An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.
The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.
Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.
Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.
The ability to foresee what is likely to happen on the basis of past experience. It is largely a frontal lobe function.
Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.
Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
The strengthening of a conditioned response.
Stimulation of the brain, which is self-administered. The stimulation may result in negative or positive reinforcement.
The application of an unpleasant stimulus or penalty for the purpose of eliminating or correcting undesirable behavior.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.
Usually refers to the use of mathematical models in the prediction of learning to perform tasks based on the theory of probability applied to responses; it may also refer to the frequency of occurrence of the responses observed in the particular study.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.
A region in the MESENCEPHALON which is dorsomedial to the SUBSTANTIA NIGRA and ventral to the RED NUCLEUS. The mesocortical and mesolimbic dopaminergic systems originate here, including an important projection to the NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS. Overactivity of the cells in this area has been suspected to contribute to the positive symptoms of SCHIZOPHRENIA.
A mechanism of information stimulus and response that may control subsequent behavior, cognition, perception, or performance. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)
Learning that takes place when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.
A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.
A state of internal activity of an organism that is a necessary condition before a given stimulus will elicit a class of responses; e.g., a certain level of hunger (drive) must be present before food will elicit an eating response.
The principle that items experienced together enter into a connection, so that one tends to reinstate the other.
An activity distinguished primarily by an element of risk in trying to obtain a desired goal, e.g., playing a game of chance for money.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.
The selection of one food over another.
Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.
Games designed to provide information on hypotheses, policies, procedures, or strategies.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Inability to experience pleasure due to impairment or dysfunction of normal psychological and neurobiological mechanisms. It is a symptom of many PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS (e.g., DEPRESSIVE DISORDER, MAJOR; and SCHIZOPHRENIA).
Animal searching behavior. The variable introductory phase of an instinctive behavior pattern or sequence, e.g., looking for food, or sequential courtship patterns prior to mating.
A set of forebrain structures common to all mammals that is defined functionally and anatomically. It is implicated in the higher integration of visceral, olfactory, and somatic information as well as homeostatic responses including fundamental survival behaviors (feeding, mating, emotion). For most authors, it includes the AMYGDALA; EPITHALAMUS; GYRUS CINGULI; hippocampal formation (see HIPPOCAMPUS); HYPOTHALAMUS; PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS; SEPTAL NUCLEI; anterior nuclear group of thalamus, and portions of the basal ganglia. (Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p744; NeuroNames, (September 2, 1998)).
The combined discipline of psychology and economics that investigates what happens in markets in which some of the agents display human limitations and complications.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
Drugs that block the transport of DOPAMINE into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. Most of the ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS also inhibit dopamine uptake.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
Sensation of enjoyment or gratification.
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.
Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.
Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.
Learning that is manifested in the ability to respond differentially to various stimuli.
The middle of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain. Without further subdivision, midbrain develops into a short, constricted portion connecting the PONS and the DIENCEPHALON. Midbrain contains two major parts, the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI and the ventral TEGMENTUM MESENCEPHALI, housing components of auditory, visual, and other sensorimoter systems.
The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.
The end-result or objective, which may be specified or required in advance.
A thioxanthene neuroleptic that, unlike CHLORPROMAZINE, is claimed to have CNS-activating properties. It is used in the treatment of psychoses although not in excited or manic patients. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p595)
Sugar-rich liquid produced in plant glands called nectaries. It is either produced in flowers or other plant structures, providing a source of attraction for pollinating insects and animals, as well as being a nutrient source to animal mutualists which provide protection of plants against herbivores.
Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.
Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.
Methods for visualizing REGIONAL BLOOD FLOW, metabolic, electrical, or other physiological activities in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM using various imaging modalities.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate DOPAMINE RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of dopamine or exogenous agonists. Many drugs used in the treatment of psychotic disorders (ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) are dopamine antagonists, although their therapeutic effects may be due to long-term adjustments of the brain rather than to the acute effects of blocking dopamine receptors. Dopamine antagonists have been used for several other clinical purposes including as ANTIEMETICS, in the treatment of Tourette syndrome, and for hiccup. Dopamine receptor blockade is associated with NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME.
Differential response to different stimuli.
Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.
Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.
The phylogenetically newer part of the CORPUS STRIATUM consisting of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and PUTAMEN. It is often called simply the striatum.
Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is DOPAMINE.
A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D2-class receptor genes contain INTRONS, and the receptors inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
The procedure of presenting the conditioned stimulus without REINFORCEMENT to an organism previously conditioned. It refers also to the diminution of a conditioned response resulting from this procedure.
The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.
The behavior of performing an act persistently and repetitively without it leading to reward or pleasure. The act is usually a small, circumscribed behavior, almost ritualistic, yet not pathologically disturbing. Examples of compulsive behavior include twirling of hair, checking something constantly, not wanting pennies in change, straightening tilted pictures, etc.
Any situation where an animal or human is trained to respond differentially to two stimuli (e.g., approach and avoidance) under reward and punishment conditions and subsequently trained under reversed reward values (i.e., the approach which was previously rewarded is punished and vice versa).
Substances that sweeten food, beverages, medications, etc., such as sugar, saccharine or other low-calorie synthetic products. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A complex group of fibers arising from the basal olfactory regions, the periamygdaloid region, and the septal nuclei, and passing to the lateral hypothalamus. Some fibers continue into the tegmentum.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A powerful central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic. Amphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulation of release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. Amphetamine is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic. The l- and the d,l-forms are included here. The l-form has less central nervous system activity but stronger cardiovascular effects. The d-form is DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.
Flavoring agent and non-nutritive sweetener.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.

Cladistic association analysis of Y chromosome effects on alcohol dependence and related personality traits. (1/3403)

Association between Y chromosome haplotype variation and alcohol dependence and related personality traits was investigated in a large sample of psychiatrically diagnosed Finnish males. Haplotypes were constructed for 359 individuals using alleles at eight loci (seven microsatellite loci and a nucleotide substitution in the DYZ3 alphoid satellite locus). A cladogram linking the 102 observed haplotype configurations was constructed by using parsimony with a single-step mutation model. Then, a series of contingency tables nested according to the cladogram hierarchy were used to test for association between Y haplotype and alcohol dependence. Finally, using only alcohol-dependent subjects, we tested for association between Y haplotype and personality variables postulated to define subtypes of alcoholism-antisocial personality disorder, novelty seeking, harm avoidance, and reward dependence. Significant association with alcohol dependence was observed at three Y haplotype clades, with significance levels of P = 0.002, P = 0.020, and P = 0.010. Within alcohol-dependent subjects, no relationship was revealed between Y haplotype and antisocial personality disorder, novelty seeking, harm avoidance, or reward dependence. These results demonstrate, by using a fully objective association design, that differences among Y chromosomes contribute to variation in vulnerability to alcohol dependence. However, they do not demonstrate an association between Y haplotype and the personality variables thought to underlie the subtypes of alcoholism.  (+info)

An analysis of choice making in the assessment of young children with severe behavior problems. (2/3403)

We examined how positive and negative reinforcement influenced time allocation, occurrence of problem behavior, and completion of parent instructions during a concurrent choice assessment with 2 preschool-aged children who displayed severe problem behavior in their homes. The children were given a series of concurrent choice options that varied availability of parent attention, access to preferred toys, and presentation of parent instructions. The results showed that both children consistently allocated their time to choice areas that included parent attention when no instructions were presented. When parent attention choice areas included the presentation of instructions, the children displayed differential patterns of behavior that appeared to be influenced by the presence or absence of preferred toys. The results extended previous applications of reinforcer assessment procedures by analyzing the relative influence of both positive and negative reinforcement within a concurrent-operants paradigm.  (+info)

Delay or probability discounting in a model of impulsive behavior: effect of alcohol. (3/3403)

Little is known about the acute effects of drugs of abuse on impulsivity and self-control. In this study, impulsivity was assessed in humans using a computer task that measured delay and probability discounting. Discounting describes how much the value of a reward (or punisher) is decreased when its occurrence is either delayed or uncertain. Twenty-four healthy adult volunteers ingested a moderate dose of ethanol (0.5 or 0.8 g/kg ethanol: n = 12 at each dose) or placebo before completing the discounting task. In the task the participants were given a series of choices between a small, immediate, certain amount of money and $10 that was either delayed (0, 2, 30, 180, or 365 days) or probabilistic (i.e., certainty of receipt was 1.0, .9, .75, .5, or .25). The point at which each individual was indifferent between the smaller immediate or certain reward and the $10 delayed or probabilistic reward was identified using an adjusting-amount procedure. The results indicated that (a) delay and probability discounting were well described by a hyperbolic function; (b) delay and probability discounting were positively correlated within subjects; (c) delay and probability discounting were moderately correlated with personality measures of impulsivity; and (d) alcohol had no effect on discounting.  (+info)

Sodium depletion and aldosterone decrease dopamine transporter activity in nucleus accumbens but not striatum. (4/3403)

Motivated behaviors, including sodium (Na) appetite, are correlated with increased dopamine (DA) transmission in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). DA transporter (DAT) modulation affects DA transmission and may play a role in motivated behaviors. In vivo Na depletion, which reliably induces Na appetite, was correlated with robust decreases in DA uptake via the DAT in the rat NAc with rotating disk electrode voltammetry [1,277 +/- 162 vs. 575 +/- 89 pmol. s-1. g-1; Vmax of transport for control vs. Na-depleted tissue]. Plasma aldosterone (Aldo) levels increase after in vivo Na depletion and contribute to Na appetite. Decreased DAT activity in the NAc was observed after in vitro Aldo treatment (428 +/- 28 vs. 300 +/- 25 pmol. s-1. g-1). Neither treatment affected DAT activity in the striatum. These results suggest that a direct action of Aldo is one possible mechanism by which Na depletion induces a reduction in DAT activity in the NAc. Reduced DAT activity may play a role in generating increased NAc DA transmission during Na appetite, which may underlie the motivating properties of Na for the Na-depleted rat.  (+info)

Dopamine fluctuations in the nucleus accumbens during maintenance, extinction, and reinstatement of intravenous D-amphetamine self-administration. (5/3403)

Moment-to-moment fluctuations of nucleus accumbens dopamine (DA) were determined in rats self-administering or passively receiving "yoked" intravenous infusions of D-amphetamine. The initial lever presses of each session caused elevations in DA concentration, usually to an initial peak that was not maintained throughout the rest of the session. As the initial ("loading") injections were metabolized, DA levels dropped toward baseline but were sustained at elevated plateaus by subsequent lever pressing that was spaced throughout the remainder of the 3 hr sessions. During this period, DA levels fluctuated phasically, time-locked to the cycle of periodic lever pressing. Consistent with the known pharmacological actions and dynamics of amphetamine, peak DA elevations were seen approximately 10-15 min after each injection, and the mean DA level was at a low point in the phasic cycle at the time of each new lever press. During extinction periods when saline was substituted for amphetamine, DA levels dropped steadily toward baseline levels despite a dramatic increase in (now-unrewarded) lever pressing. Noncontingent injections during extinction reinstated lever-pressing behavior and increased nucleus accumbens DA concentrations. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that under the conditions of this experiment-during periods of amphetamine intoxication in well-trained animals-the timing of amphetamine self-administration comes primarily under the control of extracellular DA concentrations. The probability of lever pressing during the maintenance phase is highest when DA concentrations fall near a characteristic trigger point, a trigger point that is significantly elevated above baseline, and falls as DA concentrations fall below or increase above that trigger point.  (+info)

Enhancement of locomotor activity and conditioned reward to cocaine by brain-derived neurotrophic factor. (6/3403)

The mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system has been implicated in drug reward, locomotor sensitization, and responding for reward-related stimuli [termed conditioned reinforcers (CR)]. Here, we investigated the effect of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which enhances the survival and function of dopaminergic neurons, on stimulant-induced locomotor sensitization and responding for CR. In experiment 1, BDNF was infused into the nucleus accumbens (NAc) or ventral tegmental area over 2 weeks via chronically implanted minipumps (1-2.5 microgram/d), and the psychomotor stimulant effects of cocaine (5-15 mg/kg, i.p.) were studied. We found that BDNF enhanced the initial stimulant effects of cocaine and seemed to facilitate the development of sensitization to repeated cocaine doses. In experiment 2, we studied the effects of intra-NAc BDNF infusions on responding for CR. BDNF-treated rats showed twice as many CR responses compared with controls when saline was first administered. BDNF enhanced responding on the CR lever more than four times that seen in control animals after a cocaine injection (10 mg/kg, i.p.). The enhanced response to cocaine in BDNF-treated animals persisted for more than a month after the BDNF infusions had stopped, indicating long-lasting changes in the mesolimbic DA system caused by BDNF administration. In experiment 3, we examined locomotor sensitization to cocaine in heterozygous BDNF knock-out mice and found that the development of sensitization was delayed compared with wild-type littermates. These results demonstrate the profound effects of BDNF on the enhancement of both cocaine-induced locomotion and facilitation of CR and suggest a possible role for BDNF in long-term adaptations of the brain to cocaine.  (+info)

High effort, low reward, and cardiovascular risk factors in employed Swedish men and women: baseline results from the WOLF Study. (7/3403)

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To examine associations between measures of work stress (that is, the combination of high effort and low reward) and cardiovascular risk factors. DESIGN: Cross sectional first screening of a prospective cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: The study was conducted among 5720 healthy employed men and women living in the greater Stockholm area aged 19-70 years. All analyses were restricted to subjects with complete data (n = 4958). The investigation of associations between indicators of effort-reward imbalance and cardiovascular risk factors was restricted to the age group 30-55 years (n = 3427). MAIN RESULTS: Subjects reporting high effort and low reward at work had a higher prevalence of well known risk factors for coronary heart disease. After adjustment for relevant confounders, associations between a measure of extrinsic effort and reward (the effort-reward ratio) and hypertension (multivariate prevalence odds ratio (POR) 1.62-1.68), increased total cholesterol (upper tertile 220 mg/dl)(POR = 1.24) and the total cholesterol/high density lipoprotein(HDL)-cholesterol ratio (upper tertile 4.61)(POR 1.26-1.30) were found among men. Among women a measure of high intrinsic effort (immersion) was related to increased low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol (upper tertile 130 mg/dl)(POR 1.37-1.39). Analyses of variance showed increasing mean values of LDL cholesterol with an increasing degree of the effort-reward ratio among men and increased LDL-cholesterol among women with high levels of intrinsic effort (upper tertile of immersion). CONCLUSIONS: Findings lend support to the hypothesis that effort-reward imbalance represents a specific constellation of stressful experience at work related to cardiovascular risk. The relation was not explained by relevant confounders (for example, lack of physical exercise, body weight, cigarette smoking).  (+info)

Muscimol-induced inactivation of monkey frontal eye field: effects on visually and memory-guided saccades. (8/3403)

Muscimol-induced inactivation of the monkey frontal eye field: effects on visually and memory-guided saccades. Although neurophysiological, anatomic, and imaging evidence suggest that the frontal eye field (FEF) participates in the generation of eye movements, chronic lesions of the FEF in both humans and monkeys appear to cause only minor deficits in visually guided saccade generation. Stronger effects are observed when subjects are tested in tasks with more cognitive requirements. We tested oculomotor function after acutely inactivating regions of the FEF to minimize the effects of plasticity and reallocation of function after the loss of the FEF and gain more insight into the FEF contribution to the guidance of eye movements in the intact brain. Inactivation was induced by microinjecting muscimol directly into physiologically defined sites in the FEF of three monkeys. FEF inactivation severely impaired the monkeys' performance of both visually guided and memory-guided saccades. The monkeys initiated fewer saccades to the retinotopic representation of the inactivated FEF site than to any other location in the visual field. The saccades that were initiated had longer latencies, slower velocities, and larger targeting errors than controls. These effects were present both for visually guided and for memory-guided saccades, although the memory-guided saccades were more disrupted. Initially, the effects were restricted spatially, concentrating around the retinotopic representation at the center of the inactivated site, but, during the course of several hours, these effects spread to flanking representations. Predictability of target location and motivation of the monkey also affected saccadic performance. For memory-guided saccades, increases in the time during which the monkey had to remember the spatial location of a target resulted in further decreases in the accuracy of the saccades and in smaller peak velocities, suggesting a progressive loss of the capacity to maintain a representation of target location in relation to the fovea after FEF inactivation. In addition, the monkeys frequently made premature saccades to targets in the hemifield ipsilateral to the injection site when performing the memory task, indicating a deficit in the control of fixation that could be a consequence of an imbalance between ipsilateral and contralateral FEF activity after the injection. There was also a progressive loss of fixation accuracy, and the monkeys tended to restrict spontaneous visual scanning to the ipsilateral hemifield. These results emphasize the strong role of the FEF in the intact monkey in the generation of all voluntary saccadic eye movements, as well as in the control of fixation.  (+info)

Gambling can also be considered a behavioral addiction, as some individuals may become so consumed by the activity that they neglect other aspects of their lives, experience financial problems, and exhibit other signs of addiction. In this context, gambling is often classified as an impulse control disorder or a substance use disorder.

In the medical field, gambling can have various effects on an individual's physical and mental health, such as:

1. Financial problems: Gambling can lead to significant financial losses, which can cause stress, anxiety, and depression.
2. Sleep disturbances: Engaging in gambling activities at night or experiencing the excitement of winning can disrupt sleep patterns and lead to insomnia or other sleep disorders.
3. Substance abuse: Gambling can sometimes be accompanied by substance abuse, as individuals may turn to drugs or alcohol to cope with their gambling problems or to enhance their gambling experience.
4. Mood disorders: Gambling can contribute to the development of mood disorders such as depression, anxiety, and bipolar disorder.
5. Suicidal ideation: In extreme cases, individuals struggling with gambling addiction may experience suicidal thoughts or attempts.
6. Social problems: Gambling can strain relationships with family and friends, leading to social isolation and loneliness.
7. Physical health problems: Chronic stress and anxiety associated with gambling can contribute to various physical health problems, such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and musculoskeletal problems.
8. Cognitive impairment: Compulsive gambling can affect cognitive functioning, including attention, memory, and decision-making abilities.
9. Family dynamics: Gambling can have a significant impact on family dynamics, leading to conflicts, divorce, and financial hardship.
10. Financial consequences: Gambling can lead to significant financial problems, including debt, bankruptcy, and even criminal activity.

It's important to note that not all individuals who experience these problems will develop a gambling disorder, and that other factors such as genetics, family history, and environmental factors can contribute to the development of gambling addiction.

Anhedonia can manifest in different ways, depending on the individual and their specific condition. Some common examples include:

* Loss of interest in activities that were once enjoyed, such as hobbies or socializing
* Difficulty experiencing pleasure from activities that are normally enjoyable, such as eating or sexual activity
* Feeling emotionally flat or numb, even in response to positive events or experiences
* Difficulty finding joy or happiness in life, even in response to positive events or experiences.

Anhedonia can be caused by a wide range of factors, including:

* Depression and other mood disorders
* Schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders
* Neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and multiple sclerosis
* Chronic pain and other conditions that can affect the brain's reward system
* Substance abuse and addiction
* Sleep disorders
* Nutritional deficiencies, such as a lack of vitamin B12 or iron.

There are several ways to diagnose anhedonia, including:

* Clinical interview: A healthcare professional will ask questions about the patient's symptoms and medical history to determine if they are experiencing anhedonia.
* Physical examination: The healthcare professional may also perform a physical examination to rule out any underlying medical conditions that could be causing the anhedonia.
* Psychological assessments: The healthcare professional may use standardized tests to assess the patient's mood and emotional state, such as the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression or the Beck Depression Inventory.

There are several treatment options for anhedonia, depending on the underlying cause. These may include:

* Medications: Antidepressants, antipsychotics, and mood stabilizers can be effective in treating anhedonia caused by depression and other mental health conditions.
* Psychotherapy: Talk therapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), can help patients identify and change negative thought patterns and behaviors that contribute to anhedonia.
* Lifestyle changes: Making healthy lifestyle changes, such as regular exercise, getting enough sleep, and eating a balanced diet, can help improve mood and reduce anhedonia.

It is important to seek medical attention if you or someone you know is experiencing symptoms of anhedonia, as early diagnosis and treatment can improve the chances of successful treatment.

* Anxiety
* Depression
* Fatigue
* Insomnia
* Muscle and bone pain
* Nausea and vomiting
* Seizures (in severe cases)
* Sweating
* Tremors

The specific symptoms of substance withdrawal syndrome can vary depending on the substance being withdrawn from, but some common symptoms include:

* Alcohol: tremors, anxiety, insomnia, nausea and vomiting, headaches, and seizures
* Opioids: withdrawal symptoms can include anxiety, muscle aches, sweating, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, and depression
* Benzodiazepines: withdrawal symptoms can include anxiety, insomnia, tremors, and seizures

The diagnosis of substance withdrawal syndrome is typically made based on the patient's history of substance use and the presence of withdrawal symptoms. A healthcare provider may also order laboratory tests to rule out other conditions that may be causing the symptoms. Treatment for substance withdrawal syndrome usually involves supportive care, such as rest, hydration, and pain management, as well as medication to manage withdrawal symptoms. In some cases, medical professionals may also recommend a gradual tapering of the substance over a period of time to minimize withdrawal symptoms.

It is important for individuals who are experiencing withdrawal symptoms to seek medical attention as soon as possible, as untreated withdrawal can lead to serious complications, such as seizures and dehydration. With appropriate treatment, most individuals with substance withdrawal syndrome can recover fully and successfully overcome their addiction.

1. Cocaine dependence: This is a condition in which an individual becomes psychologically and physiologically dependent on cocaine, and experiences withdrawal symptoms when they stop using the drug.
2. Cocaine intoxication: This is a state of altered consciousness that can occur when an individual takes too much cocaine, and can cause symptoms such as agitation, confusion, and hallucinations.
3. Cocaine-induced psychosis: This is a condition in which an individual experiences a break from reality, characterized by delusions, hallucinations, and disorganized thinking.
4. Cocaine-associated cardiovascular problems: Cocaine use can increase heart rate and blood pressure, and can cause damage to the heart and blood vessels.
5. Cocaine-associated respiratory problems: Cocaine use can constrict the airways and make breathing more difficult, which can lead to respiratory failure.
6. Cocaine-associated neurological problems: Cocaine use can cause nerve damage and seizures, particularly in individuals who use the drug frequently or in large quantities.
7. Cocaine withdrawal syndrome: This is a set of symptoms that can occur when an individual stops using cocaine, including depression, anxiety, and fatigue.
8. Cocaine-related anxiety disorders: Cocaine use can exacerbate anxiety disorders such as generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and social anxiety disorder.
9. Cocaine-related mood disorders: Cocaine use can also exacerbate mood disorders such as depression and bipolar disorder.
10. Cocaine-related cognitive impairment: Chronic cocaine use can impair cognitive function, particularly in areas such as attention, memory, and decision-making.

It is important to note that the effects of cocaine can vary depending on the individual, the dose and frequency of use, and other factors such as the method of administration and any underlying medical conditions. If you or someone you know is struggling with cocaine addiction, it is important to seek professional help as soon as possible.

... reward), a reward, often money, which is offered as an incentive Cashback reward program, an incentive program Reward website, ... Look up reward in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Reward may refer to: Reward (Shelltown, Maryland), a historic home in ... "Reward" (song), a 1981 song by The Teardrop Explodes The Reward (opera), an 1815 opera by Karol Kurpiński The Reward, a 1965 ... the form of motivational salience which is associated with rewards Reward dependence, a personality trait in psychology Reward ...
... at IMDb The Reward at the TCM Movie Database The Reward at AllMovie The Reward at the American Film Institute ... List of American films of 1965 "The Reward". Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved March 3, 2016. "The Reward". September 24, 1965. ... but Lopez-learning of the reward shortly after Bryant's apprehension-now wants a percentage of the reward for his efforts. And ... The Reward is a 1965 American Western film directed by Serge Bourguignon and starring Max von Sydow, Yvette Mimieux, Efrem ...
... ". Archived from the original on 2015-09-10. Retrieved 24 August 2014. $1,000 Reward at IMDb v t e ... 1,000 Reward is a 1915 American short silent drama film, directed by Jack Harvey for the Thanhouser Company. It stars Madeline ...
Reward is the fifth studio album by Welsh musician Cate Le Bon, released on 24 May 2019 by Mexican Summer. Reward dives into " ... "Reward by Cate Le Bon Reviews and Tracks". Metacritic. Retrieved 3 August 2019. Thomas, Fred. "Reward - Cate Le Bon". AllMusic ... Mohammed, Jenna (21 May 2019). "Cate Le Bon: Reward". Exclaim!. Retrieved 3 August 2019. "Reward by Cate Le Bon reviews". ... Martin, Piers (June 2019). "Cate Le Bon: Reward". Uncut (265): 30. Reward (CD booklet). Cate Le Bon. Mexican Summer. 2019.{{ ...
"Daredevil's Reward". Retrieved October 20, 2015. Daredevil's Reward at IMDb Synopsis at AllMovie v t e v t e (Articles ... "Daredevil's Reward (1928) - Overview". Retrieved October 20, 2015. Hans J. Wollstein (2016). "Daredevil-s-Reward - ... Daredevil's Reward is a 1928 American silent Western film directed by Eugene Forde and written by John Stone. The film stars ...
... was bred and raced by Mrs. Louis Lazare, who owned his dam, Smart Sheila. Louis Lazare was president and major ... Sheilas Reward was trained by Eugene Jacobs who guided the three-year-old to wins in the 1950 Select and Interborough Handicaps ... Sheilas Reward (foaled 1947 in Kentucky) was an American Thoroughbred Champion racehorse who was voted the American Champion ... He was sired by multiple stakes winner Reaping Reward and out of the mare Smart Sheila, a daughter of 1930 American Champion ...
... (1924), retrieved June 2, 2019 50,000 Dollar Reward (1925), retrieved June 2, 2019 $50,000 Reward at IMDb ( ... 50,000 Reward is a 1924 American silent Western film directed by Clifford S. Elfelt and starring Ken Maynard, Esther Ralston ... Instead, he offers a $50,000 reward for his capture. The film is set in western Montana in the 1920s during a time when men ... I've offered Buck and his gang $50,000 reward to get those documents." We then see a man reply, he is Eli Higgins, Holman's ...
However, These three pillars of reward only apply to one kind of reward, extrinsic reward. Extrinsic rewards: concrete rewards ... total reward, minimum wage, executive pay and team reward. Reward management is a popular management topic. Reward management ... Reward management aims to create and efficiently operate a reward structure for an organisation. Reward structure usually ... A method of applying a complete reward strategy is by pairing the use of extrinsic rewards with that of intrinsic rewards. ...
Blodgett Blondie's Reward at IMDb Blondie's Reward at AllMovie Blondie's Reward at the TCM Movie Database Blondie's Reward at ... Blondie's Reward is a 1948 American comedy film directed by Abby Berlin and starring Penny Singleton, Arthur Lake, Larry Simms ...
... at IMDb £500 Reward at National Film and Sound Archive (CS1: Julian-Gregorian uncertainty, Articles with short ... 500 Reward is a 1918 Australian silent film starring, written, produced, financed and directed by Claude Flemming who later ... LOCAL PHOTO-PLAY-"£500 REWARD."". The Sydney Morning Herald. 29 October 1918. p. 8. Retrieved 5 January 2012 - via National ...
Returned to the East Coast, in August 1959 the four-year-old Jewel's Reward came down with colic and died on September 16 in ... Jewel's Reward (March 10, 1955 - September 16, 1959) was a Thoroughbred Champion racehorse. He was voted the American Champion ... Owned by the Maine Chance Farm of "Cosmetics Queen" Elizabeth Arden, Jewel's Reward was trained by National Museum of Racing ... Later that year, Jewel's Reward was sent to race in California, where he was trained by Bill Molter. ...
She offered a reward of £15 to anyone who gave information about the robber. The reward was received by Mr. Holder, after he ... Private parties were also free to offer rewards in addition to rewards by proclamations, then this practice was taken up by ... Supplementary reward was part of the administration of the law for six years, then with the death of George I, it came to an ... Written promises of reward for the capture of or information regarding criminals go back to at least the first-century Roman ...
... is a loyalty program operated by Norwegian Air Shuttle. The program launched in 2007 and has over 10 million ... Norwegian's loyalty programme reaches 10 million members Norwegian Reward Named Program of the Year Europe & Africa at 2018 ... Norwegian Reward v t e (CS1 maint: url-status, Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, ... members (2019). In 2017, 2018, 2019 and 2020, Norwegian Reward won the Freddie Award for 'Best Loyalty Program in Europe / ...
Pavlov used the reward system by rewarding dogs with food after they had heard a bell or another stimulus. Pavlov was rewarding ... Extrinsic rewards (e.g., money) are rewarding as a result of a learned association with an intrinsic reward. In other words, ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Reward system. Scholarpedia Reward Scholarpedia Reward signals Portals: Psychology ... higher order rewards, as attaining their reward properties does not require pairing with an unconditioned reward. ... These ...
A reward website is a website that offers rewards for performing tasks, usually related to selected retailers and organisations ... These are usually less simple, since the reward website will usually only display the reward for performing a task in terms of ... These are usually the simplest reward websites from the user's perspective, since the reward website will usually display a ... Share rewards websites allow customers, on becoming a member of the site, to become a shareholder in the website or a company ...
... is a 1927 American silent drama film directed by Bertram Bracken and starring Alan Roscoe, Eva Novak and Lou ... Duty's Reward at IMDb v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, IMDb ID not in Wikidata, 1927 ...
... is characterized as a tendency to respond markedly to signals of reward, particularly to verbal signals of ... High reward dependence is characterized by learning from reward signals, persisting repetition of actions that are associated ... Adolescents low in reward dependence may find conventional sources of reward unfulfilling (e.g., academic achievement or ... People who have high reward dependent personalities but find themselves in situations where they are unable to find rewards and ...
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Reward Unlimited. Reward Unlimited at IMDb (Articles with short description, Short ... Reward Unlimited is a short film produced in 1944 by David O. Selznick's Vanguard Films, for the United States Public Health ... Reward Unlimited was released May 18, 1944. Distributed by the United States Office of War Information, the film was exhibited ... Reward Unlimited', a U.S. government release. "Cadet Nurses to Entertain". Albuquerque Journal. May 3, 1945. Fujiwara, Chris ( ...
Reward Reward is a hamlet in Saskatchewan within the rural municipality of Grass Lake No. 381. It is located 26 km (16 miles) ... "The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan (Our Lady of the Holy Rosary, Reward, 1932)". Retrieved 2012-12-08. "Shrine Reward: Holy ... 3 km south of Reward on Grid 675 is the site of the Shrine of the Holy Rosary. The site has been the location of an annual ... "Tourism Saskatchewan(Our Lady of the Holy Rosary, Reward, 1932)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-03-26. ...
... may refer to: Reward, Inyo County, California Reward, Kern County, California This disambiguation page lists ...
... (1908)". Screenonline. BFI. Retrieved 9 April 2012. £100 Reward at IMDb v t e (Use dmy dates from June 2016, Use ... 100 Reward is a 1908 British short silent film directed by James Williamson. A poor family, suffering from a lack of food, plan ... These turn out to be stolen, and the family are given a £100 reward. "£ ...
"Reward" is a song by English band the Teardrop Explodes. It was released as a single in early 1981 and is the band's biggest ... "The Teardrop Explodes - "Reward" Peak Position". Official Charts Company. "The Irish Charts - All there is to know". Dave ... "Reward" was however added to later pressings of the album from 1981. The song's creation started with Alan Gill who suggested a ... Simpson (3 March 2015), "The Teardrop Explodes: how we made Reward", The Guardian v t e (Articles with short description, Short ...
Reward is compilation EP from drum and bass artist Photek. It combines tracks from his previous EPs The Hidden Camera and Ni- ... Reward - Photek , Songs, Reviews, Credits". AllMusic. 1997-09-09. Retrieved 2016-07-21. Roberts, David (2006). British Hit ...
Reward, also known as Williams Point Farm, is a historic home located at Shelltown, Somerset County, Maryland, United States. ... Reward, Somerset County, including undated photo, at Maryland Historical Trust v t e (Articles using NRISref without a ... Reward was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1974. "National Register Information System". National ... Ann Hill and Lois Snyderman (November 1973). "National Register of Historic Places Registration: Reward" (PDF). Maryland ...
The cumulative reward can be computed as a sum of the individual reward and the reward, inherited from parents. Reward-based ... otherwise the reward is zero. Several reward definitions are possible: 1. r ( g ) = 1 {\displaystyle r^{(g)}=1} , if the ... Reward-based selection can quickly identify the most fruitful directions of search by maximizing the cumulative reward of ... Reward-based selection is a technique used in evolutionary algorithms for selecting potentially useful solutions for ...
Wikimedia Commons has media related to The $1,000,000 Reward. The $1,000,000 Reward at IMDb v t e (Articles with short ... The $1,000,000 Reward is a 1920 American drama film serial directed by George Lessey and produced by Harry Grossman. This is ...
... ". Retrieved February 22, 2008. The Great Reward at IMDb Synopsis at AllMovie v t e (Articles ... The Great Reward is a 1921 American drama film serial directed by and starring Francis Ford. The film is considered to be lost ... of Doom Burning Sands The Thunderbolt Cross Fires Forgotten Halls On the Brink At Bay The Silent Hour High Treason The Reward ...
... is the fourth studio album by English electronic music band Depeche Mode, released on 24 September 1984 by ... Some Great Reward (liner notes). Depeche Mode. Mute Records. 1984. CD STUMM 19.{{cite AV media notes}}: CS1 maint: others in ... The Depeche Mode clicks." German DJ Paul van Dyk cited Some Great Reward as his all-time favourite album, stating it is "one of ... Some Great Reward at Discogs (list of releases) Album information from the official Depeche Mode website Official remaster info ...
The Markov Reward Model Checker tool can be used to numerically compute transient and stationary properties of Markov reward ... Features of interest in the model include expected reward at a given time and expected time to accumulate a given reward. The ... In probability theory, a Markov reward model or Markov reward process is a stochastic process which extends either a Markov ... See Markov Chain See Markov chain Monte Carlo The accumulated reward at a time t can be computed numerically over the time ...
The Reward Work Act of 2018 (S.2605 and HR 6096) is a proposed United States Act of Congress to ban unjustified stock buy-backs ... Text of proposed Reward Work Act (Proposed legislation of the 115th United States Congress, Labour law, United States labor law ...
Our community rewards program makes it easy. Learn more about Kroger Community Rewards. ... Kroger Community RewardsHonoring Our HeroesSustainabilityRequest a Donation. COMMUNITY. Kroger Community RewardsHonoring Our ... One of the ways in which we do this is through our Kroger Community Rewards program. This program makes fundraising easy by ... Your selected organization will also display in the Kroger Community Rewards section of your account. If you need to review or ...
The group has met three times and established a working link with the WIHEA Teaching Recognition & Reward learning circle to ...
Tag results for "rewards" *TikTok Rewards AR Effect Creators With New Program. Digital News Daily, Colin Kirkland - Tuesday, ... General Mills Launches Good Rewards Loyalty Program On Fetch Rewards App. CPG Insider, Steve Ellwanger - Friday, July 22, 2022 ... Loyalty Rewards Were Redeemed In 123% Surge Over Black Friday Weekend, Study Finds. Email Marketing Daily, Ray Schultz - Friday ... Tetris Hops On The Web3 Bandwagon With New Brand Rewards Program. Digital News Daily, Colin Kirkland - Friday, March 31, 2023 ...
Redeem your membership points and earn travel rewards, shopping rewards, and gift cards today. ... Please note: As you are switching from this account to another Rewards account this may affect the availability of items and/or ... Please log in to your Membership Rewards account to redeem points or add an item to your Wish list. ... Please log in to your Membership Rewards account to redeem points or add an item to your Wish list. ...
Talent management includes executive compensation, employee experience, employee rewards, DEI, job and career architecture, ... Employee rewards Use the worlds largest and most comprehensive remuneration data, insights, and research - so you can be sure ...
Matthew Puffett and Future Beat Alliance After the Storm (Sleeping at Sea) Reward System Modern Classical / Ambient ... Matthew Puffett and Future Beat Alliance November Sunrise Reward System Modern Classical / Ambient ... Matthew Puffett and Future Beat Alliance Sleep Analysis Reward System Techno / House ... Matthew Puffett and Future Beat Alliance Lower The Anchor Reward System Electronic ...
In most endeavours in life, we get more reward for more stepping up in grade. A middling player in the AFL makes more money ...
... offers a reward to anyone who can decipher a mysterious inscription on a local rock. Can you unlock the key thats puzzled ... A village in France is offering a reward to anyone who can decipher a mysterious inscription on a local rock. ...
Mysearch Global Rewards Team, comprising of vibrant youngsters excelled in ICT, having an indomitable desire and spirit in ... We, Mysearch Global Rewards Team, comprising of vibrant youngsters excelled in ICT, having an indomitable desire and spirit in ... We, Mysearch Global Rewards Team, comprising of vibrant youngsters excelled in ICT, having an indomitable desire and spirit in ...
To get the most out of Google Home, choose your Help Center: U.S. Help Center, U.K Help Center, Canada Help Center, Australia Help Center. ...
Reward Anticipation. RDoC Classification. Domain: Positive Valence Systems , Construct: Reward Responsiveness. Description. ... Home , Research , Research Funded by NIMH , Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) , RDoC Constructs , Reward Anticipation. ...
Thus, says Fox, investing in Lucid shares, is a "high reward/high risk play for its start-up execution at massive scale." ...
Deloitte Reward, Employment Tax, Share Plans, HR & Payroll Advisory specialists provide expertise in employment tax and ... regulation, global share plans, and employee reward programs. ... Global Rewards Updates A wrap up of global tax and legal ... We help you communicate your global incentive plan, equity, employee reward and employment tax plan in a way that can keep ... Together, we can create local and global reward programs that can benefit both your business and your employees-aligning them ...
Catch a glimpse into a mother and daughter living in San Francisco and how the daughter takes care of her aging mother. Get a better understanding of how cultural expectations come into play with caregiving and how other caregivers can find strength when stressed. Connect with Stephanies story now.
Official Post from Philipp Lehner
Now its offering a new travel perk: Hilton Honors rewards points. The program officially kicked off this week. ... Once youve connected your Hilton Honors and Lyft accounts youll earn Hilton Honors rewards points each time you take a ride. ... Now its offering a new travel perk: Hilton Honors rewards points. The program officially kicked off this week. ...
... Google expands its bug bounty program, plans to pay programmers who help patch ... Google is expanding the scope of the financial rewards it offers to security researchers who identify errors in software code. ... A UC Berkeley study of vulnerability reward programs, released earlier this year, found that bug bounties are cost-efficient. ... Other companies appear to have caught on, with dozens now offering rewards to security researchers. Technology companies might ...
The Hotel Loyalty Program That Rewards You at 7,000+ Hotels Worldwide. Earn Free Nights, Discounted Member Rates & More With ...
... or human-resources expert will tell you that rewarding your employees can bring about a host of positive results, from improved ... Any seasoned brand, operator, or human-resources expert will tell you that rewarding your employees can bring about a host of ...
By providing your information, you consent to receive occasional special promotional offers and education opportunities by phone, text message and email via automated technology from Capella University and its partner Strayer University. Consent is not required to purchase goods or services. You can always call us at 1.888.227.9897.. ...
... so it may be a good idea to transfer your credit card rewards to a partnering airline rewards program to snag a deal on a plane ... Using a robust rewards credit card to pay for everyday purchases -- with the caveat, of course, that youre paying off monthly ... Travel rewards credit cards "come pretty well-loaded with benefits," Winship says, so anyone who flies enough, even for ... This time frame also allows you to work on the other big component of scoring free travel: building up ample reward reserves. ...
NVIDIA GeForce rewards are available for select GeForce Gamers with a GTX 10 Series and on a first come first served basis. ... Rewards are available for GeForce Gamers with a GTX 10 Series and above on a first come first served basis. ... Go to Redeem under your profile icon to see if you have available Rewards ...
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Reward offered for info in killing of Tatiana Dugger. Tatiana Dugger was 18 when she went missing in January. Her remains were ... There are no suspects in her death, and her family hopes the reward money will help them find out what happened to her. ... Oakland police announce $10,000 reward for info in womans slaying. By Henry Lee and KTVU Staff. ... OAKLAND, Calif - Oakland police announced a $10,000 reward Thursday for information about the death of Tatiana Dugger. ...
Pay, Reward and Benefits. Our employees get access to a great pay, reward and benefits package in recognition of their valued ...
... school system is rewarding teachers for good performance in the classroom, paying $1.1 million to 279 teachers and ... Maryland School District Rewards Teachers for Raising Test Scores. By The Associated Press. - December 08, 2009 1 min read ... A version of this article appeared in the December 09, 2009 edition of Education Week as Maryland School District Rewards ... The Prince Georges County, Md., school system is rewarding teachers for good performance in the classroom, paying $1.1 million ...
Hire Help To Maximize Tricky Travel Rewards. April 16, 2014 / 11:22 PM. / CBS Miami ... Airline mergers and complicated frequent flyer and credit card reward programs have spawned a brand new type of business. Now ...
  • Do those consequences track provider performance appropriately, rewarding high quality providers relative to others? (
  • Responding appropriately to aversive or rewarding stimuli is essential for survival. (
  • We help you design cost-effective, tax-efficient, and compliant reward and payroll programs that align with talent strategies and diverse workforce needs. (
  • Together, we can create local and global reward programs that can benefit both your business and your employees-aligning them with talent strategies and your diverse workforce needs. (
  • We help you communicate your global incentive plan, equity, employee reward and employment tax plan in a way that can keep employees engaged using tailored creative communication strategies. (
  • The search for better therapeutic strategies for drug addiction raises the challenge to diminish motivation for drug without decreasing that for natural rewards. (
  • Our results suggest distinct and dynamic neural population codes for natural reward and drug reward seeking in the mPFC and pave the way for future efforts in targeting specific neural codes for drug reward seeking as novel therapeutic strategies for drug addiction. (
  • Application deadlines are coming up in the next few weeks to apply for several of NIH's High-Risk, High-Reward Research (HRHR) funding opportunities. (
  • The researchers believe that reward (or anticipation of reward) reinforces neural circuits between reward and visual areas of the brain, and these circuits are then more likely to reactivate during sleep to facilitate task learning. (
  • The ultimate goal of this study is to develop an integrative, data-driven model to examine how patterns of brain activation across functional domains give rise to distinct mechanisms underlying resilience, and how these neural mechanisms interrelate with behavioral (e.g., emotion regulation, reward responses, social cognition) and psychosocial (e.g., coping self-efficacy, positive emotions, social connectedness) factors implicated in resilience. (
  • While the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is important for reward seeking, how prefrontal neural activities code reward seeking remains unknown. (
  • Researchers have identified connections between neurons in brain systems associated with reward, stress, and emotion. (
  • To map the brain circuitry between the BNST and the hypothalamus, Dr. Giardino and his colleagues exposed mice to rewarding and aversive stimuli, and then visualized and manipulated the activity of neurons using fiber optic techniques. (
  • In the reward circuit, dopamine neurons release the neurotransmitter dopamine. (
  • Dopamine surges in response to natural rewards help the brain learn and adapt to a complex world. (
  • One of the ways in which we do this is through our Kroger Community Rewards program. (
  • A digital account is needed to participate in Kroger Community Rewards. (
  • Selecting the organization that you wish to support is as simple as updating the Kroger Community Rewards selection on your digital account. (
  • Your selected organization will also display in the Kroger Community Rewards section of your account. (
  • Kroger donates annually to participating organizations based on your percentage of spending as it relates to the total spending associated with all participating Kroger Community Rewards organizations. (
  • Any seasoned brand, operator, or human-resources expert will tell you that rewarding your employees can bring about a host of positive results, from improved employee morale to better customer service. (
  • Rewarding Adherence Program (RAP) is an individual-level intervention delivered to HIV clinic patients in Kampala, Uganda, who are antiretroviral therapy experienced. (
  • To complement its existing Vulnerability Reward Program for its Web applications and Chrome browser, the company has introduced Patch Rewards , a program that goes beyond flaw finding to flaw fixing: It will pay hackers for code contributions that get applied to certain open-source projects. (
  • High-Tech Bridge subsequently published a blog post to shame Yahoo and the ploy worked: Yahoo revised its bug bounty program and now offers rewards of $150 to $15,000 . (
  • But their inventory is limited and it takes time to accumulate miles -- especially when you don't travel often -- so it may be a good idea to transfer your credit card rewards to a partnering airline rewards program to snag a deal on a plane ticket. (
  • The National Institutes of Health awarded 106 grants to support highly innovative and broadly impactful biomedical or behavioral research by exceptionally creative scientists through the Common Fund's High-Risk, High-Reward Research program. (
  • The High-Risk, High-Reward Research program catalyzes scientific discovery by supporting highly innovative research proposals that, due to their inherent risk, may struggle in the traditional peer-review process despite their transformative potential. (
  • The High-Risk, High-Reward Research Program is part of the NIH Common Fund , which oversees programs that pursue major opportunities and gaps throughout the research enterprise that are of great importance to NIH and require collaboration across the agency to succeed. (
  • As part of the NIH's continual monitoring efforts, the NIH Director convened a Working Group of the Advisory Committee to the Director in Spring 2018 to examine the effectiveness of the Common Fund's High-Risk High-Reward Research Program and the diversity of its applicants and awardees. (
  • The Working Group found that the High-Risk High-Reward Research Program overall is successful in supporting unusually innovative and impactful research. (
  • The High-Risk, High-Reward Research program of the NIH Office of Strategic Coordination-The Common Fund offers four funding opportunities for exceptionally creative scientists at all career stages. (
  • Am I eligible for the ReWARD program? (
  • The ReWARD program funds (1) scientific research and (2) DEIA activities. (
  • If you have a balance of scientific research and DEIA activities, the ReWARD program may be the best option. (
  • Would it be wise to withdraw my proposal and apply to the NIH ReWARD program? (
  • Or should I wait to get the decision on the proposal before moving forward to submit to the ReWARD program? (
  • Thus, says Fox, investing in Lucid shares, is a "high reward/high risk play for its start-up execution at massive scale. (
  • The NIH Common Fund is pleased to present the 2015 High-Risk, High-Reward Research Symposium. (
  • We work with you to create total reward programs, incentives, and benefits that are attractive to employees and provide an efficient return on investment. (
  • Rewarding Results: Aligning Incentives with High-Quality Health Care" is a national initiative of The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) and other funding and technical assistance partners. (
  • The "Rewarding Results" initiative is intended to develop, evaluate, and diffuse innovations in systems of provider payments and non- financial incentives that encourage and reward high-quality care. (
  • Google is expanding the scope of the financial rewards it offers to security researchers who identify errors in software code. (
  • Other companies appear to have caught on , with dozens now offering rewards to security researchers. (
  • Reinvent your talent and reward programs around skills. (
  • A UC Berkeley study of vulnerability reward programs, released earlier this year, found that bug bounties are cost-efficient. (
  • Frequent fliers generally use travel loyalty and credit card rewards programs in tandem to minimize the cost of travel. (
  • Credit card rewards programs, of course, generate points on purchases. (
  • Be the first to hear about new rewards, special offers and great benefits from American Express. (
  • Please log in to your Membership Rewards account to redeem points or add an item to your Wish list. (
  • We strongly suggest reaching out to the appropriate Scientific/Research Contact(s) listed in Part 2, Section VII of the notice of funding opportunity prior to developing an application to ensure that your plans are appropriate for ReWARD. (
  • Past studies have found that rewarding participants during a visual perceptual task leads to performance gains. (
  • Please note: As you are switching from this account to another Rewards account this may affect the availability of items and/or items in your shopping cart. (
  • Savvy travelers can score a free vacation by using, for example, airline loyalty miles to fund a flight and credit card rewards points to pay for hotel rooms. (
  • Now it's offering a new travel perk: Hilton Honors rewards points. (
  • Once you've connected your Hilton Honors and Lyft accounts you'll earn Hilton Honors rewards points each time you take a ride. (
  • DeLambert, who runs the blog Delta Points, is an extreme mileager -- someone who has made a full-time hobby out of gaming the travel rewards system. (
  • The reward circuit links together a number of brain structures that control and regulate our ability to feel pleasure. (
  • This requires fine-tuned regulation of brain systems that enable rapid responses to changes in the environment, such as those involved in sleep, wakefulness, stress, and reward-seeking. (
  • The limbic system contains the brain's reward circuit or pathway. (
  • In most endeavours in life, we get more reward for more stepping up in grade. (
  • And so the authorities are turning the mystery over to the public, appealing to historians, academics, linguists, students and hobbyists to crack the code in exchange for a €2,000 ($2,240) reward. (
  • To this end, we shifted mood in healthy (N = 24) and depressed (N = 30) adolescents by delivering individually tailored reward prediction errors while recording magnetoencephalography (MEG) data. (
  • For Early Stage Investigator MIRA applications it is okay to have a similar ReWARD application under review at the same time, but only one application will be funded. (
  • For Established Investigator or New Investigator MIRA applications, it is NOT okay to have similar ReWARD application under review at the same time. (
  • We are always improving our product offering and expanding our features and functionality to ensure you always have the very best and most rewarding mobile payment experience. (
  • We, Mysearch Global Rewards Team, comprising of vibrant youngsters excelled in ICT, having an indomitable desire and spirit in updating with the day to day Technologies emerging in the entire spectrum. (