Rhizobiaceae: A family of gram-negative bacteria which are saprophytes, symbionts, or plant pathogens.Rhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.Rhizobium leguminosarum: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is found in soil and which causes formation of root nodules on some, but not all, types of field pea, lentil, kidney bean, and clover.Sinorhizobium meliloti: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that causes formation of root nodules on some, but not all, types of sweet clover, MEDICAGO SATIVA, and fenugreek.beta-Glucans: Glucose polymers consisting of a backbone of beta(1->3)-linked beta-D-glucopyranosyl units with beta(1->6) linked side chains of various lengths. They are a major component of the CELL WALL of organisms and of soluble DIETARY FIBER.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Glucans: Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.Agrobacterium tumefaciens: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and the stems, leafs, and roots of plants. Some biotypes are pathogenic and cause the formation of PLANT TUMORS in a wide variety of higher plants. The species is a major research tool in biotechnology.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Nitrogen Fixation: The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Trifolium: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE.Fabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.Peas: A variable annual leguminous vine (Pisum sativum) that is cultivated for its rounded smooth or wrinkled edible protein-rich seeds, the seed of the pea, and the immature pods with their included seeds. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1973)Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Chromatography, Supercritical Fluid: A CHROMATOGRAPHY method using supercritical fluid, usually carbon dioxide under very high pressure (around 73 atmospheres or 1070 psi at room temperature) as the mobile phase. Other solvents are sometimes added as modifiers. This is used both for analytical (SFC) and extraction (SFE) purposes.Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Spores, Bacterial: Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Achromobacter denitrificans: The type species of gram negative, aerobic bacteria in the genus ACHROMOBACTER. Previously in the genus ALCALIGENES, the classification and nomenclature of this species has been frequently emended. The two subspecies, Achromobacter xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans and Achromobacter xylosoxidans subsp. xylosoxidans are associated with infections.Methylobacterium extorquens: A species of METHYLOBACTERIUM which can utilize acetate, ethanol, or methylamine as a sole carbon source. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Chryseobacterium: A genus of aerobic, gram-negative bacteria in the family FLAVOBACTERIACEAE. Many of its species were formerly in the genus FLAVOBACTERIUM.Amoeba: A genus of ameboid protozoa. Characteristics include a vesicular nucleus and the formation of several lodopodia, one of which is dominant at a given time. Reproduction occurs asexually by binary fission.Chlamydiales: An order of obligately intracellular, gram-negative bacteria that have the chlamydia-like developmental cycle of replication. This is a two-stage cycle that includes a metabolically inactive infectious form, and a vegetative form that replicates by binary fission. Members of Chlamydiales are disseminated by aerosol or by contact. There are at least six recognized families: CHLAMYDIACEAE, Criblamydiaceae, Parachlamydiaceae, Rhabdochlamydia, Simkaniaceae, and Waddliaceae.Acanthamoeba: A genus of free-living soil amoebae that produces no flagellate stage. Its organisms are pathogens for several infections in humans and have been found in the eye, bone, brain, and respiratory tract.Rickettsia: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria often surrounded by a protein microcapsular layer and slime layer. The natural cycle of its organisms generally involves a vertebrate and an invertebrate host. Species of the genus are the etiological agents of human diseases, such as typhus.Sinorhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, nonsporeforming rods which usually contain granules of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Medicago sativa: A plant species of the family FABACEAE widely cultivated for ANIMAL FEED.Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.Alphaproteobacteria: A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised mostly of two major phenotypes: purple non-sulfur bacteria and aerobic bacteriochlorophyll-containing bacteria.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)MedlinePlus: NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.Quercetin: A flavonol widely distributed in plants. It is an antioxidant, like many other phenolic heterocyclic compounds. Glycosylated forms include RUTIN and quercetrin.Lipoxygenase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class primarily found in PLANTS. It catalyzes reactions between linoleate and other fatty acids and oxygen to form hydroperoxy-fatty acid derivatives.United States Department of Agriculture: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with improving and maintaining farm income and developing and expanding markets for agricultural products. Through inspection and grading services it safeguards and insures standards of quality in food supply and production.Fertilizers: Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.Replication Origin: A unique DNA sequence of a replicon at which DNA REPLICATION is initiated and proceeds bidirectionally or unidirectionally. It contains the sites where the first separation of the complementary strands occurs, a primer RNA is synthesized, and the switch from primer RNA to DNA synthesis takes place. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Sperm Whale: The species Physeter catodon (also called Physeter macrocephalus), in the family Physeteridae. The common name is derived from the milky wax substance in its head (spermaceti). The species also produces an intestinal secretion AMBERGRIS, which was previously used in perfumes. The sperm whale is the largest toothed MAMMAL in the world.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Islands: Tracts of land completely surrounded by water.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Oceanospirillaceae: A family of gram-negative bacteria in the order Oceanospirillales.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.

Diversity of rhizobia associated with Amorpha fruticosa isolated from Chinese soils and description of Mesorhizobium amorphae sp. nov. (1/441)

Fifty-five Chinese isolates from nodules of Amorpha fruticosa were characterized and compared with the type strains of the species and genera of bacteria which form nitrogen-fixing symbioses with leguminous host plants. A polyphasic approach, which included RFLP of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes, multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE), DNA-DNA hybridization, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, electrophoretic plasmid profiles, cross-nodulation and a phenotypic study, was used in the comparative analysis. The isolates originated from several different sites in China and they varied in their phenotypic and genetic characteristics. The majority of the isolates had moderate to slow growth rates, produced acid on YMA and harboured a 930 kb symbiotic plasmid (pSym). Five different RFLP patterns were identified among the 16S rRNA genes of all the isolates. Isolates grouped by PCR-RFLP of the 16S rRNA genes were also separated into groups by variation in MLEE profiles and by DNA-DNA hybridization. A representative isolate from each of these DNA homology groups had a separate position in a phylogenetic tree as determined from sequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA genes. A new species, Mesorhizobium amorphae, is proposed for the majority of the isolates, which belonged to a moderately slow- to slow-growing, acid-producing group based upon their distinct phylogenetic position, their unique electrophoretic type, their low DNA homology with reference strains representing the species within the genus Mesorhizobium and their distinct phenotypic features. Strain ACCC 19665 was chosen as the type strain for M. amorphae sp. nov.  (+info)

NADH-glutamate synthase in alfalfa root nodules. Genetic regulation and cellular expression. (2/441)

NADH-dependent glutamate synthase (NADH-GOGAT; EC 1.4.1.14) is a key enzyme in primary nitrogen assimilation in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) root nodules. Here we report that in alfalfa, a single gene, probably with multiple alleles, encodes for NADH-GOGAT. In situ hybridizations were performed to assess the location of NADH-GOGAT transcript in alfalfa root nodules. In wild-type cv Saranac nodules the NADH-GOGAT gene is predominantly expressed in infected cells. Nodules devoid of bacteroids (empty) induced by Sinorhizobium meliloti 7154 had no NADH-GOGAT transcript detectable by in situ hybridization, suggesting that the presence of the bacteroid may be important for NADH-GOGAT expression. The pattern of expression of NADH-GOGAT shifted during root nodule development. Until d 9 after planting, all infected cells appeared to express NADH-GOGAT. By d 19, a gradient of expression from high in the early symbiotic zone to low in the late symbiotic zone was observed. In 33-d-old nodules expression was seen in only a few cell layers in the early symbiotic zone. This pattern of expression was also observed for the nifH transcript but not for leghemoglobin. The promoter of NADH-GOGAT was evaluated in transgenic alfalfa plants carrying chimeric beta-glucuronidase promoter fusions. The results suggest that there are at least four regulatory elements. The region responsible for expression in the infected cell zone contains an 88-bp direct repeat.  (+info)

Azorhizobium caulinodans PII and GlnK proteins control nitrogen fixation and ammonia assimilation. (3/441)

We herein report that Azorhizobium caulinodans PII and GlnK are not necessary for glutamine synthetase (GS) adenylylation whereas both proteins are required for complete GS deadenylylation. The disruption of both glnB and glnK resulted in a high level of GS adenylylation under the condition of nitrogen fixation, leading to ammonium excretion in the free-living state. PII and GlnK also controlled nif gene expression because NifA activated nifH transcription and nitrogenase activity was derepressed in glnB glnK double mutants, but not in wild-type bacteria, grown in the presence of ammonia.  (+info)

Susceptibility to hydrogen peroxide and catalase activity of root nodule bacteria. (4/441)

The root nodule bacteria (free-living cells) tested had higher susceptibility to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) than the other genera of aerobic or facultative anaerobic bacteria tested. The catalase activities tended to have a positive correlation with H2O2 resistance among all bacteria tested. Addition of a catalase inhibitor such as 3-amino-1, 2, 4-triazole increased the susceptibility to H2O2. These results suggest that the lower catalase activity brings about the higher susceptibility of root nodule bacteria to H2O2. Root nodule bacteria seemed to have two or three catalase isozymes during growth and their catalase activities were higher in log phase than in stationary phase, contrary to other genera of bacteria tested.  (+info)

Nodule-inducing activity of synthetic Sinorhizobium meliloti nodulation factors and related lipo-chitooligosaccharides on alfalfa. Importance of the acyl chain structure. (5/441)

Sinorhizobium meliloti nodulation factors (NFs) elicit a number of symbiotic responses in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) roots. Using a semiquantitative nodulation assay, we have shown that chemically synthesized NFs trigger nodule formation in the same range of concentrations (down to 10(-10) M) as natural NFs. The absence of O-sulfate or O-acetate substitutions resulted in a decrease in morphogenic activity of more than 100-fold and approximately 10-fold, respectively. To address the question of the influence of the structure of the N-acyl chain, we synthesized a series of sulfated tetrameric lipo-chitooligosaccharides (LCOs) having fatty acids of different lengths and with unsaturations either conjugated to the carbonyl group (2E) or located in the middle of the chain (9Z). A nonacylated, sulfated chitin tetramer was unable to elicit nodule formation. Acylation with short (C8) chains rendered the LCO active at 10(-7) M. The optimal chain length was C16, with the C16-LCO being more than 10-fold more active than the C12- and C18-LCOs. Unsaturations were important, and the diunsaturated 2E,9Z LCO was more active than the monounsaturated LCOs. We discuss different hypotheses for the role of the acyl chain in NF perception.  (+info)

Comparison of the evolutionary dynamics of symbiotic and housekeeping loci: a case for the genetic coherence of rhizobial lineages. (6/441)

In prokaryotes, lateral gene transfer across chromosomal lineages may be mediated by plasmids, phages, transposable elements, and other accessory DNA elements. However, the importance of such transfer and the evolutionary forces that may restrict gene exchange remain largely unexplored in native settings. In this study, tests of phylogenetic congruence are employed to explore the range of horizontal transfer of symbiotic (sym) loci among distinct chromosomal lineages of native rhizobia, the nitrogen-fixing symbiont of legumes. Rhizobial strains isolated from nodules of several host plant genera were sequenced at three loci: symbiotic nodulation genes (nodB and nodC), the chromosomal housekeeping locus glutamine synthetase II (GSII), and a portion of the 16S rRNA gene. Molecular phylogenetic analysis shows that each locus generally subdivides strains into the same major groups, which correspond to the genera Rhizobium, Sinorhizobium, and Mesorhizobium. This broad phylogenetic congruence indicates a lack of lateral transfer across major chromosomal subdivisions, and it contrasts with previous studies of agricultural populations showing broad transfer of sym loci across divergent chromosomal lineages. A general correspondence of the three rhizobial genera with major legume groups suggests that host plant associations may be important in the differentiation of rhizobial nod and chromosomal loci and may restrict lateral transfer among strains. The second major result is a significant incongruence of nod and GSII phylogenies within rhizobial subdivisions, which strongly suggests horizontal transfer of nod genes among congenerics. This combined evidence for lateral gene transfer within, but not between, genetic subdivisions supports the view that rhizobial genera are "reproductively isolated" and diverge independently. Differences across rhizobial genera in the specificity of host associations imply that the evolutionary dynamics of the symbiosis vary considerably across lineages in native settings.  (+info)

The early nodulin gene MtN6 is a novel marker for events preceding infection of Medicago truncatula roots by Sinorhizobium meliloti. (7/441)

MtN6 belongs to a series of cDNA clones representing Medicago truncatula genes transcriptionally activated during nodulation by Sinorhizobium meliloti (P. Gamas, F. de Carvalho Niebel, N. Lescure, and J. V. Cullimore, Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 9:233-242, 1996). We show here by in situ hybridization that MtN6 transcripts specifically accumulate first at very localized regions in the outer root cell layers, corresponding to outer cortical cells containing preinfection threads. At later stages, MtN6 expression is observed ahead of growing infection threads, including in the infection zone of mature root nodules. Interestingly, regulation of MtN6 is clearly distinct from that of other early nodulins expressed in the same region of the nodule, in terms of response to bacterial symbiotic mutants and to purified Nod factors. We thus suggest that MtN6 represents the first specific marker of a pathway involved in preparation to infection, which is at least partly controlled by Nod factors. Finally, we discuss the intriguing sequence homology shown by MtN6 to a protein from Emericella (Aspergillus) nidulans, FluG, that plays a key role in controlling the organogenesis of conidiophores (B. N. Lee and T. H. Adams, Genes Dev. 8:641-651, 1994).  (+info)

Brucella outer membrane lipoproteins share antigenic determinants with bacteria of the family Rhizobiaceae. (8/441)

Brucellae have been reported to be phylogenetically related to bacteria of the family Rhizobiaceae. In the present study, we used a panel of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to Brucella outer membrane proteins (OMPs) to determine the presence of common OMP epitopes in some representative bacteria of this family, i.e., Ochrobactrum anthropi, Phyllobacterium rubiacearum, Rhizobium leguminosarum, and Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and also in bacteria reported to serologically cross-react with brucella, i.e., Yersinia enterocolitica O:9, Escherichia coli O:157, and Salmonella urbana. In particular, most MAbs to the Brucella outer membrane lipoproteins Omp10, Omp16, and Omp19 cross-reacted with O. anthropi and P. rubiacearum, which are actually the closest relatives of brucellae. Some of them also cross-reacted, but to a lower extent, with R. leguminosarum and A. tumefaciens. The putative Omp16 and Omp19 homologs in these bacteria showed the same apparent molecular masses as their Brucella counterparts. None of the antilipoprotein MAbs cross-reacted with Y. enterocolitica O:9, E. coli O:157, or S. urbana.  (+info)

In January 2011, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants exhibiting stunting, yellow mosaic, short, chlorotic leaves, aborted flowers, and reduced-size fruits, symptoms similar to those exhibited by plants infected by Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum (2), were observed in approximately 5% of tomato plants in greenhouses in Jocotitlan in the State of Mexico, Mexico. Occasional plant recovery was also observed. Tomato plants in this facility were previously shown to be infected by Mexican papita viroid (MPVd), Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV), and aster yellows phytoplasma. Eight symptomatic leaf samples (designated MX11-01 to MX11-08) were collected and screened against selected tomato viruses and pospiviroids by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR using purified plant RNA or for Ca. L. solanacearum by PCR using purified plant DNA. As expected, both PepMV and MPVd were detected in these samples. However, two Ca. L. solanacearum-specific PCR products (1,168 and 669 bp) were also amplified in two ...
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Certain strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum form a previously unknown polysaccharide in the root nodules of soybean plants (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). The polysaccharide accumulates inside of the symbiosome membrane-the plant-derived membrane enclosing the bacteroids. In older nodules (60 days after planting), the polysaccharide occupies most of the symbiosome volume and symbiosomes become enlarged so that there is little host cytoplasm in infected cells. The two different groups of B. japonicum which produce different types of polysaccharide in culture produce polysaccharides of similar composition in nodules. Polysaccharide formed by group I strains (e.g., USDA 5 and USDA 123) is composed of rhamnose, galactose, and 2-O-methylglucuronic acid, while polysaccharide formed by group II strains (e.g., USDA 31 and USDA 39) is composed of rhamnose and 4-O-methylglucuronic acid. That the polysaccharide is a bacterial product is indicated by its composition plus the fact that polysaccharide formation is ...
1. Abad, J. A., Bandla, M., French-Monar, R. D., Liefting, L. W., and Clover, G. R. G. 2009. First report of the detection of Candidatus Liberibacter species in zebra chip disease-infected potato plants in the United States. Plant Dis. 93:108.. 2. Brown, J. K., Rehman, M., Rogan, D., Martin, R. R., and Idris, A. M. 2010. First report of Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous (syn Ca. L. Solanacearum) associated with the tomato vein-greening and tomato psyllid yellows diseases in commercial greenhouses in Arizona. Plant Dis. (in press).. 3. Cranshaw, W. W. 2001. Psyllid yellows. Pages 73-74 in: Compendium of Potato Diseases, 2nd Edn. W. R. Stevenson, R. Loria, G. D. Franc, and D. P. Weingartner, eds. American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul, MN.. 4. Crosslin, J. M., and Bester, G. 2009. First report of Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous in zebra chip symptomatic potatoes from California. Plant Dis. 93:551.. 5. Crosslin, J. M., and Munyaneza, J. E. 2009. Evidence that the zebra chip ...
Haapalainen et al. identified a novel haplotype of CLso, found in the psyllid Trioza urticae and stinging nettle, and named haplotype U.
Liefting, L.W.; Sutherland, P.W.; Ward, L.I.; Paice, K.L.; Weir, B.S.; Clover, G.R.G. 2009: A new Candidatus Liberibacter species associated with diseases of solanaceous crops. Plant disease 93(3): 208-214. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-93-3-0208 Reference page ...
Lineage: cellular organisms; Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Alphaproteobacteria; Rhizobiales; Rhizobiaceae; Rhizobium/Agrobacterium group; ...
Huanglongbing (HLB) is a destructive disease of citrus production worldwide. All known commercial citrus cultivars are susceptible to HLB. The disease was first noted in Chaoshan area in Guangdong Province of the Peoples Republic of China in the late of 1800s [1] and is currently distributed in 10 citrus producing provinces in South China. HLB is now established in Sao Paulo of Brazil [2] and Florida of the United States [3] where it poses a great threat to the citrus industry. The disease is associated with three species of non-culturable, phloem-limited, α-Proteobacteria: Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, Ca. L. africanus, and Ca. L. americanus [4, 5]. In both China and U.S., only Ca. L. asiaticus has been detected. Due to the lack of pure culture, Ca. L. asiaticus has been poorly characterized. Little is known about the bacterial biology, genetic diversity, and epidemiology.. Sequence analyses of conserve genomic loci such as 16S rRNA gene and 16S/23S intergenic spacer regions ...
A 2012 Fort Valley State University alumna is fighting to eradicate a disease impacting Florida citrus farmers.. Lillian Oglesby, who graduated with a bachelors degree in plant science and minor in biotechnology, works the frontline at the USDAs Agricultural Research Station located in Fort Pierce, Fla.. The 28-year-old conducts experiments on one of the most serious diseases affecting citrus plants, the Huanglongbing (HLB) disease, which translates as "Yellow Dragon Disease" in Mandarin Chinese. In the United States, the disease is known as the "Citrus Greening Disease.". The HLB disease was first discovered in Florida in 2004. It is a bacterial disease transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid (a brown aphid-sized insect). The bugs infect trees with a motile bacteria called Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus. Within 18 months of infection, sick plants show mottled leaves with yellowing veins, premature defoliation, stunted growth. Trees die within five years. The fruit of HLB-affected trees is ...
General Information: Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus causes Huanglongbing (also called citrus greening disease) in citrus in Asia. This organism causes a lethal infection to the tree and is transmitted from tree to tree by the sap-sucking Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri. Once infected the citrus tree turns yellow (huanglongbing means yellow dragon disease) and the fruit remains green. ...
Salicylate (SA) is a plant hormone and plays important roles in plant defence. SA is synthesized in the chloroplast and transmitted in the phloem. SA hydroxylase is a flavoprotein monooxygenase with the enzyme activity of degradation of SA and is a proximal component of the naphthalene degradation pathway in many bacteria. Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the causal agent of the most devastating citrus disease, is phloem limited and encodes a SA hydroxylase. In this study, we have shown that the SA hydroxylase is functional in degrading SA and its analogs. Ca. L. asiaticus infected plants have reduced PR gene (PR1, PR2, and PR5) expression and SA accumulation in Duncan grapefruit and Valencia sweet orange in response to subsequent inoculation with Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xac) Aw, which is nonpathogenic on both citrus varieties. Ca. L. asiaticus also increased citrus susceptibility to subsequent infection by X. citri. The bacterial populations of XacA and XacAw in grapefruit were ...
Salicylate (SA) is a plant hormone and plays important roles in plant defence. SA is synthesized in the chloroplast and transmitted in the phloem. SA hydroxylase is a flavoprotein monooxygenase with the enzyme activity of degradation of SA and is a proximal component of the naphthalene degradation pathway in many bacteria. Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the causal agent of the most devastating citrus disease, is phloem limited and encodes a SA hydroxylase. In this study, we have shown that the SA hydroxylase is functional in degrading SA and its analogs. Ca. L. asiaticus infected plants have reduced PR gene (PR1, PR2, and PR5) expression and SA accumulation in Duncan grapefruit and Valencia sweet orange in response to subsequent inoculation with Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xac) Aw, which is nonpathogenic on both citrus varieties. Ca. L. asiaticus also increased citrus susceptibility to subsequent infection by X. citri. The bacterial populations of XacA and XacAw in grapefruit were ...
Beyond Pesticides, March 20, 2017) Last week, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced it is allowing residues of antibiotics in Florida orange juice, after approving an emergency exemption for the antibiotics streptomycin and oxytetracycline -allowing their use for a bacterial disease, citrus greening (Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) bacterium that causes Huanglongbing), in Florida citrus crops through December of 2019, and further exacerbating bacterial resistance. The World Health Organization has called bacterial resistance "one of the biggest threats to global health, food security, and development today." The agency announced March 15, "EPA is issuing these tolerances without notice and opportunity for public comment as provided in FFDCA section 408(l)(6)." EPA states "time-limited tolerances are established for residues of streptomycin in or on fruit, citrus, group 10-10, at 2 ppm, and the dried pulp of these commodities at 6 ppm." For oxytetracycline, EPA is allowing ...
Differential RNA-sequencing (dRNA-seq) is indispensable for determination of primary transcriptomes. However, using dRNA-seq data to map transcriptional start sites (TSSs) and promoters genome-wide is a bioinformatics challenge. We performed dRNA-seq of Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA 110, the nitrogen-fixing symbiont of soybean, and developed algorithms to map TSSs and promoters. A specialized machine learning procedure for TSS recognition allowed us to map 15,923 TSSs: 14,360 in free-living bacteria, 4329 in symbiosis with soybean and 2766 in both conditions. Further, we provide proteomic evidence for 4090 proteins, among them 107 proteins corresponding to new genes and 178 proteins with N-termini different from the existing annotation (72 and 109 of them with TSS support, respectively). Guided by proteomics evidence, previously identified TSSs and TSSs experimentally validated here, we assign a score threshold to flag 14 % of the mapped TSSs as a class of lower confidence. However, this class of lower
Citrus huanglongbing (HLB) is a highly destructive disease of citrus presumably caused by Candidatus Liberibacterasiaticus (Las), a gram-negative, insect-transmitted, phloem-limited α-proteobacterium. Although almost all citrus plants are susceptible to HLB, reports have shown reduced susceptibility to Las infection in lemon (Citrus limon) plants. The aim of this study is to identify intra-species specific molecular mechanisms associated with Las-induced responses in lemon plants. To achieve this, comparative 2-DE and mass spectrometry, in addition to Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectroscopy (ICPS) analyses, were applied to investigate differences in protein accumulation and the concentrations of cationic elements in leaves of healthy and Las-infected lemon plants. Results showed a differential accumulation of 27 proteins, including an increase in accumulation of starch synthase but decrease in the production of photosynthesis-related proteins in Las-infected lemon plants compared to healthy plants.
Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is a mechanism to recognize and repair bulky DNA damage caused by compounds, environmental carcinogens, and exposure to UV-light. In humans hereditary defects in the NER pathway are linked to at least three diseases: xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), Cockayne syndrome (CS), and trichothiodystrophy (TTD). The repair of damaged DNA involves at least 30 polypeptides within two different sub-pathways of NER known as transcription-coupled repair (TCR-NER) and global genome repair (GGR-NER). TCR refers to the expedited repair of lesions located in the actively transcribed strand of genes by RNA polymerase II (RNAP II). In GGR-NER the first step of damage recognition involves XPC-hHR23B complex together with XPE complex (in prokaryotes, uvrAB complex). The following steps of GGR-NER and TCR-NER are similar ...
FixK2 is a regulatory protein that activates a large number of genes for the anoxic and microoxic, endosymbiotic, and nitrogen-fixing life styles of the α-proteobacterium Bradyrhizobium japonicum. FixK2 belongs to the cAMP receptor protein (CRP) superfamily. Although most CRP family members are coregulated by effector molecules, the activity of FixK2 is negatively controlled by oxidation of its single cysteine (Cys-183) located next to the DNA-binding domain and possibly also by proteolysis. Here, we report the three-dimensional x-ray structure of FixK2, a representative of the FixK subgroup of the CRP superfamily. Crystallization succeeded only when (i) an oxidation- and protease-insensitive protein variant (FixK2(C183S)-His6) was used in which Cys-183 was replaced with serine and the C terminus was fused with a hexahistidine tag and (ii) this protein was allowed to form a complex with a 30-mer double-stranded target DNA. The structure of the FixK2-DNA complex was solved at a resolution of ...
The Bacteria, Bradyrhizobium japonicum in a Soybean root nodule (Glycine max) where it establishes a nitrogen fixing symbiosis. SEM X50,000 - Stock Image C022/4840
Bradyrhizobium japonicum bradavidin protein: a biotin-binding protein that, due to its different immunoreactivity, may prove useful in gene therapy, imaging, and drug delivery; amino acid sequence in first source
Symptoms: The symptoms are similar to nutrients deficiencies and other disorders and the disease can be difficult to detect in unthrifty trees. A sectoral chlorosis (yellow of one branch or one part of the canopy) in the early stages is the clearest indication of citrus greening disease. Chlorotic blotching of leaves and swollen or corky leaf veins are two key visual guides, especially when they occur in combination. However, after time, the chlorotic blotching can become less obvious and zinc deficiency-like symptoms (yellow on green vein banding) become more prominent. In a period of one year infected tree can decline noticeably, with extensive yellowing of foliage and little or no fruit set (Davis et al. 2005). If the infection occurs soon after the propagation, the whole tree can show symptoms, otherwise, the pathogen and the symptoms are often partially confined at the beginning. Initially, the tree got a yellow shoot appearance. Afterwards, a progressive yellowing of the entire canopy ...
p>An evidence describes the source of an annotation, e.g. an experiment that has been published in the scientific literature, an orthologous protein, a record from another database, etc.,/p> ,p>,a href="/manual/evidences">More…,/a>,/p> ...
A transgenic process using spinach proteins could help the citrus industry survive its worst scourge, the disease Huanglongbing (HLB).
As Rizobiáceas (Rhizobiaceae) son unha familia de proteobacterias, nas que se inclúen moitas (pero non todas) especies de rizobios, xunto con parasitos de plantas como Agrobacterium. As Rhizobiaceae son gramnegativas, aerobias e xeralmente con forma de bacilo.[3] Moitas especies de Rhizobiaceae son diazótrofas, xa que poden fixar o nitróxeno e son simbióticas das raíces de plantas, onde forman nódulos radiculares. ...
Amino acids in orange juice might reveal secrets to the successful attack strategy of the plant pathogen that causes citrus greening disease, also known as Huanglongbing or HLB. Studies of these amino acids by U.S. Department ...
To help develop a therapeutic treatment for citrus greening disease, a bacterial infection that threatens the future of the US citrus industry, the United States Department of Agriculture Specialty Crop Research Initiative has awarded a diverse group of researchers a $10 million grant.
The citrus greening crisis in Florida and across the U.S. is receiving $20.1 million dollars to bring growers closer to a solution. The USDAs National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA) awarded the grants to university researchers and extension projects working to fight Huanglongbing (HLB) or greening disease.. "Citrus greening has affected more than 75 percent of Florida citrus crops and threatens production all across the United States," said Secretary Tom Vilsack. "The research and extension projects funded today bring us one step closer to providing growers real tools to fight this disease, from early detection to creating long-term solutions for the industry, producers and workers.". The Specialty Crop Research Initiative (SCRI) program was created to support specialty crop production through research and extension activities. Since it began in 2014 the USDA has put forward $43.6 million into combating citrus greening disease. The disease has affected the majority of Floridas ...
1JFU: Structure of the soluble domain of a membrane-anchored thioredoxin-like protein from Bradyrhizobium japonicum reveals unusual properties.
A way in laboratory tests to use 200 times less insecticide and yet still kill as many insects that carry the devastating citrus greening bacterium.
Federal agriculture officials are allocating millions of dollars toward research to solve problems caused by the devastating citrus greening bacteria.
10:10 am - Economic impact of FL citrus industry and the importance of investment in HLB mitigation and management strategies in preserving the industry for the long-term ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Why mesquite in apple cake? Well, its not adding smokey flavor if thats what youre thinking. Mesquite smoke flavor comes from burning wood chips from Mesquite trees. Mesquite chips used in grilling add a distinct smoke flavor to foods. My recipe uses Mesquite Flour. Mesquite flour comes from Mesquite bean pods that grow on drought tolerant trees in places like Arizona,Texas and Mexico. The pods can be dried and ground. Mesquite flour is fat free and a source of dietary fiber, calcium, iron, vitamin C and other nutrients. It doesnt change the flavor of baked goods. The cake tastes like apple cake. ...
Agricultural leaders and California officials came together early on to try and prevent the devastation that had occurred in Florida, in Californias citrus industry. Once the ACP was identified in California, citrus growers began spraying various pesticides and insecticides to control the population of the insect. Concerns arose for many reasons, but the idea that the insect could develop a resistance to the chemicals, leaving growers with no methods to keep the population in check, had other methods of controlling the population spring up.. ...
Arts Nursery carries a seasonal selection of citrus plants including lemons, limes and oranges. While our climate will not sustain citrus plants outdoors through the winter, they are ideal patio plants for the summer. Bring them indoors during the winter to enjoy fragrant blooms and maybe even the occasional tangy fruit!
A comprehensive volume on citrus diseases, biological control of insects, nematodes, and vertebrate pests, certification and registration, and regulatory measures. Color plates.
ID A0A0Q7NNL6_9RHIZ Unreviewed; 483 AA. AC A0A0Q7NNL6; DT 20-JAN-2016, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 20-JAN-2016, sequence version 1. DT 25-OCT-2017, entry version 16. DE RecName: Full=Chromosomal replication initiator protein DnaA {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00377, ECO:0000256,RuleBase:RU000577, ECO:0000256,SAAS:SAAS00724181}; GN Name=dnaA {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00377}; GN ORFNames=ASD32_03365 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:KQY40799.1}; OS Rhizobium sp. Root483D2. OC Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Alphaproteobacteria; Rhizobiales; OC Rhizobiaceae; Rhizobium/Agrobacterium group; Rhizobium. OX NCBI_TaxID=1736545 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:KQY40799.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000051333}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:KQY40799.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000051333} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=Root483D2 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:KQY40799.1, RC ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000051333}; RA Millard Andrew; RL Submitted (OCT-2015) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases. RN [2] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:KQY40799.1, ...
The bacterial family of Rhizobiaceae, consisting of the two genera Rhizobium and Agrobacterium, creates a challenge to geneticists and biochemists be cause of its genetic and regulatory complexity....
Lineage: cellular organisms; Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Alphaproteobacteria; Rhizobiales; Rhizobiaceae; Rhizobium/Agrobacterium group; Rhizobium; Rhizobium ...
LOWER YIELD. The Florida orange crop forecast has been reduced by about 2 percent to 130 million 90-pound boxes. The U.S. Agriculture Departments estimate Friday of the harvest now under way still
A broad variety of bacteria including the Rhizobiaceae are able to secrete polysaccharides. Sugar polymers that form an adherent cohesive layer on the cell surface are designated capsular polysacharides (CPS), whereas the term exopolysaccharide (EPS) is used for polysaccharides with little or no cell association. Due to the variation of monosaccharide sequences, condensation linkages and non-carbohydrate decorations, an infinite array of structures can be provided by this class of macromolecules. Different rheological properties depend on the structure and the molecular weight of EPS. These properties and the location of EPS, forming the outer layer of the cell surface, contribute to the cell protection against environmental influences, attachment to surfaces, nutrient gathering and to antigenicity (Costerton et al., 1987, Sutherland 1988, Whitfield 1988, Beveridge and Graham 1991). The structural diversity of oligosaccharides derived from EPS enables them to function additionally as ...
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Each year, a striking number of our new hires are graduates of Mesquite ISD schools. This year, 20 percent of new hires are Mesquite ISD alumni ...
Developing new citrus trees suited to Floridas environment, especially ones tolerant of citrus greening, is a long road with many branches.
Checks drawn on commercial or business accounts must include the name and address of the check writer.. Checks should not be written in pink, purple or red ink.. Effective April 1, 2015, in the event that a check written to any Mesquite ISD campus, club or organization is returned by your bank, Mesquite ISD or its agent, Envision Payment Solutions, will redeposit your check electronically. This redeposit will result in a returned check fee of $30 plus applicable sales tax. The use of a check for payment is your acknowledgment and acceptance of this policy and its terms.. Customers (check writers) with returned check inquiries should contact Envision Payment Solutions at:. Tel 877.290.5460, or 770.709. ...
Com uma estética marcante e única as coleções Versace são reconhecidas de longe. Confira as novidades da temporada na Farfetch em até 12x com frete fixo
What do horseshoe crabs have to do with citrus greening disease? Well, nothing really. But the protein that famously gives horseshoe crabs their blue blood has been found at increased levels in some Asian citrus psyllids (Diaphorina citri), which researchers suspect is evidence of the insects immune response to the citrus greening disease bacteria that it carries and spreads to citrus trees.. D. citri is found in three morphological types with different colored bellies: gray, yellow, and blue. A research team led by Michelle Cilia, a research molecular biologist at the U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service (USDA ARS) and assistant professor at the Boyce Thompson Institute in Ithaca, New York, found that the psyllids increase their production of the oxygen-transporting protein hemocyanin when harboring the bacteria Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, which causes citrus greening disease. Its the same protein found in horseshoe crabs and other mollusks and crustaceans, and ...
This research aimed to determine the effect of brown seaweed extract and Bradyrhizobium japonicum and their interaction to increase N availability and Soybean Production. This research was conducted in the green house and Soil Biology laboratory of Fakultas Pertanian USU in Juny-October 2014, used Randomized Block Design (RBD) factorial consisting of 2 factors and 3 replications. The first factor was brown seaweed extract concentration consisting of 4 treatments (0, 10, 20 and 30 %/polybag) and the second factor was Bradyrhizobium japonicum consisting of 2 treatments (with and without Bradyrhizobium japonicum). The result showed that brown seaweed extract significantly affected increase number and weight of root nodule, shoot dry and root weight, number and weight of seed, and N absorption but not significantly affected increase C-organic, plant height, number of branch, and decrease soil pH, N-availability of soil and plant. Bradyrhizobium japonicum significantly affected increase number and ...
Rice being a non-legume, does not possess the capacity to carry out biological nitrogen fixation in symbiosis with rhizobia. Azorhizobium caulinodans is a micro-symbiont of Sesbania rostrata with several unique and beneficial characteristics that makes it a potential candidate to induce biological nitrogen fixing associations with the rice plant. Maximum colonisation of rice by the bacterium is important for high benefit. This study was aimed at finding the maximum colonisation levels of A. caulinodans detected by GFPlabelling of the bacterium. A. caulinodans was labelled with green fluorescent protein to facilitate accurate and real time observations of the bacterium in and around the root hairs. GFPlabelling was carried out by inserting the gfp-gene-containing plasmid pBBR5-hem-gfp5-S65T into A. caulinodans ORS 571, with a helper plasmid (pRK2013) by tri-parental-mating. The bacterium was observed to colonise rice roots by bright green fluorescence emitted by the bacterium under blue light. ...
BRADYRHIZOBIUM (MIKROBIOLOGIE); ENDOSYMBIOSE (PFLANZENÖKOLOGIE); WURZELKNÖLLCHEN (PFLANZENÖKOLOGIE); STICKSTOFFFIXIERUNG (MIKROBIOLOGIE); KARBONAT-DEHYDRATASE (ENZYME); GENREGULATION, REGULATION DER GENEXPRESSION (MOLEKULARBIOLOGIE); MIKROORGANISMUS-PFLANZE-WECHSELWIRKUNGEN + PILZ-PFLANZE-WECHSELWIRKUNGEN + PILZ-PILZ-WECHSELWIRKUNGEN (PFLANZENÖKOLOGIE); OXALSÄURE + OXALATE + OXALSÄURESTICKSTOFFDERIVATE + OXALSÄURESCHWEFELDERIVATE (ALIPHATISCHE POLYCARBONSÄUREN); BRADYRHIZOBIUM (MICROBIOLOGY); ENDOSYMBIOSIS (PLANT ECOLOGY); ROOT NODULES (PLANT ECOLOGY); NITROGEN FIXATION (MICROBIOLOGY); CARBONATE DEHYDRATASE (ENZYMES); GENE REGULATION, REGULATION OF GENE-EXPRESSION (MOLECULAR BIOLOGY); MICROORGANISM-PLANT INTERACTIONS + FUNGUS-PLANT INTERACTIONS + FUNGUS-FUNGUS INTERACTIONS (PLANT ECOLOGY); OXALIC ACID + OXALATES + OXALIC ACID NITROGEN DERIVATIVES + OXALIC ACID SULFUR DERIVATIVES (ALIPHATIC POLYCARBOXYLIC ACIDS ...
"Agrobacterium is a definable genus of the family Rhizobiaceae". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary ...
As Rhizobiaceae son gramnegativas, aerobias e xeralmente con forma de bacilo.[3] Moitas especies de Rhizobiaceae son ... "Rhizobiaceae". National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) dabe de datos taxonómica. Consultado o 2012-05-02.. ... As Rizobiáceas (Rhizobiaceae) son unha familia de proteobacterias, nas que se inclúen moitas (pero non todas) especies de ... "Proteobacteria (scroll down for Rhizobiaceae)". List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN). Arquivado dende ...
Rhizobiaceae Genus: Rhizobium Species: R. gallicum Binomial name Rhizobium gallicum. Amarger et al. 1997 ...
... forms a symbiotic relationship with certain plants such as legumes, fixing nitrogen from the air into ammonia, which acts as a natural fertilizer for the plants. Current research is being conducted by Agricultural Research Service microbiologists to discover a way to use Rhizobium's biological nitrogen fixation. This research involves the genetic mapping of various rhizobial species with their respective symbiotic plant species, like alfalfa or soybean. The goal of this research is to increase the plants' productivity without using fertilizers.[3]. In molecular biology, Rhizobium has also been identified as a contaminant of DNA extraction kit reagents and ultrapure water systems, which may lead to its erroneous appearance in microbiota or metagenomic datasets.[4] The presence of nitrogen fixing bacteria as contaminants may be due to the use of nitrogen gas in ultra-pure water production to inhibit microbial growth in storage tanks.[5]. ...
Genus Rhizobium, a highly divergent genus in a revised family, the Rhizobiaceae. In: Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology ... Kaistia is currently included in Rhizobiaceae. Balneimonas is currently included in Bradyrhizobiaceae. Meganema is currently ... The four families Bradyrhizobiaceae, Hyphomicrobiaceae, Phyllobacteriaceae, and Rhizobiaceae contain at least six genera of ...
Famili Rhizobiaceae *Genus Agrobacterium. *Genus Rhizobium / Sinorhizobium(synonymous). *Genus Liberibacter (candidatus). * ...
Advances in Rhizobiaceae Research and Application: 2012 Edition: ScholarlyBrief. ScholarlyEditions. 26 December 2012. pp. 6-. ...
Nif regulon (Klebsiella pneumoniae) Spaink, Herman P (1998). The Rhizobiaceae: Molecular Biology of Model Plant-Associated ...
Farrand, S.; Van Berkum, P.; Oger, P. (2003). "Agrobacterium is a definable genus of the family Rhizobiaceae". International ...
Hooykaas, Paul J. J.; Spaink, Herman P.; Kondorosi, A. (1998). The rhizobiaceae: molecular biology of model plant-associated ...
DNA hybridization studies of Rhizobium japonicum and related Rhizobiaceae". Journal of General Microbiology. 123: 215-222. doi: ...
... is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria in the Rhizobiaceae family. The term Candidatus indicates that it ...
... is a bacterial genus from the family of Rhizobiaceae, with one known species (Carbophilus carboxidus). LPSN ...
A. tumefaciens is an alphaproteobacterium of the family Rhizobiaceae, which includes the nitrogen-fixing legume symbionts. ...
... is a bacterial genus of the familyf Rhizobiaceae, with only one known species (Ciceribacter lividus). Parte, A.C ...
Mousavi SA, Willems A, Nesme X, de Lajudie P, Lindström K (2015). "Revised phylogeny of Rhizobiaceae: proposal of the ...
this phylogenetic tree shows relatedness to the rest of the Rhizobiaceae family based on 16s rRNA gene sequences. This ...
Phosphosulfate in Cysteine Biosynthesis by Rhizobium meliloti and Other Members of the Family Rhizobiaceae". J. Bacteriol. 181 ...
Class II enzymes (GSII) are found in eukaryotes and in bacteria belonging to the Rhizobiaceae, Frankiaceae, and ...
... produced as an exopolysaccharide by soil bacteria of the family Rhizobiaceae. Four genes required for curdlan production have ...
Fungal, bacterial and viral diseases that affect roses: Crown gall rot (Class Alpha Proteobacteria: Family Rhizobiaceae) ...
Genus Mesorhizobium Genus Nitratireductor Genus Parvibaculum Genus Phyllobacterium Genus Pseudaminobacter Family Rhizobiaceae ...
... rhizobiaceae MeSH B03.440.400.425.700.800 --- Rhizobium MeSH B03.440.400.425.700.800.337 --- Rhizobium etli MeSH B03.440. ... rhizobiaceae MeSH B03.660.050.730.670 --- Rhizobium MeSH B03.660.050.730.670.337 --- Rhizobium etli MeSH B03.660.050.730. ...
nov., Family I Rhizobiaceae Conn 1938, 321AL (L. David Kuykendall, Ed.)], pp. 324-339, in Bergey's Manual® of Systematic ...
Some proteins that belong to this category are: Rhizobiaceae fixJ (global regulator inducing expression of nitrogen-fixation ...
The Rhizobiaceae are, like all Proteobacteria, Gram-negative. They are aerobic, and the cells are usually rod-shaped. Many ... The Rhizobiaceae is a family of proteobacteria comprising multiple subgroups that enhance and hinder plant development. Some ... "Rhizobiaceae". NCBI taxonomy database. Retrieved 2012-05-02. All-Species Living Tree Project."16S rRNA-based LTP release 106 ( ... Spaink, Herman P.; Kondorosi, Adam; Hooykaas, Paul (2012-12-06). The Rhizobiaceae: Molecular Biology of Model Plant-Associated ...
Cyclic beta-(1,2)-glucan synthesis in Rhizobiaceae: roles of the 319-kilodalton protein intermediate.. O A Castro, A ... Cyclic beta-(1,2)-glucans are synthesized by members of the Rhizobiaceae family through protein-linked oligosaccharides as ... Cyclic beta-(1,2)-glucan synthesis in Rhizobiaceae: roles of the 319-kilodalton protein intermediate. ... Cyclic beta-(1,2)-glucan synthesis in Rhizobiaceae: roles of the 319-kilodalton protein intermediate. ...
The family Rhizobiaceae includes bacteria which form nitrogen-fixing root nodules on the roots of leguminous plants (the genus ... The family Rhizobiaceae includes bacteria which form nitrogen-fixing root nodules on the roots of leguminous plants (the genus ... THE GENETIC DETERMINATION OF HOST RANGE IN THE RHIZOBIACEAE. Israel Journal of Plant Sciences 31, 1-4, 89 (1982); https://doi. ... "DNA:DNA hybridization studies of Rhizobium japonicum and related Rhizobiaceae."J. Gen. Microbiol.1981Vol 123215222. ...
To increase the rate of scientific discovery in the Rhizobiaceae there is a need to adapt high-throughput genetic screens like ... Here we describe a Rhizobiaceae compatible MmeI-adapted mariner transposon that can be used with insertion sequencing for high- ... particularly given the recent release of genome sequences from many Rhizobiaceae strains. ... The Rhizobiaceae family of Gram-negative bacteria often engage in symbiosis with plants of economic importance. Historically, ...
Omp3a and Omp3b Homologues Are Present in Members of the Rhizobiaceae.. Using the B. abortus Omp3a and Omp3b sequences, we ... From this perspective, the high homology displayed by Omp3a, Omp3b, and their Rhizobiaceae counterparts becomes very ... Brucella abortus virulence regulates the expression of outer membrane proteins with counterparts in members of the Rhizobiaceae ... Brucella abortus virulence regulates the expression of outer membrane proteins with counterparts in members of the Rhizobiaceae ...
The Rhizobiaceae: Molecular Biology of Model Plant-Associated Bacteria. Herman P. Spaink, Adam Kondorosi, Paul J. J. Hooykaas ...
"Agrobacterium is a definable genus of the family Rhizobiaceae". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary ...
Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Alphaproteobacteria; Rhizobiales; Rhizobiaceae; Rhizobium/Agrobacterium group; Rhizobium; Rhizobium ...
b)Exemptions. (1) A limited permit for interstate movement shall not be required for genetic material from any plant pest contained in Escherichia coli genotype K-12 (strain K-12 and its derivatives), sterile strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, or asporogenic strains of Bacillus subtilis, provided that all the following conditions are met: (i) The microorganisms are shipped in a container that meets the requirements of § 340.8(b)(3); (ii) The cloned genetic material is maintained on a nonconjugation proficient plasmid and the host does not contain other conjugation proficient plasmids or generalized transducing phages; (iii) The cloned material does not include the complete infectious genome of a known plant pest; (iv) The cloned genes are not carried on an expression vector if the cloned genes code for: (A) A toxin to plants or plant products, or a toxin to organisms beneficial to plants; or (B) Other factors directly involved in eliciting plant disease (i.e., cell wall degrading enzymes); or ...
Rhizobiaceae. 4. C. Rhizobium massiliae (AF531767). 100% (AJ389908). 98.7% (Z30542). R. larrymoorei. (28,29). ...
OC Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Alphaproteobacteria; Rhizobiales; Rhizobiaceae; OC Rhizobium/Agrobacterium group; Agrobacterium. ...
OC Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Alphaproteobacteria; Rhizobiales; Rhizobiaceae; OC Sinorhizobium/Ensifer group; Sinorhizobium. OX ...
In H. P. Spaink, A. Kondorosi, and P. J. J. Hooykaas (ed.), The Rhizobiaceae: molecular biology of model plant-associated ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Rhizobiaceae Conn 1938. In: Krieg, N.R. and Holt, J.C.., Eds., Bergeys Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Williams and Wilkins ...
Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Alphaproteobacteria; Rhizobiales; Rhizobiaceae; Rhizobium/Agrobacterium group; Agrobacterium; ...
As Rhizobiaceae son gramnegativas, aerobias e xeralmente con forma de bacilo.[3] Moitas especies de Rhizobiaceae son ... "Rhizobiaceae". National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) dabe de datos taxonómica. Consultado o 2012-05-02.. ... As Rizobiáceas (Rhizobiaceae) son unha familia de proteobacterias, nas que se inclúen moitas (pero non todas) especies de ... "Proteobacteria (scroll down for Rhizobiaceae)". List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN). Arquivado dende ...
Rhizobiaceae Genus: Rhizobium Species: R. gallicum Binomial name Rhizobium gallicum. Amarger et al. 1997 ...
Rhizobium forms a symbiotic relationship with certain plants such as legumes, fixing nitrogen from the air into ammonia, which acts as a natural fertilizer for the plants. Current research is being conducted by Agricultural Research Service microbiologists to discover a way to use Rhizobiums biological nitrogen fixation. This research involves the genetic mapping of various rhizobial species with their respective symbiotic plant species, like alfalfa or soybean. The goal of this research is to increase the plants productivity without using fertilizers.[3]. In molecular biology, Rhizobium has also been identified as a contaminant of DNA extraction kit reagents and ultrapure water systems, which may lead to its erroneous appearance in microbiota or metagenomic datasets.[4] The presence of nitrogen fixing bacteria as contaminants may be due to the use of nitrogen gas in ultra-pure water production to inhibit microbial growth in storage tanks.[5]. ...
OC Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Alphaproteobacteria; Rhizobiales; OC Rhizobiaceae; Rhizobium/Agrobacterium group; Rhizobium. OX ...
Root-nodule development in legumes is an inducible developmental process initially triggered by perception of lipochitin-oligosaccharide signals secreted by the bacterial microsymbiont. In nature, rhizobial colonization and invasion of the legume root is therefore a prerequisite for formation of nit …
Additionally, some bacterial families (e.g., Acidaminobacteraceae, Rhizobiaceae, and Xanthomonadaceae) were found only on the ... Additionally, some bacterial families (e.g., Acidaminobacteraceae, Rhizobiaceae, and Xanthomonadaceae) were found only on the ... Rhizobiaceae, Rhodobacteraceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Xanthomonadaceae; genera: Rhodobacter, Paracoccus, Thiothrix, Dechloromonas ...
Rhizobiaceae, Oribatulidae, Trogossitidae, Carabodidae, Bdellidae, Leptolaimidae, Anguinidae, Actinolaimidae, Epilohmanniidae, ...
Family Rhizobiaceae [III] *Genus Agrobacterium [III]. *Genus Bradyrhizobium [II]. *Genus Phyllobacterium [IV] ...
  • The construction and validation of this transposon insertion sequencing tool for use in the Rhizobiziaceae will provide an opportunity for researchers in the Rhizobiaceae community to use high-throughput genetic screening, allowing for significant increase in the rate of genetic discovery, particularly given the recent release of genome sequences from many Rhizobiaceae strains. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Molecular characterization of transposon insertion sites showed that for four mutants, the affected genes were only present in Rhizobiaceae . (asm.org)