Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Length of Stay: The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Hospitals, University: Hospitals maintained by a university for the teaching of medical students, postgraduate training programs, and clinical research.Hong Kong: The former British crown colony located off the southeast coast of China, comprised of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula, and New Territories. The three sites were ceded to the British by the Chinese respectively in 1841, 1860, and 1898. Hong Kong reverted to China in July 1997. The name represents the Cantonese pronunciation of the Chinese xianggang, fragrant port, from xiang, perfume and gang, port or harbor, with reference to its currents sweetened by fresh water from a river west of it.Reoperation: A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Tertiary Care Centers: A medical facility which provides a high degree of subspecialty expertise for patients from centers where they received SECONDARY CARE.France: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.Medical Records: Recording of pertinent information concerning patient's illness or illnesses.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Hospitals, Teaching: Hospitals engaged in educational and research programs, as well as providing medical care to the patients.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.IndiaDisease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.BrazilAnti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Hospital Mortality: A vital statistic measuring or recording the rate of death from any cause in hospitalized populations.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.RomaniaMedical Audit: A detailed review and evaluation of selected clinical records by qualified professional personnel for evaluating quality of medical care.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Fracture Fixation, Internal: The use of internal devices (metal plates, nails, rods, etc.) to hold the position of a fracture in proper alignment.United StatesIntensive Care Units: Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.Malaysia: A parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch in southeast Asia, consisting of 11 states (West Malaysia) on the Malay Peninsula and two states (East Malaysia) on the island of BORNEO. It is also called the Federation of Malaysia. Its capital is Kuala Lumpur. Before 1963 it was the Union of Malaya. It reorganized in 1948 as the Federation of Malaya, becoming independent from British Malaya in 1957 and becoming Malaysia in 1963 as a federation of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore (which seceded in 1965). The form Malay- probably derives from the Tamil malay, mountain, with reference to its geography. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p715 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p329)Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Intraoperative Complications: Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.Laparoscopy: A procedure in which a laparoscope (LAPAROSCOPES) is inserted through a small incision near the navel to examine the abdominal and pelvic organs in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. If appropriate, biopsy or surgery can be performed during laparoscopy.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.TurkeyTunisia: A country in northern Africa between ALGERIA and LIBYA. Its capital is Tunis.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Treatment Failure: A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.EnglandVisual Acuity: Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Emergency Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.JapanLymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Gingival DiseasesDiagnostic Errors: Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.Maxillary Fractures: Fractures of the upper jaw.Eye Injuries: Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Postoperative Period: The period following a surgical operation.ItalyLung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Preoperative Care: Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Bacteremia: The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.Trauma Severity Indices: Systems for assessing, classifying, and coding injuries. These systems are used in medical records, surveillance systems, and state and national registries to aid in the collection and reporting of trauma.Patient Selection: Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.Injury Severity Score: An anatomic severity scale based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and developed specifically to score multiple traumatic injuries. It has been used as a predictor of mortality.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Referral and Consultation: The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.Endoscopy: Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.Hospitals, General: Large hospitals with a resident medical staff which provides continuous care to maternity, surgical and medical patients.Surgical Wound Infection: Infection occurring at the site of a surgical incision.Orthopedic Procedures: Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.SingaporeDecompression, Surgical: A surgical operation for the relief of pressure in a body compartment or on a body part. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Emergencies: Situations or conditions requiring immediate intervention to avoid serious adverse results.Zygomatic Fractures: Fractures of the zygoma.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Intensive Care: Advanced and highly specialized care provided to medical or surgical patients whose conditions are life-threatening and require comprehensive care and constant monitoring. It is usually administered in specially equipped units of a health care facility.Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Multiple Trauma: Multiple physical insults or injuries occurring simultaneously.Reconstructive Surgical Procedures: Procedures used to reconstruct, restore, or improve defective, damaged, or missing structures.ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Oral Surgical Procedures: Surgical procedures used to treat disease, injuries, and defects of the oral and maxillofacial region.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Epidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.Pregnancy Rate: The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.Ultrasonography, Prenatal: The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.Kidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Hospitals, Pediatric: Special hospitals which provide care for ill children.Bone Screws: Specialized devices used in ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY to repair bone fractures.IranPatient Admission: The process of accepting patients. The concept includes patients accepted for medical and nursing care in a hospital or other health care institution.Spinal Fusion: Operative immobilization or ankylosis of two or more vertebrae by fusion of the vertebral bodies with a short bone graft or often with diskectomy or laminectomy. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p236; Dorland, 28th ed)Tracheotomy: Surgical incision of the trachea.Kidney Transplantation: The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.Cause of Death: Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Great BritainGermanyBlood Transfusion: The introduction of whole blood or blood component directly into the blood stream. (Dorland, 27th ed)Scoliosis: An appreciable lateral deviation in the normally straight vertical line of the spine. (Dorland, 27th ed)Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Neurosurgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.Amputation: The removal of a limb or other appendage or outgrowth of the body. (Dorland, 28th ed)Postoperative Hemorrhage: Hemorrhage following any surgical procedure. It may be immediate or delayed and is not restricted to the surgical wound.Maxilla: One of a pair of irregularly shaped bones that form the upper jaw. A maxillary bone provides tooth sockets for the superior teeth, forms part of the ORBIT, and contains the MAXILLARY SINUS.Saudi ArabiaEmergency Treatment: First aid or other immediate intervention for accidents or medical conditions requiring immediate care and treatment before definitive medical and surgical management can be procured.Biopsy, Needle: Removal and examination of tissue obtained through a transdermal needle inserted into the specific region, organ, or tissue being analyzed.Horse Diseases: Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.Prosthesis Design: The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.SwitzerlandChemotherapy, Adjuvant: Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.TaiwanPneumonectomy: The excision of lung tissue including partial or total lung lobectomy.Liver Transplantation: The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.Lip DiseasesIsraelAdrenal Cortex HormonesFertilization in Vitro: An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.Morbidity: The proportion of patients with a particular disease during a given year per given unit of population.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Drainage: The removal of fluids or discharges from the body, such as from a wound, sore, or cavity.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Inpatients: Persons admitted to health facilities which provide board and room, for the purpose of observation, care, diagnosis or treatment.Ontario: A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)Laparotomy: Incision into the side of the abdomen between the ribs and pelvis.Eye Injuries, Penetrating: Deeply perforating or puncturing type intraocular injuries.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Lumbar Vertebrae: VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Prosthesis Failure: Malfunction of implantation shunts, valves, etc., and prosthesis loosening, migration, and breaking.Embolization, Therapeutic: A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.Probability: The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Hospitals: Institutions with an organized medical staff which provide medical care to patients.Surgical Flaps: Tongues of skin and subcutaneous tissue, sometimes including muscle, cut away from the underlying parts but often still attached at one end. They retain their own microvasculature which is also transferred to the new site. They are often used in plastic surgery for filling a defect in a neighboring region.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Jaw Cysts: Saccular lesions lined with epithelium and contained within pathologically formed cavities in the jaw; also nonepithelial cysts (pseudocysts) as they apply to the jaw, e.g., traumatic or solitary cyst, static bone cavity, and aneurysmal bone cyst. True jaw cysts are classified as odontogenic or nonodontogenic.Range of Motion, Articular: The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.Mandible: The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.Congenital Abnormalities: Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero.Gastrectomy: Excision of the whole (total gastrectomy) or part (subtotal gastrectomy, partial gastrectomy, gastric resection) of the stomach. (Dorland, 28th ed)Republic of Korea: The capital is Seoul. The country, established September 9, 1948, is located on the southern part of the Korean Peninsula. Its northern border is shared with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.Histiocytoma: A neoplasm containing HISTIOCYTES. Important forms include BENIGN FIBROUS HISTIOCYTOMA; and MALIGNANT FIBROUS HISTIOCYTOMA.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Osteotomy: The surgical cutting of a bone. (Dorland, 28th ed)Foreign Bodies: Inanimate objects that become enclosed in the body.Postoperative Care: The period of care beginning when the patient is removed from surgery and aimed at meeting the patient's psychological and physical needs directly after surgery. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Autopsy: Postmortem examination of the body.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Preoperative Period: The period before a surgical operation.Tibial FracturesCat Diseases: Diseases of the domestic cat (Felis catus or F. domesticus). This term does not include diseases of the so-called big cats such as CHEETAHS; LIONS; tigers, cougars, panthers, leopards, and other Felidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Fracture Healing: The physiological restoration of bone tissue and function after a fracture. It includes BONY CALLUS formation and normal replacement of bone tissue.Embryo Transfer: The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Fractures, Bone: Breaks in bones.Otorhinolaryngologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the ear and its parts, the nose and nasal cavity, or the throat, including surgery of the adenoids, tonsils, pharynx, and trachea.Academic Medical Centers: Medical complexes consisting of medical school, hospitals, clinics, libraries, administrative facilities, etc.Spinal Injuries: Injuries involving the vertebral column.Drug Substitution: The practice of replacing one prescribed drug with another that is expected to have the same clinical or psychological effect.Cervical Vertebrae: The first seven VERTEBRAE of the SPINAL COLUMN, which correspond to the VERTEBRAE of the NECK.Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Hospitals, Special: Hospitals which provide care for a single category of illness with facilities and staff directed toward a specific service.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Hysterectomy: Excision of the uterus.

Prednisone in MOPP chemotherapy for Hodgkin's disease. (1/73093)

High remission rates have been produced by MOPP (mustine, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone) chemotherapy in patients with advanced Hodgkin's disease, but the prednisone component has caused adverse effects in patients who have undergone radiotherapy. The remission rates and length of remission were reviewed in 211 patients with Hodgkin's disease who received chemotherapy either with or without prednisone. In contrast to the findings of a British study, there were no significant differences in remission rates or length of remission between patients who had received prednisone and patients who had not. There were differences between the British prospective study and this retrospective one, but it is difficult to know what accounted for the substantial differences in the findings.  (+info)

Expression of nitric oxide synthase in inflammatory bowel disease is not affected by corticosteroid treatment. (2/73093)

AIM: To examine the effect of corticosteroid treatment on the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the colon of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. METHODS: Four groups of patients were studied: (1) ulcerative colitis treated with high dose corticosteroids (six patients, 10 blocks); (2) ulcerative colitis patients who had never received corticosteroids (10 patients, 16 blocks); (3) Crohn's disease treated with high dose corticosteroids (12 patients, 24 blocks); (4) Non-inflammatory, non-neoplastic controls (four patients, six blocks). Full thickness paraffin sections of colons removed at surgery were immunostained with an antibody raised against the C terminal end of iNOS. Sections were assessed semiquantitatively for the presence and degree of inflammation and immunoreactivity for nitric oxide synthase. RESULTS: Cases of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease with active inflammation showed strong staining for nitric oxide synthase. The staining was diffuse in ulcerative colitis and patchy in Crohn's disease, in accordance with the distribution of active inflammation. Staining was seen in epithelial cells and was most intense near areas of inflammation such as crypt abscesses. Non-inflamed epithelium showed no immunoreactivity. Treatment with corticosteroids made no difference to the amount of nitric oxide synthase. CONCLUSIONS: Expression of nitric oxide synthase is increased in both ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease and appears to be unaffected by treatment with corticosteroids. Disease severity necessitated surgery in all the cases included in this study, regardless of whether or not the patients had received long term corticosteroid treatment. It seems therefore that a high level of iNOS expression and, presumably, production of nitric oxide characterise cases which are refractory to clinical treatment; this suggests that specific inhibition of the enzyme may be a useful therapeutic adjunct.  (+info)

The role of alternative splicing of the adhesion molecule, CD44, in lymphoid malignancy. (3/73093)

AIM: To investigate the expression of CD44 isoforms containing variant exon 6 (v6) in a well characterised cohort of patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), and to correlate this with phenotype and disease course. METHODS: Cryostat sections of OCT embedded diagnostic nodal material from NHL patients and cryopreserved mononuclear preparations from CLL patients were used as sources of RNA. After reverse transcription, PCR was carried out with amplimers positioned at either side of the variant exon insertion site to amplify all possible CD44 isoforms. Those isoforms containing v6 were identified after Southern blotting and hybridisation with a radiolabelled oligonucleotide. RESULTS: Of 32 NHL samples analysed, 16 did not express CD44 isoforms containing v6, six expressed an isoform containing exon v6 alone, and 10 expressed v6 long isoforms which contained exon v6 in addition to other variant exons. These data did not correlate with lymphoma classification, disease staging, or the presence or absence of extranodal disease. However, those patients expressing v6 long CD44 isoforms had a worse overall survival than those that did not. The plateau of the survival curves was 50% compared with 82%. No v6 long isoforms were detected in the 21 CLL samples investigated. CONCLUSIONS: The expression of v6 long CD44 isoforms is associated with aggressive disease in NHL, independent of grade, stage, or presence of extranodal disease.  (+info)

Analysis of the effect of conversion from open to closed surgical intensive care unit. (4/73093)

OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect on clinical outcome of changing a surgical intensive care unit from an open to a closed unit. DESIGN: The study was carried out at a surgical intensive care unit in a large tertiary care hospital, which was changed on January 1, 1996, from an open unit, where private attending physicians contributed and controlled the care of their patients, to a closed unit, where patients' medical care was provided only by the surgical critical care team (ABS or ABA board-certified intensivists). A retrospective review was undertaken over 6 consecutive months in each system, encompassing 274 patients (125 in the open-unit period, 149 in the closed-unit period). Morbidity and mortality were compared between the two periods, along with length-of-stay (LOS) and number of consults obtained. A set of independent variables was also evaluated, including age, gender, APACHE III scores, the presence of preexisting medical conditions, the use of invasive monitoring (Swan-Ganz catheters, central and arterial lines), and the use of antibiotics, low-dose dopamine (LDD) for renal protection, vasopressors, TPN, and enteral feeding. RESULTS: Mortality (14.4% vs. 6.04%, p = 0.012) and the overall complication rate (55.84% vs. 44.14%, p = 0.002) were higher in the open-unit group versus the closed-unit group, respectively. The number of consults obtained was decreased (0.6 vs. 0.4 per patient, p = 0.036), and the rate of occurrence of renal failure was higher in the open-unit group (12.8% vs. 2.67%, p = 0.001). The mean age of the patients was similar in both groups (66.48 years vs. 66.40, p = 0.96). APACHE III scores were slightly higher in the open-unit group but did not reach statistical significance (39.02 vs. 36.16, p = 0.222). There were more men in the first group (63.2% vs. 51.3%). The use of Swan-Ganz catheters or central and arterial lines were identical, as was the use of antibiotics, TPN, and enteral feedings. The use of LDD was higher in the first group, but the LOS was identical. CONCLUSIONS: Conversion of a tertiary care surgical intensive care unit from an open to closed environment reduced dopamine usage and overall complication and mortality rates. These results support the concept that, when possible, patients in surgical intensive care units should be managed by board-certified intensivists in a closed environment.  (+info)

Peripheral hepatojejunostomy as palliative treatment for irresectable malignant tumors of the liver hilum. (5/73093)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the concept of surgical decompression of the biliary tree by peripheral hepatojejunostomy for palliative treatment of jaundice in patients with irresectable malignant tumors of the liver hilum. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Jaundice, pruritus, and recurrent cholangitis are major clinical complications in patients with obstructive cholestasis resulting from malignant tumors of the liver hilum. Methods for palliative treatment include endoscopic stenting, percutaneous transhepatic drainage, and surgical decompression. The palliative treatment of choice should be safe, effective, and comfortable for the patient. METHODS: In a retrospective study, surgical technique, perioperative complications, and efficacy of treatment were analyzed for 56 patients who had received a peripheral hepatojejunostomy between 1982 and 1997. Laparotomy in all of these patients had been performed as an attempt for curative resection. RESULTS: Hepatojejunostomy was exclusively palliative in 50 patients and was used for bridging to resection or transplantation in 7. Anastomosis was bilateral in 36 patients and unilateral in 20. The 1-month mortality in the study group was 9%; median survival was 6 months. In patients surviving >1 month, a marked and persistent decrease in cholestasis was achieved in 87%, although complete return to normal was rare. Among the patients with a marked decrease in cholestasis, 72% had no or only mild clinical symptoms such as fever or jaundice. CONCLUSIONS: Peripheral hepatojejunostomy is a feasible and reasonably effective palliative treatment for patients with irresectable tumors of the liver hilum. In patients undergoing exploratory laparotomy for attempted curative resection, this procedure frequently leads to persistent-although rarely complete-decompression of the biliary tree. In a few cases it may also be used for bridging to transplantation or liver resection after relief of cholestasis.  (+info)

Reconstruction for chronic dysfunction of ileoanal pouches. (6/73093)

OBJECTIVE: A retrospective review was performed to determine the results after surgical reconstruction for chronic dysfunction of ileal pouch-anal procedures for ulcerative colitis and familial colonic polyposis at a university medical center. METHODS: During the 20-year period from 1978 to 1998, 601 patients underwent colectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) for ulcerative colitis, familial colonic polyposis, or Hirschsprung's disease. A J pouch was used for 351 patients, a lateral pouch for 221, an S pouch for 6, and a straight pull-through for 23. Acute complications after pouch construction have been detailed in previous publications and are not included in this study. Chronic pouch stasis with diarrhea, frequency, urgency, and soiling gradually became more severe in 164 patients (27.3%), associated with pouch enlargement, an elongated efferent limb, and obstruction to pouch outflow, largely related to the pouch configuration used during the authors' early clinical experience. These patients were sufficiently symptomatic to be considered for reconstruction (mean 68 months after IPAA). Transanal resection of an elongated IPAA spout was performed on 58 patients; abdominoperineal mobilization of the pouch with resection and tapering of the lower end (AP reconstruction) and ileoanal anastomosis on 83; pouch removal and new pouch construction on 7; and conversion of a straight pull-through to a pouch on 16. RESULTS: Good long-term results (mean 7.7 years) with improvement in symptoms occurred in 98% of transanal resections, 91.5% of AP reconstructions, 86% of new pouch constructions, and 100% of conversions of a straight pull-through to a pouch. The average number of bowel movements per 24 hours at 6 months was 4.8. Complications occurred in 11.6% of reconstructed patients. Five of the 164 patients (3.1%) required eventual pouch removal and permanent ileostomy. The high rate of pouch revision in this series of patients undergoing IPAA is due to a policy of aggressive correction when patients do not experience an optimal functional result, or have a progressive worsening of their status. CONCLUSIONS: Although occasionally a major undertaking, reconstruction of ileoanal pouches with progressive dysfunction due to large size or a long efferent limb has resulted in marked improvement in intestinal function in >93% of patients and has reduced the need for late pouch removal.  (+info)

Use of wood stoves and risk of cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract: a case-control study. (7/73093)

BACKGROUND: Incidence rates for cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract in Southern Brazil are among the highest in the world. A case-control study was designed to identify the main risk factors for carcinomas of mouth, pharynx, and larynx in the region. We tested the hypothesis of whether use of wood stoves is associated with these cancers. METHODS: Information on known and potential risk factors was obtained from interviews with 784 cases and 1568 non-cancer controls. We estimated the effect of use of wood stove by conditional logistic regression, with adjustment for smoking, alcohol consumption and for other sociodemographic and dietary variables chosen as empirical confounders based on a change-in-estimate criterion. RESULTS: After extensive adjustment for all the empirical confounders the odds ratio (OR) for all upper aero-digestive tract cancers was 2.68 (95% confidence interval [CI] : 2.2-3.3). Increased risks were also seen in site-specific analyses for mouth (OR = 2.73; 95% CI: 1.8-4.2), pharyngeal (OR = 3.82; 95% CI: 2.0-7.4), and laryngeal carcinomas (OR = 2.34; 95% CI: 1.2-4.7). Significant risk elevations remained for each of the three anatomic sites and for all sites combined even after we purposefully biased the analyses towards the null hypothesis by adjusting the effect of wood stove use only for positive empirical confounders. CONCLUSIONS: The association of use of wood stoves with cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract is genuine and unlikely to result from insufficient control of confounding. Due to its high prevalence, use of wood stoves may be linked to as many as 30% of all cancers occurring in the region.  (+info)

Helicobacter pylori infection, garlic intake and precancerous lesions in a Chinese population at low risk of gastric cancer. (8/73093)

BACKGROUND: Cangshan County of Shandong Province has one of the lowest rates of gastric cancer (GC) in China. While intestinal metaplasia (IM) and dysplasia (DYS) are less common in Cangshan than in areas of Shandong at high risk of GC, these precursor lesions nevertheless affect about 20% of adults age > or = 55. SUBJECTS AND SETTING: In order to evaluate determinants of IM and DYS in Cangshan County, a low risk area of GC a survey was conducted among 214 adults who participated in a gastroscopic screening survey in Cangshan County in 1994. METHOD: A dietary interview and measurement of serum Helicobacter pylori antibodies were performed. RESULTS: The prevalence of H. pylori was lowest (19%) among those with normal gastric mucosa, rising steadily to 35% for superficial gastritis (SG), 56% for chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG), 80% for IM, and 100% for DYS. The prevalence odds of precancerous lesions were compared with the odds of normal histology or SG. The odds ratio (OR) or CAG associated with H. pylori positivity was 4.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] : 1.7-10.0), while the OR of IM/DYS associated with H. pylori positivity was 31.5 (95% CI: 5.2-187). After adjusting for H. pylori infection, drinking alcohol was a risk factor for CAG (OR = 3.2, 95% CI: 1.1-9.2) and IM/DYS (OR = 7.8, 95% CI: 1.3-47.7). On the other hand, consumption of garlic showed non-significant protective effects and an inverse association with H. pylori infection. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study suggest that infection with H. pylori is a risk factor and garlic may be protective, in the development and progression of advanced precancerous gastric lesions in an area of China at relatively low risk of GC.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Emotional impact on the results of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genetic test. T2 - An observational retrospective study. AU - Mella, Sara. AU - Muzzatti, Barbara. AU - Dolcetti, Riccardo. AU - Annunziata, Maria Antonietta. PY - 2017/10/2. Y1 - 2017/10/2. N2 - Background: BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations are associated with a higher risk of breast and ovarian tumors. This study evaluated the emotional states of women 1 month after having received the results of the genetic test and assessed eventual associations with the type of outcome, personal/familiar disease history and major socio-demographic variables. Methods: The study, an observational retrospective one, involved 91 women, evaluated 1 month after receiving their results. Patients were administered the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Profile of Mood States and emotional Thermometers. Results: Anxiety was significantly higher than depression (p , 0.001), and 21.3% and 21.3% of the sample were, respectively, possible and probable ...
Background: In the case of life-threatening conditions such as respiratory or cardiac arrest, or the clinical deterioration of the patient, a Code Blue activation may be instigated. A Code Blue activation involves a team of advanced trained clinicians attending the emergency needs of the patient. Aims and objectives: The aim of the study was to explore the number of cases of Code Blue activations, looking at the timing, clinical ward, diagnosis and activation criteria while noting cases where escalation from a Medical Emergency Team (MET) call occurs in one Regional Healthcare Service in Victoria, Australia, over a six-year period. Methods: A quantitative retrospective descriptive study of Code Blue emergencies over a six-year period from June 2010 to June 2016 was conducted. Data collected from the RISKMAN program operating at a single site was imported into SPSS (V 22) for descriptive statistical analysis. A STROBE EQUATOR checklist was used for this study (see File S1). Findings: The majority ...
Game Coaching System Design and Development: A Retrospective Case Study of FPS Trainer: 10.4018/ijgbl.2013040105: This paper is a retrospective case study of a game-based learning (GBL) researcher who cooperated with a professional gamer and a team of game developers to
TY - JOUR. T1 - Blood transfusion during cesarean section. A 12 years retrospective analysis.. AU - Imberti, R.. AU - Preseglio, I.. AU - Trotta, V.. AU - Filisetti, P.. AU - Mapelli, A.. PY - 1990. Y1 - 1990. N2 - Transfusional practice over the last 12 years was investigated retrospectively in 1618 women submitted to lower-segment cesarean section. The overall percentage of transfused patients was low (2.4%) and it has become lower in the last four years (1.1%), in concomitance with the development of better knowledge of tissue oxygenation and with the fear of transmitting infectious diseases, factors which have led anesthesiologists to employ blood only when strictly required. Three conditions greatly increased the risk of bleeding: placenta previa, abruptio placentae and coagulation disorders. Previous cesarean section, fetal distress, dystocias and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy did not increase the risk of bleeding and no difference was found between elective and non-elective ...
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Read "Risk Factors for Poor Compliance with Adjuvant S-1 Chemotherapy for Gastric Cancer: A Multicenter Retrospective Study, Annals of Surgical Oncology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
A total of 182 patients were included in this study. Of all the 182 patients, 126 were male (69.23%) and 56 were female (30.77%). The mean age was (56.75±12.45) years. The median follow-up time was 48 months (3-99 months). At the end of the follow-up, 50 patients (27.47%) died due to the disease after a median of 29.74 months and 59 patients (32.42%) had tumor recurrence after a median of 22.12 months. The 5-year cancer-specific survival of all patients was 68.30% (95% CI: 60.16%-75.84%); the 5-year recurrence-free survival was 60.70% (95% CI: 53.16%-68.84%). In the univariate analysis, diabetes mellitus, tumor invasion status, Fuhrman grade, serum album, serum cholestenone, anemia, and neutrophils percentage were associated with the cancer-specific survival and Fuhrman grade, serum album and anemia were associated with the recurrence-free survival. Variables with significant differences on univariate analysis were included in Cox multivariate regression analysis. Multivariate Logistic ...
Tyner, G A and Nolen-Walston, R D and Hall, T and Palmero, J P and Couetil, L and Javsicas, L and Stack, A and Schott, H and Johnson, A and Hardefeldt, L and Gruntman, A and Sommardahl, C and Menzies-Gow, N J and dePedro, P and Norman, T and Fennell, L C and Axon, J E and Lindborg, S and Aceto, H and Boston, R and Engiles, J (2011) A Multicenter Retrospective Study of 151 Renal Biopsies in Horses. JOURNAL OF VETERINARY INTERNAL MEDICINE, 25 (3). pp. 532-539. Full text not available from this repository ...
Older people frequently attend the emergency department (ED) and have a high risk of poor outcome as compared to their younger counterparts. Our aim was to study routinely collected clinical parameters as predictors of 90-day mortality in older patients attending our ED. We conducted a retrospective follow-up study at the Leiden University Medical Center (The Netherlands) among patients aged 70 years or older attending the ED in 2012. Predictors were age, gender, time and way of arrival, presenting complaint, consulting medical specialty, vital signs, pain score and laboratory testing. Cox regression analyses were performed to analyse the association between these predictors and 90-day mortality. Three thousand two hundred one unique patients were eligible for inclusion. Ninety-day mortality was 10.5 % for the total group. Independent predictors of mortality were age (hazard ratio [HR] 1.06, 95 % confidence interval [95 % CI] 1.04-1.08), referral from another hospital (HR 2.74, 95 % CI 1.22-6.11),
Of the 87,702 new adult TB cases in the Free State (2009-2012), 22.8% had an unsuccessful TB treatment outcome, the majority of these cases (18.3%) were co-infected with HIV. As HIV is one of the major factors fuelling the growing TB epidemic [20, 25, 26] - 61% of the TB cases in the province were co-infected with HIV/AIDS, which was slightly lower than the 65% average reported over the same period for South Africa [27] - the analysis of data in this paper was stratified by HIV status. During the study period (2009-2012), the HIV status of the majority (81.4%) of cases was known. In line with the WHO [19] recommendation that all patients with (presumptive) TB be offered HIV testing, it is encouraging to note that by 2014, there was a substantial improvement in the country as a whole, with 93% of TB patients knowing their HIV status [1]. Similarly to other studies [1, 4-7] we found significant differences in treatment outcomes between patients who were HIV-negative and HIV-positive. Over the four ...
Incidental appendectomy--yes or no? A retrospective case study and review of the literature.: The data from the current survey and literature review support inc
Three laboratories present a harmonised system for the retrospective comparison of south west Asian heroin. It consists of an improved gas chromatographic (GC) profiling method and a computerised data retrieval. The investigations of the GC were necessary with a view to improve the reproducibility of the system. The necessity of a strict quality control is emphasized. The peaks of the GC profile were investigated for abundance, intensity, GC behaviour (reproducibility) and correlations, 16 of them were selected for describing the heroin profile in the database. The results from intra-lab profile comparisons are reported. The reproducibility of the analysis was good and the variation between the samples was large, thus, allowing conclusions with a high degree of certainty. The criteria of similarity were defined. The system is successfully running in all three labs. In connection with inter-laboratory comparison, the aspects of method harmonisation and standardisation are discussed. It appeared ...
In this multicenter retrospective study, the outcomes of 836 patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) who underwent transplantation with a human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-identical sibling donor were analyzed according to 2 types of conditioning: reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) in 215 patients, and standard myeloablative (or high-dose) conditioning (SMC) in 621 patients. In multivariate analysis, the 3-year relapse rate was significantly increased after RIC (hazard ratio [HR], 1.64; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.2-2.2; P = .001), but the 3-year nonrelapse mortality (NRM) rate was decreased in the RIC group (HR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.41-0.91; P = .015). The 3-year probabilities of progression-free and overall survivals were similar in both groups (39% after SMC vs 33% in RIC; multivariate P = .9; and 45% vs 41%, respectively; P = .8). In conclusion, the lower 3-year NRM after RIC is encouraging, since these patients were older (age > 50 years in 73% RIC vs 28% in SMC, P < .001) and ...
Abstract Objective The objective of this retrospective descriptive study was to assess overall survival and disease free survival of patients treated for epithelial ovarian cancer by a gynaecologic-oncologist in a single Dutch peripheral teaching hospital and to identify independent prognostic factors. Study design A retrospective series of 242 patients treated ... read more for epithelial ovarian cancer between 1999 and 2011 at Meander Medical Centre was reviewed. Data on patient, tumour and treatment characteristics were collected. Outcomes were overall survival and progression free survival. Data were analysed using the Kaplan-Meier method, log-rank test and Cox regression analysis. Results Median follow-up was 35 months (range 1-203). Staging procedures were performed in 81 patients of which 63% were complete. 61% of patients had advanced stage disease. In 46%, debulking surgery was complete. Five-year overall survival and progression free survival for all patients was 52% and 47%, ...
In absence of patient-level databases, multi-national, retrospective chart review studies can be undertaken to provide robust naturalistic data to inform evaluations of treatment patterns, resource utilization, costs of care, clinical outcomes and safety.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Depressive symptoms in the last days of life of patients with cancer: a nationwide retrospective mortality study. AU - Janberidze, Elene. AU - Pereira, Sandra Martins. AU - Hjermstad, Marianne Jensen. AU - Knudsen, Anne Kari. AU - Kaasa, Stein. AU - van der Heide, Agnes. AU - Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje. PY - 2016/6. Y1 - 2016/6. U2 - 10.1136/bmjspcare-2014-000722. DO - 10.1136/bmjspcare-2014-000722. M3 - Article. VL - 6. SP - 201. EP - 209. JO - BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care. JF - BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care. SN - 2045-435X. IS - 2. ER - ...
Current ultrasound machines are capable of recording clips using two types of capture: Prospective and Retrospective data collection.
Background Childhood obesity is a significant health problem in the UK. To date, there is little known about the pattern of change in body mass index (BMI) following renal transplantation in UK paediatric patients. Our objectives in this study were to (i) describe trends in BMI seen in UK patients undergoing renal transplantation in the short and medium term and (ii) identify risk factors predisposing children to excessive weight gain following transplantation.. Methods A retrospective case note review was performed across 12 of 13 paediatric nephrology centres in the UK, with BMI measurements recorded pre-transplantation and for 4 years thereafter. BMI% was used to assess changes in adiposity over time. International Obesity Taskforce definitions of overweight and obesity…. Read Full Article. ...
In Chinese patients with diabetes, having hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels that are too high or too low may be associated with a greater risk of cardiovascular disease and death, according to a research letter published Jan. 25 in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.. In this population-based retrospective cohort study, Eric Yuk Fai Wan, MSc, CStat, of the University of Hong Kong, and colleagues examined 117,389 adult Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes without any history of cardiovascular disease. After a median follow-up of 54.5 to 58.5 months, a J-shaped curvilinear relationship was observed between HbA1c levels and cardiovascular disease incidence, all-cause mortality and other outcomes. An HbA1c range of ≥7.0 percent to ,7.5 percent had the lowest risk of new cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, stroke, heart failure, all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease-related mortality. By comparison, an HbA1c ,6.5 percent or ≥8.0 percent was associated with a ...
Phospholipase Cγ1 (PLCγ1) is highly expressed in human tumours. Our previous studies reported that both stable and inducible PLCγ1 down-regulation can inhibit formation of breast-cancer-derived experimental lung metastasis. Further, high expression of PLCγ1 and its constitutively activated forms (i.e., PLCγ1-pY1253, PLCγ1-pY783) is associated with worse clinical outcome in terms of incidence of distant metastases, but not of local relapse in T1-T2, N0 breast cancer patients. In the present retrospective study, we analysed the prognostic role of PLCγ1 in early breast cancer patients stratified according to the St. Gallen criteria and to their menopausal status. PLCγ1-pY1253 and PLCγ1-pY783 protein expression levels were determined by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays, and were correlated with patients clinical data, using univariate and multivariate statistical analyses. In our series, the prognostic value of PLCγ1 overexpression was restricted to Luminal type tumours. From
The role of paternal factors in determining the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes has received less attention than maternal factors. Similarly, the interaction between the effects of race and socioeconomic status (SES) on pregnancy outcomes is not well known. Our objective was to assess the relative importance of paternal vs. maternal education in relation to risk of low birth weight (LBW) across different racial groups. We conducted a retrospective population-based cohort study using Washington state birth certificate data from 1992 to 1996 (n = 264,789). We assessed the associations between maternal or paternal education and LBW, adjusting for demographic variables, health services factors, and maternal behavioral and obstetrical factors. Paternal educational level was independently associated with LBW after adjustment for race, maternal education, demographic characteristics, health services factors; and other maternal factors. We found an interaction between the race and maternal education on risk
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Although little debate exists on the need for advanced neonatal services for the most immature and surgically complex neonates, ongoing controversies exist regarding which facilities are qualified to provide these services and what is the most appropriate measure for such qualification. These issues are, in general, based on the need for comparison of facility experience (measured by patient volume or census), location (inborn/outborn deliveries, regional perinatal center, or childrens hospital), or case mix (including stillbirths, delivery room deaths, and complex congenital anomalies).. Several studies have explored the topic of center experience as measured by volume or census of VLBW infants.30-35 Phibbs et al conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study of 48 237 California VLBW infants to examine differences in neonatal mortality among NICUs with various levels of care and patient volumes. When compared with high-volume, high-level centers, the odds ratio of death was 1.19 ...
To quantify the risk and types of sequelae attributable to prior enteric infections, we undertook a population-based retrospective cohort study using linked administrative records. The risk for first-time hospitalization for sequelae was modeled by using Cox proportional regression analysis controlling for other health and sociodemographic factors. We identified a significant increase of 64% in the rate of first-time hospitalization for sequelae for persons with prior enteric infections: 52% for intragastrointestinal sequelae and 63% for extragastrointestinal sequelae compared with first-time hospitalization for those without prior infection. Extragastrointestinal sequelae occurred predominantly during the first 5 years after first-time enteric infection. In contrast, most intragastrointestinal sequelae occurred &gt;10 years later. Infective gastroenteritis during childhood or adolescence increases the risk for first-time hospitalization for intragastrointestinal and extragastrointestinal disease
In a retrospective population-based cohort study involving 92 735 older women with incident invasive breast cancer, Smith and colleagues compared risk of death,
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The impact of deferring critically ill children in referral hospitals away from their designated pediatric critical care unit (PCCU) on patients and the healthcare system is unknown. This population-based retrospective cohort studys goal was to identify the factors associated with deferrals of critically ill children away from their designated PCCU, evaluate patient outcomes as they related to deferrals away from a PCCU and study the impact of the 2010 referral policy implementation.
The EMC trial is unique because it investigates for the first time prospectively whether MDD patients with non-improvement after 14 days of AD treatment with EMC are more likely to become remitters compared to patients treated according to current guidelines, i.e., with a medication change after 28 days of treatment in case of non-response. All current evidences originate from retrospective data analysis, but not from prospective clinical trials: there is substantial evidence showing that non-improvement in the first 2 weeks of AD treatment is highly predictive for poor final outcome and leading experts in the field have repeatedly recommended the outcome evaluation in the early course of treatment as well as the consideration of early symptom changes in clinical decision making [23-27]. However, the entire knowledge about the predictive value of early improvement derives exclusively from retrospective data analyses. No study has yet prospectively investigated whether non-improvers (HAMD17 ...
臺大位居世界頂尖大學之列,為永久珍藏及向國際展現本校豐碩的研究成果及學術能量,圖書館整合機構典藏(NTUR)與學術庫(AH)不同功能平台,成為臺大學術典藏NTU scholars。期能整合研究能量、促進交流合作、保存學術產出、推廣研究成果。. To permanently archive and promote researcher profiles and scholarly works, Library integrates the services of "NTU Repository" with "Academic Hub" to form NTU Scholars.. ...
Syed A. Abutalib, MD, of Cancer Treatment Centers of America, and Nelli Bejanyan, MD, of the University of Minnesota, discuss findings from a study conducted by the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research on treatment for ALL patients, with an available donor, undergoing myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in first complete remission (Abstract 684).. ...
Retrospective Analysis of charts on patients having undergone Total Hip or Total Knee Arthroplasty. During the patients hospitalization, lab values of Hg and Hct will be recorded for further analysis. Preoperative levels will be also noted to establish baselines.. Primary Data interest will be Hemoglobin (Hgb) level documented during hospitalization along with Hematocrit (HCT) and Red Blood Cell (RBC) data also collected.. Secondary Data gathered will consist of the following:. ...
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus, gastric and hepatobiliary comorbidities, and cancer share common risk factors: for example, tobacco, obesity, physical inactivity, high calorie intake, and metabolic disorders. Prior studies find type 2 diabetes and gastric and hepatobiliary comorbidities heightening risk of pancreatic cancer. Yet joint association of type 2 diabetes mellitus and gastric and hepatobiliary comorbidities on pancreatic cancer risk has not been assessed. METHODS: This study rates independent/joint effects of type 2 diabetes as well as gastric and hepatobiliary comorbidity on pancreatic cancer risk for a retrospective population-based cohort of 166,850 type 2 diabetics identified in 1997-1998 and followed for 10-11 years, comparing their cancer incidence with that of 166,850 non-diabetics matched for age, gender, and locale ...
Despite existing evidence and guidelines advocating for appropriate risk stratification, ambulatory surgery in low-risk patients continues to be accompanied by a battery of routine tests prior to surgery. Using a single-center retrospective cohort study, we aimed to quantify the incidence of un-indicated preoperative testing in an academic ambulatory center by utilizing recommendations by the recently developed American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA)
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Isabelle Pham, Emmanuel Cosson, Minh Tuan Nguyen, Isabela Banu, Isabelle Genevois, Patricia Poignard, Paul Valensi].
The precise role of CD26/DPP4 in tumor biology is unclear at this time. Preclinical studies have shown conflicting data with differential CD26/DPP4 expression and activity depending on the type of cancer. These studies suggest that it has a role as either a tumor suppressor or tumor activator depending on the tumor microenvironment and molecules with which CD26/DPP4 associates (1,3). However, since most of these studies involved in vitro assays, further investigations with in vivo experiments are needed to definitively establish the role of CD26/DPP4 in each cancer type.. Published studies have demonstrated that CD26/DPP4 plays a major role in the invasion and metastasis of selected cancers, and may be a novel therapeutic target (1,2,5,6). There are several suggested mechanisms for cancer metastasis involving the intrinsic peptidase activity of CD26/DPP4 and its subsequent chemokine regulation, as well as its ability to bind key molecules. For example, CD26/DPP4 can upregulate the expression of ...
DAMASCENO, Marcelo Loquette et al. Retrospective results analysis of the use of cranial fractures halo subaxial dislocations. Coluna/Columna [online]. 2010, vol.9, n.4, pp.376-380. ISSN 1808-1851. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1808-18512010000400006.. OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the use of cranial halo cervical fractures and dislocations in the initial care related to the rate of successful closed reduction of cervical lesions in different types of fractures. METHODS: retrospective investigation of reports of patients admitted and treated from January 2004 to March 2009, a total of 222 patients. The lesions were categorized according to the AO classification. RESULTS: a high success rate of closed reduction in patients with cervical lesions by axial compression (AO type A) in the use of cranial halo; in distraction injuries (AO type B) and rotational motion (AO type C) we observed approximately 50% of closed reduction of dislocation; furthermore, lesions in more cranial levels have a higher success rate ...
INTRODUCTION: The development of new surgical techniques and medical devices, like therapeutical multimodal approaches has allowed for better outcomes on patients with rectal cancer (RCa). Owing to that, an increased awareness and investment towards better outcomes regarding patients sexual and urinary function has been recently observed. AIM: Evaluate and characterize the sexual dysfunction of patients submitted to surgical treatment for RCa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An observational retrospective study including all male patients who underwent a surgical treatment for RCa between January 2011 December 2014 (n=43) was performed, complemented with an inquiry questionnaire to every patient about its sexual habits and level of function before and after surgery ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
This document contains guidance on how retrospective studies of a socio-economic analysis (SEA), conducted in support of a chemical risk management decision, can be carried out.
and at risk. They then use whatever records are available to determine each subjects exposure status at the begin of the observation period, and they then ascertain what subsequently happened to the subjects in the two (or more) exposure groups. Retrospective cohort studies are also longitudinal, because they examine health outcomes over a span of time. The distinction is that in retrospective cohort studies all of the cases of disease have already occurred before the investigators initiate the study. In contrast, exposure information is collected at the beginning of prospective cohort studies before any subjects have developed any of the outcomes or interest, and the at risk period begins after baseline exposure data is collected and extends into the future.. Retrospective cohort studies are particularly useful for unusual exposures or occupational exposures. For example, if an investigator wanted to determine whether exposure to chemicals used in tire manufacturing was associated with ...
Delayed gastric emptying (DGE) is the most frequent pancreatic specific complication (PSC) after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). Several gastric decompression systems exist to manage DGE. Patients with a pancreatic tumor require prolonged nutrition; however, controversies exist concerning nutrition protocol after PD. The aim of the study was to assess the safety and efficacy of nasogastric (NG), gastrostomy (GT), and gastrojejunostomy (GJ) tubes with different feeding systems on postoperative courses. Between January 2013 and March 2016, 86 patients underwent PD with pancreaticogastrostomy. Patients were divided into three groups: GJ group with enteral nutrition (EN, n = 12, 14%), NG (n = 31, 36%) and GT groups (n = 43, 50%), both with total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Patients in the GJ (n = 9, 75%) and GT (n = 18, 42%) groups had an American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score of 3 more often than those in the NG group (n = 5, 16%, p ≤ 0.01). Multivariate analysis identified the GT tube with TPN
Colon cancer is a major public health problem. The primary treatment is resection. For patients with early-stage disease, surgery results in excellent survival rates. In contrast, patients with locally advanced tumors arising in anatomically immobile segments of large bowel have a less satisfactory outcome, in part secondary to compromised surgical clearance. Patterns-of-failure analyses suggest that for tumors that invade adjacent organs, exhibit perforation or fistula, or are subtotally resected, local failure rates exceed 30%. Multiple single-institution retrospective studies have shown improved local control and possibly survival with the addition of external irradiation and/or intraoperative radiation. In contrast, a recent Intergroup trial failed to show any benefit by the addition of adjuvant radiation therapy combined with chemotherapy. Interpretation of this trials results is handicapped by low patient accrual. With the advent of novel and more effective systemic therapies for metastatic
Xcenda uses retrospective database analyses for compliance and adherence assessments, analysis of treatment and population trends, economic and resource utilization analysis, and effectiveness studies.
From January 2003 to February 2016, a total of 110,698 patients were treated with anticoagulant and/or antiplatelet therapy at the participating medical centers. Among them, a total of 37 consecutive patients with SISBH were enrolled in this study. The annual incidence of SISBH was estimated at 0.003% per year. The study population comprised 19 males (51.4%), and the mean age at presentation with SISBH was 74.1 years (range, 51-89 years). Among these patients, 35 (94.6%) had cardiovascular comorbidities including 22 with hypertension (59.5%), 20 with cardiac arrhythmia (54.1%), 13 with a history of cerebrovascular accidents (35.1%), 10 with congestive heart failure (27.0%), 7 with coronary heart diseases (18.9%), 4 with pulmonary embolism and/or deep vein thrombosis (10.8%), 3 with a history of heart valve replacement (8.1%), and 2 with peripheral arterial diseases (5.4%). Three patients (8.1%) had malignant tumors at the time that SISBH presented, all of whom were being treated with systemic ...
Kurt Mahan, MD, of Presbyterian Healthcare Services discusses the results of his large retrospective database study evaluating post-discharge thromboprophylaxis among acutely ill hospitalized patients. 12,000 patients were included for this study, and the risk factors for mortality were evaluated. Antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapy omission was identified as a risk factor for mortality. No clear duration of post-discharge prophylaxis was identified, however the Kaplan Meier curves for death in this study showed the curves separate strongly between 15-30 days and remained strongly divergent at 45 days. While there is no well-defined timeline for duration of optimal post-discharge prophylaxis, this 30-45 days noted in this study may be suggestive. , TV Network
Inflammation of the central nervous system is a common cause of neurological manifestation in dogs. The confirmation of an inflammatory origin is made by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis. However, a tentative diagnosis and a prognosis are not always easy to give when the results of complementary tests are pending. The signalment, history, clinical and CSF findings of 90 dogs presenting confirmed inflammation of the central nervous system were reviewed. Our goal was to determine if a consensus was found among these parameters to be able to direct the diagnosis and the prognosis.. Materials and Methods. The medical records of 90 dogs admitted to the Clinique Fregis,Arcueil-France, between 1999 and 2001 were retrospectively reviewed. On all dogs CSF result had revealed a pleocytose of more than 10 cells per microliter. Case histories, signalment, general and neurological examination results, results of CSF analysis, other complementary exams (blood work, serology, PCR, CSF electrophoresis, ...
Journal of Medical Internet Research - International Scientific Journal for Medical Research, Information and Communication on the Internet
Reasons for performing study To determine risk factors involved in survival to hospital discharge of cases of synovial sepsis. Objectives Investigate pre-, intra- and post operative factors involved in short-term survival of horses undergoing endoscopic treatment for synovial sepsis. Study design Retrospective case series. Methods Clinical data were obtained for horses (,6 months old) undergoing endoscopic surgery as part of management for synovial sepsis over a 7-year period in a single hospital population. Descriptive data were generated for pre-, intra- and post operative variables. ...
In our study, there was a trend toward a low BMDa, particularly at the hip, in women with a history of JIA. BMDa was reduced particularly among patients with more severe disease as determined by disease subtype and level of function.. Ours is the first UK study to examine the effect of disease-related factors on bone health in adults with a history of JIA. It was a retrospective review of clinical practice at the time and accordingly, as with many such clinical outcome studies reliant on retrospective case note analysis, there are a number of limitations to consider. While all patients attending the clinic were offered a bone density scan, about 25% did not subsequently keep the appointment. It is possible that these patients may have differed with respect to bone mass levels from those who had a scan. Their omission may have resulted in an overestimate or underestimate of bone mass levels in the group, and the data need to be interpreted with some caution. It should not have influenced, ...
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Authors: Mazaris P, Hong X, Altshuler D, Schultz L, Poisson LM, Jain R, Mikkelsen T, Rosenblum M, Kalkanis S. Title: Key determinants of short-term and long-term glioblastoma survival: a 14-year retrospective study of patients from the Hermelin Brain Tumor Center at Henry Ford Hospital.. Journal: Clin Neurol Neurosurg 120:103-12. Date: 2014 May. Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Glioblastoma (GBM) is a heterogeneous neoplasm with a small percentage of long-term survivors. Despite aggressive surgical resection and advances in radiotherapy and chemotherapy, the median survival for patients with GBM is 12-14 months. Factors associated with a favorable prognosis include young age, high performance status, gross resection >98%, non-eloquent tumor location and O6-methylguanine methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation. We retrospectively analyzed the relationship of clinical, epidemiologic, genetic and molecular characteristics with survival in patients with GBM. METHODS: This retrospective analysis of overall ...
Sargent DJ, Shi Q, Gill S, Louvet C, Everson RB, Kellner U, Clancy TE, Pipas JM, Resnick MB, Meyers MO, Wu TT, Huntsman D, Validire P, Farooq U, Pavey ES, Beaudry G, Haince JF, Fradet Y. Molecular testing for lymph node metastases as a determinant of colon cancer recurrence: results from a retrospective multicenter study. Clin Cancer Res. 2014 Aug 15; 20(16):4361-9 ...
A total of 1082 patients treated in 108 centers were studied. The median age was 72 years (range, 20 to 96). The disease stage was stage I in 415 patients (38.3%), stage II in 249 (23%), stage III in 255 (23.6%), and stage IV in 163 (15.1%) (FIGO 2009). The diagnosis was squamous cell carcinoma in 779 patients (72%), Pagets disease in 158 (14.6%), adenocarcinoma in 63 (5.8%), and others in 82 (7.6%). Positive lymph nodes were found in 237 patients (21.9%). The median tumor diameter was 35 mm (range, 1 to 180). The 5-year overall survival was 86% in stage I, 74.7% in stage II, 48.2% in stage III, and 39.3% in stage IV (P ...
An apparatus and method use ontological relationships in a query language and a computer database to improve database performance and utility. A set of ontological relationships are stored in the database and new query clauses are used to query the data in advantageous ways. Ontological relationships are preferably stored in a tree structure. This tree structure then can be used to reflect the ontological relationships of data stored in the columns of a database.
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
Lundar, Tryggve; Due-Tønnessen, Bernt Johan; Egge, Arild; Krossnes, Bård Kronen; STENSVOLD, EINAR; Due-Tønnessen, Paulina & Brandal, Petter (2015). Neurosurgical treatment of brain tumors in the first 6 months of life: long-term follow-up of a single consecutive institutional series of 30 patients. Childs Nervous System. ISSN 0256-7040. 31(12), s 2283- 2290 . doi: 10.1007/s00381-015-2792-5 Show summary Object The aim of this study is to delineate the long-term results for patients going through surgery for pediatric brain tumors in the first 6 months of life. Methods Thirty consecutive children (1-182 days old) who underwent primary resection for a brain tumor during the years 1973-2012 were included in this retrospective study on surgical morbidity, mortality rate, academic achievement, and/or work participation. Gross motor function and activities of daily life were scored according to the Barthel index. Results Of the 30 patients, 11 children had surgery in the first 3 months of life (1 ...
Outcome and recurrence patterns of TNBC patients in the general female population are currently reported to be less favorable than those of non-TNBC patients, with a survival rate as low as that of HER2-positive patients in the pre-trastuzumab era (12). Early tumor detection and the evolution to more effective treatment protocols may be crucial factors to improve the outcome of TNBC patients in high-risk women entered into an intensive annual multimodal screening started at early age. Here we comparatively evaluated phenotype features, treatment options, and survival rates of patients at high genetic-familial breast cancer risk found to be affected with either TNBCs or non-TNBCs during the HIBCRIT-1 study (18), starting from 25 years of age.. Relevant reasons prompted this study. First, more aggressive characteristics and poorer outcome of TNBCs have already been demonstrated by population-based analyses of cancer registries and retrospective studies on hospital-based patient cohorts (10, 11, ...
Leading AML expert Dr. Uma Borate goes back to the basics to explain how AML presents itself in the body and the recommended testing at diagnosis. Watch now to learn more.
Study Flashcards On Pediatric Case files at Cram.com. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want!
Immunovia announces that the large retrospective autoimmune disease study, performed in collaboration with Lund Universitys IDEA Centre has been finalized.
CHANDLER, Ariz., Aug. 28, 2013 /PRNewswire/ -- Vomaris Releases New Retrospective Study Conclusions. Procelleras® Microcurrent Technology Associated With...
Mortality rates for many types of cancer in the U.S. are markedly higher among men than women, a large retrospective study found.
DUBLIN, IRELAND--(Marketwired - Oct 5, 2015) - Theravance Biopharma, Inc. (NASDAQ: TBPH) (Theravance Biopharma or the Company) today announced that data from studies of VIBATIV® (telavancin) will be presented at IDWeek™ 2015, being held in San Diego, CA, on October 7 - 11, 2015. New data from multiple retrospective clinical...
Clinical charts and treatment protocols for numerous therapeutic diseases and disorders such as cardiovascular, oncology, neurological and many more. Download our FREE app now.
U.S. House Majority Whip Steve Scalise is still in serious condition but his health continues to show improvement, according to a statement from the MedStar Washington Hospital Center. Scalise, 51, had another...
The idea that cefepime could be neurotoxic has been documented in a number of case reports that temporally associated its use-and its discontinuation-with the appearance and then resolution of alterations in consciousness, or most concerningly with seizure activity. This was described particularly, although not exclusively, among the renally impaired (Jallon 2000, Chatellier 2002, Lam 2006, Fernandez-Torre 2006, Kim 2013).. However, the only large-ish study was by Fugate et al in 2013, reporting their experiences from the Mayo Clinic. In a retrospective chart review enrolling everyone who received 3+ days of cefepime in their ICU over a three-year period, they asked a panel of experts (with a modified Delphi format, aka "what do yall think?") whether the patient had experienced any neurotoxicity attributable to their cefepime. This was based upon temporal association of CNS derangement with both initiation and termination of the therapy, with no other plausible cause appreciated; notably, if ...
ACUR Share Price - Acura Pharmaceuticals, Inc. NASDAQ USA Technical Analysis, Target, Important Levels, Latest News, Interactive Charts.
Written by Prof. Jenn Final warning: These are RETROSPECTIVE reviews, so I will be discussing reveals, revolutions of cliffhangers, ends of plots, etc. If you are reading these reviews without having seen the eps, a) what is wrong with you?? Go watch them now! and b) these reviews are not for you till youve seen…
Methods. A total of 203 patients were selected for the current study. Malignancies prior to AAV diagnosis were identified using a nationwide pathology database, and their occurrence was verified by reviewing the medical files of 145 patients (71.4%). The malignancy incidence was compared to the general population by calculation of standardized incidence ratios (SIR), matching for sex, age, and time period. SIR were calculated for 2 intervals: , 2 years and ≥ 2 years prior to AAV diagnosis. Separate analyses were performed for GPA and MPA. ...
As of 1st November 2013, General Practitioners have access to bulk-billed MRI services for patients 16 years an over for a small range of clinically appropriate indications.  This is in addition to the GP access to paediatric MRI introduced in ...
The standard deviation is a standardized variance (ie the square root of the variance to brings the units back to the unit of the distribution because the variance is squared in order to get rid of a zero sum). ,MATH, \begin{array}{rrl} \text{Standard Deviation (SD)} & = & \sqrt{\href{variance}{Variance}} \\ & = & \sqrt{\frac{\displaystyle \href{Deviation Score}{\text{Sum of Squared (SS)}}}{\displaystyle \href{sample_size}{N}}} \\ & = & \sqrt{\frac{\displaystyle \sum_{i=1}^{\href{sample_size}{N}}{(\href{Residual}{\text{Residual}})^2}}{\displaystyle \href{sample_size}{N}}} \\ & = & \sqrt{\frac{\displaystyle \sum_{i=1}^{\href{sample_size}{N}}{(\href{raw_score}{X}_i- \href{mean}{\bar{X}})^2}}{\displaystyle \href{sample_size}{N}}} \\ \end{array} ,/MATH, ...
Lorenzo Lorenzo-Luaces, Robert J. DeRubeis, Annemieke van Straten, Bea Tiemens, A prognostic index (PI) as a moderator of outcomes in the treatment of depression: A proof of concept combining multiple variables to inform risk-stratified stepped care models, Journal of Affective Disorders, 2017, 213, ...
In the past, one of the biggest challenges non-neurologist or/and non-movement disorders physicians have faced in diagnosing PD has been the lack of uniformity in disease presentation. While variability in response to treatment has been a challenge at times for those of us in the field of Parkinsons disease. Although, no two individuals are ever really alike in the. ...
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My sister had a transplant 17 years ago and now the new kidney is in failure and she has only 20% function they say she will be on dialysis soon. Her health is failing and she has lost so much weight. If you also have the doubt, please read
This report shows the number of reported cases of communicable diseasess by year for ten-year periods. Utah Bureau of Epidemiology.
Who an ultrasound during pregnancy is for, we will do our best to answer your questions and minimise your anxiety. The most common location for an..
Сайт Государственного автономного учреждения здравоохранения Межрегиональный клинико-диагностический центр (ГАУЗ МКДЦ), расположенного в РТ, г.Казань, ул. Карбышева д.12а.
If you utilize TNF blockers which include HUMIRA your chance of finding two kinds of skin most cancers may well increase (basal mobile most cancers and address squamous cell most cancers of your pores and skin). Most of these most cancers are usually not existence-threatening if treated. Notify your medical professional In case you have a bump or open sore that doesnt mend ...
Its also not overly harmful Regardless of staying an oral steroid, it doesnt create lots of Negative effects in the slightest degree, and is comparatively moderate around the pure endocrine method (for just a steroid, that is certainly). Youre not likely to get A lot, if any bodyweight from Anavar, but That which you do gain is going to be very good wanting muscle, and minor if any pounds obtain in how of h2o ...
twenty five] A random influence might be existing in both of those roles, but the two roles are read more pretty distinctive. There is not any motive to Consider the analysis model and info-technology system (product) are very similar in variety, but a lot of sub-fields of figures have formulated the pattern of assuming, for principle and simulations, that the data-technology system (design) is just like the analysis model we elect (or want Some others to select). Like a hypothesized mechanisms for creating the data, the random effect design for meta-analysis is silly and it is more suitable to think about this product for a superficial description and some thing we elect as an analytical Software - but this choice for meta-analysis may not function go to this site since the study results are a fixed attribute of the respective meta-analysis plus the probability distribution is just a descriptive Instrument.[twenty five ...
STUDY DESIGN.A retrospective cohort study. OBJECTIVES.The aim of this study was to evaluate radiographic and patient-reported outcomes at minimum 2 years after ...
... - Basic statistics and maths concepts and examples covering individual series, discrete series, continuous series in simple and easy steps
Despair, exhaustion, and sensation very Unwell you can try here like I had been intending to vomit for the few hours just after ingesting the methylb12. It took a couple of week in addition to a half for all those signs or symptoms to diminish. How could methylb12 trigger those symptoms? Overmethylation? Detox? These signs struck me as currently being fairly severe for overmethylation. I felt like I was undertaking fairly damn very well about the four hundred mcg five mthf. Any help could well be A lot appreciated ...
An average, or common case, is frequently not the richest in information and facts. In clarifying traces of background and causation it is more practical to pick topics which offer a fascinating, unconventional or especially revealing list of instances. A case choice that is based on representativeness will rarely be able to develop these kinds of insights. When picking out a case to get a case study, researchers will hence use facts-oriented sampling, as opposed to random sampling.[7] Outlier cases (that is definitely, Individuals that happen to be Excessive, deviant or atypical) expose more details than the possibly agent case ...
If His Excellency the Presidents approval is rendered for the surgery / treatment prior to such surgery is done or treatment administered the letter of guaranty is made available to the hospital or the Institution concerned on the exact date of admission to the hospital is provided to the Presidents Fund.. In the case of cancer patients the letter of guaranty could be obtained 30 days after the patient is admitted to the hospital for treatment whereas in the case of other patients the letter of guaranty could be obtained 14 days before the surgery is done.. The guaranty letter can be obtained for the treatments of cancer patients 30 days prior to the admission to the hospital whereas for the others 14 days prior to the surgery.. ...
We have been extremely impressed with all your ability to navigate your way through this type of system, and felt you were quite supportive as part of your initiatives to have us over the line. You did, thanks, and we have been delighted with the end result. In spite of refinancing for any greater sum, our repayments are actually decreased than just before, and We have now "home to move" and monetary peace of mind that our circumstance is managed inside of a financially audio manner ...
The essential tenet at the rear of meta-analyses is that there is a common truth of the matter driving all conceptually equivalent scientific studies, but that has been calculated with a specific mistake within person research. The intention then is to employ approaches from studies to derive a pooled estimate closest towards the unknown common truth of the matter depending on how this mistake is perceived. In essence, all existing approaches generate a weighted typical from the effects of the person experiments and what differs is definitely the fashion where these weights are allocated in addition to the method where the uncertainty is computed around the point estimate thus produced ...
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So add up your score, give you a couple of seconds here to do the math and heres what the score means. And then Heidi, Im going do ask you your score in a minute if. If your score is under five you have a less than four percent chance of dying in the next four years. If it is six to nine you have a 15 percent chance of dying in the next four years. If its 10 to 13, you have a 42 percent chance of dying in the next four years. If its 14 or higher you have more than a 64 percent chance of dying in the next four years. That would kind of be depressing. So Heidi, please tell me you got a low score ...
Stroke is a major risk factor for osteoporosis and fractures. No study has evaluated the association between diuretic use and risk of vertebral fracture in stroke patients, although a considerable proportion of stroke patients are prescribed diuretics for hypertension. Our study aimed to investigate whether treatment with thiazides or loop diuretics affects the risk of vertebral fracture after stroke. A population-based propensity score-matched retrospective cohort study was conducted using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Patients with a new diagnosis of stroke between 2000 and 2011 were included. After propensity score matching, 9468 patients were included in the analysis of the effect of thiazides, of who 4734 received thiazides within 2 years after stroke. To analyze the loop diuretic effect, 4728 patients were included, of who 2364 received loop diuretics. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) of vertebral fractures among
Minor Oral Surgery Procedures in Patients Taking Warfarin : A 5-year retrospective study at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Sultanate of Oman
GUR, S y ACAR, A. A retrospective investigation of canine adenovirus (CAV) infection in adult dogs in Turkey. J. S. Afr. Vet. Assoc. [online]. 2009, vol.80, n.2, pp.84-86. ISSN 2224-9435.. Canine adenovirus (CAV) type 1 and 2, respectively, cause infectious canine hepatitis and infectious canine laryngotracheitis in members of the families Canidae and Ursidae worldwide. Both of these infections are acute diseases, especially in young dogs. The aim of this study was to conduct a serological investigation of canine adenovirus infection. For this purpose, serum samples were collected from native pure-bred Kangal (n = 11), and Akbash dogs (n = 17) and Turkish Greyhounds (n = 15) in Eskisehir and Konya provinces. None of the dogs were previously vaccinated against CAV types. Indirect ELISA detected 88.2 %, 93.3 % and 100 % prevalences in Akbash, Greyhound and Kangal dogs, respectively. The remainder of the samples (n = 51) were collected at the Afyonkarahisar Municipality Shelter. Fourty-two of these ...
Short-term and mid-term outcomes of stapled hemorrhoidopexy (SH) were compared with those for Ferguson hemorrhoidectomy (FH) for treating hemorrhoids. Patients with prolapsed hemorrhoids were randomized into two groups treated with SH (N = 300) and FH (N = 296) at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Chiayi in Taiwan between January 2002 and December 2004. The outcomes of the procedures were evaluated postoperatively (short-term, i.e., intra-/postoperative conditions, hospital stay, pain intensity scoring, time off work, and procedure-related morbidity) and over a follow-up period of minimum 18 months (mid-term, i.e., relapse of prolapse and/or bleeding, anal stricture, anal sepsis, and the acceptability of the procedures to the patients). SH was superior to FH in operative time, intraoperative blood loss, postoperative pain intensity, and return to work. Based on telephone interviews over the follow-up period, most patients who received SH appreciated the procedure better than those with FH. This study
Purpose: AURORE is a multicenter retrospective observational study that aims to describe the treatment patterns with verteporfin plus ranibizumab in patients with subfoveal wet AMD over 12 months of treatment. The main objective of the study was to assess the average number of Ranibizumab intravitreal injections (IVT).. Methods: 132 consecutive wet AMD patients were included by 12 centers. Eyes had to be treatment naïve at inclusion and only be treated with verteporfin plus ranibizumab over the 12-month period following treatment initiation. Ranibizumab treatment had to be initiated with 3 monthly consecutive IVT injections. Verteporfin could be administered from 8 days before up to 12 months after ranibizumab treatment initiation. Mean ETDRS VA change at 12 months vs baseline, average number of verteporfin treatments and average number of monitoring visits over the 12-month period were part of the secondary evaluation criteria. The sample size calculation was performed to provide a minimal ...
In a population-based retrospective cohort study, Rochester women aged 35-69 years who were first diagnosed with one or more vertebral fractures in 1950-1979 were followed for the development of a subsequent hip fracture. The 336 women with no history of hip fracture at the time of their vertebral fracture experienced 52 proximal femur fractures in 4788 person-years of follow-up. The standardized morbidity ratio (SMR) of observed to expected hip fractures was 1.8 (95% CI, 1.3-2.4) and was higher for intertrochanteric than cervical femoral fractures (SMR, 2.3 versus 1.3; P = 0.07). Hip fracture risk among women with symptomatic vertebral fractures was slightly less than in those with asymptomatic vertebral fractures (SMR, 1.8 versus 2.3; not significant), and younger women had no higher risk of a subsequent hip fracture than women who were | or = 60 years of age at the time of their vertebral fracture (SMR, 1.4 versus 1.8; not significant). Alternative explanations are possible, but these data are
Insemination with donor spermatozoa is an integral part of infertility treatment. For the last 3 years in our unit, intrauterine insemination with donor spermatozoa (IUID) has been used in preference to vaginal insemination. In this retrospective study, patients were offered an initial course of five single intrauterine inseminations with cryopreserved donor spermatozoa and treatment was then reviewed. A total of 389 patients received 1465 inseminations. In all, 1119 cycles were monitored using luteinizing hormone serum analyses and 346 cycles using the urine home test kits. The clinical pregnancy rate per insemination for the cycles monitored by the serum assay was 18.0% (202/1119) compared with the urine cycles (13.7%, 46/346) (P ,05). The pregnancy loss rate was not significantly different (14.4%, 29/202 and 21.7%, 10/46) (serum and urine cycles respectively). The viable clinical pregnancy rate was significantly higher (P ,03) for the serum cycles than for the cycles using the urinary ...
Introduction: We report our experience with laparoscopic major liver resection in Korea based on a multicenter retrospective study. Materials and methods: Data from 1,009 laparoscopic liver resections conducted from 2001 to 2011 were retrospectively collected. Twelve tertiary medical centers with specialized hepatic surgeons participated in this study. Results: Among 1,009 laparoscopic liver resections, major liver resections were performed in 265 patients as treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma, metastatic tumor, intrahepatic duct stone, and other conditions. The most frequently performed procedure was left hemihepatectomy (165 patients), followed by right hemihepatectomy (53 patients). Pure laparoscopic procedure was performed in 190 patients including 19 robotic liver resections. Hand-assisted laparoscopic liver resection was performed in three patients and laparoscopy-assisted liver resection in 55 patients. Open conversion was performed in 17 patients (6.4 %). Mean operative time and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Rapid immune reconstitution following autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in children. T2 - A single institution experience. AU - Hoepfner, S.. AU - Haut, Paul. AU - OGorman, M.. AU - Kletzel, M.. PY - 2003/2. Y1 - 2003/2. N2 - In this retrospective study, we review the immune reconstitution of children undergoing autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. A total of 125 patients underwent autologous transplantation between 1992 and 2000. The report includes data on 58 patients. Data were not available on the remaining patients who either died before testing or data were not obtained. The parameters evaluated include: (a) immunophenotype by flow cytometry to quantify lymphocyte subpopulations (b) mitogen stimulation assays, and (c) quantitative immunoglobulins. The analysis reveals that CD3+ cells did not reach the normal range during the first year post-transplant. The median percentage of CD4 + cells was below normal up to 6 months post-transplant, ...
A retrospective, observational study". Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. 53 (2): 193-8. doi:10.1067/mge.2001.112709. PMID 11174291. ... Other medications (hyoscine butylbromide, benzodiazepines and opioids) have been studied but the evidence is limited. ... a retrospective analysis of 139 cases". Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology. 40 (9): 784-9. doi:10.1097/01.mcg. ...
"Is 27 really a dangerous age for famous musicians? A retrospective cohort study" (Press release). The BMJ. December 2011. ... Scientific studies. A study published in the British Medical Journal in December 2011 concluded that there was no increase in ... A retrospective cohort study". The BMJ ;343. doi:10.1136/bmj.d7799.. ... Statistical studies have failed to find any unusual pattern of musician deaths at this age, comparing it to equally small ...
A multicenter retrospective study. [German] Fortschr Med 1989; 107: 599-602. Tromm A et al. The probiotic E. coli strain Nissle ... Two capsules daily started on day 5 Two clinical studies have shown efficacy in the case of chronic constipation. These include ... Results of a clinical study of the effectiveness and tolerance of microbiological therapy with the E. coli Nissle 1917 strain ( ... It has been clinically studied and reviewed for over 80 years to prevent and treat an assortment of gastrointestinal disorders ...
Retrospective and prospective studies. Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica Suppl. 1979, 275: 112-21. PMID 291283.. ... Goddard, H.H. (1912). The Kallikak Family: A Study in the Heredity of Feeble-Mindedness. New York: Macmillan. ... Committee to Study Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, Division of Biobehavioral Sciences and Mental Disorders, Institute of Medicine. ... Strömland K, Pinazo-Durán M. Ophthalmic involvement in the fetal alcohol syndrome: clinical and animal model studies. Alcohol ...
... have been useful for retrospective studies. Bird collections offer the potential for current and future ... Rigorous studies of avian taxonomy are based on specimens from bird collections. Taxonomic studies rely on morphological and ... A study of soot deposits on specimens collected within the United States Manufacturing Belt was used to track concentrations of ... The most traditional preparation is a study skin, in which almost all of the body inside the skin is removed and replaced with ...
D (2012). "San Francisco State University, Africana Studies". African Studies Companion Online 5.7: 1-21. Upi (1981-02-27). " ... Retrospective. Community center named after her Ella Hill Hutch at Find a Grave. ...
A retrospective study of medical records]". Ugeskrift for Læger (in Danish). 163 (39): 5370-8. PMID 11590953. World Alliance ... The study focused on three chemotherapy regimens that were not supported by evidence from prior clinical studies or clinical ... If these large-scale studies are conducted, the findings could generate large-scale intervention studies conducted with a ... A 2011 study of more than 1,000 patients with advanced colon cancer found that one in eight was treated with at least one drug ...
Review of a retrospective cohort study". Environmental Health. 11 (1): 85. doi:10.1186/1476-069X-11-85.. ... Elwood, J (2012). "Microwaves in the cold war: the Moscow embassy study and its interpretation. ... he and his colleagues began a study investigating the health effects of exposure to microwaves among people in the American ...
Retrospective Studies). 13 (1): 146-51. doi:10.3748/wjg.v13.i1.146. PMID 17206762. Tonutti E, Bizzaro N (2014). "Diagnosis and ... NCGS may be a late-onset condition: in a prospective study performed among adults of 18 to 80 years, the median age of disease ... Studies using anti-gliadin antibodies (AGA) reveal that diagnosed or untreated[clarification needed] individuals with AGA have ... The incidence of NCGS is unknown; some estimates range from 0.6% to 6%, and a systematic review of 2015 reported on studies ...
The mammalian eIF4F complex was first described in 1983, and has been a major area of study into the molecular mechanisms of ... Merrick WC (October 2015). "eIF4F: a retrospective". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 290 (40): 24091-9. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... Fraser CS (July 2015). "Quantitative studies of mRNA recruitment to the eukaryotic ribosome". Biochimie. 114: 58-71. doi: ...
A retrospective study". BJOG. 120: 428-34. 2013. doi:10.1111/1471-0528.12099. PMC 3621136 . PMID 23210536. Hibbert, Katharine ( ... 1948; 35: 126-139 Sakuta T.; Saito S. (1981). "A Socio-Medical Study on 71 Cases of Infanticide in Japan". Keio J. Med. 30: 155 ... A number of studies have evaluated risk factors in infant homicide with the aim of preventing it. Anonymous delivery, a system ...
Clark expanded the study of early Christianity, pioneering the application of modern theories such as feminist theory, social ... Clark, "Retrospective Self," 6 "email : Webview : "In Honor of Elizabeth Clark"". t.e2ma.net. Retrieved 2017-05-12. "Honorary ... She remains on the board of the Center for Late Ancient Studies at Duke. Reflecting on her career, Clark observed that it was ' ... She helped to launch and co-edited the Journal of Early Christian Studies. Clark is a prolific writer, authoring or editing ...
Journal of Usability Studies. [3] SUS+ - interactive web-based tool Usabilityscale - online tool to create and track SUS ... 1] Sauro, J. (2011). Measuring Usability with the System Usability Scale (SUS) [2] Brooke, J. (2013). SUS - a retrospective. ... Based on a review of hundreds of usability studies, Sauro and Lewis proposed a curved grading scale for mean SUS scores. Brooke ...
Intercollegiate Studies Institute. ISBN 1-882926-46-3 2000. Christ and science. Real View Books. 2001. Praying the Psalms, A ... A Centenary Retrospective. Edinburgh: Scottish Academis Press, and Macon, GA.: Mercer University Press. 1986. Chance or Reality ... Anselm in Rome (1950) and in physics from Fordham University (1958), where he studied under the Nobel laureate Victor Hess, the ... Archive of Stanley Jaki articles at Intercollegiate Studies Institute" "Brain, Mind and Computers". Stanely L. Jaki. JASA 24 ( ...
Intercollegiate Studies Institute. ISBN 1-882926-46-3. *2008. Hail Mary, full of grace: A Commentary. New Hope, KY: Real View ... A Centenary Retrospective. Edinburgh: Scottish Academis Press, and Macon, GA.: Mercer University Press. ... Lanham MD: University Press of America & Intercollegiate Studies Institute.. *1991. Scientist and Catholic, An Essay on Pierre ... Lanham, MD: University Press of America & Intercollegiate Studies Institute.. *2000 (1988). The Savior of Science. W. B. ...
... retrospective cohort study". BMJ. 320 (7227): 86-90. doi:10.1136/bmj.320.7227.86. PMC 27253. PMID 10625261.. ... A prospective follow-up study". International Journal of Nursing Studies. 48 (4): 409-418. doi:10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2010.07.017. ... At least one study has recommended that routine episiotomy be abandoned for this reason.[8] ... Some midwives compare routine episiotomy to female genital mutilation.[14] One study found that women who underwent episiotomy ...
A retrospective cohort study]". Epidemiol Prev. 36: 34-43. PMID 23139187. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) [1], ... Human studies show that exposure to beta-HCH is linked to Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. Beta-HCH was present in elevated ... Animal studies show that organochlorine pesticides, including beta-HCH, are neurotoxic, cause oxidative stress, and damage the ... A study was therefore undertaken to evaluate the extent and risk factors for contamination. α-Hexachlorocyclohexane ...
A retrospective neuropsychological study". Acta Neurologica Scandinavica. 83: 9-13. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0404.1991.tb03952.x. ... Studies have reported that the average number of taps per 10-second interval can be used to distinguish between patients with ...
Irish Literary Studies 9. Ed. Peter Connolly. Gerrards Cross: Colin Smythe, 1982. 175-87. The Anglo-Irish., The Irish Times. 7 ... The Moon and the Yellow River : Denis Johnson's Shavianism., Denis Johnson : A Retrospective. Joseph Ronsley Ed. Irish Literary ... He was born in Green Street, Callan, County Kilkenny and studied at University College, Dublin. In his early career he was play ... Contemporary Drama in English., (CDE Studies) 8 Trier : WVT Wissenschaftlicher Verlag, 2001. 47 - 55. Dreaming House, a Play ...
Chaudhry, S.; Sangani, B.; Ojwang, S.B.; Khan, K.S. (March 1995). "Retrospective study of alleged sexual assault at the Aga ... A retrospective cohort study". Canadian Medical Association Journal. Canadian Medical Association. 160 (11): 1565-1569. PMC ... However, a study of women attending a hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, following rape, has highlighted the fact that in many ... For instance, one study found that documented physical injury, particularly of the moderate to severe type, was associated with ...
A retrospective Italian study". J. Neurol. 255 (2): 171-7. doi:10.1007/s00415-008-0589-0. PMID 18293027. Broniscer A, Laningham ... Sanghavi SN, Needle MN, Krailo MD, Geyer JR, Ater J, Mehta MP (January 2003). "A phase I study of topotecan as a ... Pilot Study,Predicting response to radiation therapy by evaluating choline levels with MRS before and after radiotherapy ... Children's of Los Angeles: Imaging Study,Impact of steroids on metabolism of tumours (animal research) DIPG Registry: Diffuse ...
A retrospective observational study". BMC Infectious Diseases. 11 (1): 289. doi:10.1186/1471-2334-11-289. ISSN 1471-2334. LPSN ...
Retrospective population-based study". Can J Public Health. 95 (6): 441-5. PMID 15622794. "Attacked by the Gang". New York ... Beland, Frederick A. "NTP Technical Report on the Toxicity and Metabolism Studies of Chloral Hydrate" (PDF). Toxicity Report ... Chloral hydrate was also a significant object of study in various early pharmacological experiments. In 1875, Claude Bernard ...
A retrospective study" (PDF). Appetite. 62: 209-215. doi:10.1016/j.appet.2012.04.017. B.A. Swinburn WPT James; I. Caterson; J.C ... Studies identify different methods of nagging/pestering to try to achieve the marketers desired goal of the child influencing ... Another study suggests that there are two main ways children pester their parents. The first method is persistent nagging, ... In studies where mothers have been interviewed about their methods for limiting the effectiveness of pester power, 36% said " ...
GLOBEC Report No.19: Ecosystem Studies of Sub-Arctic Seas (ESSAS) Science Plan. GLOBEC Report No.18: CLimate Impacts on Oceanic ... Focus Working Groups: There are four GLOBEC cross-cutting research focal activities: Focus 1. Retrospective analysis Focus 2. ... Process studies Focus 3. Prediction and modelling Focus 4. Feedback from ecosystem changes GLOBEC produces a report series, ...
... retrospective study of 32 cases at term". Gynecol Obstet fertil. 34 (5): 393-6. doi:10.1016/j.gyobfe.2005.07.042. PMID 16630740 ... In a large study, a majority of brow presentations were delivered by Cesarean section, however, because of 'postmaturity', ... Bhal PS, Davies NJ, Chung T (1998). "A population study of face and brow presentation". J Obstet Gynecol. 18 (3): 231-5. doi: ... A Prospective Study". Birth. 20 (3): 132-5. PMID 8240620. Check date values in: ,date= (help) Ducarme G, Ceccaldi PF, Chesnoy V ...
The study also found that magpies in Korea (described as P. p. serica) are as different from the nominate subspecies as they ... Retrospective investigation of trends in population density and breeding success". Journal of Applied Ecology. 28 (3): 1068- ... However, one recent research study has cast doubt on the veracity of this belief.[53][54] In Bulgarian, Czech, German, ... These results imply that the species Pica pica is not monophyletic.[15] A more recent study using both mitochondrial and ...
Mellgren M, Bergvall K (2008). "Treatment of rabbit cheyletiellosis with selamectin or ivermectin: a retrospective case study ...
Study Type:. Observational Official Title:. Retrospective Database Studies From Reproductive Endocrinology Practice Looking at ... The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study ... Improving Rates while Decreasing Adverse Outcomes [ Time Frame: duration of study ]. Retrospective database analysis in order ... Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your ...
Retrospective and Prospective Views in DOAJ. DOAJ is an online directory that indexes and provides access to quality open ... Information about the open-access journal Translation Studies: ... Translation Studies: Retrospective and Prospective Views. TSRPV ... Publishers keywords: translation, linguistics, cultural studies. Language of fulltext: German, Italian, Romanian; Moldavian; ...
Mortality in young offenders: retrospective cohort study. BMJ 2003; 327 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.327.7428.1381 ( ...
Chromosomal Aberrations in Primary Amenorrhea: A Retrospective Study.. Korgaonkar S1, Dhangar S1, Kulkarni V1, Kerketta L1, ... Study Design: The study was carried out in a large cohort of PA. The chromosomal aberrations were correlated with secondary ... The present study concluded that cytogenetics plays an important role in precise diagnosis which helps in the management of PA ... A high frequency of abnormal uterus (81.9%) and ovaries (86.7%) were detected in our study. A total of 121 (24.7%) cases were ...
A Checklist for Retrospective Database Studies Published Mar 2003. Citation. Motheral B, Brooks J, Clark MA, et al. A checklist ... Intermediate Retrospective Observational Study - Propensity Scoring Methods * Use of Public Survey Data in Health Outcomes ... In an effort to assist decision makers in evaluating the quality of published studies that use healthrelated retrospective ... the study methodology, and the study conclusions. Checklist questions cover a wide range of issues, including relevance, ...
Nerves studied were median and ulnar (sensory and motor conduction studies), tibial and fibular (motor conduction studies), and ... Congenital Zika syndrome with arthrogryposis: retrospective case series study BMJ 2016; 354 :i3899 ... We conducted a descriptive, retrospective study by reviewing the medical records of children with arthrogryposis associated ... Comparison with other studies. In microcephaly a babys head is smaller than that of a baby of the same sex and age. ...
A retrospective review of post-delivery antibody records was performed at a teaching hospital and a community hospital to ... A retrospective study to determine the risk of red cell alloimmunization and transfusion during pregnancy. *Heddle N ... Heddle, N. M., Frassetto, R., OHoski, P., & Leaman, B. (1993). A retrospective study to determine the risk of red cell ... A retrospective review of post-delivery antibody records was performed at a teaching hospital and a community hospital to ...
Mortality study of civilian employees exposed to contaminated drinking water at USMC Base Camp Lejeune: A retrospective cohort ... What Was Studied. The study evaluated specific causes of death in 4,647 full-time workers who were employed at Camp Lejeune ... The study included all underlying causes of death that other studies have shown to be associated with one or more of the ... Features of this Study. The study looked at the Camp Lejeune civilian workers and a comparison civilian worker population from ...
A retrospective cohort study Study Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine whether residential exposures of Marines ... What Was Studied. The study evaluated specific causes of death in 154,932 Marines and Navy personnel who began service during ... Features of this Study. The study included a comparison population from Camp Pendleton that was similar to the Camp Lejeune ... The study included all underlying causes of death that other studies have shown associations with one or more of the chemicals ...
A retrospective study of silicone stent placement for management of anastomotic airway complications in lung transplant ... The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of silicone stents for such an indication ...
Our study confirms that chronic post-thoracotomy pain is a common problem. The results from our study suggest that chronic post ... The primary goal of this study was to investigate the incidence of chronic post-thoracotomy pain. The secondary goal was to ...
... and clinical studies covering a wide range of subjects in life sciences and medicine. The journal is divided into 55 subject- ... Clinical Study Laryngeal Neuroendocrine Carcinomas: A Retrospective Study of 14 Cases. Yingying Zhu,1 Liming Gao,1 Yunxiao Meng ... Yingying Zhu, Liming Gao, Yunxiao Meng, et al., "Laryngeal Neuroendocrine Carcinomas: A Retrospective Study of 14 Cases," ...
They are especially appropriate to study rare exposures or exposures for which randomization is not possible for practical or ... Cohort studies form a suitable study design to assess associations between multiple exposures on the one hand and multiple ... Cohort studies: prospective versus retrospective Nephron Clin Pract. 2009;113(3):c214-7. doi: 10.1159/000235241. Epub 2009 Aug ... Prospective and retrospective cohort studies have higher accuracy and higher efficiency as their respective main advantages. In ...
The National Code on Clinical Trials has declared that ethics approval is not necessary for retrospective studies. ... The study, however, is limited by absence of a control group and use of multiple therapeutic interventions in treatment groups ... Recently, experimental studies highlight the potential role of complement in STEC-HUS pathophysiology. Eculizumab (EC), a ... On behalf of the French Society of Pediatric Nephrology, we retrospectively studied 33 children from 15 centers treated with EC ...
... and clinical studies related to the anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eye. Submissions should focus on focusing on new ... H. W. Lim, J. W. Shin, H. Y. Cho et al., "Endogenous endophthalmitis in the korean population: a six-year retrospective study ... Causative Microorganisms of Infectious Endophthalmitis: A 5-Year Retrospective Study. Fang Duan, Kaili Wu, Jingyu Liao, Yongxin ... a 10-year retrospective study," Eye, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 945-956, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ...
Retrospective Femoral Nerve Block Study. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study ... Study Description Study Design Groups and Cohorts Outcome Measures Eligibility Criteria Contacts and Locations More Information ... Study Description Study Design Groups and Cohorts Outcome Measures Eligibility Criteria Contacts and Locations More Information ... Study Description Study Design Groups and Cohorts Outcome Measures Eligibility Criteria Contacts and Locations More Information ...
This retrospective cohort study was conducted to predict the onset of CSS and facilitate diagnosis in the early phase of the ... A retrospective study of bronchial hyperresponsiveness in patients with asthma before the onset of Churg-Strauss syndrome ...
Vietnam Era Health Retrospective Observational study on the health and well-being of Vietnam Veterans, Blue Water Navy Veterans ... Vietnam Era Health Retrospective Observational Study The Vietnam Era Health Retrospective Observational Study (VE-HEROeS) is a ... VA » Health Care » Public Health » Epidemiology » Vietnam Era Health Retrospective Observational Study ... Because each selected individual represents other comparable people, we were not able to accept volunteers for this study. ...
A retrospective cohort study, also called a historic cohort study, is a longitudinal cohort study used in medical and ... Retrospective studies may need very large sample sizes for rare outcomes. While retrospective cohort studies try to compare the ... Retrospective cohort studies have existed for approximately as long as prospective cohort studies. The retrospective cohort ... Retrospective cohort studies exhibit the benefits of cohort studies and have distinct advantages relative to prospective ones: ...
Study Design and Setting. The participating clinicians, sites, and patients in this retrospective cohort study were part of the ... A Retrospective Cohort Study. David C. Kaelber, Weiwei Liu, Michelle Ross, A. Russell Localio, Janeen B. Leon, Wilson D. Pace, ... METHODS: Retrospective cohort study aggregating electronic health record data on ,1.2 million pediatric patients from 196 ... Diagnosis and Medication Treatment of Pediatric Hypertension: A Retrospective Cohort Study Message Subject (Your Name) has sent ...
Chinese medicine for outcomes in colorectal cancer patients: A retrospective clinical study. ... Luo L, Yang Y, Li P. Cohort study on the effect of Fuzheng Capsules and Quxie Capsules on the replapse and metastasis of the ... Author Contributions Zhang SF, Lin FX, Tian LF conceived and designed the study; Tian LF, Lei CY, Ding CC, Shi L collected ... Guan J, Yang Y. Cohort study on the effect of a combined treatment of traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine on the ...
Sharon R. Silver, MS, Division of Surveillance, Hazard Assessment and Field Studies, National Institute for Occupational Safety ...
The retrospective study carried out at Karolinska University Hospital in Sweden describes the clinical outcome of 50 patients ... Retrospective Study Featuring OSSDSIGN Cranial Published in World Neurosurgery. Monday, October 29, 2018 General News ... implants for cranial and facial reconstruction, today announced positive results from a retrospective study of OSSDSIGN Cranial ... www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/retrospective-study-featuring-ossdsign-cranial-published-in-world-neurosurgery-300739126.html ...
The primary objective of this retrospective study was to analyze the prevalence and phenomenon of neonaticide in Switzerland. ... Prevalence and phenomenology of neonaticide in Switzerland 1980-2010: a retrospective study.. Krüger P. ... Although several recent studies have examined neonaticide in different countries and cultures, there has been no in-depth ...
Congenital hip disease in a Cree-Ojibwa population: a retrospective study Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ... Congenital hip disease in a Cree-Ojibwa population: a retrospective study. J. M. Walker ...
  • The purpose of this study was to determine whether residential exposures of Marines and Navy personnel to contaminated drinking water at Camp Lejeune increased risk of mortality from cancers and other chronic diseases. (cdc.gov)
  • HealthDay)-Psoriasis is significantly associated with an increased mortality risk, according to a study published online Aug. 12 in the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. (medicalxpress.com)
  • In a medical context, they can potentially address rare diseases, which would necessitate extremely large cohorts in prospective studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cause of death data from 1979-2008 were used to study the Camp Lejeune and Camp Pendleton cohorts. (cdc.gov)
  • The study exemplifies the use of prospectively collected population cohorts to search for epigenetic mechanisms of disease. (uio.no)
  • The retrospective cohort study compares groups of individuals who are alike in many ways but differ by a certain characteristic (for example, female nurses who smoke and ones who do not smoke) in terms of a particular outcome (such as lung cancer). (wikipedia.org)
  • However, both kinds of cohort studies share the same starting point (considering data from before the occurrence of the outcome). (wikipedia.org)
  • The purpose of this study is to report the predisposing factors, timing of symptoms, timing of diagnosis, causative organisms, source of infection, and visual outcome in cases of endogenous bacterial endophthalmitis. (nih.gov)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate if the outcome of excessively crying infants treated with chiropractic manipulation (1) was associated with age and/or (2), at least partially, can be explained by age according to the natural decline in crying. (chiro.org)
  • The infants in the control groups of the 2 published RCTs were subjected to the normal crying curve, which we in this study compared to positive outcome. (chiro.org)
  • Influence of design characteristics on the outcome of retrospective cohort studies. (bmj.com)
  • Tonix recently reported that the Phase 3 P301 study was stopped at the pre-planned interim analysis because it did not achieve a study continuation threshold on the primary outcome of improvement in the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-5 (CAPS-5) at Week 12 in the modified intent-to-treat (mITT) population. (benzinga.com)
  • Background: Clinical characteristics evaluation and risk factors identification of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been well studied, while effective predictors for clinical outcome and research on underlying mechanism are limited. (ssrn.com)
  • Our study showed no difference in outcome between elective and early elective cases. (springer.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of a 532 nm potassium-titanyl-phosphate laser (KTP-laser) for the treatment of pyogenic granulomas in terms of efficacy, advantages in clinical outcome, technique and associated side effects. (rsc.org)
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate diagnosis and initial medication management of pediatric hypertension and prehypertension in primary care. (aappublications.org)
  • The objective of the study was to detect dengue virus activity before the initial recognizing of the epidemic of 1994. (scielo.br)
  • The objective of this study was to examine the natural history of monoclonal gammopathy taking advantage of the opportunity to retrieve samples collected in a large population-based study, several years before the diagnosis of malignant plasma cell disease, in an effort to estimate the proportion of MM and WM cases with a prodromal MGUS phase. (haematologica.org)
  • implants for cranial and facial reconstruction, today announced positive results from a retrospective study of OSSDSIGN Cranial PSI that has been accepted for publication in World Neurosurgery. (medindia.net)
  • UPPSALA, Sweden, Oct. 29, 2018 /PRNewswire/ -- OssDsign AB, the Swedish designer, manufacturer and distributor of regenerative implants for cranial and facial reconstruction, today announced positive results from a retrospective study of OSSDSIGN® Cranial PSI that has been accepted for publication in World Neurosurgery. (pharmiweb.com)
  • The present study concluded that cytogenetics plays an important role in precise diagnosis which helps in the management of PA. (nih.gov)
  • No large-scale studies have examined diagnosis and initial medication management of pediatric hypertension and prehypertension. (aappublications.org)
  • This study showed that by using a structured combination of survey radiography, rhinoscopy, cultures and histopathology, a diagnosis could be made in dogs with chronic nasal disease. (scielo.org.za)
  • 19. Tasker S, Knottenbelt C M, Munro E A C, Stonehewer J, Simpson J W, Mackin A J 1999 Aetiology and diagnosis of persistent nasal disease in the dog: a retrospective study of 42 cases. (scielo.org.za)
  • In the absence of a golden standard to confirm the diagnosis, the combination of acylcarnitine (ratios), molecular and enzymatic studies allows risk stratification. (rug.nl)
  • Retrospective diagnosis is practised by medical historians, general historians and the media with varying degrees of scholarship. (wikipedia.org)
  • Crude attempts at retrospective diagnosis fail to be sensitive to historical context, may treat historical and religious records as scientific evidence, or ascribe pathology to behaviours that require none. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term retrospective diagnosis is also sometimes used by a clinical pathologist to describe a medical diagnosis in a person made some time after the original illness has resolved or after death. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, epidemiologic studies relating neonatal phototherapy to cancer risk in infancy and childhood have had mixed results. (aappublications.org)
  • 6 , 9 Only one large epidemiologic study has examined the association between the use of bisphosphonates and ocular inflammatory diseases. (cmaj.ca)
  • Presents a retrospective review of several cases of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome from 1981 to 1986 in North Korea to determine the scope of clinical presentation and unique complications of the disease. (ebscohost.com)
  • Such spontaneous reporting is highly susceptible to bias (e.g., reported cases are not validated and frequently are reported by nonmedical professionals), and cohort studies have not found an association between the use of incretin drugs and pancreatic cancer occurrence ( 10 - 12 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • One hundred and forty-five unselected autopsy cases of construction site accidents received from South Delhi were studied during the period from 1996--2002. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Data were obtained from the Icelandic Cancer Registry for all MM and WM cases in Iceland since 1955 (1991 for WM) and compared with The Reykjavik Study registry to obtain frozen serum samples. (haematologica.org)
  • A retrospective study of 102 cases of Boberg-Ans intraocular lens implantations was conducted. (bmj.com)
  • A World Health Organization-supported study in four African countries showed that Klebsiella pneumoniae and E. coli were the most-prevalent causative pathogens in cases of neonatal meningitis ( 5 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • 12. Meler E, Dunn M, Lecuyer M 2008 A retrospective study canine persistent nasal disease: 80 cases (1998-2003). (scielo.org.za)
  • A new study identifies specific locations where medication and harm reduction services for people with opioid use disorder should be available in order to have the greatest impact on reducing opioid overdose deaths. (medicalxpress.com)
  • According to previous studies, more than 70% of individuals with ASD have other concurrent medical, developmental, or psychiatric conditions, which are frequently multiple ( 3 - 6 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Results: Written in the form of 27 questions, the checklist can be used to guide decision makers as they consider the database, the study methodology, and the study conclusions. (ispor.org)
  • The results from our study suggest that chronic post-thoracotomy pain may be associated with more intensive and extensive nociceptive input due to thoracic surgery. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • The results of this study identify the microbial spectrum of infectious endophthalmitis in this clinical setting. (hindawi.com)
  • In this report we describe the epidemiological background of dengue activity in Ceará, as well as the results of a retrospective serologic investigation carried out in Fortaleza, the capital of the state. (scielo.br)
  • Extrapolation of the results is limited by the lack of access to records from optometrists practicing in Olmsted County and the racial and ethnic composition of the county, which was 90 percent white during the years of the study. (mayoclinic.org)
  • The results differ markedly depending on the population studied and time of follow-up. (haematologica.org)
  • 5 Several smaller studies showed similar results with a higher probability of progression for IgA type MGUS. (haematologica.org)
  • However, our results suggest that it is feasible to characterize the earlier social environment with known levels of measurement error and that such an approach should be considered in future studies. (umich.edu)
  • The obtained results will help understanding possible connections of the studied etiologic and clinical factors with the disease, as well as the course of BMS, and its consequences in the Catalan population. (isciii.es)
  • We aimed to investigate the strengths and weaknesses of teaching chest compression in a study designed to highlight where targeted improvements in the quality of our chest compression training can and must be made. (smw.ch)
  • Both the relative risk and odds ratio are relevant in retrospective cohort studies, but only the odds ratio can be used in case-control studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The purpose of the study was to determine whether potential exposures to the drinking water contaminants at Camp Lejeune are associated with increased risk of death from specific cancers and other chronic diseases among those who were employed at the base. (cdc.gov)
  • The study included a comparison population from Camp Pendleton that was similar to the Camp Lejeune cohort on risk factors such as military training, occupations, and smoking. (cdc.gov)
  • The study found increased risk of death in the Camp Lejeune cohort for several causes including cancers of the cervix, esophagus, kidney, and liver, Hodgkin's lymphoma, and multiple myeloma. (cdc.gov)
  • We examined the risk of these adverse events in a pharmacoepidemiologic cohort study. (cmaj.ca)
  • Studies are warranted for assessing the risk of pancreatic cancer associated with long-term use of incretin drugs. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Also, the positive findings on cognitive testing and brain MRI were only observed in persons who did not carry the best-studied genetic risk factor for AD, APOE-4. (science20.com)
  • As shown by several other studies, the risk was significantly greater for the IgA type. (haematologica.org)
  • This study is consistent with the small body of evidence that already exists suggesting that greater levels of classroom contact with a student with smear positive active TB significantly increases the risk of contracting active and latent TB. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • The aim of this study was to determine the effects of grand multiparity on risk independent of potential confounding factors, to better inform birth-suite protocols on grand multiparity. (mja.com.au)
  • The purpose of this study was to determine (i) natural progression of complications associated with lymphatic malformations during childhood and adolescence , (ii) risk factors associated with complications, and (iii) whether early intervention decreases LM complication rates in adolescents or young adults. (omicsonline.org)
  • Fu, G. , Zhang, X. and Liu, H. (2017) Study on the Correlation between Temperature and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Shijiazhuang, China-Retrospective Cohort. (scirp.org)
  • We enrolled neonates from the Shanghai Neonate Meningitis Cohort (2005-2017), which is a multicenter retrospective cohort that recruits almost all full-term neonates in Shanghai who underwent lumbar puncture. (frontiersin.org)
  • The findings of this study do not support the assumption that effect of chiropractic treatment of infantile colic is a reflection of the normal cessation of this disorder. (chiro.org)
  • More research is needed, but these findings are promising and highlight the need for future studies to expand the current knowledge of the effects of FOS use on cognitive aging and AD. (science20.com)
  • Additional studies are needed to examine the association between the efficacy of aripiprazole augmentation and bipolarity, and these findings should be validated further in a prospective study. (dovepress.com)
  • 7 The study was based on findings of positive electrophoreses, from all laboratories in Iceland carrying out protein electrophoresis, thus covering the entire population of the country which at that time had 270,000 inhabitants. (haematologica.org)
  • A new retrospective study in the Canadian Medical Association Journal shows that young farm children, particularly boys, are about twice as likely as the total population of young Canadian children to die from an injury. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The study also included three causes of death known to be caused by cigarette smoking but not known to be associated with the drinking water contaminants: cardiovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and stomach cancer. (cdc.gov)
  • Our study confirms that chronic post-thoracotomy pain is a common problem. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • To determine the aetiology, a retrospective study in 75 dogs with persistent and chronic nasal disease was done. (scielo.org.za)
  • However, this study employs a previously established serotyping ELISA, to retrospectively analyze known hantavirus IgG reactive samples for infecting serotypes. (ebscohost.com)
  • Arbel, N. and Stravynski, A. (1991), A retrospective study of separation in the development of adult avoidant personality disorder. (wiley.com)