A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is found in soil and which causes formation of root nodules on some, but not all, types of field pea, lentil, kidney bean, and clover.
A species of gram-negative bacteria and nitrogen innoculant of PHASEOLUS VULGARIS.
A species of gram-negative bacteria and an nitrogen inoculum that displays a high intrinsic tolerance to acidity.
The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.
The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that causes formation of root nodules on some, but not all, types of sweet clover, MEDICAGO SATIVA, and fenugreek.
A family of gram-negative bacteria which are saprophytes, symbionts, or plant pathogens.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
Knobbed structures formed from and attached to plant roots, especially of LEGUMES, which result from symbiotic infection by nitrogen fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA. Root nodules are structures related to MYCORRHIZAE formed by symbiotic associations with fungi.
A plant species of the family FABACEAE widely cultivated for ANIMAL FEED.
The formation of a nitrogen-fixing cell mass on PLANT ROOTS following symbiotic infection by nitrogen-fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, nonsporeforming rods which usually contain granules of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A plant genus in the family FABACEAE which is the source of edible beans and the lectin PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria usually containing granules of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate. They characteristically invade the root hairs of leguminous plants and act as intracellular symbionts.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria in the family PHYLLOBACTERIACEAE. They are able to invade root-hairs of a wide range of plants, inciting the production of PLANT ROOT NODULES.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. It is distinct from Sweet Clover (MELILOTUS), from Bush Clover (LESPEDEZA), and from Red Clover (TRIFOLIUM).
A variable annual leguminous vine (Pisum sativum) that is cultivated for its rounded smooth or wrinkled edible protein-rich seeds, the seed of the pea, and the immature pods with their included seeds. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1973)
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A plant species of the family FABACEAE used to study GENETICS because it is DIPLOID, self fertile, has a small genome, and short generation time.
A plant species of the genus VICIA, family FABACEAE. The seed is used for food and contains THIOCYANATES such as prunasin, cyanoalanine, cyanogen, and vicine.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
An enzyme system that catalyzes the fixing of nitrogen in soil bacteria and blue-green algae (CYANOBACTERIA). EC 1.18.6.1.
A hemoglobin-like oxygen-binding hemeprotein present in the nitrogen-fixing root nodules of leguminous plants. The red pigment has a molecular weight approximately 1/4 that of hemoglobin and has been suggested to act as an oxido-reduction catalyst in symbiotic nitrogen fixation.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.
Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and the stems, leafs, and roots of plants. Some biotypes are pathogenic and cause the formation of PLANT TUMORS in a wide variety of higher plants. The species is a major research tool in biotechnology.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that contains tephrorin, tephrosone, and C-prenylflavonoids.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that is widely used as ground cover and forage and known for the edible beans, VICIA FABA.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised mostly of two major phenotypes: purple non-sulfur bacteria and aerobic bacteriochlorophyll-containing bacteria.
Acetylene is not typically considered a medical term, but rather a chemical compound (C2H2) commonly used in industrial and laboratory settings for its high energy content and reactivity, which may have various applications in medicine such as wound healing and surgical procedures, but it is not a medical diagnosis or disease.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An enzyme found in bacteria. It catalyzes the reduction of FERREDOXIN and other substances in the presence of molecular hydrogen and is involved in the electron transport of bacterial photosynthesis.
A species of gram-negative bacteria functioning as a nitrogen inoculum for dry beans, especially species in the genus PHASEOLUS.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. The gums and tanning agents obtained from Acacia are called GUM ARABIC. The common name of catechu is more often used for Areca catechu (ARECA).
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that contains kukulkanin, a CHALCONE.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria, in the family BURKHOLDERIACEAE, that are mobile by means of peritrichous FLAGELLA. The genus was formerly called Wautersia and species in this genus were formerly in the genus RALSTONIA.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.
A family of small, gram-negative organisms, often parasitic in humans and other animals, causing diseases that may be transmitted by invertebrate vectors.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, L-glutamate, and NH3 to ADP, orthophosphate, and L-glutamine. It also acts more slowly on 4-methylene-L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 6.3.1.2.
A plant family of the order Urticales, subclass Hamamelidae, class Magnoliopsida. It is most notable for the members, Cannabis and Hops.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Beneficial microorganisms (bacteria or fungi) encapsulated in carrier material and applied to the environment for remediation and enhancement of agricultural productivity.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE.
Dicarboxylic acids are organic compounds containing two carboxyl (-COOH) groups in their structure, making them capable of forming salts and esters by losing two hydrogen ions.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
5,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxy-flavone, one of the FLAVONES.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine from a nucleoside diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.

Thermostability reinforcement through a combination of thermostability-related mutations of N-carbamyl-D-amino acid amidohydrolase. (1/1949)

For the improvement of N-carbamyl-D-amino acid amidohydrolase (DCase), which can be used for the industrial production of D-amino acids, the stability of DCase from Agrobacterium sp. KNK712 was improved through various combinations of thermostability-related mutations. The thermostable temperature (defined as the temperature on heat treatment for 10 min that caused a decrease in the DCase activity of 50%) of the enzyme which had three amino acids, H57Y, P203E, and V236A, replaced was increased by about 19 degrees C. The mutant DCase, designated as 455M, was purified and its enzymatic properties were studied. The enzyme had highly increased stability against not only temperature but also pH, the optimal temperature of the enzyme being about 75 degrees C. The substrate specificity of the enzyme for various N-carbamyl-D-amino acids was changed little in comparison with that of the native enzyme. Enzymochemical parameters were also measured.  (+info)

Mutation in GDP-fucose synthesis genes of Sinorhizobium fredii alters Nod factors and significantly decreases competitiveness to nodulate soybeans. (2/1949)

We mutagenized Sinorhizobium fredii HH103-1 with Tn5-B20 and screened about 2,000 colonies for increased beta-galactosidase activity in the presence of the flavonoid naringenin. One mutant, designated SVQ287, produces lipochitooligosaccharide Nod factors (LCOs) that differ from those of the parental strain. The nonreducing N-acetylglucosamine residues of all of the LCOs of mutant SVQ287 lack fucose and 2-O-methylfucose substituents. In addition, SVQ287 synthesizes an LCO with an unusually long, C20:1 fatty acyl side chain. The transposon insertion of mutant SVQ287 lies within a 1.1-kb HindIII fragment. This and an adjacent 2.4-kb HindIII fragment were sequenced. The sequence contains the 3' end of noeK, nodZ, and noeL (the gene interrupted by Tn5-B20), and the 5' end of nolK, all in the same orientation. Although each of these genes has a similarly oriented counterpart on the symbiosis plasmid of the broad-host-range Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234, there are significant differences in the noeK/nodZ intergenic region. Based on amino acid sequence homology, noeL encodes GDP-D-mannose dehydratase, an enzyme involved in the synthesis of GDP-L-fucose, and nolK encodes a NAD-dependent nucleotide sugar epimerase/dehydrogenase. We show that expression of the noeL gene is under the control of NodD1 in S. fredii and is most probably mediated by the nod box that precedes nodZ. Transposon insertion into neoL has two impacts on symbiosis with Williams soybean: nodulation rate is reduced slightly and competitiveness for nodulation is decreased significantly. Mutant SVQ287 retains its ability to form nitrogen-fixing nodules on other legumes, but final nodule number is attenuated on Cajanus cajan.  (+info)

The nolL gene from Rhizobium etli determines nodulation efficiency by mediating the acetylation of the fucosyl residue in the nodulation factor. (3/1949)

The nodulation factors (Nod factors) of Rhizobium etli and R. loti carry a 4-O-acetyl-L-fucosyl group at the reducing end. It has been claimed, based on sequence analysis, that NolL from R. loti participates in the 4-O-acetylation of the fucosyl residue of the Nod factors, as an acetyl-transferase (D. B. Scott, C. A. Young, J. M. Collins-Emerson, E. A. Terzaghi, E. S. Rockman, P. A. Lewis, and C. E. Pankhurst. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 9:187-197, 1996). Further support for this hypothesis was obtained by studying the production of Nod factors in an R. etli nolL::Km mutant. Chromatographic and mass spectrometry analysis of the Nod factors produced by this strain showed that they lack the acetyl-fucosyl substituent, having a fucosyl group instead. Acetyl-fucosylation was restored upon complementation with a wild-type nolL gene. These results indicate that the nolL gene determines 4-O-acetylation of the fucosyl residue in Nod factors. Analysis of the predicted NolL polypeptide suggests a transmembranal location and that it belongs to the family of integral membrane transacylases (J. M. Slauch, A. A. Lee, M. J. Mahan, and J. J. Mekalanos. J. Bacteriol. 178:5904-5909, 1996). NolL from R. loti was also proposed to function as a transporter; our results show that NolL does not determine a differential secretion of Nod factors from the cell. We also performed plant assays that indicate that acetylation of the fucose conditions efficient nodulation by R. etli of some Phaseolus vulgaris cultivars, as well as of an alternate host (Vigna umbellata).  (+info)

Metabolic engineering of poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates): from DNA to plastic. (4/1949)

Poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) (PHAs) are a class of microbially produced polyesters that have potential applications as conventional plastics, specifically thermoplastic elastomers. A wealth of biological diversity in PHA formation exists, with at least 100 different PHA constituents and at least five different dedicated PHA biosynthetic pathways. This diversity, in combination with classical microbial physiology and modern molecular biology, has now opened up this area for genetic and metabolic engineering to develop optimal PHA-producing organisms. Commercial processes for PHA production were initially developed by W. R. Grace in the 1960s and later developed by Imperial Chemical Industries, Ltd., in the United Kingdom in the 1970s and 1980s. Since the early 1990s, Metabolix Inc. and Monsanto have been the driving forces behind the commercial exploitation of PHA polymers in the United States. The gram-negative bacterium Ralstonia eutropha, formerly known as Alcaligenes eutrophus, has generally been used as the production organism of choice, and intracellular accumulation of PHA of over 90% of the cell dry weight have been reported. The advent of molecular biological techniques and a developing environmental awareness initiated a renewed scientific interest in PHAs, and the biosynthetic machinery for PHA metabolism has been studied in great detail over the last two decades. Because the structure and monomeric composition of PHAs determine the applications for each type of polymer, a variety of polymers have been synthesized by cofeeding of various substrates or by metabolic engineering of the production organism. Classical microbiology and modern molecular bacterial physiology have been brought together to decipher the intricacies of PHA metabolism both for production purposes and for the unraveling of the natural role of PHAs. This review provides an overview of the different PHA biosynthetic systems and their genetic background, followed by a detailed summation of how this natural diversity is being used to develop commercially attractive, recombinant processes for the large-scale production of PHAs.  (+info)

Sequence and molecular analysis of the Rhizobium etli glsA gene, encoding a thermolabile glutaminase. (5/1949)

We sequenced a 2.1 kb fragment of DNA carrying the structural glsA gene, which codes for the Rhizobium etli thermolabile glutaminase (A). The glsA gene complements the R. etli LM16 mutant that lacks glutaminase A activity, and is expressed in the heterologous host Sinorhizobium meliloti. The deduced amino acid sequence consists of 309 residues, with a calculated molecular mass of 33 kDa. The amino acid sequence shares 53% and 43% identity with two hypothetical glutaminases of E. coli; 42% identity with liver-type; 38% identity with kidney-type glutaminase; 41% and 40% identity hypothetical glutaminases of Bacillus subtilis; and 41% and 37% identity with two putative glutaminases of Caenorhabditis elegans. The glsA gene represents the first glutaminase gene cloned and sequenced in prokaryotes.  (+info)

Isolation and characterization of the catalase gene from Rhizobium sp. SNU003, a root nodule symbiont of Canavalia lineata. (6/1949)

A catalase gene from Rhizobium sp. SNU003, a root nodule symbiont of Canavalia lineata, was cloned and its nucleotide sequence was determined. The Rhizobium DNA of about 280 bp was amplified using two PCR primers synthesized from the conserved sequences of the type I catalase gene. The nucleotide sequence of the amplified fragment revealed three regions that were conserved in the catalase, showing it as being part of the catalase gene. A genomic Southern hybridization using this fragment as a probe showed that the 5.5 kb PstI, 1.8 kb EcoRI, and 0.7 kb StyI fragments hybridized strongly with the probe. The Rhizobium genomic library constructed into the EMBL3 vector was screened, and one catalase clone was selected. The nucleotide sequence of the 5.5 kb PstI fragment from the clone revealed an open reading frame of 1455 bp, encoding a polypeptide of 485 amino acids with a molecular mass of 54,958 Da and a pI of 6.54. The predicted amino acid sequence of the catalase is 66.3% identical to that of Bacteroides fragilis, but was only 53.3% identical to the Rhizobium meliloti catalase.  (+info)

Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234 and R. fredii USDA257 share exceptionally broad, nested host ranges. (7/1949)

Genetically, Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234 and R. fredii USDA257 are closely related. Small differences in their nodulation genes result in NGR234 secreting larger amounts of more diverse lipo-oligosaccharidic Nod factors than USDA257. What effects these differences have on nodulation were analyzed by inoculating 452 species of legumes, representing all three subfamilies of the Leguminosae, as well as the nonlegume Parasponia andersonii, with both strains. The two bacteria nodulated P. andersonii, induced ineffective outgrowths on Delonix regia, and nodulated Chamaecrista fasciculata, a member of the only nodulating genus of the Caesalpinieae tested. Both strains nodulated a range of mimosoid legumes, especially the Australian species of Acacia, and the tribe Ingeae. Highest compatibilities were found with the papilionoid tribes Phaseoleae and Desmodieae. On Vigna spp. (Phaseoleae), both bacteria formed more effective symbioses than rhizobia of the "cowpea" (V. unguiculata) miscellany. USDA257 nodulated an exact subset (79 genera) of the NGR234 hosts (112 genera). If only one of the bacteria formed effective, nitrogen-fixing nodules it was usually NGR234. The only exceptions were with Apios americana, Glycine max, and G. soja. Few correlations can be drawn between Nod-factor substituents and the ability to nodulate specific legumes. Relationships between the ability to nodulate and the origin of the host were not apparent. As both P. andersonii and NGR234 originate from Indonesia/Malaysia/Papua New Guinea, and NGR234's preferred hosts (Desmodiinae/Phaseoleae) are largely Asian, we suggest that broad host range originated in Southeast Asia and spread outward.  (+info)

Autoinducer binding by the quorum-sensing regulator TraR increases affinity for target promoters in vitro and decreases TraR turnover rates in whole cells. (8/1949)

TraR is an Agrobacterium transcriptional regulator whose activity requires the pheromone N-3-oxooctanoyl-L-homoserine lactone. TraR was purified as a complex with the pheromone and contained one pheromone molecule per protein monomer. TraR-pheromone complexes bound to a single DNA site and activated two promoters that flank this site. Promoter expression was elevated 30-fold by using a supercoiled template. Pheromone binding increased the affinity of TraR for this binding site. Pheromone also increased TraR abundance in vivo by causing a 20-fold decrease in TraR turnover rates.  (+info)

Rhizobium is not a medical term, but rather a term used in microbiology and agriculture. It refers to a genus of gram-negative bacteria that can fix nitrogen from the atmosphere into ammonia, which can then be used by plants as a nutrient. These bacteria live in the root nodules of leguminous plants (such as beans, peas, and clover) and form a symbiotic relationship with them.

The host plant provides Rhizobium with carbon sources and a protected environment within the root nodule, while the bacteria provide the plant with fixed nitrogen. This mutualistic interaction plays a crucial role in maintaining soil fertility and promoting plant growth.

While Rhizobium itself is not directly related to human health or medicine, understanding its symbiotic relationship with plants can have implications for agricultural practices, sustainable farming, and global food security.

'Rhizobium leguminosarum' is a species of bacteria that can form nitrogen-fixing nodules on the roots of certain leguminous plants, such as clover, peas, and beans. These bacteria have the ability to convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia, a form of nitrogen that plants can use for growth. This process, known as biological nitrogen fixation, benefits both the bacteria and the host plant, as the plant provides carbon sources to the bacteria, while the bacteria provide fixed nitrogen to the plant. The formation of this symbiotic relationship is facilitated by a molecular signaling process between the bacterium and the plant.

It's important to note that 'Rhizobium leguminosarum' is not a medical term per se, but rather a term used in microbiology, botany, and agriculture.

Rhizobium etli is a gram-negative, aerobic, motile, non-spore forming bacteria that belongs to the Rhizobiaceae family. It has the ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen in a symbiotic relationship with certain leguminous plants, particularly common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). This bacterium infects the roots of these plants and forms nodules where it converts nitrogen gas into ammonia, a form that can be used by the plant for growth. The nitrogen-fixing ability of Rhizobium etli makes it an important bacteria in agriculture and environmental science.

Rhizobium tropici is a gram-negative, aerobic, motile, non-spore forming bacteria that belongs to the Rhizobiaceae family. It has the ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen in a symbiotic relationship with certain leguminous plants, particularly beans and other tropical legumes. The bacterium infects the roots of these plants and forms nodules where it converts nitrogen gas into ammonia, which is then used by the plant for growth. Rhizobium tropici is known for its ability to survive in a wide range of temperatures and soil conditions, making it an important contributor to sustainable agriculture in tropical regions.

Nitrogen fixation is a process by which nitrogen gas (N2) in the air is converted into ammonia (NH3) or other chemically reactive forms, making it available to plants and other organisms for use as a nutrient. This process is essential for the nitrogen cycle and for the growth of many types of plants, as most plants cannot utilize nitrogen gas directly from the air.

In the medical field, nitrogen fixation is not a commonly used term. However, in the context of microbiology and infectious diseases, some bacteria are capable of fixing nitrogen and this ability can contribute to their pathogenicity. For example, certain species of bacteria that colonize the human body, such as those found in the gut or on the skin, may be able to fix nitrogen and use it for their own growth and survival. In some cases, these bacteria may also release fixed nitrogen into the environment, which can have implications for the ecology and health of the host and surrounding ecosystems.

Fabaceae is the scientific name for a family of flowering plants commonly known as the legume, pea, or bean family. This family includes a wide variety of plants that are important economically, agriculturally, and ecologically. Many members of Fabaceae have compound leaves and produce fruits that are legumes, which are long, thin pods that contain seeds. Some well-known examples of plants in this family include beans, peas, lentils, peanuts, clover, and alfalfa.

In addition to their importance as food crops, many Fabaceae species have the ability to fix nitrogen from the atmosphere into the soil through a symbiotic relationship with bacteria that live in nodules on their roots. This makes them valuable for improving soil fertility and is one reason why they are often used in crop rotation and as cover crops.

It's worth noting that Fabaceae is sometimes still referred to by its older scientific name, Leguminosae.

"Sinorhizobium meliloti" is a species of nitrogen-fixing bacteria that forms nodules on the roots of leguminous plants, such as alfalfa and clover. These bacteria have the ability to convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia, which can then be used by the plant for growth and development. This symbiotic relationship benefits both the bacterium and the plant, as the plant provides carbon sources to the bacterium, while the bacterium provides the plant with a source of nitrogen.

"Sinorhizobium meliloti" is gram-negative, motile, and rod-shaped, and it can be found in soil and root nodules of leguminous plants. It has a complex genome consisting of a circular chromosome and several plasmids, which carry genes involved in nitrogen fixation and other important functions. The bacteria are able to sense and respond to various environmental signals, allowing them to adapt to changing conditions and establish successful symbioses with their host plants.

In addition to its agricultural importance, "Sinorhizobium meliloti" is also a model organism for studying the molecular mechanisms of symbiotic nitrogen fixation and bacterial genetics.

Rhizobiaceae is a family of bacteria that have the ability to fix nitrogen. These bacteria are gram-negative, motile, and rod-shaped. They are commonly found in the root nodules of leguminous plants, where they form a symbiotic relationship with the plant. The bacteria provide the plant with fixed nitrogen, while the plant provides the bacteria with carbon and a protected environment.

The most well-known genus of Rhizobiaceae is Rhizobium, which includes several species that are important for agriculture because of their ability to fix nitrogen in the root nodules of legumes. Other genera in this family include Bradyrhizobium, Mesorhizobium, and Sinorhizobium.

It's worth noting that while Rhizobiaceae bacteria are generally beneficial, they can sometimes cause disease in plants under certain conditions. For example, some strains of Rhizobium can cause leaf spots on certain crops.

Medicinal plants are defined as those plants that contain naturally occurring chemical compounds which can be used for therapeutic purposes, either directly or indirectly. These plants have been used for centuries in various traditional systems of medicine, such as Ayurveda, Chinese medicine, and Native American medicine, to prevent or treat various health conditions.

Medicinal plants contain a wide variety of bioactive compounds, including alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, terpenes, and saponins, among others. These compounds have been found to possess various pharmacological properties, such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities.

Medicinal plants can be used in various forms, including whole plant material, extracts, essential oils, and isolated compounds. They can be administered through different routes, such as oral, topical, or respiratory, depending on the desired therapeutic effect.

It is important to note that while medicinal plants have been used safely and effectively for centuries, they should be used with caution and under the guidance of a healthcare professional. Some medicinal plants can interact with prescription medications or have adverse effects if used inappropriately.

Root nodules in plants refer to the specialized structures formed through the symbiotic relationship between certain leguminous plants and nitrogen-fixing bacteria, most commonly belonging to the genus Rhizobia. These nodules typically develop on the roots of the host plant, providing an ideal environment for the bacteria to convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia, a form that can be directly utilized by the plant for growth and development.

The formation of root nodules begins with the infection of the plant's root hair cells by Rhizobia bacteria. This interaction triggers a series of molecular signals leading to the differentiation of root cortical cells into nodule primordia, which eventually develop into mature nodules. The nitrogen-fixing bacteria reside within these nodules in membrane-bound compartments called symbiosomes, where they reduce atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia through an enzyme called nitrogenase.

The plant, in turn, provides the bacteria with carbon sources and other essential nutrients required for their growth and survival within the nodules. The fixed nitrogen is then transported from the root nodules to other parts of the plant, enhancing its overall nitrogen nutrition and promoting sustainable growth without the need for external nitrogen fertilizers.

In summary, root nodules in plants are essential structures formed through symbiotic associations with nitrogen-fixing bacteria, allowing leguminous plants to convert atmospheric nitrogen into a usable form while also benefiting the environment by reducing the reliance on chemical nitrogen fertilizers.

'Medicago sativa' is the scientific name for a plant species more commonly known as alfalfa. In a medical context, alfalfa is often considered a herbal supplement and its medicinal properties include being a source of vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants. It has been used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of conditions such as kidney problems, asthma, arthritis, and high cholesterol levels. However, it's important to note that the effectiveness of alfalfa for these uses is not conclusively established by scientific research and its use may have potential risks or interactions with certain medications. Always consult a healthcare provider before starting any new supplement regimen.

Plant root nodulation is a type of symbiotic relationship between certain plants (mostly legumes) and nitrogen-fixing bacteria, such as Rhizobia species. This process involves the formation of specialized structures called nodules on the roots of the host plant. The bacteria inhabit these nodules and convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia, a form of nitrogen that plants can use for growth. In return, the plant provides the bacteria with carbon sources and a protected environment for growth. This mutualistic relationship helps improve soil fertility and promotes sustainable agriculture.

"Sinorhizobium" is a genus of bacteria that can form nitrogen-fixing nodules on the roots of certain leguminous plants, such as beans and alfalfa. These bacteria are able to convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia, which the plant can then use for growth. This symbiotic relationship benefits both the plant and the bacteria - the plant receives a source of nitrogen, while the bacteria receive carbon and other nutrients from the plant.

The genus "Sinorhizobium" is part of the family Rhizobiaceae and includes several species that are important for agriculture and the global nitrogen cycle. Some examples of "Sinorhizobium" species include S. meliloti, which forms nodules on alfalfa and other Medicago species, and S. fredii, which forms nodules on soybeans and other Glycine species.

It's worth noting that the taxonomy of nitrogen-fixing bacteria has undergone significant revisions in recent years, and some "Sinorhizobium" species have been reclassified as members of other genera. However, the genus "Sinorhizobium" remains a valid and important group of nitrogen-fixing bacteria.

A bacterial gene is a segment of DNA (or RNA in some viruses) that contains the genetic information necessary for the synthesis of a functional bacterial protein or RNA molecule. These genes are responsible for encoding various characteristics and functions of bacteria such as metabolism, reproduction, and resistance to antibiotics. They can be transmitted between bacteria through horizontal gene transfer mechanisms like conjugation, transformation, and transduction. Bacterial genes are often organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule.

It's important to note that the term "bacterial gene" is used to describe genetic elements found in bacteria, but not all genetic elements in bacteria are considered genes. For example, some DNA sequences may not encode functional products and are therefore not considered genes. Additionally, some bacterial genes may be plasmid-borne or phage-borne, rather than being located on the bacterial chromosome.

"Phaseolus" is a term that refers to a genus of plants in the legume family Fabaceae, also known as the pea family. The most common and well-known species in this genus is "Phaseolus vulgaris," which is commonly called the common bean. This includes many familiar varieties such as kidney beans, black beans, navy beans, pinto beans, and green beans.

These plants are native to the Americas and have been cultivated for thousands of years for their edible seeds (beans) and pods (green beans). They are an important source of protein, fiber, vitamins, and minerals in many diets around the world.

It's worth noting that "Phaseolus" is a taxonomic term used in the scientific classification of plants, and it does not have a specific medical definition. However, the beans from these plants do have various health benefits and potential medicinal properties, such as being associated with reduced risk of heart disease, improved gut health, and better blood sugar control.

A plant root is not a medical term per se, but it is a term from botany, which is the study of plants. However, I can certainly provide a definition for you.

Plant roots are the underground organs of a plant that typically grow downward into the soil. They serve several important functions, including:

1. Anchorage: Roots help to stabilize the plant and keep it upright in the ground.
2. Absorption: Roots absorb water and nutrients from the soil, which are essential for the plant's growth and development.
3. Conduction: Roots conduct water and nutrients up to the above-ground parts of the plant, such as the stem and leaves.
4. Vegetative reproduction: Some plants can reproduce vegetatively through their roots, producing new plants from root fragments or specialized structures called rhizomes or tubers.

Roots are composed of several different tissues, including the epidermis, cortex, endodermis, and vascular tissue. The epidermis is the outermost layer of the root, which secretes a waxy substance called suberin that helps to prevent water loss. The cortex is the middle layer of the root, which contains cells that store carbohydrates and other nutrients. The endodermis is a thin layer of cells that surrounds the vascular tissue and regulates the movement of water and solutes into and out of the root. The vascular tissue consists of xylem and phloem, which transport water and nutrients throughout the plant.

'Bradyrhizobium' is a genus of bacteria that can form nitrogen-fixing nodules on the roots of certain leguminous plants, such as soybeans and alfalfa. These bacteria are able to convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia, which the plant can then use for growth. This process, known as nitrogen fixation, is important for maintaining soil fertility and is beneficial for agricultural production.

The name 'Bradyrhizobium' comes from the Greek words "brady," meaning slow, and "rhiza," meaning root, reflecting the slower growth rate of these bacteria compared to other rhizobia. The bacteria are typically rod-shaped and motile, with a single polar flagellum for movement. They are gram-negative and have a complex cell envelope that includes an outer membrane, peptidoglycan layer, and cytoplasmic membrane.

Bradyrhizobium species are able to form symbiotic relationships with leguminous plants by colonizing the root nodules of the plant. The bacteria enter the plant through root hairs or wounds on the root surface, and then migrate to the inner cortex of the root where they induce the formation of nodules. Once inside the nodule, the bacteria differentiate into bacteroids that are able to fix nitrogen gas from the atmosphere into ammonia, which is then used by the plant for growth. In return, the plant provides carbon and other nutrients to the bacteria.

Bradyrhizobium species are important for sustainable agriculture because they can reduce the need for chemical fertilizers and improve soil health. They have also been studied for their potential use in bioremediation and as biofertilizers for non-leguminous crops.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

"Mesorhizobium" is a genus of bacteria that can form nitrogen-fixing nodules on the roots of certain leguminous plants. These bacteria are able to convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia, which the plant can then use as a nutrient for growth. This process, known as biological nitrogen fixation, is an important part of the nitrogen cycle and helps to fertilize the soil naturally.

Mesorhizobium species are gram-negative rods that are motile by means of a single polar flagellum. They are able to grow both aerobically and facultatively anaerobically, and are found in a variety of environments, including soil, water, and the root nodules of leguminous plants.

Mesorhizobium species are able to form nitrogen-fixing symbioses with a wide range of legumes, including important crop plants such as soybeans, chickpeas, and lentils. The bacteria infect the roots of the plant and induce the formation of nodules, which provide a protected environment for the bacteria to fix nitrogen. In return, the plant provides the bacteria with carbon sources and other nutrients.

Mesorhizobium species are important for agriculture because they help to reduce the need for chemical fertilizers, which can be expensive and harmful to the environment. By forming nitrogen-fixing symbioses with leguminous plants, Mesorhizobium species contribute to sustainable agricultural practices and help to maintain soil fertility.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

A plasmid is a small, circular, double-stranded DNA molecule that is separate from the chromosomal DNA of a bacterium or other organism. Plasmids are typically not essential for the survival of the organism, but they can confer beneficial traits such as antibiotic resistance or the ability to degrade certain types of pollutants.

Plasmids are capable of replicating independently of the chromosomal DNA and can be transferred between bacteria through a process called conjugation. They often contain genes that provide resistance to antibiotics, heavy metals, and other environmental stressors. Plasmids have also been engineered for use in molecular biology as cloning vectors, allowing scientists to replicate and manipulate specific DNA sequences.

Plasmids are important tools in genetic engineering and biotechnology because they can be easily manipulated and transferred between organisms. They have been used to produce vaccines, diagnostic tests, and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for various applications, including agriculture, medicine, and industry.

"Medicago" is a genus of flowering plants in the family Fabaceae, also known as the legume or pea family. It includes several species that are important forage crops and green manure, such as Medicago sativa (alfalfa or lucerne) and Medicago lupulina (black medic). These plants have the ability to fix nitrogen from the atmosphere through their root nodules, which benefits the soil and other nearby plants. They are often used in rotational grazing systems and for erosion control.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "peas" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. Peas are a type of legume that is commonly consumed as a vegetable. They are rich in nutrients such as protein, fiber, vitamin C, and vitamin K. If you have any questions about the health benefits or potential risks of consuming peas, I would be happy to try to help with that.

Bacterial polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates that consist of long chains of sugar molecules (monosaccharides) linked together by glycosidic bonds. They are produced and used by bacteria for various purposes such as:

1. Structural components: Bacterial polysaccharides, such as peptidoglycan and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), play a crucial role in maintaining the structural integrity of bacterial cells. Peptidoglycan is a major component of the bacterial cell wall, while LPS forms the outer layer of the outer membrane in gram-negative bacteria.
2. Nutrient storage: Some bacteria synthesize and store polysaccharides as an energy reserve, similar to how plants store starch. These polysaccharides can be broken down and utilized by the bacterium when needed.
3. Virulence factors: Bacterial polysaccharides can also function as virulence factors, contributing to the pathogenesis of bacterial infections. For example, certain bacteria produce capsular polysaccharides (CPS) that surround and protect the bacterial cells from host immune defenses, allowing them to evade phagocytosis and persist within the host.
4. Adhesins: Some polysaccharides act as adhesins, facilitating the attachment of bacteria to surfaces or host cells. This is important for biofilm formation, which helps bacteria resist environmental stresses and antibiotic treatments.
5. Antigenic properties: Bacterial polysaccharides can be highly antigenic, eliciting an immune response in the host. The antigenicity of these molecules can vary between different bacterial species or even strains within a species, making them useful as targets for vaccines and diagnostic tests.

In summary, bacterial polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates that serve various functions in bacteria, including structural support, nutrient storage, virulence factor production, adhesion, and antigenicity.

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is a type of RNA that combines with proteins to form ribosomes, which are complex structures inside cells where protein synthesis occurs. The "16S" refers to the sedimentation coefficient of the rRNA molecule, which is a measure of its size and shape. In particular, 16S rRNA is a component of the smaller subunit of the prokaryotic ribosome (found in bacteria and archaea), and is often used as a molecular marker for identifying and classifying these organisms due to its relative stability and conservation among species. The sequence of 16S rRNA can be compared across different species to determine their evolutionary relationships and taxonomic positions.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

'Medicago truncatula' is not a medical term, but a scientific name for a plant species. It is commonly known as barrel medic or yellow trefoil and is native to the Mediterranean region. It is a model organism in the field of plant genetics and molecular biology due to its small genome size and ease of transformation. While it does not have direct medical applications, studies on this plant can contribute to our understanding of fundamental biological processes and may have indirect implications for human health.

"Vicia sativa" is the scientific name for a type of plant commonly known as "Spring Vetch" or "Garden Vetch." It belongs to the legume family (Fabaceae) and is native to Europe, western Asia, and northwest Africa. The plant can grow up to 1 meter tall and has pinnate leaves with 8-14 oval leaflets. Its pea-like flowers are typically pink or purple.

While "Vicia sativa" has been used in traditional medicine for various purposes, such as treating skin conditions and respiratory issues, it is not commonly recognized as a medical term or treatment in modern Western medicine. As with any plant or herbal remedy, it's essential to consult a healthcare professional before using it for medicinal purposes, especially if you have pre-existing health conditions or are taking medications.

Gene expression regulation in bacteria refers to the complex cellular processes that control the production of proteins from specific genes. This regulation allows bacteria to adapt to changing environmental conditions and ensure the appropriate amount of protein is produced at the right time.

Bacteria have a variety of mechanisms for regulating gene expression, including:

1. Operon structure: Many bacterial genes are organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule. The expression of these genes can be coordinately regulated by controlling the transcription of the entire operon.
2. Promoter regulation: Transcription is initiated at promoter regions upstream of the gene or operon. Bacteria have regulatory proteins called sigma factors that bind to the promoter and recruit RNA polymerase, the enzyme responsible for transcribing DNA into RNA. The binding of sigma factors can be influenced by environmental signals, allowing for regulation of transcription.
3. Attenuation: Some operons have regulatory regions called attenuators that control transcription termination. These regions contain hairpin structures that can form in the mRNA and cause transcription to stop prematurely. The formation of these hairpins is influenced by the concentration of specific metabolites, allowing for regulation of gene expression based on the availability of those metabolites.
4. Riboswitches: Some bacterial mRNAs contain regulatory elements called riboswitches that bind small molecules directly. When a small molecule binds to the riboswitch, it changes conformation and affects transcription or translation of the associated gene.
5. CRISPR-Cas systems: Bacteria use CRISPR-Cas systems for adaptive immunity against viruses and plasmids. These systems incorporate short sequences from foreign DNA into their own genome, which can then be used to recognize and cleave similar sequences in invading genetic elements.

Overall, gene expression regulation in bacteria is a complex process that allows them to respond quickly and efficiently to changing environmental conditions. Understanding these regulatory mechanisms can provide insights into bacterial physiology and help inform strategies for controlling bacterial growth and behavior.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Nitrogenase is not a medical term, but a biological term used in the field of microbiology and biochemistry. It refers to an enzyme complex found in certain bacteria and archaea that have the ability to fix nitrogen gas (N2) from the atmosphere into ammonia (NH3), a form of nitrogen that can be utilized by plants and other organisms for growth and development. This process is known as biological nitrogen fixation, which is essential for maintaining the global nitrogen cycle and supporting life on Earth.

The medical field may refer to nitrogenase in relation to human health in the context of understanding the role of nitrogen-fixing bacteria in soil fertility and their impact on agriculture and food production. However, there is no direct medical definition or application for nitrogenase.

Leghemoglobin is a type of protein known as a hemeprotein, found in the root nodules of leguminous plants (plants belonging to the family Fabaceae or Leguminosae). These root nodules are formed through a symbiotic relationship with nitrogen-fixing bacteria called Rhizobia.

The primary function of leghemoglobin is to facilitate the process of nitrogen fixation by maintaining an optimal oxygen concentration within the root nodule cells, where the Rhizobia reside. By binding and releasing oxygen reversibly, leghemoglobin protects the nitrogen-fixing enzyme, nitrogenase, from being inactivated by excess oxygen. This ensures that the Rhizobia can effectively convert atmospheric nitrogen gas (N2) into ammonia (NH3), which is then utilized by the plant for its growth and development.

In summary, leghemoglobin is a crucial protein in the process of biological nitrogen fixation, allowing leguminous plants to grow without the need for added nitrogen fertilizers.

Species specificity is a term used in the field of biology, including medicine, to refer to the characteristic of a biological entity (such as a virus, bacterium, or other microorganism) that allows it to interact exclusively or preferentially with a particular species. This means that the biological entity has a strong affinity for, or is only able to infect, a specific host species.

For example, HIV is specifically adapted to infect human cells and does not typically infect other animal species. Similarly, some bacterial toxins are species-specific and can only affect certain types of animals or humans. This concept is important in understanding the transmission dynamics and host range of various pathogens, as well as in developing targeted therapies and vaccines.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "soybeans" are not a medical term. They are a type of legume that is commonly used in agriculture and food production. The medical community might discuss soybeans in the context of nutrition or allergies, but there isn't a formal medical definition for this term.

Here's some general information: Soybeans, scientifically known as Glycine max, are native to East Asia and are now grown worldwide. They are a significant source of plant-based protein and oil. Soybeans contain various nutrients, including essential amino acids, fiber, B vitamins, and minerals like calcium, iron, magnesium, and zinc. They are used in various food products such as tofu, soy milk, tempeh, and miso. Additionally, soybeans are also used in the production of industrial products, including biodiesel, plastics, and inks. Some people may have allergic reactions to soybeans or soy products.

Cosmids are a type of cloning vector, which are self-replicating DNA molecules that can be used to introduce foreign DNA fragments into a host organism. Cosmids are plasmids that contain the cos site from bacteriophage λ, allowing them to be packaged into bacteriophage heads during an in vitro packaging reaction. This enables the transfer of large DNA fragments (up to 45 kb) into a host cell through transduction. Cosmids are widely used in molecular biology for the construction and analysis of genomic libraries, physical mapping, and DNA sequencing.

I apologize, but there seems to be a misunderstanding. "Soil microbiology" is not a medical term; rather, it is a branch of microbiology that deals with the study of microorganisms in soil. It involves understanding the diversity, ecology, and biochemistry of bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoa, and other microscopic life forms found in soil. This field has applications in agriculture, environmental science, and waste management but is not directly related to medical definitions or human health.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Lespedeza" is not a medical term. It is a genus of plants commonly known as bush clover or lespedeza. These plants are native to warm temperate and subtropical regions of the world, including parts of North America, Asia, and Africa. They have been used in some traditional medicine practices, but there is no widely recognized medical definition associated with "Lespedeza." If you have any questions related to a specific medical term or concept, I'd be happy to help if I can!

A genetic complementation test is a laboratory procedure used in molecular genetics to determine whether two mutated genes can complement each other's function, indicating that they are located at different loci and represent separate alleles. This test involves introducing a normal or wild-type copy of one gene into a cell containing a mutant version of the same gene, and then observing whether the presence of the normal gene restores the normal function of the mutated gene. If the introduction of the normal gene results in the restoration of the normal phenotype, it suggests that the two genes are located at different loci and can complement each other's function. However, if the introduction of the normal gene does not restore the normal phenotype, it suggests that the two genes are located at the same locus and represent different alleles of the same gene. This test is commonly used to map genes and identify genetic interactions in a variety of organisms, including bacteria, yeast, and animals.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

"Trifolium" is not a medical term. It is actually the genus name for a group of plants commonly known as clover. These plants belong to the family Fabaceae and are found in many temperate regions around the world. Some species, like red clover (Trifolium pratense), are used in herbal medicine for various purposes, such as treating respiratory conditions, skin inflammations, and menopausal symptoms. However, it's important to consult with a healthcare professional before using any herbal remedies.

I apologize for any confusion, but "plants" is not a term that has a medical definition. The term "plants" refers to a large and diverse group of organisms that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, which is the process of converting sunlight into chemical energy. Plants are typically characterized by having cells with cell walls containing cellulose, chloroplasts containing the pigment chlorophyll, and the ability to synthesize their own food through photosynthesis.

In a medical or biological context, you might be thinking of "plant-based" or "phytomedicine," which refer to the use of plants or plant extracts as a form of medicine or treatment. Phytomedicines have been used for thousands of years in many traditional systems of medicine, and some plant-derived compounds have been found to have therapeutic benefits in modern medicine as well. However, "plants" itself does not have a medical definition.

DNA transposable elements, also known as transposons or jumping genes, are mobile genetic elements that can change their position within a genome. They are composed of DNA sequences that include genes encoding the enzymes required for their own movement (transposase) and regulatory elements. When activated, the transposase recognizes specific sequences at the ends of the element and catalyzes the excision and reintegration of the transposable element into a new location in the genome. This process can lead to genetic variation, as the insertion of a transposable element can disrupt the function of nearby genes or create new combinations of gene regulatory elements. Transposable elements are widespread in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes and are thought to play a significant role in genome evolution.

'Agrobacterium tumefaciens' is a gram-negative, soil-dwelling bacterium that is known for its ability to cause plant tumors or crown galls. It does this through the transfer and integration of a segment of DNA called the Ti (Tumor-inducing) plasmid into the plant's genome. This transferred DNA includes genes that encode enzymes for the production of opines, which serve as a nutrient source for the bacterium, and genes that cause unregulated plant cell growth leading to tumor formation.

This unique ability of 'Agrobacterium tumefaciens' to transfer and integrate foreign DNA into plants has been exploited in genetic engineering to create transgenic plants with desired traits. The Ti plasmid is often used as a vector to introduce new genes into the plant genome, making it an essential tool in plant biotechnology.

Tephrosia is a genus of flowering plants in the pea family, Fabaceae. It includes several species that are native to tropical and subtropical regions around the world. Some common names for Tephrosia include wild sensitive plant, fish poison pea, and devil's shrub.

In a medical context, Tephrosia is not widely recognized or used as a treatment. However, some species of Tephrosia have been reported to have medicinal properties in traditional medicine. For example, Tephrosia purpurea has been used in Ayurvedic medicine to treat a variety of conditions, including skin diseases, inflammation, and fever. The roots and leaves of this plant contain various chemical compounds that may have therapeutic effects, such as tannins, saponins, and alkaloids.

It is important to note that the use of Tephrosia or any other herbal remedy should be done under the guidance of a qualified healthcare provider, as these substances can interact with other medications and have potential side effects. Additionally, more research is needed to confirm the safety and efficacy of Tephrosia for medical purposes.

"Vicia" is a genus of plants, commonly known as vetch or faba beans. It's not a medical term, but rather a term used in botany to describe a group of leguminous plants that are part of the Fabaceae family. Some species of Vicia have been used in traditional medicine for various purposes, such as treating skin conditions and respiratory issues. However, I am an assistant and do not have real-time access to databases or medical resources, so please consult a reliable medical source for more detailed and accurate information.

DNA Sequence Analysis is the systematic determination of the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. It is a critical component of modern molecular biology, genetics, and genetic engineering. The process involves determining the exact order of the four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - in a DNA molecule or fragment. This information is used in various applications such as identifying gene mutations, studying evolutionary relationships, developing molecular markers for breeding, and diagnosing genetic diseases.

The process of DNA Sequence Analysis typically involves several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification (if necessary), purification, sequencing reaction, and electrophoresis. The resulting data is then analyzed using specialized software to determine the exact sequence of nucleotides.

In recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics, enabling the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes. This has led to an explosion of genomic data and new insights into the genetic basis of many diseases and traits.

Alphaproteobacteria is a class of proteobacteria, a group of gram-negative bacteria. This class includes a diverse range of bacterial species that can be found in various environments, such as soil, water, and the surfaces of plants and animals. Some notable members of Alphaproteobacteria include the nitrogen-fixing bacteria Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium, which form symbiotic relationships with the roots of leguminous plants, as well as the pathogenic bacteria Rickettsia, which are responsible for causing diseases such as typhus and Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

The Alphaproteobacteria class is further divided into several orders, including Rhizobiales, Rhodobacterales, and Caulobacterales. These orders contain a variety of bacterial species that have different characteristics and ecological roles. For example, members of the order Rhizobiales are known for their ability to fix nitrogen, while members of the order Rhodobacterales include photosynthetic bacteria that can use light as an energy source.

Overall, Alphaproteobacteria is a diverse and important group of bacteria that play various roles in the environment and in the health of plants and animals.

Acetylene is defined as a colorless, highly flammable gas with a distinctive odor, having the chemical formula C2H2. It is the simplest and lightest hydrocarbon in which two carbon atoms are bonded together by a triple bond. Acetylene is used as a fuel in welding and cutting torches, and it can also be converted into other chemicals, such as vinyl acetate and acetic acid. In medical terms, acetylene is not a substance that is commonly used or discussed.

Molecular cloning is a laboratory technique used to create multiple copies of a specific DNA sequence. This process involves several steps:

1. Isolation: The first step in molecular cloning is to isolate the DNA sequence of interest from the rest of the genomic DNA. This can be done using various methods such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, or hybridization.
2. Vector construction: Once the DNA sequence of interest has been isolated, it must be inserted into a vector, which is a small circular DNA molecule that can replicate independently in a host cell. Common vectors used in molecular cloning include plasmids and phages.
3. Transformation: The constructed vector is then introduced into a host cell, usually a bacterial or yeast cell, through a process called transformation. This can be done using various methods such as electroporation or chemical transformation.
4. Selection: After transformation, the host cells are grown in selective media that allow only those cells containing the vector to grow. This ensures that the DNA sequence of interest has been successfully cloned into the vector.
5. Amplification: Once the host cells have been selected, they can be grown in large quantities to amplify the number of copies of the cloned DNA sequence.

Molecular cloning is a powerful tool in molecular biology and has numerous applications, including the production of recombinant proteins, gene therapy, functional analysis of genes, and genetic engineering.

Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) refers to the specific regions of DNA in a cell that contain the genes for ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Ribosomes are complex structures composed of proteins and rRNA, which play a crucial role in protein synthesis by translating messenger RNA (mRNA) into proteins.

In humans, there are four types of rRNA molecules: 18S, 5.8S, 28S, and 5S. These rRNAs are encoded by multiple copies of rDNA genes that are organized in clusters on specific chromosomes. In humans, the majority of rDNA genes are located on the short arms of acrocentric chromosomes 13, 14, 15, 21, and 22.

Each cluster of rDNA genes contains both transcribed and non-transcribed spacer regions. The transcribed regions contain the genes for the four types of rRNA, while the non-transcribed spacers contain regulatory elements that control the transcription of the rRNA genes.

The number of rDNA copies varies between species and even within individuals of the same species. The copy number can also change during development and in response to environmental factors. Variations in rDNA copy number have been associated with various diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Hydrogenase is not a medical term per se, but a biochemical term. It is used to describe an enzyme that catalyzes the reversible conversion between molecular hydrogen (H2) and protons (H+) or vice versa. These enzymes are found in certain bacteria, algae, and archaea, and they play a crucial role in their energy metabolism, particularly in processes like hydrogen production and consumption.

While not directly related to medical terminology, understanding the function of hydrogenase can be important in fields such as microbiology, molecular biology, and environmental science, which can have implications for human health in areas like infectious diseases, biofuels, and waste management.

Rhizobium phaseoli is a type of bacteria that has the ability to fix nitrogen from the atmosphere and convert it into a form that can be used by plants. It is a symbiotic bacterium, which means it forms a mutually beneficial relationship with a host plant. Specifically, Rhizobium phaseoli forms nodules on the roots of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and other leguminous plants, where it converts nitrogen into ammonia that the plant can use for growth. In return, the plant provides the bacteria with carbon and other nutrients.

Rhizobium phaseoli is an important bacterium in agriculture because it helps to improve soil fertility by increasing the availability of nitrogen, which is a critical nutrient for plant growth. This can reduce the need for chemical fertilizers, which can be expensive and environmentally harmful. By promoting sustainable agricultural practices, Rhizobium phaseoli plays a crucial role in maintaining the health and productivity of agricultural ecosystems.

"Acacia" is a scientific name for a genus of shrubs and trees that belong to the pea family, Fabaceae. It includes over 1,350 species found primarily in Australia and Africa, but also in Asia, America, and Europe. Some acacia species are known for their hardwood, others for their phyllodes (flattened leaf stalks) or compound leaves, and yet others for their flowers, which are typically small and yellow or cream-colored.

It is important to note that "Acacia" is not a medical term or concept, but rather a botanical one. While some acacia species have medicinal uses, the name itself does not have a specific medical definition.

I am not aware of a widely recognized medical definition for the term "Mimosa." In general, it may refer to a type of plant or a cocktail made with champagne and orange juice. If you are looking for information on a specific medical condition or concept, please provide more context so that I can give you a more accurate and helpful response. Is there something specific you had in mind?

Insertional mutagenesis is a process of introducing new genetic material into an organism's genome at a specific location, which can result in a change or disruption of the function of the gene at that site. This technique is often used in molecular biology research to study gene function and regulation. The introduction of the foreign DNA is typically accomplished through the use of mobile genetic elements, such as transposons or viruses, which are capable of inserting themselves into the genome.

The insertion of the new genetic material can lead to a loss or gain of function in the affected gene, resulting in a mutation. This type of mutagenesis is called "insertional" because the mutation is caused by the insertion of foreign DNA into the genome. The effects of insertional mutagenesis can range from subtle changes in gene expression to the complete inactivation of a gene.

This technique has been widely used in genetic research, including the study of developmental biology, cancer, and genetic diseases. It is also used in the development of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for agricultural and industrial applications.

Mycorrhizae are symbiotic associations between fungi and the roots of most plant species. In a mycorrhizal association, fungi colonize the root tissues of plants and extend their mycelial networks into the surrounding soil. This association enhances the nutrient uptake capacity of the host plant, particularly with regards to phosphorus and nitrogen, while the fungi receive carbohydrates from the plant for their own growth and metabolism.

Mycorrhizal fungi can be broadly classified into two types: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae (or arbuscular mycorrhizae). Ectomycorrhizae form a sheath around the root surface, while endomycorrhizae penetrate the root cells and form structures called arbuscules, where nutrient exchange occurs. Mycorrhizal associations play crucial roles in maintaining ecosystem stability, promoting plant growth, and improving soil structure and fertility.

'Cupriavidus' is a genus of bacteria that are gram-negative, motile, and aerobic. They are capable of surviving in various environments, including soil, water, and clinical settings. Some species of this genus were previously classified under the genera 'Ralstonia' and 'Wautersia'. The name 'Cupriavidus' is derived from the Latin word "cuprum," which means copper, reflecting their ability to use copper as an electron acceptor during respiration.

These bacteria are known for their metabolic versatility and can degrade various organic compounds, making them relevant in bioremediation applications. In clinical settings, some species of 'Cupriavidus' have been associated with human infections, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. However, such cases are relatively rare compared to other bacterial pathogens.

It is essential to consult a reliable medical or scientific source for the most up-to-date and accurate information on 'Cupriavidus' species, as research in this field continues to evolve.

A "carbohydrate sequence" refers to the specific arrangement or order of monosaccharides (simple sugars) that make up a carbohydrate molecule, such as a polysaccharide or an oligosaccharide. Carbohydrates are often composed of repeating units of monosaccharides, and the sequence in which these units are arranged can have important implications for the function and properties of the carbohydrate.

For example, in glycoproteins (proteins that contain carbohydrate chains), the specific carbohydrate sequence can affect how the protein is processed and targeted within the cell, as well as its stability and activity. Similarly, in complex carbohydrates like starch or cellulose, the sequence of glucose units can determine whether the molecule is branched or unbranched, which can have implications for its digestibility and other properties.

Therefore, understanding the carbohydrate sequence is an important aspect of studying carbohydrate structure and function in biology and medicine.

Genetic conjugation is a type of genetic transfer that occurs between bacterial cells. It involves the process of one bacterium (the donor) transferring a piece of its DNA to another bacterium (the recipient) through direct contact or via a bridge-like connection called a pilus. This transferred DNA may contain genes that provide the recipient cell with new traits, such as antibiotic resistance or virulence factors, which can make the bacteria more harmful or difficult to treat. Genetic conjugation is an important mechanism for the spread of antibiotic resistance and other traits among bacterial populations.

Rickettsiaceae is a family of Gram-negative, obligate intracellular bacteria that are primarily parasitic in arthropods and mammals. They are the causative agents of several important human diseases, including typhus fever, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and rickettsialpox. These bacteria are typically transmitted to humans through the bites of infected arthropods such as ticks, fleas, or lice.

The bacteria in Rickettsiaceae are small, non-motile, and have a unique bipolar appearance with tapered ends. They can only replicate inside host cells, where they manipulate the host cell's machinery to create a protective niche for themselves. This makes them difficult to culture and study outside of their hosts.

Rickettsiaceae bacteria are divided into several genera based on their genetic and antigenic characteristics, including Rickettsia, Orientia, and Coxiella. Each genus contains several species that can cause different diseases in humans. For example, Rickettsia rickettsii is the causative agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, while Rickettsia prowazekii causes epidemic typhus.

Overall, Rickettsiaceae bacteria are important pathogens that can cause serious and sometimes fatal diseases in humans. Prompt diagnosis and treatment with appropriate antibiotics is essential for a successful outcome.

Nucleic acid hybridization is a process in molecular biology where two single-stranded nucleic acids (DNA, RNA) with complementary sequences pair together to form a double-stranded molecule through hydrogen bonding. The strands can be from the same type of nucleic acid or different types (i.e., DNA-RNA or DNA-cDNA). This process is commonly used in various laboratory techniques, such as Southern blotting, Northern blotting, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and microarray analysis, to detect, isolate, and analyze specific nucleic acid sequences. The hybridization temperature and conditions are critical to ensure the specificity of the interaction between the two strands.

Glutamate-ammonia ligase, also known as glutamine synthetase, is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in nitrogen metabolism. It catalyzes the formation of glutamine from glutamate and ammonia in the presence of ATP, resulting in the conversion of ammonia to a less toxic form. This reaction is essential for maintaining nitrogen balance in the body and for the synthesis of various amino acids, nucleotides, and other biomolecules. The enzyme is widely distributed in various tissues, including the brain, liver, and muscle, and its activity is tightly regulated through feedback inhibition by glutamine and other metabolites.

Cannabaceae is a family of flowering plants that includes the genera Cannabis and Humulus. The genus Cannabis consists of three species, Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica, and Cannabis ruderalis, which are commonly known as marijuana or hemp. These plants contain psychoactive compounds such as delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and have been used for medicinal, recreational, and industrial purposes for thousands of years. The genus Humulus includes the hop plant, which is used in brewing beer.

The family Cannabaceae is part of the order Rosales, which also includes families such as Rosaceae (roses), Fabaceae (legumes), and Fagaceae (oaks). Plants in this family are typically characterized by their opposite leaves, lack of stipules, and unisexual flowers. The female flowers have a two-lobed ovary and produce seeds enclosed in a dry fruit called an achene. Male flowers have five stamens and produce pollen.

In medical contexts, Cannabis sativa and Cannabis indica are the most commonly used species for medicinal purposes. They contain various cannabinoids, including THC and cannabidiol (CBD), which have been shown to have potential therapeutic effects on a variety of conditions such as chronic pain, nausea, spasticity, and anxiety disorders. However, more research is needed to fully understand the mechanisms of action and potential side effects of these compounds.

A phenotype is the physical or biochemical expression of an organism's genes, or the observable traits and characteristics resulting from the interaction of its genetic constitution (genotype) with environmental factors. These characteristics can include appearance, development, behavior, and resistance to disease, among others. Phenotypes can vary widely, even among individuals with identical genotypes, due to differences in environmental influences, gene expression, and genetic interactions.

Agricultural inoculants are biological products that contain beneficial microorganisms, such as bacteria or fungi, which are applied to seeds, soil, or plant surfaces to enhance plant growth, increase yield, and improve resistance to pests and diseases. These microorganisms form a mutually beneficial relationship with the plants, known as symbiosis, in which they help the plants absorb nutrients from the soil, fix nitrogen, and produce phytohormones that promote root growth and development.

Examples of agricultural inoculants include Rhizobia bacteria, which form nodules on the roots of leguminous plants and convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia that can be used by the plant; mycorrhizal fungi, which colonize plant roots and help them absorb water and nutrients from the soil; and Trichoderma fungi, which protect plants from pathogens and promote growth.

Agricultural inoculants are considered an environmentally friendly and sustainable alternative to chemical fertilizers and pesticides, as they improve crop productivity while reducing the negative impacts on the environment and human health.

Sequence homology in nucleic acids refers to the similarity or identity between the nucleotide sequences of two or more DNA or RNA molecules. It is often used as a measure of biological relationship between genes, organisms, or populations. High sequence homology suggests a recent common ancestry or functional constraint, while low sequence homology may indicate a more distant relationship or different functions.

Nucleic acid sequence homology can be determined by various methods such as pairwise alignment, multiple sequence alignment, and statistical analysis. The degree of homology is typically expressed as a percentage of identical or similar nucleotides in a given window of comparison.

It's important to note that the interpretation of sequence homology depends on the biological context and the evolutionary distance between the sequences compared. Therefore, functional and experimental validation is often necessary to confirm the significance of sequence homology.

Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides (LPS), which are found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. It is responsible for the endotoxic activity of LPS and plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of gram-negative bacterial infections. Lipid A is a glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor, consisting of a glucosamine disaccharide backbone with multiple fatty acid chains and phosphate groups attached to it. It can induce the release of proinflammatory cytokines, fever, and other symptoms associated with sepsis when introduced into the bloodstream.

Restriction mapping is a technique used in molecular biology to identify the location and arrangement of specific restriction endonuclease recognition sites within a DNA molecule. Restriction endonucleases are enzymes that cut double-stranded DNA at specific sequences, producing fragments of various lengths. By digesting the DNA with different combinations of these enzymes and analyzing the resulting fragment sizes through techniques such as agarose gel electrophoresis, researchers can generate a restriction map - a visual representation of the locations and distances between recognition sites on the DNA molecule. This information is crucial for various applications, including cloning, genome analysis, and genetic engineering.

"Melilotus" is the genus name for a group of plants commonly known as sweet clover or melilot. These plants are part of the Fabaceae family, which includes legumes. While "Melilotus" itself is not a medical term, some of its species have been used in traditional medicine and may be mentioned in medical literature.

The two most common species are Melilotus officinalis (yellow sweet clover) and Melilotus albus (white sweet clover). The plants contain coumarin derivatives, which can have anticoagulant properties. However, it is essential to note that consuming large amounts of these plants or their extracts can lead to adverse effects, including bleeding disorders.

In a medical context, "Melilotus" may be mentioned in relation to its potential medicinal uses, side effects, or interactions with other medications. Still, it is not considered a standard pharmaceutical drug or a widely accepted medical treatment. Always consult a healthcare professional before using any plant or herbal remedy for medicinal purposes.

Dicarboxylic acids are organic compounds containing two carboxyl groups (-COOH) in their molecular structure. The general formula for dicarboxylic acids is HOOC-R-COOH, where R represents a hydrocarbon chain or a functional group.

The presence of two carboxyl groups makes dicarboxylic acids stronger acids than monocarboxylic acids (compounds containing only one -COOH group). This is because the second carboxyl group contributes to the acidity of the molecule, allowing it to donate two protons in solution.

Examples of dicarboxylic acids include oxalic acid (HOOC-COOH), malonic acid (CH2(COOH)2), succinic acid (HOOC-CH2-CH2-COOH), glutaric acid (HOOC-(CH2)3-COOH), and adipic acid (HOOC-(CH2)4-COOH). These acids have various industrial applications, such as in the production of polymers, dyes, and pharmaceuticals.

'Escherichia coli' (E. coli) is a type of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and one of the most well-studied prokaryotic model organisms in molecular biology.

While most E. coli strains are harmless and even beneficial to their hosts, some serotypes can cause various forms of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illnesses in humans and animals. These pathogenic strains possess virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage host tissues, leading to diseases such as diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis.

E. coli is a versatile organism with remarkable genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environmental niches. It can be found in water, soil, food, and various man-made environments, making it an essential indicator of fecal contamination and a common cause of foodborne illnesses. The study of E. coli has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes, including DNA replication, gene regulation, and protein synthesis.

Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are large molecules found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. They consist of a hydrophilic polysaccharide called the O-antigen, a core oligosaccharide, and a lipid portion known as Lipid A. The Lipid A component is responsible for the endotoxic activity of LPS, which can trigger a powerful immune response in animals, including humans. This response can lead to symptoms such as fever, inflammation, and septic shock, especially when large amounts of LPS are introduced into the bloodstream.

The ribosomal spacer in DNA refers to the non-coding sequences of DNA that are located between the genes for ribosomal RNA (rRNA). These spacer regions are present in the DNA of organisms that have a nuclear genome, including humans and other animals, plants, and fungi.

In prokaryotic cells, such as bacteria, there are two ribosomal RNA genes, 16S and 23S, separated by a spacer region known as the intergenic spacer (IGS). In eukaryotic cells, there are multiple copies of ribosomal RNA genes arranged in clusters called nucleolar organizer regions (NORs), which are located on the short arms of several acrocentric chromosomes. Each cluster contains hundreds to thousands of copies of the 18S, 5.8S, and 28S rRNA genes, separated by non-transcribed spacer regions known as internal transcribed spacers (ITS) and external transcribed spacers (ETS).

The ribosomal spacer regions in DNA are often used as molecular markers for studying evolutionary relationships among organisms because they evolve more rapidly than the rRNA genes themselves. The sequences of these spacer regions can be compared among different species to infer their phylogenetic relationships and to estimate the time since they diverged from a common ancestor. Additionally, the length and composition of ribosomal spacers can vary between individuals within a species, making them useful for studying genetic diversity and population structure.

Sequence homology, amino acid, refers to the similarity in the order of amino acids in a protein or a portion of a protein between two or more species. This similarity can be used to infer evolutionary relationships and functional similarities between proteins. The higher the degree of sequence homology, the more likely it is that the proteins are related and have similar functions. Sequence homology can be determined through various methods such as pairwise alignment or multiple sequence alignment, which compare the sequences and calculate a score based on the number and type of matching amino acids.

Luteolin is a flavonoid, which is a type of plant pigment that has various beneficial effects on human health. It can be found in various fruits, vegetables, and herbs such as artichokes, peppers, celery, broccoli, peppermint, rosemary, and chamomile tea.

Luteolin has been shown to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer properties in laboratory studies. It works by inhibiting the activity of certain enzymes and receptors that play a role in inflammation and cancer development. However, more research is needed to determine its effectiveness and safety as a treatment for various medical conditions.

N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferases (GlcNAc transferases) are a group of enzymes that play a crucial role in the post-translational modification of proteins by adding N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) to specific amino acids in a protein sequence. These enzymes catalyze the transfer of GlcNAc from a donor molecule, typically UDP-GlcNAc, to acceptor proteins, which can be other glycoproteins or proteins without any prior glycosylation.

The addition of N-acetylglucosamine by these enzymes is an essential step in the formation of complex carbohydrate structures called N-linked glycans, which are attached to asparagine residues within the protein sequence. The process of adding GlcNAc can occur in different ways, leading to various types of N-glycan structures, such as oligomannose, hybrid, and complex types.

There are several classes of N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferases (GnTs) based on their substrate specificity and the type of glycosidic linkage they form:

1. GnT I (MGAT1): Transfers GlcNAc to the α1,6 position of the mannose residue in the chitobiose core of N-linked glycans, initiating the formation of complex-type structures.
2. GnT II (MGAT2): Adds a second GlcNAc residue to the β1,4 position of the mannose residue at the non-reducing end of the chitobiose core, forming bi-antennary N-glycans.
3. GnT III (MGAT3): Transfers GlcNAc to the β1,4 position of the mannose residue in the chitobiose core, creating a branching point for further glycosylation and leading to tri- or tetra-antennary N-glycans.
4. GnT IV (MGAT4): Adds GlcNAc to the β1,4 position of the mannose residue at the non-reducing end of antennae, forming multi-branched complex-type structures.
5. GnT V (MGAT5): Transfers GlcNAc to the β1,6 position of the mannose residue in the chitobiose core, leading to hybrid and complex-type N-glycans with bisecting GlcNAc.
6. GnT VI (MGAT6): Adds GlcNAc to the α1,3 position of the mannose residue at the non-reducing end of antennae, forming a-linked poly-N-acetyllactosamine structures.
7. GnT VII (MGAT7): Transfers GlcNAc to the β1,6 position of the N-acetylglucosamine residue in complex-type N-glycans, forming i-antigen structures.
8. GnT VIII (MGAT8): Adds GlcNAc to the α1,3 position of the mannose residue at the non-reducing end of antennae, forming a-linked poly-N-acetyllactosamine structures.
9. GnT IX (MGAT9): Transfers GlcNAc to the β1,6 position of the N-acetylglucosamine residue in complex-type N-glycans, forming i-antigen structures.
10. GnT X (MGAT10): Adds GlcNAc to the α1,3 position of the mannose residue at the non-reducing end of antennae, forming a-linked poly-N-acetyllactosamine structures.
11. GnT XI (MGAT11): Transfers GlcNAc to the β1,6 position of the N-acetylglucosamine residue in complex-type N-glycans, forming i-antigen structures.
12. GnT XII (MGAT12): Adds GlcNAc to the α1,3 position of the mannose residue at the non-reducing end of antennae, forming a-linked poly-N-acetyllactosamine structures.
13. GnT XIII (MGAT13): Transfers GlcNAc to the β1,6 position of the N-acetylglucosamine residue in complex-type N-glycans, forming i-antigen structures.
14. GnT XIV (MGAT14): Adds GlcNAc to the α1,3 position of the mannose residue at the non-reducing end of antennae, forming a-linked poly-N-acetyllactosamine structures.
15. GnT XV (MGAT15): Transfers GlcNAc to the β1,6 position of the N-acetylglucosamine residue in complex-type N-glycans, forming i-antigen structures.
16. GnT XVI (MGAT16): Adds GlcNAc to the α1,3 position of the mannose residue at the non-reducing end of antennae, forming a-linked poly-N-acetyllactosamine structures.
17. GnT XVII (MGAT17): Transfers GlcNAc to the β1,6 position of the N-acetylglucosamine residue in complex-type N-glycans, forming i-antigen structures.
18. GnT XVIII (MGAT18): Adds GlcNAc to the α1,3 position of the mannose residue at the non-reducing end of antennae, forming a-linked poly-N-acetyllactosamine structures.
19. GnT XIX (MGAT19): Transfers GlcNAc to the β1,6 position of the N-acetylglucosamine residue in complex-type N-glycans, forming i-antigen structures.
20. GnT XX (MGAT20): Adds GlcNAc to the α1,3 position of the mannose residue at the non-reducing end of antennae, forming a-linked poly-N-acetyllactosamine structures.
21. GnT XXI (MGAT21): Transfers GlcNAc to the β1,6 position of the N-acetylglucosamine residue in complex-type N-glycans, forming i-antigen structures.
22. GnT XXII (MGAT22): Adds GlcNAc to the α1,3 position of the mannose residue at the non-reducing end of antennae, forming a-linked poly-N-acetyllactosamine structures.
23. GnT XXIII (MGAT23): Transfers GlcNAc to the β1,6 position of the N-acetylglucosamine residue in complex-type N-glycans, forming i-antigen structures.
24. GnT XXIV (MGAT24): Adds GlcNAc to the α1,3 position of the mannose residue at the non-reducing end of antennae, forming a-linked poly-N-acetyllactosamine structures.
25. GnT XXV (MGAT25): Transfers GlcNAc to the β1,6 position of the N-acetylglucosamine residue in complex-type N-glycans, forming i-antigen structures.
26. GnT XXVI (MGAT26): Adds GlcNAc to the α1,3 position of the mannose residue at the non-reducing end of antennae, forming a-linked poly-N-acetyllactosamine structures.
27. GnT XXVII (MGAT27): Transfers GlcNAc to the β1,6 position of the N-acetylglucosamine residue in complex-type N-glycans, forming i-antigen structures.
28. GnT XXVIII (MGAT28): Adds GlcNAc to the α1,3 position of the mannose residue at the non-reducing end of antennae, forming a-linked poly-N-acetyllactosamine structures.
29. GnT XXIX (MGAT29): Transfers GlcNAc to the β1,6 position of the N-acetylglucosamine residue in complex-type N-glycans, forming i-antigen structures.
30. GnT XXX (MG

An operon is a genetic unit in prokaryotic organisms (like bacteria) consisting of a cluster of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule, which then undergoes translation to produce multiple proteins. This genetic organization allows for the coordinated regulation of genes that are involved in the same metabolic pathway or functional process. The unit typically includes promoter and operator regions that control the transcription of the operon, as well as structural genes encoding the proteins. Operons were first discovered in bacteria, but similar genetic organizations have been found in some eukaryotic organisms, such as yeast.

Bacterial RNA refers to the genetic material present in bacteria that is composed of ribonucleic acid (RNA). Unlike higher organisms, bacteria contain a single circular chromosome made up of DNA, along with smaller circular pieces of DNA called plasmids. These bacterial genetic materials contain the information necessary for the growth and reproduction of the organism.

Bacterial RNA can be divided into three main categories: messenger RNA (mRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA), and transfer RNA (tRNA). mRNA carries genetic information copied from DNA, which is then translated into proteins by the rRNA and tRNA molecules. rRNA is a structural component of the ribosome, where protein synthesis occurs, while tRNA acts as an adapter that brings amino acids to the ribosome during protein synthesis.

Bacterial RNA plays a crucial role in various cellular processes, including gene expression, protein synthesis, and regulation of metabolic pathways. Understanding the structure and function of bacterial RNA is essential for developing new antibiotics and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

2017 Rhizobium alamii Berge et al. 2009 "Rhizobium album" Hang et al. 2019 "Rhizobium albus" Li et al. 2017 Rhizobium altiplani ... 2016 Rhizobium alvei Sheu et al. 2015 Rhizobium anhuiense Zhang et al. 2015 Rhizobium aquaticum Máthé et al. 2019 "Rhizobium ... 2021 Rhizobium freirei Dall'Agnol et al. 2013 Rhizobium gallicum Amarger et al. 1997 Rhizobium gei Shi et al. 2016 "Rhizobium ... 1984 Rhizobium helianthi Wei et al. 2015 Rhizobium hidalgonense Yan et al. 2020 "Rhizobium indicum" Rahi et al. 2020 Rhizobium ...
... are rod-shaped bacteria found in the soil. They require oxygen and do not form spores. Rhizobium lentis grow ... Rhizobium lentis is genetically very closely related to the related species Rhizobium etli and Rhizobum phaseoli. The GC- ... nov., Rhizobium bangladeshense sp. nov. And Rhizobium binae sp. nov. From lentil (Lens culinaris) nodules". International ... Rhizobium lentis can utilize α-D lactose, β-methyl-D-glucoside, D-sorbitol, D-mannito, D-arbitol-glycerol, D-fructose-6- ...
245-. ISBN 978-3-642-05076-3. "Rhizobium indigoferae" at the Encyclopedia of Life LPSN Type strain of Rhizobium indigoferae at ... Rhizobium indigoferae is a Gram negative root nodule bacteria, which nodulates and forms nitrogen-fixing symbioses with ... Its type strain is CCBAU 71714(T) (= AS 1.3046(T)). Wei, G. H. (2002). "Rhizobium indigoferae sp. nov. and Sinorhizobium ... Phenotypic and Genotypic Diversity of Rhizobia. Bentham Science Publishers, 2012. Goyal, Aakash, and Priti Maheshwari, eds. ...
"Reclassification of American Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar phaseoli type I strains as Rhizobium etli sp. nov". Int J Syst ... "Rhizobium etli". List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN). Retrieved May 28, 2021. v t e (Articles with ... Rhizobium etli is a Gram-negative root-nodule bacterium. Segovia L, Young JP, Martínez-Romero E (1993). " ...
"Rhizobium lusitanum" at the Encyclopedia of Life LPSN Type strain of Rhizobium lusitanum at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity ... Rhizobium lusitanum is a Gram negative root nodule bacteria, specifically nodulating Phaseolus vulgaris. Its type strain is P1- ... Phenotypic and Genotypic Diversity of Rhizobia. Bentham Science Publishers, 2012. " ... 7T (=LMG 22705T =CECT 7016T). Valverde, A.; Igual, J. M.; Peix, A.; Cervantes, E.; Velazquez, E. (2006). "Rhizobium lusitanum ...
... (formerly Agrobacterium rhizogenes) is a Gram-negative soil bacterium that produces hairy root disease in ... Young JM, Kuykendall LD, Martínez-Romero E, Kerr A, Sawada H (2001). "A revision of Rhizobium Frank 1889, with an emended ... 1998 as new combinations: Rhizobium radiobacter, R. rhizogenes, R. rubi, R. undicola, and R. vitis". International Journal of ...
... Dangeard 1926AL and Rhizobium trifolii Dangeard 1926AL. R. trifolii is a later synonym of R. leguminosarum. ... "Rhizobium phaseoli". List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN). Retrieved May 28, 2021. v t e (Articles ... Rhizobium phaseoli is a root nodule bacterium. Dangeard PA. (1926). "Recherches sur les tubercles radicaux des Légumineuses". ... Reclassification of the strain R. leguminosarum DSM 30132 (=NCIMB 11478) as Rhizobium pisi sp. nov". Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ...
... is a bacterium species from the genus Rhizobium which has been isolated from soil from the city airport in ... Rhizobium viscosum produces exopolysaccharide. Quintelas, C; Pereira, R; Kaplan, E; Tavares, T (August 2013). "Removal of Ni(II ... "Reclassification of Arthrobacter viscosus as Rhizobium viscosum comb. nov". Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 67: 1789-1792. doi: ...
... is a root nodule bacterium. Martínez-Romero E, Segovia L, Mercante FM, Franco AA, Graham P, Pardo MA. (1991 ... "Rhizobium tropici". List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN). Retrieved May 28, 2021. v t e (CS1 maint: ... "Rhizobium tropici, a novel species nodulating Phaseolus vulgaris L. beans and Leucaena sp. trees". Int J Syst Bacteriol. 41 (3 ...
... are rod-shaped bacteria found in the soil. They require oxygen and do not form spores. Rhizobium binae grow ... nov., Rhizobium bangladeshense sp. nov. And Rhizobium binae sp. nov. From lentil (Lens culinaris) nodules". International ... Rhizobium binae was first described in 2015 by M. Harun-or Rashid and others. It was isolated from the root nodules of Lens ... Rhizobium binae can grow in the presence of the antibiotic compounds lincomycin and potassium tellurite, but not in the ...
Amarger N, Macheret V, Laguerre G (October 1997). "Rhizobium gallicum sp. nov. and Rhizobium giardinii sp. nov., from Phaseolus ... Silva, C.; Vinuesa, P.; Eguiarte, L. E.; Martínez-Romero, E.; Souza, V. (2003). "Rhizobium etli and Rhizobium gallicum Nodulate ... Amarger, N.; Macheret, V.; Laguerre, G. (1997). "Rhizobium gallicum sp. nov. and Rhizobium giardinii sp. nov., from Phaseolus ... Shamseldin, Abdelaal; Werner, Dietrich (2006). "Presence of Rhizobium etli bv. phaseoli and Rhizobium gallicum bv. gallicum in ...
ISBN 978-1-4020-4019-1. "Rhizobium mongolense" at the Encyclopedia of Life LPSN Type strain of Rhizobium mongolense at BacDive ... Rhizobium mongolense is a Gram negative root nodule bacteria, which nodulates and forms nitrogen-fixing symbioses with Medicago ... van Berkum, P.; Beyene, D.; Bao, G.; Campbell, T. A.; Eardly, B. D. (1998). "Rhizobium mongolense sp. nov. is one of three ... Phosphate solubilizing rhizobia originating from Medicago, Melilotus and Trigonella grown in a Spanish soil. First ...
... is a Gram-negative, motile, rod-shaped, aerobic bacterium. Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar trifolii, and ... Rhizobium leguminosarum's acyl carrier protein differs from most ACPs by having a C-terminus extension. This ACP is also used ... Rhizobium leguminosarum is a bacterium which lives in a mutualistic symbiotic relationship with legumes, and has the ability to ... Type strain of Rhizobium leguminosarum at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v t e (Articles with short description ...
Rhizobium phaseoli Dangeard 1926AL and Rhizobium trifolii Dangeard 1926AL. R. trifolii is a later synonym of R. leguminosarum. ... Rhizobium pisi is a root nodule bacterium. Ramírez-Bahena MH, García-Fraile P, Peix A, Valverde A, Rivas R, Igual JM, Mateos PF ... "Rhizobium pisi". List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN). Retrieved May 28, 2021. Marek-Kozaczuk M, ... Reclassification of the strain R. leguminosarum DSM 30132 (=NCIMB 11478) as Rhizobium pisi sp. nov". Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ...
"Rhizobium hainanense" at the Encyclopedia of Life LPSN Type strain of Rhizobium hainanense at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity ... Rhizobium hainanense is a Gram negative root nodule bacteria. Strain CCBAU 57015 (166) is the type strain. Chen, W.-X.; Tan, Z ... ISBN 0-7923-5180-0. Young JM, Park DC, Weir BS (September 2004). "Diversity of 16S rDNA sequences of Rhizobium spp. ... Dhabhai, Kshipra; Batra, Amla (2012). "Physiological and phylogenetic analysis of rhizobia isolated from Acacia nilotica L.". ...
... is a gram-negative bacterium which was isolated from root nodules of lentils in Bangladesh. Rhizobium ... nov., Rhizobium bangladeshense sp. nov. And Rhizobium binae sp. nov. From lentil (Lens culinaris) nodules". International ... Genetic analysis of R. bangladeshense has shown it to be most closely related to Rhizobium etli and Rhizobium phaseoli. The DNA ... Rashid, M.H., Gonzalez, H., Young, J.P.W., and Wink, M. (2014) Rhizobium leguminosarum is the symbiont of lentil in the Middle ...
Dendrobium section Rhizobium comprises the following species: "Den. Sec. Rhizobium". The American Orchid Society. 2016-03-24. ... Dendrobium section Rhizobium is a section of the genus Dendrobium. Plants in this section have thick, fleshy to terete leaves ... moving the species back to the section Rhizobium. Plants from this section are found in Australia, New Guinea, New Caledonia ...
... are a "group of soil bacteria that infect the roots of legumes to form root nodules". Rhizobia are found in the soil ... The legume-rhizobium symbiosis is a classic example of mutualism-rhizobia supply ammonia or amino acids to the plant and in ... "Current taxonomy of rhizobia". Archived from the original on 2013-06-04. Retrieved 2013-12-02. "Bacteria confused with rhizobia ... Legume sanctions maintain Rhizobium mutualism Current list of rhizobia species Nitrogen Fixation and Inoculation of Forage ...
... (EC 2.5.1.98, PssM) is an enzyme with systematic ... Rhizobium+leguminosarum+exopolysaccharide+glucosyl+ketal-pyruvate-transferase at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical ... "Mutation in the pssM gene encoding ketal pyruvate transferase leads to disruption of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae-Pisum ... for pyruvylation of subterminal glucose in the acidic octasaccharide repeating unit of the exopolysaccharide of Rhizobium ...
The rhizobia and their hosts must be able to recognize each other for nodule formation to commence. Rhizobia are specific to ... These bacteria, known as rhizobia, have the ability to take nitrogen gas (N2) out of the air and convert it to a form of ... It is found in the majority of its members that only form an association with rhizobia, which in turn form an exclusive ... The legume, acting as a host, and rhizobia, acting as a provider of usable nitrate, form a symbiotic relationship. Members of ...
If rhizobia are present, root nodulation begins by the time the third node appears. Nodulation typically continues for 8 weeks ... Rhizobium japonicum; Jordan 1982). This ability to fix nitrogen allows farmers to reduce nitrogen fertilizer use and increase ... Like many legumes, soybeans can fix atmospheric nitrogen, due to the presence of symbiotic bacteria from the Rhizobia group. ...
Raina JL, Modi VV (August 1972). "Deoxyribonucleate binding and transformation in Rhizobium jpaonicum". Journal of Bacteriology ... Rhizobium spp.), endosymbionts of arthropods (Wolbachia) and intracellular pathogens (e.g. Rickettsia). Moreover, the class is ... A species of technological interest is Rhizobium radiobacter (formerly Agrobacterium tumefaciens): scientists often use this ...
Chen WX, Yan GH, Li JL (1988). "Numerical taxonomic study of fast-growing soybean rhizobia and a proposal that Rhizobium fredii ... "a Rhizobium isolated from China", in turn referring to the related genus Rhizobium ("root-associated life form"). The name ... February 9, 2013). "Rhizobium: Writing about bacteria and their genomes". WordPress. Wang ET, Tan ZY, Willems A, Fernández- ... Wei GH, Wang ET, Tan ZY, Zhu ME, Chen WX (November 2002). "Rhizobium indigoferae sp. nov. and Sinorhizobium kummerowiae sp. nov ...
Ghosh PK, Maiti TK (2016). "Structure of Extracellular Polysaccharides (EPS) Produced by Rhizobia and their Functions in Legume ... myxogenes) cyclosophorans (Agrobacterium spp., Rhizobium spp. and Xanthomonas spp.) dextran (Leuconostoc mesenteroides, ... Rhizobium spp. and Zooglea spp.) galactosaminogalactan (Aspergillus spp.) gellan (Aureomonas elodea and Sphingomonas ...
In some rhizobia, the nif genes are located on plasmids called 'sym plasmids' (sym = symbiosis) which contain genes related to ... Rhizobium spp.-Gram-negative, symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacteria that usually form a symbiotic relationship with legume species ... The first Rhizobium genes for nitrogen fixation (nif) and for nodulation (nod) were cloned in the early 1980s by Gary Ruvkun ...
doi:10.1016/S0723-2020(85)80032-1. Kaur J, Verma M, Lal R (2011). "Rhizobium rosettiformans sp. nov., isolated from a ... hexachlorocyclohexane dump site, and reclassification of Blastobacter aggregatus Hirsch and Muller 1986 as Rhizobium aggregatum ...
Scholla, M. H.; Elkan, G. H. (1984). "Rhizobium fredii sp. nov., a Fast-Growing Species That Effectively Nodulates Soybeans". ... Sadowsky MJ, Cregan PB, Keyser HH (August 1988). "Nodulation and Nitrogen Fixation Efficacy of Rhizobium fredii with Phaseolus ... Balatti PA, Pueppke SG (December 1990). "Cultivar-Specific Interactions of Soybean with Rhizobium fredii Are Regulated by the ... Forsberg LS, Reuhs BL (September 1997). "Structural characterization of the K antigens from Rhizobium fredii USDA257: evidence ...
"Rhizobium huautlense" at the Encyclopedia of Life LPSN v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches ... 31 July 2014). "Rhizobium smilacinae sp. nov., an endophytic bacterium isolated from the leaf of Smilacina japonica". Antonie ... Wang, E. T.; van Berkum, P.; Beyene, D.; Sui, X. H.; Dorado, O.; Chen, W. X.; Martinez-Romero, E. (1998). "Rhizobium huautlense ... nov., a symbiont of Sesbania herbacea that has a close phylogenetic relationship with Rhizobium galegae". International Journal ...
Amarger, N.; Macheret, V.; Laguerre, G. (1997). "Rhizobium gallicum sp. nov. and Rhizobium giardinii sp. nov., from Phaseolus ... Beyhaut, Elena; Tlusty, Becki; van Berkum, Peter; Graham, Peter H (2006). "Rhizobium giardinii is the microsymbiont of Illinois ... Mhamdi, R (2002). "Different species and symbiotic genotypes of field rhizobia can nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris in Tunisian ... "A new taxonomic marker of nodule bacteria of the Rhizobium genus and its evolution". Russian Journal of Genetics: Applied ...
and Krsmanovi-Simic D, Werquin M (1973). "Etude des bactériophages de Rhizobium meliloti" [Study of bacteriophages of Rhizobium ... Krsmanovi-Simic D, Werquin M (1977). "Etude des bactériophages de Rhizobium meliloti" [Study of bacteriophages of Rhizobium ... interacts with the free oxygen in the root nodule where the rhizobia reside. Rhizobia are contained within symbiosomes in the ... The rhizobia then penetrate the root hairs and proliferate to form an infection thread. Through the infection thread, the ...
2017 Rhizobium alamii Berge et al. 2009 "Rhizobium album" Hang et al. 2019 "Rhizobium albus" Li et al. 2017 Rhizobium altiplani ... 2016 Rhizobium alvei Sheu et al. 2015 Rhizobium anhuiense Zhang et al. 2015 Rhizobium aquaticum Máthé et al. 2019 "Rhizobium ... 2021 Rhizobium freirei DallAgnol et al. 2013 Rhizobium gallicum Amarger et al. 1997 Rhizobium gei Shi et al. 2016 "Rhizobium ... 1984 Rhizobium helianthi Wei et al. 2015 Rhizobium hidalgonense Yan et al. 2020 "Rhizobium indicum" Rahi et al. 2020 Rhizobium ...
Structure of Rhizobium etli pyruvate carboxylase T882A with the allosteric activator, acetyl coenzyme-A ... Rhizobium etli CFN 42. Mutation(s): 1 Gene Names: pyc, RHE_CH04002. EC: 6.4.1.1. ... We report the 2.4 Å resolution X-ray crystal structure of the Rhizobium etli PC T882A mutant which reveals the first high- ... The insights gained from the T882A Rhizobium etli PC crystal structure provide a new series of catalytic snapshots in PC and ...
Rhizobium, Bradyrhizobium,…) (Elkan, 1981; Oldroyd, 2013; Downie, 2014). Rhizobia, upon detecting specific flavonoids released ... Those rhizobia that also express hydrogenase require Ni2+ uptake, which is mediated by the transporter HupE (Brito et al., 2010 ... 2010). Rhizobium leguminosarum hupE encodes a nickel transporter required for hydrogenase activity. J. Bacteriol. 192, 925-935 ... 2000). Saprophytic intracellular rhizobia in alfalfa nodules. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. 13, 1204-1213. doi: 10.1094/MPMI. ...
Discover the potential of rhizobia in legume production in Africa. Learn about their isolation, population, and effectiveness ... rhizobia are classified into slow (Bradyrhizobium) and fast growing Rhizobia [13] .The growth of Rhizobium visible in Yeast ... When the rhizobia are inside the root cells, the cells divide rapidly to form nodule [63] . Then the rhizobia convert ... All rhizobia strains isolated from Amazon soils during the study for evaluating plant growth-promoting traits of Rhizobium ...
Dominant Allele Restricts Nodulation of Rhizobium Species in Soybean. *Researchers Perform Targeted Mutation and Gene ... Dominant Allele Restricts Nodulation of Rhizobium Species in Soybean. April 25, 2018 ...
1383_27 Optimization of Rhizobium rhizogenes-mediated transformation for a diversity set of rose genotypes ... Hormone profiling of chrysanthemum hairy roots after co-cultivation with Rhizobium rhizogenes. ... 1383_25 Hormone profiling of chrysanthemum hairy roots after co-cultivation with Rhizobium rhizogenes ... Hormone profiling of chrysanthemum hairy roots after co-cultivation with Rhizobium rhizogenes. Acta Hortic. 1383, 209-216. DOI ...
... and structural elucidation of a nod signal excreted by Rhizobium trifolii ANU843 which induces root hair bran ... Abe, M.; Higashi, S. 1979: The infectivity of Rhizobium trifolii into a minute excised root of white clover Plant and Soil 53(1 ... Mino, Y. 1970: Effect of carboxylic acids and Tweens on the growth of clover root nodule bacteria, Rhizobium trifolii Journal ... Mino, Y.; Matsuoka, S. 1968: Effect of antibiotics on the clover d root nodule bacteria rhizobium trifolii Research Bulletin of ...
... characterises the relationships between native and invasive legumes and their mutualistic bacteria called rhizobia. ... Tags: biological invasions, co-introduction, cosmopolitan rhizobia, legume-rhizobium interaction webs, network specialization ... Rhizobia can fix gaseous nitrogen from the atmosphere turning it into a form of nitrogen that can be used by the legumes. In ... In their study, and the first of its kind, Le Roux and colleagues looked at legume-rhizobium networks and how they respond to ...
Alarmone-dependent regulators in Rhizobium etli.. par Vercruysse, M;Fauvart, Maarten ;Michiels, J.. Référence Communications in ...
The planet is really a finely tuned biological machine. If you look at the big picture or if you look at a scenario of naturally occurring phenomena without the extreme …. Soil vs Dirt Read More » ...
Rhizobium is a gram-negative symbiotic bacteria that facilitate nitrogen fixation. Through a biological fixation process, the ... How to Use Rhizobium. *Rhizobium is mainly used for direct soil application. It can be used for seed treatment and as a foliar ... Decrease quantity for Rhizobium Nitrogen Fixing Biofertilizer - 1 KG Increase quantity for Rhizobium Nitrogen Fixing ... Importance of Rhizobium?. Rhizobium is a symbiotic bacteria that aids in nitrogen fixation. Nitrogen is an extremely important ...
Phd project nodulation gene phylogenetics nz rhizobia. Handbook for rhizobia methods in legume rhizobium technology with 85 ... Rhizobia are soil bacteria which form nodules on the roots of leguminous plants. For example, rhizobium strain ngr234 nodulated ... Compatible, effective rhizobia must exist before nodulation and n fixation can occur. Rhizobia are of enormous agricultural and ... The plant supplies the rhizobia with energy in the form of amino acids and the rhizobia fix nitrogen from the atmosphere for. ...
Get best offers and discounts on Rhizobium Spp. Order Now! ... Buy Rhizobium Spp at best price in India. ...
Funciton: Deoxyfructosyl glutamine and mannopine ABC transporter, ATP-binding protein fused to permease component ...
Dive into the research topics of Terminal bacteroid differentiation in the Medicago-Rhizobium interaction - a tug of war ... Terminal bacteroid differentiation in the Medicago-Rhizobium interaction - a tug of war between plant and bacteria. ...
Eficiência da inoculação de algumas espécies florestais com diferentes isolados de Rhizobium. ...
BRENDA - The Comprehensive Enzyme Information System
SignificanceThe mutualistic association between legumes and rhizobia has ecological and agronomical relevance because of its ... rhizobia differentiate into nitrogen-fixing forms called bacteroids, which are enclosed by a plant membrane in an organelle- ... rhizobia differentiate into nitrogen-fixing forms called bacteroids, which are enclosed by a plant membrane in an organelle- ... Rhizobium galegae bv. orientalis, Mesorhizobium tianshanense, Rhizobium sp., and M. sangaii, respectively (6). Total RNA was ...
This study aimed to test the competence of new rhizobia strains that we isolated from Western Kenya soils and for which the ... Rhizobia are symbiotic bacteria that fix nitrogen through their interaction with leguminous plants. Nevertheless, inoculating ... Molecular Characterization of Indigenous Rhizobia from Kenyan Soils Nodulating with Common Beans. ... Several studies describe native rhizobia with much better symbiotic capabilities than commercial strains, but only a few have ...
Rhizobium / cytology * Rhizobium / enzymology* * Rhizobium / genetics* * Rhizobium / growth & development * Sequence Homology, ...
Dive into the research topics of Nodulation of Sesbania species by Rhizobium (Agrobacterium) strain IRBG74 and other rhizobia ... Nodulation of Sesbania species by Rhizobium (Agrobacterium) strain IRBG74 and other rhizobia. ...
Search the Librarys Research Projects Database to find funded food safety research projects.
... and Rhizobium japonicum in two levels (without inoculation and inoculation with R. japonicum). In response to moderate drought ... In order to investigate the effect of drought stress and inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobium bacteria on quality ... In order to investigate the effect of drought stress and inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobium bacteria on quality ... Effect of mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobium bacterial on qualitative and quantitative traits of soybean in response to drought ...
and Rhizobium spp. (6). Whether soil is the primary habitat of B. microti or other vectors, such as nematodes, remains to be ...
b) the number of viable cells of microbial species other than the desired nodule inducing Rhizobium species are at a level that ... c) the number of viable cells of microbial species, other than the desired nodule inducing Rhizobium species, are at a level ... the effectiveness of the product for its intended purposes including the minimum number of viable cells of intended Rhizobium ...
Its closest relatives were Rhizobium borbori DN316T (97.6 %), Rhizobium oryzae Alt 505T (97.3 %) and Rhizobium pseudoryzae J3- ... Rhizobium paknamense sp. nov., isolated from lesser duckweeds (Lemna aequinoctialis) Chokchai Kittiwongwattana and Chitti ... T and other species of the genus Rhizobium with validly published names. The pH range for growth was 4.0-9.0 (optimum 6.0-7.0 ... for which the name Rhizobium paknamense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is L6-8T ( = NBRC 109338T = BCC 55142T). ...
Genetic regulation of the establishment of the common bean-rhizobia symbiosis under phosphorus deficiency. Posted by tacaha5@ ... We are collecting rot material at early stages of this symbiosis, for instances 6, 12 and 24 hours post rhizobia inoculation. ... To answer this question, we are analyzing the global transcriptional responses of common bean interacting with rhizobia under ...
REMOVAL OF SELENITE FROM GROUNDWATER BY RHIZOBIUM SP. STRAIN B1 (Abstract Only) (10-Nov-06) ...
Although much research has been conducted on rhizobia in nitrogen fixation and their contribution to soil fertility, much less ... Distribution, Characterization and the Commercialization of Elite Rhizobia Strains in Africa.. Wekesa, Clabe; Jalloh, Abdul A; ... This paper reviews the distribution, characterization, and commercialization of elite rhizobia strains in Africa. ... Fabaceae Rhizobium Fabaceae/microbiologia Fixação de Nitrogênio Solo Simbiose Texto completo *https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/ ...
Soto, M.J.; Vandillewijn, P.; Olivares, J.; Toro, N. Ornithine cyclodeaminase activity in Rhizobium-meliloti. FEMS Microbiol. ...
  • Synergistic interaction of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. (uns.ac.id)
  • In the present study, the proteomic patterns of gnotobiotic cultures of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. (fmach.it)
  • Regulon of SocR in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. (lbl.gov)
  • species= Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. (lbl.gov)
  • Rhizobium species form an endosymbiotic nitrogen-fixing association with roots of (primarily) legumes and other flowering plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rhizobium forms a symbiotic relationship with certain plants such as legumes, fixing nitrogen from the air into ammonia, which acts as a natural fertilizer for the plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • High specialisation characterises the relationships between native and invasive legumes and their mutualistic bacteria called rhizobia. (sun.ac.za)
  • For example, legumes (plants from the family Fabaceae) form mutualistic networks with bacteria in the soil called rhizobia. (sun.ac.za)
  • Rhizobia can fix gaseous nitrogen from the atmosphere turning it into a form of nitrogen that can be used by the legumes. (sun.ac.za)
  • In return, the legumes provide the rhizobia with carbon. (sun.ac.za)
  • It is therefore important to understand the networks between rhizobia and legumes. (sun.ac.za)
  • This means that invasive acacias do not infiltrate existing relationships between native legumes and their associated rhizobia, but rather form unique and novel relationships, possibly because the associated rhizobia have been co-introduced with acacias to South Africa " explains Le Roux, lead author of the paper published in AoB PLANTS . (sun.ac.za)
  • The acacias also appear to change the composition of rhizobia which means that native legumes interact with a different suite of rhizobia in invaded areas compared to uninvaded areas. (sun.ac.za)
  • Rhizobia normally live in the soil, but when there is limited soil nitrogen, legumes release flavonoids which signal to rhizobia that the plant is seeking symbiotic bacteria. (web.app)
  • Rhizobia are symbiotic diazotrophs prokaryotic organisms that carry out dinitrogen fixation that form a symbiotic association with legumes. (web.app)
  • The symbiosis between rhizobia soil bacteria and legumes is facultative and initiated by nitrogen starvation of the host plant. (web.app)
  • The rhizobia remain in threads throughout the symbiotic relationship and are not released from the threads as occurs in bacteroid formation in legumes. (web.app)
  • The current approach provides not only a high-resolution analysis of the prokaryotic proteome but also unravels the rhizobium molecular dialogue with legumes by detecting the enhanced expression of several symbiosis-associated proteins, whose flavonoid-dependency had not yet been reported. (fmach.it)
  • Studies on the rhizobia from cultivated legumes have been extensive and economically rewarding. (sdstate.edu)
  • However, rhizobia from thousands of other legumes including rhizobia symbiosing with legumes native to South Dakota have been inadequately studied. (sdstate.edu)
  • Mycorrhizae and rhizobium have a synergistic relationship to nodulation and root growth. (uns.ac.id)
  • Light regulates attachment, exopolysaccharide production, and nodulation in Rhizobium leguminosarum through a LOV-histidine kinase photoreceptor. (uns.ac.id)
  • Phd project nodulation gene phylogenetics nz rhizobia. (web.app)
  • A successful symbiotic interaction between rhizobia and their compatible host involves genes essential for nodulation nodnolnoe and nitrogen fixation niffixfdx massonboivin et al. (web.app)
  • Compatible, effective rhizobia must exist before nodulation and n fixation can occur. (web.app)
  • 2017 Rhizobium etli Segovia et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • Previous studies have demonstrated that a mutation of threonine 882 to alanine in PC from Rhizobium etli renders the carboxyl transferase domain inactive and favors the positioning of biotin in the biotin carboxylase domain. (rcsb.org)
  • We report the 2.4 Å resolution X-ray crystal structure of the Rhizobium etli PC T882A mutant which reveals the first high-resolution description of the domain interaction between the biotin carboxyl carrier protein domain and the biotin carboxylase domain. (rcsb.org)
  • The overall quaternary arrangement of Rhizobium etli PC remains highly asymmetrical and is independent of the presence of allosteric activator. (rcsb.org)
  • The insights gained from the T882A Rhizobium etli PC crystal structure provide a new series of catalytic snapshots in PC and offer a revised perspective on catalysis in the biotin-dependent enzyme family. (rcsb.org)
  • DI-fusion Alarmone-dependent regulators in Rhizobium etli. (ac.be)
  • Manufacturer of a wide range of products which include rhizobium biofertilizer carrier base, dextrose base bacteria and prom biofertilizer. (prionsbiotech.in)
  • Others species of rhizobia are Bradyrhizobium japonicum, Rhizobium fredii etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this review, we propose to do an overview of metal transport mechanisms in the plant-microbe system, emphasizing the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and endosymbiotic rhizobia. (frontiersin.org)
  • Other, instead of providing metals, can act as metal sinks, such as endosymbiotic rhizobia in legume nodules that requires relatively large amounts to carry out nitrogen fixation. (frontiersin.org)
  • For comparison, strains of Rhizobium trifolii, which symbiose with Trifolium spp. (sdstate.edu)
  • Distribution, Characterization and the Commercialization of Elite Rhizobia Strains in Africa. (bvsalud.org)
  • Although much research has been conducted on rhizobia in nitrogen fixation and their contribution to soil fertility , much less is known about the distribution and diversity of the bacteria strains in different areas of the world and which of the strains achieve optimal benefits for the host plants under specific soil and environmental conditions. (bvsalud.org)
  • Isolation of rhizobia for legume production has been given a little attention in Africa due to inadequate research or negligence of researchers and unawareness of its potential in legume production as well as lack of an intention from skilled personnel to popularize the technology. (scirp.org)
  • In their study, and the first of its kind, Le Roux and colleagues looked at legume-rhizobium networks and how they respond to invasions of Australian acacias in South Africa. (sun.ac.za)
  • When assessing the legume-rhizobium relationships in sites invaded by acacias and in sites without acacias, they found that the relationships are highly specialised. (sun.ac.za)
  • The structure of legume-rhizobium interaction networks and their response to tree invasions. (sun.ac.za)
  • Handbook for rhizobia methods in legume rhizobium technology with 85 illustrations. (web.app)
  • Nett, ryan stephan, gibberellin biosynthesis by bacteria and its effect on the rhizobia legume symbiosis 2017. (web.app)
  • Rhizobium legume symbiosis shares an exocytotic pathway. (web.app)
  • Students in ford denisons lab have used this legume rhizobia symbiosis as a model to study the evolution of cooperation. (web.app)
  • Rhizobia are bacteria capable of entering their legume hosts through root. (web.app)
  • Rhizobia are bacteria that spend most of their lives in soil, but they are better known for their work inside legume root nodules see photo, where they convert atmospheric nitrogen to forms their plant hosts can use. (web.app)
  • Therefore, legume rhizobia symbiosis can provide easy and inexpensive way to enhance soil fertility and improve crop production 33. (web.app)
  • The rhizobium-legume interaction is a critical cornerstone of crop productivity and environmental sustainability. (fmach.it)
  • Rhizobia live in a mutualistic symbiotic relationship with legumesa relationship that has existed and coevolved for tens of millions of years sprent94. (web.app)
  • Native rhizobia compete with those in commercial inoculants to form nodules. (eurekamag.com)
  • Double inoculation with mycorrhizae and rhizobium efficiently increased root biomass and the number of nodules under low or high light intensity. (uns.ac.id)
  • Rhizobia can exist as both freeliving soil microbiota and plantassociated endosymbionts, which form n2fixing root nodules. (web.app)
  • Partial Characterization and Comparison of Rhizobia from Astragalus Flexuosus Glycyrrhiza Lepidota, and Trifolium Spp. (sdstate.edu)
  • The genus Rhizobium comprises the following species: Rhizobium acidisoli Román-Ponce et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • Defining the Rhizobium leguminosarum Species Complex. (pasteur.fr)
  • Bacteria currently included in Rhizobium leguminosarum are too diverse to be considered a single species, so we can refer to this as a species complex (the Rlc). (pasteur.fr)
  • As a result, information on the symbiotic nitrogen fixing capabilities and characteristics of rhizobia from most leguminous species varies from substantial to nonexistent. (sdstate.edu)
  • Nitrogen fixation by the leguminous plant-rhizobium bacteria symbiosis is important because a portion of the fixed nitrogen accumulated is harvested as high protein foods or plant forage while the remaining fixed nitrogen eventually enters the soil. (sdstate.edu)
  • Rhizobium is a genus of Gram-negative soil bacteria that fix nitrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Soil bacteria1 called rhizobia are gram-negative capable to colonize the soil immediately surrounding roots under the influence of the plant "rhizosphere" and reduce atmospheric nitrogen into the form available to plants through nitrogen fixation process. (scirp.org)
  • has been identified as the 2nd most consensus (ERIC) sequences which · 60 environmental samples were tak- frequent organism causing ventilator- are common to Gram-negative enteric en throughout the ICU, including associated pneumonia, the 4th most bacteria [11,12]. (who.int)
  • Here comes the assistance of Rhizobium bacteria that fixes the atmospheric nitrogen into easily available form. (seed2plant.in)
  • 2014 Rhizobium leguminosarum (Frank 1879) Frank 1889 (Approved Lists 1980) Rhizobium lemnae Kittiwongwattana & Thawai 2014 Rhizobium lentis Rashid et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, frank 1889 renamed it rhizobium leguminosarum fred et. (web.app)
  • Influence of lead additions on arbuscular mycorrhiza and Rhizobium symbioses under soybean plants. (uns.ac.id)
  • Rhizobia are of enormous agricultural and economic values because they provide the major source of nitrogen input in agricultural soils. (web.app)
  • These rhizobia nodulate subterranean clover but are ineffective in N fixation with this host. (eurekamag.com)
  • Rhizobium is a symbiotic bacteria that aids in nitrogen fixation. (seed2plant.in)
  • Add compost to the seedling tray, place the seed in and sprinkle a pinch of rhizobium fertilizer. (seed2plant.in)
  • Rhizobium helps plants adjust to changing environmental conditions like regulating growth in extreme conditions of saline stress (Increasing salinity in soil affects growth and development). (seed2plant.in)
  • These major stress factors suppress the growth and symbiotic characteristics of most rhizobia. (web.app)
  • The acidic Calcofluor-binding exopolysaccharide of Rhizobium meliloti Rm1021 plays one or more critical roles in nodule invasion and possibly in nodule development. (umn.edu)
  • Rhizobium organisms in the soil recognize and invade the root hairs of their specific plant host, enter the plant tissues, and form a root nodule. (web.app)
  • Evaluation of effectiveness of isolated rhizobia is essential for inoculants preparation, host specificity recommendation and symbiotic effectiveness. (scirp.org)
  • In molecular biology, Rhizobium has also been identified as a contaminant of DNA extraction kit reagents and ultrapure water systems, which may lead to its erroneous appearance in microbiota or metagenomic datasets. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rhizobium meliloti mutants that overproduce the R. meliloti acidic calcofluor-binding exopolysaccharide. (umn.edu)
  • Dive into the research topics of 'Rhizobium meliloti mutants that overproduce the R. meliloti acidic calcofluor-binding exopolysaccharide. (umn.edu)
  • We have used chrysanthemum as a model crop to determine auxin and cytokinin levels in hairy roots formed after coculture of leaf discs with Rhizobium rhizogenes . (ishs.org)
  • Microbial inoculation was a subplot with four levels without inoculation, mycorrhizae inoculation, rhizobium inoculation, and double inoculation with both mycorrhizae and rhizobium. (uns.ac.id)
  • The plant supplies the rhizobia with energy in the form of amino acids and the rhizobia fix nitrogen from the atmosphere for. (web.app)
  • This mutually beneficial relationship is true of all of the rhizobia, of which the genus Rhizobium is a typical example. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rhizobium is also capable of solubilizing phosphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study was initiated with the purpose of isolating and characterizing the rhizobia from Astragalus flexuosus (flexile milk vetch) and Glycyrrhiza lepidota (American licorice). (sdstate.edu)