Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
Proteins from the family Retroviridae. The most frequently encountered member of this family is the Rous sarcoma virus protein.
Genus of non-oncogenic retroviruses which establish persistent infections in many animal species but are considered non-pathogenic. Its species have been isolated from primates (including humans), cattle, cats, hamsters, horses, and sea lions. Spumaviruses have a foamy or lace-like appearance and are often accompanied by syncytium formation. SIMIAN FOAMY VIRUS is the type species.
Nucleotide sequences repeated on both the 5' and 3' ends of a sequence under consideration. For example, the hallmarks of a transposon are that it is flanked by inverted repeats on each end and the inverted repeats are flanked by direct repeats. The Delta element of Ty retrotransposons and LTRs (long terminal repeats) are examples of this concept.
Elements that are transcribed into RNA, reverse-transcribed into DNA and then inserted into a new site in the genome. Long terminal repeats (LTRs) similar to those from retroviruses are contained in retrotransposons and retrovirus-like elements. Retroposons, such as LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS do not contain LTRs.
Virus diseases caused by the RETROVIRIDAE.
Retroviral proteins that have the ability to transform cells. They can induce sarcomas, leukemias, lymphomas, and mammary carcinomas. Not all retroviral proteins are oncogenic.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. Young shoots are eaten in Asian foods while the stiff mature stems are used for construction of many things. The common name of bamboo is also used for other genera of Poaceae including Phyllostachys, SASA, and Dendrocalamus.
A group of 4-keto-FLAVONOIDS.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain hinesol and atractylon. Atractylodes rhizome is Byaku-jutsu. A. lancea rhizome is So-jutsu.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
Retroviruses that have integrated into the germline (PROVIRUSES) that have lost infectious capability but retained the capability to transpose.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
An autoimmune disorder mainly affecting young adults and characterized by destruction of myelin in the central nervous system. Pathologic findings include multiple sharply demarcated areas of demyelination throughout the white matter of the central nervous system. Clinical manifestations include visual loss, extra-ocular movement disorders, paresthesias, loss of sensation, weakness, dysarthria, spasticity, ataxia, and bladder dysfunction. The usual pattern is one of recurrent attacks followed by partial recovery (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, RELAPSING-REMITTING), but acute fulminating and chronic progressive forms (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, CHRONIC PROGRESSIVE) also occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p903)
A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of viruses with either type B or type D morphology. This includes a few exogenous, vertically transmitted and endogenous viruses of mice (type B) and some primate and sheep viruses (type D). MAMMARY TUMOR VIRUS, MOUSE is the type species.
A state in southeastern Australia. Its capital is Sydney. It was discovered by Captain Cook in 1770 and first settled at Botany Bay by marines and convicts in 1788. It was named by Captain Cook who thought its coastline resembled that of South Wales. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p840 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p377)
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
An endogenous GAMMARETROVIRUS from the germ line of mice but isolated from humans. It has close similarity to xenotropic MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS.
A syndrome characterized by persistent or recurrent fatigue, diffuse musculoskeletal pain, sleep disturbances, and subjective cognitive impairment of 6 months duration or longer. Symptoms are not caused by ongoing exertion; are not relieved by rest; and result in a substantial reduction of previous levels of occupational, educational, social, or personal activities. Minor alterations of immune, neuroendocrine, and autonomic function may be associated with this syndrome. There is also considerable overlap between this condition and FIBROMYALGIA. (From Semin Neurol 1998;18(2):237-42; Ann Intern Med 1994 Dec 15;121(12): 953-9)
A genus of RETROVIRIDAE comprising endogenous sequences in mammals, related RETICULOENDOTHELIOSIS VIRUSES, AVIAN, and a reptilian virus. Many species contain oncogenes and cause leukemias and sarcomas.
Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS, containing many well-defined strains, producing leukemia in mice. Disease is commonly induced by injecting filtrates of propagable tumors into newborn mice.
The presence of DNA from a source foreign to the sample being analysed.
An enzyme which catalyzes the deamination of CYTOSINE resulting in the formation of URACIL. It can also act on 5-methylcytosine to form THYMIDINE.
A genus of toxic marine GREEN ALGAE found throughout tropical and subtropical seas. One species, Caulerpa taxifolia, is highly invasive and produces the poison caulerpenyne, deadly to marine organisms though not humans.
Fish-eating carnivores of the family MUSTELIDAE, found on both hemispheres.
A vine (Uncaria tomentosa) indigenous to the Amazon rainforest whose name is derived from its hook-like thorns. It contains oxindole alkaloids and glycosides and has many medicinal uses.
A neuropsychological disorder related to alterations in DOPAMINE metabolism and neurotransmission involving frontal-subcortical neuronal circuits. Both multiple motor and one or more vocal tics need to be present with TICS occurring many times a day, nearly daily, over a period of more than one year. The onset is before age 18 and the disturbance is not due to direct physiological effects of a substance or a another medical condition. The disturbance causes marked distress or significant impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. (From DSM-IV, 1994; Neurol Clin 1997 May;15(2):357-79)
The comparative science dealing with the physical characteristics of humans as related to their origin, evolution, and development in the total environment.
A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of non-oncogenic retroviruses that produce multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection. Lentiviruses are unique in that they contain open reading frames (ORFs) between the pol and env genes and in the 3' env region. Five serogroups are recognized, reflecting the mammalian hosts with which they are associated. HIV-1 is the type species.
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
High molecular weight polymers containing a mixture of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides chained together by ribose or deoxyribose linkages.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
The misinterpretation of a real external, sensory experience.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
International collective of humanitarian organizations led by volunteers and guided by its Congressional Charter and the Fundamental Principles of the International Red Cross Movement, to provide relief to victims of disaster and help people prevent, prepare for, and respond to emergencies.
The systematic arrangement of entities in any field into categories classes based on common characteristics such as properties, morphology, subject matter, etc.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.
Duplex DNA sequences in eukaryotic chromosomes, corresponding to the genome of a virus, that are transmitted from one cell generation to the next without causing lysis of the host. Proviruses are often associated with neoplastic cell transformation and are key features of retrovirus biology.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Activities associated with the disposition of the dead. It excludes cultural practices such as funeral rites.

Telomerase activity is sufficient to allow transformed cells to escape from crisis. (1/5595)

The introduction of simian virus 40 large T antigen (SVLT) into human primary cells enables them to proliferate beyond their normal replicative life span. In most cases, this temporary escape from senescence eventually ends in a second proliferative block known as "crisis," during which the cells cease growing or die. Rare immortalization events in which cells escape crisis are frequently correlated with the presence of telomerase activity. We tested the hypothesis that telomerase activation is the critical step in the immortalization process by studying the effects of telomerase activity in two mortal SVLT-Rasval12-transformed human pancreatic cell lines, TRM-6 and betalox5. The telomerase catalytic subunit, hTRT, was introduced into late-passage cells via retroviral gene transfer. Telomerase activity was successfully induced in infected cells, as demonstrated by a telomerase repeat amplification protocol assay. In each of nine independent infections, telomerase-positive cells formed rapidly dividing cell lines while control cells entered crisis. Telomere lengths initially increased, but telomeres were then maintained at their new lengths for at least 20 population doublings. These results demonstrate that telomerase activity is sufficient to enable transformed cells to escape crisis and that telomere elongation in these cells occurs in a tightly regulated manner.  (+info)

Transduction of glioma cells using a high-titer retroviral vector system and their subsequent migration in brain tumors. (2/5595)

The intracranial migration of transduced glioma cells was investigated in order to improve the treatment of malignant glioma by gene therapy using retroviral vectors. In this study, about half the volume of the tumor mass could be transduced in 14 days after only a single implantation of 3 x 10(5) retrovirus-producing cells into a tumor mass with a diameter of 5 mm. Moreover, we were able to follow the migration of glioma cells transduced by the lacZ-harboring retroviruses originating from the high-titer retrovirus-producing cells. Besides the importance of using a high-titer retroviral vector system, our results also indicate that the implantation site of the virus-producing cells and the interval between the implantation of the virus-producing cells and the subsequent administration of ganciclovir are important factors for the efficient killing of glioma cells.  (+info)

The bystander effect in the HSVtk/ganciclovir system and its relationship to gap junctional communication. (3/5595)

The bystander effect (BSE) is an interesting and important property of the herpes thymidine kinase/ganciclovir (hTK/GCV) system of gene therapy for cancer. With the BSE, not only are the hTK expressing cells killed upon ganciclovir (GCV) exposure but also neighboring wild-type tumor cells. On testing a large number of tumor cell lines in vitro, a wide range of sensitivity to bystander killing was found. Since transfer of toxic GCV metabolites from hTK-modified to wild-type tumor cells via gap junctions (GJ) seemed to be a likely mechanism of the BSE, we tested GJ function in these various tumors with a dye transfer technique and pharmacological agents known to affect GJ communication. We confirmed that mixtures of tumor cell resistant to the BSE did not show dye transfer from cell to cell while bystander-sensitive tumor cells did. Dieldrin, a drug known to decrease GJ communication, diminished dye transfer and also inhibited the BSE. Forskolin, an upregulator of cAMP did increase GJ, but directly inhibited hTK and therefore its effect on BSE could not be determined. We conclude that these observations further support port the concept that functional GJ play an important role in the BSE and further suggest that pharmacological manipulation of GJ may influence the outcome of cancer therapy with hTK/GCV.  (+info)

Regulation of chamber-specific gene expression in the developing heart by Irx4. (4/5595)

The vertebrate heart consists of two types of chambers, the atria and the ventricles, which differ in their contractile and electrophysiological properties. Little is known of the molecular mechanisms by which these chambers are specified during embryogenesis. Here a chicken iroquois-related homeobox gene, Irx4, was identified that has a ventricle-restricted expression pattern at all stages of heart development. Irx4 protein was shown to regulate the chamber-specific expression of myosin isoforms by activating the expression of the ventricle myosin heavy chain-1 (VMHC1) and suppressing the expression of the atrial myosin heavy chain-1 (AMHC1) in the ventricles. Thus, Irx4 may play a critical role in establishing chamber-specific gene expression in the developing heart.  (+info)

Re-expression of endogenous p16ink4a in oral squamous cell carcinoma lines by 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment induces a senescence-like state. (5/5595)

We have previously reported that a set of oral squamous cell carcinoma lines express specifically elevated cdk6 activity. One of the cell lines, SCC4, contains a cdk6 amplification and expresses functional p16ink4a, the other cell lines express undetectable levels of p16ink4a, despite a lack of coding-region mutations. Two of the cell lines, SCC15 and SCC40 have a hypermethylated p16ink4A promoter and a third cell line, SCC9, has a mutation in the p16ink4a promoter. Using the demethylation agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, we showed that the p16ink4a protein was re-expressed after a 5-day treatment with this chemical. One cell line, SCC15 expressed high levels of p16ink4a. In this line, cdk6 activity was decreased after 5-aza-2'deoxycytidine treatment, and the hypophosphorylated, growth suppressive form of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein pRB was detected. Expression of p16ink4a persisted, even after the drug was removed and the cells expressed senescence-associated beta-galactosidase activity. Ectopic expression of p16ink4a with a recombinant retrovirus in this cell line also induced a similar senescence-like phenotype. Hence, it was possible to restore a functional pRB pathway in an oral squamous cell carcinoma line by inducing re-expression of endogenous p16ink4a in response to treatment with a demethylating agent.  (+info)

Detection of antibody to bovine syncytial virus and respiratory syncytial virus in bovine fetal serum. (6/5595)

Batches of commercial fetal bovine serum, described by the suppliers as antibody-free, all contained antibody to bovine syncytial virus (BSV) when tested by indirect immunofluorescence. Antibody to bovine respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was not detected in these sera. Twenty-four percent of individual fetal bovine sera contained antibody to BSV, and 14% contained antibody to RSV when tested by indirect immunofluorescence. BSV antibody titers in fetal sera from dams with high BSV antibody levels were variable but always higher than RSV antibody titers. Radial immunodiffusion studies with BSV-positive sera revealed the presence of immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgG, and IgA, but the quantity of these immunoglobulins was not directly related to the BSV antibody titers. The evidence suggests that the antibody present in fetal sera arose as the result of infection rather than from maternal transfer across the placenta.  (+info)

Up-regulation of the Pit-2 phosphate transporter/retrovirus receptor by protein kinase C epsilon. (7/5595)

The membrane receptors for the gibbon ape leukemia retrovirus and the amphotropic murine retrovirus serve normal cellular functions as sodium-dependent phosphate transporters (Pit-1 and Pit-2, respectively). Our earlier studies established that activation of protein kinase C (PKC) by treatment of cells with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) enhanced sodium-dependent phosphate (Na/Pi) uptake. Studies now have been carried out to determine which type of Na/Pi transporter (Pit-1 or Pit-2) is regulated by PKC and which PKC isotypes are involved in the up-regulation of Na/Pi uptake by the Na/Pi transporter/viral receptor. It was found that the activation of short term (2-min) Na/Pi uptake by PMA is abolished when cells are infected with amphotropic murine retrovirus (binds Pit-2 receptor) but not with gibbon ape leukemia retrovirus (binds Pit-1 receptor), indicating that Pit-2 is the form of Na/Pi transporter/viral receptor regulated by PKC. The PKC-mediated activation of Pit-2 was blocked by pretreating cells with the pan-PKC inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide but not with the conventional PKC isotype inhibitor Go 6976, suggesting that a novel PKC isotype is required to regulate Pit-2. Overexpression of PKCepsilon, but not of PKCalpha, -delta, or -zeta, was found to mimic the activation of Na/Pi uptake. To further establish that PKCepsilon is involved in the regulation of Pit-2, cells were treated with PKCepsilon-selective antisense oligonucleotides. Treatment with PKCepsilon antisense oligonucleotides decreased the PMA-induced activation of Na/Pi uptake. These results indicate that PMA-induced stimulation of Na/Pi uptake by Pit-2 is specifically mediated through activation of PKCepsilon.  (+info)

A subpopulation of apoptosis-prone cardiac neural crest cells targets to the venous pole: multiple functions in heart development? (8/5595)

A well-described population of cardiac neural crest (NC) cells migrates toward the arterial pole of the embryonic heart and differentiates into various cell types, including smooth muscle cells of the pharyngeal arch arteries (but not the coronary arteries), cardiac ganglionic cells, and mesenchymal cells of the aortopulmonary septum. Using a replication-incompetent retrovirus containing the reporter gene LacZ, administered to the migratory neural crest of chicken embryos, we demonstrated another population of cardiac neural crest cells that employs the venous pole as entrance to the heart. On the basis of our present data we cannot exclude the possibility that precursors of these cells might not only originate from the dorsal part of the posterior rhombencephalon, but also from the ventral part. These NC cells migrate to locations surrounding the prospective conduction system as well as to the atrioventricular (AV) cushions. Concerning the prospective conduction system, the tagged neural crest cells can be found in regions where the atrioventricular node area, the retroaortic root bundle, the bundle of His, the left and right bundle branches, and the right atrioventricular ring bundle are positioned. The last area connects the posteriorly located AV node area with the retroaortic root bundle, which receives its neural crest cells through the arterial pole in concert with the cells giving rise to the aortopulmonary septum. The NC cells most probably do not form the conduction system proper, as they enter an apoptotic pathway as determined by concomitant TUNEL detection. It is possible that the NC cells in the heart become anoikic and, as a consequence, fail to differentiate further and merely die. However, because of the perfect timing of the arrival of crest cells, their apoptosis, and a change in electrophysiological behavior of the heart, we postulate that neural crest cells play a role in the last phase of differentiation of the cardiac conduction system. Alternatively, the separation of the central conduction system from the surrounding working myocardium is mediated by apoptotic neural crest cells. As for the presence of NC cells in both the outflow tract and the AV cushions, followed by apoptosis, a function is assigned in the muscularization of both areas, resulting in proper septation of the outflow tract and of the AV region. Failure of normal neural crest development may not only play a role in cardiac outflow tract anomalies but also in inflow tract abnormalities, such as atrioventricular septal defects.  (+info)

Scolnick, E M. and Bumgarner, S J., Isolation of infectious xenotropic mouse type c virus by transfection of a heterologous cell with dna from a transformed mouse cell. (1975). Subject Strain Bibliography 1975. 2094 ...
Traditional retroviral vectors are based on the Moloney murine leukemia virus (MMLV). These vectors are useful for integrating genetic material into the host cell genome. However, retroviral titer tends to be significantly lower than adenoviral titer, and this can lead to a lower efficiency of gene transfer to the host cell. Our retroviral expression reagents include exclusive technologies that can increase the success rate of your retrovirus expression studies. These technologies include highly efficient retroviral packaging cell lines, a rapid retroviral quantitation kit, and a reagent kit that can significantly increase the transduction rate of your retroviral vector into a variety of cell types.
pASSEMBLE™ 10A1 Retroviral Packaging System includes a unique packaging vector with gag, pol and env from different viruses confering a tropism in the cell to be infected.
The pQCXIX Retroviral Vector is a self-inactivating retroviral expression vector that is optimized to eliminate promoter interference from the upstream LTR in the integrated provirus. It expresses two target genes from a single, bicistronic message. The CMV promoter present in the 5 LTR produces high viral titers in standard packaging cell lines. A deletion in the 3 LTR provides the self-inactivating feature after reverse transcription of the expression cassette. This vector is useful for applications in which high titers and high-level bicistronic gene expression are desired.. ...
The Retro-X Living Colors Fusion Vectors are high titer, self-inactivating retroviral expression vectors that are optimized to eliminate promoter interference from the upstream LTR in the integrated provirus.
The Retro-X Living Colors Fusion Vectors are high titer, self-inactivating retroviral expression vectors that are optimized to eliminate promoter interference from the upstream LTR in the integrated provirus.
Lenz, J; Crowther, R; Klimenko, S; and Haseltine, W, Molecular cloning of a highly leukemogenic, ecotropic retrovirus from an akr mouse. (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 4247 ...
Investigation of the role of target cell factors in retrovirus transduction. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
VectorBuilder offers MSCV retrovirus packaging services for achieving robust expression of your genes of interest in ES cells, EC cells and HS cells.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Gene transfer and expression of exogenous genetic information coding for an immunogenic protein in antigen presenting cells (APCs) can promote an immune response. This was investigated by retroviral transfer of a marker gene into CD34+ derived APCs. DESIGN AND METHODS: To achieve long term expression of a specific transgene in APCs, G-CSF mobilized peripheral blood CD34+ cell populations were retrovirally transduced with the bacterial nlsLacZ, a marker gene used here as a model, in the presence of IL-3, IL-6, GM-CSF and SCF prior to being induced to differentiate into dendritic and macrophage cells by GM-CSF and TNF-a. RESULTS: Addition of IL-4 was found to induce dendritic differentiation preferentially by inhibiting proliferation and differentiation of the macrophage lineage. As assessed by X-Gal staining, LacZ gene expression was observed in cells from both the dendritic lineage (CD1a+/CD14-) which still exhibits the highest immunostimulatory activity in mixed ...
You searched for: Creator Royal North Shore Hospital of Sydney Remove constraint Creator: Royal North Shore Hospital of Sydney Subject Retroviridae Remove constraint Subject: Retroviridae ...
Cells, plasmids, and reagents. HEK cells stably expressing TLR9, TLR2, TLR3, or TLR4/MD-2 were described previously (32, 53). The cDNA for human CD32A was a gift from Jeffrey Ravetch (Rockefeller University, New York, New York, USA). The CD32A cDNA was recloned into pECFP-N1 (BD Biosciences - Clontech) vector and is expressed as a fusion protein containing a fluorescent C-terminal ECFP tag. Retroviral constructs were made by recloning YFP-tagged TLR9 and CFP-tagged CD32 into peak12mmp. U373 cells stably expressing YFP-tagged TLR9 and CFP-tagged CD32 were generated following retroviral infection. Immobilized papain and pepsin were obtained from Pierce. Immobilized DNase I was constructed by coupling 100 mg of DNase I (Invitrogen Corp.) to 20 ml of Affigel-10 (Bio-Rad Laboratories). FuGENE6 was purchased from Roche Diagnostics. Human GM-CSF was purchased from PeproTech Inc. Lysotracker Red was purchased from Molecular Probes Inc. All other reagents were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich unless stated ...
Connect with Featured Speakers and Experts from USA, Europe, Middle East and Asia Pacific at Retroviruses and Novel drug Conferences, Emerging Retroviruses and Novel drug Conferences, Retroviruses and Novel drug Meetings scheduled from July 27-28, 2017 Vancoure,Canada
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Cell Lines, Plasmids, Antibodies, and Compounds. The β1-deficient GE11 cells were described previously (Gimond et al., 1999). Cells were cultured in Dulbeccos modified Eagles medium supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum and antibiotics. LZRS bicistronic retroviral expression plasmids encoding SrcYF, RasGV, and human integrins β1 and β3 were described previously (Danen et al., 2002; Huveneers et al., 2007b). To ensure identical expression of SrcYF (c-Src[Y530F]) or RasGV (H-Ras[G12V]) in cell lines, we first generated GESrcYF and GERasGV single cell clones and subsequently expressed β1 or β3 integrin subunits using retroviral transduction and bulk sorting by FACS.. The following antibodies were used: mouse monoclonal anti-p53 (Pab240; Santa Cruz Biotechnology) and anti-α-tubulin (DM1A, Sigma); rabbit polyclonal anti-p21 (C-19, Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA), anti-phospho-p53 (Ser15; Cell Signaling Technology Inc., Danvers, MA), anti-caspase-3 (Cell Signaling Technology Inc.), ...
The FLYRD18 Packaging cell line enables production of high-titer, human complement-resistant recombinant retroviruses, with significantly reduced probability of replication-competent retrovirus
Ted and Welkin inform the TWiV team how the evolution of ancient retroviruses can be inferred by their sequences in the genomes of modern mammals, and join in a discussion of virus dispersal during different methods for drying hands.. ...
Han, L.; Chiang, Y.L.; Anderson, W.F., 1992: Study of host range determinants of murine retroviruses using chimeric viral envelope
The murine stem cell virus (MSCV) promoter exhibits activity in mouse hematopoietic cells and embryonic stem cells. respectively. The strength of the GFP fluorescence in the body was comparable to the proportion of GFP-positive leukocytes. Moreover, the rate of recurrence of the GFP-expressing leukocytes was significantly correlated with the frequency of GFP-expressing Purkinje cells. These results suggest that the MSCV promoter is useful for preferentially expressing a transgene in Purkinje cells. In addition, the proportion of transduced leukocytes in the peripheral circulation reflects the expression level of the transgene in Purkinje Rabbit Polyclonal to PPP2R3B cells, which can be used as a way to monitor transgene expression properties in the cerebellum without invasive techniques. Introduction The Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV)-based retrovirus vector has been widely used to transfer genes into dividing eukaryotic cells [1]. MoMLV and MoMLV-derived retroviral vectors are not active ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Decreased homing of retrovirally transduced human bone marrow CD34 + cells in the NOD/SCID mouse model. AU - Hall, Kristin M.. AU - Horvath, Tamara L.. AU - Abonour, Rafat. AU - Cornetta, Kenneth. AU - Srour, Edward F.. PY - 2006/4/1. Y1 - 2006/4/1. N2 - Objective. Many clinical gene therapy trials have described poor engraftment of retrovirally transduced CD34+ cells. Because engraftment is dependent upon successful homing of graft cells to the bone marrow (BM), we examined whether retroviral-mediated gene transfer (RMGT) induces a homing defect in CD34+ cells. Methods. Homing of fluorescently labeled human BM CD34+ cells transduced with three separate retroviral vectors (MFG-eGFP, LNC-eGFP, and LXSN) was assessed in nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient mice. Results. Homing of transduced CD34+ cells was significantly decreased 20 hours after transplantation compared with freshly isolated control and cultured untransduced control cells. Specifically, homing of GFP+ ...
Summary 3H-labelled 70S RNA of squirrel monkey retrovirus (SMRV) hybridized to a high degree (> 52%) to the DNA of various tissues of two squirrel monkeys. Hybridization of the same probe to DNAs of other primates including New World monkeys (Woolly monkey, capuchin, owl monkey), Old World monkeys (rhesus, African green), apes (gibbon, chimpanzee), and human (A204 cells infected with MPMV) revealed no significant hybridization. Analysis of the kinetics of hybridization indicated that SMRV provirus was present in multiple copies in various squirrel monkey tissues (C 0 t ½ = 120 to 400) and in SMRV-infected A204 cells at a low number of copies (C 0 t ½ = 1500). These results demonstrate that SMRV is an endogenous virus of squirrel monkeys and the first isolated from a New World monkey.
Murine type C ecotropic retrovirus infection is initiated by virus envelope binding to a membrane receptor expressed on mouse cells. We have identified a cDNA clone that may encode for this receptor through a strategy combining gene transfer of mouse NIH 3T3 DNA into nonpermissive human EJ cells, se …
The generation of high-titer, helper-free retroviruses by transient transfection has been achieved by using the highly transfectable 293T cell line into which are stably introduced constructs that express retroviral packaging functions. The resulting ecotropic virus packaging cell line BOSC 23 produces infectious retrovirus at , 10(6) infectious units/ml of supernatant within 72 hr after CaPO4-mediated transfection. A stringent assay for replication-competent virus showed that no helper virus was present. The system can produce high titers of retroviral vectors expressing genes that are extremely difficult to propagate at high titer in stable producer lines. This method should facilitate and extend the use of helper-free retroviral gene transfer, as well as be useful for gene therapy.. ...
feline sarcoma virus high-molecular-weight polyprotein: high MW polyprotein translational product of Snyder-Theilen feline sarcoma virus; posseses protein kinase activity with specificity for tyrosine acceptor sites
Retroviruses replicate by integrating a DNA version of their genomes (called a provirus) into host DNA. The provirus consists of several genes, all of them oriented to the retroviral replication cycle. But these genes are useless to the process unless they are transcribed back into RNA by the host. This is why retroviral genomes also include transcription promoters. Retroviral promoters are called Long Term Repeats, or LTRs. They are very powerful and indiscriminate promoters likely to promote some native DNA as well as retroviral genes - the retrovirus doesnt care. There are many solo LTRs which can be understood as remnants of mutational and recombination events in the genome. Drop an LTR at random into a hosts genome, and there is a good chance it will promote something. Just as with more conventionally understood mutations, some of these will be harmful, some will have little or no effect, and some will be beneficial. As these are heritable, good old natural selection will go to work ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Frequent hereditable shutdown of murine retrovirus gene expression in murine cell lines. AU - Bestwick, R. K.. AU - Machida, C. A.. AU - Polonoff, E.. AU - Kabat, D.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1984. Y1 - 1984. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0021133923&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0021133923&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1128/MCB.4.5.908. DO - 10.1128/MCB.4.5.908. M3 - Article. C2 - 6727872. AN - SCOPUS:0021133923. VL - 4. SP - 908. EP - 914. JO - Molecular and Cellular Biology. JF - Molecular and Cellular Biology. SN - 0270-7306. IS - 5. ER - ...
The retroviral restriction factor tripartite motif-containing 5α (Trim5α) acts during the early postentry stages of the retroviral life cycle to block infection by a broad range of retroviruses, disrupting reverse transcription and integration. The mechanism of this restriction is poorly understood, but it has recently been suggested to involve recruitment of components of the autophagy machinery, including members of the mammalian autophagy-related 8 (ATG8) family involved in targeting proteins to the autophagosome. To better understand the molecular details of this interaction, here we utilized analytical ultracentrifugation to characterize the binding of six ATG8 isoforms and determined the crystal structure of the Trim5α Bbox coiled-coil region in complex with one member of the mammalian ATG8 proteins, autophagy-related protein LC3 B (LC3B). We found that Trim5α binds all mammalian ATG8s and that, unlike the typical LC3-interacting region (LIR) that binds to mammalian ATG8s through a ...
Circumstantial evidence suggests that retroviruses play a role in the pathogenesis of Sjögrens syndrome. Such evidence, derived from studies of patients with Sjögrens syndrome, includes the following: the presence of serum antibodies cross-reactive with retroviral Gag proteins; the occurrence of reverse transcriptase activity in salivary glands; the detection of retroviral antigens, retrovirus-like particles, or novel retroviral sequences in salivary glands; the occurrence of Sjögrens syndrome-like illnesses in patients having confirmed systematic infections with retroviruses such as human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) and human T lymphotropic virus type 1; and the beneficial effect of anti-retroviral treatment on the occurrence of HIV-1-associated sicca syndrome. Additional evidence is provided by animal models.
Retroviruses are a family of viruses that cause a broad range of pathologies in animals and humans, from the apparently harmless, long-term genomic insertion of endogenous retroviruses, to tumors induced by the oncogenic retroviruses and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) resulting from human immunodeficiency virus infection. Disease can be the result of diverse mechanisms, including tumorigenesis induced by viral oncogenes or immune destruction, leading to the gradual loss of CD4 T-cells. Of the virally encoded proteins common to all retroviruses, the envelope (Env) displays perhaps the most diverse functionality. Env is primarily responsible for binding the cellular receptor and for effecting the fusion process, with these functions mediated by protein domains localized to the exterior of the virus. The remaining C-terminal domain may have the most variable functionality of all retroviral proteins. The C-terminal domains from three prototypical retroviruses are discussed, focusing on the
Background: Retroviruses are widely used to transfer genes to mammalian cells efficiently and stably. However, genetic elements required for high-level gene expression are incompatible with standard systems. The retroviral RNA genome is produced by cellular transcription and posttranscriptional processing within packaging cells: Introns present in the retroviral genomic transcript are removed by splicing, while polyadenylation signals lead to the production of ineffective truncated genomes. Furthermore strong enhancer/promoters within the retroviral payload lead to detrimental competition with the retroviral enhancer/promoter. Results: By exploiting a new method of producing the retroviral genome in vitro it is possible to produce infectious retroviral particles carrying a high-level expression cassette that completely prohibits production of infectious retroviral particles by conventional methods. We produced an expression cassette comprising a strong enhancer/promoter, an optimised intron, the ...
An exogenous retrovirus (XRV) that integrates into a germ cell may be inherited as a Mendelian gene; it becomes an endogenous retrovirus (ERV). The human genome consists of up to 8% HERVs.. The gammaretroviral (ERV class I) HERV-H, with 926 members, is the largest ERV group. Despite millions of years since integration, it has polymorphic envelope open reading frames in at least three loci. Selections for functional envelopes are indicated on chromosomes 1 and 2. However, envelopes were present only in a fraction of the total HERV-H. Mutated polymerases, indicating old ERVs, contradicted relatively intact long terminal repeats. To explain this, we formulated a Midwife element theory where proteins are complemented in trans.. A phylogenetic analysis did not support separate HERV-H and -F groups. The new taxonomy included HERV-H like (RGH2-like and RTVLH2-like subgroups) and Adjacent HERV-H like. A bioinformatic reconstruction of a putative ancestral HERV-H exposed novel traits. Two nucleocapsid ...
A major study on the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis was published in the October issue of Nature Neuroscience accompanied by a flurry of media reports. The study by Antony and colleagues describes the potential role of syncytin, a human endogenous retroviral glycoprotein, in the process of demyelination. We were impressed by the quality of the biochemical, immunohistological and neurobehavioural data presented by Antony et al .1 in support of the retroviral hypothesis but dismayed to see that the authors had omitted to mention or reference the highly relevant and extensive pre-existing literature of at least thirty papers linking multiple sclerosis with this retroviral family. ...
The NFAT family of transcription factors has been strongly implicated in the T cell activation-dependent regulation of numerous cytokine genes and is therefore believed to play a pivotal role in the TCR-induced expression of cytokine genes during Th cell differentiation (3, 4, 5). While the NFAT signaling pathway is known to be exquisitely sensitive to changes in the [Ca2+]i (6, 7, 12), which is believed to play an important role in coupling differences in TCR-induced signaling events into changes in gene expression, the role of spatiotemporally distinct patterns of NFAT signaling in the regulation of specific cytokine genes is not well understood. In the current study, we have used an efficient retroviral delivery system to introduce a calcineurin-independent, constitutively active mutant version of NFATc1 (caNFATc1) into primary murine CD4+ T cells, thereby allowing us to examine the functional consequences of sustained NFAT activity on gene expression in primary T cells.. While we found that ...
A technique for the transfer of endothelial cells and expression of recombinant genes in vivo could allow the introduction of proteins of therapeutic value in the management of cardiovascular diseases. Porcine endothelial cells expressing recombinant beta-galactosidase from a murine amphotropic retroviral vector were introduced with a catheter into denuded iliofemoral arteries of syngeneic animals. Arterial segments explanted 2 to 4 weeks later contained endothelial cells expressing beta-galactosidase, an indication that they were successfully implanted on the vessel wall. ...
When retroviruses have integrated their own genome into the germ line, their genome is passed on to a following generation. These endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), contrasted with exogenous ones, now make up 5-8% of the human genome.[3] Most insertions have no known function and are often referred to as junk DNA. However, many endogenous retroviruses play important roles in host biology, such as control of gene transcription, cell fusion during placental development in the course of the germination of an embryo, and resistance to exogenous retroviral infection. Endogenous retroviruses have also received special attention in the research of immunology-related pathologies, such as autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis, although endogenous retroviruses have not yet been proven to play any causal role in this class of disease. The role of endogenous retroviruses in human gene evolution is explored in a 2005 peer-reviewed article.[4]. While transcription was classically thought to only occur ...
Our laboratory is interested in the replication of mammalian retroviruses, including the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Moloney murine leukemia virus (M-MuLV). The major approach has been to alter cloned DNA copies of the viral genome by site-directed mutagenesis, and to determine the effects of these mutations on the viral life cycle after transfer of the altered DNAs into cells in culture. These genetic analyses have defined the functional domains of various viral proteins and the sites of their action on viral nucleic acids. We have also expressed reverse transcriptase and integrase in bacteria and studied these enzymes biochemically. We have applied the yeast two-hybrid system to monitor protein-protein interactions between viral proteins, and to identify new host proteins that interact with the Gag, Pol and Env gene products. We are also screening overexpression cDNA libraries, and RNAi knock-down libraries, in mammalian cells to identify novel host proteins involved in retroviral ...
At Oxford Genetics we have expertise in engineering and developing a wide range of recombinant viruses, including retrovirus. We now offer retrovirus vector design, custom cloning and production services.
Endogenous retroviruses are relics of ancient infections from retroviruses that managed to integrate into the genome of germline cells and remained vertically transmitted from parent to progeny. Subsequent to the endogenization process, these sequences can move and multiply in the host genome, which can have deleterious consequences and disturb genomic stability. Natural selection favored the establishment of silencing pathways that protect host genomes from the activity of endogenous retroviruses. RNA silencing mechanisms are involved, which utilize piRNAs. The response to exogenous viral infections uses siRNAs, a class of small RNAs that are generated via a distinct biogenesis pathway from piRNAs. However, interplay between both pathways has been identified, and interactions with anti-bacterial and anti-fungal immune responses are also suspected. This review focuses on Diptera (Arthropods) and intends to compile pieces of evidence showing that the RNA silencing pathway of endogenous retrovirus
In transgenic animal models, humoral immunity directed against the β-amyloid peptide (Aβ), which is deposited in the brains of AD patients, can reduce Aβ plaques and restore memory. However, initial clinical trials using active immunization with Aβ1-42 (plus adjuvant) had to be stopped as a subset of patients developed meningoencephalitis, likely due to cytotoxic T cell reactions against Aβ. Previously, we demonstrated that retrovirus-like particles displaying on their surface repetitive arrays of self and foreign Ags can serve as potent immunogens. In this study, we generated retrovirus-like particles that display the 15 N-terminal residues of human Aβ (lacking known T cell epitopes) fused to the transmembrane domain of platelet-derived growth factor receptor (Aβ retroparticles). Western blot analysis, ELISA, and immunogold electron microscopy revealed efficient incorporation of the fusion proteins into the particle membrane. Without the use of adjuvants, single immunization of WT mice ...
Principal Investigator:MARUYAMA Naoki, Project Period (FY):1991 - 1992, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (C), Research Field:Experimental pathology
Johnston JB, Silva C, Holden J, Warren KG, Clark AW, Power C. Monocyte activation and differentiation augment human endogenous retrovirus expression: implications for inflammatory brain diseases ...
Diako Ebrahimi, Christopher M. Richards, Michael A. Carpenter, Jiayi Wang, Terumasa Ikeda, Jordan T. Becker, Adam Z. Cheng, Jennifer L. McCann, Nadine M. Shaban, Daniel J. Salamango, Gabriel J. Starrett, Jairam R. Lingappa, Jeongsik Yong, William L. Brown & Reuben S. Harris, Genetic and mechanistic basis for APOBEC3H alternative splicing, retrovirus restriction, and counteraction by HIV-1 protease Nature Communications9:4137 ...
RNA, one of the major carriers of information needed for life, has had a glitch for 3 billion years that creates errors when making copies of genetic information. Researchers at The University of Texas at Austin have developed a fix that allows RNA to accurately proofread for the first time.. The new discovery will increase precision in genetic research and could dramatically improve medicine based on a persons genetic makeup.. A class of viruses called retroviruses can cause RNA to make copies of DNA, a process called reverse transcription. This process is notoriously prone to errors because an evolutionary ancestor of all viruses never had the ability to accurately copy genetic material.. The new innovation engineered at UT Austin is an enzyme that performs reverse transcription but can also proofread, or check its work while copying genetic code. The enzyme allows, for the first time, for large amounts of RNA information to be copied with near perfect accuracy.. ...
Summary Retroviral packaging cell lines were constructed by using the gag-pol gene of spleen necrosis virus, the gag-pol gene of Moloney murine leukaemia virus and the env gene of bovine leukaemia virus. The plasmids containing the gag-pol genes and the plasmid containing the env gene were cotransfected into NIH/3T3 and D17 cells. The cells containing the helper virus constructs were tested for their ability to package replication-defective murine leukaemia and avian reticuloendotheliosis retrovirus vectors. The titre of vector virus produced by each of the retroviral packaging cell lines was about 102 colony-forming units per ml of medium. Tests for events that might result in intact replication-competent retroviruses showed no evidence for the generation of such viruses. The vector viruses were able to infect dog and rat cells. Bovine cells were infected only after their cocultivation with the retroviral packaging cell lines producing murine leukaemia virus vectors, perhaps as a result of a low
TY - JOUR. T1 - Retroviral-mediated transfer and expression of hepatitis B e antigen in human primary skin fibroblasts and Esptein-Barr virus-transformed B lymphocytes. AU - Raney, A. K.. AU - Milich, D. R.. AU - Hughes, J. L.. AU - Sorge, J.. AU - Chisari, F. V.. AU - Mondelli, M. U.. AU - McLachlan, A.. PY - 1989. Y1 - 1989. N2 - Previously, an amphotropic retroviral expression system coding for the neomycin resistance gene was developed and used to synthesize hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and hepatitis B core/e antigen (HBc/eAg) in transfected mouse NIH 3T3 fibroblasts (A. McLachlan et al., 1987, J. Virol. 61, 683-692). In the present study, these transfected cell lines were infected with a helper amphotropic murine leukemia virus resulting in the production of infectious recombinant retrovirus. The recombinant retrovirus was examined for its capacity to transmit resistance to the antibiotic, G418, and to express hepatitis B virus antigens in mouse NIH 3T3 fibroblasts, human primary skin ...
The 5 nucleotide sequences of the transforming gene of simian sarcoma virus (v-sis) and its human cellular homolog (c-sis) were compared. A short homology was found between helper virus and cellular DNA sequences at the junction of v-sis and c-sis, which may have had a role in the original recombination event leading to the generation of simian sarcoma virus. ...
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BOSC 23 is a human kidney cell line developed by Warren Pear in David Baltimores lab and is derived from the 293T cell line. The main use of BOSC 23 is the production of recombinant retroviruses; it stably expresses Moloney murine leukemia virus proteins and when transiently transfected with recombinant retroviral vector DNA will produce high titers of infectious retroviral particles. The cell line does not produce detectable replication-competent virus, an important safety feature. BOSC 23 carries neomycin/G418 resistance derived from its parental line 293T, and also hygromycin and mycophenolic acid (gpt) resistance. It should be maintained under gpt selection. This cell line is a model for cancer research which doesnt express activated Src protein. http://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/methods/2000-December/086646.html Pear WS, Nolan GP, Scott ML, Baltimore D (15 Sep 1993). Production of high-titer helper-free retroviruses by transient transfection. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 90 (18): 8392-8396. ...
There are currently over 417 human clinical trials involving retroviral gene therapy registered in the Journal of Gene Medicine database (http://www.abedia.com/wiley/vectors.php, accessed in July, 2016). The first successful gene therapy protocol occurred in the 1990s. In that protocol, two patients with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) due to adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency were treated with a retroviral vector carrying the ADA coding sequence under the transcriptional control of the promoter/enhancers of the long terminal repeat of the MLV. ADA disease is characterized by defective T and natural killer cell maturations as well as low B cell function, causing recurrent infections. In this pioneer trial, one of the treated patients recovered cell counts and function, showing no adverse effects after 4 years. The response was more limited in the second patient primarily due to lower transduction efficacy; however, other causes could have contribute to this low efficiency such as ...
The p16INK4A gene product halts cell proliferation by preventing phosphorylation of the Rb protein. The p16INK4a gene is often deleted in human glioblastoma multiforme, contributing to unchecked Rb phosphorylation and rapid cell division. We show here that transduction of the human p16INK4a cDNA using the pCL retroviral system is an efficient means of stopping the proliferation of the rat-derrived glioma cell line, C6, both in tissue culture and in an animal model. C6 cells were transduced with pCL retrovirus encoding the p16INK4a, p53, or Rb genes. These cells were analyzed by a colony formation assay. Expression of p16INK4a was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. The altered morphology of the p16-expressing cells was further characterized by the senescence-associated β-galactosidase assay. C6 cells infected ex vivo were implanted by stereotaxic injection in order to assess tumor formation. The p16INK4a gene arrested C6 cells more efficiently than either p53 or Rb. Continued
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The present invention relates to the expression and screening of genomic DNA sequences encoding uncharacterized genes and proteins. The present invention provides systems utilizing unique features of retroviral replication to analyze uncharacterized genes derived from genomic DNA samples. In preferred embodiments, a segment of genomic DNA is inserted between 5′ and 3′ viral long terminal repeats (LTRs) in a vector (e.g., a plasmid, cosmid, or artificial chromosome vector). The resulting vector (or library of vectors containing a plurality of independent genomic sequences) is then introduced into a retroviral packaging cell. The resulting provirus or proteins expression from the provirus are then analyzed.
Antibodies and reagents. Recombinant human autotaxin (ATX) was purchased from Phoenix Pharmaceuticals. Goat anti-RhoC antibody was purchased from Santa Cruz Biotechnology. Biotin anti-mouse CD31 antibody was purchased from Biolegend. Rhodamine-conjugated phalloidin was purchased from Molecular Probes. Rho Activation Assay Kit was purchased from Upstate. pSUPER.retro.neo retroviral expression vector was purchased from Oligoengine. Matrigel was purchased from Becton Dickinson.. Cell cultures and transfections. HCCLM3 and MHCC97-L cell lines, two HCC cell lines with differently metastatic potentials, were obtained from Liver Cancer Institute and Zhong Shan Hospital of Fudan University. HepG2 HCC cell line was provided by Cell Center of Xiangya Medical School. PT67 retroviral packaging cell line was purchased from BD Biosciences Clontech. These cell lines were cultured in high-glucose DMEM supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum and incubated in 5% CO2 at 37°C. For transfection of packaging cells, ...
Carcinogenesis is a multistep process involving alterations in various cellular pathways. The critical genetic events driving the evolution of primary liver cancer, specifically hepatoblastoma and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), are still poorly understood. However, telomere stabilization is acknowledged as prerequisite for cancer progression in humans. In this project, human fetal hepatocytes were utilized as a cell culture model for untransformed, proliferating human liver cells, with...
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Here we describe the isolation and characterization of rCop-1, a novel CCN family protein whose expression was completely lost after cell transformation. Functional studies suggest that rCop-1is a negative regulator for cell transformation based on the following findings. The loss of rCop-1 expression correlates extremely well with cell transformation in culture, since cells transformed by a variety of mechanisms all lost rCop-1 expression. BALB/c A31 and Rat-1 are both immortalized but nontransformed, yet only the former expresses rCop-1. However, both A31 and REFs, the parental cells of Rat-1, lose rCop-1 expression when transformed by a variety of means. This suggests that the loss of rCop-1expression in cultured rodent fibroblasts may not be necessary for cell immortalization but may be so for cell transformation. Efficient retroviral gene transfer of rCop-1 exhibited a dramatic cytotoxic effect on the transformed cells but had little effect on the nontransformed cells.. The first member of ...
The RNA export adaptor protein Rec, encoded for from the individual endogenous retrovirus HERV-K/HML-2 elements, binds towards the Rec responsive element (RcRE) situated in the 3 untranslated region of HERV-K/HML-2 transcripts. had been destined and exported by Rec still, indicating that the organic folded structure from the RcRE is very important to Rec binding. This suggests a binding model where up to three Rec tetramers bind towards the complicated folded structure from the RcRE as well as the binding appears to be tightened by identification from the purine-rich motifs. Launch GSK690693 supplier Approximately 8% from the individual genome includes retrovirus-like sequences (19). These individual endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) had been presumably acquired through the progression by occasional attacks of specific germ cells with exogenous infections, accompanied by fixation of such endogenized retroviral components in the particular population (for testimonials, see personal references 5 and ...
13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 33 means of pinhole SPECT in a TNBS colitis mouse model. Nucl. Med. Biol. 31, 93-101. Hildebrandt, I. J. and Gambhir, S. S. (2004) Molecular imaging applications for immunology. Clin. Immunol. 111, 210-224. , et al. (2004) Magnetic resonance tracking of transplanted bone marrow and embryonic stem cells labeled by iron oxide nanoparticles in rat brain and spinal cord. J. Neurosci. Res. 76, 232-243. , et al. (2002) Tracking transplanted stem cell migration using bifunctional, contrast agent-enhanced, magnetic resonance imaging. 1. Retroviral Transduction of Murine Bone Marrow and Stem Cells 1. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU; for human injection), American Pharmaceutical Partners, Inc. NDC 63323-117-10 (50 mg/mL, 10 mL). Stock concentration 25 mg/mL in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), aliquot, and store at -20°C. 2. Retroviral packaging cell line. 3. Retroviral expression plasmid. 4. Lipofectamine 2000 transfection reagent (Invitrogen, cat. no. 75 mL) (see Note 1). 5. ...
Green KA, Cook WJ, Green WR Myeloid-derived suppressor cells in murine retrovirus-induced AIDS inhibit T- and B-cell responses in vitro that are used to define the immunodeficiency. J Virol 2013 Feb; 87(4):2058-71 PMID: 23221564. Li W, Green WR Immunotherapy of murine retrovirus-induced acquired immunodeficiency by CD4 T regulatory cell depletion and PD-1 blockade. J Virol 2011 Dec; 85(24):13342-53 PMID: 21917983. Li W, Carlson TL, Green WR Stimulation-dependent induction of CD154 on a subset of CD4+ FoxP3+ T-regulatory cells. Int Immunopharmacol 2011 Sep; 11(9):1205-10 PMID: 21496498. Rutkowski MR, Stevens CA, Green WR Impaired memory CD8 T cell responses against an immunodominant retroviral cryptic epitope. Virology 2011 Apr 10; 412(2):256-68 PMID: 21295815. Carlson TL, Green KA, Green WR Alternative translational reading frames as a novel source of epitopes for an expanded CD8 T-cell repertoire: use of a retroviral system to assess the translational requirements for CTL recognition and lysis. ...
Several Wnt genes are expressed in the postnatal mouse mammary gland and are thought to be involved in mammary gland development. Ectopic expression of Wnt-1, which is not normally expressed in the mammary gland, drives the formation of a pre-neoplastic hyperplasia. Cell culture-based assays have shown that Wnt-1 and some mammary-expressed Wnts transform C57MG cells. This has led to the suggestion that Wnt-1 functions as an oncogene through the inappropriate activation of developmental events that are normally controlled by the transforming class of Wnts. In this study, Wnt-7b was expressed in vivo using recombinant retroviruses. Wnt-7b did not alter normal mammary gland development despite having similar effects to Wnt-1 in cell culture. We conclude that the in vitro classification of Wnts as transforming does not correlate with the transformation in vivo. To facilitate the analysis of Wnt-expression, a lacZ-containing, bicistronic recombinant retrovirus was developed. Immunohistochemistry ...
FUNCTION: Retroviral envelope proteins mediate receptor recognition and membrane fusion during early infection. Endogenous envelope proteins may have kept, lost or modified their original function during evolution. This endogenous envelope protein has lost its original fusogenic properties. TISSUE SPECIFICITY: Low expression in placenta and testis. DOMAIN: Contains the CKS-17 immunosuppressive domain present in many retroviral envelope proteins. As a synthetic peptide, it inhibits immune function in vitro and in vivo (By similarity ...
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Naviaux, R.K., Costanzi, E., Haas, M. and Verma, I.M. (1996) The pCL Vector System Rapid Production of Helper-Free, High-Titer, Recombinant Retroviruses. Journal of Virology, 70, 5701-5705.
Rodrigues, A. F.; Guerreiro , M. R.; Formas-Oliveira, A. S.; Fernandes, P.; Blechert, A.-K.; Genzel, Y.; Alves, P.M.; Hu , W.S.; Coroadinha, A.S.: Increased titer and reduced lactate accumulation in recombinant retrovirus production through the down-regulation of HIF1 and PDK. Biotechnology and Bioengineering 113 (1), pp. 150 - 162 (2016 ...
When retroviruses have integrated their own genome into the germ line, their genome is passed on to a following generation. These endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), contrasted with exogenous ones, now make up 5-8% of the human genome.[7] Most insertions have no known function and are often referred to as junk DNA. However, many endogenous retroviruses play important roles in host biology, such as control of gene transcription, cell fusion during placental development in the course of the germination of an embryo, and resistance to exogenous retroviral infection. Endogenous retroviruses have also received special attention in the research of immunology-related pathologies, such as autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis, although endogenous retroviruses have not yet been proven to play any causal role in this class of disease.[8] While transcription was classically thought to occur only from DNA to RNA, reverse transcriptase transcribes RNA into DNA. The term retro in retrovirus refers to ...
The Barretts esophagus cell line, CP-B (also identified as CP52731 or ChTERT), was derived from an endoscopic biopsy specimen obtained from a region of high-grade dysplasia and transduced with the retroviral expression vector, pLXSN-hTERT, to create an immortalized cell line.
The Barretts esophagus cell line, CP-C (also identified as CP-94251) was derived from an endoscopic biopsy specimen obtained from a region of high-grade dysplasia. The cells were immortalized by transduction with a retroviral expression vector, pLXSN-hTERT, to create an immortalized cell line.
Nusse R, van Ooyen A, Rijsewijk F, van Lohuizen M, Schuuring E, vant Veer L. Retroviral insertional mutagenesis in murine mammary cancer. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1985;226:3-13. Abstract ...
At the trade fair Siemens is exhibiting its entire integrated portfolio, which includes RFID and Data Matrix code reading systems, Machine Vision and manufacturing execution systems, and also supports modular machine concepts. With distributed synchronous operation, the Simotion Motion Control System establishes the synchronous relationships between machine modules that are automated on a distributed basis. Also when dealing with alarm logging, operating mode management, general emergency-off functionality and other standard functions, the system can coordinate and utilize the intelligence distributed across the packaging line. In addition this includes software libraries for the automation of entire packaging lines, including the handling processes. Consisting of standardized and simple-to-adapt Motion Control solutions, these Siemens OPL (Optimized Packaging Line) libraries also conform to the regulations of 21 CFR part 11. Standards such as OMAC (Open Modular Architecture Controls Users ...
Small molecule inhibitors, such as imatinib, are effective therapies for tyrosine kinase fusions BCR-ABL-TEL-PDGFβR-mediated human leukemias, but resistance may develop. The unique fusion junctions of these molecules are attractive candidates for molecularly targeted therapeutic intervention using RNA interference (RNAi), which is mediated by small interfering RNA (siRNA). We developed a retroviral system for stable expression of siRNA directed to the unique fusion junction sequence of TEL-PDGFβR in transformed hematopoietic cells. Stable expression of the siRNA resulted in approximately 90% inhibition of TEL-PDGFβR expression and its downstream effectors, including PI3K and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Expression of TEL-PDGFβR-specific siRNA (TPsiRNA) significantly attenuated the proliferation of TEL-PDGFβR-transformed Ba/F3 cells or disease latency and penetrance in mice induced by intravenous injection of these Ba/F3 cells. Although a 90% reduction in TEL-PDGFβR expression was ...
We describe the construction in retroviral vectors and the expression of recombinant rat fibronectin (FN) cDNAs corresponding with the various alternatively spliced forms of FN. In NIH 3T3 cells, the exogenous rat FN subunits are efficiently secreted as heterodimers with endogenous mouse subunits. In contrast, in lymphoid WEHI231 cells, there is no endogenous FN synthesis and the recombinant FNs are secreted and can be purified as homogeneous proteins. We show that the purified recombinant FNs are biochemically and biologically functional. In basic assays for adhesion, spreading, cytoskeletal organization, and migration using various established adherent cell lines, different forms of FNs containing the different alternatively spliced segments show no marked differences in activity. We have used these recombinant FNs to investigate three systems in which earlier results had suggested potential differences between different forms of FN. First, all forms tested appear equally active in restoring ...
A Phase 2/3 clinical trial called Toca 5 - investigating a retroviral gene therapy treatment in patients with recurrent brain cancer - is actively enrolling at Atlantic NeuroSurgical Specialists (ANS).According to Dr.
Retroviruses comprise a large group of animal viruses. These viruses have attracted attention because of a) their unique replication cycle that involves copying of genetic information from RNA to DNA by reverse transcription and insertion of viral DNA into the genome of the host cell, b) the pathogenicity of some of viruses in man and animals, c) the extensive occurrence of retroviral sequences in the normal genome of man and animals, and d) the exploitation of retrovirus-based gene-transfer vehicles as tools in research and in gene-therapy trials ...
Retroviruses comprise a large group of animal viruses. These viruses have attracted attention because of a) their unique replication cycle that involves copying of genetic information from RNA to DNA by reverse transcription and insertion of viral DNA into the genome of the host cell, b) the pathogenicity of some of viruses in man and animals, c) the extensive occurrence of retroviral sequences in the normal genome of man and animals, and d) the exploitation of retrovirus-based gene-transfer vehicles as tools in research and in gene-therapy trials ...
[With apologies if this has already been posted in another thread. Note that University College London (UCL) is not the same institution as Kings...
Watch this short video tutorial to discover how DNASTARs SeqMan NGen viral host integration workflow can be used to locate retroviruses inserted in to host genetic material. This example analyzes samples from a gene therapy experiment.
Watch this short video tutorial to discover how DNASTARs SeqMan NGen viral host integration workflow can be used to locate retroviruses inserted in to host genetic material. This example analyzes samples from a gene therapy experiment.
Download the Boho Vector Design Elements 88373 royalty-free Vector from Vecteezy for your project and explore over a million other vectors, icons and clipart graphics!
Did viruses help make us human? As weird as it sounds, the question is actually a reasonable one to ask. And now scientists have offered some evidence that the answer may be yes.. If youre sick right now with the flu or a cold, the viruses infecting you are just passing through. They invade your cells and make new copies of themselves, which burst forth and infect other cells. Eventually your immune system will wipe them out, but theres a fair chance some of them may escape and infect someone else.. But sometimes viruses can merge into our genomes. Some viruses, for example, hijack our cells by inserting its genes into our own DNA. If they happen to slip into the genome of an egg, they can potentially get a new lease on life. If the egg is fertilized and grows into an embryo, the new cells will also contain the viruss DNA. And when that embryo becomes an adult, the virus has a chance to move into the next generation.. These so-called endogenous retroviruses are sometimes quite dangerous. ...
Connect with Featured Speakers and Experts from USA, Europe, Middle East and Asia Pacific at Retroviruses and Novel drug Conferences, Emerging Retroviruses and Novel drug Conferences, Retroviruses and Novel drug Meetings scheduled from July 27-28, 2017 Vancoure,Canada
"Retroviridae". www.uniprot.org. Retrieved 2020-02-16. Hardy, W. D.; Hess, P. W.; MacEwen, E. G.; McClelland, A. J.; Zuckerman, ... FeLV is an oncogenic gammaretrovirus belonging to the orthoretrovirinae subfamily and retroviridae family. First discovered in ... PERV was first described in 1970, belonging to the gammaretrovirus genus, Orthoretrovirinae subfamily and Retroviridae family ...
"Retroviridae". ViralZone. SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics. Retrieved 2015-10-03. "Enterovirus". ViralZone. SIB Swiss ... Retroviridae and Togaviridae). All the non-enveloped families have icosahedral nucleocapsids. Negative single-stranded RNA ...
Retroviridae). Viruses in Fuselloviridae are enveloped, with lemon-shaped geometries. The diameter is around 60 nm, with a ...
Retroviridae). SSV6 belongs to the genus Betafusellovirus. Viruses in Alphafusellovirus are enveloped, with lemon-shaped ...
The Simian foamy virus (SFV) is a species of the genus Spumavirus, which belongs to the family of Retroviridae. It has been ... Loh, Philip C. (1993). "Spumaviruses". The Retroviridae. The Viruses. Springer, Boston, MA. pp. 361-397. doi:10.1007/978-1-4899 ...
This is unlike Lentivirus, a genus of Retroviridae, which are able to integrate their RNA into the genome of non-dividing host ... Coffin JM (1992). "Structure and Classification of Retroviruses". In Levy JA (ed.). The Retroviridae. 1 (1st ed.). New York: ... Group VI includes: Order Ortervirales Family Belpaoviridae Family Metaviridae Family Pseudoviridae Family Retroviridae - ... Retroviridae, and Caulimoviridae constitute the order Ortervirales. Endogenous retroviruses are not formally included in this ...
Montagnier L (1999). "Human Immunodeficiency Viruses (Retroviridae)". Encyclopedia of Virology (2nd ed.). pp. 763-774. Lu K, ...
In the Retroviridae (e.g. HIV), genome damage appears to be avoided during reverse transcription by strand switching, a form of ...
"Retroviridae - Reverse Transcribing DNA and RNA Viruses - Reverse Transcribing DNA and RNA Viruses (2011)". International ... "ICTV 9th Report (2011) Retroviridae". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). Retrieved 29 December 2018. "ICTV ...
In the retroviridae ((+)ssRNA)(e.g. HIV), damage in the RNA genome appears to be avoided during reverse transcription by strand ...
... is a genus of the Retroviridae family. It has type B or type D morphology. The type B is common for a few ...
... is a genus of the family Retroviridae. It has type C morphology. Members can cause sarcomas, other tumors, and ...
... is a genus of the Retroviridae family. It consists of exogenous horizontally transmitted viruses found in ...
... is a genus in the retroviridae family. Example species are the murine leukemia virus and the feline leukemia ... Gammaretrovirus is a part of the retroviridae family. Gammaretroviruses are considered zoonotic viruses because they are found ...
... is a waterborn genus of the Retroviridae family. It infects fish. The species include Walleye dermal sarcoma ...
The genus is one of 6 genera in subfamily orthoretrovirinae which together with genus Spumavirus form family retroviridae of ... all RNA retroviruses (RNA viruses which use a DNA intermediate). The order to which family retroviridae belongs is not ...
ASLV is a Group VI virus of the family Retroviridae. It is of the genus Alpharetrovirus, and has a C-type morphology. Hence, it ...
Foamy viruses are the only viruses of the Retroviridae that reside in the subfamily Spumaretrovirinae. The remainder of the ... EFV, along with other FVs are from the family Retroviridae and subfamily Spumaretrovirinae. Spumarivuses, such as EFV, are ... It is classified in the genus Equispumavirus, subfamily Spumaretrovirinae and family Retroviridae. ... thus making a clear distinctive quality of foamy viruses from other Retroviridae. EFV has characteristics of viruses from other ...
... is a member of the genus Lentivirus, part of the family Retroviridae. Lentiviruses have many morphologies and biological ...
HTLV-1 is a retrovirus belonging to the family retroviridae and the genus deltaretrovirus. It has a positive-sense RNA genome ...
JSRV belongs to the family Retroviridae, to the subfamily Orthoretrovirinae and the genus Betaretrovirus. JSRV is transmitted ...
ENTV belongs to the family Retroviridae, to the subfamily Orthoretrovirinae and the genus Betaretrovirus. The tumors that are ...
... is included in the order Ortervirales along with families Belpaoviridae, Metaviridae, Retroviridae, and ...
Spumaviruses differ from the other six members of family retroviridae, both structurally and in pathogenic nature. Spumaviruses ...
It is a member of the retroviridae group of viruses, with its nucleic acid being ssRNA. Experiments have shown that it is ...
Ty5 is a relative of the Retroviridae family of retroviruses, which includes the human pathogen HIV. Ty5 is a tractable system ...
... , commonly called spumaviruses (spuma, Latin for "foam") or foamyviruses, is a subfamily of the Retroviridae ...
Retroviridae, and Caulimoviridae constitute the order Ortervirales. Llorens, C; Soriano, B; Krupovic, M; ICTV Report Consortium ...
... (FeLV) is an RNA virus in the subfamily Oncovirinae belonging to the Retroviridae family. The virus ...
... viruses are one of two RNA viruses that replicate in the nucleus (the other being retroviridae). This is ...
Oncogenic retroviridae proteins are retroviral proteins that have the ability to transform cells. They can induce sarcomas, ... Oncogenic Definition: retroviridae proteins, oncogenic from Online Medical Dictionary "MeSH browser entry". v t e. ...
Retroviridae - the Study of a Virus Family. Salini Thulasirajah Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window ... Retroviridae This family of viruses is a large and diverse family that is defined by common structure, composition, and ... A complex genus from the Retroviridae family, Lentivirus is classified by the long incubation period of the virus. Thus far, ... The latter two families and Retroviridae are single-stranded RNA viruses, which use a DNA intermediate to replicate. ...
Retroviridae. References[edit]. *Coffin, J.M. 1992. Structure and classification of retroviruses. In: The Retroviridae, Vol 1 ... Familia: Retroviridae. Subfamiliae: Orthoretrovirinae - Spumaretrovirinae. Genera (overview): Alpharetrovirus - Betaretrovirus ... Retroviridae. In: ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database, version 4. Büchen-Osmond, C. (Ed), Columbia University, New York, USA ... Retrieved from "https://species.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Retroviridae&oldid=3167467" ...
... Recent Updates Human T-cell Leukemia Virus Useful Links References Drug Profiles: Indinavir Fortovase Invirase ...
changes in frequency, activation state, and HIV-specific functional capacity of T and NK cells in blood, as monitored by expression of intracellular cytokines during the first 12 weeks after stopping HAART, with respect to termination of Step ...
Retroviridae. References. *Coffin, J.M. 1992: Structure and classification of retroviruses. In: The Retroviridae, Vol 1, (J. ... Retroviruses are enveloped viruses that belong to the viral family Retroviridae.. The virus itself stores its nucleic acid in ... The Retroviridae (1st ed.). New York: Plenum Press. pp. 26-34. ISBN 0-306-44074-1. ... The Retroviridae (1st ed.). New York: Plenum Press. pp. 20. ISBN 0-306-44074-1. ...
The volumes on the retroviridae are the most detailed, up-to-date accounts of the field available. The current volume begins ... and then goes on to review specific viruses found in a number of animal species.The Retroviridae Volume 1 (The Viruses), 1 was ...
Dubois-Dalcq M., Holmes K.V., Rentier B. (1984) Assembly of Retroviridae. In: Assembly of Enveloped RNA Viruses. Springer, ...
You searched for: Creator Royal North Shore Hospital of Sydney Remove constraint Creator: Royal North Shore Hospital of Sydney Subject Retroviridae Remove constraint Subject: Retroviridae ...
You searched for: Publisher University of California, San Francisco. News/Public Information Services Remove constraint Publisher: University of California, San Francisco. News/Public Information Services Subject Retroviridae Remove constraint Subject: Retroviridae ...
Tissue engineering holds the promise of replacing damaged or diseased tissues and organs. The use of autologous donor cells is often not feasible because of the limited replicative lifespan of cells, particularly those derived from elderly patients. Proliferative arrest can be overcome by the ectopic expression of telomerase via human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene transfection. To study the efficacy and safety of this potentially valuable technology, we used differentiated vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) and vascular tissue engineering as a model system ...
Retroviridae. In: Concise Review of Veterinary Virology Author(s):. Wise D.J. and ...
Book; Format: print Publisher: Boca Raton, Fla. : CRC Press, 1992Availability: Items available for loan: WHO HQ [Call number: WC 503.1 92CO] (1). ...
"Retroviridae". www.uniprot.org. Retrieved 2020-02-16. Hardy, W. D.; Hess, P. W.; MacEwen, E. G.; McClelland, A. J.; Zuckerman, ... FeLV is an oncogenic gammaretrovirus belonging to the orthoretrovirinae subfamily and retroviridae family. First discovered in ... PERV was first described in 1970, belonging to the gammaretrovirus genus, Orthoretrovirinae subfamily and Retroviridae family ...
whilst families Belpaoviridae, Metaviridae, Pseudoviridae, Retroviridae, and Caulimoviridae constitute the order Ortervirales.[ ... This is unlike Lentivirus, a genus of Retroviridae, which are able to integrate their RNA into the genome of non-dividing host ... The family Retroviridae was previously divided into three subfamilies (Oncovirinae, Lentivirinae, and Spumavirinae), but are ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Retroviridae.. *ViralZone A Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics resource for all viral ...
These viruses belong to the family Retroviridae. 2. B. Measles (rubeola) is a highly infectious childhood disease. Infection ...
MLVs belong to the virus family Retroviridae and the genus gammaretrovirus and have a single-stranded RNA genome that ...
El virus de inmunodeficiencia felina, VIF o FIV (por su sigla en inglés) es un lentivirus (de la familia Retroviridae) que ...
Retroviridae HIV types 1, 2. humans. AIDS. HTLV type I. humans. adult T-cell leukemia. ...
... and Retroviridae. For example, it is intended that the present invention encompass methods for the detection of RNA-containing ...
Familie Retroviridae. *Unterfamilie Orthoretrovirinae. *Genus Alpharetrovirus. *Genus Betaretrovirus. *Genus Gammaretrovirus. * ...
Retroviridae 15. Reoviridae 16. Birnaviridae 17. Paramyxoviridae 18. Rhabdoviridae 19. Filoviridae 20. Bornaviridae 21. ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on PNAS.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
Family Retroviridae Family Hepadnaviridae Further Reading 6. DNA-Containing Viruses. Introduction Family Poxviridae Family ...
Subsection 12: Retroviridae. 191. Human Retroviruses 191-A: Oncoviruses (Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Viruses) and Lentiviruses ( ...
Family Retroviridae 401. 14 Cytopathology of Pathogenic Prokaryotes 425. Structure of the Bacterial Cell 425 ...
Retroviridae. In: Knipe DM, Howley P, eds. Fields Virology. 6th ed. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA: Lippincott Wiliams and ...
Retroviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections. Virus Diseases. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral. Sexually Transmitted ...
... including Retroviridae, Baculoviridae, Filoviridae, Flaviviridae, Arenaviridae, Rhabdoviridae, Paramyxoviridae, and ...
Retroviridae. NAA; AD. RCC. Epi + mol + sem. Human T-cell lymphoma virus 1†. Retroviridae. No data found. RAS. Epi + mol. ...
  • El virus de inmunodeficiencia felina , VIF o FIV (por su sigla en inglés ) es un lentivirus (de la familia Retroviridae ) que afecta a los gatos domésticos mundialmente, y es el agente causante del sida felino . (wikipedia.org)
  • HIV-1 is a lentivirus, a separate genus of the Retroviridae, which are complex RNA viruses that integrate into the genome of host cells and replicate intracellularly. (bioscience.org)
  • HIV is a member of the genus Lentivirus , [14] part of the family Retroviridae . (wikipedia.org)
  • The latter two families and Retroviridae are single-stranded RNA viruses, which use a DNA intermediate to replicate. (tolweb.org)
  • Retroviruses are enveloped viruses that belong to the viral family Retroviridae . (thefullwiki.org)
  • The current volume begins with observations of the general features of retrovirus entry into cells as determinedby their envelope glycoproteins and cell surface receptors, and then goes on to review specific viruses found in a number of animal species.The Retroviridae Volume 1 (The Viruses), 1 was published 1992 under ISBN 9780306440748 and ISBN 0306440741. (valorebooks.com)
  • Within the family of Retroviridae , foamy viruses (FVs) are unique and unconventional with respect to many aspects in their molecular biology, including assembly and release of enveloped viral particles. (mdpi.com)
  • [8] MLVs belong to the virus family Retroviridae and the genus gammaretrovirus and have a single-stranded RNA genome that replicates through a DNA intermediate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genus Tequatrovirus ( T4virus , T4-ähnliche Viren , en. (wikipedia.org)
  • Koala retrovirus belongs to the family Retroviridae , and the genus Gammaretrovirus . (kenyon.edu)
  • HTLV belongs to the Retroviridae family in the genus Deltaretrovirus. (medscape.com)
  • Este virus difere taxonómicamente de otros dos retrovirus felinos, el virus de leucemia felina ( FeLV en inglés) y el espumavirus felino ( FFV en inglés) y está más emparentado con el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana ( VIH ). (wikipedia.org)
  • A retrovirus is any virus belonging to the viral family Retroviridae . (bionity.com)
  • Oncogenic retroviridae proteins are retroviral proteins that have the ability to transform cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • WHO HQ Library catalog › Results of search for 'su:{Retroviridae. (who.int)
  • ABSTRACT: Small ruminant lentiviruses (LV) is the generic term for the caprine arthritis-encephalitis and Maedi-Visna viruses, which belong to the Retroviridae family, Orthoretrovirinae subfamily, Lentivirus genus. (scielo.org)
  • RESUMO: Lentivírus de pequenos ruminantes (LV) é o termo genérico utilizado para designar os vírus da artrite encefalite caprina e Maedi-Visna, os quais pertencem à família Retroviridae, subfamília Orthoretrovirinae, gênero Lentivirus. (scielo.org)
  • Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) is in the same family, Retroviridae, as Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV). (mypetsdoctor.com)