Retinitis Pigmentosa: Hereditary, progressive degeneration of the neuroepithelium of the retina characterized by night blindness and progressive contraction of the visual field.Cytomegalovirus Retinitis: Infection of the retina by cytomegalovirus characterized by retinal necrosis, hemorrhage, vessel sheathing, and retinal edema. Cytomegalovirus retinitis is a major opportunistic infection in AIDS patients and can cause blindness.Retinitis: Inflammation of the RETINA. It is rarely limited to the retina, but is commonly associated with diseases of the choroid (CHORIORETINITIS) and of the OPTIC DISK (neuroretinitis).Electroretinography: Recording of electric potentials in the retina after stimulation by light.Eye ProteinsRhodopsin: A purplish-red, light-sensitive pigment found in RETINAL ROD CELLS of most vertebrates. It is a complex consisting of a molecule of ROD OPSIN and a molecule of 11-cis retinal (RETINALDEHYDE). Rhodopsin exhibits peak absorption wavelength at about 500 nm.Eye Infections, Viral: Infections of the eye caused by minute intracellular agents. These infections may lead to severe inflammation in various parts of the eye - conjunctiva, iris, eyelids, etc. Several viruses have been identified as the causative agents. Among these are Herpesvirus, Adenovirus, Poxvirus, and Myxovirus.Retinal Degeneration: A retrogressive pathological change in the retina, focal or generalized, caused by genetic defects, inflammation, trauma, vascular disease, or aging. Degeneration affecting predominantly the macula lutea of the retina is MACULAR DEGENERATION. (Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p304)Photoreceptor Cells, Vertebrate: Specialized PHOTOTRANSDUCTION neurons in the vertebrates, such as the RETINAL ROD CELLS and the RETINAL CONE CELLS. Non-visual photoreceptor neurons have been reported in the deep brain, the PINEAL GLAND and organs of the circadian system.Foscarnet: An antiviral agent used in the treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis. Foscarnet also shows activity against human herpesviruses and HIV.Genes, Dominant: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Ganciclovir: An ACYCLOVIR analog that is a potent inhibitor of the Herpesvirus family including cytomegalovirus. Ganciclovir is used to treat complications from AIDS-associated cytomegalovirus infections.Fundus Oculi: The concave interior of the eye, consisting of the retina, the choroid, the sclera, the optic disk, and blood vessels, seen by means of the ophthalmoscope. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Visual Acuity: Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.Genes, Recessive: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections: Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.Peripherins: Type III intermediate filament proteins expressed mainly in neurons of the peripheral and CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS. Peripherins are implicated in neurite elongation during development and axonal regeneration after injury.Genetic Diseases, X-Linked: Genetic diseases that are linked to gene mutations on the X CHROMOSOME in humans (X CHROMOSOME, HUMAN) or the X CHROMOSOME in other species. Included here are animal models of human X-linked diseases.Dark Adaptation: Adjustment of the eyes under conditions of low light. The sensitivity of the eye to light is increased during dark adaptation.Photoreceptor Cells: Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with MICROVILLI. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use OPSINS that activate a PHOSPHODIESTERASE phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a PHOSPHOLIPASE C cascade.Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 6: A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is highly specific for CYCLIC GMP. It is found predominantly in the outer segment PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS of the RETINA. It is comprised of two catalytic subunits, referred to as alpha and beta, that form a dimer. In addition two regulatory subunits, referred to as gamma and delta, modulate the activity and localization of the enzyme.Visual Fields: The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.Retinal Rod Photoreceptor Cells: Photosensitive afferent neurons located in the peripheral retina, with their density increases radially away from the FOVEA CENTRALIS. Being much more sensitive to light than the RETINAL CONE CELLS, the rod cells are responsible for twilight vision (at scotopic intensities) as well as peripheral vision, but provide no color discrimination.Retinal Necrosis Syndrome, Acute: Mild to fulminant necrotizing vaso-occlusive retinitis associated with a high incidence of retinal detachment and poor vision outcome.Night Blindness: Failure or imperfection of vision at night or in dim light, with good vision only on bright days. (Dorland, 27th ed)Usher Syndromes: Autosomal recessive hereditary disorders characterized by congenital SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS and RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA. Genetically and symptomatically heterogeneous, clinical classes include type I, type II, and type III. Their severity, age of onset of retinitis pigmentosa and the degree of vestibular dysfunction are variable.Retinal Cone Photoreceptor Cells: Photosensitive afferent neurons located primarily within the FOVEA CENTRALIS of the MACULA LUTEA. There are three major types of cone cells (red, blue, and green) whose photopigments have different spectral sensitivity curves. Retinal cone cells operate in daylight vision (at photopic intensities) providing color recognition and central visual acuity.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Vitreous Body: The transparent, semigelatinous substance that fills the cavity behind the CRYSTALLINE LENS of the EYE and in front of the RETINA. It is contained in a thin hyaloid membrane and forms about four fifths of the optic globe.Blindness: The inability to see or the loss or absence of perception of visual stimuli. This condition may be the result of EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; OPTIC CHIASM diseases; or BRAIN DISEASES affecting the VISUAL PATHWAYS or OCCIPITAL LOBE.Cytomegalovirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting the salivary glands, liver, spleen, lungs, eyes, and other organs, in which they produce characteristically enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions. Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.Rod Opsins: Photosensitive proteins expressed in the ROD PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are the protein components of rod photoreceptor pigments such as RHODOPSIN.Visual Field Tests: Method of measuring and mapping the scope of vision, from central to peripheral of each eye.Consanguinity: The magnitude of INBREEDING in humans.Fluorescein Angiography: Visualization of a vascular system after intravenous injection of a fluorescein solution. The images may be photographed or televised. It is used especially in studying the retinal and uveal vasculature.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Retinal DiseasesX Chromosome: The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.Vision Disorders: Visual impairments limiting one or more of the basic functions of the eye: visual acuity, dark adaptation, color vision, or peripheral vision. These may result from EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; VISUAL PATHWAY diseases; OCCIPITAL LOBE diseases; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS; and other conditions (From Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p132).Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Mutation, Missense: A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)Eye Diseases, Hereditary: Transmission of gene defects or chromosomal aberrations/abnormalities which are expressed in extreme variation in the structure or function of the eye. These may be evident at birth, but may be manifested later with progression of the disorder.Tomography, Optical Coherence: An imaging method using LASERS that is used for mapping subsurface structure. When a reflective site in the sample is at the same optical path length (coherence) as the reference mirror, the detector observes interference fringes.Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus: Virus infection of the Gasserian ganglion and its nerve branches characterized by pain and vesicular eruptions with much swelling. Ocular involvement is usually heralded by a vesicle on the tip of the nose. This area is innervated by the nasociliary nerve.Interleukin-10 Receptor alpha Subunit: A subunit of the interleukin-10 receptor. It plays a role in receptor signaling by associating with JANUS KINASE 1.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Homozygote: An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.IMP Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of inosine 5'-phosphate to xanthosine 5'-phosphate in the presence of NAD. EC Inflammation of part or all of the uvea, the middle (vascular) tunic of the eye, and commonly involving the other tunics (sclera and cornea, and the retina). (Dorland, 27th ed)Fovea Centralis: An area approximately 1.5 millimeters in diameter within the macula lutea where the retina thins out greatly because of the oblique shifting of all layers except the pigment epithelium layer. It includes the sloping walls of the fovea (clivus) and contains a few rods in its periphery. In its center (foveola) are the cones most adapted to yield high visual acuity, each cone being connected to only one ganglion cell. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Leber Congenital Amaurosis: A rare degenerative inherited eye disease that appears at birth or in the first few months of life that results in a loss of vision. Not to be confused with LEBER HEREDITARY OPTIC NEUROPATHY, the disease is thought to be caused by abnormal development of PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS in the RETINA, or by the extremely premature degeneration of retinal cells.Laurence-Moon Syndrome: An autosomal recessive condition characterized by hypogonadism; spinocerebellar degeneration; MENTAL RETARDATION; RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; and OBESITY. This syndrome was previously referred to as Laurence-Moon-Biedl syndrome until BARDET-BIEDL SYNDROME was identified as a distinct entity. (From N Engl J Med. 1989 Oct 12;321(15):1002-9)Chorioretinitis: Inflammation of the choroid in which the sensory retina becomes edematous and opaque. The inflammatory cells and exudate may burst through the sensory retina to cloud the vitreous body.Carbonic Anhydrase IV: A membrane-bound carbonic anhydrase found in lung capillaries and kidney.Eye Infections: Infection, moderate to severe, caused by bacteria, fungi, or viruses, which occurs either on the external surface of the eye or intraocularly with probable inflammation, visual impairment, or blindness.Ribonucleoprotein, U4-U6 Small Nuclear: A nuclear RNA-protein complex that plays a role in RNA processing. In the nucleoplasm, the U4-U6 snRNP along with the U5 snRNP preassemble into a single 25S particle that binds to the U1 and U2 snRNPs and the substrate to form mature SPLICEOSOMES. There is also evidence for the existence of individual U4 or U6 snRNPs in addition to their organization as a U4-U6 snRNP.Retinal Dysplasia: Congenital, often bilateral, retinal abnormality characterized by the arrangement of outer nuclear retinal cells in a palisading or radiating pattern surrounding a central ocular space. This disorder is sometimes hereditary.Cytomegalovirus Infections: Infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS, characterized by enlarged cells bearing intranuclear inclusions. Infection may be in almost any organ, but the salivary glands are the most common site in children, as are the lungs in adults.Polymorphism, Single-Stranded Conformational: Variation in a population's DNA sequence that is detected by determining alterations in the conformation of denatured DNA fragments. Denatured DNA fragments are allowed to renature under conditions that prevent the formation of double-stranded DNA and allow secondary structure to form in single stranded fragments. These fragments are then run through polyacrylamide gels to detect variations in the secondary structure that is manifested as an alteration in migration through the gels.Retinal Photoreceptor Cell Outer Segment: The light sensitive outer portion of a retinal rod or a cone photoreceptor cell. The outer segment contains a stack of disk membranes laden with photoreceptive pigments (RETINAL PIGMENTS). The outer segment is connected to the inner segment by a PHOTORECEPTOR CONNECTING CILIUM.Tetraspanins: A large superfamily of cell surface membrane proteins characterized by their four transmembrane domains. They play a role in a variety of processes such as cellular adhesion and motility. They may be involved in the organization of cell surface MEMBRANE MICRODOMAINS that regulate the activation of LEUKOCYTES.Lod Score: The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Intermediate Filament Proteins: Filaments 7-11 nm in diameter found in the cytoplasm of all cells. Many specific proteins belong to this group, e.g., desmin, vimentin, prekeratin, decamin, skeletin, neurofilin, neurofilament protein, and glial fibrillary acid protein.Eye Diseases: Diseases affecting the eye.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Photoreceptor Connecting Cilium: The bridge between the inner and the outer segments of a retinal rod or a cone photoreceptor cell. Through it, proteins synthesized in the inner segment are transported to the outer segment.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Frameshift Mutation: A type of mutation in which a number of NUCLEOTIDES deleted from or inserted into a protein coding sequence is not divisible by three, thereby causing an alteration in the READING FRAMES of the entire coding sequence downstream of the mutation. These mutations may be induced by certain types of MUTAGENS or may occur spontaneously.Sensory Thresholds: The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.Organophosphonates: Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.Opsins: Photosensitive proteins in the membranes of PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS such as the rods and the cones. Opsins have varied light absorption properties and are members of the G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS family. Their ligands are VITAMIN A-based chromophores.Organophosphorus Compounds: Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.Cytosine: A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.Macula Lutea: An oval area in the retina, 3 to 5 mm in diameter, usually located temporal to the posterior pole of the eye and slightly below the level of the optic disk. It is characterized by the presence of a yellow pigment diffusely permeating the inner layers, contains the fovea centralis in its center, and provides the best phototropic visual acuity. It is devoid of retinal blood vessels, except in its periphery, and receives nourishment from the choriocapillaris of the choroid. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Toxoplasmosis, Ocular: Infection caused by the protozoan parasite TOXOPLASMA in which there is extensive connective tissue proliferation, the retina surrounding the lesions remains normal, and the ocular media remain clear. Chorioretinitis may be associated with all forms of toxoplasmosis, but is usually a late sequel of congenital toxoplasmosis. The severe ocular lesions in infants may lead to blindness.Ophthalmoscopy: Examination of the interior of the eye with an ophthalmoscope.cis-trans-Isomerases: Enzymes that catalyze the rearrangement of geometry about double bonds. EC 5.2.Genes, X-Linked: Genes that are located on the X CHROMOSOME.Muromegalovirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, causing infection involving several organs in mice and rats. Murid herpesvirus is the type species.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Optic Atrophy, Hereditary, Leber: A maternally linked genetic disorder that presents in mid-life as acute or subacute central vision loss leading to central scotoma and blindness. The disease has been associated with missense mutations in the mtDNA, in genes for Complex I, III, and IV polypeptides, that can act autonomously or in association with each other to cause the disease. (from Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man,, MIM#535000 (April 17, 2001))Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Phosphenes: A subjective visual sensation with the eyes closed and in the absence of light. Phosphenes can be spontaneous, or induced by chemical, electrical, or mechanical (pressure) stimuli which cause the visual field to light up without optical inputs.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Vision, Ocular: The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.Heterozygote: An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.Ataxia: Impairment of the ability to perform smoothly coordinated voluntary movements. This condition may affect the limbs, trunk, eyes, pharynx, larynx, and other structures. Ataxia may result from impaired sensory or motor function. Sensory ataxia may result from posterior column injury or PERIPHERAL NERVE DISEASES. Motor ataxia may be associated with CEREBELLAR DISEASES; CEREBRAL CORTEX diseases; THALAMIC DISEASES; BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; injury to the RED NUCLEUS; and other conditions.Macular Edema: Fluid accumulation in the outer layer of the MACULA LUTEA that results from intraocular or systemic insults. It may develop in a diffuse pattern where the macula appears thickened or it may acquire the characteristic petaloid appearance referred to as cystoid macular edema. Although macular edema may be associated with various underlying conditions, it is most commonly seen following intraocular surgery, venous occlusive disease, DIABETIC RETINOPATHY, and posterior segment inflammatory disease. (From Survey of Ophthalmology 2004; 49(5) 470-90)Drug Implants: Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.Intravitreal Injections: The administration of substances into the VITREOUS BODY of the eye with a hypodermic syringe.Pigment Epithelium of Eye: The layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA; the CILIARY BODY; and the IRIS in the eye.Vision Tests: A series of tests used to assess various functions of the eyes.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Bardet-Biedl Syndrome: An autosomal recessive disorder characterized by RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; POLYDACTYLY; OBESITY; MENTAL RETARDATION; hypogenitalism; renal dysplasia; and short stature. This syndrome has been distinguished as a separate entity from LAURENCE-MOON SYNDROME. (From J Med Genet 1997 Feb;34(2):92-8)Retinal Dystrophies: A group of disorders involving predominantly the posterior portion of the ocular fundus, due to degeneration in the sensory layer of the RETINA; RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM; BRUCH MEMBRANE; CHOROID; or a combination of these tissues.Codon, Nonsense: An amino acid-specifying codon that has been converted to a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR) by mutation. Its occurance is abnormal causing premature termination of protein translation and results in production of truncated and non-functional proteins. A nonsense mutation is one that converts an amino acid-specific codon to a stop codon.Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Retinal Pigment Epithelium: The single layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA, situated closely to the tips (outer segments) of the RETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. These epithelial cells are macroglia that perform essential functions for the photoreceptor cells, such as in nutrient transport, phagocytosis of the shed photoreceptor membranes, and ensuring retinal attachment.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Retinal Detachment: Separation of the inner layers of the retina (neural retina) from the pigment epithelium. Retinal detachment occurs more commonly in men than in women, in eyes with degenerative myopia, in aging and in aphakia. It may occur after an uncomplicated cataract extraction, but it is seen more often if vitreous humor has been lost during surgery. (Dorland, 27th ed; Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p310-12).Cilia: Populations of thin, motile processes found covering the surface of ciliates (CILIOPHORA) or the free surface of the cells making up ciliated EPITHELIUM. Each cilium arises from a basic granule in the superficial layer of CYTOPLASM. The movement of cilia propels ciliates through the liquid in which they live. The movement of cilia on a ciliated epithelium serves to propel a surface layer of mucus or fluid. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Vision, Low: Vision considered to be inferior to normal vision as represented by accepted standards of acuity, field of vision, or motility. Low vision generally refers to visual disorders that are caused by diseases that cannot be corrected by refraction (e.g., MACULAR DEGENERATION; RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; DIABETIC RETINOPATHY, etc.).Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active: Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.Anterior Chamber: The space in the eye, filled with aqueous humor, bounded anteriorly by the cornea and a small portion of the sclera and posteriorly by a small portion of the ciliary body, the iris, and that part of the crystalline lens which presents through the pupil. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p109)Murine Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs in mice infected with mouse leukemia viruses (MuLV). The syndrome shows striking similarities with human AIDS and is characterized by lymphadenopathy, profound immunosuppression, enhanced susceptibility to opportunistic infections, and B-cell lymphomas.Rod Cell Outer Segment: The portion of a retinal rod cell situated between the ROD INNER SEGMENT and the RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. It contains a stack of photosensitive disk membranes laden with RHODOPSIN.Rats, Transgenic: Laboratory rats that have been produced from a genetically manipulated rat EGG or rat EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN. They contain genes from another species.Visual Prosthesis: Artificial device such as an externally-worn camera attached to a stimulator on the RETINA, OPTIC NERVE, or VISUAL CORTEX, intended to restore or amplify vision.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Ophthalmoscopes: Devices for examining the interior of the eye, permitting the clear visualization of the structures of the eye at any depth. (UMDNS, 1999)Electrooculography: Recording of the average amplitude of the resting potential arising between the cornea and the retina in light and dark adaptation as the eyes turn a standard distance to the right and the left. The increase in potential with light adaptation is used to evaluate the condition of the retinal pigment epithelium.Aqueous Humor: The clear, watery fluid which fills the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye. It has a refractive index lower than the crystalline lens, which it surrounds, and is involved in the metabolism of the cornea and the crystalline lens. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p319)Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Arrestin: A 48-Kd protein of the outer segment of the retinal rods and a component of the phototransduction cascade. Arrestin quenches G-protein activation by binding to phosphorylated photolyzed rhodopsin. Arrestin causes experimental autoimmune uveitis when injected into laboratory animals.Optic Atrophies, Hereditary: Hereditary conditions that feature progressive visual loss in association with optic atrophy. Relatively common forms include autosomal dominant optic atrophy (OPTIC ATROPHY, AUTOSOMAL DOMINANT) and Leber hereditary optic atrophy (OPTIC ATROPHY, HEREDITARY, LEBER).Eye: The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.RNA Splicing: The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.Retinal Bipolar Cells: INTERNEURONS of the vertebrate RETINA containing two processes. They receive inputs from the RETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS and send outputs to the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS. The bipolar cells also make lateral connections in the retina with the RETINAL HORIZONTAL CELLS and with the AMACRINE CELLS.

Histologic analysis of photochemical lesions produced in rhesus retina by short-wave-length light. (1/365)

The photopathology of retinal lesions produced by extended exposure (1000 sec) to low corneal power levels (62 microW) of blue light (441 nm) was investigated by light microscopy in 20 rhesus eyes over an interval ranging from 1 hr to 90 days after exposure. Results indicate a nonthermal type of photochemical lesion originating in the retinal pigment epithelium and leading to a histological response with hypopigmentation which requires 48 hr to appear. This type of lesion helps to explain solar retinitis and eclipse blindness and has significance for aging and degenerative changes in the retina.  (+info)

Protective effect of the type IV phosphodiesterase inhibitor rolipram in EAU: protection is independent of IL-10-inducing activity. (2/365)

PURPOSE: Experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU) is a cell-mediated model of retinal autoimmunity that is negatively regulated by interleukin (IL)-10. The antidepressant drug rolipram, a type IV phosphodiesterase inhibitor, enhances IL-10 production by monocyte/macrophages. The effect of rolipram on induction of EAU and its associated immunologic responses was investigated. METHODS: Mice were challenged for EAU induction by immunization with the retinal antigen interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP) or by adoptive transfer of uveitogenic T cells and were treated with rolipram. EAU severity and immunologic responses to IRBP were analyzed. In addition, the effect of rolipram added to the culture on antigen-driven responses of primed lymph node cells was tested. RESULTS: Rolipram treatment from days -1 to 7 after immunization (afferent phase) was not protective, but severity of EAU was reduced to 50% by treatment from days 8 to 16 after immunization or when EAU was induced by adoptive transfer (efferent phase). Antigen-specific proliferation and interferon (IFN)-gamma production ex vivo by lymph node cells of protected mice were not reduced. However, the addition of rolipram directly to the culture suppressed IRBP-driven proliferation and IFN-gamma production by primed lymph node cells. Freshly explanted lymph node cells of treated mice showed inhibition of IFN-gamma mRNA but no parallel enhancement of IL-10 mRNA by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Rolipram inhibited EAU in IL-10 knockout mice equally well compared with controls and suppressed their primed lymph node cells in culture. CONCLUSIONS: Rolipram appears to inhibit the expansion and effector function of uveitogenic T cells, raising the possibility that it may be useful for treatment of established disease. Contrary to expectations based on in vitro studies, the protective effects in vivo appear to be independent of IL-10. The observation that suppression of antigen-specific responses is demonstrable only in the physical presence of the drug suggests that, in a clinical setting, continuous administration of rolipram might be needed to sustain its therapeutic effect.  (+info)

Comparison of cytomegalovirus loads in plasma and leukocytes of patients with cytomegalovirus retinitis. The Cytomegalovirus Retinitis and Viral Resistance Study Group. (3/365)

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA loads in paired leukocyte and plasma samples from 199 patient visits by 66 patients with CMV retinitis were determined. Leukocyte CMV load determinations had a greater range of values (mean, 24,587 copies/10(6) leukocytes; maximum, 539, 000) than did plasma CMV load determinations (mean, 10,302 copies/ml; maximum, 386,000), and leukocyte viral loads were detectable in a greater proportion of patients at the time of diagnosis of CMV retinitis prior to initiation of anti-CMV therapy (82%) than were plasma viral loads (64%) (P = 0.0078). Agreement with CMV blood cultures was slightly better for plasma (kappa = 0. 68) than for leukocytes (kappa = 0.53), due to a greater proportion of patients with detectable viral loads in leukocytes having negative blood cultures.  (+info)

Mice deficient in inducible nitric oxide synthase are susceptible to experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis. (4/365)

PURPOSE: Nitric oxide (NO) is an important mediator of inflammatory tissue damage. The present study addresses the question whether inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and consequently the ability to upregulate NO, is required to effect the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU) in mice. METHODS: Mice with a homologous disruption of the iNOS gene (iNOS KO) were evaluated for their ability to develop EAU and associated cellular responses after immunization with the interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein. EAU was determined by histopathology 21 days after uveitogenic immunization, and antigen-specific cellular responses were assessed by delayed type hypersensitivity and lymphocyte proliferation. RESULTS: iNOS knockout (iNOS KO) mice developed EAU with scores similar to wild-type mice and exhibited good cellular responses to the immunizing antigen. CONCLUSIONS: A functional iNOS gene is not necessary for EAU pathogenesis. Therefore, upregulation of NO is not required to mediate autoimmune tissue damage in the eye.  (+info)

Identification of genomic regions controlling experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis in rats. (5/365)

The present study attempts to identify specific genetic loci contributing to experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU) susceptibility in F2 progeny of resistant Fischer (F344/N) and susceptible Lewis (LEW/N) inbred rats. F2 progeny of F344/N x LEW/N inbred rats were immunized with the R16 peptide of interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP). A genome-wide scan was conducted using 125 simple sequence length polymorphism markers in selected F2 animals that developed severe eye disease or remained unaffected to identify phenotype:genotype co-segregation. The F2 population (n = 1287) demonstrated a wide range of histologically assessed EAU scores (assessed on a scale of 0-4). The disease incidence and severity were not consistent with a simple Mendelian inheritance model. Of the F2 hybrid rats, 60% developed EAU, implying the existence of a potent susceptibility locus with incomplete penetrance associated with the LEW genome or a more complex polygenic model of inheritance. Two genomic regions, on chromosomes 4 and 12, showed strong genetic linkage to the EAU phenotype (P < 0.0016), suggesting the presence of susceptibility loci in these chromosomal regions. In conclusion, we have identified two genomic candidate intervals from D4Arb8 to D4Mit17 on chromosome 4 and from the chromosome end to D12Arb8 on chromosome 12, that appear to influence EAU susceptibility in LEW/F344 rats. Further analysis of these genomic regions may lead to identification of the susceptibility genes and to characterization of their function.  (+info)

Role of retinal vascular endothelial cells in development of CMV retinitis. (6/365)

PURPOSE: Although cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis is known to occur in association with retinal microangiopathy in individuals with marked immunodeficiency, glial cells are believed to be the initial target cells in the development of retinitis. Moreover, it has been hypothesized that CMV gains access to the retinal glia because of altered vascular permeability. In an attempt to address the hypothesis, we studied 30 autopsy eyes of AIDS patients with systemic CMV infection, with or without clinically apparent CMV retinitis. METHODS: The autopsy eyes were processed in three ways. First, dual immunohistochemical studies were done by using anti-CMV antibodies for immediate early, early, and late antigens. The retinal cell types infected with the virus were then determined by using anti-GFAP, anti-VonWillebrand's factor, neuronal specific enolase, and leukocyte marker CD68. Second, selected eyes were processed for in situ hybridization with DNA probe specific to CMV. Third, an eye with clinically apparent CMV retinitis was submitted for electron microscopic examination. RESULTS: At the site of retinal necrosis in those eyes with a clinical diagnosis of CMV retinitis, the immunohistochemical, in situ hybridization, and ultrastructural examinations revealed that CMV was present primarily in the Muller cells and in perivascular glial cells. Adjacent to these infected cells, focal areas of positive staining for CMV antigen were seen in the glial cells, neuronal cells, and retinal pigment epithelial cells. At these sites most of the retinal capillaries were devoid of endothelial cells. Few vessels located at the advancing margin of retinal necrosis showed the presence of viral proteins in the endothelial cells. CONCLUSIONS: The present results indicate that retinal vascular endothelial cells could be the initial target in the development of viral retinitis, with subsequent spread of the infection to perivascular glia, Muller cells, and other retinal cells, including the retinal pigment epithelium.  (+info)

Presumed ocular bartonellosis. (7/365)

BACKGROUND: The spectrum of diseases caused by Bartonella henselae continues to expand and ocular involvement during this infection is being diagnosed with increasing frequency. METHODS: The clinical features and visual prognosis for 13 patients with intraocular inflammatory disease and laboratory evidence of bartonellosis were investigated. There were nine patients with neuroretinitis and four with panuveitis with positive antibody titres against B henselae determined by an enzyme immunoassay (IgG exceeding 1:900 and/or IgM exceeding 1:250). RESULTS: Positive IgG levels were found for eight patients and positive IgM levels for five. Despite animal exposure of 10 patients, only two (IgG positive) cases had systemic symptoms consistent with the diagnosis of cat scratch disease. Pathological fluorescein leakage of the optic disc was observed in all affected eyes. At 6 months' follow up, 3/18 (17%) affected eyes had a visual acuity of less than 20/100, owing to optic disc atrophy and cystoid macular oedema. 12 patients (17 eyes) were treated with antibiotics; visual acuity improved two or more Snellen lines for 9/17 (53%) eyes. CONCLUSIONS: The possibility of B henselae infection should be considered in patients with neuroretinitis and panuveitis (especially in cases with associated optic nerve involvement) even in the absence of systemic symptoms typical for cat scratch disease.  (+info)

AIDS related eye disease in Burundi, Africa. (8/365)

AIMS: To determine the prevalence of ocular manifestations in AIDS patients hospitalised in Bujumbura, Burundi, according to their CD4+ lymphocyte count, serological status for CMV and VZV, and general health status. METHODS: Prospective study of 154 consecutive patients who underwent general and ophthalmological examinations, including dilated fundus examination. AIDS was diagnosed on the basis of Bangui criteria and HIV-1 seropositivity. CD4+ lymphocyte counts were determined by the Capcellia method. CMV and VZV antibodies were detected with ELISA methods. RESULTS: The mean age was 37 (SD 9) years and 65% of the patients were male. Active tuberculosis was the most frequent underlying disease (61%). Almost all the patients (99%) were seropositive for CMV and VZV. Among the 115 patients for whom CD4+ lymphocyte counts were available, 86 (75%) had more than 100 cells x 10(6)/l. Ocular involvement comprised 16 cases of microangiopathy, six of opalescence of the anterior chamber, five of retinal perivasculitis, two of zoster ophthalmicus, two of viral retinitis, and one of opalescence of the vitreous. CONCLUSION: In Africa, the prevalence of ocular involvement in HIV infection is far lower than in Europe and the United States, possibly because most African patients die before ocular opportunistic infections occur.  (+info)

  • Patients with CMV retinitis may be asymptomatic, or they may complain of floaters, photopsia and/or scotomata. (
  • Patients with CMV retinitis typically complain of floaters, photopsias, or visual loss, without associated eye pain or injection. (
  • Exception: patients with CMV retinitis within 1000 microns of the fovea or disc in only one eye, if visual acuity in that eye is worse than 20/400 without the use of eccentric fixation, and visual acuity in the other eye is 20/400 or better. (
  • Technavio has announced their latest pipeline analysis report on the retinitis pigmentosa market . (
  • Hence medical institutions and various research and development centers are researching to develop a full proof cure for this disease which is boosting the growth of global retinitis pigmentosa market. (
  • What's Trending in Global Retinitis Pigmentosa Market these Days? (
  • The global retinitis pigmentosa market is stepping a sound development way because of restricted accessibility of therapeutics to fix this uncommon sickness which has opened up a lucky opening for new treatments and medications. (
  • This allows the company to acquire a significant share in the global retinitis pigmentosa market. (
  • Looking at the immense growth potential, several new players are likely to venture into the global retinitis pigmentosa market, thereby making it a highly competitive arena in the near future. (
  • The global retinitis pigmentosa market has been treading a healthy growth path due to limited availability of therapeutics to cure this rare disease which has opened up a window of opportunity for new therapies and treatments. (