue spots. Based on the
A motile, Gram-stain-negative, non-pigmented bacterial strain, designated MGL06T, was isolated from seawater of the South China Sea on selection medium containing 0.1 % (w/v) malachite green. Strain MGL06T showed highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Rhizobium vignae CCBAU 05176T (97.2 %), and shared 93.2-96.9 % with the type strains of other recognized Rhizobium species. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA and housekeeping gene sequences showed that strain MGL06T belonged to the genus Rhizobium. Mean levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain MGL06T and R. vignae CCBAU 05176T, Rhizobium huautlense S02T and Rhizobium alkalisoli CCBAU 01393T were 20 ± 3, 18 ± 2 and 14 ± 3 %, respectively, indicating that strain MGL06T was distinct from them genetically. Strain MGL06T did not form nodules on three different legumes, and the nodD and nifH genes were also not detected by PCR or based on the draft genome sequence. Strain MGL06T contained Q-10 as the predominant ubiquinone. The major fatty
Rhizobia are composed of specific groups of bacteria that have the ability to induce symbiotic nitrogen-fixing nodules on the roots or stems of leguminous plants. Rhizobia have attracted a great attention for more than 4 decades because of their enormous agricultural and economic value in sustainable agriculture. Up to the present time, many legumes have been found to be nodulated by several rhizobial species in diverse taxonomic groups. An assessment of rhizobial diversity provides pivotal information in understanding the horizontal gene transfer among bacterial genera and species, the bacterial evolution and the symbiotic effectiveness. The classification of rhizobia is becoming increasingly complex and is revised periodically because of new findings that propose new genera and new species. Phenotypic and Genotypic Diversity of Rhizobia presents the application of conventional and molecular analyses, including numerical analysis, enzyme patterns, serological studies, plasmid profile, ...
Rhizobium spp. are found in soil. They are both free-living and found symbiotically associated with the nodules of leguminous plants. Traditionally, studies have focused on the association of these organisms with plants in nitrogen-fixing nodules, since this is regarded as the most important role of these bacteria in the environment. Rhizobium sp. are known to possess several replicons. Some, like the Rhizobium etli symbiotic plasmid p42d and the plasmid pNGR234b of Rhizobium NGR234, have been sequenced and characterized. The plasmids from these organisms are the focus of this short review.. ...
FINAL DIAGNOSIS: AGROBACTERIUM RADIOBACTER. CONTRIBUTORS NOTE:. The genus Agrobacterium are aerobic, gram negative, peritrichous bacilli which are mainly plant pathogens found in soil all over the world. Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Agrobacterium radiobacter are two species that have been isolated from human specimens although only A. radiobacter is associated with clinical symptoms (1).. Despite A. radiobacters association with significant clinical symptoms, it is considered to be of low virulence and there have been no reports of mortality from the organism alone. The only difference between the two species is the presence of a tumor-producing plasmid, the Ti plasmid, in A. tumefaciens which results in a tumorous growth in plants (2).. Agrobacterium radiobacter is infrequently recognized in clinical specimens however it has been associated with immunocompromised patients that have implanted medical devices or transcutaneous catheters (1,3,4). It was first isolated in 1967 but was not ...
The most important step of this study was to isolate Rhizobium species and determination of their potency for growth factor production. We isolated 260 type bacteria on PCA (Plate Count Agar) media from adjacent soil samples of ten leguminous plants, two non-leguminous plants and control soil (without plant). Then pure cultures of 53 nitrogen fixing bacterial strains were isolated on selective Yeast Extract Mannitol Agar (YEMA) medium. Five isolates (Ma-G1, Ch-H2, Lo-F1, Sh-J1and Ra-I2) were selected as Rhizobium hainanense and better result was regarded in their assessment for production potency of various growth factors. All Rhizobium spp. were able to fix nitrogen in media. Among these isolates, indole acetic acid (IAA) was produced by Ma-G1 and Ra-I2. The exopolysaccharide production rate of Ma-G1 was enhanced expectedly (1.25-fold increase) by treating with IAA. Unfortunately, these five strains were unable to separate soluble phosphorus content from insoluble tri-calcium phosphate (TCP). ...
Procedures based on DNA hybridization and PCR were developed for quality control of Rhizobium inoculants. Inoculants for pea and goats rue were produced by Elomestari Ltd., Juva, Finland, in sterile dry fine peat by the standard procedure used by the company. The inoculants contained Rhizobium galegae HAMBI 1174 and HAMBI 1207 and an R. leguminosarum biovar vicia strain, 16HSA, either solely or in combinations of two or three strains. DNA was isolated from 1-g samples of each peat inoculant and analyzed by nonradioactive DNA-DNA hybridization and by PCR. The hybridization probes were total DNAs from pure cultures of R. galegae HAMBI 1207 and R. leguminosarum biovar viciae 16HSA and a 264-bp strain-specific fragment from the genome of R. galegae HAMBI 1174. The total DNA probes distinguished inoculants containing R. galegae or R. leguminosarum, and the strain-specific probe distinguished inoculants containing R. galegae HAMBI 1174. The hybridization results for R. galegae were verified in a PCR ...
SALEM, S.H. (1971) Néhány inszekticid hatása a Rhizobium trifolii effektív és ineffektív törzseinek fiziológiai aktivitására. Agrokémia és talajtan, 20 (3). pp. 368-376. ...
Agrobacterium species that are pathogenic on plants, including Agrobacterium tumefaciens, A. vitis, A. rubi, and A. rhizogenes, all carry megaplasmids. By contrast, nonpathogenic strains either lack these plasmids entirely or carry mutant forms of plasmids. A strict requirement of the Ti plasmid for virulence was established through mutational analyses and by a demonstration that the introduction of Ti plasmids into Rhizobium or Phyllobacterium spp. converts these nonpathogenic species into tumor-inducing pathogens ( 2 , 3 ). Ti plasmids induce a disease called crown gall, which is typified by the formation of undifferentiated plant tumors at the plant crown (the subterranean-to-aerial transition zone). The related root-inducing or Ri megaplasmids carried by A. rhizogenes instead induce hairy root disease, which is typified by the formation of entangled masses of roots at the infection site ( 4 ).
Rhizobium rhizogenes (formerly Agrobacterium rhizogenes) is a Gram-negative soil bacterium that produces hairy root disease in dicotyledonous plants. R. rhizogenes induces the formation of proliferative multiple-branched adventitious roots at the site of infection, so-called hairy roots. In the rhizosphere, plants may suffer from wounds by soil pathogens or other sources. This leads to the secretion of phenolic compounds like acetosyringone which have chemotactic effects that attract the bacteria. Under such conditions, certain bacterial genes are turned on leading to the transfer of its tDNA from its root-inducing plasmid (Ri plasmid) into the plant through the wound. After integration and expression, in vitro or under natural conditions, the hairy root phenotype is observed, which typically includes overdevelopment of a root system that is not completely geotropic, and altered (wrinkled) leaf morphology, if leaves are present. Bacterial genes may be retained within the plant. The hairy roots ...
The genetic diversity and symbiotic efficiency among indigenous rhizobia isolates obtained from native field with or without organic fertilization and superficial mineral fertilization were investigated. Eighty-six indigenous rhizobia were isolated from these fields using four common bean varieties as trap-host. The common bean varieties Mexico 309 and Rio Tibagi selected the most efficient rhizobia strains because they showed the best yields and N contents results. The genetic characterization of 36 rhizobia isolates was evaluated by using electrophoretic profiles of amplification products using primers ERIC1-R and ERIC-2. Our results demonstrated that besides the large diversity in the indigenous rhizobial community, the genotype of the trap-host probably influences the selection of the most efficient strains.
Three bacterial isolates, designated W44T, W15 and W11, were isolated from the root of Oryza officinalis grown in Wuzhou, China. These isolates were Gram-negative, aerobic, motile and rod-shaped; demonstrated cellulase and urea activities; and formed cream-coloured colonies. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that the similarities between strain W44T and strains W15 and W11 were 100 %; all of them belonged to the genus Rhizobium and had the highest sequence similarity to Rhizobium rosettiformans W3T (98.7 %), followed by Rhizobium ipomoeae shin9-1T (98.2 %). Sequencing of housekeeping genes (recA, atpD, rpoB and glnA) of the novel isolates revealed similarities to members of established Rhizobium species to be less than 94.3 %. The values of DNA-DNA hybridization between strain W44T and the reference strains ( R. rosettiformans W3T and R. ipomoeae shin9-1T) were 41.3 and 29.2 %, respectively. The major cellular fatty acid of strain W44T was summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω9t and/or C18 : 1ω9c
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Rhizobium forms a symbiotic relationship with certain plants such as legumes, fixing nitrogen from the air into ammonia, which acts as a natural fertilizer for the plants. Current research is being conducted by Agricultural Research Service microbiologists to discover a way to use Rhizobiums biological nitrogen fixation. This research involves the genetic mapping of various rhizobial species with their respective symbiotic plant species, like alfalfa or soybean. The goal of this research is to increase the plants productivity without using fertilizers.[3]. In molecular biology, Rhizobium has also been identified as a contaminant of DNA extraction kit reagents and ultrapure water systems, which may lead to its erroneous appearance in microbiota or metagenomic datasets.[4] The presence of nitrogen fixing bacteria as contaminants may be due to the use of nitrogen gas in ultra-pure water production to inhibit microbial growth in storage tanks.[5]. ...
To study the effect of different temperature and carbohydrate sources, a laboratory experiment was taken and parameters are taken separately. To study the effect of different temperature on the growth of Rhizobium, YEMA medium was used for growth of Rhizobium, there is less growth as compared to 30 c, where significantly increase in biomass growth, up to 30 c temperature. To study the effect of different carbohydrate sources, the Richard medium was used to study the growth of Rhizobium. From data it was clear that, mannitol as a source there was significantly more growth of Rhizobium compared to other sources.. ...
Rhizobium spp. show chemotaxis to plant root exudates. A glycoprotein has been isolated from the root exudates of birdsfoot trefoil, Lotus corniculatus, which, at micromolar concentrations, attracts six strains of rhizobia. This glycoprotein has been given the trivial name trefoil chemotactin and contains approximately twice as much protein as carbohydrate. Gel filtration of trefoil chemotactin on a Bio-Gel A-1.5m column gave a molecular weight of approximately 60,000. Trefoil chemotactin represents a new class of chemoattractants for bacteria. ...
A 1.9 kb DNA region of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae strain VF39 capable of promoting microaerobic and symbiotic induction of the Rhizobium meliloti fixN gene was identified by heterologous complementation. Sequence analysis of this DNA region revealed the presence of two complete open reading frames, orf240 and orf114. The deduced amino acid sequence of orf240 showed significant homology to Escherichia coli Fnr and R. meliloti FixK. The major difference between ORF240 and FixK is the presence of 21 N-terminal amino acids in ORF240 that have no counterpart in FixK. A similar protein domain is also present in E. coli Fnr and is essential for the oxygen-regulated activity of this protein. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence upstream of orf240 revealed a motif similar to the NtrA-dependent promoter consensus sequence, as well as two DNA regions resembling the Fnr consensus binding sequence. A Tn5-generated mutant in orf240 lost the ability to induce the R. meliloti fixN-lacZ fusion. ...
The Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae nodulation protein NodO is partially homologous to haemolysin of Escherichia coli and, like haemolysin, is secreted into the growth medium. The NodO protein can be secreted by a strain of E. coli carrying the cloned nodO gene plus the haemolysin secretion genes hlyBD, in a process that also requires the outer membrane protein encoded by tolC. The related protease secretion genes, prtDEF, from Erwinia chrysanthemi also enable E. coli to secrete NodO. The Rhizobium genes encoding the proteins required for NodO secretion are unlinked to nodO and are unlike other nod genes, since they do not require flavonoids or NodO for their expression. Although proteins similar to NodO were not found in rhizobia other than R. leguminosarum bv. viciae, several rhizobia and an Agrobacterium strain containing the cloned nodO gene were found to have the ability to secrete NodO. These observations indicate that a wide range of the Rhizobiaceae have a protein secretion ...
Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) suspension cultures respond to yeast elicitors with a strong alkalinization of the culture medium, a transient synthesis of activated oxygen species, and typical late defence reactions such as phytoalexin accumulation and increased peroxidase activity. The alkalinization reaction as well as the oxidative burst were also observed when tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) cell-suspension cultures were treated with yeast elicitors. Depending on the degree of polymerization, N-acetyl chitin oligomers induced the alkalinization response in both plant cell-suspension cultures, while only tobacco cell cultures developed an oxidative burst. Suspension-cultured tobacco cells responded to Sinorhizobium meliloti nodulation factors with a maximal alkalinization of 0.25 pH units and a remarkable oxidative burst. In contrast, addition of Sinorhizobium meliloti nodulation factors to suspension-cultured alfalfa cells induced a slight acidificatiton of the culture medium, instead of an ...
The secreted nodulation-signaling protein NodO was purified from the supernatant of cultures of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae. The native protein has a M(r) of approximately 67,000, suggesting that it exists as a dimer since the DNA sequence predicts a M(r) of 30,002. Pure NodO protein had no protease, pectinase, or cellulase activity, and no binding was observed to lipooligosaccharide nodulation factors. Although NodO is relatively hydrophilic, it appeared to insert into liposomes and was protected by liposomes from proteolytic cleavage. When added to planar lipid bilayers, NodO formed cation-selective channels that allowed the movement of monovalent cations (K+ and Na+) across the membrane. NodO is a Ca(2+)-binding protein; in the presence of high concentrations of Ca2+, channel activity was reduced. We hypothesize that NodO plays a role in nodulation signaling by stimulating uptake of nodulation factors or by forming cation-specific channels that function synergistically with the ...
Looking for online definition of rhizobium in the Medical Dictionary? rhizobium explanation free. What is rhizobium? Meaning of rhizobium medical term. What does rhizobium mean?
Symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) can provide an agronomic and economically sustainable alternative to declining soil fertility and high cost of chemical fertilizers faced by smallholder farmers in Kenya. The aim of the study was to identify highly effective indigenous rhizobia for production of commercial bean inoculants and to investigate the influence of bio-char as a soil amendment on the effectiveness of both indigenous Kenyan rhizobia and commercial inoculant in symbiosis with common bean in low fertile soils of Western Kenya. Bioprospecting was conducted in Kenya to collect rhizobia isolates capable of nodulating and fixing N in symbiotic association with common bean. Three hundred and eighty rhizobia isolates were recovered from nodules of wild and cultivated legume hosts growing along a transect of different agro-ecological zones covering about 1045 km transect. These isolates were authenticated and tested for effectiveness on climbing bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) var. Kenya Tamu in ...
The bacterial chromosome may be used to stably maintain foreign DNA in the mega-base range. Integration into the chromosome circumvents issues such as plasmid replication, stability, incompatibility, and copy number variance. The site-specific integrase IntA from Rhizobium etli CFN42 catalyzes a direct recombination between two specific DNA sites: attA and attD (23 bp). This recombination is stable. The aim of this work was to develop a R. etli derivative that may be used as recipient for the integration of foreign DNA in the chromosome, adapting the IntA catalyzed site-specific recombination system. To fulfill our aim, we designed a Rhizobium etli CFN42 derivative, containing a
293990028 - EP 1002868 A1 20000524 - Method to control gene expression in bacteria namely rhyzobiaceae to improve root nodule development nitrogen fixation and plant biomass production - A promintron sequence derived from an intervening sequence of the rolA gene of Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain A4 is described. The sequence is able to drive gene expression within bacteroids in all stages of nodule development in order to obtain, over the developmental time of the nodule, a constitutive expression of the gene(s) of interest. Uses of said sequence, derived vectors and recombinant bacteria are also described. IMAGE [origin: EP1002868A1] A promintron sequence derived from an intervening sequence of the rolA gene of Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain A4 is described. The sequence is able to drive gene expression within bacteroids in all stages of nodule development in order to obtain, over the developmental time of the nodule, a constitutive expression of the gene(s) of interest. Uses of said sequence,
TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification of dominant indigenous Rhizobium meliloti by plasmid profiles and intrinsic antibiotic resistance. AU - Shishido, M.. AU - Pepper, I. L.. PY - 1990. Y1 - 1990. N2 - Yields of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in irrigated production agriculture in the southwest U.S.A. varies widely, but is generally higher than in other areas of the U.S.A. Since nitrogen fertilizer is rarely applied, high yields are likely to be due in part to biological N2 fixation in the symbiotic association between alfalfa and Rhizobium meliloti. Dominant types of R. meliloti responsible for N2 fixation were identified from nodule isolates collected from five locations throughout the state of Arizona, which were not known to have been inoculated. The locations were sampled in the winter of 1987 and the summer of 1988. The dominant types (≥20% nodule occupancy at each sampling site) were identified through plasmid profile analysis and intrinsic antibiotic resistance patterns. Four types were found ...
Two mutant derivatives of Rhizobium leguminosarum ANU843 defective in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were isolated. The LPS of both mutants lacked O antigen and some sugar residues of the LPS core oligosaccharides. Genetic regions previously cloned from another Rhizobium leguminosarum wild-type isolate, strain CFN42, were used to complement these mutants. One mutant was complemented to give LPS that was apparently identical to the LPS of strain ANU843 in antigenicity, electrophoretic mobility, and sugar composition. The other mutant was complemented by a second CFN42 lps genetic region. In this case the resulting LPS contained O-antigen sugars characteristic of donor strain CFN42 and reacted weakly with antiserum against CFN42 cells, but did not react detectably with antiserum against ANU843 cells. Therefore, one of the CFN42 lps genetic regions specifies a function that is conserved between the two R. leguminosarum wild-type isolates, whereas the other region, at least in part, specifies a strain-specific
Rhizobium etli noIL protein: gene from Rhizobium etli determines nodulation efficiency by mediating the acetylation of the fucosyl residue in the nodulation factor of plants; amino acid sequence in first source
See on Scoop.it - Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.caThe flagellotropic phage 7-7-1 infects motile cells of Agrobacterium sp H13-3 by attaching to and traveling along the rotating flagellar filament to the secondary receptor at the base, where it injects its DNA into the host cell. This is an interesting paper, because it describes a…
Rhizobia comprise a group of α- and β-proteobacteria known for their ability to establish symbioses with several leguminous species. The rhizobium-legume interaction, characterized by an exchange of signal molecules from both partners, culminates in the formation of specific structures, called nodules, where biological nitrogen fixation takes place [1-5]. This molecular dialogue begins with the exudation of flavonoids by the host legume roots that are recognized by a LysR-type transcriptional regulator in the bacterium, the NodD protein, which triggers the expression of the so-called nodulation (nod) genes by binding to specific sequences, nod boxes (NB), located upstream of these genes. Their cognate enzymes are implied in the production of lipochitooligosaccharides, also known as Nod factors (NF), which in turns induce the formation of root nodule primordia and play an essential role in the infection process. A part from flavonoids, other rhizobial nod gene inducers have been identified, ...
We have physically and genetically characterized 20 symbiotic and 20 auxotrophic mutants of Rhizobium meliloti, the nitrogen-fixing symbiont of alfalfa (Medicago sativa), isolated by transposon Tn5 mutagenesis. A suicide plasmid mutagenesis procedure was used to generate TN-5-induced mutants, and both auxotrophic and symbiotic mutants were found at a frequency of 0.3% among strains containing random TN5 insertions. Two classes of symbiotic mutants were isolated: 4 of the 20 formed no nodules at all (Nod-), and 16 formed nodules which failed to fix nitrogen (Fix-). We used a combination of physical and genetic criteria to determine that in most cases the auxotrophic and symbiotic phenotypes could be correlated with the insertion of a single Tn5 elements. Once the Tn5 element was inserted into the R. meliloti genome, the frequency of its transposition to a new site was approximately 10-8 and the frequency of precise excision was less than 10-9. In approximately 25% of the mutant strains, phage ...
A gene, cpaA, with similarity to calcium proton antiporters has been identified adjacent to lpcAB in Rhizobium leguminosarum. LpcA is a galactosyl transferase while LpcB is a 2-keto-3-deoxyoctonate transferase, both of which are required to form the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) core in R. leguminosarum. Mutations in lpcAB result in a rough LPS phenotype with a requirement for elevated calcium concentrations to allow growth, suggesting that truncation of the LPS core exposes a highly negatively charged molecule. This is consistent with the LPS core being one of the main sites for binding calcium in the Gram-negative outer membrane. Strain RU1109 (cpaA::Tn5-lacZ) has a normal LPS layer, as measured by silver staining and Western blotting. This indicates that cpaA mutants are not grossly affected in their LPS layer. LacZ fusion analysis indicates that cpaA is constitutively expressed and is not directly regulated by the calcium concentration. Over-expression of cpaA increased the concentration of calcium
44,203-229. , Hirsch, P. , Hooykaas, P J J , and Schilperoort, R. A (1983) A binary plant vector strategy based on separation of vir- and T-region of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens Tr-plasmrd. Nature 303, 179,180. 8. Stachel, S. E and Nester, E W. (1986) The genetic and transcriptional organization of the vir region of the A6 TI plasmid of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. EMBO J. $1445-1454 9. Stachel, S E and Zambryski, P (1986) virA and virG control the plant-induced activation of the T-DNA transfer process of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Biol. Rep. 10, 12-36. &APTER 7 Leaf Disk Transformation Ian S. Curtis, Michael R. Davey, and J. Brian Power 1. Introduction Reliable and efficient methods of transferring cloned genes into plants are essential for engineering crops with desired traits. The Gram-negative soil bacteria, Agrobacterium tumefaciens and A. rhizogenes, are natural genetic engineers, capable of transforming a range of dicotyledonous plants by transferring plasmid-encoded genes into recipient ...
Homologues of the plasmid replicator gene repC were detected and characterized in a sample of Rhizobium leguminosarum strains. Conserved PCR primers were designed from published sequences of repC; they amplified a fragment of about 750 bp from 39 out of 41 strains tested, and also from several Sinorhizobium strains, including S. meliloti. Restriction endonuclease digestion showed that the PCR product from individual strains, though uniform in size, was often heterogeneous in sequence. PCR products from 24 field isolates of R. leguminosarum from France, Germany and the UK were cloned and partially sequenced from both ends. Phylogenies constructed from the 5′ and 3′ ends (200 bp each) were largely congruent and demonstrated four clearly defined groups plus several unique strains. Published Agrobacterium repC sequences fall within the phylogeny of R. leguminosarum sequences, though not within any of the four groups. Specific pairs of PCR primers were designed for each of the four groups; 29 out of 41 R
Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 10:550-559...Melanie J. Barnett 2 and Sharon R. Long 1 , 2...© 1997 The American Phytopathological Society...The Rhizobium meliloti SyrM protein activates transcription of nodD3 and syrA. Regulation of syrM is complex and may involve as yet undiscovered genes. Here we report the isolation of insertion mutants showing increased expression of a syrM-gusA gene fusion. Characterization of one mutant strain, d...
Biological dinitrogen fixation by Rhizobium spp. in the root nodules of leguminous plants such as soybean is of considerable agronomic importance. Biological dinitrogen fixation is ATP- and reductant-dependent; between 12 and 30 mol of ATP are required per mol of dinitrogen reduced [1]. All free-living rhizobia are aerobic although some strains will also grow anaerobically with nitrate as the terminal electron acceptor [2] ; ATP and reductant are generated during the oxidation of an exogenously supplied carbon source. In the bacteroids within the root nodule the exogenous carbon source (photosynthate) is derived from photosynthetic CO₂ fixation by the host plant. The identity of the carbon source(s) oxidised by the bacteroids in vivo has not yet been confirmed although sucrose is the major photosynthetic product translocated to the root nodules [3]. As dinitrogen fixation represents a drain on the photosynthetic supply [4,5] and since the supply of photosynthate is probably one of the major ...
Symbiotic nitrogen fixation of Rhizobia with leguminous crops accounts for 20% of the global nitrogen cycle. Rhizobium inoculation is always needed when certain new leguminous crops are introduced to new areas or regions. In addition to supply nitrogen to leguminous crops, they also spare soil nitrogen to succeeding crops. Thus the legume fixed nitrogen is important in sustaining pulse production.
Putative Rhizobium etli bv. phaseoli IE4803 RM systems. Sequence name: chromosome RetIE4803. GenBank: CP007641 (4,598,466 bp). ...
Bidirectionally degrades single-stranded DNA into large acid-insoluble oligonucleotides, which are then degraded further into small acid-soluble oligonucleotides.
The X-ray crystal structure of the apo-form of the Fur protein from Rhizobium leguminosarum has been solved at 2.7 å resolution. Small-angle X-ray scattering was used to give information on the solution conformation of the protein. The Fur homodimer folds into two domains. The N-terminal domain is formed from the packing of two helix-turn-helix motifs while the C-terminal domain appears primarily to stabilize the dimeric state of the protein. ...
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dead zones. Toxic algae fills these dead zones, taking up oxygen and killing fish and plants in the process.. In charge of the BYU study is Paul Skip Price, a postdoctoral fellow at BYU. He and his team have found that rhizobia bacteria might be the key in allowing plants to process nitrogen naturally, without nitrogen-based fertilizers.. Price said about 80 percent of the atmosphere is nitrogen, but it is in a form that plants cannot use. However, rhizobia and plants can work together to become mutually beneficial, a process known as symbiosis.. By doing this and providing nitrogen naturally, you wont have to add more fertilizers which cause more runoff, Price said.. The objective of Prices study is to discover the types of rhizobia that will work in conjunction with plants.. One of the problems we have now is we dont know what makes a good rhizobia for the soil, Price said. And so thats what were studying, is how to improve the rhizobia for the plant.. Price has discovered that ...
ID C6B1I1_RHILS Unreviewed; 387 AA. AC C6B1I1; DT 01-SEP-2009, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 01-SEP-2009, sequence version 1. DT 08-MAY-2019, entry version 63. DE SubName: Full=Binding-protein-dependent transport systems inner membrane component {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ACS54700.1}; GN OrderedLocusNames=Rleg_0389 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ACS54700.1}; OS Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii (strain WSM1325). OC Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Alphaproteobacteria; Rhizobiales; OC Rhizobiaceae; Rhizobium/Agrobacterium group; Rhizobium. OX NCBI_TaxID=395491 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ACS54700.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000002256}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ACS54700.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000002256} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=WSM1325 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ACS54700.1, RC ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000002256}; RX PubMed=21304718; RA Reeve W., OHara G., Chain P., Ardley J., Brau L., Nandesena K., RA Tiwari R., Copeland A., Nolan M., Han C., Brettin T., Land M., RA Ovchinikova G., Ivanova N., ...
ID C6B1D9_RHILS Unreviewed; 466 AA. AC C6B1D9; DT 01-SEP-2009, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 01-SEP-2009, sequence version 1. DT 07-JUN-2017, entry version 59. DE SubName: Full=ATPase, FliI/YscN family {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ACS54658.1}; DE EC=3.6.3.14 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ACS54658.1}; GN OrderedLocusNames=Rleg_0347 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ACS54658.1}; OS Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii (strain WSM1325). OC Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Alphaproteobacteria; Rhizobiales; OC Rhizobiaceae; Rhizobium/Agrobacterium group; Rhizobium. OX NCBI_TaxID=395491 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ACS54658.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000002256}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ACS54658.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000002256} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=WSM1325 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ACS54658.1, RC ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000002256}; RX PubMed=21304718; RA Reeve W., OHara G., Chain P., Ardley J., Brau L., Nandesena K., RA Tiwari R., Copeland A., Nolan M., Han C., Brettin T., Land M., RA Ovchinikova G., Ivanova N., ...
Lineage: cellular organisms; Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Alphaproteobacteria; Rhizobiales; Rhizobiaceae; Rhizobium/Agrobacterium group; Rhizobium; Rhizobium etli; Rhizobium etli bv. ...
For most of us, our closest encounter with the element fluorine is likely to be our toothpaste or a municipal water supply with added fluoride.. But excess fluorine can be a problem. For example, high levels of fluorine in the soil can hurt plants. Fluorine in soils may also affect microbes and other organisms higher along the food chain.. A new study explored whether soil fluorine levels in New Zealand are high enough to hurt a specific microbe called Rhizobium.. Rhizobium bacteria live in root nodules of legume plants, like beans and lentils. These bacteria fix atmospheric nitrogen, making the nutrients into a form the host plant can use.. Nitrogen fixation by Rhizobia means farmers need to use less nitrogen fertilizer. That can save significant costs.. If soil fluorine levels become high enough to hurt Rhizobia, it could impact the legume crops the bacteria help support.. In addition, pastures for grazing livestock often contain clover, another legume. High fluorine levels could harm ...
You man continents john alexander gilliard 2 she lanatomiste on and focus. Rather, its a trial that will gauge the impact of supporting the custom rom community this way. The advantages of referendums include the direct democratic element of them, the constitutional check they provide on a government, how they stimulate interest and involvement in public policy, provide a single, clear answer to a specific question in a way general elections cannot, and force policy makers to explain their proposals. Nursery stock is dipped in older man younger woman dating site a suspension of commercially prepared agrobacterium radiobacter strain 84 at planting time. Each and every one of us 60s and older senior online dating services is guided by the ideal of true sportsmanship. I hate you and stoned screeching faces maybe thats why they have dreadlocks. Kopp said the concept is where to meet persian singles in ny free suddenly becoming popular in china. There are wiper loose and combined with the usual ...
4KAD: Crystal structure of probable sugar kinase protein from Rhizobium etli CFN 42 complexed with N1-(2.3-dihydro-1H-inden-5-yl)acetam
TY - ABST. T1 - ¤In vivo¤ studies of nitrogen fixation and assimilation in pea-¤Rhizobium¤ nodules by 15N NMR spectroscopy. AU - Scharff, A.M.. AU - Hansen, P.E.. AU - Rosendahl, L.. N1 - Conference code: 3. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. KW - Planteproduktion og stofomsætning. M3 - Conference abstract for conference. T2 - 3rd European Nitrogen Fixation Conference. Y2 - 20 September 1998 through 24 September 1998. ER - ...
Extension of the current 12-month expiry of rhizobial inoculants in Australia to 18 months would have commercial benefits for the manufacturers and resellers. The dilemma, however, is that numbers of rhizobia in the inoculants decline over time and individual cells may lose efficacy. The research undertaken in this study shows the effect of lupin and chickpea inoculant age (i.e. 0, 6, 12, 15 and 18 months old) on numbers of rhizobia, rhizobial cell characteristics and efficacy. For the latter, assessments included colony size on plates, survival on inoculated beads, and infectiveness and effectiveness in field experiments at 3 sites.. Assessment of commercially produced inoculants at the Australian Legume Inoculants Research Unit (ALIRU) laboratory indicated that, on average, chickpea and lupin inoculants had counts of about log10 9.6 when fresh, delivering ,log10 6 rhizobia/seed. At 12 months, the average counts had fallen to log10 9.4, delivering slightly less than log10 6 rhizobia/seed. By 18 ...
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Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 15:350-359...Elizabeth A. Rathbun , Michael J. Naldrett , and Nicholas J. Brewin...© 2002 The American Phytopathological Society...Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae normally gains access to pea host cells through tubular cell wall ingrowths termed infection threads. Matrix glycoprotein (MGP), a major component of the infection thread lumen, is also secreted from the tips of uninoculated roots and can be released into solution...
Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) by plants and its bacterial associations represent an important natural system for capturing atmospheric dinitrogen (N2) and processing it into a reactive form of nitrogen through enzymatic reduction. The study of BNF in non-leguminous plants has been difficult compared to nodule-localized BNF in leguminous plants because of the diverse sites of N2 fixation in non-leguminous plants. Identification of the involved N2-fixing bacteria has also been difficult because the major nitrogen fixers were often lost during isolation attempts. The past 20 years of molecular analyses has led to the identification of N2 fixation sites and active nitrogen fixers in tissues and the rhizosphere of non-leguminous plants. Here, we examined BNF hotspots in six reported non-leguminous plants. Novel rhizobia and methanotrophs were found to be abundantly present in the free-living state at sites where carbon and energy sources were predominantly available. In the carbon-rich apoplasts of
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
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Name: Rhizobium miluonense Gu et al. 2008. Category: Species. Proposed as: sp. nov.. Etymology: mi.lu.o.nense N.L. neut. adj. miluonense, pertaining to the Miluo River, a famous river located in Hunan Province, where the bacterium was isolated Gender: neuter Type strains: CCBAU 41251; DSM 21815; HAMBI 2971; LMG 24208 See detailed strain information at ...
We have identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) for transgenic and adventitious root production using an Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated co-transformati
ID ARLY_AGRVS Reviewed; 467 AA. AC B9JTJ2; DT 28-JUL-2009, integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot. DT 24-MAR-2009, sequence version 1. DT 25-OCT-2017, entry version 54. DE RecName: Full=Argininosuccinate lyase {ECO:0000255,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00006}; DE Short=ASAL {ECO:0000255,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00006}; DE EC=4.3.2.1 {ECO:0000255,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00006}; DE AltName: Full=Arginosuccinase {ECO:0000255,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00006}; GN Name=argH {ECO:0000255,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00006}; GN OrderedLocusNames=Avi_4017; OS Agrobacterium vitis (strain S4 / ATCC BAA-846) (Rhizobium vitis OS (strain S4)). OC Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Alphaproteobacteria; Rhizobiales; OC Rhizobiaceae; Rhizobium/Agrobacterium group; Agrobacterium. OX NCBI_TaxID=311402; RN [1] RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=S4 / ATCC BAA-846; RX PubMed=19251847; DOI=10.1128/JB.01779-08; RA Slater S.C., Goldman B.S., Goodner B., Setubal J.C., Farrand S.K., RA Nester E.W., Burr T.J., Banta L., Dickerman A.W., Paulsen I., RA Otten L., Suen G., ...
Copper effect on photosynthetic performance, symbiotic efficiency and biosorption of rhizobia associated with Horse gram [Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc.]
A sand pouch-plant infection technique for counting most probable numbers of rhizobia in soil is described. Populations of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifoli detected by the plant infection method performed in enclosed glass tubes or in sand pouches did not differ significantly. The described method was used to assess numbers of R. leguminosarum bv. trifoli (R.l.t.) and bv. viciae (R.l.v.) in 20 ...
A sand pouch-plant infection technique for counting most probable numbers of rhizobia in soil is described. Populations of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifoli detected by the plant infection method performed in enclosed glass tubes or in sand pouches did not differ significantly. The described method was used to assess numbers of R. leguminosarum bv. trifoli (R.l.t.) and bv. viciae (R.l.v.) in 20 ...
The rhizobia and their hosts must be able to recognize each other for nodule formation to commence. Rhizobia are specific to ... These bacteria, known as rhizobia, have the ability to take nitrogen gas (N2) out of the air and convert it to a form of ... It is found in the majority of its members that only form an association with rhizobia, which in turn form an exclusive ... The legume, acting as a host, and rhizobia, acting as a provider of usable nitrate, form a symbiotic relationship. Members of ...
If rhizobia are present, root nodulation begins by the time the third node appears. Nodulation typically continues for 8 weeks ... Rhizobium japonicum; Jordan 1982). This ability to fix nitrogen allows farmers to reduce nitrogen fertilizer use and increase ... Like many legumes, soybeans can fix atmospheric nitrogen, due to the presence of symbiotic bacteria from the Rhizobia group. ...
Raina JL, Modi VV (1972). "Deoxyribonucleate binding and transformation in Rhizobium jpaonicum". J. Bacteriol. 111 (2): 356-60 ... Rhizobium spp.), endosymbionts of arthropods (Wolbachia) and intracellular pathogens (e.g. Rickettsia). Moreover, the class ... A species of technological interest is Rhizobium radiobacter (formerly Agrobacterium tumefaciens): scientists often use this ...
myxogenes) cyclosophorans (Agrobacterium spp., Rhizobium spp. and Xanthomonas spp.) dextran (Leuconostoc mesenteroides, ... Produced by Rhizobia and their Functions in Legume-Bacteria Symbiosis: - A Review". Achievements in the Life Sciences. 10 (2): ... Produced by Rhizobia and their Functions in Legume-Bacteria Symbiosis: - A Review". Achievements in the Life Sciences. 10 (2): ... Rhizobium spp. and Zooglea' spp.) galactosaminogalactan (Aspergillus spp.) gellan (Aureomonas elodea and Sphingomonas ...
Chen WX, Yan GH, Li JL (1988). "Numerical taxonomic study of fast-growing soybean rhizobia and a proposal that Rhizobium fredii ... February 9, 2013). "Rhizobium: Writing about bacteria and their genomes". WordPress. Wang ET, Tan ZY, Willems A, Fernández- ... Wei GH, Wang ET, Tan ZY, Zhu ME, Chen WX (November 2002). "Rhizobium indigoferae sp. nov. and Sinorhizobium kummerowiae sp. nov ... Rincón-Rosales R, Lloret L, Ponce E, Martínez-Romero E (January 2009). "Rhizobia with different symbiotic efficiencies nodulate ...
In some rhizobia, the nif genes are located on plasmids called 'sym plasmids' (sym = symbiosis) which contain genes related to ... Rhizobium spp.-Gram-negative, symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacteria that usually form a symbiotic relationship with legume species ... The first Rhizobium genes for nitrogen fixation (nif) and for nodulation (nod) were cloned in the early 1980s by Gary Ruvkun ...
31 July 2014). "Rhizobium smilacinae sp. nov., an endophytic bacterium isolated from the leaf of Smilacina japonica". Antonie ... Wang, E. T.; van Berkum, P.; Beyene, D.; Sui, X. H.; Dorado, O.; Chen, W. X.; Martinez-Romero, E. (1998). "Rhizobium huautlense ... nov., a symbiont of Sesbania herbacea that has a close phylogenetic relationship with Rhizobium galegae". International Journal ... "Rhizobium huautlense" at the Encyclopedia of Life LPSN v t e. ... "Molecular systematics of rhizobia based on maximum likelihood ...
Amarger, N.; Macheret, V.; Laguerre, G. (1997). "Rhizobium gallicum sp. nov. and Rhizobium giardinii sp. nov., from Phaseolus ... Beyhaut, Elena; Tlusty, Becki; van Berkum, Peter; Graham, Peter H (2006). "Rhizobium giardinii is the microsymbiont of Illinois ... Mhamdi, R (2002). "Different species and symbiotic genotypes of field rhizobia can nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris in Tunisian ... "A new taxonomic marker of nodule bacteria of the Rhizobium genus and its evolution". Russian Journal of Genetics: Applied ...
... and Rhizobium sp. The Indole test is one of the four tests of the IMViC series, which tests for evidence of an enteric ...
and Krsmanovi-Simic D, Werquin M (1973). "Etude des bactériophages de Rhizobium meliloti" [Study of bacteriophages of Rhizobium ... Krsmanovi-Simic D, Werquin M (1977). "Etude des bactériophages de Rhizobium meliloti" [Study of bacteriophages of Rhizobium ... interacts with the free oxygen in the root nodule where the rhizobia reside. Rhizobia are contained within symbiosomes in the ... The rhizobia then penetrate the root hairs and proliferate to form an infection thread. Through the infection thread, the ...
Sadowsky MJ, Cregan PB, Keyser HH (August 1988). "Nodulation and Nitrogen Fixation Efficacy of Rhizobium fredii with Phaseolus ... Balatti PA, Pueppke SG (December 1990). "Cultivar-Specific Interactions of Soybean with Rhizobium fredii Are Regulated by the ... Forsberg LS, Reuhs BL (September 1997). "Structural characterization of the K antigens from Rhizobium fredii USDA257: evidence ... Yamakawa, Takeo; Shirai, Teiko; Ishizuka, Junji (2000). "Effects of symbiosis with Rhizobium fredii on transport of fixed ...
Ren DW, Wang ET, Chen WF, Sui XH, Zhang XX, Liu HC, Chen WX (2011). "Rhizobium herbae sp. nov. and Rhizobium giardinii-related ... Amarger N, Macheret V, Laguerre G (1997). "Rhizobium gallicum sp. nov. and Rhizobium giardinii sp. nov., from Phaseolus ... It has been segregated from the genus Rhizobium. Pararhizobium forms an endosymbiotic nitrogen-fixing association with roots of ...
... the Rhizobium nodulation protein; and the Pseudomonas FusA protein, which is involved in resistance to fusaric acid. Johnson JM ...
Beringer JE, Brewin N, Johnston AW, Schulman HM, Hopwood DA (1979). "The Rhizobium--legume symbiosis". Proc R Soc Lond B Biol ...
Rhizobium sp., or Streptomyces) are presented with chlorinated phenolic compounds, which they then convert into chlorinated ...
Rhizobium sp., or Streptomyces) are presented with brominated phenolic compounds, which they then convert into bromoanisole ...
Acacia cyanophylla & Rhizobium (in French). ...
"Transfer of Rhizobium loti, Rhizobium huakuii, Rhizobium ciceri, Rhizobium mediterraneum, and Rhizobium tianshanense to ... Chen, W.; Wang, E.; Wang, S.; Li, Y.; Chen, X.; Li, Y. (1995). "Characteristics of Rhizobium tianshanense sp. nov., a ... Mesorhizobium tianshanense, formerly known as Rhizobium tianshanense, is a Gram negative species of bacteria found in the root ... "Biodiversity of populations of phosphate solubilizing rhizobia that nodulates chickpea in different Spanish soils". ...
... her Master's and PhD research focused on understanding survival of cowpea rhizobia and tolerance of bean rhizobia to low pH ... "Acid pH tolerance in strains of Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium, and initial studies on the basis for acid tolerance of Rhizobium ... "Acid pH tolerance in strains of Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium, and initial studies on the basis for acid tolerance of Rhizobium ... Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) "Examining growth and survival of cowpea rhizobia in Jamaican peat , Request PDF". ...
"Rhizobium lupini Taxon Passport - StrainInfo". www.straininfo.net. Mateos, Pedro F.; Velázquez, Encarna; Igual, José M.; ... "Revision of the taxonomic status of the species Rhizobium lupini and reclassification as Bradyrhizobium lupini comb. nov". ...
... inhibitive strains of Rhizobia and to the inoculant product comprising a mixture of mutually non-inhibitive strains of Rhizobia ... These bacteria include six species of the genus Rhizobium. No one species works with all species of leguminous plants, but each ... Thus, he was able to provide a mixed culture of Rhizobia capable of inoculating plants belonging to several groups. Kalo ... But once nature's secret of the noninhibitive quality of certain strains of the species of Rhizobium was discovered, the state ...
Tolmasky, M.E.; Staneloni, R.J.; Ugalde, R.A.; Leloir, L.F. (August 1980). "Lipid-bound sugars in Rhizobium melilotii". ... "Structural correspondence between an oligosaccharide bound to a lipid with the repeating unit of the Rhizobium meliloti". ...
It is produced by these plants in response to the roots being colonized by nitrogen-fixing bacteria, termed rhizobia, as part ... In plants colonised by Rhizobium, such as alfalfa or soybeans, the presence of oxygen in the root nodules would reduce the ... In: Hansen A., Choudhary D., Agrawal P., Varma A. (eds) Rhizobium Biology and Biotechnology. Soil Biology, vol 50. Springer, ... doi:10.1104/pp.125.2.641 Ludwig RA, de Vries GE (1986). "Biochemical physiology of Rhizobium dinitrogen fixation". In Broughton ...
suhB Young JM, Kuykendall LD, Martínez-Romero E, Kerr A, Sawada H (January 2001). "A revision of Rhizobium Frank 1889, with an ... Homologues of this protein can be found in other rhizobia. Currently, there are several reports on standardisation of protocol ... 1998 as new combinations: Rhizobium radiobacter, R. rhizogenes, R. rubi, R. undicola and R. vitis". International Journal of ... "Rhizobium radiobacter (Agrobacterium tumefaciens) (Agrobacterium radiobacter)". UniProt Taxonomy. Archived from the original on ...
"Transfer of Rhizobium loti, Rhizobium huakuii, Rhizobium ciceri, Rhizobium mediterraneum, and Rhizobium tianshanense to ... Rhizobium galegae Jarvis, B. D. W.; Van Berkum, P.; Chen, W. X.; Nour, S. M.; Fernandez, M. P.; Cleyet-Marel, J. C.; Gillis, M ... Mesorhizobium loti, formerly known as Rhizobium loti, is a Gram negative species of bacteria found in the root nodules of many ... Jarvis, B. D. W.; Pankhurst, C. E.; Patel, J. J. (1982). "Rhizobium loti, a New Species of Legume Root Nodule Bacteria". ...
Some rhizobia are known to produce rhizomimosinase, which consumes pyridoxal 5′-phosphate to degrade mimosine into 3,4 ... from Rhizobium sp. strain TAL1145 is a C-N lyase that catabolizes L-mimosine into 3-hydroxy-4-pyridone, pyruvate, and ammonia ...
The enzyme occurs in Rhizobium bacteria. There are three components to its action: a molybdenum atom at the active site, iron- ...
Rhizobium: Symbiotic nitrogen fixation by Rhizobium with legumes contribute substantially to total nitrogen fixation. Rhizobium ... Biofertilizers such as Rhizobium, Azotobacter, Azospirilium and blue green algae (BGA) have been in use a long time. Rhizobium ...
Young JM, Kuykendall LD, Martínez-Romero E, Kerr A, Sawada H (January 2001). "A revision of Rhizobium Frank 1889, with an ... 1998 as new combinations: Rhizobium radiobacter, R. rhizogenes, R. rubi, R. undicola and R. vitis". International Journal of ... Lay summary - Phys.org (April 21, 2015). Current taxonomy of Agrobacterium species, and new Rhizobium names Agrobacteria is ... but most species have been controversially reclassified as Rhizobium species. Agrobacterium tumefaciens causes crown-gall ...
The rhizobia, which fix nitrogen and are symbiotic with plant roots, appear in several different families. The four families ... Genus Rhizobium, a highly divergent genus in a revised family, the Rhizobiaceae. In: Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology ... Examples are the genera Bradyrhizobium and Rhizobium. Species of the Methylocystaceae are methanotrophs; they use methanol ( ... Raina JL, Modi VV (1972). "Deoxyribonucleate binding and transformation in Rhizobium japonicum". J. Bacteriol. 111 (2): 356-60 ...
2011 Rhizobium alamii Berge et al. 2009 Rhizobium altiplani Baraúna et al. 2016 Rhizobium alvei Sheu et al. 2015 Rhizobium ... 2008 Rhizobium smilacinae Zhang et al. 2014 Rhizobium soli Yoon et al. 2010 Rhizobium sophorae Jiao et al. 2014 Rhizobium ... 1991 Rhizobium tubonense Zhang et al. 2011 Rhizobium vallis Wang et all. 2011 Rhizobium yanglingense Tan et al. 2001 Rhizobium ... 2015 Rhizobium calliandrae Rincón-Rosales et al. 2013 Rhizobium capsici Lin et al. 2015 Rhizobium cauense Liu et al. 2015 ...
Rhizobium rhizogenes (formerly Agrobacterium rhizogenes) is a Gram-negative soil bacterium that produces hairy root disease in ... Young JM, Kuykendall LD, Martínez-Romero E, Kerr A, Sawada H (2001). "A revision of Rhizobium Frank 1889, with an emended ... 1998 as new combinations: Rhizobium radiobacter, R. rhizogenes, R. rubi, R. undicola, and R. vitis". Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ...
nov., Rhizobium bangladeshense sp. nov. And Rhizobium binae sp. nov. From lentil (Lens culinaris) nodules". International ... Rhizobium lentis is a gram-negative bacterium which was isolated from root nodules of lentils in Bangladesh. R. lentis are rod- ... Rashid, M.H., Gonzalez, H., Young, J.P.W., and Wink, M. (2014) Rhizobium leguminosarum is the symbiont of lentil in the Middle ... R. lentis is genetically very closely related to the related species Rhizobium etli and Rhizobum phaseoli. The GC-content of ...
... whereas species of Rhizobium live in an intimate association with leguminous plants. Rhizobium organisms in the soil recognize ... Other articles where Rhizobium is discussed: bacteria: Distribution in nature: …are free-living, ... are free-living, whereas species of Rhizobium live in an intimate association with leguminous plants. Rhizobium organisms in ... symbiosis) between legumes and Rhizobium bacteria, nitrogen gas (N2) is fixed into a compound and then becomes available to the ...
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Rhizobium is a genus of Gram-negative soil bacteria that fix nitrogen. Rhizobium species form an endosymbiotic nitrogen-fixing ... Amarger N, Macheret V, Laguerre G (1997). "Rhizobium gallicum sp. nov. and Rhizobium giardinii sp. nov., from Phaseolus ... Current research on Rhizobium leguminosarum at the Norwich Research Park. *Video and commentary on root nodules and Rhizobium ... This mutually beneficial relationship is true of all of the rhizobia, of which the genus Rhizobium is a typical example. ...
Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii SRDI943 Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii SRDI943. Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii ... Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Alphaproteobacteria; Rhizobiales; Rhizobiaceae; Rhizobium/Agrobacterium group; Rhizobium; Rhizobium ... Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii SRDI943 Genome sequencing and assembly. See Genome Information for Rhizobium leguminosarum ... 2517093000: Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii SRDI943 [Integrated Microbial Genomes] 2517093000: Rhizobium leguminosarum bv ...
Silva, C.; Vinuesa, P.; Eguiarte, L. E.; Martinez-Romero, E.; Souza, V. (2003). "Rhizobium etli and Rhizobium gallicum Nodulate ... Amarger, N.; Macheret, V.; Laguerre, G. (1997). "Rhizobium gallicum sp. nov. and Rhizobium giardinii sp. nov., from Phaseolus ... Shamseldin, Abdelaal; Werner, Dietrich (2006). "Presence of Rhizobium Etli bv. Phaseoli and Rhizobium Gallicum bv. Gallicum in ... Rhizobium gallicum is a Gram-negative root-nodule bacterium. It forms nitrogen-fixing root nodules on legumes, being first ...
A bacteria and soil preparation for mixing with leguminous seed before planting to obtain nodule formation and nitrogen fixation. Works well with clover and alfalfa seed (not included). Shipped as a 6-oz package containing enough inoculum for 50 to 60 lb of seed. For seed, order item# 158282 Alfalfa...
Rhizobium meliloti (Ensifer meliloti) (Sinorhizobium meliloti)Imported. Automatic assertion inferred from database entriesi ... tr,Q9Z3P9,Q9Z3P9_RHIML Uncharacterized protein (Fragment) OS=Rhizobium meliloti OX=382 PE=4 SV=1 ...
... legume/Rhizobium.. [Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.;] ... Rhizobium. a schema:Intangible ;. schema:name "Rhizobium"@fr ;. .. ... schema:name "Technical handbook on symbiotic nitrogen fixation : legume/Rhizobium."@en ;. schema:productID "32971292" ;. schema ... Technical handbook on symbiotic nitrogen fixation : legume/Rhizobium.. Author:. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United ...
Martínez, C.R., Netto, A.M., Figueiredo, M.V. et al. Kinetic sedimentation of Rhizobium-aggregates produced by leguminous ... Kinetic sedimentation of Rhizobium-aggregates produced by leguminous lectins. *Cosme R. Martínez. 1. , ... J.W. Kijne M.A. Bauchrowitz C.L. Diaz (1997) ArticleTitleRoot lectins and rhizobia Plant Physiology 115 869-873 ... R.W. Carlson B. Reuhs T.-B. Chen U.R. Bhat K.D. Noel (1995) ArticleTitleLipopolysaccharide core structures in Rhizobium etli ...
In most legumes, the rhizobia infect post-mitotic cells that have lost their ability to divide, although in some nodules cells ... and the cytoskeletal dynamics and symbiosome segregation during the division of rhizobia-infected cells. Different degrees of ... Editorial: Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of the Legume-Rhizobia Symbiosis From www. .frontiersin. .org - January 10, 7:56 ... In mature nodules, rhizobia convert inert atmospheric N2 into ammonia (NH3), essential for plant growth. In return, bacteria ...
Rhizobium fredii (Sinorhizobium fredii)Imported. Automatic assertion inferred from database entriesi ... tr,P72274,P72274_RHIFR HrcQ protein OS=Rhizobium fredii OX=380 GN=hrcQ PE=3 SV=1 ...
Genomic DNA from Rhizobium etli strain CFN42 TypeStrain=True Application: ... Rhizobium etli Segovia et al. (ATCC® 51251D-5™) Strain Designations: Genomic DNA from Rhizobium etli strain CFN42 [ATCC® 51251 ... Nucleotide (GenBank) : CP000133 Rhizobium etli CFN 42, complete genome. Nucleotide (GenBank) : AY752742 Rhizobium etli strain ... Rhizobium etli Segovia et al. ATCC® 51251D-5™ dried Total DNA: At least 5 µg in 1X TE buffer.. OD260/OD280: 1.6 to 2.0 ...
... Author(s). Meade, Harry Melvin ...
Nucleotide excision repair - Rhizobium tropici [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway entry , Download KGML , Show ...
NORRIS, D. O. Techniques used in work Rhizobium. In: SOME concepts and methods in subtropical pasture research. England, ... 4. DADARWAL, K.R.; SINGH, C.S.; SUBBA RAO, N.S. Nodulation and serological studies of rhizobia from six species of Arachis. ... 8. __________; LOVADINI, L. C. A.; MIYASAKA, S.; IGUE, T.; GIARDINI, A. R. Seleção de estirpes de Rhizobium spp. para amendoim ... 7. __________; GIARDINI, A. R.; KIIHL, R. A. S.; IGUE, T. Especificidade hospedeira e pré-seleção de estirpes de Rhizobium ...
Rhizobia were grown on TA (S. meliloti strains) (1% tryptone/0.1% yeast extract/0.5% NaCl/0.2% MgSO 4 ·7H 2 O/0.03%, CaCl 2 ·2H ... The DNA content and size of cultured rhizobia and bacteroids were measured by flow cytometry (Fig. 1 B). Compared with the 1C/ ... Using recombinant Rhizobium strains nodulating both legume types, we show that bacteroid differentiation is controlled by the ... Simultaneously, the rhizobia enter the host plant via the root hairs through the formation of tubular structures called ...
When Southern blots containing genomic DNA obtained from alfalfa, clover, Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii, and Rhizobium ... we were unable to detect PG-related sequences in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii and Rhizobium meliloti. ... The expression of MsPG3 in all roots inoculated with the strain ZB138 could be caused by a specific response to the Rhizobium ... These data strongly suggest that the MsPG3 gene is the gene expressed in nodules and Rhizobium-inoculated roots in alfalfa. To ...
In the Rhizobium-plant relationship, the plant provides carbohydrates to the Rhizobium species while the Rhizobium provides ... Evolution of Rhizobium species. There are evidences suggesting that Rhizobium bacteria acquired their symbiotic capabilities ... Genome sequence of the beta-rhizobium Cupriavidus taiwanensis and comparative genomics of rhizobia. Genome Res. 18:1472-1483. ... To sum up, Rhizobium organisms do not have a common ancestor and the symbiotic characteristic can be transferred from one ...
The Rhizobium bacteria must encounter the right legume (Rhizobium can only infect legumes, i.e. clover, beans, peas, etc.) *The ... The best way to inoculate plants with Rhizobium Leguminosarum is to purchase an inoculum and coat the seeds with it. *Rhizobium ... A. Inoculate pea seeds with Rhizobium Leguminosarum. 1. Purchase Rhizobium inoculum. 2. Soak 192 pea seeds in water for 5 ... As our research paper explains, Rhizobium Leguminosarum is a nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Bacteria of the Rhizobia classification ...
Rhizobia comprise a wide group of soil-dwelling bacteria that have the ability of establishing nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with ... carried out in the last century allowed the identification of key players in the early recognition between Rhizobia and their ... Topic addresses the molecular bases underlying the mutual recognition that takes place at early stages of the Rhizobium-legume ... Rhizobia comprise a wide group of soil-dwelling bacteria that have the ability of establishing nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with ...
Non-homologous end-joining - Rhizobium tropici [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway entry , Download KGML , Show ...
A family of activator genes regulates expression of Rhizobium meliloti nodulation genes.. J T Mulligan and S R Long ... A family of activator genes regulates expression of Rhizobium meliloti nodulation genes.. J T Mulligan and S R Long ... A family of activator genes regulates expression of Rhizobium meliloti nodulation genes.. J T Mulligan and S R Long ... Nodulation (nod) gene expression in Rhizobium meliloti requires plant inducers and the activating protein product of the nodD ...
Intergeneric transfer of genes involved in the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis. By PE Bishop, FB Dazzo, ER Appelbaum, RJ Maier, WJ ... Intergeneric transfer of genes involved in the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis. By PE Bishop, FB Dazzo, ER Appelbaum, RJ Maier, WJ ... Intergeneric transfer of genes involved in the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ... Genes that seem to be involved in the initial steps of infection of a legume by Rhizobium have been transferred, by ...
We previously described a Tn5 mutant of Rhizobium etli strain CE3, designated CE3003, that is decreased in nodulation ... rosR, a Determinant of Nodulation Competitiveness in Rhizobium etli. March 1997 , Volume 10 , Number 2. Pages 180 - 186. ... We previously described a Tn5 mutant of Rhizobium etli strain CE3, designated CE3003, that is decreased in nodulation ... identical to that of the Ros protein from Agrobacterium tumefaciens and the MucR protein from Rhizobium meliloti. Both Ros and ...
Genomic DNA from Rhizobium vitis strain S4 TypeStrain=False Application: ... Rhizobium vitis (Ophel and Kerr) Young et al. (ATCC® BAA-846D™) Strain Designations: Genomic DNA from Rhizobium vitis strain S4 ... Genomic DNA from Rhizobium vitis strain S4 [ATCC® BAA-846™] Biosafety Level 1 Biosafety classification is based on U.S. Public ... Rhizobium vitis (Ophel and Kerr) Young et al. ATCC® BAA-846D™ dried Total DNA: 10 µg ...
Rhizobium gone native: unexpected plasmid stability of indigenous Rhizobium leguminosarum.. Authors. Wernegreen JJ, Harding EE ... Rhizobium gone native: unexpected plasmid stability of indigenous Rhizobium leguminosarum.. *Role of bacteriocins in mediating ... Home » About the Lab » Research » Publications » Rhizobium gone native: unexpected plasmid stability of indigenous Rhizobium ... To this end, Rhizobium leguminosarum strains nodulating sympatric species of native Trifolium were characterized genetically at ...
THE STIMULATIVE ACTION OF YEAST EXTRACT IN THE RESPIRATION OF RHIZOBIUM Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ...
  • symbiosis) between legumes and Rhizobium bacteria, nitrogen gas (N 2 ) is fixed into a compound and then becomes available to the biotic world. (britannica.com)
  • 6. __________ . Ecology of legume- Rhizobium symbiosis. (scielo.br)
  • Symbiosis between legumes and Rhizobium bacteria leads to the formation of root nodules where bacteria in the infected plant cells are converted into nitrogen-fixing bacteroids. (pnas.org)
  • This is one of the major causes of the generally pronounced host specificity in Rhizobium -legume symbiosis. (pnas.org)
  • MsPG3 represents a class of PG genes, distinct from the pollen-specific genes, and it is the first pectic encoded enzyme demonstrated to be involved in Rhizobium -legume symbiosis. (pnas.org)
  • Rhizobia comprise a wide group of soil-dwelling bacteria that have the ability of establishing nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with leguminous plants through a specific interaction. (frontiersin.org)
  • Especially important for the establishment of a compatible Rhizobium-legume symbiosis is the control of plant innate immunity by mechanisms that are not fully understood. (frontiersin.org)
  • To this end, Rhizobium leguminosarum strains nodulating sympatric species of native Trifolium were characterized genetically at plasmid-encoded symbiotic (sym) regions (nodulation AB and nodulation CIJT loci) and a repeated chromosomal locus not involved in the symbiosis with legumes. (umass.edu)
  • Bacterial indoleacetic acid (IAA) production, which has been proposed to play a role in the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis, is a poorly understood process. (asm.org)
  • The Rhizobium-plant symbiosis. (asm.org)
  • To establish this symbiosis, signals are produced early in the interaction between plant and rhizobia and they elicit discrete responses by the two symbiotic partners. (asm.org)
  • With this background, this review aims to highlight the involvement of ROS, and their possible interactions with nitric oxide (NO) and glutathione (GSH) in the symbiosis between rhizobia and leguminous plants. (springer.com)
  • Bueno P, Soto MJ, Rodriguez-Rosales MP, Sanjuan J, Olivares J, Donaire JP (2001) Time-course of lipoxygenase, antioxidant enzyme activities and H2O2 accumulation during early stages of Rhizobium legume symbiosis. (springer.com)
  • TY - JOUR UR - http://lib.ugent.be/catalog/pug01:298722 ID - pug01:298722 LA - eng TI - Rhizobium infection: lessons from the versatile nodulation behaviour of water-tolerant legumes PY - 2004 JO - (2004) TRENDS IN PLANT SCIENCE SN - 1360-1385 PB - 2004 AU - Goormachtig, Sofie AU - Capoen, Ward AU - Holsters, Marcella AB - Water-tolerant legumes provide bacteria with special ways of invading roots to establish N-2-fixing symbiosis upon flooding. (ugent.be)
  • The symbiosis between legumes and N 2 -fixing bacteria (rhizobia) is of huge agronomic benefit, allowing many crops to be grown without N fertilizer. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Rhizobia infect the roots of leguminous plants and establish a mutually beneficial symbiosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • While the general features of this signal exchange are common to all rhizobia-plant symbioses, differences in the signalling molecules allow only certain bacterium-plant combinations to lead to a successful symbiosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Lateral gene transfer of specific symbiosis genes within rhizobial genera is an important mechanism allowing legumes to form symbioses with rhizobia adapted to particular soils. (lincoln.ac.nz)
  • It can be suggested that the tripartite symbiosis of Rhizobium, AM and Lucerne can improve the performance of Lucerne in organic farming and under dry conditions. (thescipub.com)
  • Rhizobium species form an endosymbiotic nitrogen-fixing association with roots of legumes and Parasponia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rhizobium forms a symbiotic relationship with certain plants such as legumes, fixing nitrogen from the air into ammonia, which acts as a natural fertilizer for the plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • The symbiotic relationship between Rhizobium and the plant, which takes place in root nodules and "fixes" atmospheric nitrogen into compounds useful to the plant, is most strongly developed in Papilionoideae legumes. (britannica.com)
  • In most legumes, the rhizobia infect post-mitotic cells that have lost their ability to divide, although in some nodules cells do maintain their mitotic capacity after infection. (scoop.it)
  • An experiment was carried out in Leonard jars, in the greenhouse, with nitrogen-free nutrient solution to test the efficiency of 35 strains of rhizobia isolated from 15 species of tropical legumes. (scielo.br)
  • Legumes plants have overcome this problem by incorporating nitrogen fixing bacteria, Rhizobium, inside their legumes. (kenyon.edu)
  • During the nodulation process, both Rhizobia and legumes plant interact closely. (kenyon.edu)
  • A group of ubiquitous and diverse molecules called Flavonoids are among the chemicals that facilitate the interactions between Rhizobia and legumes plant. (kenyon.edu)
  • Another Important chemical group that facilitates the close interaction of Rhizobia and legumes is Lipochitooligosaccharides, which are made from Beta-1,4 N-acetyl-D-glucosamine attached to a fatty acyl chain. (kenyon.edu)
  • Soil improvement with legumes, 5A) The Rhizobium combine this hydrogen with the atmospheric nitrogen in the conversion process. (webring.com)
  • The Rhizobium bacteria must encounter the right legume (Rhizobium can only infect legumes, i.e. clover, beans, peas, etc. (webring.com)
  • To explore the role of lateral transfer in the evolution of bacterial systems not under intensive, human-mediated selection, we examined the association of genotypes at plasmid-encoded and chromosomal loci of native Rhizobium, the nitrogen-fixing symbiont of legumes. (umass.edu)
  • Phytohormones, Rhizobium mutants, and nodulation in legumes. (springer.com)
  • Badenoch-Jones J, Rolfe BG, Letham DS (1983) Phytohormones, Rhizobium mutants and nodulation in legumes. (springer.com)
  • Rhizobia invade by a complex process of recognition and infection the roots of legumes inducing the cortex cells to remeristematisize and to build a new anatomically well-defined structure, the root nodule. (springer.com)
  • Nitrogen fixation in legumes takes place in highly specialized root organs (nodules) that result from the association between the host plant and endosymbiotic soil bacteria known as rhizobia. (plantcell.org)
  • Nitrogen fixation in legumes by rhizobia bacteria can be maximized through inoculation, which may improve yield potential. (fontanelle.com)
  • Though legumes are the only plants that use rhizobia for their nitrogen fixing needs, 90% of land plants have been using part of the same signaling pathway for the past 460 million years to get help from arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in obtaining phosphate and water from the soil, he said. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 2004. "Rhizobium Infection: Lessons from the Versatile Nodulation Behaviour of Water-tolerant Legumes. (ugent.be)
  • Goormachtig S, Capoen W, Holsters M. Rhizobium infection: lessons from the versatile nodulation behaviour of water-tolerant legumes. (ugent.be)
  • Rhizobium leguminosarum is an α-proteobacterial N 2 -fixing symbiont of legumes that has been the subject of more than a thousand publications. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition to the signaling pathway outlined above, legumes have many genes required to enable rhizobia to infect the roots. (plantphysiol.org)
  • as reviewed and genotypically characterised rhizobia related to the taxonomy of the legumes from which they were isolated. (lincoln.ac.nz)
  • SNF is carried out by the endosymbiosis between legumes and diazotrophic bacteria called rhizobia ( van Rhijn and Vanderleyden, 1995 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • Most legumes associate with a specific strain of rhizobia that maximizes nitrogen fixation. (goldcountryseed.com)
  • What these pioneers of agriculture did not know was that the rejuvenating effect that legumes seemed to have on the soil was due to bacteria living in their roots, the organisms that we now know as Rhizobium . (fieldofscience.com)
  • By reverse transcription-PCR, MsPG3 expression was detected in roots 1 day after Rhizobium inoculation. (pnas.org)
  • Inoculation offers selected rhizobia strains to help maximize nitrogen fixation and yield potential. (fontanelle.com)
  • Effect of Rhizobium Inoculation and Supplementation with Phosphorus and Potassium on Growth and Total Leaf Chlorophyll (Chl) Content of Bush Bean Phaseolus vulgaris, L. (scirp.org)
  • The study was conducted to investigate the effect of Rhizobium inoculation and supplementation of phosphorus and potassium on growth and total leaf chlorophyll content to the three released bush bean varieties in northern Tanzania. (scirp.org)
  • Mfilinge, A. , Mtei, K. and Ndakidemi, P. (2014) Effect of Rhizobium Inoculation and Supplementation with Phosphorus and Potassium on Growth and Total Leaf Chlorophyll (Chl) Content of Bush Bean Phaseolus vulgaris , L.. Agricultural Sciences , 5 , 1413-1426. (scirp.org)
  • Vargas, M.A., Mendes, I.C. and Hungria, M. (2000) Response of Field-Grown Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to Rhizobium Inoculation and Nitrogen Fertilization in Two Cerrados Soils. (scirp.org)
  • We recently found that rhizobia inoculation enhances soybean tolerance to salt stress, but the underlying mechanisms are unaddressed. (mcponline.org)
  • Here, we used quantitative phosphoproteomic and metabonomic approaches to identify changes in phosphoproteins and metabolites in soybean roots treated with rhizobia inoculation and salt. (mcponline.org)
  • In mixed strain inoculation experiments using five peanut Rhizobium strains, the ELISA technique was employed to determine which strains were present in the nodules formed. (brillonline.com)
  • It is concluded that the co-inoculation with rhizobia and PGPR containing ACC-deaminase has improved the growth and nodulation in lentil under axenic conditions and the selected combinations may be evaluated in pot and field trials. (ebscohost.com)
  • Upon inoculation in a gnotobiotic system, Rhizobium spp. (uni-koeln.de)
  • The factor in study was: the agronomic evaluation of the Rhizobium with inoculation and fertilization nitrogenada in a Dutch clover pasture (Trifolium repens) and perennial Ryegrass (perennial Lolium) in the high area of Cangahua. (ups.edu.ec)
  • Results showed that increasing water deficit affected root dry weigh, specific root mass and root length significantly at 1% level and co-inoculation of rhizobium and mycorrhiza with irrigation increased all root parameters. (thescipub.com)
  • A confusing result is that Agrobacterium tumefaciens, now Rhizobium radiobacter, remains as the type species of Agrobacterium. (wikipedia.org)
  • R. lentis is genetically very closely related to the related species Rhizobium etli and Rhizobum phaseoli. (wikipedia.org)
  • A revision of Rhizobium Frank 1889, with an emended description of the genus, and the inclusion of all species of Agrobacterium Conn 1942 and Allorhizobium undicola de Lajudie et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • are free-living, whereas species of Rhizobium live in an intimate association with leguminous plants. (britannica.com)
  • For the generic term that includes species in other genera, see Rhizobia . (wikipedia.org)
  • SUBBA RAO, N.S. Nodulation and serological studies of rhizobia from six species of Arachis . (scielo.br)
  • In the Rhizobium-plant relationship, the plant provides carbohydrates to the Rhizobium species while the Rhizobium provides fixed Nitrogen for the plant. (kenyon.edu)
  • The ecological habitat of Rhizobia species varies from Arid deserts (Zahran 1999) to Tropical rainforests (Woomer et. (kenyon.edu)
  • 1988). Many different factors affect the growth of Rhizobium species, such as pH of soil, soil temperature (Woomer et. (kenyon.edu)
  • 2008). As these factors differ based on geography, various species of rhizobium have evolved appropriately. (kenyon.edu)
  • The aim of this paper is to review the compounds involved in nodulation and the evolution of Rhizobium species. (kenyon.edu)
  • In addition, a nonrandom distribution of Rhizobium genotypes across host plant species and sampling site demonstrates the importance of both factors in shaping Rhizobium population dynamics. (umass.edu)
  • Rhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, and Azorhizobium species are able to elicit the formation of unique structures, called nodules, on the roots or stems of the leguminous host. (asm.org)
  • Three different Rhizobium species were found among the four new strains. (scielo.br)
  • The bacterial genus Rhizobium comprises diverse symbiotic nitrogen-fixing species associated with the roots of plants in the Leguminosae family. (frontiersin.org)
  • Multiple genomic clusters defined by whole genome comparisons occur within Rhizobium , but their equivalence to species is controversial. (frontiersin.org)
  • The presence/absence profile of genes in the complete Rhizobium genomes agreed with the phylogenomic pattern of species divergence. (frontiersin.org)
  • In summary, the results indicate that Rhizobium genomic clusters, as defined by whole genomic identities, might be part of a continuous process of evolutionary divergence that includes the core and the extrachromosomal elements leading to species formation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Species in the genus Rhizobium are aerobic, non-spore-forming, oxidase-positive, gram-negative bacilli, found in the environment and associated with tumorigenic diseases in plants ( 11 ). (asm.org)
  • The genus and species of rhizobia are specific to the legume which it infects. (fontanelle.com)
  • There are many different rhizobia strains distributed among various species. (fontanelle.com)
  • Agrobacterium is a well-known genus in bacteriology and molecular biology, but research has shown that it cannot easily be separated from the Rhizobium genus, thus all Agrobacterium species should be renamed as Rhizobium species (the earlier name). (rhizobia.co.nz)
  • viciae is the most common symbiont of Vicia species worldwide, there is no available information on rhizobia nodulating native Vicia species in Sweden. (diva-portal.org)
  • The compatibility and effectiveness of potentially nitrogen fixing associations between two Rhizobium strains and thirteen collections of Leucaena leucocephala, five other species of Leucaena, and Albizia occidentalis were determined. (openrepository.com)
  • i) To delineate by serological analysis the population composition of nodule occupants of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv.trifolii recovered from a variety of annual and perennial clover (Trifolium) species planted into Abiqua soil. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Most species in the Leguminosae (legume family) can fix atmospheric nitrogen (N₂) via symbiotic bacteria (rhizobia) in root nodules. (lincoln.ac.nz)
  • Generally, a range of rhizobia genera nodulated legume species across the two Mimosoideae tribes Ingeae and Mimoseae, but Mimosa spp. (lincoln.ac.nz)
  • Generally, Papilionoideae species were promiscuous in relation to rhizobial symbionts, but specificity for rhizobial genus appears to hold at the tribe level for the Fabeae (Rhizobium), the genus level for Cytisus (Bradyrhizobium), Lupinus (Bradyrhizobium) and the New Zealand native Sophora spp. (lincoln.ac.nz)
  • As classically distinguished, Agrobacterium species do not fix nitrogen like Rhizobium , but they do resemble Rhizobium in causing growths on plant roots. (fieldofscience.com)
  • 2015 symbiovar trifolii symbiovar viciae Rhizobium binae Harun-or Rashid et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2014 Rhizobium leguminosarum (Frank 1879) Frank 1889 symbiovar trifolii symbiovar viciae Rhizobium lemnae Kittiwongwattana & Thawai 2014 Rhizobium lentis Harun-or Rashid et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2008 symbiovar trifolii symbiovar viciae Rhizobium pongamiae Kesari et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • Djordjevic MA, Zurkowski W, Rolfe BG (1982) Plasmids and stability of symbiotic properties of Rhizobium trifolii . (springer.com)
  • Complete genome sequence of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv trifolii strain WSM2304, an effective microsymbiont of the South American clover Trifolium polymorphum. (kegg.jp)
  • There have been many genetic analyses of rhizobia, notably of Sinorhizobium meliloti (the symbiont of alfalfa), Bradyrhizobium japonicum (soybean), and Rhizobium leguminosarum , which has biovars that nodulate peas and broad beans (biovar viciae ), clovers (biovar trifolii ), or kidney beans (biovar phaseoli ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Rhizobium is a genus of Gram-negative soil bacteria that fix nitrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • This mutually beneficial relationship is true of all of the rhizobia, of which the genus Rhizobium is a typical example. (wikipedia.org)
  • He named it Bacillus radicicola, which is now placed in Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology under the genus Rhizobium. (wikipedia.org)
  • relationship between the bacteria genus Rhizobium and leguminous plants and certain trees and shrubs. (britannica.com)
  • Several features of Rhizobium make this genus a formidable and demanding challenge in trying to determine its taxonomy. (frontiersin.org)
  • Rhizobium is not the only genus of bacteria able to fix nitrogen, but it is certainly one of the most predominant. (fieldofscience.com)
  • Rhizobium has been regarded as closely related to another bacterial genus called Agrobacterium , whose significance for agriculture has been seen somewhat less favourably. (fieldofscience.com)
  • AY752742 Rhizobium etli strain ATCC 51251 DnaK gene, complete cds. (atcc.org)
  • Fahraeus and Ljunggren ( 3 ) proposed that legume roots produce the enzyme polygalacturonase induced by the homologous Rhizobium strain. (pnas.org)
  • Rhizobium Leguminosarum is a strain of bacteria that converts atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia. (webring.com)
  • Bacteria of the Rhizobium strain are present in most soils. (webring.com)
  • We previously described a Tn 5 mutant of Rhizobium etli strain CE3, designated CE3003, that is decreased in nodulation competitiveness, reduced in competitive growth in the rhizosphere, and has a hydrophobic cell surface (R. S. Araujo, E. A. Robleto, and J. Handelsman, Appl. (apsnet.org)
  • An assessment was made of the relative contributions of a spontaneous mutation to rifampin resistance and a cryptic plasmid, pTA2, to competitive nodulation of Medicago sativa by a strain of Rhizobium meliloti. (asm.org)
  • Factors influencing the amount of nitrogen fixed include: plant growth, the rhizobia strain infecting the legume, and the amount of nitrogen in the soil. (fontanelle.com)
  • The aim of this study was to systematically analyse protein secretion in the recently sequenced strain Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Strain-specific legume rhizobia symbioses can develop in particular habitats. (lincoln.ac.nz)
  • To help ensure that an effective rhizobia strain is present when planting a legume, the seed should be inoculated prior to planting. (goldcountryseed.com)
  • isolated from the specific sub-community increased shoot fresh weight of Arabidopsis, while a Rhizobium strain from the shared sub-community was not able to promote plant growth. (uni-koeln.de)
  • Rhizobium lentis is a gram-negative bacterium which was isolated from root nodules of lentils in Bangladesh. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rhizobium rhizogenes (formerly Agrobacterium rhizogenes) is a Gram-negative soil bacterium that produces hairy root disease in dicotyledonous plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • nodules containing the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Rhizobium on their roots. (britannica.com)
  • Rhizobium gallicum is a Gram-negative root-nodule bacterium. (wikipedia.org)
  • This project is a study of a symbiotic relationship between a field pea plant (leguminous) and a nitrogen-fixing bacterium, Rhizobium Leguminousarum. (webring.com)
  • Coloured scanning electron micrograph of the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Rhizobium leguminosarum. (sciencephoto.com)
  • The York team dug up a square metre of roadside verge on the University campus in search of a bacterium called Rhizobium leguminosarum . (chemistry2011.org)
  • In a laboratory study chickpea root nodulating bacterium Rhizobium sp. (scialert.net)
  • To take advantage of common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) nitrogen biofertilizer, several studies have sought to identify efficient and competitive strains of rhizobia to cope the nitrogen requirements of this important crop. (scielo.br)
  • The strains of rhizobia available are extremely important, as some are much better at fixing nitrogen than others. (fontanelle.com)
  • Many soils contain native strains of rhizobia bacteria, but they may vary widely in their ability to fix nitrogen. (goldcountryseed.com)
  • The experimental factors of Rhizobium ( Sinorhizobium meliloti ) and Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (AM) including Glomus etunicatum , G. intraradices and G. claroideum and irrigation levels were tested. (thescipub.com)
  • Rhizobium organisms in the soil recognize and invade the root hairs of their specific plant host, enter the plant tissues, and form a root nodule. (britannica.com)
  • Nodule formation on plants of the Leguminosae family is a result of consecutive interactions with bacteria of the Rhizobiaceae family (rhizobia). (pnas.org)
  • Nodule development is induced by lipochitooligosaccharide signals of rhizobia, called Nod factors. (pnas.org)
  • Simultaneously, the rhizobia enter the host plant via the root hairs through the formation of tubular structures called infection threads which traverse the root epidermis and cortex and then the nodule primordium. (pnas.org)
  • They concentrate rhizobia near the roots and activate the synthesis of the Nod signal, which is essential for nodule formation. (kenyon.edu)
  • Badenoch-Jones J, Summons RE, Djordjevic MA, Shine J, Letham DS, Rolfe BG (1982b) Mass spectrometric quantification of indole-3-acetic acid in Rhizobium culture supernatants: Relation to root hair curling and nodule initiation. (springer.com)
  • False-colour transmission electron micrograph of the nitrogen-fixing bacteria (red), Rhizobium leguminosarum, in the cell of a root nodule of the pea plant, Pisum sativum. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Apparently, the deviation of carbon and reducing power to the PHB synthesis allows that in microaerobiosis (as in the nodule) Rhizobium can maintain an active carbon metabolism. (unam.mx)
  • Signals in Root Nodule Organogenesis and Endocytosis of Rhizobium. (plantcell.org)
  • The soil bacteria rhizobia are able to establish nitrogen-fixing symbioses with leguminous plants by inducing the formation of a new organ, the nodule, on the roots of the host plant. (plantphysiol.org)
  • However, no candidates were available to be responsible for iron transport across the plasma membrane from the nodule apoplast to rhizobia-infected cells. (upm.es)
  • In the present work, we have identified a Nramp member gene from M. truncatula (MtNramp1) as responsible for iron transport from nodule apoplast into rhizobia-infected cell. (upm.es)
  • Less effective strains may produce many small nodules, but fix very little nitrogen, whereas effective rhizobia strains form fewer, but larger nodules with dark pink centers, indicating a healthy and active nodule. (goldcountryseed.com)
  • The bacterial family of Rhizobiaceae, consisting of the two genera Rhizobium and Agrobacterium , creates a challenge to geneticists and biochemists be cause of its genetic and regulatory complexity. (springer.com)
  • This Research Topic addresses the molecular bases underlying the mutual recognition that takes place at early stages of the Rhizobium-legume interaction before bacterial release within the plant symbiotic cells and the onset of nitrogen fixation. (frontiersin.org)
  • From there, plasma membrane iron transporters move it into rhizobia-containing cells, where iron is used as the cofactor of multiple plant and rhizobial proteins (e.g. plant leghemoglobin and bacterial nitrogenase). (plantphysiol.org)
  • The ability to induce polygalacturonase production by the root may be controlled by a resident plasmid of the Rhizobium ( 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • Rhizobium gone native: unexpected plasmid stability of indigenous Rhizobium leguminosarum. (umass.edu)
  • In contrast to findings of previous studies, a strict association existed between major sym plasmid and chromosomal genetic groups, suggesting a lack of successful sym plasmid transfer between major Rhizobium chromosomal types. (umass.edu)
  • Beringer JE, Hoggan SA, Johnston AWB (1978b) Linkage mapping in Rhizobium leguminosarum by means of R plasmid-mediated recombination. (springer.com)
  • Cryptic plasmid and rifampin resistance in Rhizobium meliloti influencing nodulation competitiveness. (asm.org)
  • Some, like the Rhizobium etli symbiotic plasmid p42d and the plasmid pNGR234b of Rhizobium NGR234, have been sequenced and characterized. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • Rhizobia are released from infection threads in the cytoplasm of postmitotic nondividing cells by endocytosis. (pnas.org)
  • The early induction of the MsPG3 , as also seen by in situ hybridization experiments, supports its involvement in the early stages of the Rhizobium -legume infection process. (pnas.org)
  • Genes that seem to be involved in the initial steps of infection of a legume by Rhizobium have been transferred, by transformation, to mutant strains of Azotobacter vinelandii that are unable to fix nitrogen. (sciencemag.org)
  • 2 After they are attached, the rhizobia form an infection thread to enter the plant. (fontanelle.com)
  • Rhizobium infection: lessons from the versatile. (ugent.be)
  • In addition, they induce a rearrangement of the root hair cytoskeleton, leading to root hair deformation and curling, which traps surface-attached rhizobia, establishing a site that acts as an infection focus. (plantphysiol.org)
  • In zone II, rhizobia are released from the infection thread and differentiate into bacteroids. (plantphysiol.org)
  • A family of activator genes regulates expression of Rhizobium meliloti nodulation genes. (genetics.org)
  • Brewin NJ, Beringer JE, Buchanan-Wollaston AV, Johnston AWB, Hirsch PR (1980) Transfer of symbiotic genes with bacteriocinogenic plasmids in Rhizobium leguminosarum . (springer.com)
  • Two genes encoding citrate synthase, a key enzyme in the Krebs cycle, have been found in Rhizobium tropici. (asm.org)
  • Symbiotic genes were distributed according to the principal phylogenomic Rhizobium clades but did not resolve genome clusters within the clades. (frontiersin.org)
  • We distinguished some types of symbiotic plasmids within Rhizobium that displayed different rates of synonymous nucleotide substitutions in comparison to chromosomal genes. (frontiersin.org)
  • The latest data indicate that EPS synthesis in rhizobia undergoes very complex hierarchical regulation, in which proteins engaged in quorum sensing and the regulation of motility genes also participate. (mdpi.com)
  • According to David Bird of North Carolina State's Center for the Biology of Nematode Parasitism, who did not participate in this study, a paper he coauthored earlier this year suggests that these parasites may even have acquired genes directly from Rhizobia through horizontal transfer. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Rhizobium meliloti transports succinate, fumarate, malate, and aspartate by means of the dicarboxylate transport system, which is encoded by dct genes located on the exo megaplasmid. (nih.gov)
  • An unexpectedly large number of genes were shared by all three rhizobia but were missing from A. tumefaciens . (biomedcentral.com)
  • By sequencing ribosomal RNA, it has been observed that rhizobium organism do not group together. (kenyon.edu)
  • We began our studies in the determination of the cycle of the glutamine synthetase in the fungus Neurospora crassa and the enzymes that participate in the glutamate-glutamine interconversion in N. crassa and in the new model organism Rhizobium etli . (unam.mx)
  • The plant-rhizobia relationship is a symbiotic (mutually beneficial) relationship, because each organism receives something from the other, and gives back something in return. (fontanelle.com)
  • In return for secretions from their host that encourage their growth and multiplication, Rhizobia fix nitrogen in nodules of the host plant's roots, providing nitrogen in a form usable by the plant. (britannica.com)
  • Bacteria of the Rhizobia classification stimulate the plant to form nodules on its roots. (webring.com)
  • In this paper, we study the taxonomy and evolution of Rhizobium , the nitrogen-fixing symbiotic bacteria associated with the roots of wild and domesticated legume plants. (frontiersin.org)
  • Soil bacteria1 called rhizobia are gram-negative capable to colonize the soil immediately surrounding roots under the influence of the plant "rhizosphere" and reduce atmospheric nitrogen into the form available to plants through nitrogen fixation process. (scirp.org)
  • Rhizobia bacteria are found in the soil, where they survive until legume plant roots are available to infect. (fontanelle.com)
  • When legume roots are present, the compatible rhizobia, through communication with the legume, will begin to multiply and attach to the root hairs of the plant. (fontanelle.com)
  • On well-aerated roots, root hair curling (RHC) invasion is used, whereas, under hydroponic conditions, rhizobia enter the cortex through cracks at lateral root bases (LRBs). (ugent.be)
  • Rhizobium bacteria form nitrogen-fixing nodules on legume roots. (xenbase.org)
  • Rhizobium cells induce the growth of nodules on legume roots, within which they are sheltered from that polluting gas. (fieldofscience.com)
  • Soil bacteria known as rhizobia have the capacity to induce the formation of nodules on the root of their leguminous host plants. (pnas.org)
  • Legume plants, however, have the ability to form a relationship with a specific soil bacteria, rhizobia, which convert nitrogen gas from the air into a readily available form that can be used by the plant. (fontanelle.com)
  • An attempt was made to use ELISA for determination of nodulation success of rhizobia applied to soils harboring indigenous rhizobia. (brillonline.com)
  • Rhizobium tropici on an agar plate . (wikipedia.org)
  • Rhizobium tropici chromosomal citrate synthase gene. (asm.org)
  • Nodulation (nod) gene expression in Rhizobium meliloti requires plant inducers and the activating protein product of the nodD gene. (genetics.org)
  • Based on the nucleotide sequence, the deduced RosR amino acid sequence is 80% identical to that of the Ros protein from Agrobacterium tumefaciens and the MucR protein from Rhizobium meliloti . (apsnet.org)
  • The X-ray crystal structure of the apo-form of the Fur protein from Rhizobium leguminosarum has been solved at 2.7 å resolution. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • Identification of protein secretion systems and novel secreted proteins in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Average nucleotide identity of genome sequences supports the description of Rhizobium lentis sp. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rhizobium etli CFN 42, complete genome. (atcc.org)
  • Genome Report of Rhizobium etli bv. (neb.com)
  • Phylogenomic inferences based on complete sets of ribosomal proteins and stringent core genome markers revealed the main lineages of Rhizobium . (frontiersin.org)
  • KEGG GENOME: Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. (kegg.jp)
  • Comparative whole-genome analysis of independent exemplars of the isolated Rhizobium spp. (uni-koeln.de)
  • RosR is a transcriptional regulator important for determining cell-surface characteristics and nodulation competitiveness in Rhizobium etli CE3. (apsnet.org)
  • Rhizobia are Gram-negative bacteria that can exist either as free-living bacteria or as nitrogen-fixing symbionts inside root nodules of leguminous plants. (mdpi.com)
  • Rhizobia elicit on their specific leguminous hosts the formation of new organs, called nodules, in which they fix nitrogen. (nih.gov)
  • Lipochitin oligosaccharides are organogenesis-inducing signal molecules produced by rhizobia to establish the formation of nitrogen-fixing root nodules in leguminous plants. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Although Lipochitooligosaccharides have been found to be extremely important for development of nodules, some rhizobium organisms have been observed to make nodules even in the absence of the Lipochitooligosaccharides gene. (kenyon.edu)
  • There are evidences suggesting that Rhizobium bacteria acquired their symbiotic capabilities through horizontal gene transfer (Martínez-Romero 2009). (kenyon.edu)
  • 2008). If the symbiotic characteristic of rhizobium organisms were a result of vertical gene transfer, one would expect all of the organisms with a common ancestor to have rhizobia characteristics. (kenyon.edu)
  • This observation indicates that the symbiotic characteristic attributed to rhizobia organisms is not a result of vertical gene transfer. (kenyon.edu)
  • It is this process of horizontal gene transfer that made every rhizobium unique. (chemistry2011.org)
  • Rhizobia then produce Nod factors , oligosaccharides that elicit dramatic alterations in the gene expression and metabolism of both organisms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The broad host range plasmidp SUP 104 carrying the streptomycin sensitivity gene - S12, was m obilized from Escherichiaco1i S17-1 to Rhizobium meliloti 2 011, R.l er.uminosarum 897 and two Brad vrhizobium.iaponicum serogroup 123 strains. (dcu.ie)
  • Genetic analysis of a nodA-nodD region of autochthonous strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae that showed. (srce.hr)
  • ŽAFRAN-NOVAK J, REDŽEPOVIĆ S, ĆETKOVIĆ H. Genetic analysis of a nodA-nodD region of autochthonous strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae that showed effective nodulation of host plants. (srce.hr)
  • J. ŽAFRAN-NOVAK, S. REDŽEPOVIĆ and H. ĆETKOVIĆ, "Genetic analysis of a nodA-nodD region of autochthonous strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae that showed effective nodulation of host plants", Periodicum biologorum , vol.112, no. 4, pp. 459-467, 2010. (srce.hr)
  • 1993 symbiovar mimosae symbiovar phaseoli Rhizobium fabae Tian et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1997 symbiovar gallicum symbiovar orientale symbiovar phaseoli Rhizobium grahamii López-López et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2012 Rhizobium phaseoli Dangeard 1926 emend. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phaseoli and Rhizobium Gallicum bv. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic techniques in Rhizobium meliloti. (nih.gov)
  • Development of a genetic system in Rhizobium meliloti. (mit.edu)
  • In a two-locus population genetic model, we investigated the relative roles of spatial structure and kin recognition in the maintenance of cooperation among rhizobia within the rhizobia-legume mutualism. (ku.edu)
  • Genetic diversity of rhizobia nodulating native Vicia spp. (diva-portal.org)
  • Beringer JE, Hopwood DA (1976) Chromosomal recombination and mapping in Rhizobium leguminosarum . (springer.com)
  • ISRm2 as a probe with EcoRl digests of total chromosomal DNA of various Rhizobium and B..iaponicum serogroup 123 strains revealed that ISRm2 was particular to R.me1 i 1oti strains. (dcu.ie)
  • Evaluation of effectiveness of isolated rhizobia is essential for inoculants preparation, host specificity recommendation and symbiotic effectiveness. (scirp.org)
  • show specificity towards Burkholderia in central and southern Brazil, Rhizobium/Ensifer in central Mexico and Cupriavidus in southern Uruguay. (lincoln.ac.nz)
  • Rashid, M.H., Gonzalez, H., Young, J.P.W., and Wink, M. (2014) Rhizobium leguminosarum is the symbiont of lentil in the Middle East and Europe but not in Bangladesh. (wikipedia.org)
  • We report a pseudo-outbreak of Rhizobium radiobacter infections resulting from contamination by a saline dispenser in the microbiology laboratory. (asm.org)
  • Bambara, S. and Ndakidemi, P.A. (2009) Effect of Rhizobium Lime and Molebdenum on Photosynthesis and Chlorophyll Content of Phaseolus vulgaris L. African Journal of Microbiology Research, 3, 791-798. (scirp.org)
  • Bambara, S. and Ndakidemi, P.A. (2010) Effects of Rhizobium Innoculation, Lime and Molybdenum on Nitrogen Fixation of Nodulated Phaseolus vulgaris L. African Journal of Microbiology Research, 4, 682-696. (scirp.org)
  • For our project we studied the effect of Rhizobium Leguminosarum on the growth of pea plants. (webring.com)
  • However, the inhibitory effect of Rhizobium sp. (scialert.net)
  • The legume plants produce chemicals called flavonoids to signal the Rhizobium. (webring.com)
  • Plant-made flavonoids released into the rhizosphere [ 1 , 2 ] induce rhizobia to make specific signalling molecules known as Nod factors, which are four or five β -1,4 linked N -acetyl-glucosamine residues with a fatty acid residue replacing the N -acetyl group at the non-reducing end. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The taxon has largely subsumed genera Agrobacterium Conn 1942 and Allorhizobium following in phelogenetic research from the late 1990s to the early 2000s when the two genera were shown to be not very different from Rhizobium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rhizobium nodulation (Nod) factors are lipochitooligosaccharide signals that elicit key symbiotic developmental responses in the host legume root. (plantcell.org)
  • Rhizobia can induce nodules. (edu.au)
  • IGUE, T. Especificidade hospedeira e pré-seleção de estirpes de Rhizobium japonicum para as variedades Santa-Rosa, Viçoja e IAC-2 de soja. (scielo.br)
  • The synthesis of EPS in rhizobia is a multi-step process regulated by several proteins at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. (mdpi.com)
  • Chitin oligosaccharide synthesis by rhizobia and zebrafish embryos starts by glycosyl transfer to O4 of the reducing-terminal residue. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Then iron moves into rhizobia-infected cells and it is used in the synthesis of iron-containing proteins. (upm.es)
  • Despite the recognition that Rhizobium leguminosarum sv. (diva-portal.org)
  • All isolates were classified into Rhizobium leguminosarum sv. (diva-portal.org)
  • rigiduloides) and Trifolium ambiguum (Rhizobium leguminosarum sv. (lincoln.ac.nz)
  • Nodules are formed on a particular host only in response to compatible rhizobia producing Nod factors with the adequate chemical structure ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • We show that a rhizobial isolate from soil, Rhizobium leguminosarum SRDI565, possesses the ability to degrade the abundant phototroph-derived carbohydrate. (asm.org)
  • We report a pseudo-outbreak of sterile-site infections with an unusual human pathogen, Rhizobium radiobacter , resulting from a contaminated saline dispenser in the laboratory. (asm.org)
  • Using recombinant Rhizobium strains nodulating both legume types, we show that bacteroid differentiation is controlled by the host plant. (pnas.org)
  • Electron microscopic studies have demonstrated that rhizobia penetrate a degraded region of the plant cell wall at a very localized site ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • Some of the carbohydrates manufactured by the plant during photosynthesis are transported to the nodules where they are used as a source of food by the Rhizobium. (webring.com)
  • Investigations carried out in the last century allowed the identification of key players in the early recognition between Rhizobia and their plant hosts. (frontiersin.org)
  • As a result of the Rhizobium invasion the plant utilizes the bacteria to cover its own nitrogen supply, whereas the differentiated bacteroids finally die: the plant genetically parasitizes the bacteria. (springer.com)
  • In these nodules, the rhizobia convert atmospheric N2 into ammonia for the plant. (asm.org)
  • It is surrounded by Rhizobium bacteroids, enlarged forms of the bacteria that occur once they have entered the root of the plant. (sciencephoto.com)
  • According to Arthur, pairing INOVATE with a rhizobia application results in holistic seed protection from pests and diseases, while promoting nitrogen uptake, increasing the vigor of the plant. (plantmanagementnetwork.org)
  • During early stages of this association, molecular signals are synthesized by rhizobia that are essential for initiating both morphogenetic and organogenetic responses in the appropriate host plant. (plantcell.org)
  • Legume plants have the ability to form a symbiotic relationship with rhizobia bacteria, which fix nitrogen for the plant to use. (fontanelle.com)
  • Nodules begin to develop as plant tissues surround the rhizobia, and connective tissue forms through which food for the rhizobia, and nitrogen for the plant, pass through. (fontanelle.com)
  • Rhizobia bacteria convert nitrogen gas (N 2 ) into ammonia (NH 3 ), and the legume plant provides the bacteria with carbohydrates as an energy source. (fontanelle.com)
  • Results showed that Rhizobium application significantly improved the number of leaves per plant, plant height, pant girth and total leaf chlorophyll content. (scirp.org)
  • A comparison was made of nitrogen fixed per plant and per unit weight of plant, and the ratio of plant weight (grown with Rhizobium) to plant weight (grown without Rhizobium). (openrepository.com)
  • The infecting rhizobia are released into intracellular membrane compartments of plant origin called symbiosomes, where they differentiate into bacteroids capable of reducing atmospheric nitrogen to ammonium, which is provided to the plants in exchange for carbon and amino acid compounds ( Brewin, 2004 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • Monoclonal antibodies were used as cytochemical markers to study surface interactions between endosymbiotic Rhizobium bacteroids from pea root nodules and the encircling peribacteroid membranes, which are of plant origin. (biologists.org)
  • Monoclonal antibodies that react with Rhizobium lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or with a plant membrane glycoprotein were used as markers for material from the bacteroid outer membrane or the peribacteroid membrane, respectively. (biologists.org)
  • Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) containing ACC-deaminase in combination with rhizobia can improve the growth and nodulation in plants by suppressing the endogenous level of ethylene. (ebscohost.com)
  • It has been proposed to participate in the early steps of the Rhizobium -legume interaction. (pnas.org)
  • But for the first time, researchers have identified players at the first step that is specific to the rhizobia/legume interaction-what the authors of the second paper call Nod factor response factors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To identify, develop rhizobium strains to be used in production of legume inoculants and for marketing (Sale). (nzdl.org)
  • The use of the ELISA technique for counting peanut rhizobia in peat inoculants was evaluated. (brillonline.com)
  • In the present study, ten strains, each of PGPR and rhizobia from the previously screened cultures were tested for their effect as co-inoculants on growth and nodulation of lentil in growth pouches under axenic conditions. (ebscohost.com)
  • Previous data have suggested that IAA biosynthesis in Rhizobium meliloti can occur through an indolepyruvate intermediate derived from tryptophan by an aminotransferase activity. (asm.org)
  • Beringer JE (1980) The development of Rhizobium genetics. (springer.com)
  • Heumann W (1979) Rhizobium lupini genetics. (springer.com)
  • orientalis), Hedysarum coronarium (Rhizobium sullae), Medicago laciniata (Ensifer meliloti sv. (lincoln.ac.nz)
  • We uncovered evidence of a Rhizobium pangenome that was greatly expanded, both in its chromosomes and plasmids. (frontiersin.org)
  • Lectins from Canavalia brasiliensis (CnBr), Cratylia floribunda (CFL), Vatairea macrocarpa (VML) and Phaseolus vulgaris (PHA) aggregate Rhizobium bacteria. (springer.com)
  • Characterization of the chemical structure and innate immune-stimulating activity of an extracellular polysaccharide from Rhizobium sp. (go.jp)
  • Homology of Rhizobium meliloti NodC to polysaccharide polymerizing enzymes. (xenbase.org)
  • As our research paper explains, Rhizobium Leguminosarum is a nitrogen-fixing bacteria. (webring.com)