An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.
The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.
Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.
Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.
The ability to foresee what is likely to happen on the basis of past experience. It is largely a frontal lobe function.
Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.
Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
The strengthening of a conditioned response.
Stimulation of the brain, which is self-administered. The stimulation may result in negative or positive reinforcement.
The application of an unpleasant stimulus or penalty for the purpose of eliminating or correcting undesirable behavior.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.
Usually refers to the use of mathematical models in the prediction of learning to perform tasks based on the theory of probability applied to responses; it may also refer to the frequency of occurrence of the responses observed in the particular study.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.
A region in the MESENCEPHALON which is dorsomedial to the SUBSTANTIA NIGRA and ventral to the RED NUCLEUS. The mesocortical and mesolimbic dopaminergic systems originate here, including an important projection to the NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS. Overactivity of the cells in this area has been suspected to contribute to the positive symptoms of SCHIZOPHRENIA.
A mechanism of information stimulus and response that may control subsequent behavior, cognition, perception, or performance. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)
Learning that takes place when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.
A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.
A state of internal activity of an organism that is a necessary condition before a given stimulus will elicit a class of responses; e.g., a certain level of hunger (drive) must be present before food will elicit an eating response.
The principle that items experienced together enter into a connection, so that one tends to reinstate the other.
An activity distinguished primarily by an element of risk in trying to obtain a desired goal, e.g., playing a game of chance for money.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.
The selection of one food over another.
Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.
Games designed to provide information on hypotheses, policies, procedures, or strategies.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Inability to experience pleasure due to impairment or dysfunction of normal psychological and neurobiological mechanisms. It is a symptom of many PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS (e.g., DEPRESSIVE DISORDER, MAJOR; and SCHIZOPHRENIA).
Animal searching behavior. The variable introductory phase of an instinctive behavior pattern or sequence, e.g., looking for food, or sequential courtship patterns prior to mating.
A set of forebrain structures common to all mammals that is defined functionally and anatomically. It is implicated in the higher integration of visceral, olfactory, and somatic information as well as homeostatic responses including fundamental survival behaviors (feeding, mating, emotion). For most authors, it includes the AMYGDALA; EPITHALAMUS; GYRUS CINGULI; hippocampal formation (see HIPPOCAMPUS); HYPOTHALAMUS; PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS; SEPTAL NUCLEI; anterior nuclear group of thalamus, and portions of the basal ganglia. (Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p744; NeuroNames, http://rprcsgi.rprc.washington.edu/neuronames/index.html (September 2, 1998)).
The combined discipline of psychology and economics that investigates what happens in markets in which some of the agents display human limitations and complications.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
Drugs that block the transport of DOPAMINE into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. Most of the ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS also inhibit dopamine uptake.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
Sensation of enjoyment or gratification.
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.
Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.
Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.
Learning that is manifested in the ability to respond differentially to various stimuli.
The middle of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain. Without further subdivision, midbrain develops into a short, constricted portion connecting the PONS and the DIENCEPHALON. Midbrain contains two major parts, the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI and the ventral TEGMENTUM MESENCEPHALI, housing components of auditory, visual, and other sensorimoter systems.
The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.
The end-result or objective, which may be specified or required in advance.
A thioxanthene neuroleptic that, unlike CHLORPROMAZINE, is claimed to have CNS-activating properties. It is used in the treatment of psychoses although not in excited or manic patients. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p595)
Sugar-rich liquid produced in plant glands called nectaries. It is either produced in flowers or other plant structures, providing a source of attraction for pollinating insects and animals, as well as being a nutrient source to animal mutualists which provide protection of plants against herbivores.
Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.
Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.
Methods for visualizing REGIONAL BLOOD FLOW, metabolic, electrical, or other physiological activities in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM using various imaging modalities.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate DOPAMINE RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of dopamine or exogenous agonists. Many drugs used in the treatment of psychotic disorders (ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) are dopamine antagonists, although their therapeutic effects may be due to long-term adjustments of the brain rather than to the acute effects of blocking dopamine receptors. Dopamine antagonists have been used for several other clinical purposes including as ANTIEMETICS, in the treatment of Tourette syndrome, and for hiccup. Dopamine receptor blockade is associated with NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME.
Differential response to different stimuli.
Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.
Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.
The phylogenetically newer part of the CORPUS STRIATUM consisting of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and PUTAMEN. It is often called simply the striatum.
Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is DOPAMINE.
A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D2-class receptor genes contain INTRONS, and the receptors inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
The procedure of presenting the conditioned stimulus without REINFORCEMENT to an organism previously conditioned. It refers also to the diminution of a conditioned response resulting from this procedure.
The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.
The behavior of performing an act persistently and repetitively without it leading to reward or pleasure. The act is usually a small, circumscribed behavior, almost ritualistic, yet not pathologically disturbing. Examples of compulsive behavior include twirling of hair, checking something constantly, not wanting pennies in change, straightening tilted pictures, etc.
Any situation where an animal or human is trained to respond differentially to two stimuli (e.g., approach and avoidance) under reward and punishment conditions and subsequently trained under reversed reward values (i.e., the approach which was previously rewarded is punished and vice versa).
Substances that sweeten food, beverages, medications, etc., such as sugar, saccharine or other low-calorie synthetic products. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A complex group of fibers arising from the basal olfactory regions, the periamygdaloid region, and the septal nuclei, and passing to the lateral hypothalamus. Some fibers continue into the tegmentum.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A powerful central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic. Amphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulation of release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. Amphetamine is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic. The l- and the d,l-forms are included here. The l-form has less central nervous system activity but stronger cardiovascular effects. The d-form is DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.
Flavoring agent and non-nutritive sweetener.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.

Cladistic association analysis of Y chromosome effects on alcohol dependence and related personality traits. (1/3403)

Association between Y chromosome haplotype variation and alcohol dependence and related personality traits was investigated in a large sample of psychiatrically diagnosed Finnish males. Haplotypes were constructed for 359 individuals using alleles at eight loci (seven microsatellite loci and a nucleotide substitution in the DYZ3 alphoid satellite locus). A cladogram linking the 102 observed haplotype configurations was constructed by using parsimony with a single-step mutation model. Then, a series of contingency tables nested according to the cladogram hierarchy were used to test for association between Y haplotype and alcohol dependence. Finally, using only alcohol-dependent subjects, we tested for association between Y haplotype and personality variables postulated to define subtypes of alcoholism-antisocial personality disorder, novelty seeking, harm avoidance, and reward dependence. Significant association with alcohol dependence was observed at three Y haplotype clades, with significance levels of P = 0.002, P = 0.020, and P = 0.010. Within alcohol-dependent subjects, no relationship was revealed between Y haplotype and antisocial personality disorder, novelty seeking, harm avoidance, or reward dependence. These results demonstrate, by using a fully objective association design, that differences among Y chromosomes contribute to variation in vulnerability to alcohol dependence. However, they do not demonstrate an association between Y haplotype and the personality variables thought to underlie the subtypes of alcoholism.  (+info)

An analysis of choice making in the assessment of young children with severe behavior problems. (2/3403)

We examined how positive and negative reinforcement influenced time allocation, occurrence of problem behavior, and completion of parent instructions during a concurrent choice assessment with 2 preschool-aged children who displayed severe problem behavior in their homes. The children were given a series of concurrent choice options that varied availability of parent attention, access to preferred toys, and presentation of parent instructions. The results showed that both children consistently allocated their time to choice areas that included parent attention when no instructions were presented. When parent attention choice areas included the presentation of instructions, the children displayed differential patterns of behavior that appeared to be influenced by the presence or absence of preferred toys. The results extended previous applications of reinforcer assessment procedures by analyzing the relative influence of both positive and negative reinforcement within a concurrent-operants paradigm.  (+info)

Delay or probability discounting in a model of impulsive behavior: effect of alcohol. (3/3403)

Little is known about the acute effects of drugs of abuse on impulsivity and self-control. In this study, impulsivity was assessed in humans using a computer task that measured delay and probability discounting. Discounting describes how much the value of a reward (or punisher) is decreased when its occurrence is either delayed or uncertain. Twenty-four healthy adult volunteers ingested a moderate dose of ethanol (0.5 or 0.8 g/kg ethanol: n = 12 at each dose) or placebo before completing the discounting task. In the task the participants were given a series of choices between a small, immediate, certain amount of money and $10 that was either delayed (0, 2, 30, 180, or 365 days) or probabilistic (i.e., certainty of receipt was 1.0, .9, .75, .5, or .25). The point at which each individual was indifferent between the smaller immediate or certain reward and the $10 delayed or probabilistic reward was identified using an adjusting-amount procedure. The results indicated that (a) delay and probability discounting were well described by a hyperbolic function; (b) delay and probability discounting were positively correlated within subjects; (c) delay and probability discounting were moderately correlated with personality measures of impulsivity; and (d) alcohol had no effect on discounting.  (+info)

Sodium depletion and aldosterone decrease dopamine transporter activity in nucleus accumbens but not striatum. (4/3403)

Motivated behaviors, including sodium (Na) appetite, are correlated with increased dopamine (DA) transmission in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). DA transporter (DAT) modulation affects DA transmission and may play a role in motivated behaviors. In vivo Na depletion, which reliably induces Na appetite, was correlated with robust decreases in DA uptake via the DAT in the rat NAc with rotating disk electrode voltammetry [1,277 +/- 162 vs. 575 +/- 89 pmol. s-1. g-1; Vmax of transport for control vs. Na-depleted tissue]. Plasma aldosterone (Aldo) levels increase after in vivo Na depletion and contribute to Na appetite. Decreased DAT activity in the NAc was observed after in vitro Aldo treatment (428 +/- 28 vs. 300 +/- 25 pmol. s-1. g-1). Neither treatment affected DAT activity in the striatum. These results suggest that a direct action of Aldo is one possible mechanism by which Na depletion induces a reduction in DAT activity in the NAc. Reduced DAT activity may play a role in generating increased NAc DA transmission during Na appetite, which may underlie the motivating properties of Na for the Na-depleted rat.  (+info)

Dopamine fluctuations in the nucleus accumbens during maintenance, extinction, and reinstatement of intravenous D-amphetamine self-administration. (5/3403)

Moment-to-moment fluctuations of nucleus accumbens dopamine (DA) were determined in rats self-administering or passively receiving "yoked" intravenous infusions of D-amphetamine. The initial lever presses of each session caused elevations in DA concentration, usually to an initial peak that was not maintained throughout the rest of the session. As the initial ("loading") injections were metabolized, DA levels dropped toward baseline but were sustained at elevated plateaus by subsequent lever pressing that was spaced throughout the remainder of the 3 hr sessions. During this period, DA levels fluctuated phasically, time-locked to the cycle of periodic lever pressing. Consistent with the known pharmacological actions and dynamics of amphetamine, peak DA elevations were seen approximately 10-15 min after each injection, and the mean DA level was at a low point in the phasic cycle at the time of each new lever press. During extinction periods when saline was substituted for amphetamine, DA levels dropped steadily toward baseline levels despite a dramatic increase in (now-unrewarded) lever pressing. Noncontingent injections during extinction reinstated lever-pressing behavior and increased nucleus accumbens DA concentrations. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that under the conditions of this experiment-during periods of amphetamine intoxication in well-trained animals-the timing of amphetamine self-administration comes primarily under the control of extracellular DA concentrations. The probability of lever pressing during the maintenance phase is highest when DA concentrations fall near a characteristic trigger point, a trigger point that is significantly elevated above baseline, and falls as DA concentrations fall below or increase above that trigger point.  (+info)

Enhancement of locomotor activity and conditioned reward to cocaine by brain-derived neurotrophic factor. (6/3403)

The mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system has been implicated in drug reward, locomotor sensitization, and responding for reward-related stimuli [termed conditioned reinforcers (CR)]. Here, we investigated the effect of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which enhances the survival and function of dopaminergic neurons, on stimulant-induced locomotor sensitization and responding for CR. In experiment 1, BDNF was infused into the nucleus accumbens (NAc) or ventral tegmental area over 2 weeks via chronically implanted minipumps (1-2.5 microgram/d), and the psychomotor stimulant effects of cocaine (5-15 mg/kg, i.p.) were studied. We found that BDNF enhanced the initial stimulant effects of cocaine and seemed to facilitate the development of sensitization to repeated cocaine doses. In experiment 2, we studied the effects of intra-NAc BDNF infusions on responding for CR. BDNF-treated rats showed twice as many CR responses compared with controls when saline was first administered. BDNF enhanced responding on the CR lever more than four times that seen in control animals after a cocaine injection (10 mg/kg, i.p.). The enhanced response to cocaine in BDNF-treated animals persisted for more than a month after the BDNF infusions had stopped, indicating long-lasting changes in the mesolimbic DA system caused by BDNF administration. In experiment 3, we examined locomotor sensitization to cocaine in heterozygous BDNF knock-out mice and found that the development of sensitization was delayed compared with wild-type littermates. These results demonstrate the profound effects of BDNF on the enhancement of both cocaine-induced locomotion and facilitation of CR and suggest a possible role for BDNF in long-term adaptations of the brain to cocaine.  (+info)

High effort, low reward, and cardiovascular risk factors in employed Swedish men and women: baseline results from the WOLF Study. (7/3403)

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To examine associations between measures of work stress (that is, the combination of high effort and low reward) and cardiovascular risk factors. DESIGN: Cross sectional first screening of a prospective cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: The study was conducted among 5720 healthy employed men and women living in the greater Stockholm area aged 19-70 years. All analyses were restricted to subjects with complete data (n = 4958). The investigation of associations between indicators of effort-reward imbalance and cardiovascular risk factors was restricted to the age group 30-55 years (n = 3427). MAIN RESULTS: Subjects reporting high effort and low reward at work had a higher prevalence of well known risk factors for coronary heart disease. After adjustment for relevant confounders, associations between a measure of extrinsic effort and reward (the effort-reward ratio) and hypertension (multivariate prevalence odds ratio (POR) 1.62-1.68), increased total cholesterol (upper tertile 220 mg/dl)(POR = 1.24) and the total cholesterol/high density lipoprotein(HDL)-cholesterol ratio (upper tertile 4.61)(POR 1.26-1.30) were found among men. Among women a measure of high intrinsic effort (immersion) was related to increased low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol (upper tertile 130 mg/dl)(POR 1.37-1.39). Analyses of variance showed increasing mean values of LDL cholesterol with an increasing degree of the effort-reward ratio among men and increased LDL-cholesterol among women with high levels of intrinsic effort (upper tertile of immersion). CONCLUSIONS: Findings lend support to the hypothesis that effort-reward imbalance represents a specific constellation of stressful experience at work related to cardiovascular risk. The relation was not explained by relevant confounders (for example, lack of physical exercise, body weight, cigarette smoking).  (+info)

Muscimol-induced inactivation of monkey frontal eye field: effects on visually and memory-guided saccades. (8/3403)

Muscimol-induced inactivation of the monkey frontal eye field: effects on visually and memory-guided saccades. Although neurophysiological, anatomic, and imaging evidence suggest that the frontal eye field (FEF) participates in the generation of eye movements, chronic lesions of the FEF in both humans and monkeys appear to cause only minor deficits in visually guided saccade generation. Stronger effects are observed when subjects are tested in tasks with more cognitive requirements. We tested oculomotor function after acutely inactivating regions of the FEF to minimize the effects of plasticity and reallocation of function after the loss of the FEF and gain more insight into the FEF contribution to the guidance of eye movements in the intact brain. Inactivation was induced by microinjecting muscimol directly into physiologically defined sites in the FEF of three monkeys. FEF inactivation severely impaired the monkeys' performance of both visually guided and memory-guided saccades. The monkeys initiated fewer saccades to the retinotopic representation of the inactivated FEF site than to any other location in the visual field. The saccades that were initiated had longer latencies, slower velocities, and larger targeting errors than controls. These effects were present both for visually guided and for memory-guided saccades, although the memory-guided saccades were more disrupted. Initially, the effects were restricted spatially, concentrating around the retinotopic representation at the center of the inactivated site, but, during the course of several hours, these effects spread to flanking representations. Predictability of target location and motivation of the monkey also affected saccadic performance. For memory-guided saccades, increases in the time during which the monkey had to remember the spatial location of a target resulted in further decreases in the accuracy of the saccades and in smaller peak velocities, suggesting a progressive loss of the capacity to maintain a representation of target location in relation to the fovea after FEF inactivation. In addition, the monkeys frequently made premature saccades to targets in the hemifield ipsilateral to the injection site when performing the memory task, indicating a deficit in the control of fixation that could be a consequence of an imbalance between ipsilateral and contralateral FEF activity after the injection. There was also a progressive loss of fixation accuracy, and the monkeys tended to restrict spontaneous visual scanning to the ipsilateral hemifield. These results emphasize the strong role of the FEF in the intact monkey in the generation of all voluntary saccadic eye movements, as well as in the control of fixation.  (+info)

View Notes - Chapter 15 - Drug addiction & the brains reward circuits from PSYCHOLOGY SPC 211 at Sunway University College. 1 Chapter 15 Drug Addiction & the brains reward circuits Basic
CiteWeb id: 19980000092. CiteWeb score: 5133. Schultz, Wolfram. Predictive reward signal of dopamine neurons. J. Neurophysiol. 80: 1-27, 1998. The effects of lesions, receptor blocking, electrical self-stimulation, and drugs of abuse suggest that midbrain dopamine systems are involved in processing reward information and learning approach behavior. Most dopamine neurons show phasic activations after primary liquid and food rewards and conditioned, reward-predicting visual and auditory stimuli. They show biphasic, activation-depression responses after stimuli that resemble reward-predicting stimuli or are novel or particularly salient. However, only few phasic activations follow aversive stimuli. Thus dopamine neurons label environmental stimuli with appetitive value, predict and detect rewards and signal alerting and motivating events. By failing to discriminate between different rewards, dopamine neurons appear to emit an alerting message about the surprising presence or absence of rewards. All ...
A foods reward value is dependent on its caloric content. Furthermore, a foods acute reward value also depends on hunger state. The drive to obtain rewards (reward sensitivity), however, differs between individuals. Here, we assessed the association between brain responses to calories in the mouth and trait reward sensitivity in different hunger states. Firstly, we assessed this in data from a functional neuroimaging study (van Rijn et al., 2015), in which participants (n=30) tasted simple solutions of a non-caloric sweetener with or without a non-sweet carbohydrate (maltodextrin) during hunger and satiety. Secondly, we expanded these analyses to regular drinks by assessing the same relationship in data from a study in which soft drinks sweetened with either sucrose or a non-caloric sweetener were administered during hunger (n=18) (Griffioen-Roose et al., 2013). First, taste activation by the non-caloric solution/soft drink was subtracted from that by the caloric solution/soft drink to eliminate
Rewards systems for permitting a user to motivate one or more other users to perform predetermined activities are provided. A rewards system of the present invention can permit a supervisory user to set up rewards allocation parameters by which the rewards system can automatically distribute rewards to a subordinate user. Once the subordinate user has input data about his activities, the rewards system can determine the appropriate rewards to distribute to the subordinate user account based on the data and the rewards allocation parameters. A rewards system of the present invention also can permit a user to challenge one or more users to a competition. Based on data about the competitors activities and user-defined allocation parameters, the rewards system can automatically distribute rewards to the user account(s) of victorious competitor(s).
Dopamine neurons. The strongest and most consistent reward signal is found in the dopamine neurons in pars compacta of substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area (VTA). The signal reflects a reward prediction error, a measure of the difference between the actual reward and what an individual expected it would be (error here does not mean mistake, just difference). A better reward than predicted (positive prediction error) elicits an increase in the firing rate of the dopamine neurons (activation); a worse reward than predicted (negative error) reduces the firing rate (inhibition), and a fully predicted reward fails to change the rate (no response). This signal does not distinguish between rewards valued innately (the so-called unconditioned stimulus US) and those that have been trained or conditioned (conditioned stimulus. CS). This response is an efficient informational signal and underlies what we term associative learning, the process by which a person or animal learns an association ...
This is a pilot project using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the influence of varenicline on reward processing, cognitive control, and regulation of craving in adolescent smokers. We hypothesize that adolescent smokers receiving varenicline, when compared with those receiving placebo, will have increased activation of the ventral striatum (VS) in response to anticipation of rewards in the Monetary Incentive Delay Task (MIDT), decreased activation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) during exposure to incongruent stimuli in the Stroop task, and reduced activation of the ventral striatum in response to tobacco cues, and increased activation of the dlPFC during regulation of responses to tobacco cues during the Regulation of Craving (ROC) task. The results of this pilot project will have important implications regarding the use of varenicline for treating tobacco dependence and understanding vareniclines neurobiological effects in adolescent smokers ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Alexithymia, reward sensitivity and risky drinking: The role of internal drinking motives. AU - Lyvers, Michael. AU - Coundouris, Sarah. AU - Edwards, Mark S.. AU - Thorberg, Fred Arne. PY - 2018/3/4. Y1 - 2018/3/4. N2 - Two personality dimensions, alexithymia and reward sensitivity, are known risk factors for problematic alcohol consumption. Internal or mood-change motives of drinking to cope with negative mood, as well as drinking to enhance positive mood (get high), have also been implicated as risk factors. The present study sought to determine whether the association between alexithymia and risky drinking is mediated by the motive of drinking to cope with negative mood, and whether the association between reward sensitivity and risky drinking is mediated by the motive of drinking to enhance positive mood. Social drinkers aged 18-45 years were recruited from an Australian university and the local community, with the final sample consisting of 155 participants (80 females, ...
For ANZ Rewards, a Total Annual Fee of $80 applies which includes a $25 Annual Account Fee and a $55 Rewards Program Services Fee. For ANZ Rewards Platinum, a Total Annual Fee of $95 applies, which includes a $40 Annual Account Fee and a $55 Rewards Program Service Fee. For ANZ Rewards Black, a Total Annual Fee of $375 applies, which includes a $320 Annual Account Fee and a $55 Rewards Program Service Fee. For ANZ Rewards Travel Adventures, a Total Annual Fee of $225 applies, which includes a $170 Annual Account Fee and a $55 Rewards Program Service Fee. For additional cardholders on ANZ Rewards, ANZ Rewards Platinum, ANZ Rewards Black and ANZ Rewards Travel Adventures, an annual Additional Cardholder Fee of $10 and an annual Rewards Program Services Fee of $55 will apply per additional cardholder on the account. These fees are current as at and are subject to change. The fee information displayed on this page applies to new customers only.. Back to top ...
Predicting future reward is paramount to performing an optimal action. Although a number of brain areas are known to encode such predictions, a detailed account of how the associated representations evolve over time is lacking. Here, we address this question using human magnetoencephalography (MEG) and multivariate analyses of instantaneous activity in reconstructed sources. We overtrained participants on a simple instrumental reward learning task where geometric cues predicted a distribution of possible rewards, from which a sample was revealed 2000 ms later. We show that predicted mean reward (i.e., expected value), and predicted reward variability (i.e., economic risk), are encoded distinctly. Early on, representations of mean reward are seen in parietal and visual areas, and later in frontal regions with orbitofrontal cortex emerging last. Strikingly, an encoding of reward variability emerges simultaneously in parietal/sensory and frontal sources and later than mean reward encoding. An orbitofrontal
Identifying mechanisms through which individual differences in reward learning emerge offers an opportunity to understand both a fundamental form of adaptive responding as well as etiological pathways through which aberrant reward learning may contribute to maladaptive behaviors and psychopathology. One candidate mechanism through which individual differences in reward learning may emerge is variability in dopaminergic reinforcement signaling. A common functional polymorphism within the catechol-O-methyl transferase gene (COMT; rs4680, Val158Met) has been linked to reward learning, where homozygosity for the Met allele (linked to heightened prefrontal dopamine function and decreased dopamine synthesis in the midbrain) has been associated with relatively increased reward learning. Here, we used a probabilistic reward learning task to asses response bias, a behavioral form of reward learning, across three separate samples that were combined for analyses (age: 21.80 ± 3.95; n = 392; 268 female; ...
Climbing fiber inputs to the cerebellum encode error signals that instruct learning. Recently, evidence has accumulated to suggest that the cerebellum is also involved in the processing of reward. To study how rewarding events are encoded, we recorded the activity of climbing fibers when monkeys were engaged in an eye movement task. At the beginning of each trial, the monkeys were cued to the size of the reward that would be delivered upon successful completion of the trial. Climbing fiber activity increased when the monkeys were presented with a cue indicating a large reward, but not a small reward. Reward size did not modulate activity at reward delivery or during eye movements. Comparison between climbing fiber and simple spike activity indicated different interactions for coding of movement and reward. These results indicate that climbing fibers encode the expected reward size and suggest a general role of the cerebellum in associative learning beyond error correction.. ...
PARTICIPATION IN THE ZAPPOS REWARDS PROGRAM AND ALL OF ITS BENEFITS IS SUBJECT TO AGREEING TO ALL TERMS & CONDITIONS OF THE PROGRAM. Review Zappos Rewards Program Terms & Conditions.. 1Rewards members may earn extra Rewards Points on select purchases during special promotional periods that we communicate to you. To earn extra Rewards Points, you must be enrolled in the Zappos Rewards Program prior to making qualifying purchases. These promotional Rewards Points cannot be applied to previous purchases. Cancellation, return or exchange of qualifying purchases will result in a deduction of the associated Rewards Points in accordance with the Zappos Rewards Program Terms & Conditions. Rewards Points have no cash value. Zappos reserves the right to modify or cancel Rewards Point multiplier events at any time without notice.. 2Early access to select products, sales, and special events means that youll have access to qualifying promotions before members of lower level Zappos Rewards Program Tiers or ...
PARTICIPATION IN THE ZAPPOS REWARDS PROGRAM AND ALL OF ITS BENEFITS IS SUBJECT TO AGREEING TO ALL TERMS & CONDITIONS OF THE PROGRAM. Review Zappos Rewards Program Terms & Conditions.. 1Rewards members may earn extra Rewards Points on select purchases during special promotional periods that we communicate to you. To earn extra Rewards Points, you must be enrolled in the Zappos Rewards Program prior to making qualifying purchases. These promotional Rewards Points cannot be applied to previous purchases. Cancellation, return or exchange of qualifying purchases will result in a deduction of the associated Rewards Points in accordance with the Zappos Rewards Program Terms & Conditions. Rewards Points have no cash value. Zappos reserves the right to modify or cancel Rewards Point multiplier events at any time without notice.. 2Early access to select products, sales, and special events means that youll have access to qualifying promotions before members of lower level Zappos Rewards Program Tiers or ...
Reward systems are identified as one of the human resource management (HRM) practices that may impact motivation. Reward systems may consist of several components, including financial and nonfinancial rewards, in fixed and variable amounts. Reinforcement, expectancy, and equity principles are discussed to explain why reward systems have motivating properties. The influence of reward systems on motivation is not straightforward, because the psychological meaning of pay has to be taken into account. Each system may have unintended consequences because of the psychological interpretation of the rewards. In an international context, it is reasonable to assume that cultural differences affect the interpretation and meaning of reward systems, as the values that affect their meaning may differ between cultures. As such, a reward system may have differential motivational effects in different cultures. Some research findings regarding these differences are presented, and some issues for future research ...
In this article, the authors report that the temporal precision of the reward prediction error signal encoded by midbrain dopamine neurons declines as the delay between a reward predicting stimulus and an expected reward increases. The temporal precision of the neural signal is qualitatively similar to that of anticipatory behavior. Midbrain dopamine neurons are activated when reward is greater than predicted, and this error signal could teach target neurons both the value of reward and when it will occur. We used the dopamine error signal to measure how the expectation of reward was distributed over time. Animals were trained with fixed-duration intervals of 1-16 s between conditioned stimulus onset and reward. In contrast to the weak responses that have been observed after short intervals (1-2 s), activations to reward increased steeply and linearly with the logarithm of the interval. Results with varied stimulus-reward intervals suggest that the neural expectation was substantial after just half an
The perceptual matching of shapes and labels can be affected by both self- and reward-biases when shapes are linked either to labels referring to particular individuals (you, friend, stranger) or to different reward values (£8, £2, £0). We investigated the relations between these biases by varying the reward value associated with particular shape-label pairs (circle-you, square-friend, triangle-stranger). Self shape-label pairs (circle-you) always received no reward, while friend shape-label pairs (square-friend) received high reward and stranger shape-label pairs low reward (triangle-stranger), or the reverse (friend-low reward; stranger-high reward). Despite receiving no reward, responses to self-related pairs were advantaged relative to those to low-reward stimuli and did not differ from those to high-reward items. There was also an advantage for responses to high-reward friend pairs relative to low-reward stranger stimuli, and for high-reward stranger stimuli compared to low-reward friends.
If you are a member of the Hudson s Bay Rewards program, you may convert Points to Hudson s Bay Rewards points or auto-convert Hudson s Bay Rewards points to Points. Once Points are converted to Hudson s Bay Rewards points, they must remain in the Hudson s Bay Rewards program and they may not be reversed/returned or converted back to Points. Once Hudson s Bay Rewards points are converted to Points, they must remain in the Program and they may not be reversed/returned or converted back to Hudson s Bay Rewards points.For one-time conversions (from Points to Hudson s Bay Rewards points), a minimum of 500 Points must be converted each time, which may be increased by increments of 2 Points up to a maximum of 99, 900 Points at any one time. For every 500 Points which is converted, you will receive 1,000 Hudson s Bay Rewards points. For auto-convert, your Hudson s Bay Rewards points will automatically be converted to Points each time you have a minimum of 40 points in your Hudson s Bay Rewards account, ...
If you are a member of the Hudson s Bay Rewards program, you may convert your RBC Rewards points to Hudson s Bay Rewards points or auto-convert Hudson s Bay Rewards points to Points. Once Points are converted to Hudson s Bay Rewards points, they must remain in the Hudson s Bay Rewards program and they may not be reversed/returned or converted back to Points. Once Hudson s Bay Rewards points are converted to Points, they must remain in the Program and they may not be reversed/returned or converted back to Hudson s Bay Rewards points.For one-time conversions (from Points to Hudson s Bay Rewards points), a minimum of 500 Points must be converted each time, which may be increased by increments of 2 Points up to a maximum of 99, 900 Points at any one time. For every 500 Points which is converted, you will receive 1,000 Hudson s Bay Rewards points. For auto-convert, your Hudson s Bay Rewards points will automatically be converted to Points each time you have a minimum of 40 points in your Hudson s Bay ...
Amotivation in schizophrenia is a central predictor of poor functioning, and is thought to occur due to deficits in anticipating future rewards, suggesting that impairments in anticipating pleasure can contribute to functional disability in schizophrenia. In healthy comparison (HC) participants, reward anticipation is associated with activity in frontal-striatal networks. By contrast, schizophrenia (SZ) participants show hypoactivation within these frontal-striatal networks during this motivated anticipatory brain state. Here, we examined neural activation in SZ and HC participants during the anticipatory phase of stimuli that predicted immediate upcoming reward and punishment, and during the feedback/outcome phase, in relation to trait measures of hedonic pleasure and real-world functional capacity. SZ patients showed hypoactivation in ventral striatum during reward anticipation. Additionally, we found distinct differences between HC and SZ groups in their association between reward-related ...
Dysfunctional reward processing is implicated in various mental disorders, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and addictions. Such impairments might involve different components of the reward process, including brain activity during reward anticipation. We examined brain nodes engaged by reward anticipation in 1,544 adolescents and identified a network containing a core striatal node and cortical nodes facilitating outcome prediction and response preparation. Distinct nodes and functional connections were preferentially associated with either adolescent hyperactivity or alcohol consumption, thus conveying specificity of reward processing to clinically relevant behavior. We observed associations between the striatal node, hyperactivity, and the vacuolar protein sorting-associated protein 4A (VPS4A) gene in humans, and the causal role of Vps4 for hyperactivity was validated in Drosophila. Our data provide a neurobehavioral model explaining the heterogeneity of reward-related ...
Conditions and limitations apply. Refer to the FAQs and Reward Rules within the Terms and Conditions for additional information about the rewards program. 3. RCI Member RewardsSM Redemption: In order to redeem Rewards for RCI Member RewardsSM, you must have a current RCI Subscribing Member account. RCI Member Rewards are issued in the specified amount, which will appear as a credit to the cardmembers designated RCI account and you may apply that credit to pay for certain RCI products and services. RCI Member Rewards may not be used for RCI Travel, RCI Points Partner, RCI Cruise, Lifestyle Benefits, Experiential Vacations, and timeshare resort maintenance fees. Certain other rules, restrictions and exclusions may apply to the use of RCI Member Rewards. Refer to FAQs and Reward Rules within the Terms and Conditions for additional information. 4. Cash Back Redemption: Redemption for cash back statement credits start at 2,500 Rewards. If you redeem for cash back statement credit, it will be posted ...
To earn Rewards Credit, new or existing customers must complete an order using your Rewards code or link. Both new and existing customers receive an instant 5% discount on their order, and you receive 5% of their order in Rewards Credit. Additionally, give a 10% discount and earn 10% in Rewards Credit on all iHerb exclusive products referred. You can also access exclusive Rewards only promotions on our Super Rewards Page. Rewards credits have a pending status of up to 35 days and are subject to adjustments for any returns or cancellations. Once they are available to use, you have 180 days to use them for shopping at iHerb. You can also cash out your Rewards when you have at least $100 of available Rewards at the end of any given month.. ...
To earn Rewards Credit, new or existing customers must complete an order using your Rewards code or link. Both new and existing customers receive an instant 5% discount on their order, and you receive 5% of their order in Rewards Credit. Additionally, give a 10% discount and earn 10% in Rewards Credit on all iHerb exclusive products referred. You can also access exclusive Rewards only promotions on our Super Rewards Page. Rewards credits have a pending status of up to 35 days and are subject to adjustments for any returns or cancellations. Once they are available to use, you have 180 days to use them for shopping at iHerb. You can also cash out your Rewards when you have at least $100 of available Rewards at the end of any given month.. ...
Redeeming your reward at Name My Reward is easy! We make it simple for you to redeem, select your reward, and enjoy! Name My Reward has assembled some of the most popular, and most valuable rewards around. Youll have access to rewards for travel, shopping, dining, groceries, and more. To begin the redemption process, simply enter your reward code on the home page, register with your information, select your reward, and enjoy! Its really that simple ...
Reward prediction error (RPE) signals are central to current models of reward-learning. Temporal difference (TD) learning models posit that these signals should be modulated by predictions, not only of magnitude but also timing of reward. Here we show that BOLD activity in the VTA conforms to such TD predictions: responses to unexpected rewards are modulated by a temporal hazard function and activity between a predictive stimulus and reward is depressed in proportion to predicted reward. By contrast, BOLD activity in ventral striatum (VS) does not reflect a TD RPE, but instead encodes a signal on the variable relevant for behavior, here timing but not magnitude of reward. The results have important implications for dopaminergic models of cortico-striatal learning and suggest a modification of the conventional view that VS BOLD necessarily reflects inputs from dopaminergic VTA neurons signaling an RPE.
Reward prediction error (RPE) signals are central to current models of reward-learning. Temporal difference (TD) learning models posit that these signals should be modulated by predictions, not only of magnitude but also timing of reward. Here we show that BOLD activity in the VTA conforms to such TD predictions: responses to unexpected rewards are modulated by a temporal hazard function and activity between a predictive stimulus and reward is depressed in proportion to predicted reward. By contrast, BOLD activity in ventral striatum (VS) does not reflect a TD RPE, but instead encodes a signal on the variable relevant for behavior, here timing but not magnitude of reward. The results have important implications for dopaminergic models of cortico-striatal learning and suggest a modification of the conventional view that VS BOLD necessarily reflects inputs from dopaminergic VTA neurons signaling an RPE.
A learning task in which different responses are associated with differing intermittent reinforcement schedules as described in Pizzagalli et al (2005). Go back to Probabilistic Reward Task page ...
Patients with a disorder in the schizophrenia spectrum (SZ) demonstrate impairments in reward learning. A reduced sensitivity to social reward may impede social beyond non-social reward learning mechanisms. The aim of the current study was to investigate social and non-social reward learning in SZ by means of two interactive game-theoretical investment paradigms. Unaffected first-degree relatives of patients were included to examine whether (social) reward-learning impairments are part of a familial vulnerability of SZ. We included 50 patients with a SZ disorder, 20 unaffected first-degree relatives of patients and 49 healthy controls. The trust game (social) and the lottery game (non-social) were used, consisting of 20 game trials each. The game paradigms were programmed to increase the likelihood of higher repayments in response to increased investments. Multilevel regression analyses were used to examine learning over trials in both contexts. The results showed that controls learned equally ...
Primate vision is characterized by constant, sequential processing and selection of visual targets to fixate. Although expected reward is known to influence both processing and selection of visual targets, similarities and differences between these effects remain unclear mainly because they have been measured in separate tasks. Using a novel paradigm, we simultaneously measured the effects of reward outcomes and expected reward on target selection and sensitivity to visual motion in monkeys. Monkeys freely chose between two visual targets and received a juice reward with varying probability for eye movements made to either of them. Targets were stationary apertures of drifting gratings, causing the end points of eye movements to these targets to be systematically biased in the direction of motion. We used this motion-induced bias as a measure of sensitivity to visual motion on each trial. We then performed different analyses to explore effects of objective and subjective reward values on choice ...
Dopamine neurons acquire responses to reward-predicting visual and auditory conditioned stimuli (CS). The responses covary with the expected value of reward, irrespective of spatial position, sensory stimulus attributes and arm, mouth and eye movements ( Figure 6). The responses are modulated by the motivation of the animal, the time course of predictions and the animals choice among rewards (Satoh et al. 2003, Nakahara et al. 2004, Morris et al. 2006). Although discriminating between reward-predicting CSs and neutral stimuli, dopamine activations have a non-negligible propensity for generalization (Waelti et al. 2001). During the course of learning, the dopamine response to the reward decreases gradually, and a response to the immediately preceding CS develops in parallel. The gradual, opposite changes in US and CS responses do not involve backpropagating waves of prediction error (Pan et al 2005) assumed in earlier reinforcement models (Montague et al. 1996, Schultz et al. 1997) and are ...
terbalanced with respect to pre-drug performance and the The spatial location of the high and low reward arms left/right orientation of the high/low reward arms. Twenty- remained unchanged, although the high reward arm now four hours after each injection day, the rats were retrained contained ten pellets and the low reward arm two pellets on the task. They received ten forced trials (five to both the (Thiebot et al. Bizot et al. ). When the rat chose high and low reward arms) and ten choice trials: at this the high reward arm, it was locked in the goal arm by point all animals were once again choosing the high re- means of the pair of sliding doors. After 15 s the sliding ward arm on at least 75% of the trials. On the following door adjacent to the food well was opened and the rat was day, a second test session was conducted but with the al- allowed to consume the reward. In contrast, when the rat location of animals to the drug and vehicle conditions now chose the low reward arm, the door ...
Financial reward structures are often designed by people who do not actually work with customers to generate revenue for the company. As a result, reward structures often over-emphasize outcomes important to internal support functions and under-emphasize outcomes associated with customer service.. For example, a large health care organization recently implemented a record system that made the insurance claims process much easier for the internal accounting department. However, it also significantly increased the time doctors must spend entering data.. When the system was rolled out, doctors were told that their bonuses depended on entering data into the system in less than 24 hours. This requirement led to doctors seeing fewer patients each day to ensure they have time to complete the data entry. The reward structure was more focused on increasing internal process compliance than encouraging doctors to provide better quality patient care.. I strongly suspect the finance people who created this ...
5Velocity Points bonus:. Available to NAB Rewards customers who have their NAB Rewards Points automatically transferred once a month to their Velocity account. The 15% bonus Velocity Points are calculated on the total number of base Velocity Points automatically transferred to the primary cardholders Velocity account for each of the 2nd, 3rd and 4th automatic transfers completed monthly between 1 August 2020 and 30 June 2021. If you choose to opt out of automatic transfers of NAB Rewards Points to be converted to Velocity Points, the bonus Points will be forfeited. If you hold multiple NAB Rewards Cards, the offer is only available once on one card. Bonus Points awarded will be rounded to the nearest whole Point. Standard conversion rate is 1 Velocity Point for every 2 NAB Rewards Points. A minimum of 2 NAB Reward Points is required for an automatic transfer, and then additional multiples of 2 NAB Reward Points. Velocity Points will be available in your Velocity account in accordance with NABs ...
In order to redeem your Rewards online, you must register your AutoZone Rewards account online. To do so please click here: www.AutoZone.com/rewards. If you are registered and logged in, upon checkout, you have the option to redeem your Reward online on the Order Summary & Payment page. If you choose to use your Reward at that time, simply select Redeem and your Reward balance will be deducted from your account and applied towards your purchase. If you choose not to use your Reward, proceed with the checkout process and your Reward balance will remain in your account.. ...
Our Facewest Rewards system rewards our regular repeat customers. Here are the details: All customers who create an account at checkout are enrolled into our free rewards programme. You have to have an online account so our store can track your points. The rewards programme is very straightforward. For every £1 you spend on-line you receive 5p onto your reward balance. On future orders you can redeem up to the full order value (not including shipping charges). ...
The City Rewards Network combines deals and coupons from Groupon, Coupons.com, Yelp, and Living Social on their website. In addition, the company has over 1000 exclusive merchants running over 3000 daily deals. By using the City Rewards Network API, users gain programmatic access to all local deals as well as exclusive e-commerce deals, all consolidated in one service ...
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is typically considered to mediate aversive aspects of stress, fear and anxiety. However, CRF release in the brain is also elicited by natural rewards and incentive cues, raising the possibility that some CRF systems in the brain mediate an independent function of positive incentive motivation, such as amplifying incentive salience. Here we asked whether activation of a limbic CRF subsystem magnifies the increase in positive motivation for reward elicited by incentive cues previously associated with that reward, in a way that might exacerbate cue-triggered binge pursuit of food or other incentives? We assessed the impact of CRF microinjections into the medial shell of nucleus accumbens using a pure incentive version of Pavlovian-Instrumental transfer, a measure specifically sensitive to the incentive salience of reward cues (which it separates from influences of aversive stress, stress reduction, frustration and other traditional explanations for stress-increased
I like getting free stuff. And I like it when companies reward me for purchases I regularly make.. Now, Im not talking about credit card rewards… thats a whole other thing entirely. Im talking about when you buy something and you get a code or a stamp that you can use to earn goodies.. I know that these little rewards are usually built into the purchase price of the things Im buying… But sometimes I just turn that little voice off and enjoy the bounty that comes my way.. Here are a few of my favorite customer rewards programs:. My Coke Rewards. We still buy soda in our house. And Im still fighting the battle to give it up. Its really hard. Collect the codes for My Coke Rewards and you can get everything from magazine subscriptions to movie tickets to free Coke products.. Pampers Gifts to Grow and Huggies Enjoy the Ride Rewards. If you have kiddos in diapers, these two programs are excellent ways to earn things like gift cards, free photo prints, toys and more. Youll find the Pampers ...
Background Adolescent risk-taking, including behaviors resulting in injury or death, has been attributed in part to maturational differences in mesolimbic incentive-motivational neurocircuitry, including ostensible oversensitivity of the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) to rewards. Methodology/Principal Findings To test whether adolescents showed increased NAcc activation by cues for rewards, or by delivery of rewards, we scanned 24 adolescents (age 12-17) and 24 adults age (22-42) with functional magnetic resonance imaging while they performed a monetary incentive delay (MID) task. The MID task was configured to temporally disentangle potential reward or potential loss anticipation-related brain signal from reward or loss notification-related signal. Subjects saw cues signaling opportunities to win or avoid losing $0, $.50, or $5 for responding quickly to a subsequent target. Subjects then viewed feedback of their trial success after a variable interval from cue presentation of between 6 to17 s. Adolescents
While the opportunity to punish selfish and reward generous behavior coexist in many instances in daily life, in most laboratory studies, the demand for punishment and reward are studied separately from one another. This paper presents the results from an experiment measuring the demand for reward and punishment by unaffected third parties, separately and jointly. We find that the demand for costly punishment is substantially lower when individuals are also given the ability to reward. Similarly, the demand for costly reward is lower when individuals can also punish. The evidence indicates the reason for this is that costly punishment and reward are not only used to alter the material payoff of others as assumed by recent economic models, but also as a signal of disapproval and approval of others actions, respectively. When the opportunity exists, subjects often choose to withhold reward as a form of costless punishment, and to withhold punishment as a form of costless reward. We conclude that
Last checked: 1 Hour ago! download Secrets of the I Ching (Reward Classics) ebook Secrets of the I Ching (Reward Classics) epub download download Secrets of the I Ching (Reward Classics) in ePub Secrets of the I Ching (Reward Classics) kf8 download download Secrets of the I Ching (Reward Classics) audiobook Secrets of the I Ching (Reward Classics) ePub download Secrets of the I Ching (Reward Classics) ipad download Secrets of the I Ching (Reward Classics) in pdf Secrets of the I Ching (Reward Classics) .doc ...
Eight male and eight female subjects played a matrix form of the Prisoners Dilemma game; an additional eight male and eight female subjects played a non-matrix form of the game. Each subject played for both high monetary reward (maximum joint payoff of $1.00 per trial for 15 trials) and low monetary reward (maximum joint payoff of $.10 per trial for 15 trails). Half of the subjects played first for low reward and then for high. The order was reversed for the other half of the subjects. It was predicted that there would be greater cooperation when the subjects were given (1) large rewards as compared to small, and (2) non-matrix presentation as compared to matrix. The results failed to confirm these hypotheses. In addition, there were no sex differences in style of play nor were there significant interactions among the three variables. However, the overall level of cooperative play was considerably higher than is usually encountered in these games, averaging 55%, and the usual over trials decline
Religious and spiritual experiences activate the brain reward circuits in much the same way as love, sex, gambling, drugs and music, report researchers at the University of Utah School of Medicine. The findings will be published Nov. 29 in the journal Social Neuroscience.
When the rat receives tastes passively, SD neurons produce a brief, short-latency burst of action potentials. Responses to different tastes are highly similar in time course but differ markedly in magnitude, such that the amygdala becomes privy to information concerning taste quality well before chemosensory information is available in GC (Katz et al., 2001a).. We propose that SD neurons are likely a part of the reward system, for several reasons. First, just as BLA reward neurons have been shown to code the reward value of stimuli delivered to passive primates (Belova et al., 2007), SD neurons code the reward value of tastes [most SD neurons respond most strongly to the most rewarding taste and least strongly to the most punishing taste (or vice versa), or else respond to both; this latter subtype, observed elsewhere, has been referred to as nonvalenced neurons (Belova et al., 2007)]. Second, just as BLA reward responses are inhibited by self-administration [unexpected cocaine administration ...
AFC Rewards Information center - You wil find ways to get AFC rewards points here as well as information on what they can be used for.
AFC Rewards Information center - You wil find ways to get AFC rewards points here as well as information on what they can be used for.
A research study conducted at Nottingham University in the UK found that immediate reward in the form of points in a video game had a similar effect on brain activity as stimulant medication. Based on EEG results, the team found that both the rewards and the childs usual dose of stimulant medication resulted in the normalization of brain regions and improved task completion though the medication yielded a slightly higher effect.. The researchers cautioned that immediate consequences in this case, reward are associated with positive effects on behavior in ADHD children. They stated that it may be difficult for parents and teachers to provide rewards immediately. However, other research shows than children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder actually respond as well or better to social reinforcement such as a smile as they do to tangible reinforcers like points, tokens or money. This means that a smile or a brief word of encouragement may achieve significant benefits and could reduce or ...
Rewards in operant conditioning are positive reinforcers. ... Operant behavior gives a good definition for rewards. Anything that makes an individual come back for more is a positive reinforcer and therefore a reward. Although it provides a good definition, positive reinforcement is only one of several reward functions. ... Rewards are attractive. They are motivating and make us exert an effort. ... Rewards induce approach behavior, also called appetitive or preparatory behavior, and consummatory behavior. ... Thus any stimulus, object, event, activity, or situation that has the potential to make us approach and consume it is by definition a reward. ... Rewarding stimuli, objects, events, situations, and activities consist of several major components. First, rewards have basic sensory components (visual, auditory, somatosensory, gustatory, and olfactory) ... Second, rewards are salient and thus elicit attention, which are manifested as orienting responses (FIGURE 1, middle). The salience of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Instructed delay activity in the human prefrontal cortex is modulated by monetary reward expectation. AU - Ramnani, N.. AU - Miall, R. C.. N1 - 1047-3211 Journal Article. PY - 2003. Y1 - 2003. KW - Analysis of Variance Comparative Study Humans Prefrontal Cortex/physiology Psychomotor Performance/physiology Reaction Time/physiology Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt Reward. M3 - Article. VL - 13. SP - 318. EP - 327. JO - Cerebral Cortex. JF - Cerebral Cortex. SN - 1047-3211. IS - 3. ER - ...
Drugs that alter dopamine transmission have opposite effects on reward and punishment learning. These opposite effects have been suggested to depend on dopamine in the striatum. Here, we establish for the first time the neurochemical specificity of such drug effects, during reward and punishment learning in humans, by adopting a coadministration design. Participants (N = 22) were scanned on 4 occasions using functional magnetic resonance imaging, following intake of placebo, bromocriptine (dopamine-receptor agonist), sulpiride (dopamine-receptor antagonist), or a combination of both drugs. A reversal-learning task was employed, in which both unexpected rewards and punishments signaled reversals. Drug effects were stratified with baseline working memory to take into account individual variations in drug response. Sulpiride induced parallel span-dependent changes on striatal blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal during unexpected rewards and punishments. These drug effects were found to be ...
It is well established that auditory cortex is plastic on different time scales and that this plasticity is driven by the reinforcement that is used to motivate subjects to learn or to perform an auditory task. Motivated by these findings, we study in detail properties of neuronal firing in auditory cortex that is related to reward feedback. We recorded from the auditory cortex of two monkeys while they were performing an auditory categorization task. Monkeys listened to a sequence of tones and had to signal when the frequency of adjacent tones stepped in downward direction, irrespective of the tone frequency and step size. Correct identifications were rewarded with either a large or a small amount of water. The size of reward depended on the monkeys performance in the previous trial: it was large after a correct trial and small after an incorrect trial. The rewards served to maintain task performance. During task performance we found three successive periods of neuronal firing in auditory cortex that
Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure activity in three frontal cortical areas, the lateral orbitofrontal cortex (lOFC), medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC)/ventromedial frontal cortex (vmPFC), and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), when expectations about type of reward, and not just reward presence or absence, could be learned. Two groups of human subjects learned 12 stimulus-response pairings. In one group (Consistent), correct performances of a given pairing were always reinforced with a specific reward outcome, whereas in the other group (Inconsistent), correct performances were reinforced with randomly selected rewards. The mOFC/vmPFC and lOFC were not distinguished by simple differences in relative preference for positive and negative outcomes. Instead lOFC activity reflected updating of reward-related associations specific to reward type; lOFC was active whenever informative outcomes allowed updating of reward-related associations, regardless of whether the outcomes were
Adaptive decision-making uses information gained when exploring alternative options to decide whether to update the current choice strategy. Magnocellular mediodorsal thalamus (MDmc) supports adaptive decision-making, but its causal contribution is not well understood. Monkeys with excitotoxic MDmc damage were tested on probabilistic three-choice decision-making tasks. They could learn and track the changing values in object-reward associations, but they were severely impaired at updating choices after reversals in reward contingencies or when there were multiple options associated with reward. These deficits were not caused by perseveration or insensitivity to negative feedback though. Instead, monkeys with MDmc lesions exhibited an inability to use reward to promote choice repetition after switching to an alternative option due to a diminished influence of recent past choices and the last outcome to guide future behavior. Together, these data suggest MDmc allows for the rapid discovery and persistence
Disruption of function of left, but not right, lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) with low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) increased choices of immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards. rTMS did not change choices involving only delayed rewards or valuation judgments of immediate and delayed rewards, providing causal evidence for a neural lateral-prefrontal cortex-based self-control mechanism in intertemporal choice ...
Decision-making involves two fundamental axes of control namely valence, spanning reward and punishment, and action, spanning invigoration and inhibition. We recently exploited a go/no-go task whose contingencies explicitly decouple valence and action to show that these axes are inextricably coupled during learning. This results in a disadvantage in learning to go to avoid punishment and in learning to no-go to obtain a reward. The neuromodulators dopamine and serotonin are likely to play a role in these asymmetries: Dopamine signals anticipation of future rewards and is also involved in an invigoration of motor responses leading to reward, but it also arbitrates between different forms of control. Conversely, serotonin is implicated in motor inhibition and punishment processing. To investigate the role of dopamine and serotonin in the interaction between action and valence during learning. We combined computational modeling with pharmacological manipulation in 90 healthy human volunteers, using ...
Ive commented on this extensively before - Im a big fan of intrinsic motivation. Sometimes the parent has to figure out what the childs intrinsic motivation is, and then adapt the system to that reward. And yes, for some kids, their intrinsic motivation is getting stuff they want in a material sense, and that can work. What helps for me is identifying what the child WANTS as the reward - not what theyd ask for if you asked them (which is often stuff) but what theyre deep down jonesing for. That can then be used as a problem-solving trade, which, IMHO, is much more above-board than reward charts. Reward charts tend to present the idea that the childs behavior change earns them the reward. What is really going on is that the parent has a problem, the childs behavior change solves the problem, and the parent is willing to make some effort or spend some money to encourage or thank for the change that removes their problem. I prefer to keep it more I have a problem, and you have a ...
NASHVILLE - Education Commissioner Candice McQueen announced Tennessees 2017 Reward schools today, which include the top 5 percent of schools for academic achievement and the top 5 percent for student growth. These 169 schools span 60 districts across Tennessee.. These schools represent what is possible for students in Tennessee as they exemplify excellence in performance or progress and in some cases, both, Commissioner McQueen said. We want to replicate this success across the state and continue to celebrate the hard work of our educators and students happening in classrooms every day.. Of the 2017 Reward schools, 59 are being recognized for performance, 85 are recognized for progress, and 25 schools are Reward schools both for performance and progress. The complete list of Reward schools is below and is also posted on the departments website.. In addition to recognizing Reward schools, Commissioner McQueen also named schools that have improved and earned their way off of the Priority or ...
A new study by Neil Harrison and colleagues published in Biological Psychiatry suggests that a brain reward center, the striatum, may be directly affected by inflammation and that striatal change is related to the emergence of illness behaviors.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a severe form of depression that can significantly interfere with an individuals thoughts, behavior, mood, and physical health. People who suffer from MDD may experience anhedonia, or the inability to gain pleasure from normally pleasurable experiences. Such individuals do not respond to motivational rewards in the same way as do individuals who are not depressed. Anhedonia has been recognized as a core symptom of depression and it is not always remedied with antidepressant medication. Abnormal brain activity and processing may be the underlying cause of depression and specifically anhedonia. A better understanding of the brain mechanisms of depression may lead to the development of new effective medications or psychological treatments.. Event-related potential (ERP), which measures electrical activity in the brain, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), which uses scanned images to illustrate changes in brain activity, are two techniques that can ...
Knowing the value of their benefits package increases engagement for staff, says Buckinghamshire County Councils Gillian Hibberd. Too often we try to overcomplicate the relationship between employees and employers. In reality, employees expectations are quite straightforward - they are simply looking for answers to a number of questions. They want to know what is expected of them, what tools and training they will be given, how they are doing, and what care and support the organisation will provide. Given this simplicity, and given that research shows how important benefit and reward packages can be in attracting and retaining talent, many employers are now looking at new ways of communicating the answers to these questions via total reward.†. Total reward describes how a range of monetary and non-monetary rewards are provided to employees in exchange for their time, talent and effort. A particularly important factor in this equation is effort. Discretionary effort, or going the extra mile, ...
Downloadable! Economists and policy makers have long recognized that innovators must be able to appropriate a reasonable portion of the social benefits of their innovations if innovation is to be suitably rewarded and encouraged. However, this paper identifies a number of specific fact patterns under which the current U.S. patent system allows patent holders to capture private rewards that exceed their social contributions. Such excessive patentee rewards are socially costly, since they raise the deadweight loss associated with the patent system and discourage innovation by others. Economic efficiency is promoted if rewards to patent holders are aligned with and do not exceed their social contributions. This paper analyzes two major reforms to the patent system designed to spur innovation by better aligning the rewards and contributions of patent holders: establishing an independent invention defense in patent infringement cases, and strengthening the procedures by which patents are re-examined after
This review gives an overview of our recent findings and developments in research on brain mechanisms of morphine reward from studies using the place preference conditioning paradigm. Intracranial place conditioning methodology has become a valuable and firmly established and very widely used tool in behavioural pharmacology and drug reward mechanisms. Several studies have established that morphine induces a conditioned preference for the place in which it has been administered in rats. Transmitter systems that have been investigated with respect to their involvement in morphine reward mechanisms include dopamine, GABA, acetylcholine, adrenalin and nitric oxide, the motivational significance of which has been examined either directly, by using respective agonist or antagonist drugs. Although, considerable evidence suggested that the mesocorticolimbic DA system, which originates in the VTA and projects to the Nac, various limbic and cortical areas is a major neural substrate of the rewarding effects
Expectations, positive or negative, are modulating factors influencing behavior. They are also thought to underlie placebo effects, impacting perceptions and biological processes. Using healthy human subjects, we examined the role of the nucleus accumbens (NAC), a region centrally involved in the encoding of reward expectation, in the formation of placebo responses. Employing functional molecular imaging, activation of NAC dopamine (DA) release was observed during placebo administration and related to its anticipated effects, perception-anticipation mismatches, and placebo effect development. In additional functional MRI studies, the expectation of monetary gain increased NAC synaptic activity in a manner proportional to placebo-induced DA release, anticipated effects, perception-anticipation differentials, and actual placebo effects. Individual variations in NAC response to reward expectation accounted for 28% of the variance in the formation of placebo analgesia ...
When it comes to making your staff feel valued, boosting sales or encouraging employees to meet their targets, selecting the right reward system can make all the difference.. Choosing a scheme that is cost-effective, has tangible value for recipients and measurable positive results is essential.. Ticking all the boxes, gift vouchers provide a flexible, easy-to-implement solution for businesses of all sizes and budgets.. At Love2reward, we offer a comprehensive range of vouchers which can be used to reward and incentivise staff members and customers.. As an expert provider of this kind of solution, we can also offer invaluable, free advice on best practice and selecting an initiative to fit your firm.. What are the benefits of Love2reward gift vouchers?. Gift vouchers can be used to achieve a wide range of aims, including boosting morale and staff motivation, providing an effective incentive for sales teams and encouraging customers to buy your products or services - and not your ...
The neuropeptide oxytocin has been implicated in social behavior and is being evaluated as a possible treatment for autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia, but the neural mechanisms through which oxytocin modulates social behavior remain largely unknown. One possibility is that social interaction recruits the brains reward circuits and that oxytocin plays a role in this process, which ultimately reinforces social behavior. In a recent study, Dolen et al. elucidate key circuits and mechanisms through which oxytocin can modulate social behavior via actions on the nucleus accumbems, a key component of the brains reward circuitry.. Dolen et al. studied social conditioned place preference (social CPP), in which mice prefer to spend time in a chamber that was previously associated with social interaction instead of in a chamber previously associated with social isolation. This task measures the rewarding effects of social interactions. Dolen et al. found that ablating presynaptic oxytocin ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - COMT Val158Met genotype is associated with reward learning: A replication study and meta-analysis. AU - Corral-Frías, N. S.. AU - Pizzagalli, D. A.. AU - Carré, J. M.. AU - Michalski, L. J.. AU - Nikolova, Y. S.. AU - Perlis, R. H.. AU - Fagerness, J.. AU - Lee, M. R.. AU - Conley, E. Drabant. AU - Lancaster, T. M.. AU - Haddad, S.. AU - Wolf, A.. AU - Smoller, J. W.. AU - Hariri, A. R.. AU - Bogdan, R.. PY - 2016/6/1. Y1 - 2016/6/1. KW - Anhedonia. KW - COMT. KW - Dopamine. KW - Meta-analysis. KW - Response bias. KW - Reward. KW - Anhedonia. KW - COMT. KW - Dopamine. KW - Meta-analysis. KW - Response bias. KW - Reward. UR - https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84971476742&origin=inward. UR - https://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84971476742&origin=inward. U2 - 10.1111/gbb.12296. DO - 10.1111/gbb.12296. M3 - Article. VL - 15. SP - 503. EP - 513. JO - Genes, Brain and Behavior. JF - Genes, Brain and Behavior. SN - ...
How does the brain translate information signaling potential rewards into motivation to get them? Motivation to obtain reward is thought to depend on the midbrain [particularly the ventral tegmental area (VTA)], the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), but it is not clear how the interactions among these regions relate to reward-motivated behavior. To study the influence of motivation on these reward-responsive regions and on their interactions, we used dynamic causal modeling to analyze functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from humans performing a simple task designed to isolate reward anticipation. The use of fMRI permitted the simultaneous measurement of multiple brain regions while human participants anticipated and prepared for opportunities to obtain reward, thus allowing characterization of how information about reward changes physiology underlying motivational drive. Furthermore, we modeled the impact of external reward cues on causal ...
Total reward, both as a concept and a framework for delivering benefits, is dead, according to Duncan Brown, head of the UK performance, reward and talent consulting practice at Aon Hewitt and his colleague Martha How, reward and benefits partner, speaking at Employee Benefits Live. But are they right? As we move into a post-recessionary economic cycle, but one wherepay growth remains anaemic , is total reward still relevant and, if not, what are the alternatives?. Browns argument, as articulated in a six-page analysis in the journal Compensation and Benefits Review, is complex.. In essence, he argues that the downward pressure on pay seen since 2007/2008, the erosion of core benefits such as pensions and the fracturing of traditional employment securities (as seen in the rise of zero-hours contracts) has meant the idea of being able to engage and motivate employees through a notionally employee-driven, flexible package of chocolate box benefits bundled together under the brand total reward ...
Additional Research Interests: Learning, Memory, Motivation, Neuroscience. Cues (conditional stimuli, CSs) that are associated with rewards can act as powerful temptations, leading to maladaptive behavior, such as overeating, or, in the case of drug cues, relapse. However, such cues come to exert powerful control over motivated behavior only if they are attributed with incentive motivational properties (incentive salience). In a series of studies we have found that there is considerable individual variation in the extent to which reward cues acquire incentive motivational properties. Some rats, called sign-trackers (STs) are especially prone to attribute incentive salience to reward cues, relative to others (goal-trackers, GTs). Importantly, the propensity to attribute incentive salience to a food cue also predicts the the propensity to attribute motivational properties to drug cues. That is, STs also have particular difficulty resisting drug cues, in the sense that some classes of drug cues ...
We are unable to issue rewards to individuals who are on US sanctions lists, or who are in countries (e.g. Crimea, Cuba, Iran, North Korea, Sudan, and Syria) on US sanctions lists. You are responsible for any tax implications depending on your country of residency and citizenship. There may be additional restrictions on your ability to enter depending upon your local law. This is not a competition, but rather an experimental and discretionary reward program. You should understand that we can cancel the program at any time and the decision as to whether or not to pay a reward has to be entirely at our discretion. Of course, your testing must not violate any law, or disrupt or compromise any data that is not your own. To avoid potential conflicts of interest, we will not grant rewards to people employed by Google or Google Partner companies who develop code for devices covered by this program. ...
We are unable to issue rewards to individuals who are on US sanctions lists, or who are in countries (e.g. Crimea, Cuba, Iran, North Korea, Sudan, and Syria) on US sanctions lists. You are responsible for any tax implications depending on your country of residency and citizenship. There may be additional restrictions on your ability to enter depending upon your local law. This is not a competition, but rather an experimental and discretionary reward program. You should understand that we can cancel the program at any time and the decision as to whether or not to pay a reward has to be entirely at our discretion. Of course, your testing must not violate any law, or disrupt or compromise any data that is not your own. To avoid potential conflicts of interest, we will not grant rewards to people employed by Google or Google Partner companies who develop code for devices covered by this program. ...
We are unable to issue rewards to individuals who are on US sanctions lists, or who are in countries (e.g. Crimea, Cuba, Iran, North Korea, Sudan, and Syria) on US sanctions lists. You are responsible for any tax implications depending on your country of residency and citizenship. There may be additional restrictions on your ability to enter depending upon your local law. This is not a competition, but rather an experimental and discretionary reward program. You should understand that we can cancel the program at any time and the decision as to whether or not to pay a reward has to be entirely at our discretion. Of course, your testing must not violate any law, or disrupt or compromise any data that is not your own. To avoid potential conflicts of interest, we will not grant rewards to people employed by Google or Google Partner companies who develop code for devices covered by this program. ...
Awards Under the IRS Whistleblower Program. Guaranteed Minimum Reward of 15%. Under the Tax Relief and Health Care Act of 2006, a whistleblower will receive at least 15% of the proceeds collected and may receive up to 30% of the amounts collected as a result of any administrative or judicial action resulting from the information provided. There is no limit on the dollar amount of the award.. Thus, assuming the IRS takes action based upon information filed by a whistleblower, that whistleblower is automatically entitled to a reward of 15% of the amount collected as a result of any administrative or judicial action. If the IRS collects $20 million in taxes, penalties and interest, for example, then the whistleblower would be entitled to receive the minimum reward of 15% or $3 million.. Additional Discretionary Award up to 30%. The IRS Whistleblower Office has the discretion to pay more than a 15% reward. The IRS has identified a nonexclusive list of factors in the award procedures outlined in the ...
Its probably not the most lucrative rewards credit card out there right now, something that Madison has gotten great about researching finding offers that are worth our time. But it has established my credit history while giving me points for purchases I was going to make anyway. Plus it has no annual fee, and I received a $100 gift card bonus for opening it up (I still have the three-tier, wicker drawer that I purchased from Bed Bath and Beyond using my free bounty). Basically I receive one reward point for each purchase that I make. Periodically they send me reward point boosters where I just need to register on their website (for free-no purchases of any kind) and receive twice the number of points for a month or so. I used to receive one reward point for each mile flown, but that program ended about two years ago.. Over the last 7 years I have been the happy recipient of $1,910 in gift cards to retailers of my choice (Home Depot, Lowes, Starbucks, Bed Bath and Beyond, JCPenney, Macys, ...
Nintendo devotees have patiently awaited for Club Nintendo to reveal this years Gold and Platinum rewards, and the result is… a little anti-climactic. To bring you up to speed, Club Nintendo awards points to gamers who registers both physical and digital copies of games, as well as their hardware purchases. The more coins you accumulate, the higher the tier.. This year, the rewards for both Platinum and Gold members are a selection of digital titles. This isnt anything out of the ordinary since previous years have also offered similar rewards, though those usually only extended to Gold members, while Platinum tier was able to pick between a physical reward as well.. Here is whats available this year:. Platinum only. ...
The Tehama County Sheriffs office is offering a $1,500 reward for information leading to the capture of the man who murdered Pat Gregory. They accept donations to the reward fund. If you want to add to the reward for the capture of Pats murderer, send a check to Tehama County Sheriffs Office, Secret Witness Program, P.O. Box 729, Red Bluff, CA 96080.. Please be sure to indicate you are contributing to the reward fund for the murder of Francis Patrick Gregory. ...
When I live for reward in this life, when I seek primary happiness in the here and now, Im discounting all the promises of God about whats to come. Now, certainly, living a godly life produces many rewards in this life. We rightfully celebrate those rewards and are thankful for those blessings. But God has told us He is preparing an even better place; He has said that while there are many blessings on this good earth that we can receive with thanksgiving, our ultimate reward wont be found here. Ultimate happiness and fulfillment wont be found here. They are waiting for us in the new heavens and the new earth, so at the very least, lets live our lives here remembering the importance of preparing for life there. (p. 55 ...
Find LoneStar Ice House in Houston, TX rewards, deals, coupons, and loyalty programs. Free beer, call or premium liquor. | Visit LoneStar Ice House today and earn points for LoneStar Ice House rewards, deals, and coupons using Fivestars rewards. Fivestars is the nations leading customer loyalty program and customer rewards program.
Cocaine use is a common disorder of neuroplasticity that triggers cellular and molecular alterations in brain reward systems, mainly in the dorsal striatum. Compulsive cocaine use and cocaine relapse is due to drug-induced neuroadaptations in reward-related learning and memory processes, and these cause hypersensitivity to cocaine-associated cues, impulsive decision making and abnormal habit-like learned behaviors that are insensitive to adverse consequences [3]. Cocaine-induced neuroplasticity changes in the mesolimbic dopamine system mediate psychomotor sensitization and cocaine-seeking behaviors. Hollander et al. [4] demonstrated that cocaine-seeking behavior in rats is modulated by miR-212, which decreases the activity of a group of genes (CREB, TORC1, Raf1 and SPRED1), thus limiting the transition to an uncontrolled intake of cocaine in animals exposed to the drug over a long period of time. Interestingly, artificially increasing miR-212 expression leads to decreased cocaine intake under ...
After six long years, the Club Nintendo program is ending. Its not all bad news though - Nintendo is starting up a new program this year, and it has the potential to be better. Also, more rewards are being added in February so you can spend up those coins.. While the program has had its ups and downs, for the most part, I really enjoyed it in its current incarnation. As a general rule it blew anything the PSN and Xbox Live had out of the water, especially when you coupled it with the Wii U Deluxe promotion. There was just no competition with those two in play. Soon, we will have neither.. Before we gear up for the new hotness though, what was your favorite Club Nintendo reward? I have to go with the 2010 Elite Status reward, the Super Mario Characters Figurine. As you can see in the header above it goes great with my Mario collection, and Ill always cherish it.. Runners up include the Gold Nunchuk and the 3DS XL charging cradle variants, just because of how much use Ive gotten out of them. ...
We perceive the environment via sensor arrays and interact with it through motor outputs. The work of this thesis concerns how the brain selects actions given the information about the perceived state of the world and how it learns and adapts these selections to changes in this environment. Reinforcement learning theories suggest that an action will be more or less likely to be selected if the outcome has been better or worse than expected. A group of subcortical structures, the basal ganglia (BG), is critically involved in both the selection and the reward prediction.. We developed and investigated a computational model of the BG. We implemented a Bayesian-Hebbian learning rule, which computes the weights between two units based on the probability of their activations. We were able test how various configurations of the represented pathways impacted the performance in several reinforcement learning and conditioning tasks. Then, following the development of a more biologically plausible version ...
The UKs favourite family dairy teams-up with mobile rewards firm Shopitize to offer consumers exclusive organic deals and gain deep insight into their shopping behaviour. Favourite family dairy Yeo Valley has today jumped onto the fast-developing Shopitize (www.shopitize.com) mobile rewards platform to offer Britains savvy smartphone shoppers exclusive deals on its in-store ranges of home-grown organic products.. By teaming with Shopitize to offer rewards on whole, semi-skimmed or skimmed milk, butter, sour cream, Creme Fraiche and Natural Probiotic Yogurt, Yeo Valley aims to build greater brand awareness with a new wave of shoppers and also gain fast and actionable insights into their buying behaviours at the checkout. The brand will then leverage that data as part of its forward multi-channel business strategy.. [more…]. ...
2D Scanners: Being one with all the achievements of the latest technology, 2D scanners need a camera you just read by barcodes within the form of images. However, to appease them as well as the southern delegations who were indicating strong support to the opinions of Messrs. Stealth Virus - Stealth viruses try and hide themselves by tricking the os or antivirus programs. Sub-sections for instance health and sweetness, entertainment, relationships, food, books, money, home and garden, as well as some more can be obtained. Zombie processes persist until their parent process ends, at which point theyre adopted from your init system process and shortly cleaned up.. There is the use of rewarding yourself if you wish to remain motivated. You dont want to give yourself ridiculous rewards, and that means you must consider what the rewards is going to be. Its also wise to arrange a reward system to keep the individuals that really work for you motivated. If the reward is something worth receiving, ...
Reinforcement learning (RL) is the study of systems that learn from interaction with their environment. The current framework of Reinforcement Learning is based on receiving scalar rewards, which the agent aims to maximize. But in many real world situations, tradeoffs must be made among multiple objectives. This necessitates the use of vector representation of values and rewards and the use of weights to represent the importance of different objectives. In this thesis, we consider the problem of learning in the presence of time-varying preferences among multiple objectives. Learning a new policy for every possible weight vector is wasteful. Instead we propose a method that allows us store a finite number of policies, choose an appropriate policy for any weight vector and improve upon it. The idea is that though there can be infinitely many weight vectors, a lot of them will have the same optimal policy. We prove this empirically in two domains: a version of the Buridans ass problem and network ...
Both the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and mesolimbic dopamine, particularly in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), have been implicated in allowing an animal to overcome effort constraints to obtain greater benefits. However, their exact contribution to such decisions has, to date, never been directly compared. To investigate this issue we tested rats on an operant effort-related cost-benefit decision-making task where animals selected between two response alternatives, one of which involved investing effort by lever pressing on a high fixed-ratio (FR) schedule to gain high reward [four food pellets (HR)], whereas the other led to a small amount of food on an FR schedule entailing less energetic cost [two food pellets, low reward (LR)]. All animals initially preferred to put in work to gain the HR. Systemic administration of a D2 antagonist caused a significant switch in choices towards the LR option. Similarly, post-operatively, excitotoxic ACC lesions caused a significant bias away from HR choices
Effort-reward imbalance model[edit]. After the DCS model, the, perhaps, second most influential model in OHP research has been ... It links job demands to the rewards employees receive for the job.[64][65] That model holds that high work-related effort ... At least five studies of men have linked effort-reward imbalance with CVD.[79] Another large study links ERI to the incidence ... 2017). Effort-reward imbalance at work and incident coronary heart disease: A multi-cohort study of 90,164 individuals. ...
Reward system[edit]. A reward system (local, as well from the government) was active from 1846 to the end of the 20th century, ...
Common property, individual rewards[edit]. Axel Bruns describes the connection between common property and individual rewards ... In addition, any contributions made by participants to the shared content must be rewarded and recognized whenever appropriate. ... In addition, these individual rewards are a source for further motivation for participation by the community in produsage ... Common property and individual rewards.[4] An example of this discussion feature is the Wikipedia Talk page, which facilitates ...
Reward[edit]. On March 6, 2012, approaching the five-year anniversary of Robert Levinson's captivity, The Federal Bureau of ... "FBI - $1 Million Reward Offered for Missing Retired Agent". Fbi.gov. Retrieved 2012-03-07.. ... On March 9, 2015, the CIA increased the reward to up to $5 million for information regarding Levinson's whereabouts.[25] ... and a telephone hotline to publicize this reward and obtain information of his whereabouts.[24] In conjunction with this ...
Arousal and reward[edit]. The dopaminergic neurons from the ventral tegmental area that innervate the olfactory tubercle enable ... The olfactory tubercle has also been shown to be especially involved in reward and addictive behaviors. Rats have been shown to ... Thus, it may link perception of odor with action through its connections with attention, reward, and motivation systems of the ... Ikemoto, S. (2003). "Involvement of the olfactory tubercle in cocaine reward: intracranial self-administration studies". J. ...
Rewards[edit]. Emma Hamilton, Nelson's mistress and mother of his daughter Horatia, in a 1782-84 portrait by George Romney, ... As a reward for the victory, he was created Viscount Nelson of the Nile and of Burnham Thorpe in the County of Norfolk, on 19 ... this as a reward for his support of the monarchy.[161] ...
Reward system. References[edit]. *^ Pardo JV, Pardo PJ, Janer KW, Raichle ME (January 1990). "The anterior cingulate cortex ... Reward-based learning theory[edit]. A more comprehensive and recent theory describes the ACC as a more active component and ... It is also involved in certain higher-level functions, such as attention allocation,[1] reward anticipation, decision-making,[2 ... The dorsal part of the ACC seems to play a key role in reward-based decision-making and learning. The rostral part of the ACC, ...
Modulation of cocaine reward[edit]. Researchers investigated the effects of CB2 agonists on cocaine self-administration in mice ...
... the promise may be fulfilled as earthly rewards and/or heavenly rewards, as God sees fit in his wisdom and love for the ... Rewards for compliance[edit]. This commandment is distinct from the others in that a promise is attached to it: "...so that you ... Just as the reward for honouring father and mother is very great, the punishment for transgressing it is very great. And the ... As with most terms of the covenant between God and Israel, there are consequences for disobedience as well as rewards for ...
REWARD. -". Archived from the original on 23 December 2012. "Deforestation for fashion: getting unsustainable fabrics out of ...
"Reward". Uboat.net. Retrieved 28 December 2012. "Try". Uboat.net. Retrieved 24 December 2012. "Vivina". Uboat.net. Retrieved 28 ...
Wetzel, Dan (January 2, 2017). "Risk...reward? Nick Saban kicks Lane Kiffin to the curb just one week before national title ...
reward; but the substance of the offer is to pay the named sum as compensation for the failure of the article to produce the ... 11 A 7 E 856, the defendant offered a reward to whoever would give such information as would lead to the conviction of a felon ... upon the ground that the advertisement amounted to a general promise or contract to pay the offered reward to any person who ... They again argued that the contract was not like other reward cases, because catching the flu was not something you had control ...
"Webster's reward". TheFA.com. The Football Association. 20 October 2009. Archived from the original on 21 November 2009. ...
Rowling, J.K. (1998). "Dobby's Reward". Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets. London: Bloomsbury. pp. 241-243. ISBN 0-7475- ... and lavishly rewards them for ending the threat from the Chamber of Secrets. Krause further states that authority figures and ...
Gabelich, Josh (5 September 2017). "Late season reward driving Marshall forward". saints.com.au. Retrieved 12 December 2019. ... Ryan, Michael (26 October 2018). "Marshall's reward". saints.com.au. Retrieved 12 December 2019. Nice, Chris (4 December 2019 ...
THE REWARD. TO-DAY". The New York Times. 28 August 1865. Retrieved 16 January 2020. Claims, United States Congress House ...
100 reward". Londonderry Journal. 2 October 1838. "Outrage in Ennishowen". Freemans Journal. February 6, 1852. "Outrage in ... Mrs Merrick later offered a reward of £100 for any information regarding the attacks on Bradley. In 1852, local tenants ...
Reward 974. Penalty 975. Scourge 1. Superhuman Beings and Regions 976. Deity 977. Angel 978. Satan 979. Jupiter 980. Demon 981 ...
Holiday Reward (休日のごほうび, Kyūjitsu no go hōbi) 007. You Are Already In (お前はもう入っている, Omae wa mō haitte iru) A live-action TV ... Katayama, Yukio (September 14, 2015). "Holiday Reward". Big Comic Spirits. Furo Girl! (in Japanese). Shogakukan (40): 183-
His reward? Exile. Branded a monster by those who feel threatened by his military genius, Ender is suddenly a hero without a ...
Like the MTV Video Music Awards in the United States, in this event artists are rewarded for their songs and videos through ... The Global Awards are held by Global and rewards music played on British radio stations owned by the Global media company. ... The MTV Europe Music Awards was established in 1994 by MTV Europe to reward the music videos from European and international ... "SSE Live Awards 2019 Winners". SSE REWARD. Archived from the original on 19 February 2020. Retrieved 19 February 2020. CS1 ...
300 reward". Erie Evening Dispatch. March 2, 1912. Sandt, Mary Margaret (January 1932). "Struts and Bamboos". The Airpost ...
"Parker's Reward". Des Moines Leader. 2 January 1902. Retrieved 10 September 2020 - via newspapers.com. Danky, James P., editor ...
Caroline Leopold (2016-11-07). "Airport Layovers Don't Need to Be Boring Anymore with Zipcar". Reward Expert. Duhaime-Ross, ...
"The Reward". Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved March 3, 2016. "Wait Until Dark". Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved March 3, 2016 ...
James, Noble (May 28, 1857). "$150 Reward". Baltimore Sun Newspaper. Still, William (1872). The Underground Railroad. ...
300 Reward". The Chicago Daily Tribune. April 2, 1883. Retrieved 22 October 2019. "Polling-places. Shall Their Number in the ...
Delivered since 1991, the GAFFA Awards are a Danish award that rewards popular music by the magazine of the same name. The MPS ... "SSE Live Awards 2019 Winners". SSE REWARD. Retrieved 19 February 2020. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) http://www. ...
"Houli rewarded for being bold". Richmond FC. Telstra Media. 5 May 2015. Retrieved 4 June 2020. Ralph, Jon (25 June 2015). " ... "Houli's reward". Richmond FC. Telstra Media. 10 December 2012. Retrieved 2 June 2020. "Richmond midfielder and Brisbane ... Greenberg, Tony (14 August 2018). "Red-hot Riewoldt rewarded". Richmond FC. Telstra Media. Retrieved 6 June 2020. Phelan, Jason ...
Bitcoin block rewards are new bitcoins awarded to cryptocurrency miners for solving a complex math problem and creating a new ... Understanding Block Rewards The block reward provides an incentive for bitcoin miners to process transactions made with the ... Bitcoins Block Rewards Versus Ethereums Ethereum, bitcoins main competitor as a cryptocurrency, also relies on block rewards ... With Ethereum, the reward is a digital token called "ether," which are rewarded each time a miner succeeds in providing the ...
... loyalty reward, or payment disbursement need. Send a Reward Link and allow yo… ... Reward Link is Tango Cards digital choice product for your engagement incentive, ... With Reward Link - Wellness youll receive a collection of retailers and non-profits that focus on rewarding wellness with ... Reward Link is Tango Cards digital choice product for your engagement incentive, loyalty reward, or payment disbursement need ...
251,000 reward they promised, in Broward County Court. ...
Please answer these questions about what you would like as a reward/prize if we fill the marble jar, earn enough points or a ...
They are holding their employers to account, and they will have a huge impact on the makeup of recognition and reward schemes. ... Our tools and insights can help you assess, restructure and redesign your total reward package - encompassing both financial ... They are increasingly creating "total reward" packages, which encompass ever-broader benefits and development opportunities. In ... and industry-specific reward arrangements and structures. While Millennials will represent the largest and most vocal segment ...
Want to book a reward ticket for a child? Contact Flying Blue customer service. ...
... (15-Sep-1965). Director: Serge Bourguignon. Writers: Serge Bourguignon; Oscar Millard. From novel: The Reward by ...
6 Unique Ways To Reward Brand Loyalty. Many companies that offer rewards programs are missing out on key opportunities. Check ...
1,000 reward for his Pressure Washers Direct video review of a Campbell ... A man from Illinois just won a $1,000 reward for his Pressure Washers Direct video review of a Campbell Hausfeld professional ...
1 million reward to anyone who provides evidence of cheating, as well as heavy fines for the guilty teams ... Formula Ones governing body have offered a $1 million reward to anyone who provides evidence of cheating, as well as heavy ... "And, in addition to our own technical inspections, we are also considering a $1 million reward for the receipt of any ...
An aggregate $5000 reward is hereby offered by Marcus Joel Freed as a reward for information directly leading to confirmed ... I will use my reasonable discretion to apportion the contribution and reward money among the tipsters.. The reward will be paid ... The reward will be available until the earliest of the following, which in any event shall not require notice, except for ... Only $10,000 of total reward money will be paid. If I receive multiple valid tips which directly contribute toward the ...
Caesars Rewards is a loyalty program that gives you more of what you want, through a global network of resorts and casinos. ... play by Total Rewards: The App That Gets You More - Duration: 64 seconds.. *1,139 views ... play by TR App: HOW TO SET UP A TOTAL REWARDS ONLINE ACCOUNT - Duration: 2 minutes, 19 seconds.. *9,412 views ... play by TR App: HOW TO SIGN UP FOR TOTAL REWARDS - Duration: 2 minutes, 35 seconds.. *41,179 views ...
What are Microsoft Rewards points worth?. Microsoft Rewards points have no cash value. Check your Microsoft Rewards page to see ... What is Microsoft Rewards?. Microsoft Rewards is the loyalty programme from Microsoft that lets you earn rewards for doing the ... Does Microsoft Rewards still work if I travel to another country?. If you have a Microsoft Rewards account and travel to a ... What types of rewards can I earn with Microsoft Rewards?. You can redeem your points for Xbox and Microsoft Store gift cards, ...
500 to George Pultea as a reward for finding the gun used to kill a sheriff`s deputy. Pultea is the manager of Golden Key Self ... The Palm Beach County Police Benevolent Association on Monday gave $500 to George Pultea as a reward for finding the gun used ...
100,000 reward in the case. The sixth tourist murder in Florida since December prompted a new round of fears about visitor ... referring to Fort Lauderdale-based Alamos reward. To give information to police, call 305-471-TIPS. ...
Check out this article! https://www.salon.com/2004/09/15/reward/. ...
I seek to make arrangements to provide a reward incentive for voting. Could a prize be given further to a random ip address ... Raffle script to reward Voters Running a (local area) poll on a website which records ip address (to a flat file) to prevent ... I seek to make arrangements to provide a reward incentive for voting. Could a prize be given further to a random ip address ... I like this approach as voting would be occasional, lasting about a week and I only seek to encourage by adding a reward ...
Google Security Reward Programs Google has enjoyed a long and close relationship with the the security community. Part of this ... relationship involves providing cash rewards for quality security research that identifies security vulnerabilities in products ...
For Argentina, last year was one to forget. The government negotiated two bailouts from the International Monetary Fund totaling $57 billion, and raised its interest rates to 60% last summer to battle the financial crisis. Warning! GuruFocus has detected 5 Warning Sign with KO.
Air Miles is the biggest loyalty program in the country. Seventeen million subscribers. With everyone rushing to cash in their points, Marketplace puts their customer service to the test.
After investigations into case of missing IDF soldier Majdy Halabi hit dead end, Born to Freedom Foundation offers $10m reward ... Announcing the reward offer, Born to Freedoms director-general Ori Chen said, "We are trying a way that hasnt been attempted ... 10m reward for Halabis whereabouts. After investigations into case of missing IDF soldier Majdy Halabi hit dead end, Born to ... The Born to Freedom Foundation has offered a $10 million reward for information on Druze soldier Majdy Halabi, who went missing ...
I am overwhelmed and grateful at the article Indian Unrest Ensnares a Doctor (Politics & Economics, Nov. 12). Binayak Sen is my uncle, and our whole family has watched, heart-in-mouth, as a state government holds him in jail with near complete impunity. Dr. Sen is a graduate of the Christian Medical College, Vellore, and received the Paul Harrison Award in 2004 in recognition of his groundbreaking work in improving public health. Moreover, he was part of a State Health Advisory Committee to put in place a statewide program for selection, training and deployment of community health workers. Despite what Chhattisgarhs ministers would have us believe, these arent the doings of a violent Naxalite.
Is this an immoral approach? I think so. As they see it, though, its Republicans who made this mess and while Democrats will gladly try to clean it up if Republicans are completely removed from power, its not fundamentally their responsibility to run risks in order to resolve a problem they (often inaccurately, especially in the Senate where there was a ton of support for the war, but thats another story) dont see themselves as responsible for.. ...
As a reward the manager promised to buy Arditi the most handsome baton in New York. ... Luigi Arditi had been right all along-the real reward for his efforts was the music ...
Autism Speaks is dedicated to increasing awareness of autism spectrum disorders, to funding research into the causes, prevention and treatments for autism, and to advocating for the needs of individuals with autism and their families.
... follows on from a finding that dopamine-deficient mice have an intact reward system as measured by a liking for sugar. The link ... but that dopamine is not required for morphine-induced reward as measured by conditioned place preference. ... Berridge, K. C. & Robinson, T. E. What is the role of dopamine in reward: hedonic impact, reward learning, or incentive ... Spanagel, R. & Weiss, F. The dopamine hypothesis of reward: past and current status. Trends Neurosci. 22, 521-527 (1999) ...
What does this mean for you? Use rewards when you need a one-time survey fielded quickly and avoid rewards when you expect to ... they often wont do the same task in the future without a reward. In other words, rewards can help the first time you ask, but ... A large number of survey researchers try to boost response rates by offering some sort of reward for completing a survey. A lot ... All of that said, rewarding survey takers can still be right for certain projects. Sweepstakes are an easy way to incent people ...
Hotels are increasingly expanding the ways guests can earn rewards beyond ... Hotels reward guests for Twitter, Facebook posts. Nancy Trejos, USA TODAY Published 8:03 a.m. ET July 16, 2014 , Updated 8:31 a ... Hotels reward guests for Twitter, Facebook posts. If you want to earn points towards a future stay at a hotel, try posting a ... Hotels reward guests for Twitter, Facebook posts If you want to earn points towards a future stay at a hotel, try posting a ...
See all rewards available.. Heres how to use your rewards:. Redeem online. Sign in before you start booking a trip, and youll ... Bring your Road Rewards membership card, to any Greyhound station and we can tell you which rewards you have to choose from. ... How to use your rewards The more points you collect, the more rewards youll earn. And its easy to redeem them online, by ... You can use either your email or Road Rewards Member ID number to sign in. If youre having trouble, just give the Road Rewards ...
  • Miami police on Sunday pleaded for clues about who killed a German tourist in front of her mother and two children, and Alamo Rent A Car posted a $100,000 reward in the case. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • Oct. 14, 2011 -- Wealthy anonymous benefactors today offered a $100,000 reward for the safe return of missing Missouri infant Lisa Irwin or conviction of whoever took the little girl. (go.com)
  • After putting up the $100,000 reward days after Kesse's disappearance, Siegel got into a dispute with Crimeline officials because he didn't want to pay a reward for her body or a conviction, but rather for her safe return. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • If you have a Microsoft Rewards account and travel to a country where Microsoft Rewards is available, you'll still earn points and be eligible for rewards, but points earned per search may vary per country. (microsoft.com)
  • Search for availability and book your reward flights now. (britishairways.com)
  • Total Rewards 2018 Year In Review - Duration: 109 seconds. (youtube.com)
  • and participate in rewards, we thought this was an interesting idea," says Rich Toohey, vice president of Marriott Rewards. (usatoday.com)
  • Marriott Rewards members can earn up to 2,000 points a month and have four transactions a day. (usatoday.com)
  • They earn 25 points for following participating hotels' Twitter and Instagram accounts or for re-tweeting content from the Marriott Rewards Twitter account with the hashtag #MRPoints. (usatoday.com)
  • As the official Global Hotel Partner of Spartan Race, Marriott Rewards is offering obstacle course race devotee's around the world exclusive, members-only tips, perks and benefits to fuel their training and completion of challenging Spartan Races. (marriott.com)
  • A man from Illinois just won a $1,000 reward for his Pressure Washers Direct video review of a Campbell Hausfeld professional 2900 PSI pressure washer. (prweb.com)
  • At the moment a level 1 Microsoft Rewards member may only give or receive 1,000 points per calendar month. (microsoft.com)
  • The nest was in an area of woods being logged near the junction of Crowfield Boulevard and Corporate Parkway in Goose Creek, S.C. The Service is offering a reward of $1,000 for information that leads to successful prosecution in this case. (fws.gov)
  • Scratch to win 1,000 Rewards points. (samsung.com)
  • An aggregate $5000 reward is hereby offered by Marcus Joel Freed as a reward for information directly leading to confirmed identification of the hit-and-run driver (the "Drive") who's vehicle struck and injured Marcus J Freed ("I," "me," or "offeror") on November 3, 2017 on the intersection of Olympic Boulevard and South Sherbourne Drive, Los Angeles CA 90035. (google.com)
  • Ethereum , bitcoin's main competitor as a cryptocurrency, also relies on block rewards to provide incentives to miners. (investopedia.com)
  • Our tools and insights can help you assess, restructure and redesign your total reward package - encompassing both financial and non-financial incentives - as part of a coherent talent strategy to attract and retain the people your business needs to achieve its goals. (ey.com)
  • According to Towers Watson's 2014 Global Talent Management and Rewards Study , which surveyed 337 U.S. companies, the highest performers receive merit increases that are differentiated at 170 percent, while annual incentives are differentiated at 125 percent. (shrm.org)
  • The course will provide an analysis of the types of reward systems commonly used in private and public sector organisations, drawing on economic, psychological and sociological principles, covering all-employee reward, senior executive reward, fixed pay, short-term incentives, long-term incentives, benefits and pensions. (lse.ac.uk)
  • Formula One's governing body have offered a $1 million reward to anyone who provides evidence of cheating, as well as heavy fines for the guilty teams. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • And, in addition to our own technical inspections, we are also considering a $1 million reward for the receipt of any information which will lead to the conviction of a team found to be acting illegally. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • The Born to Freedom Foundation has offered a $10 million reward for information on Druze soldier Majdy Halabi, who went missing in May 2005 from a hitchhiking post. (ynetnews.com)
  • International Researcher Sorcha Faal announces $50 million reward for information proving 9/11 Conspiracy. (prweb.com)
  • But what does Dorner's death mean for people hoping to cash in on a historic $1 million reward offered for information leading to Dorner's arrest? (businessinsider.com)
  • HONG KONG/BEIJING (Reuters) - Investors rewarded Beijing on Monday for its ambitious reform plan, sustaining a stocks rally led by consumer goods shares seen as direct beneficiaries of the promised easing of China's one-child policy and efforts to boost consumption. (yahoo.com)
  • The City Council is set to vote Tuesday on whether to contribute most of a $10,000 reward to help solve the Jan. 6 slaying of a tow truck driver. (latimes.com)
  • There is a $10,000 reward for information leading to that person. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • Dog lovers have collected almost $50,000 in reward money to catch the killer of the little dog, Leo, killed in a bizarre case of road rage in California. (bbc.co.uk)
  • People have pledged more," she said, adding that with the pledge money, the reward fund stands at about $50,000. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Svenson then notices Bryant's face on a $50,000 reward poster. (wikipedia.org)
  • We hope that in putting up this kind of reward, we will generate new information. (latimes.com)
  • Byrne and colleagues started from the hypothesis that the brain's reward circuits - or the neural pathways that are active when we process any kind of reward for our work, be it a delicious dessert, a financial bonus, or a word of praise - would vary during the day. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • You can redeem your reward points at checkout. (packtpub.com)
  • You can earn and redeem points in the country you are physically in if the Rewards programme is supported in that country. (microsoft.com)
  • Score double the Samsung Rewards points when you make a qualified in-game purchase.² Then redeem your points at Galaxy Store for more in-game purchases. (samsung.com)
  • Level Up all holiday long and redeem your Samsung Rewards points for in-game purchases at Galaxy Store. (samsung.com)
  • Instantly redeem your Cash Back Rewards to pay for all or part of your eligible orders, including tax & shipping. (chase.com)
  • card comes with Chase Ultimate Rewards ® , our premier rewards program that lets you redeem rewards for travel, experiences, gift cards, cash back and more. (chase.com)
  • Access Chase Ultimate Rewards to view rewards activity, redeem points, book travel and earn extra points. (chase.com)
  • With Reward Link - Content & Media you'll receive the choice of digital content - apps, music, games, news, and entertainment at your fingertips. (slideshare.net)
  • Just make sure you're signed in with the Microsoft account associated with your rewards account when you buy content. (microsoft.com)
  • The content below has been tagged with the term "Reward. (fws.gov)
  • At bitcoin's inception in 2009, each block reward was worth 50 BTC. (investopedia.com)
  • They are holding their employers to account, and they will have a huge impact on the makeup of recognition and reward schemes. (ey.com)
  • Performance Recognition (PRS) is the means for managers to recommend a reward for exceptional contribution or performance of an individual within their current grade. (brad.ac.uk)
  • From earning up to 50 percent † on everything you sell to the rewards and recognition you earn along the way, you decide what's important to you - and go for it! (marykay.com)
  • Ideas for nonfood rewards include extra time for recess, stickers, or a note of recognition from a teacher or principal. (cdc.gov)
  • This position will engage with both internal and external partners to drive the development and execution of SurveyMonkey's reward and recognition practices, build strong and scalable processes, and build both a center of excellence and a world class team. (surveymonkey.com)
  • This course provides an overview of the rewards and recognition systems in organizations, both domestic and international, including topics such as compensation and benefits management, performance management, and formal and informal rewards and recognition programs. (unf.edu)
  • Reward Link is Tango Card's digital choice product for your engagement incentive, loyalty reward, or payment disbursement need. (slideshare.net)
  • For every five beverages you buy with your DD ® Card or Loyalty ID scan, you'll save 10¢/gal at Shell when you use your Fuel Rewards® Alt ID at the pump. (dunkindonuts.com)
  • Microsoft Rewards is the loyalty programme from Microsoft that lets you earn rewards for doing the things you already do like searching the web and buying games and apps. (microsoft.com)
  • However, as the government, regulators and 'consumer champions' have increased their calls for consumers to switch accounts , banks have responded with innovative rewards and features that encourage signups and foster brand loyalty. (bankrate.com)
  • Today, Kimpton Hotels and Restaurants will launch Kimpton Karma Rewards, a new loyalty program designed to recognize guests for actions such as attending a property's nightly wine hour, traveling with their pet, dining at a Kimpton restaurant, or mentioning an individual hotel or restaurant on social media. (usatoday.com)
  • The decision to offer a monetary reward was made after investigations reached a dead end, Ynet has learned. (ynetnews.com)
  • Announcing the reward offer, Born to Freedom's director-general Ori Chen said, "We are trying a way that hasn't been attempted yet in Israel, of offering a high monetary reward to whoever provides information that will lead to finding the missing soldier. (ynetnews.com)
  • The Reston, Va., security intelligence outfit offered the monetary reward to hackers Jan. 10 as part of a challenge program aimed at luring researchers to its controversial pay-for-flaw Vulnerability Contributor Program. (eweek.com)
  • The block reward provides an incentive for bitcoin miners to process transactions made with the cryptocurrency. (investopedia.com)
  • I seek to make arrangements to provide a reward incentive for voting. (dynamicdrive.com)
  • Berridge, K. C. & Robinson, T. E. What is the role of dopamine in reward: hedonic impact, reward learning, or incentive salience? (nature.com)
  • Management needs to have the ability to recognize and reward extraordinary effort and performance," says Fran Wahr-man, SPHR, vice president of incentive compensation and governance manager with The Huntington National Bank in Columbus, Ohio. (shrm.org)
  • In May 2020, the block reward was halved a third time to 6.25 BTC. (investopedia.com)
  • The FBI is offering a reward of up to $5,000 for information leading to the arrest and conviction of Yoelvis Denis Hernandez, 42, of Dade County, Florida, for his alleged involvement in the theft of a $3 million shipment of ventilators on or about August 9, 2020. (fbi.gov)
  • If you're ready to bring your strategic and operational total rewards skills to SurveyMonkey, we want to hear from you. (surveymonkey.com)
  • Hotels reward guests for Twitter, Facebook posts If you want to earn points towards a future stay at a hotel, try posting a photo of the hotel on Twitter, Facebook or Instagram. (usatoday.com)
  • If you don't have your rewards by that time, please follow @EASPORTSFIFA on Twitter for updates. (ea.com)
  • Together, these data demonstrate that dopamine is a crucial component of morphine-induced locomotion, dopamine may contribute to morphine analgesia, but that dopamine is not required for morphine-induced reward as measured by conditioned place preference. (nature.com)
  • Spanagel, R. & Weiss, F. The dopamine hypothesis of reward: past and current status. (nature.com)
  • Absence of opiate rewarding effects in mice lacking dopamine D2 receptors. (nature.com)
  • The functions of rewards were developed further during blocking, electrical self-stimulation, and drugs of abuse suggest the evolution of higher mammals to support more sophistithat midbrain dopamine systems are involved in processing reward cated forms of individual and social behavior. (psu.edu)
  • Most dopamine neucal and cognitive needs define the nature of rewards, and rons show phasic activations after primary liquid and food rewards and conditioned, reward-predicting visual and auditory stimuli. (psu.edu)
  • Thus dopamine neurons label environmental stimuli with appe- Despite their importance, rewards do not influence the brain titive value, predict and detect rewards and signal alerting and motivating events. (psu.edu)
  • Further strengthening the link between our brain's reward-processing capabilities and our biological clock, this study suggests that dopamine neurons actually control our body clock. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • I suppose that means that people who through skill, bravado and luck managed to enter and remain in the United States, in direct violation of our immigration laws, should be rewarded. (newsday.com)
  • Perhaps we should also consider rewarding people who manage to cheat on their taxes! (newsday.com)
  • However, the same literature indicates that once you reward people for a task, they often won't do the same task in the future without a reward. (surveymonkey.com)
  • In other words, rewards can help the first time you ask, but may hurt during later attempts to interview the same people. (surveymonkey.com)
  • By any of the aforementioned United States Political or Military Leaders claiming this reward it will provide the proof needed to convince the American People that their present War on Terror was based on lies and deception. (prweb.com)
  • On Friday, the federal Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives and the New York Police Department announced the reward to "spur some people to come forward with information who may not have done so before. (cnn.com)
  • The sad tale has prompted hundreds of people to contribute to a reward fund set up to catch the killer. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Applying analytic outcomes to transform raw people/compensation/total rewards data into meaningful and actionable compensation/total rewards insights. (oanda.com)
  • Reporting to the Chief People Officer, the Head of Total Rewards will be a key member of the People leadership team and will work closely with the Executive team and Compensation Committee of the Board of Directors. (surveymonkey.com)
  • That's an interesting idea, but it's getting more exciting - as Leenders rewards the people who reacted the fastest, have to pay less. (thenextweb.com)
  • Different people, different preferences, My guess is that Blizzard set up the random rewards in an effort to please all of the above. (battle.net)
  • If you want people to be housed rather than homeless, reward them for being housed,' O'Flaherty argues. (newswire.ca)
  • Specifically, O'Flaherty advocates the introduction of an Optimal Homelessness-Reducing Home Allowance (OHRHA), which would take the form of a flat amount rewarded to people for each night that they are not homeless. (newswire.ca)
  • Please answer these questions about what you would like as a reward/prize if we fill the marble jar, earn enough points or a randomly selected from the WoW MOMENT chart! (google.com)
  • Karma is rewarding engagement. (usatoday.com)
  • A guide to measuring ROI on your employee rewards programmes to maximise employee retention, engagement and performance for your small business. (americanexpress.com)
  • Reward points may be capped at a minimum value required for redemption. (packtpub.com)
  • If this option is selected you will not be able to use your reward points until you accrue a minimum number of points, at which point they will become available for redemption. (packtpub.com)
  • Check your Microsoft Rewards page to see current redemption offers. (microsoft.com)
  • The offers and redemption items available to you will depend on the country from which you're accessing Microsoft Rewards. (microsoft.com)
  • Redemption values for other reward options may be worth more or less than that. (chase.com)
  • Each month we will give away $10,000 to one lucky couple through our WeddingWire Rewards sweepstakes. (weddingwire.com)
  • Winners are randomly selected monthly for each WeddingWire Rewards sweepstakes edition. (weddingwire.com)
  • Thank you for your interest in the Staples Tax Reward Sweepstakes. (staples.com)
  • If you don't have enough Avios for your chosen reward flight, or would like to save some for your next reward, you can reduce the Avios cost by paying an additional cash amount. (britishairways.com)
  • Wilset Pascual claims he provided information that led to the arrest and prosecution of the person who murdered Melissa Britt Lewis, but Rothstein Rosenfeldt Adler PA, and Crime Stoppers Council of Broward County didn't pay him the $251,000 reward they promised, in Broward County Court. (courthousenews.com)
  • The hatchery's friends group is offering a $1,500 reward for information leading to the arrest of the fish-kill perpetrators. (fws.gov)
  • A reward of up to $7,500 is being offered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and The Humane Society of the United States for information that leads to the arrest and conviction of the person(s) responsible for the killing. (fws.gov)
  • Authorities on Friday offered a $25,000 reward for information leading to the arrest and conviction of the person responsible for planting the device. (cnn.com)
  • A $22,000 reward was offered Thursday night for information leading to Labeet's arrest, O'Brien said. (cnn.com)
  • POPPET FLAT, Calif. (AP) - Authorities increased the reward to $500,000 yesterday for the arrest of the arsonist responsible for the deaths of four firefighters in the nation's worst such tragedy in five years. (washingtontimes.com)
  • The language used by the city offfered 'a reward for information leading to the arrest and conviction' of Dorner, according to CBS. (businessinsider.com)
  • The Nova Scotia Department of Justice announced Tuesday that it's offering a large reward for information leading to an arrest in a high-profile murder. (cbc.ca)
  • The department said it is offering a cash reward of up to $150,000 for information that leads to the arrest and conviction in the shooting death of Terry Marriott Jr., 34. (cbc.ca)
  • Hardy said she, her parents and two brothers have added $77,000 to the reward fund for information leading to an arrest and conviction in the case. (latimes.com)
  • Then visit your family leaderboard in Microsoft Rewards to give points. (microsoft.com)
  • You can also check out how many entries other participants have by visiting the WeddingWire Rewards leaderboard . (weddingwire.com)
  • Reward strategy concerns the design and implementation of reward policies and practices to support and advance organisational objectives. (cipd.co.uk)
  • Explore all you can do with AARP Rewards or just focus on whatever you want to get ahead of. (aarp.org)
  • Writing about the significance of the study, the authors say, "This is one of the first studies to employ a repeated measures imaging procedure to explore the diurnal rhythm of reward activation. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The value of reward points is determined by an exchange rate of both currency spent on products to points, and an exchange rate of points earned to currency for spending on future purchases. (packtpub.com)
  • If you're not eligible for Reward Flight Saver we'll show you the standard reward flight price instead. (britishairways.com)
  • Cabinet Secretaries of the Administration, Military Officers with a Rank of Brigadier General or higher, present or former Directors of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, Central Intelligence Agency, National Security Agency, United States Senators and United States Congressional Leaders are only those eligible to claim this reward. (prweb.com)
  • Risk and Reward gives an intimate and daring look through the lens of unrequited love and all its thrilling rewards. (google.com)
  • These statistical measurements highlight how to mitigate risk and increase rewards. (investopedia.com)
  • How do you choose a fund with an optimal risk-reward combination? (investopedia.com)
  • Do we apply the correct balance between risk and reward in a business environment? (timesofmalta.com)
  • So risk is zero and, presumably, the reward (represented by the social benefit) is high enough to incentivize them to lead the life they lead. (timesofmalta.com)
  • There are situations where the risk/reward concept is skewed heavily in favour of the reward side and others where it is skewed heavily against. (timesofmalta.com)
  • This is yet anther example of the risk/reward balance being heavily skewed against the reward side. (timesofmalta.com)
  • However, we do have the reverse situation, where the risk/reward balance is heavily skewed to the reward. (timesofmalta.com)
  • We are in this way sending a message that money can be made by tilting the balance between risk and reward. (timesofmalta.com)
  • We are sending a message that one can make money not by producing a good service but by fiddling the system such that the correct balance between risk and reward is lost. (timesofmalta.com)
  • Covered call writing can provide steady returns and, more importantly, define your risk and reward, allowing you to maintain opportunity. (futuresmag.com)
  • ISACA's global 2015 IT Risk/Reward Barometer looks at all of these questions and more. (isaca.org)
  • This follows on the heels of Marriott introducing PlusPoints in May, which allows members to earn Rewards points for "everyday social behaviors" such as tweets, retweets, checking in on Facebook and posting on Instagram. (usatoday.com)
  • Many hotel chains have over the years come up with new ways for guests to earn rewards. (usatoday.com)
  • Employee Reward: Alternatives, Consequences and Contexts. (lse.ac.uk)
  • Here you'll find information on strategic, total, international and executive reward, market pricing and job evaluation, how to get the most value out of rewards, reward management, pay, and risks. (cipd.co.uk)
  • What is Microsoft Rewards? (microsoft.com)
  • How do I join Microsoft Rewards? (microsoft.com)
  • To join Microsoft Rewards, all you need is a Microsoft account. (microsoft.com)
  • Where is Microsoft Rewards available? (microsoft.com)
  • Does Microsoft Rewards still work if I travel to another country? (microsoft.com)
  • What types of rewards can I earn with Microsoft Rewards? (microsoft.com)
  • Microsoft Rewards offers gift cards from third parties are available on a promotional basis. (microsoft.com)
  • What are Microsoft Rewards points worth? (microsoft.com)
  • Microsoft Rewards points have no cash value. (microsoft.com)
  • Where will I see information about my Microsoft Rewards account? (microsoft.com)
  • The Microsoft account page is the home of Microsoft Rewards. (microsoft.com)
  • It's easy to earn your way toward great Microsoft Rewards with Bing, just start searching. (microsoft.com)
  • What does the Microsoft Rewards Level 2 status get me? (microsoft.com)
  • If you have multiple Microsoft accounts, just be sure to sign in with the same account associated with your Microsoft Rewards account to earn points. (microsoft.com)
  • Are there age restrictions to participating in Microsoft Rewards? (microsoft.com)
  • How do I create a family so I can share my Microsoft Rewards points with them? (microsoft.com)
  • When is Microsoft Rewards coming to my country? (microsoft.com)
  • Get rewarded for doing what you love with Microsoft Rewards. (microsoft.com)
  • Level 2 members can earn five times more points on Bing, earn ten points per pound spent at the Microsoft Store, save up to 10% on reward redemptions, and get access to exclusive offers. (microsoft.com)
  • Parks said the city last offered a reward, for $10,000, in a homicide case six years ago, when bank teller Monica Leech, a 39-year-old mother of two, was handcuffed and executed during a takeover robbery. (latimes.com)
  • They are increasingly creating "total reward" packages, which encompass ever-broader benefits and development opportunities. (ey.com)
  • Only $10,000 of total reward money will be paid. (google.com)
  • Baccarat Series Powered by Total Rewards Finale Tournament - Duration: 61 seconds. (youtube.com)
  • play by Total Rewards: The App That Gets You More - Duration: 64 seconds. (youtube.com)
  • play by TR App: HOW TO SIGN UP FOR TOTAL REWARDS - Duration: 2 minutes, 35 seconds. (youtube.com)
  • play by TR App: HOW TO SET UP A TOTAL REWARDS ONLINE ACCOUNT - Duration: 2 minutes, 19 seconds. (youtube.com)
  • Assuming you've found reward accounts that you qualify for, the simplest way to compare them is to total up the monetary value of the rewards you'll receive, then subtract any costs associated with the account. (bankrate.com)
  • We respect and reward achievement and recognise the importance of a flexible total reward package. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Reporting to our Global Compensation/Total Rewards Partner, you will help design and deliver our compensation/total rewards offerings to the company. (oanda.com)
  • Participating in compensation/total rewards/wellbeing surveys to analyze competitive salary information and improve our compensation/total rewards/wellbeing programs. (oanda.com)
  • Conducting in-depth competitive analyses and modeling for total rewards programs, including salary increases, internal pay equity analysis, competitive assessments of market pay trends and budget impact. (oanda.com)
  • Running monthly/quarterly/annual total rewards reports/metrics for management reporting purposes as needed. (oanda.com)
  • Assist Global Total Rewards Partner in any other project/activity when requested. (oanda.com)
  • 10+ years of Total Rewards leadership experience at public, multinational high-tech companies, preferably with enterprise sales experience. (surveymonkey.com)
  • Many companies that offer rewards programs are missing out on key opportunities. (americanexpress.com)
  • I reserve the right to modify, terminate, or extend this offer, and further, I reserve the right to decline to pay a tipster any portion of the reward to the extent such person does not comply with the terms of this offer. (google.com)
  • CHICAGO - NATO and the United Nations should figure out some reward to offer to the Bosnian Serbs and Muslims if they make peace and learn tolerance. (chicagotribune.com)
  • The decision to offer the reward was not tied to a particular development in the investigation or elsewhere, Myerson said. (cnn.com)
  • For example, they can provide only healthy foods and beverages at celebrations and events and offer nonfood items for rewards. (cdc.gov)
  • Siegel said he decided to offer the bigger reward because of concern about the family. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • Byrne explains, "We found that activations in the left putamen, the reward center located at the base of the forebrain, were consistently lowest at the 2 p.m. measurement compared to the start and end of the day. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Emzar Kvitsiani (file photo) (InterPressNews) July 27, 2006 -- Georgian authorities are offering a $57,000 reward for information leading to the capture of the leader of a rebel militia in the Kodori Gorge, which straddles the breakaway region of Abkhazia and the rest of Georgia. (rferl.org)
  • With the reward, authorities hope to bring renewed attention to a case that, according to law enforcement officials, has gone cold. (cnn.com)
  • Trying to jump-start the investigation into the killing of Joan Rosenthal, authorities announced a $25,000 reward Tuesday for information leading to a conviction. (sfgate.com)
  • Episode 55: Reward experts from global organisations, Unilever and Oxfam, discuss how to create effective reward strategies when operating in a diverse range of markets and countries around the world. (cipd.co.uk)
  • A reward of up to $12,500 is being offered for information leading to a conviction of the person or persons responsible for shooting the eagle. (fws.gov)
  • The Humane Society of the United States, The Humane Society Wildlife Land Trust, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service are offering a reward of up to $7,500 for information leading to a conviction of the person or persons responsible for this unlawful act. (fws.gov)
  • A reward of up to $10,000 is being offered for information leading to a conviction of the person or persons responsible for wounding the eagle, including $5,000 by The Humane Society of the United States and the Humane Society Wildlife Land Trust. (fws.gov)
  • The reward is for the "safe return and/or conviction of a person or persons involved in this horrible crime. (go.com)
  • The family of a slain Los Angeles County sheriff's deputy announced Sunday--the first anniversary of the killing--that they have raised the reward for information leading to a conviction in the case to $100,000. (latimes.com)
  • We can help your business to understand what your workforce values most about its workplace and to develop balanced and attractive reward schemes, indexed against sector- and industry-specific reward arrangements and structures. (ey.com)
  • The Reward is a 1965 American Western film directed by Serge Bourguignon and starring Max von Sydow, Yvette Mimieux, Efrem Zimbalist Jr. and Gilbert Roland. (wikipedia.org)
  • Join DD Perks ® today to register your DD Card, get special deals, and earn points toward free beverage rewards. (dunkindonuts.com)
  • The Reward Points Program allows you to earn points for certain actions you take on the site. (packtpub.com)
  • Making purchases - every time you make a purchase you earn points based on the price of products purchased and these points are added to your Reward Points balance. (packtpub.com)
  • The option to use reward points, as well as your balance and the monetary equivalent this balance, will be shown to you in the Payment Method area of the checkout. (packtpub.com)
  • Redeemable reward points can be used in conjunction with other payment methods such as credit cards, gift cards and more. (packtpub.com)
  • Reward points may also be capped at the maximum value of points which can be accrued. (packtpub.com)
  • Reward points can be set to expire. (packtpub.com)
  • This option is found in the Reward Points section of the My Account area. (packtpub.com)
  • Go to the Rewards page to start earning points. (microsoft.com)
  • InterContinental Hotels Group Rewards Club members earn points for purchases in the hotel restaurant, gift shop, spa and other on-site venues. (usatoday.com)
  • Through Kimpton's Karma Rewards, guests won't necessarily earn points. (usatoday.com)
  • Score points every time you tackle an AARP Rewards activity. (aarp.org)
  • Heck, if you're an AARP member, you'll earn points 50% faster and score the rewards you want even sooner! (aarp.org)
  • In this edition of the Pitch Notes, we are going to be focusing on FUT Champions Rewards in FIFA 19 for Xbox One, PlayStation 4 and PC, and specifically the timing of when rewards will go out and a focus on the two biggest changes to those rewards in FIFA 19, FUT Champions Points and the new Player Picks. (ea.com)
  • We have previously detailed the changes to FUT Champions Weekend League qualification, due to the introduction of FUT Champions Points in FIFA 19, in the Pitch Notes articles for FUT Champions Weekend League and Division Rivals , but we wanted to focus on what players should expect when receiving FUT Champions Points as part of their FUT Champions Weekend League rewards. (ea.com)
  • When claiming FUT Champions Weekend League rewards, you will receive a number of FUT Champions Points based on your final rank. (ea.com)
  • You can, of course, choose to hold onto those Points in order to enter into the Weekend League in a different week, just note that you can't hold more than 2,000 FUT Champions Points at a time, so any Points that would be earned by playing Division Rivals matches, or gained from Division Rivals rewards, could be lost if you are already holding the maximum 2,000 Points. (ea.com)
  • Spin to win Samsung Rewards points when you make an in-game purchase⁴ on our featured games. (samsung.com)
  • ² From 11/2/20 - 12/31/20, Samsung Rewards members will receive 'double' Rewards Points (6 Samsung Rewards Points for each $1 spent) when they make purchases in the Samsung Galaxy Store or in-app purchases from those Apps downloaded from the Samsung Galaxy Store that use Samsung Checkout. (samsung.com)
  • Cash Back rewards are tracked as points and each $1 in Cash Back rewards earned is equal to 100 points. (chase.com)
  • You can book airfare, hotels and rental cars through Chase Ultimate Rewards ® using your J.P. Morgan Reserve ® card, your points, or a combination of both -- it's up to you. (chase.com)
  • 2 Your points don't expire as long as your account is open, however, you'll immediately lose all your points if your account is closed for program misuse, fraudulent activities, failure to pay, bankruptcy, or other reasons described in the terms of the Rewards Program Agreement. (chase.com)
  • Rewarding guests for their social media behavior takes it to another level and is a clear play for younger Millennial travelers who are traveling more. (usatoday.com)
  • Reward charts can be used to encourage behavior changes as well as to start having responsibilities. (wired.com)
  • Having a reward chart forces both parents and kids to be proactive about their responsibilities and behavior. (wired.com)
  • Food and beverages are sometimes part of classroom celebrations, parties, and special events or offered to students as rewards for academic achievement or positive classroom behavior. (cdc.gov)
  • Log into Chase Ultimate Rewards ® to access the Special Car Rental Privileges section of your Travel Benefits page to book with your card. (chase.com)
  • You'll be redirected to create a Microsoft account, but don't worry, after you're done you'll be taken right back to the Rewards page. (microsoft.com)
  • Just go to the Rewards tab to find information about your account and current offers. (microsoft.com)
  • Enter the reward current account. (bankrate.com)
  • How do I get the best reward current account? (bankrate.com)
  • Although there's a great deal of reward account choice, products are not universally suitable, and getting the right account for you requires consideration. (bankrate.com)
  • However, if you choose - for example - not to pay bills by direct debit you may find you don't qualify for account rewards. (bankrate.com)
  • How do I switch to a reward account? (bankrate.com)
  • Cash Back rewards do not expire as long as your account is open 1 . (chase.com)
  • WeddingWire Rewards is open to all U.S. residents who are registered WeddingWire account holders and engaged within two years of the entry period or married within the last year (365 days). (weddingwire.com)
  • Keep track of your WeddingWire Rewards entries by visiting the 'Rewards' page within your WeddingWire account. (weddingwire.com)
  • Block rewards, and to a lesser extent transaction fees, are their payment for doing so. (investopedia.com)
  • Rewarding Adherence Program (RAP) is an individual-level intervention delivered to HIV clinic patients in Kampala, Uganda, who are antiretroviral therapy experienced. (cdc.gov)
  • 1 See Rewards Program Rules and Regulations for details. (chase.com)
  • Cash Back rewards' are the rewards you earn under the program. (chase.com)
  • For complete details, see the Shop through Chase® Supplement to your Ultimate Rewards Program Agreement, which can be found by logging on to chase.com/ultimaterewards. (chase.com)
  • 1 See your Rewards Program Agreement for more details. (chase.com)
  • The reward is the latest addition to the Rewards for Major Unsolved Crimes Program. (cbc.ca)
  • Ultimately, the block reward is scheduled to reach zero around May 2140, but mining will likely no longer be profitable long before that date is reached. (investopedia.com)
  • A broken man finds forgiveness and ultimately the greatest reward. (imdb.com)
  • With Ethereum, the reward is a digital token called "ether," which are rewarded each time a miner succeeds in providing the mathematical proof of a new block. (investopedia.com)
  • If more than one person submits certain information which directly identifies the Driver or which leads to the Driver's identity without further information (an "Identifying Tip"), the reward shall go to the first person who submitted an Identifying Tip, as determined by the data time stamp at the time of submission to my online form at www.marcusalive.com . (google.com)
  • We have adjusted the time that we are aiming to distribute weekly rewards earned by playing the FUT Champions Weekend League. (ea.com)
  • Afternoon slumps, the study suggests, may occur at a specific time every day because the brain's putamen is expecting a reward around that time but does not get it. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • With your team based in different places, and maybe even different time zones, it's essential to design a reward that is personal and relevant. (uschamber.com)
  • Like most families, we are on a budget, so I didn't want to purchase the most expensive reward chart I could find. (wired.com)
  • Part of this relationship involves providing cash rewards for quality security research that identifies security vulnerabilities in products that we provide or proactive security improvements to select open-source products. (google.ca)
  • Provide ongoing mentorship, training and development to the rewards team (currently 3 members strong). (surveymonkey.com)
  • Once top performers have been identified, employers must make sure to provide adequate rewards. (shrm.org)
  • Rewards provide an easy way to make sure hard work gets noticed. (uschamber.com)