A methylpentose whose L- isomer is found naturally in many plant glycosides and some gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharides.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
A synthetic disaccharide used in the treatment of constipation and hepatic encephalopathy. It has also been used in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal disorders. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p887)
Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
A genus of gram-positive bacteria whose spores are round to oval and covered by a sheath.
A class of carbohydrates that contains five carbon atoms.
An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.
Esculin is a glucoside of esculetin, a coumarin derivative found in the horse chestnut tree (Aesculus hippocastanum) and some other plants, used in medical research for its anticoagulant properties and as a substrate in susceptibility testing of certain bacteria.
An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
SUGARS containing an amino group. GLYCOSYLATION of other compounds with these amino sugars results in AMINOGLYCOSIDES.
'Ketosis' is a metabolic state characterized by an elevated concentration of ketone bodies in the blood, typically occurring during fasting, carbohydrate restriction, or in uncontrolled diabetes, and can lead to a shift in the body's primary energy source from glucose to fatty acids and ketones.
Nucleoside Diphosphate Sugars (NDPs) are biomolecules consisting of a nucleoside monophosphate sugar molecule, which is formed from the condensation of a nucleotide and a sugar molecule through a pyrophosphate bond.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
Hexosamines are amino sugars that are formed by the substitution of an amino group for a hydroxyl group in a hexose sugar, playing crucial roles in various biological processes such as glycoprotein synthesis and protein folding.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is found in soil and which causes formation of root nodules on some, but not all, types of field pea, lentil, kidney bean, and clover.
Glucosamine is a naturally occurring amino sugar that plays a crucial role in the formation and maintenance of various tissues, particularly in the synthesis of proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans, which are essential components of cartilage and synovial fluid in joints.
A gram-positive organism found in dental plaque, in blood, on heart valves in subacute endocarditis, and infrequently in saliva and throat specimens. L-forms are associated with recurrent aphthous stomatitis.
Fucose is a deoxyhexose sugar, specifically a L-configuration 6-deoxygalactose, often found as a component of complex carbohydrates called glycans in various glycoproteins and glycolipids within the human body.
Polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates consisting of long, often branched chains of repeating monosaccharide units joined together by glycosidic bonds, which serve as energy storage molecules (e.g., glycogen), structural components (e.g., cellulose), and molecular recognition sites in various biological systems.
Enzymes that catalyze the epimerization of chiral centers within carbohydrates or their derivatives. EC 5.1.3.
An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible isomerization of D-mannose-6-phosphate to form D-fructose-6-phosphate, an important step in glycolysis. EC 5.3.1.8.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.

Structure of the O-specific polysaccharide of a serologically separate strain Proteus penneri 2 from a new proposed serogroup O66. (1/413)

O-specific polysaccharide chain of Proteus penneri strain 2 lipopolysaccharide was studied by full and partial acid hydrolysis, Smith degradation, methylation analysis, and NMR spectroscopy, including two-dimensional rotating-frame NOE spectroscopy (ROESY) and 1H,13C heteronuclear multiple-quantum coherence (HMQC) experiments. Together with D-glucose and 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucose, the polysaccharide was found to contain two rarely occurring sugars, 6-deoxy-L-talose (L-6dTal) and 2,3-diacetamido-2,3,6-trideoxy-L-mannose (L-RhaNAc3NAc), and the following structure of a non-stoichiometrically O-acetylated tetrasaccharide repeating unit was established: [equation: see text] The O-specific polysaccharide studied has a unique composition and structure and, accordingly, P. penneri 2 is serologically separate among Proteus strains. Therefore, we propose for P. penneri 2 a new Proteus O-serogroup O66 where this strain is at present the single representative.  (+info)

Conversion of dTDP-4-keto-6-deoxyglucose to free dTDP-4-keto-rhamnose by the rmIC gene products of Escherichia coli and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (2/413)

dTDP-rhamnose is made from glucose-1-phosphate and dTTP by four enzymes encoded by rmIA-D. An Escherichia coli rmIC mutant was constructed and a crude enzyme extract prepared from it did not produce dTDP-4-keto-rhamnose, in contrast to a crude enzyme extract prepared from a wild-type E. coli strain where small amounts of this intermediate were found after incubation with dTDP-glucose in the absence of NADPH. These results showed that dTDP-4-keto-rhamnose, the product of RmIC, exists as a free intermediate. Further, the Mycobacterium tuberculosis rmIC gene was expressed and incubation of the resulting purified M. tuberculosis RmIC enzyme with dTDP-4-keto-6-deoxyglucose resulted in the conversion of approximately 7% of dTDP-4-keto-6-deoxyglucose to dTDP-4-keto-rhamnose. The enzyme also allowed for the incorporation of two deuterium atoms from deuterium oxide solvent into dTDP-4-keto-glucose. Thus the rmIC gene encodes dTDP-4-keto-6-deoxyglucose epimerase capable of epimerizing at both C-3' and C-5'; this enzyme produces free dTDP-4-keto-rhamnose but the equilibrium of the 4-keto sugar nucleotides lies strongly on the side of the gluco configuration.  (+info)

Recombination between gtfB and gtfC is required for survival of a dTDP-rhamnose synthesis-deficient mutant of Streptococcus mutans in the presence of sucrose. (3/413)

The rml genes are involved in dTDP-rhamnose synthesis in Streptococcus mutans. A gene fusion between gtfB and gtfC, which both encode extracellular water-insoluble glucan-synthesizing enzymes, accompanied by inactivation of the rml genes was observed for cells grown in the presence of sucrose. The survival rates of rml mutants isolated in the absence of sucrose were drastically reduced in the presence of sucrose. The rates were consistent with the frequency of spontaneous gene fusions between gtfB and gtfC, suggesting that the spontaneous recombinant organisms were selected in the presence of sucrose. The rml mutants with a gtfB-gtfC fusion gene had markedly reduced water-insoluble glucan synthetic activity and lost the ability to colonize glass surfaces in the presence of sucrose. These results suggest that the rml mutants of S. mutans, which are defective in dTDP-rhamnose synthesis, can survive only in the absence of water-insoluble glucan synthesis.  (+info)

Production of rhamnolipid biosurfactant by fed-batch culture of Pseudomonas aeruginosa using glucose as a sole carbon source. (4/413)

The pH-stat fed-batch culture of Pseudomonas aeruginosa YPJ-80 was done to produce a rhamnolipid biosurfactant. With glucose as the sole carbon source, the final concentrations of cells and rhamnolipid biosurfactant obtained in 25 h were 25 g cell dry weight/l and 4.4 g/l, respectively.  (+info)

MORLUC numeric system for the identification of Enterobacteriaceae. (5/413)

Foul hundred eighty-six members of the Enterobacteriaceae representing nine genera were identified by conventional methods, and the results were compared with MORLUC (Biotrol Company Inc., Jamaica, N.Y.). MORLUC, an acronym for melibiose, ONPG (o-nitrophenyl-beta-galactopyranoside), rhamnose, lysine decarboxylase, urease, and citrate, are six prepackaged reagent-impregnated paper loops which are sealed within a plastic packet. The hydrogen sulfide reaction obtained from a triple sugar iron slant is coupled with MORLUC results and is readily converted into a three-digit numerical code, which is referenced on a preprinted single page listing. Additionally, the triple sugar iron is used to confirm the glucose fermentation by an unknown isolate. Comparisons of individual MORLUC tests and standard methods results in a better than 92% agreement, except for unrease. Four hundred sixty-six of the 486 bacterial isolates, or 96% of the strains which were numerically identified by MORLUC, agreed with conventional diagnoses.  (+info)

Intestinal permeability and diarrhoeal disease in Aboriginal Australians. (6/413)

BACKGROUND: Northern Territory Aboriginal children hospitalised with acute gastroenteritis have high rates of acidosis, hypokalaemia, and dehydration. AIMS: To determine whether Aboriginal children with and without diarrhoea have greater impairment in intestinal function than non-Aboriginal children, as assessed by increased permeability ratios. METHODS: A descriptive study of 124 children (96 Aboriginal and 28 non-Aboriginal) hospitalised with and without diarrhoea. Intestinal permeability was assessed by the lactulose to rhamnose (L-R) ratio from a five hour urine collection. RESULTS: In Aboriginal children, mean L-R ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 18.3 (17.1 to 19.6) with diarrhoea and 9.0 (7.3 to 11.0) without diarrhoea, and in non-Aboriginal children they were 5.9 (2.8 to 12. 3) and 4.2 (3.3 to 5.2), respectively. In patients with diarrhoea, L-R ratios were significantly raised when accompanied by acidosis (mean, 22.8; 95% CI, 17.0 to 30.5), hypokalaemia (mean, 20.7; 95% CI, 15.4 to 27.9), and >/= 5% dehydration (mean, 24.3; 95% CI, 19.0 to 29.6) compared with none of these complications (mean, 7.0; 95% CI, 3.5 to 13.8). CONCLUSION: The high incidence of acidosis, hypokalaemia, and dehydration in Aboriginal children admitted with diarrhoeal disease is related to underlying small intestinal mucosal damage.  (+info)

Carbohydrate analysis of bradyrhizobial (NC92) lipopolysaccharides by high performance-anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection. (7/413)

Composition analysis of monosaccharides of Sepharose 4B purified NC 92 LPS and the polysaccharides fractions from Sephadex G-50 chromatography was performed by high performance anion exchange chromatography using pulsed amperometric detection. Rhamnose, mannose, galactose and glucose are present in a substantial amount in the purified LPS (Pk I). High molecular weight purified polysaccharides (PS I) obtained after sephadex gel filtration of the purified LPS (Pk I) acid hydrolysate showed an increase in glucose:galactose ratio. This indicates the presence of the peanut root lectin (PRA II) specific sugar in higher proportion on the O-antigen part of the LPS molecule, which may aid in the critical recognition reaction.  (+info)

A novel gene required for rhamnose-glucose polysaccharide synthesis in Streptococcus mutans. (8/413)

Gene rgpG is required for biosynthesis of rhamnose-glucose polysaccharide (RGP) in Streptococcus mutans. Its deduced amino acid sequence had similarity to WecA, which initiates syntheses of enterobacterial common antigen and some O antigens in Escherichia coli. Gene rgpG complemented a wecA mutation of E. coli, suggesting that rgpG may function similarly in RGP synthesis.  (+info)

Rhamnose is a naturally occurring sugar or monosaccharide, that is commonly found in various plants and some fruits. It is a type of deoxy sugar, which means it lacks one hydroxyl group (-OH) compared to a regular hexose sugar. Specifically, rhamnose has a hydrogen atom instead of a hydroxyl group at the 6-position of its structure.

Rhamnose is an essential component of various complex carbohydrates and glycoconjugates found in plant cell walls, such as pectins and glycoproteins. It also plays a role in bacterial cell wall biosynthesis and is used in the production of some antibiotics.

In medical contexts, rhamnose may be relevant to research on bacterial infections, plant-derived medicines, or the metabolism of certain sugars. However, it is not a commonly used term in clinical medicine.

Bacterial polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates that consist of long chains of sugar molecules (monosaccharides) linked together by glycosidic bonds. They are produced and used by bacteria for various purposes such as:

1. Structural components: Bacterial polysaccharides, such as peptidoglycan and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), play a crucial role in maintaining the structural integrity of bacterial cells. Peptidoglycan is a major component of the bacterial cell wall, while LPS forms the outer layer of the outer membrane in gram-negative bacteria.
2. Nutrient storage: Some bacteria synthesize and store polysaccharides as an energy reserve, similar to how plants store starch. These polysaccharides can be broken down and utilized by the bacterium when needed.
3. Virulence factors: Bacterial polysaccharides can also function as virulence factors, contributing to the pathogenesis of bacterial infections. For example, certain bacteria produce capsular polysaccharides (CPS) that surround and protect the bacterial cells from host immune defenses, allowing them to evade phagocytosis and persist within the host.
4. Adhesins: Some polysaccharides act as adhesins, facilitating the attachment of bacteria to surfaces or host cells. This is important for biofilm formation, which helps bacteria resist environmental stresses and antibiotic treatments.
5. Antigenic properties: Bacterial polysaccharides can be highly antigenic, eliciting an immune response in the host. The antigenicity of these molecules can vary between different bacterial species or even strains within a species, making them useful as targets for vaccines and diagnostic tests.

In summary, bacterial polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates that serve various functions in bacteria, including structural support, nutrient storage, virulence factor production, adhesion, and antigenicity.

Lactulose is a synthetic disaccharide, specifically a non-absorbable sugar, used in the treatment of chronic constipation and hepatic encephalopathy. It works as an osmotic laxative by drawing water into the large intestine, promoting bowel movements and softening stool. In the case of hepatic encephalopathy, lactulose is metabolized by colonic bacteria to produce acidic byproducts that lower the pH in the gut, which helps prevent the absorption of harmful substances like ammonia into the bloodstream.

Monosaccharides are simple sugars that cannot be broken down into simpler units by hydrolysis. They are the most basic unit of carbohydrates and are often referred to as "simple sugars." Monosaccharides typically contain three to seven atoms of carbon, but the most common monosaccharides contain five or six carbon atoms.

The general formula for a monosaccharide is (CH2O)n, where n is the number of carbon atoms in the molecule. The majority of monosaccharides have a carbonyl group (aldehyde or ketone) and multiple hydroxyl groups. These functional groups give monosaccharides their characteristic sweet taste and chemical properties.

The most common monosaccharides include glucose, fructose, and galactose, all of which contain six carbon atoms and are known as hexoses. Other important monosaccharides include pentoses (five-carbon sugars) such as ribose and deoxyribose, which play crucial roles in the structure and function of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA).

Monosaccharides can exist in various forms, including linear and cyclic structures. In aqueous solutions, monosaccharides often form cyclic structures through a reaction between the carbonyl group and a hydroxyl group, creating a hemiacetal or hemiketal linkage. These cyclic structures can adopt different conformations, known as anomers, depending on the orientation of the hydroxyl group attached to the anomeric carbon atom.

Monosaccharides serve as essential building blocks for complex carbohydrates, such as disaccharides (e.g., sucrose, lactose, and maltose) and polysaccharides (e.g., starch, cellulose, and glycogen). They also participate in various biological processes, including energy metabolism, cell recognition, and protein glycosylation.

Carbohydrates are a major nutrient class consisting of organic compounds that primarily contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. They are classified as saccharides, which include monosaccharides (simple sugars), disaccharides (double sugars), oligosaccharides (short-chain sugars), and polysaccharides (complex carbohydrates).

Monosaccharides, such as glucose, fructose, and galactose, are the simplest form of carbohydrates. They consist of a single sugar molecule that cannot be broken down further by hydrolysis. Disaccharides, like sucrose (table sugar), lactose (milk sugar), and maltose (malt sugar), are formed from two monosaccharide units joined together.

Oligosaccharides contain a small number of monosaccharide units, typically less than 20, while polysaccharides consist of long chains of hundreds to thousands of monosaccharide units. Polysaccharides can be further classified into starch (found in plants), glycogen (found in animals), and non-starchy polysaccharides like cellulose, chitin, and pectin.

Carbohydrates play a crucial role in providing energy to the body, with glucose being the primary source of energy for most cells. They also serve as structural components in plants (cellulose) and animals (chitin), participate in various metabolic processes, and contribute to the taste, texture, and preservation of foods.

A cell wall is a rigid layer found surrounding the plasma membrane of plant cells, fungi, and many types of bacteria. It provides structural support and protection to the cell, maintains cell shape, and acts as a barrier against external factors such as chemicals and mechanical stress. The composition of the cell wall varies among different species; for example, in plants, it is primarily made up of cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin, while in bacteria, it is composed of peptidoglycan.

"Saccharopolyspora" is a genus of Gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that forms branched hyphae and spores. These bacteria are known for their ability to produce various bioactive compounds, including antibiotics and enzymes. They are commonly found in soil, water, and decaying vegetation. One species of this genus, Saccharopolyspora erythraea (formerly known as Actinomyces erythreus), is the source of the antibiotic erythromycin.

It's important to note that "Saccharopolyspora" is a taxonomic category used in bacterial classification, and individual species within this genus may have different characteristics and medical relevance. Some species of Saccharopolyspora can cause infections in humans, particularly in immunocompromised individuals, but these are relatively rare.

If you're looking for information on a specific species of Saccharopolyspora or its medical relevance, I would need more context to provide a more detailed answer.

A pentose is a monosaccharide (simple sugar) that contains five carbon atoms. The name "pentose" comes from the Greek word "pente," meaning five, and "ose," meaning sugar. Pentoses play important roles in various biological processes, such as serving as building blocks for nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and other biomolecules.

Some common pentoses include:

1. D-Ribose - A naturally occurring pentose found in ribonucleic acid (RNA), certain coenzymes, and energy-carrying molecules like adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
2. D-Deoxyribose - A pentose that lacks a hydroxyl (-OH) group on the 2' carbon atom, making it a key component of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).
3. Xylose - A naturally occurring pentose found in various plants and woody materials; it is used as a sweetener and food additive.
4. Arabinose - Another plant-derived pentose, arabinose can be found in various fruits, vegetables, and grains. It has potential applications in the production of biofuels and other bioproducts.
5. Lyxose - A less common pentose that can be found in some polysaccharides and glycoproteins.

Pentoses are typically less sweet than hexoses (six-carbon sugars) like glucose or fructose, but they still contribute to the overall sweetness of many foods and beverages.

Actinomycetales is an order of Gram-positive bacteria that are characterized by their filamentous morphology and branching appearance, resembling fungi. These bacteria are often found in soil and water, and some species can cause diseases in humans and animals. The name "Actinomycetales" comes from the Greek words "actis," meaning ray or beam, and "mykes," meaning fungus.

The order Actinomycetales includes several families of medical importance, such as Mycobacteriaceae (which contains the tuberculosis-causing Mycobacterium tuberculosis), Corynebacteriaceae (which contains the diphtheria-causing Corynebacterium diphtheriae), and Actinomycetaceae (which contains the actinomycosis-causing Actinomyces israelii).

Actinomycetales are known for their complex cell walls, which contain a unique type of lipid called mycolic acid. This feature makes them resistant to many antibiotics and contributes to their ability to cause chronic infections. They can also form resistant structures called spores, which allow them to survive in harsh environments and contribute to their ability to cause disease.

Overall, Actinomycetales are important both as beneficial soil organisms and as potential pathogens that can cause serious diseases in humans and animals.

Esculin is a glucoside derived from the bark of willow trees and other plants. It has been used in scientific research as a substrate to test the activity of certain types of bacteria, particularly those that have the ability to produce an enzyme called beta-glucosidase. When esculin comes into contact with this enzyme, it is broken down and forms a chemical compound called esculetin, which can be detected and measured. This reaction is often used as a way to identify and study bacteria that produce beta-glucosidase.

Esculin is not typically used in medical treatments or therapies, but it may have some potential uses in the development of new drugs or diagnostic tools. As with any chemical compound, esculin should be handled with care and used only under the guidance of a trained professional.

Galactose is a simple sugar or monosaccharide that is a constituent of lactose, the disaccharide found in milk and dairy products. It's structurally similar to glucose but with a different chemical structure, and it plays a crucial role in various biological processes.

Galactose can be metabolized in the body through the action of enzymes such as galactokinase, galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase, and UDP-galactose 4'-epimerase. Inherited deficiencies in these enzymes can lead to metabolic disorders like galactosemia, which can cause serious health issues if not diagnosed and treated promptly.

In summary, Galactose is a simple sugar that plays an essential role in lactose metabolism and other biological processes.

Amino sugars, also known as glycosamine or hexosamines, are sugar molecules that contain a nitrogen atom as part of their structure. The most common amino sugars found in nature are glucosamine and galactosamine, which are derived from the hexose sugars glucose and galactose, respectively.

Glucosamine is an essential component of the structural polysaccharide chitin, which is found in the exoskeletons of arthropods such as crustaceans and insects, as well as in the cell walls of fungi. It is also a precursor to the glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), which are long, unbranched polysaccharides that are important components of the extracellular matrix in animals.

Galactosamine, on the other hand, is a component of some GAGs and is also found in bacterial cell walls. It is used in the synthesis of heparin and heparan sulfate, which are important anticoagulant molecules.

Amino sugars play a critical role in many biological processes, including cell signaling, inflammation, and immune response. They have also been studied for their potential therapeutic uses in the treatment of various diseases, such as osteoarthritis and cancer.

Ketosis is a metabolic state characterized by elevated levels of ketone bodies in the blood or urine. Ketone bodies are molecules produced from fatty acids during the breakdown of fats for energy, particularly when carbohydrate intake is low. This process occurs naturally in our body, and it's a part of normal metabolism. However, ketosis becomes significant under certain conditions such as:

1. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA): A serious complication in people with diabetes, typically type 1 diabetes, which happens when there are extremely high levels of ketones and blood sugar due to insulin deficiency or a severe infection. DKA is a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment.
2. Starvation or fasting: When the body doesn't receive enough carbohydrates from food, it starts breaking down fats for energy, leading to ketosis. This can occur during prolonged fasting or starvation.
3. Low-carbohydrate diets (LCDs) or ketogenic diets: Diets that restrict carbohydrate intake and emphasize high fat and protein consumption can induce a state of nutritional ketosis, where ketone bodies are used as the primary energy source. This type of ketosis is not harmful and can be beneficial for weight loss and managing certain medical conditions like epilepsy.

It's important to note that there is a difference between diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), which is a dangerous condition, and nutritional ketosis, which is a normal metabolic process and can be achieved through dietary means without negative health consequences for most individuals.

Nucleoside diphosphate sugars (NDP-sugars) are essential activated sugars that play a crucial role in the biosynthesis of complex carbohydrates, such as glycoproteins and glycolipids. They consist of a sugar molecule linked to a nucleoside diphosphate, which is formed from a nucleotide by removal of one phosphate group.

NDP-sugars are created through the action of enzymes called nucleoside diphosphate sugars synthases or transferases, which transfer a sugar molecule from a donor to a nucleoside diphosphate, forming an NDP-sugar. The resulting NDP-sugar can then be used as a substrate for various glycosyltransferases that catalyze the addition of sugars to other molecules, such as proteins or lipids.

NDP-sugars are involved in many important biological processes, including cell signaling, protein targeting, and immune response. They also play a critical role in maintaining the structural integrity of cells and tissues.

Streptococcus is a genus of Gram-positive, spherical bacteria that typically form pairs or chains when clustered together. These bacteria are facultative anaerobes, meaning they can grow in the presence or absence of oxygen. They are non-motile and do not produce spores.

Streptococcus species are commonly found on the skin and mucous membranes of humans and animals. Some strains are part of the normal flora of the body, while others can cause a variety of infections, ranging from mild skin infections to severe and life-threatening diseases such as sepsis, meningitis, and toxic shock syndrome.

The pathogenicity of Streptococcus species depends on various virulence factors, including the production of enzymes and toxins that damage tissues and evade the host's immune response. One of the most well-known Streptococcus species is Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as group A streptococcus (GAS), which is responsible for a wide range of clinical manifestations, including pharyngitis (strep throat), impetigo, cellulitis, necrotizing fasciitis, and rheumatic fever.

It's important to note that the classification of Streptococcus species has evolved over time, with many former members now classified as different genera within the family Streptococcaceae. The current classification system is based on a combination of phenotypic characteristics (such as hemolysis patterns and sugar fermentation) and genotypic methods (such as 16S rRNA sequencing and multilocus sequence typing).

Paper chromatography is a type of chromatography technique that involves the separation and analysis of mixtures based on their components' ability to migrate differently upon capillary action on a paper medium. This simple and cost-effective method utilizes a paper, typically made of cellulose, as the stationary phase. The sample mixture is applied as a small spot near one end of the paper, and then the other end is dipped into a developing solvent or a mixture of solvents (mobile phase) in a shallow container.

As the mobile phase moves up the paper by capillary action, components within the sample mixture separate based on their partition coefficients between the stationary and mobile phases. The partition coefficient describes how much a component prefers to be in either the stationary or mobile phase. Components with higher partition coefficients in the mobile phase will move faster and further than those with lower partition coefficients.

Once separation is complete, the paper is dried and can be visualized under ultraviolet light or by using chemical reagents specific for the components of interest. The distance each component travels from the origin (point of application) and its corresponding solvent front position are measured, allowing for the calculation of Rf values (retardation factors). Rf is a dimensionless quantity calculated as the ratio of the distance traveled by the component to the distance traveled by the solvent front.

Rf = (distance traveled by component) / (distance traveled by solvent front)

Paper chromatography has been widely used in various applications, such as:

1. Identification and purity analysis of chemical compounds in pharmaceuticals, forensics, and research laboratories.
2. Separation and detection of amino acids, sugars, and other biomolecules in biological samples.
3. Educational purposes to demonstrate the principles of chromatography and separation techniques.

Despite its limitations, such as lower resolution compared to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and less compatibility with volatile or nonpolar compounds, paper chromatography remains a valuable tool for quick, qualitative analysis in various fields.

A "carbohydrate sequence" refers to the specific arrangement or order of monosaccharides (simple sugars) that make up a carbohydrate molecule, such as a polysaccharide or an oligosaccharide. Carbohydrates are often composed of repeating units of monosaccharides, and the sequence in which these units are arranged can have important implications for the function and properties of the carbohydrate.

For example, in glycoproteins (proteins that contain carbohydrate chains), the specific carbohydrate sequence can affect how the protein is processed and targeted within the cell, as well as its stability and activity. Similarly, in complex carbohydrates like starch or cellulose, the sequence of glucose units can determine whether the molecule is branched or unbranched, which can have implications for its digestibility and other properties.

Therefore, understanding the carbohydrate sequence is an important aspect of studying carbohydrate structure and function in biology and medicine.

Fermentation is a metabolic process in which an organism converts carbohydrates into alcohol or organic acids using enzymes. In the absence of oxygen, certain bacteria, yeasts, and fungi convert sugars into carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and various end products, such as alcohol, lactic acid, or acetic acid. This process is commonly used in food production, such as in making bread, wine, and beer, as well as in industrial applications for the production of biofuels and chemicals.

Hexosamines are amino sugars that are formed by the substitution of an amino group (-NH2) for a hydroxyl group (-OH) in a hexose sugar. The most common hexosamine is N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), which is derived from glucose. Other hexosamines include galactosamine, mannosamine, and fucosamine.

Hexosamines play important roles in various biological processes, including the formation of glycosaminoglycans, proteoglycans, and glycoproteins. These molecules are involved in many cellular functions, such as cell signaling, cell adhesion, and protein folding. Abnormalities in hexosamine metabolism have been implicated in several diseases, including diabetes, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders.

'Rhizobium leguminosarum' is a species of bacteria that can form nitrogen-fixing nodules on the roots of certain leguminous plants, such as clover, peas, and beans. These bacteria have the ability to convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia, a form of nitrogen that plants can use for growth. This process, known as biological nitrogen fixation, benefits both the bacteria and the host plant, as the plant provides carbon sources to the bacteria, while the bacteria provide fixed nitrogen to the plant. The formation of this symbiotic relationship is facilitated by a molecular signaling process between the bacterium and the plant.

It's important to note that 'Rhizobium leguminosarum' is not a medical term per se, but rather a term used in microbiology, botany, and agriculture.

Glucosamine is a natural compound found in the body, primarily in the fluid around joints. It is a building block of cartilage, which is the tissue that cushions bones and allows for smooth joint movement. Glucosamine can also be produced in a laboratory and is commonly sold as a dietary supplement.

Medical definitions of glucosamine describe it as a type of amino sugar that plays a crucial role in the formation and maintenance of cartilage, ligaments, tendons, and other connective tissues. It is often used as a supplement to help manage osteoarthritis symptoms, such as pain, stiffness, and swelling in the joints, by potentially reducing inflammation and promoting cartilage repair.

There are different forms of glucosamine available, including glucosamine sulfate, glucosamine hydrochloride, and N-acetyl glucosamine. Glucosamine sulfate is the most commonly used form in supplements and has been studied more extensively than other forms. While some research suggests that glucosamine may provide modest benefits for osteoarthritis symptoms, its effectiveness remains a topic of ongoing debate among medical professionals.

Streptococcus sanguis is a gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, beta-hemolytic bacterium that belongs to the Streptococcaceae family. It's part of the viridans group streptococci (VGS) and is commonly found in the oral cavity of humans, residing on the surface of teeth and mucous membranes.

S. sanguis is generally considered a commensal organism; however, it can contribute to dental plaque formation and cause endocarditis, particularly in people with pre-existing heart conditions. It's important to note that there are several subspecies of S. sanguis, including S. sanguis I, II, III, and IV, which may have different characteristics and clinical implications.

Medical Definition: Streptococcus sanguis is a gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, beta-hemolytic bacterium that belongs to the viridans group streptococci (VGS). It is commonly found in the oral cavity and can cause endocarditis in susceptible individuals.

Fucose is a type of sugar molecule that is often found in complex carbohydrates known as glycans, which are attached to many proteins and lipids in the body. It is a hexose sugar, meaning it contains six carbon atoms, and is a type of L-sugar, which means that it rotates plane-polarized light in a counterclockwise direction.

Fucose is often found at the ends of glycan chains and plays important roles in various biological processes, including cell recognition, signaling, and interaction. It is also a component of some blood group antigens and is involved in the development and function of the immune system. Abnormalities in fucosylation (the addition of fucose to glycans) have been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, inflammation, and neurological disorders.

Polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates consisting of long chains of monosaccharide units (simple sugars) bonded together by glycosidic linkages. They can be classified based on the type of monosaccharides and the nature of the bonds that connect them.

Polysaccharides have various functions in living organisms. For example, starch and glycogen serve as energy storage molecules in plants and animals, respectively. Cellulose provides structural support in plants, while chitin is a key component of fungal cell walls and arthropod exoskeletons.

Some polysaccharides also have important roles in the human body, such as being part of the extracellular matrix (e.g., hyaluronic acid) or acting as blood group antigens (e.g., ABO blood group substances).

Carbohydrate epimerases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the interconversion of specific stereoisomers (epimers) of carbohydrates by the reversible oxidation and reduction of carbon atoms, usually at the fourth or fifth position. These enzymes play important roles in the biosynthesis and modification of various carbohydrate-containing molecules, such as glycoproteins, proteoglycans, and glycolipids, which are involved in numerous biological processes including cell recognition, signaling, and adhesion.

The reaction catalyzed by carbohydrate epimerases involves the transfer of a hydrogen atom and a proton between two adjacent carbon atoms, leading to the formation of new stereochemical configurations at these positions. This process can result in the conversion of one epimer into another, thereby expanding the structural diversity of carbohydrates and their derivatives.

Carbohydrate epimerases are classified based on the type of substrate they act upon and the specific stereochemical changes they induce. Some examples include UDP-glucose 4-epimerase, which interconverts UDP-glucose and UDP-galactose; UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase, which converts UDP-N-acetylglucosamine to UDP-N-acetylmannosamine; and GDP-fucose synthase, which catalyzes the conversion of GDP-mannose to GDP-fucose.

Understanding the function and regulation of carbohydrate epimerases is crucial for elucidating their roles in various biological processes and developing strategies for targeting them in therapeutic interventions.

Mannose-6-Phosphate Isomerase (MPI) is an enzyme that catalyzes the interconversion between mannose-6-phosphate and fructose-6-phosphate, which are both key metabolites in the glycolysis and gluconeogenesis pathways. This enzyme plays a crucial role in maintaining the balance between these two metabolic pathways, allowing cells to either break down or synthesize glucose depending on their energy needs.

The gene that encodes for MPI is called MPI1 and is located on chromosome 4 in humans. Defects in this gene can lead to a rare genetic disorder known as Mannose-6-Phosphate Isomerase Deficiency or Congenital Disorder of Glycosylation Type IIm, which is characterized by developmental delay, intellectual disability, seizures, and various other neurological symptoms.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

"O antigens" are a type of antigen found on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. The "O" in O antigens stands for "outer" membrane. These antigens are composed of complex carbohydrates and can vary between different strains of the same species of bacteria, which is why they are also referred to as the bacterial "O" somatic antigens.

The O antigens play a crucial role in the virulence and pathogenesis of many Gram-negative bacteria, as they help the bacteria evade the host's immune system by changing the structure of the O antigen, making it difficult for the host to mount an effective immune response against the bacterial infection.

The identification and classification of O antigens are important in epidemiology, clinical microbiology, and vaccine development, as they can be used to differentiate between different strains of bacteria and to develop vaccines that provide protection against specific bacterial infections.

Carbohydrate metabolism is the process by which the body breaks down carbohydrates into glucose, which is then used for energy or stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen. This process involves several enzymes and chemical reactions that convert carbohydrates from food into glucose, fructose, or galactose, which are then absorbed into the bloodstream and transported to cells throughout the body.

The hormones insulin and glucagon regulate carbohydrate metabolism by controlling the uptake and storage of glucose in cells. Insulin is released from the pancreas when blood sugar levels are high, such as after a meal, and promotes the uptake and storage of glucose in cells. Glucagon, on the other hand, is released when blood sugar levels are low and signals the liver to convert stored glycogen back into glucose and release it into the bloodstream.

Disorders of carbohydrate metabolism can result from genetic defects or acquired conditions that affect the enzymes or hormones involved in this process. Examples include diabetes, hypoglycemia, and galactosemia. Proper management of these disorders typically involves dietary modifications, medication, and regular monitoring of blood sugar levels.

... rhamnose-glucose Robinose, rhamnose-galactose Polysaccharides: Gellan gum -glucose-glucuronic acid-glucose-rhamnose- Welan gum ... Rhamnose predominantly occurs in nature in its L-form as L-rhamnose (6-deoxy-L-mannose). This is unusual, since most of the ... Rhamnose can be isolated from Buckthorn (Rhamnus), poison sumac, and plants in the genus Uncaria. Rhamnose is also produced by ... Galactose binding lectin domain, despite the name, often binds rhamnose Alpha-L-rhamnosidase Disaccharides: Rutinose, rhamnose- ...
The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-rhamnose aldose-ketose-isomerase. Other names in common use include rhamnose ... In enzymology, a L-rhamnose isomerase (EC 5.3.1.14) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L-rhamnose ⇌ {\ ... I. L-Rhamnose Isomerase from Lactobacillus Plantarum". Biochem. Z. 339: 145-53. PMID 14095156. Portal: Biology v t e (EC 5.3.1 ... displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } L-rhamnulose Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, L-rhamnose, and one product, L-rhamnulose ...
In enzymology, a L-rhamnose 1-dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.173) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L-rhamnofuranose ... Rigo LU, Marechal LR, Vieira MM, Veiga LA (1985). "Oxidative pathway for L-rhamnose degradation in Pullularia pullulans". Can. ... Rigo LU, Nakano M, Veiga LA, Feingold DS (1976). "L-Rhamnose dehydrogenase of Pullularia pullulans". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. ...
... (EC 5.1.3.25, dTDP-4-L-rhamnose 4-epimerase, wbiB (gene)) is an enzyme with systematic name dTDP-6- ... Yoo HG, Kwon SY, Karki S, Kwon HJ (July 2011). "A new route to dTDP-6-deoxy-l-talose and dTDP-L-rhamnose: dTDP-L-rhamnose 4- ... DTDP-L-rhamnose+4-epimerase at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Portal: Biology (EC 5.1.3) ...
In enzymology, a GDP-4-dehydro-D-rhamnose reductase (EC 1.1.1.187) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction GDP-6- ... Other names in common use include GDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-mannose reductase, GDP-4-keto-D-rhamnose reductase, and guanosine ... Barber GA (1968). "The synthesis of guanosine 5'-diphosphate D-rhamnose by enzymes of a higher plant". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. ... Winkler NW, Markovitz A (1971). "Guanosine diphosphate-4-keto-D-rhamnose reductase. A non-stereoselective enzyme". J. Biol. ...
Beta-D-galactosyl-(1->4)-L-rhamnose phosphorylase (EC 2.4.1.247, D-galactosyl-beta1->4-L-rhamnose phosphorylase, GalRhaP) is an ... Beta-D-galactosyl-(1->4)-L-rhamnose+phosphorylase at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction beta-D-galactosyl-(1->4)-L-rhamnose + phosphate ⇌ {\displaystyle \ ... 4-l-rhamnose phosphorylase". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 284 (29): 19220-7. doi:10.1074/jbc.m109.007666. PMC 2740546. ...
... (EC 2.4.1.282, cphy1019 (gene)) is an enzyme with systematic name 3-O-alpha-D- ... 3-O-alpha-D-glucosyl-L-rhamnose+phosphorylase at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Portal: ... Nihira T, Nakai H, Kitaoka M (March 2012). "3-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-L-rhamnose phosphorylase from Clostridium phytofermentans". ... beta-D-glucose 1-phosphate In the reverse phosphorolysis reaction the enzyme is specific for L-rhamnose as acceptor and beta-D- ...
It uses rhamnose and sucrose. Its type strain is strain 6175 (=CIP 80-29). In humans, it can cause gastrointestinal infections ... "Yersinia frederiksenii: A new species of Enterobacteriaceae composed of rhamnose-positive strains (formerly called atypical ...
"Kegg Orthology: K00848". Wilson DM, Ajl S (March 1957). "Metabolism of L-rhamnose by Escherichia coli. II. The phosphorylation ...
First rhamnosidase breaks naringin into prunin and rhamnose. Lastly glucosidase breaks prunin into glucose and naringenin, a ...
This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction Hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing α-L-rhamnose residues in α-L- ... rhamnosides Rosenfeld EL, Wiederschein GY (1965). "The metabolism of L-rhamnose in animal tissues". Bulletin de la Société de ...
Additionally, it was suggested that rhamnose, the L-sugar component of ouabain, could not be synthesized within the body ... The glycosylation of ouabagenin with rhamnose produced ouabain. Poisons derived from Acokanthera plants are known to have been ... Malawista I, Davidson EA (December 1961). "Isolation and identification of rhamnose from rabbit skin". Nature. 192 (4805): 871- ...
Sawada H; Takagi Y (1964). "The metabolism of L-rhamnose in Escherichia coli. 3 L-Rhamulose-phosphate aldolase". Biochim. ...
Finally, dTDP-6-deoxy-L-lyxo-4-hexulose is converted to dTDP-L-rhamnose by RmlD. The rhamnose can then be used in the synthesis ... RhlB adds a rhamnose group to the HAA precursor to form mono-rhamnolipid. Therefore, the products of the rhlAB operon, RhlA and ... The rhamnose moiety for mono- and di-rhamnolipids is derived from AlgC activity and the RmlABCD pathway, encoded on the rmlBCAD ... In rhamnose synthesis, AlgC produces glucose-1-phosphate (G1P) which is converted to dTDP-D-glucose by RmlA followed by ...
Additionally, it cannot ferment arabinose, rhamnose, sorbitol and xylose. "Species: Acidipropionibacterium timonense". LPSN. ...
Bar-Peled M, Lewinsohn E, Fluhr R, Gressel J (November 1991). "UDP-rhamnose:flavanone-7-O-glucoside-2″-O-rhamnosyltransferase ...
Rigo LU, Marechal LR, Vieira MM, Veiga LA (1985). "Oxidative pathway for L-rhamnose degradation in Pullularia pullulans". Can. ...
Rigo LU, Marechal LR, Vieira MM, Veiga LA (1985). "Oxidative pathway for L-rhamnose degradation in Pullularia pullulans". Can. ...
L-rhamnose and D-galactose share the same hydroxyl group orientation at C2 and C4 of the pyranose ring structure. A cysteine- ... Although SUEL was first isolated as a D-galactoside binding lectin, it was later shown that it binds to L-rhamnose ... Tateno H, Saneyoshi A, Ogawa T, Muramoto K, Kamiya H, Saneyoshi M (July 1998). "Isolation and characterization of rhamnose- ... Human latrophilin-1. Human Latrophilin-2. Rhamnose-binding lectin (SAL) from catfish (Silurus asotus) eggs. This protein is ...
Although glucose is the most common sugar present in glucosides, many are known which yield rhamnose or iso-dulcite; these may ... Quercitrin is a yellow dyestuff found in Quercus velutina; it hydrolyses to rhamnose and quercetin, a dioxy-~3-phenyl- ... It is related to the pentosides naringin, C27H32O14, which hydrolyses to rhamnose and naringenin, the phioroglucin ester of ... this substance occurs in combination with rhamnose in Frangula bark. Arguably the most important cyanogenic glucoside is ...
Ma Y, Pan F, McNeil M (2002). "Formation of dTDP-rhamnose is essential for growth of mycobacteria". J. Bacteriol. 184 (12): ...
Mannose is the major cell-wall carbohydrate; glucose, fucose, and rhamnose are the less prevalent neutral sugars; and xylose is ...
Nakajima, Masahiro; Nishimoto, Mamoru; Kitaoka, Motomitsu (2010). "Characterization of d-galactosyl-β1→4-l-rhamnose ...
This enzyme hydrolyzes the glycoside quercitrin to release quercetin and L-rhamnose. It is an enzyme in the rutin catabolic ... Quercetin forms the glycosides quercitrin and rutin together with rhamnose and rutinose, respectively. Likewise guaijaverin is ...
It catalyses the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing β-L-rhamnose residues in β-L-rhamnosides Barker SA, Somers PJ, Stacey M, ... Hopton JW (1965). "Arrangement of the L-rhamnose units in Diplococcus pneumoniae type II polysaccharide". Carbohydr. Res. 1: ...
Some examples include: D-ribose, L-arabinose, L-rhamnose, and D-allose. Conversion of glucose to fructose by xylose isomerase ...
Saffer, Adam M.; Carpita, Nicholas C.; Irish, Vivian F. (2017). "Rhamnose-Containing Cell Wall Polymers Suppress Helical Plant ...
... α-L-rhamnose-(1. From many of the rhamnose residues, sidechains of various neutral sugars branch off. The neutral sugars are ...
Eupatolin is a eupatolitin glycoside containing a rhamnose attached at the 3 position. It can be found in Eupatorium ...
Other sugars are often present alongside fucose, including galactose, xylose, arabinose and rhamnose. The relative content of ...
... rhamnose-glucose Robinose, rhamnose-galactose Polysaccharides: Gellan gum -glucose-glucuronic acid-glucose-rhamnose- Welan gum ... Rhamnose predominantly occurs in nature in its L-form as L-rhamnose (6-deoxy-L-mannose). This is unusual, since most of the ... Rhamnose can be isolated from Buckthorn (Rhamnus), poison sumac, and plants in the genus Uncaria. Rhamnose is also produced by ... Galactose binding lectin domain, despite the name, often binds rhamnose Alpha-L-rhamnosidase Disaccharides: Rutinose, rhamnose- ...
Shop L-(+)-Rhamnose, monohydrate, ∽99%, MP Biomedicals™ at Fishersci.ca ...
Involvement of a Bacterial Microcompartment in the Metabolism of Fucose and Rhamnose by Clostridium phytofermentans. Title. ... Involvement of a Bacterial Microcompartment in the Metabolism of Fucose and Rhamnose by Clostridium phytofermentans. ...
Protein target information for L-rhamnose isomerase (Escherichia coli CFT073). Find diseases associated with this biological ...
GDP-alpha-D-rhamnose. + NAD(P)+. = GDP-4-dehydro-alpha-D-rhamnose. + NAD(P)H. + H+. ... 1.1.1.187: GDP-4-dehydro-D-rhamnose reductase. This is an abbreviated version!. For detailed information about GDP-4-dehydro-D- ... GDP KR reductase, GDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-mannose reductase, GDP-4-keto-D-rhamnose reductase, guanosine diphosphate-4-keto-D- ...
L-rhamnose Monohydrate. Product Name: L-rhamnose MonohydrateL-rhamnose Monohydrate. Synonym: 6-Deoxy-L-Mannose Monohydrate. CAS ... L-rhamnose, with 33% sweetness of sucrose, is 6-Deoxy-L-Mannose extracted from the hydrolytic liquid of quercetin. As the rare ...
The L-Rhamnose Assay Kit for the measurement of L-rhamnose in plant extracts, culture media/supernatants and other materials is ... The L-Rhamnose Assay Kit for the measurement of L-rhamnose in plant extracts, culture media/supernatants and other materials is ... The most abundant occurrence of L-rhamnose is within the pectic fraction of plant cell wall polysaccharides. L-Rhamnose is ... L-Rhamnose occurs naturally in the L-form and is commonly present as a component of the carbohydrate moiety of eukaryotic ...
rhamnose. 0. -. 0. 0. Salicin. 26.9. -. ND. 40. d. -sorbitol. 57.7. -. V. 94. ...
But she says the inclusion of rhamnose, a naturally derived plant sugar, is particularly notable because it plumps and firms ... Active ingredients: Vitamin C, glycerin, rhamnose , Consistency: Balm , Price: 1.7 ounces (Approx. $24 per ounce) ...
Rhamnose. Negative (-ve). Salicin. Variable. Sorbitol. Variable. Sorbose. Negative (-ve). Sucrose. Negative (-ve). ...
The enzyme catalyzes the transfer of rhamnose from UDP-rhamnose to the C-2 hydroxyl group of glucose attached via C-7-O- of ... The K(m) for UDP-rhamnose was similar with prunin (1.3-mu-M) and hesperetin-7-O-glucoside (1.1-mu-M) as substrate. The affinity ... UDP-rhamnose: flavanone-7-O-glucoside-2-O-rhamnosyltransferase. Purification and characterization of an enzyme catalyzing the ... The enzyme rhamnosylates only with UDP-rhamnose. Flavonoid-7-O-glucosides are usable acceptors but 5-O-glucosides or aglycones ...
Promoter rhamnose Cloning Information for Gene/Insert 1 * Cloning method Ligation Independent Cloning ...
isovitexin + UDP-beta-L-rhamnose -, isovitexin 2-O-rhamnoside + UDP + H+ PlantCyc ISOVITEXIN. ...
"Glu" refers to Glucose, "Rha" refers to Rhamnose.. Several methods have been used to investigate the pharmacokinetic ...
S2 cells produce AHL upon arabinose induction and S3 cells produce AHL upon rhamnose induction. CR are the reporter cells. c ... M+rham and M−rham are, respectively, positive and negative modulatory cells responding to rhamnose. S1 cells produce AHL ... Once logic gates responding to two inputs were constructed, we introduced an additional input, i.e. rhamnose, in order to ... arabinose and rhamnose. Three of the modulatory elements (M+aTc, M+ara and M+rham cells) allow the CS flow across the circuit ...
... encapsulated Hyaluronic Acid to provide long-lasting hydration Blended with Rhamnose polysaccharides to soothe & protect skin ... Blended with Rhamnose polysaccharides to soothe & protect skin. *Infused with collagen-booster Peptide to regenerate the dermis ...
Other constituents include proanthocyanadins, glucose, rhamnose, organic acids, D-glucaric and ginkgolic acids. EGb 761 ...
A licence fee may be applied to products purchased for commercial use. Find out more information.. ...
AQUA / WATER • RHAMNOSE • GLYCERIN • ALCOHOL DENAT. • DIMETHICONE • HYDROXYETHYLPIPERAZINE ETHANE SULFONIC ACID • PEG-20 METHYL ...
L-Rhamnose catabolism in archaea. Vulcanisaeta distributa. 1.1.1.401. L-Rhamnose catabolism in archaea. Haloferax volcanii ATCC ... L-Rhamnose catabolism in archaea. Haloferax volcanii. 1.1.1.401. ... implications to L-rhamnose metabolism in archaea. Sulfobacillus ... Novel modified version of nonphosphorylated sugar metabolism-an alternative L-rhamnose pathway of Sphingomonas sp. Sphingomonas ... Novel modified version of nonphosphorylated sugar metabolism-an alternative L-rhamnose pathway of Sphingomonas sp. Sphingomonas ...
Green Tea Extract, Lactobacillus Gasseri, Lactobacillus Rhamnoses, Lactobacillus Fermentum, Lactobacillus Plantarum, ...
The C-substance is composed of a branched polymer of L-rhamnose and N -acetyl-D-glucosamine. It may have a role in increased ...
RHAMNOSE. *COPPER SULFATE. *ZINC SULFATE. *SODIUM HYALURONATE. *VITIS VINIFERA (GRAPE) VINE EXTRACT ...
L-Rhamnose Monohydrate CAS No.10030 85 0. Продавец: Chengdu Kindarco Biotech Co., Ltd. Product name L-Rhamnose Monohydrate ...
Lang, S., & Wullbrandt, D. (1999). Rhamnose lipids - biosynthesis, microbial production and application potential. Applied ... rhamnose, and a branched carboxylated alkyl chain, beta-hydroxydecanoic acid (Lang and Wullbrandt, 1999). ...

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