Retinal Vein Occlusion
Tomography, Optical Coherence
Retinal Artery Occlusion
Protein S Deficiency
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
Blood Flow Velocity
Chronic retinal vein occlusion in glaucoma. (1/210)Asymptomatic chronic retinal vein occlusion that occurs in chronic simple glaucoma is described. The condition is characterized by marked elevation of retinal vein pressure with collateral vessels and vein loops at the optic disc in cases of central vein occlusion, or retinal veno-venous anastomoses along a horizontal line temporal and nasal to the disc in hemisphere vein occlusion. No patient had visible arterial changes, capillary closure, fluorescein leakage, or haemorrhages. The vein occlusion was not limited to "end stage" glaucoma. The role of increased intraocular pressure and glaucomatous enlargement of the optic cup with retinal vein distortion in the pathogenesis of the condition was stressed. Follow-up of these patients revealed persistence of the retinal vein occlusion shown by elevated retinal vein pressures. This would reduce effective perfusion of the inner retina and optic disc and may affect the long-term visual prognosis. (+info)
Microvasculature of the rat optic nerve head. (2/210)PURPOSE: To describe the arterial blood supply, capillary bed, and venous drainage of the rat optic nerve head. METHODS: Ocular microvascular castings from 6 Wistar rats were prepared by injection of epoxy resin through the common carotid arteries. After polymerization, tissues were digested with 6 M KOH, and the castings washed, dried, and coated for scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS: Immediately posterior to the globe, the ophthalmic artery trifurcates into the central retinal artery and two posterior ciliary arteries. The central retinal artery directly provides capillaries to the nerve fiber layer and only contributes to capillary beds in the neck of the nerve head. The remainder is supplied by branches of the posterior ciliary arteries that are analogous to the primate circle of Zinn-Haller. Arterioles arising from these branches supply the capillaries of the transitional, or laminar, region of the optic nerve head. These capillaries are continuous with those of the neck and retrobulbar optic nerve head. All optic nerve head capillaries drain into the central retinal vein and veins of the optic nerve sheath. A flat choroidal sinus communicates with the central retinal vein, the choriocapillaris, and with large veins of the optic nerve sheath. CONCLUSIONS: The microvasculature of the rat optic nerve head bears several similarities to that of the primate, with a centripetal blood supply from posterior ciliary arteries and drainage into the central retinal and optic nerve sheath veins. Association of nerve sheath veins with the choroid represents an important difference from the primate. (+info)
Optic nerve and peripapillary choroidal microvasculature of the rat eye. (3/210)PURPOSE: To investigate the three-dimensional microvascular anatomy of the optic nerve and peripapillary choroid in the rat eye. METHODS: Gross vascular anatomy of the posterior eye segment of Wistar rats was studied in serial microsections with a light microscope. The optic nerve and peripapillary choroidal vessels were sequentially microdissected, using methylmethacrylate corrosion microvascular castings, and were examined with a scanning electron microscope to determine the three-dimensional relationships of the vessels. RESULTS: The posterior ciliary artery traveled along the inferior side of the optic nerve sheath, directly entered the optic nerve head, and divided into three branches: the central retinal artery and medial and lateral long posterior ciliary arteries, which provided several short branches to the choroid. The optic nerve head vasculature was consistently nourished by a recurrent arteriole from the central retinal artery and an arteriole from the choroidal artery at the peripapillary choroid. The central retinal vein flowed into a venous anastomosis along the optic disc border of the peripapillary choroid. Capillaries within the optic nerve drained into the central retinal vein, the marginal venous anastomosis of the peripapillary choroid, and the pial veins, all of which flowed into the posterior ciliary veins along the optic nerve sheath. CONCLUSIONS: The findings illustrate vascular anatomic differences in optic nerve and peripapillary choroidal microcirculation between rat and human. In rats, the peripapillary choroid plays a significant role in both blood supply and venous drainage of the optic nerve head. The central retinal artery also contributes to the optic nerve head circulation. (+info)
Polymerase chain reaction for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in epiretinal membrane in Eales' disease. (4/210)PURPOSE: Tuberculous etiology has been suggested in Eales' disease. Because epiretinal membrane (ERM) is formed on the inner surface of the retina in Eales' disease, it could be the most appropriate intraocular specimen for investigation. Therefore, a nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR), which detects MPB64 gene of Mycobacterium tuberculosis on the archival specimens of ERM of well-documented Eales' and non-Eales' patients, was applied and the results compared. METHODS: nPCR technique was standardized, and the sensitivity and specificity of the primers were determined. nPCR technique was applied to tissue sections obtained from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues of ERM from 23 patients with Eales' disease and 27 noninfective and non-Eales' disease patients as controls. RESULTS: nPCR technique was specific for M. tuberculosis genome and sensitive enough to detect 0.25 fg (corresponding to the presence of a single bacillus). Eleven (47.8%) ERM of 23 Eales' disease and 3 (11.1%) of 27 controls were positive for M. tuberculosis genome. The difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P = 0.001), indicating association of this bacterium with Eales' disease. CONCLUSIONS: The demonstration of the presence of M. tuberculosis DNA by nPCR technique in significant number of ERM of Eales' disease compared with the controls further emphasizes the probable role of this bacterium in the pathogenesis of this enigmatic clinical condition. (+info)
Laser treatment and the mechanism of edema reduction in branch retinal vein occlusion. (5/210)PURPOSE: To test a hypothesis on the physiological mechanism of the disappearance of macular edema after laser treatment. The hypothesis is based on the effect grid laser treatment has on retinal oxygenation and hemodynamics. It predicts that laser-induced reduction of macular edema is associated with shortening and narrowing of retinal vessels in patients with branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). METHODS: The study included 12 subjects, treated with argon laser photocoagulation for BRVO and macular edema. Fundus photographs taken at the time of diagnosis and again after laser treatment, were digitized, and diameter and segment length of retinal vessels was measured using NIH-Image program. RESULTS: Macular edema disappeared or was dramatically reduced in all cases after laser treatment. The diameter of occluded venules constricted to 0.81+/-0.02 (mean +/- SD, P = 0.019) of the prelaser diameter and adjacent arterioles constricted to 0.78+/-0.01 (P = 0.008). The laser treatment also led to shortening of the affected vessels. The final segment length of the occluded venules was 0.95+/-0.17 (P = 0.005) of the length before treatment. The corresponding value for the adjacent arterioles is 0.95+/-0.14 (P = 0.008). Control arterioles and venules in the same fundus did not change in either length or width. CONCLUSIONS: These results do not reject the authors' hypothesis that the disappearance of macular edema in BRVO can be explained by the effect the laser photocoagulation has on retinal oxygenation. Increased oxygenation causes vessel constriction and shortening and lower intravascular pressure, which reduces edema formation according to Starling's law. (+info)
Experimental preretinal neovascularization by laser-induced thrombosis in albino rats. (6/210)The primary objective of this study was to develop a simple experimental model of angiogenesis by photodynamic thrombosis of the retinal veins in Sprague-Dawley rats. After a tail vein injection of rose bengal (40 mg/kg), all major retinal veins adjacent to the optic nerve head were photocoagulated with an argon green laser. The eyes were examined regularly for the following eight weeks. A grading system was devised using fluorescein angiograms and ADPase staining to describe the progression of the new vessels. Nine out of ten eyes showed development of the preretinal new vessels by day 14. Seven weeks after laser coagulation, 2 of 5 eyes developed localized tractional retinal detachment. Regression of the neovascularization was not noted in any of the animals during the follow-up period. The authors were able to establish an experimental model for preretinal neovascularization by vein occlusion. This model may be applied in study of the pathogenesis and treatment of retinal neovascularization. (+info)
Bilateral simultaneous retinal vein occlusion. (7/210)Central retinal vein occlusion (CVO) is a common retinal vascular disorder with potentially blinding complications. However, a simultaneous bilateral affection is not a common entity. One such patient is described here. (+info)
Colour Doppler imaging of the orbital vasculature in Graves' disease with computed tomographic correlation. (8/210)AIMS: To evaluate alterations in orbital blood flow parameters and their correlations with extraocular muscle enlargement, proptosis, and intraocular pressure in patients with Graves' disease. METHODS: In this multicentre study blood flow parameters in the ophthalmic artery, superior ophthalmic vein, central retinal artery and vein were determined by colour Doppler imaging in 111 patients with Graves' disease in two groups (A and B) and 46 normal control subjects. Group A consisted of 42 patients with Graves' disease without ophthalmopathy; group B of 69 patients with Graves' disease with ophthalmopathy as detected by orbital computed tomographic scanning. RESULTS: Peak systolic and end diastolic velocities in the ophthalmic artery, peak systolic velocity in the central retinal artery, and maximal and minimal velocities in the central retinal vein in patients in group B were statistically significantly higher than those in group A and the normal controls, whereas maximal and minimal velocities in the superior ophthalmic vein in patients in group B were statistically significantly lower than those in group A and the control subjects. Peak systolic and end diastolic velocities in the ophthalmic artery, peak systolic velocity in the central retinal artery, and maximal and minimal velocities in the central retinal vein also correlated with the sum of all extraocular muscle diameters in group B (r > or =0.31, p< or =0.021). Blood flow parameters had no consistent correlation with proptosis or intraocular pressure (p>0.05). No statistically significant difference was found in resistivity indices between the groups (p>0.05). Reversed blood flow was noted in nine (13%) superior ophthalmic veins in group B. CONCLUSION: Orbital blood flow velocities are altered in patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy and may be detected by colour Doppler imaging. Some of these changes also correlate with the enlargement of extraocular muscles. The increased blood flow velocities in arteries may be secondary to orbital inflammation. (+info)
The symptoms of RVO can vary depending on the severity of the blockage, but may include:
* Blurred vision
* Double vision
* Flashes of light
* Eye pain
* Reduced peripheral vision
RVO is typically diagnosed through a comprehensive eye exam, which may include imaging tests such as fluorescein angiography or optical coherence tomography (OCT).
Treatment for RVO depends on the severity of the condition and may include:
* Medications to reduce inflammation and improve blood flow
* Injections of medication into the eye
* Laser surgery to clear blockages or reduce inflammation
* Vitrectomy, a surgical procedure to remove the vitreous gel and blood from the eye
Early diagnosis and treatment of RVO can help prevent or reduce vision loss. However, in some cases, permanent vision loss may occur despite treatment.
Preventing RVO is not always possible, but controlling risk factors such as high blood pressure, diabetes, and hypertension can help reduce the likelihood of developing the condition. Maintaining a healthy lifestyle, including regular exercise, a balanced diet, and not smoking, can also help reduce the risk of RVO.
Symptoms of macular edema may include blurred vision, distorted vision, blind spots, and sensitivity to light. Diagnosis is typically made through a comprehensive eye exam, including a visual acuity test and imaging tests such as optical coherence tomography (OCT).
Treatment for macular edema depends on the underlying cause of the condition. In some cases, medications such as anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injections or corticosteroids may be prescribed to reduce fluid buildup and swelling in the retina. In more severe cases, surgical intervention may be necessary, such as a vitrectomy to remove the vitreous gel and relieve pressure on the retina.
Prevention of macular edema includes managing underlying conditions such as diabetes and age-related macular degeneration, as well as maintaining regular eye exams to detect and treat any changes in the retina early on. Early detection and treatment can help prevent vision loss from macular edema.
Examples of retinal diseases include:
1. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD): a leading cause of vision loss in people over the age of 50, AMD affects the macula, the part of the retina responsible for central vision.
2. Diabetic retinopathy (DR): a complication of diabetes that damages blood vessels in the retina and can cause blindness.
3. Retinal detachment: a condition where the retina becomes separated from the underlying tissue, causing vision loss.
4. Macular edema: swelling of the macula that can cause vision loss.
5. Retinal vein occlusion (RVO): a blockage of the small veins in the retina that can cause vision loss.
6. Retinitis pigmentosa (RP): a group of inherited disorders that affect the retina and can cause progressive vision loss.
7. Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA): an inherited disorder that causes blindness or severe visual impairment at birth or in early childhood.
8. Stargardt disease: a rare inherited disorder that affects the retina and can cause progressive vision loss, usually starting in childhood.
9. Juvenile macular degeneration: a rare inherited disorder that causes vision loss in young adults.
10. Retinal dystrophy: a group of inherited disorders that affect the retina and can cause progressive vision loss.
Retinal diseases can be diagnosed with a comprehensive eye exam, which includes a visual acuity test, dilated eye exam, and imaging tests such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) or fluorescein angiography. Treatment options vary depending on the specific disease and can include medication, laser surgery, or vitrectomy.
It's important to note that many retinal diseases can be inherited, so if you have a family history of eye problems, it's important to discuss your risk factors with your eye doctor. Early detection and treatment can help preserve vision and improve quality of life for those affected by these diseases.
Retinal hemorrhage can cause vision loss or blindness if not treated promptly. The bleeding can lead to scarring, which can cause permanent damage to the retina and affect vision. In some cases, retinal hemorrhage can be a sign of a more serious underlying condition that requires immediate medical attention.
Retinal hemorrhage is diagnosed through a comprehensive eye exam, which includes a visual acuity test, dilated eye exam, and imaging tests such as fluorescein angiography or optical coherence tomography. Treatment options for retinal hemorrhage depend on the underlying cause and can include laser surgery, medication, or vitrectomy.
In summary, retinal hemorrhage is a serious condition that can cause vision loss or blindness if not treated promptly. It is essential to seek medical attention if symptoms such as blurred vision, flashes of light, or floaters are noticed. Early detection and treatment can help prevent or reduce vision loss in cases of retinal hemorrhage.
There are several subtypes of neovascular glaucoma, including:
1. Rubeosis iridis: This is a type of neovascular glaucoma that occurs when new blood vessels grow on the surface of the iris.
2. Uveitic glaucoma: This is a type of neovascular glaucoma that occurs in people with uveitis, an inflammatory condition that affects the inner layers of the eye.
3. Chronic ocular inflammation: This is a type of neovascular glaucoma that occurs when there is chronic inflammation in the eye, leading to the growth of new blood vessels.
Neovascular glaucoma is typically diagnosed with a comprehensive eye exam, which includes a visual acuity test, dilated eye exam, and imaging tests such as ultrasound or optical coherence tomography (OCT). Treatment for neovascular glaucoma usually involves medication to reduce inflammation and pressure in the eye, as well as laser surgery to destroy the new blood vessels. In some cases, a trabeculectomy, or filter surgery, may be performed to drain excess fluid from the eye and reduce pressure.
The growth of new blood vessels in the retina is a natural response to hypoxia (lack of oxygen) and inflammation caused by these diseases. However, these new blood vessels are fragile and can cause damage to the retina, leading to vision loss. In some cases, RNV can also lead to vitreous hemorrhage, retinal detachment, or glaucoma, which can further exacerbate vision loss.
The diagnosis of RNV is typically made through a comprehensive eye exam, including a visual acuity test, dilated eye exam, and imaging tests such as fluorescein angiography or optical coherence tomography (OCT). Treatment options for RNV depend on the underlying cause of the condition and may include medications, laser therapy, or vitrectomy.
In summary, retinal neovascularization is a common complication of various retinal diseases that can lead to vision loss if left untreated. Early detection and prompt treatment are essential to prevent further damage and preserve visual function.
There are two main types of retinal artery occlusion: central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) and branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO). Central retinal artery occlusion occurs when the central retinal artery, which supplies blood to the macula, becomes blocked. This can cause sudden vision loss in one eye, often with a painless, blinding effect. Branch retinal artery occlusion, on the other hand, occurs when one of the smaller retinal arteries that branch off from the central retinal artery becomes blocked. This can cause vision loss in a specific part of the visual field, often with some preserved peripheral vision.
Retinal artery occlusion is often caused by a blood clot or other debris that blocks the flow of blood through the retinal arteries. It can also be caused by other conditions such as diabetes, high blood pressure, and atherosclerosis (the buildup of plaque in the arteries).
Retinal artery occlusion is a medical emergency that requires prompt treatment. Treatment options may include intravenous injection of medications to dissolve the clot or other debris, laser surgery to repair damaged retinal tissue, and/or vitrectomy (surgical removal of the vitreous gel) to remove any blood or debris that has accumulated in the eye.
In summary, retinal artery occlusion is a serious condition that can cause sudden vision loss and potentially lead to permanent blindness. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if you experience any symptoms of retinal artery occlusion, such as sudden vision loss or blurred vision in one eye, flashes of light, floaters, or pain in the eye.
* Pupillary anomalies: Abnormalities in the size, shape, or position of the pupil.
* Pupillary block: A condition where the pupil is unable to open properly due to a blockage or obstruction.
* Pupillary dilation: The widening of the pupil, which can be a sign of certain medical conditions.
* Pupillary constriction: The narrowing of the pupil, which can be a sign of other medical conditions.
* Difficulty seeing or blurred vision
* Sensitivity to light
* Eye pain or discomfort
* Redness or swelling of the eye
* Difficulty moving the eyes
* Comprehensive eye exam
* Pupillary reactivity test: Measures how responsive the pupils are to light.
* Ophthalmoscopy: Examines the interior of the eye, including the retina and optic nerve.
* Glasses or contact lenses to correct refractive errors
* Medication to treat underlying conditions such as infection or inflammation
* Surgery to remove blockages or repair damaged tissue
* Pupillary dilators to widen the pupil and improve vision.
The exact cause of pars planitis is not known, but it is believed to be related to repetitive stress or overuse injuries, such as those that occur from heavy lifting or bending. It can also be triggered by degenerative conditions such as spondylosis or spondylolisthesis.
Symptoms of pars planitis may include:
* Lower back pain that worsens with activity and improves with rest
* Stiffness in the lower back
* Limited range of motion in the lumbar spine
* Muscle spasms in the lower back
* Tenderness to touch in the affected area
Treatment for pars planitis typically involves a combination of physical therapy, medication, and lifestyle modifications. Physical therapy may include exercises to strengthen the muscles of the lower back and improve flexibility. Medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or muscle relaxants may be prescribed to relieve pain and reduce inflammation. Lifestyle modifications, such as avoiding heavy lifting or bending, taking regular breaks to rest, and maintaining good posture, can also help manage symptoms. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to repair the affected area.
1. Atherosclerosis: A condition in which plaque builds up inside the arteries, causing them to narrow and harden. This can lead to heart disease, heart attack, or stroke.
2. Hypertension: High blood pressure that can damage blood vessels and increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and other conditions.
3. Peripheral artery disease (PAD): A condition in which the blood vessels in the legs and arms become narrowed or blocked, leading to pain, cramping, and weakness in the affected limbs.
4. Raynaud's phenomenon: A condition that causes blood vessels in the hands and feet to constrict in response to cold temperatures or stress, leading to discoloration, numbness, and tissue damage.
5. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT): A condition in which a blood clot forms in the deep veins of the legs, often caused by immobility or injury.
6. Varicose veins: Enlarged, twisted veins that can cause pain, swelling, and cosmetic concerns.
7. Angioplasty: A medical procedure in which a balloon is used to open up narrowed blood vessels, often performed to treat peripheral artery disease or blockages in the legs.
8. Stenting: A medical procedure in which a small mesh tube is placed inside a blood vessel to keep it open and improve blood flow.
9. Carotid endarterectomy: A surgical procedure to remove plaque from the carotid arteries, which supply blood to the brain, to reduce the risk of stroke.
10. Bypass surgery: A surgical procedure in which a healthy blood vessel is used to bypass a blocked or narrowed blood vessel, often performed to treat coronary artery disease or peripheral artery disease.
Overall, vascular diseases can have a significant impact on quality of life and can increase the risk of serious complications such as stroke, heart attack, and amputation. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time, as early diagnosis and treatment can help to prevent long-term damage and improve outcomes.
There are many different types of eye diseases, including:
1. Cataracts: A clouding of the lens in the eye that can cause blurry vision and blindness.
2. Glaucoma: A group of diseases that damage the optic nerve and can lead to vision loss and blindness.
3. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD): A condition that causes vision loss in older adults due to damage to the macula, the part of the retina responsible for central vision.
4. Diabetic retinopathy: A complication of diabetes that can cause damage to the blood vessels in the retina and lead to vision loss.
5. Detached retina: A condition where the retina becomes separated from the underlying tissue, leading to vision loss.
6. Macular hole: A small hole in the macula that can cause vision loss.
7. Amblyopia (lazy eye): A condition where one eye is weaker than the other and has reduced vision.
8. Strabismus (crossed eyes): A condition where the eyes are not aligned properly and point in different directions.
9. Conjunctivitis: An inflammation of the conjunctiva, the thin membrane that covers the white part of the eye and the inside of the eyelids.
10. Dry eye syndrome: A condition where the eyes do not produce enough tears, leading to dryness, itchiness, and irritation.
Eye diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, age, environmental factors, and certain medical conditions. Some eye diseases are inherited, while others are acquired through lifestyle choices or medical conditions.
Symptoms of eye diseases can include blurry vision, double vision, eye pain, sensitivity to light, and redness or inflammation in the eye. Treatment options for eye diseases depend on the specific condition and can range from medication, surgery, or lifestyle changes.
Regular eye exams are important for detecting and managing eye diseases, as many conditions can be treated more effectively if caught early. If you experience any symptoms of eye disease or have concerns about your vision, it is important to see an eye doctor as soon as possible.
A vitreous hemorrhage is a type of eye injury that occurs when there is bleeding within the vitreous humor, the gel-like substance that fills the space between the lens and the retina of the eye. This condition can be caused by a variety of factors, such as trauma, disease, or complications during surgery.
Symptoms of Vitreous Hemorrhage
The symptoms of vitreous hemorrhage can vary depending on the severity of the injury, but may include:
* Blurred vision
* Floaters (specks or cobwebs in vision)
* Flashes of light
* Eye pain
* Redness and swelling of the eye
* Sensitivity to light
Treatment of Vitreous Hemorrhage
The treatment of vitreous hemorrhage depends on the underlying cause and severity of the injury. In some cases, the body may absorb the blood over time, and no treatment is necessary. However, if the hemorrhage is severe or causing significant vision loss, surgery may be required to remove the blood and repair any damage to the eye.
Complications of Vitreous Hemorrhage
If left untreated, vitreous hemorrhage can lead to a number of complications, including:
* Glaucoma (increased pressure in the eye)
* Retinal detachment (separation of the retina from the back of the eye)
* Cataract formation
Prevention of Vitreous Hemorrhage
While some cases of vitreous hemorrhage cannot be prevented, there are steps that can be taken to reduce the risk of developing this condition. These include:
* Wearing protective eyewear during activities that could potentially cause eye injury
* Avoiding close-range objects or activities that could cause trauma to the eye
* Getting regular eye exams to monitor for any changes or abnormalities in the eye
In conclusion, vitreous hemorrhage is a serious condition that can cause significant vision loss if left untreated. While some cases may resolve on their own over time, others may require surgical intervention to prevent complications and preserve vision. Regular eye exams and protective eyewear can help reduce the risk of developing this condition.
 American Academy of Ophthalmology. (2020). Vitreous Hemorrhage. Retrieved from
 MedlinePlus. (2020). Vitreous Hemorrhage. Retrieved from
There are several types of ischemia, including:
1. Myocardial ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the heart muscle, which can lead to chest pain or a heart attack.
2. Cerebral ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the brain, which can lead to stroke or cognitive impairment.
3. Peripheral arterial ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the legs and arms.
4. Renal ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the kidneys.
5. Hepatic ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the liver.
Ischemia can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including electrocardiograms (ECGs), stress tests, and imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans. Treatment for ischemia depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, lifestyle changes, or surgical interventions.
Some examples of pathologic constrictions include:
1. Stenosis: A narrowing or constriction of a blood vessel or other tubular structure, often caused by the buildup of plaque or scar tissue.
2. Asthma: A condition characterized by inflammation and constriction of the airways, which can make breathing difficult.
3. Esophageal stricture: A narrowing of the esophagus that can cause difficulty swallowing.
4. Gastric ring constriction: A narrowing of the stomach caused by a band of tissue that forms in the upper part of the stomach.
5. Anal fissure: A tear in the lining of the anus that can cause pain and difficulty passing stools.
Pathologic constrictions can be caused by a variety of factors, including inflammation, infection, injury, or genetic disorders. They can be diagnosed through imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or endoscopies, and may require surgical treatment to relieve symptoms and improve function.
Some common types of vision disorders include:
1. Myopia (nearsightedness): A condition where close objects are seen clearly, but distant objects appear blurry.
2. Hyperopia (farsightedness): A condition where distant objects are seen clearly, but close objects appear blurry.
3. Astigmatism: A condition where the cornea or lens of the eye is irregularly shaped, causing blurred vision at all distances.
4. Presbyopia: A condition that occurs as people age, where the lens of the eye loses flexibility and makes it difficult to focus on close objects.
5. Amblyopia (lazy eye): A condition where one eye has reduced vision due to abnormal development or injury.
6. Strabismus (crossed eyes): A condition where the eyes are misaligned and point in different directions.
7. Color blindness: A condition where people have difficulty perceiving certain colors, usually red and green.
8. Retinal disorders: Conditions that affect the retina, such as age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, or retinal detachment.
9. Glaucoma: A group of conditions that damage the optic nerve, often due to increased pressure in the eye.
10. Cataracts: A clouding of the lens in the eye that can cause blurred vision and sensitivity to light.
Vision disorders can be diagnosed through a comprehensive eye exam, which includes a visual acuity test, refraction test, and dilated eye exam. Treatment options for vision disorders depend on the specific condition and may include glasses or contact lenses, medication, surgery, or a combination of these.
1. The patient was diagnosed with iris disease and was prescribed antibiotic eye drops to help clear up the infection.
2. The doctor suspected that the patient's blurred vision was caused by an iris disease, so he referred the patient to a specialist for further evaluation.
3. Although the symptoms of iris disease can be uncomfortable, most cases can be effectively treated with medication and proper care.
Protein S is a vitamin K-dependent protein that is produced in the liver and circulates in the blood. It works by inhibiting the activity of thrombin, a clotting factor that helps to form blood clots. In people with protein S deficiency, there may be an overactivation of thrombin, leading to an increased risk of blood clots forming.
Protein S deficiency can be caused by several factors, including genetic mutations, vitamin K deficiency, and certain medical conditions such as liver disease or cancer. It is usually diagnosed through a combination of clinical evaluation, laboratory tests, and imaging studies.
Treatment for protein S deficiency typically involves replacing the missing protein with intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) or recombinant human protein S. In some cases, medications that inhibit thrombin activity, such as heparins or direct thrombin inhibitors, may also be used to reduce the risk of blood clots forming.
Preventing protein S deficiency involves ensuring adequate intake of vitamin K through dietary sources or supplements, managing underlying medical conditions, and avoiding factors that can increase the risk of bleeding or thrombosis, such as smoking, obesity, and inactivity.
In summary, protein S deficiency is a condition characterized by low levels of protein S, which increases the risk of developing blood clots. It can be caused by several factors and treated with replacement therapy or medications that inhibit thrombin activity. Prevention involves ensuring adequate vitamin K intake and managing underlying medical conditions.
There are several types of eye hemorrhages, including:
1. Subretinal hemorrhage: This type of hemorrhage occurs between the retina and the choroid, and can cause vision loss if the bleeding is severe.
2. Intravitreal hemorrhage: This type of hemorrhage occurs within the vitreous humor, the gel-like substance inside the eye. It can cause clouding of the lens and vision loss.
3. Retinal hemorrhage: This type of hemorrhage occurs on the surface of the retina and can cause vision loss if the bleeding is severe.
4. Choroidal hemorrhage: This type of hemorrhage occurs within the choroid, the layer of blood vessels between the sclera and retina. It can cause vision loss if the bleeding is severe.
Eye hemorrhages can be diagnosed through a comprehensive eye exam, which includes visual acuity testing, dilated eye examination, and imaging tests such as fluorescein angiography or optical coherence tomography (OCT). Treatment for eye hemorrhages depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. In some cases, no treatment may be necessary, while in other cases, medication or surgery may be required to prevent further bleeding and restore vision.
There are several different types of glaucoma, including:
* Open-angle glaucoma: This is the most common form of glaucoma, and is caused by slowed drainage of fluid from the eye.
* Closed-angle glaucoma: This type of glaucoma is caused by a blockage in the drainage channels of the eye, leading to a sudden increase in pressure.
* Normal-tension glaucoma: This type of glaucoma is caused by damage to the optic nerve even though the pressure in the eye is within the normal range.
* Congenital glaucoma: This is a rare type of glaucoma that is present at birth, and is caused by a developmental defect in the eye's drainage system.
Symptoms of glaucoma can include:
* Blurred vision
* Loss of peripheral vision
* Eye pain or pressure
* Redness of the eye
* Seeing halos around lights
Glaucoma is typically diagnosed with a combination of visual acuity tests, dilated eye exams, and imaging tests such as ultrasound or MRI. Treatment for glaucoma usually involves medication to reduce pressure in the eye, but may also include surgery to improve drainage or laser therapy to prevent further damage to the optic nerve.
Early detection and treatment of glaucoma is important to prevent vision loss, so it is important to have regular eye exams, especially if you are at risk for the condition. Risk factors for glaucoma include:
* Age (over 60)
* Family history of glaucoma
* High blood pressure
* African or Hispanic ancestry
Overall, glaucoma is a serious eye condition that can cause vision loss if left untreated. Early detection and treatment are key to preventing vision loss and maintaining good eye health.
Ocular hypertension refers to an increase in the pressure within the eye, which can lead to various eye problems if left untreated. It is a common condition that affects millions of people worldwide. In this article, we will provide a comprehensive overview of ocular hypertension, including its definition, causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options.
What is Ocular Hypertension?
Ocular hypertension is a condition characterized by an increase in the pressure within the eye, which can cause damage to the eye's delicate structures, such as the retina and optic nerve. The normal pressure range for the eye is between 10-21 mmHg, and anything above this range is considered hypertensive.
Causes of Ocular Hypertension
There are several factors that can contribute to the development of ocular hypertension. These include:
* Genetics: People with a family history of glaucoma are more likely to develop ocular hypertension.
* Age: The risk of developing ocular hypertension increases with age, especially after the age of 40.
* Race: African Americans are at a higher risk of developing ocular hypertension than other races.
* Other health conditions: Certain health conditions, such as diabetes and high blood pressure, can increase the risk of developing ocular hypertension.
* Medications: Long-term use of certain medications, such as steroids, can increase eye pressure.
Symptoms of Ocular Hypertension
Ocular hypertension is often asymptomatic, meaning that there are no noticeable symptoms. However, some people may experience the following symptoms:
* Blurred vision
* Eye pain or discomfort
* Redness of the eye
* Seeing halos around lights
* Nausea and vomiting
Diagnosis of Ocular Hypertension
Ocular hypertension can be diagnosed with a comprehensive eye exam. The exam includes:
* Visual acuity test: This test measures how well you can see at different distances.
* Dilated eye exam: This test allows your doctor to examine the inside of your eyes and check for any signs of ocular hypertension.
* Tonometry: This test measures the pressure inside your eyes.
* Ophthalmoscopy: This test allows your doctor to examine the back of your eyes and look for any signs of ocular hypertension.
Treatment of Ocular Hypertension
There is no cure for ocular hypertension, but there are several treatments that can help manage the condition and prevent vision loss. These include:
* Eye drops: Medicated eye drops can be used to lower eye pressure.
* Oral medications: Oral medications, such as carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, can be used to lower eye pressure.
* Laser surgery: Laser surgery can be used to increase the drainage of fluid from the eye and lower eye pressure.
* Filtering surgery: Filtering surgery can be used to remove the vitreous gel and reduce eye pressure.
Prevention of Ocular Hypertension
There is no sure way to prevent ocular hypertension, but there are several steps you can take to lower your risk of developing the condition. These include:
* Getting regular eye exams: Regular eye exams can help detect ocular hypertension early, when it is easier to treat.
* Maintaining a healthy weight: Being overweight or obese can increase your risk of developing ocular hypertension.
* Eating a healthy diet: A diet rich in fruits and vegetables can help keep your eyes healthy.
* Exercising regularly: Regular exercise can help improve blood flow and reduce eye pressure.
* Wearing protective eyewear: Wearing protective eyewear, such as sunglasses, can help protect your eyes from UV radiation and reduce your risk of developing ocular hypertension.
Prognosis of Ocular Hypertension
The prognosis for ocular hypertension is generally good if the condition is detected and treated early. However, if left untreated, ocular hypertension can lead to vision loss and even blindness. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of ocular hypertension, such as blurred vision, eye pain, or seeing flashes of light.
Treatment for ocular hypertension usually involves medication to lower eye pressure. In some cases, laser surgery may be necessary to improve drainage of fluid from the eye. If left untreated, ocular hypertension can lead to more severe complications, such as glaucoma, which can cause permanent vision loss.
Ocular hypertension is a common condition that can increase your risk of developing glaucoma and other eye problems. While there is no cure for ocular hypertension, early detection and treatment can help prevent complications. By understanding the causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options for ocular hypertension, you can take steps to protect your vision and maintain good eye health.
1. Can ocular hypertension be cured?
No, there is no cure for ocular hypertension. However, early detection and treatment can help prevent complications.
2. What are the symptoms of ocular hypertension?
Symptoms of ocular hypertension may include blurred vision, eye pain, seeing flashes of light, and blind spots in your peripheral vision.
3. How is ocular hypertension diagnosed?
Ocular hypertension is typically diagnosed with a comprehensive eye exam, including a visual acuity test, dilated eye exam, and tonometry.
4. Can ocular hypertension lead to other eye problems?
Yes, untreated ocular hypertension can increase your risk of developing glaucoma and other eye problems, such as cataracts and optic nerve damage.
5. What are the treatment options for ocular hypertension?
Treatment for ocular hypertension usually involves medication to lower eye pressure, but in some cases, laser surgery may be necessary.
6. Is ocular hypertension inherited?
Yes, ocular hypertension can be inherited, and certain genetic factors can increase your risk of developing the condition.
7. Can ocular hypertension cause blindness?
Yes, if left untreated, ocular hypertension can lead to blindness due to optic nerve damage or glaucoma.
8. How can I reduce my risk of developing ocular hypertension?
You can reduce your risk of developing ocular hypertension by maintaining a healthy lifestyle, including regular exercise, a balanced diet, and not smoking. It is also important to have regular eye exams, especially if you have a family history of the condition.
Epiretinal Membrane Treatment:
Surgical removal of the membrane is the most common treatment for epiretinal membrane. The procedure, called vitrectomy, involves removing the vitreous gel and the membrane from the eye. Laser photocoagulation can also be used to shrink the membrane and relieve symptoms.
It's important to note that not all epiretinal membranes require treatment. Some people may experience no vision problems and may not need any treatment at all. In other cases, the condition may resolve on its own over time. Your eye doctor will be able to determine the best course of action for your specific case.
Epiretinal Membrane Causes:
The exact cause of epiretinal membranes is not fully understood, but they are thought to arise from scar tissue that forms on the retina in response to injury or inflammation. They can also be associated with other eye conditions such as age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and retinal detachment.
Epiretinal Membrane Symptoms:
Symptoms of epiretinal membrane may include:
* Blurred vision
* Distorted vision (e.g., wavy lines or shapes)
* Difficulty reading or performing other daily tasks
* Metamorphopsia (visual distortion)
Epiretinal Membrane Diagnosis:
Your eye doctor will perform a comprehensive eye exam to diagnose epiretinal membrane. This may include a visual acuity test, dilated eye exam, and imaging tests such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) or ultrasonography.
Epiretinal Membrane Prognosis:
In some cases, epiretinal membranes can resolve on their own over time without treatment. However, if the membrane is causing significant vision loss or distortion, your eye doctor may recommend surgical removal. The prognosis for surgical treatment of epiretinal membrane is generally good, with many patients experiencing improved vision following the procedure.
Epiretinal Membrane Treatment:
Treatment for epiretinal membrane depends on the severity of symptoms and may include:
* Watchful waiting: In some cases, your eye doctor may recommend monitoring the membrane over time to see if it resolves on its own.
* Vitrectomy: This is a surgical procedure in which the vitreous gel is removed from the eye and the epiretinal membrane is removed or peeled off the retina.
* Laser photocoagulation: This is a non-surgical procedure that uses lasers to create small burns around the edges of the membrane, causing it to shrink and pull away from the retina.
Epiretinal Membrane Prevention:
There is no known way to prevent epiretinal membranes from forming, but there are some risk factors that may increase your likelihood of developing one. These include:
* Age: Epiretinal membranes are more common in older adults.
* Family history: If you have a family history of epiretinal membranes, you may be at higher risk.
* Previous eye surgery or trauma: People who have had eye surgery or suffered an eye injury may be at higher risk for developing an epiretinal membrane.
Epiretinal Membrane Prognosis:
The prognosis for epiretinal membranes is generally good, especially if the membrane is removed surgically. In some cases, vision may improve spontaneously over time without treatment. However, if left untreated, an epiretinal membrane can cause permanent vision loss. It is important to follow your eye doctor's recommendations for monitoring and treatment to ensure the best possible outcome.
Epiretinal Membrane Complications:
Complications of epiretinal membranes are rare but can include:
* Retinal detachment: This is a serious complication that occurs when the retina pulls away from the underlying tissue.
* Glaucoma: This is a condition that can cause vision loss and is often associated with increased pressure in the eye.
* Macular hole: This is a small hole in the macula, the part of the retina responsible for central vision.
Epiretinal Membrane Surgery:
If an epiretinal membrane is causing vision problems or is not improving with monitoring alone, surgery may be recommended. The goal of surgery is to remove the membrane and prevent it from recurring. There are several types of surgery that can be used to treat epiretinal membranes, including:
* Scleral buckle surgery: This involves sewing a flexible band around the eye to push the retina back into place.
* Vitrectomy: This is a procedure that removes the vitreous gel and any blood or scar tissue that may be causing problems.
* Photocoagulation: This is a procedure that uses laser light to shrink the membrane and seal off any leaky blood vessels.
It's important to note that not all epiretinal membranes require surgery, and in some cases, monitoring alone may be sufficient. Your eye doctor will be able to recommend the best course of treatment based on your specific condition and symptoms.
Central retinal vein
Central retinal vein occlusion
Branch retinal vein occlusion
Optic nerve tumor
Complications of hypertension
Lions Eye Institute
Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society
Ocular ischemic syndrome
Optical coherence tomography angiography
Side effects of cyproterone acetate
Calvin A. Grant
Cotton wool spots
Julius von Michel
Recognizing and Referring Patients With Retinal Vein Occlusion
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- Central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) is a common retinal vascular disorder. (medscape.com)
- A number of clinical and ancillary investigative factors are taken into account for classifying CRVO, including vision at presentation, presence or absence of relative afferent pupillary defect, extent of retinal hemorrhages, cotton-wool spots, extent of retinal perfusion by fluorescein angiography, and electroretinographic changes. (medscape.com)
- Usually, ischemic CRVO presents with severe visual loss, extensive retinal hemorrhages and cotton-wool spots, presence of relative afferent pupillary defect, poor perfusion to retina, and presence of severe electroretinographic changes. (medscape.com)
- Central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) is an eye condition that affects the retina - the light-sensitive layer of tissue in the back of your eye. (nih.gov)
- BRVO is similar to CRVO, but it affects the smaller veins in the retina - not the main vein. (nih.gov)
- Experts do know that people get CRVO if they have a blood clot or reduced blood flow out of the central retinal vein (the main vein that helps blood flow away from the retina). (nih.gov)
- A 25-year-old woman with dermatomyositis suffered a right central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) with visual acuity of 20/40. (houstonmethodist.org)
- Examination of the right eye showed vitreous cells, suggesting inflammation of the central retinal vein leading to a CRVO as the presumed mechanism. (houstonmethodist.org)
- Central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) occurs when the main retinal vein is blocked, and may result in bleeding and swelling of the retina or macula, leading to a severe decrease in vision. (retinaconsultantsri.com)
- Branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) occurs when a branch of the main retinal vein becomes blocked, reducing blood flow to a portion of the retina, causing vision loss, although usually not as severe as in CRVO. (retinaconsultantsri.com)
- Blockage at the main retinal vein of the eye is referred to as central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) and results in more serious vision loss. (essentialeyedocs.com)
- Anti- vascular endothelial growth factor therapy has improved the prognosis for patients with central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). (bvsalud.org)
- Central Retinal Vein Occlusion (CRVO) is a leading cause of blindness affecting mainly the elderly (onset at the age of 50 years) with a prevalence estimated at 0.8‰ in France. (master-bmc-universite-paris.fr)
- CRVO is characterized by the presence of retinal hemorrhages and the appearance of venous dilation/tortuosity. (master-bmc-universite-paris.fr)
- without treatment, central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO), the most severe type of retinal vein occlusion often leads to significant and permanent vision loss. (nih.gov)
- In 2017, SCORE2 clinical trial investigators reported that two types of anti-VEGF treatment were equally effective at improving visual acuity in people with macular edema due to CRVO or hemi-retinal vein occlusion (HRVO). (nih.gov)
- There's another type of retinal vein occlusion called branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). (nih.gov)
- Blockage of smaller veins (branch veins or BRVO) in the retina often occurs in places where retinal arteries that have been thickened or hardened by atherosclerosis cross over and place pressure on a retinal vein. (medlineplus.gov)
- Blockage at smaller branches in the retinal vein is referred to as branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). (essentialeyedocs.com)
- Branch retinal vein occlusion related macular edema (BRVO-ME) is the leading cause of visual loss in patients with Branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). (ejgm.org)
Nonischemic central retinal v1
- Patient with nonischemic central retinal vein occlusion presented with dilated, tortuous veins and superficial hemorrhages. (medscape.com)
- Retinal vein occlusions preferred practice pattern. (medlineplus.gov)
- Most patients who suffer Retinal Artery Occlusions are between the ages of 50 and 80. (matossianeye.com)
- Patients who have Retinal Artery Occlusions have other significant health problems such as high blood pressure, diabetes, heart arrhythmias or high cholesterol. (matossianeye.com)
- Retinal vein occlusions are one cause of it. (nih.gov)
- 14. Bilateral simultaneous central retinal vein occlusions in an otherwise healthy adult. (nih.gov)
- In particular, retinal vascular occlusions says for anticardiolipin antibodies and lupus in patients with primary APS, i.e. with an- anticoagulant. (who.int)
- Fluorescein angiograph of same patient with central retinal vein occlusion as in previous images, showing hypofluorescence due to blockage from hemorrhages in the retina. (medscape.com)
- It may present with good vision, few retinal hemorrhages and cotton-wool spots, no relative afferent pupillary defect, and good perfusion to the retina. (medscape.com)
- It happens when a blood clot blocks the main vein where blood flows out of the retina. (nih.gov)
- Retinal vein occlusion is a blockage of the small veins that carry blood away from the retina. (medlineplus.gov)
- Retinal vein occlusion is a blockage of the veins in the retina. (retinaconsultantsri.com)
- It could be a retinal vein occlusion, an ocular disorder that can occur in older people when the blood vessels to the retina are blocked. (essentialeyedocs.com)
- Blockage of the veins in the retina can cause sudden vision loss. (essentialeyedocs.com)
- Sometimes blockage of the retinal veins can lead to abnormal new blood vessels developing on the surface of the iris (the colored part of your eye) or the retina. (essentialeyedocs.com)
- Retinal Vascular Disease is a term used to describe a number of conditions that can affect the blood vessels and circulation of the retina and result in significant tissue changes with secondary complications and vision loss. (matossianeye.com)
- A Retinal Vein Occlusion can occur in the Central Retinal Vein or in a Branch Retinal Vein where a blockage causes elevated venous pressure which damages the vein, leading to hemorrhages, swelling and ischemia-a lack of oxygen-in the retina. (matossianeye.com)
- The retina specialists at Matossian Eye Associates perform non-surgical retina injection treatment with Lucentis®, Eylea®, Beovu® or other medications if needed as well as laser treatment to help maintain your vision and prevent vision loss from all types of retinal vascular disease. (matossianeye.com)
- Retina vascular disease, occlusive (arterial, venous) includes diagnosis codes indicating unspecified or transient retinal vascular occlusion. (cdc.gov)
- Retina vascular disease, non-occlusive includes diagnosis codes indicating hypertensive or exudative retinopathy, changes in retinal vascular appearance, retinal microaneurysms, retinal telangiectasis, neovascularization or vasculitis, intraretinal microvascular abnormalities, or unspecified background retinopathy. (cdc.gov)
- A clot that blocks blood flow in the central vein in your retina (the tissue lining the back inside of your eye), or smaller side veins, stops blood from draining from your eye. (webmd.com)
- Occlusion of the retinal veins can lead to blood vessel leakage in the retina. (nih.gov)
- Retinal vein occlusion is caused by a blockage of the veins carrying blood away from the retina, the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye. (nih.gov)
- These are blockages in veins in the retina (the light-sensing tissue in the back of your eye). (nih.gov)
- Three and 10 eyes had inferior temporal and superior temporal branch retinal vein occlusion-related macular edema, respectively. (ejgm.org)
- A Retinal Artery Occlusion can occur in either the Central Retinal Artery or in a Branch Retinal Artery that becomes blocked by a clot or "embolus" in the bloodstream. (matossianeye.com)
- They notice a sudden, painless loss of vision that can be a complete loss of vision if it is a Central Retinal Artery Occlusion, or can be a partial loss of their visual field if it is a Branch Retinal Artery Occlusion. (matossianeye.com)
- Typically, patients experience a sudden onset of blurred or a "missing area of vision" if a branch retinal vein is occluded or a severe loss of central vision if the central retinal vein has become occluded. (matossianeye.com)
- Branch retinal artery occlusion indicates diagnosis codes for tributary (branch) retinal arterial occlusion. (cdc.gov)
- To test the safety and effectiveness of minocycline as a treatment for branch retinal vein occlusion. (nih.gov)
- Individuals at least 18 years of age who have branch retinal vein occlusion in at least one eye, with vision between 20/32 and 20/200. (nih.gov)
- 6. Resource use and costs of branch and central retinal vein occlusion in the elderly. (nih.gov)
- OS showed mild vitreous haze with an exudative detachment at the posterior pole, disc edema with dilated, congested and tortuous veins and multiple dot blot hemorrhages, flame-shaped hemorrhages, and soft exudates throughout the posterior pole and mid-periphery An ultrasound B scan showed a large hypoechoic area in the sub-Tenon's space (T-sign) suggestive of periocular fluid collection and thickened sclero-choroidal complex. (springeropen.com)
- The patient responded well over the next month with systemic and topical steroids showing complete resolution of the scleritis and exudative retinal detachment. (springeropen.com)
- Other factors may also contribute to this edema, such as osmotic stress leading to Muller cell swelling, such as that reported with retinal detachment [ 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Ophthalmologic findings include macular edema and blot hemorrhages (10), cotton wool spots (1), retinal vasculitis (4), exudative retinal detachment (2), and anterior uveitis (1). (cdc.gov)
Common retinal vascular1
- The two most common retinal vascular disorders are Retinal Artery Occlusion and Retinal Vein Occlusion. (matossianeye.com)
- This is a late complication of retinal vein blockage and can occur months after blockage has occurred. (essentialeyedocs.com)
- Recent onset central retinal vein occlusion, showing extensive hemorrhages in the posterior pole and giving the "blood and thunder appearance. (medscape.com)
- Peripheral fundus view of the same patient with central retinal vein occlusion as in the previous image, showing hemorrhages extending all over the fundus. (medscape.com)
- Fundus picture of the same patient with central retinal vein occlusion as in previous images, showing resolving neovascularization of the disc and panretinal photocoagulation scars. (medscape.com)
- Fluorescein angiogram of the same patient with central retinal vein occlusion as in the previous images, taken more than 1 year later, showing persistent cystoid macular edema with good laser spots. (medscape.com)
- Fundus picture of the same patient with central retinal vein occlusion as in previous image, showing resolved hemorrhages and pigmentary changes in the macula several months later. (medscape.com)
- The exact pathogenesis of the thrombotic occlusion of the central retinal vein is not known. (medscape.com)
- Various local and systemic factors play a role in the pathological closure of the central retinal vein. (medscape.com)
- The central retinal artery and vein share a common adventitial sheath as they exit the optic nerve head and pass through a narrow opening in the lamina cribrosa. (medscape.com)
- This anatomical position predisposes to thrombus formation in the central retinal vein by various factors, including slowing of the blood stream, changes in the vessel wall, and changes in the blood. (medscape.com)
- Arteriosclerotic changes in the central retinal artery transform the artery into a rigid structure and impinge upon the pliable central retinal vein, causing hemodynamic disturbances, endothelial damage, and thrombus formation. (medscape.com)
- A rare cause of visual loss in AIDS patients: central retinal vein occlusion. (bmj.com)
- Central retinal vein occlusion segment held the largest market share as there is a rising incidence of diabetes in the population that tends to cause visual impairment. (polarismarketresearch.com)
- Central retinal vein occlusion indicates diagnosis codes for central retinal vein occlusion, with or without macular edema or retinal neovascularization. (cdc.gov)
- You usually get this type of clot because you have a tube called a central line (used to carry medicine into your body) or a catheter in the vein. (webmd.com)
- Clots tend to form in these veins when you have a central line in them. (webmd.com)
- We report a 30-year-old female presenting with unilateral anterior and posterior scleritis with concurrent central retinal vein occlusion, the subsequent work-up, and the management. (springeropen.com)
- Doppler shifts in the central retinal vessels were absent at intraocular pressures above 80 mm Hg. (nih.gov)
- While anti-VEGF therapy is associated with significant improvement in both retinal swelling and visual acuity in patients with central or hemi-retinal vein occlusion, our findings show that most of the patients followed still required treatment to control the macular edema for at least five years," said Ingrid U. Scott, M.D., M.P.H., Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, chair of the study. (nih.gov)
- 1. Bilateral central retinal vein occlusion associated with multiple myeloma. (nih.gov)
- 2. Bilateral central retinal vein occlusion caused by malignant hypertension in a young patient. (nih.gov)
- 3. Case report: bilateral simultaneous central retinal vein occlusion in Waldenström's macroglobulinemia. (nih.gov)
- 7. Central retinal vein occlusion associated with cilioretinal artery occlusion. (nih.gov)
- 8. Central retinal vein occlusion due to hyperviscosity syndrome. (nih.gov)
- 9. Systemic considerations in bilateral central retinal vein occlusion. (nih.gov)
- 10. Bilateral Central Retinal Vein Occlusion as Presenting Feature of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia. (nih.gov)
- 11. Combined central retinal artery and vein occlusion in Churg-Strauss syndrome: case report. (nih.gov)
- 13. [Bilateral sequential central retinal vein occlusion associated with primary antiphospholipid syndrome]. (nih.gov)
- 15. Central retinal vein occlusion in two patients with immunoglobulin G multiple myeloma associated with blood hyperviscosity. (nih.gov)
- 16. [Bilateral central retinal vein occlusion associated with blood hyperviscosity syndrome--case report]. (nih.gov)
- 20. Optic disc area and diameter of the central retinal vein occlusion fellow eyes, determined by optical coherence tomography. (nih.gov)
Forms of retinal1
- There are two forms of retinal vein occlusion, both require treatment to prevent vision loss and other complications. (retinaconsultantsri.com)
- People with retinal vein occlusion often regain useful vision. (medlineplus.gov)
- It was approved for use in neovascular (wet) age-related macular degeneration, macular edema following retinal vein occlusion and diabetic macular edema in 2006. (nih.gov)
- Retinal vein occlusion is most often caused by hardening of the arteries ( atherosclerosis ) and the formation of a blood clot. (medlineplus.gov)
People with macular edema1
- Researchers treated 330 people with macular edema caused by severe retinal vein blockages. (nih.gov)
- All of these classifications take into account the area of retinal capillary nonperfusion and the development of neovascular complications. (medscape.com)
- Evaluation of the ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in patients with retinal vein occlusion. (bvsalud.org)
- Retrospective and observational study of 66 patients with ABPM, 33 with retinal vein occlusion from a cohort of these disease and 33 controls without RVO, adjusted for age and sex . (bvsalud.org)
- In patients over the age of 60, Retinal Artery Occlusion may be due to an underlying inflammatory condition called Giant Cell Arteritis. (matossianeye.com)
- Retinal Vein Occlusion occurs equally in women and men and mostly after the age of 60, and especially on those patients with diabetes, hypertension or cardiovascular disease. (matossianeye.com)
- In diabetic patients, hydrostatic pressure may be increased because of systemic hypertension and retinal ischemia, increasing the likelihood of exudation. (hindawi.com)
- NIH-funded study finds many patients with retinal vein occlusion have vision benefits, but require long-term monitoring and treatment. (nih.gov)
- This five-year study tells us a lot about what's happening with retinal vein occlusion patients in the real world," said Scott. (nih.gov)
- The SCORE2 study provides invaluable data to guide clinicians and their patients toward informed decisions regarding treatment for retinal vein occlusion," said NEI Director Michael F. Chiang, M.D. (nih.gov)
- This five-year study tells us a lot about what's happening with retinal vein occlusion patients in the real world," says Dr. Ingrid U. Scott of Penn State University. (nih.gov)
- therefore, we investigated the prevalence among 33 patients with retinal vein and artery occlu- sions and 80 controls. (who.int)
- Antinuclear antithrombin, protein C, protein S or pres- antibodies were investigated with standard- ence of antiphospholipid antibodies, are ized enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay common in patients with retinal vein occlu- sions and may contribute to the etiology of (ELISA). (who.int)
- New research shows that a treatment for retinal vein occlusion yields long-lasting vision gains, with visual acuity remaining significantly above baseline at five years. (nih.gov)
- the fundus may show retinal hemorrhages, dilated tortuous retinal veins, cotton-wool spots, macular edema, and optic disc edema. (medscape.com)
- Prognosis depends on the severity of the vein occlusion. (essentialeyedocs.com)
- Here, we report that TCDD-exposure in zebrafish disrupts development of 1) the subintestinal venous plexus (SIVP), which vascularizes the developing liver, kidney, gut, and pancreas, and 2) the superficial annular vessel (SAV), an essential component of the retinal vasculature. (nih.gov)
- It doesn't happen often, but a blood clot can form in a vein that runs through the space behind your eye sockets. (webmd.com)
- The pathophysiology of DME involves dilated capillaries, retinal microaneurysms, and loss of pericytes, with eventual impairment of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB) [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Retinal vein occlusion is a sign of a general blood vessel (vascular) disease. (medlineplus.gov)
- The aim of this study was to quantitatively investigate the retinal vessels in these disorders, using dynamic vessel analyzer (DVA) and optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) analysis. (nature.com)
- AngioPlex® OCT Angiography from ZEISS ushers in a new era of eye care with non-invasive imaging of retinal microvasculature-taking glaucoma and retinal disease management and treatment planning to the next level. (zeiss.com)
- tion and retinal flourescein angiography. (who.int)
- The risk of these disorders increases with age, therefore retinal vein occlusion most often affects older people. (medlineplus.gov)
- People with diabetes, high blood pressure, blood-clotting disorders, and glaucoma are also at higher risk for a retinal vein occlusion. (essentialeyedocs.com)
- VEHSS identifies the annual prevalence of diagnosed Other Retinal Disorders based on the presence of International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9 and ICD-10 codes in patient claims or electronic health record (EHR) systems. (cdc.gov)
- Diagnosed other retinal disorders include a patient having one or more diagnosis codes indicating one or more of the subgroups listed below. (cdc.gov)
- 4. Bilateral simultaneous retinal vein occlusion. (nih.gov)
- 19. Intravitreal ranibizumab for macular oedema secondary to retinal vein occlusion: a retrospective study of 34 eyes. (nih.gov)
- Hardening of the blood vessels as you age is what predisposes people to retinal vein occlusion. (essentialeyedocs.com)
- This problem is exacerbated because increased hydrostatic pressure may lead to dilatation and tortuosity of retinal arterioles, capillaries, and venules, which increases vessel wall tension and further disruption of the BRB according to LaPlace's Law [ 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
- A fluorescein angiogram is a diagnostic photographic test in which a colored dye is injected into your arm and a series of photographs are taken of the eye to determine if there is fluid leakage or abnormal blood vessel growth associated with the vein occlusion. (essentialeyedocs.com)
- Low molecular weight heparin for the treatment of retinal vein occlusion: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials. (wikem.org)
- Once diagnosed with a retinal vein occlusion, it is important to keep follow-up appointments to ensure that prompt treatment can be administered to best optimize your visual potential. (essentialeyedocs.com)
- Permanently discontinue COTELLIC for retinal vein occlusion (RVO). (nih.gov)
- Retinal vein occlusion may be treated with intraocular injections and laser. (retinaconsultantsri.com)
- This study demonstrate that Alzheimer's and MCI subjects are characterized by a significant impairment of the retinal neurovascular coupling. (nature.com)