Retinal Vein Occlusion: Blockage of the RETINAL VEIN. Those at high risk for this condition include patients with HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; ATHEROSCLEROSIS; and other CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES.Retinal Vein: Central retinal vein and its tributaries. It runs a short course within the optic nerve and then leaves and empties into the superior ophthalmic vein or cavernous sinus.Veins: The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.Macular Edema: Fluid accumulation in the outer layer of the MACULA LUTEA that results from intraocular or systemic insults. It may develop in a diffuse pattern where the macula appears thickened or it may acquire the characteristic petaloid appearance referred to as cystoid macular edema. Although macular edema may be associated with various underlying conditions, it is most commonly seen following intraocular surgery, venous occlusive disease, DIABETIC RETINOPATHY, and posterior segment inflammatory disease. (From Survey of Ophthalmology 2004; 49(5) 470-90)Fluorescein Angiography: Visualization of a vascular system after intravenous injection of a fluorescein solution. The images may be photographed or televised. It is used especially in studying the retinal and uveal vasculature.Retinal Artery: Central retinal artery and its branches. It arises from the ophthalmic artery, pierces the optic nerve and runs through its center, enters the eye through the porus opticus and branches to supply the retina.Visual Acuity: Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.Intravitreal Injections: The administration of substances into the VITREOUS BODY of the eye with a hypodermic syringe.Light Coagulation: The coagulation of tissue by an intense beam of light, including laser (LASER COAGULATION). In the eye it is used in the treatment of retinal detachments, retinal holes, aneurysms, hemorrhages, and malignant and benign neoplasms. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)Saphenous Vein: The vein which drains the foot and leg.Retinal DiseasesTriamcinolone Acetonide: An esterified form of TRIAMCINOLONE. It is an anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid used topically in the treatment of various skin disorders. Intralesional, intramuscular, and intra-articular injections are also administered under certain conditions.Vitreous Body: The transparent, semigelatinous substance that fills the cavity behind the CRYSTALLINE LENS of the EYE and in front of the RETINA. It is contained in a thin hyaloid membrane and forms about four fifths of the optic globe.Retinal Vessels: The blood vessels which supply and drain the RETINA.Fundus Oculi: The concave interior of the eye, consisting of the retina, the choroid, the sclera, the optic disk, and blood vessels, seen by means of the ophthalmoscope. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Retinal Hemorrhage: Bleeding from the vessels of the retina.Portal Vein: A short thick vein formed by union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein.Glaucoma, Neovascular: A form of secondary glaucoma which develops as a consequence of another ocular disease and is attributed to the forming of new vessels in the angle of the anterior chamber.Varicose Veins: Enlarged and tortuous VEINS.Laser Coagulation: The use of green light-producing LASERS to stop bleeding. The green light is selectively absorbed by HEMOGLOBIN, thus triggering BLOOD COAGULATION.Femoral Vein: The vein accompanying the femoral artery in the same sheath; it is a continuation of the popliteal vein and becomes the external iliac vein.Pulmonary Veins: The veins that return the oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.Tomography, Optical Coherence: An imaging method using LASERS that is used for mapping subsurface structure. When a reflective site in the sample is at the same optical path length (coherence) as the reference mirror, the detector observes interference fringes.Injections, Intraocular: The administration of substances into the eye with a hypodermic syringe.Jugular Veins: Veins in the neck which drain the brain, face, and neck into the brachiocephalic or subclavian veins.Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Retinal Neovascularization: Formation of new blood vessels originating from the retinal veins and extending along the inner (vitreal) surface of the retina.Vitrectomy: Removal of the whole or part of the vitreous body in treating endophthalmitis, diabetic retinopathy, retinal detachment, intraocular foreign bodies, and some types of glaucoma.Retinal Artery Occlusion: Sudden ISCHEMIA in the RETINA due to blocked blood flow through the CENTRAL RETINAL ARTERY or its branches leading to sudden complete or partial loss of vision, respectively, in the eye.Pupil Disorders: Conditions which affect the structure or function of the pupil of the eye, including disorders of innervation to the pupillary constrictor or dilator muscles, and disorders of pupillary reflexes.Ophthalmodynamometry: Measurement of the blood pressure of the retinal vessels. It is used also for the determination of the near point of convergence (CONVERGENCE, OCULAR). (From Cline, et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Pars Planitis: Form of granulomatous uveitis occurring in the region of the pars plana. This disorder is a common condition with no detectable focal pathology. It causes fibrovascular proliferation at the inferior ora serrata.Mesenteric Veins: Veins which return blood from the intestines; the inferior mesenteric vein empties into the splenic vein, the superior mesenteric vein joins the splenic vein to form the portal vein.Ciliary Arteries: Three groups of arteries found in the eye which supply the iris, pupil, sclera, conjunctiva, and the muscles of the iris.Renal Veins: Short thick veins which return blood from the kidneys to the vena cava.Umbilical Veins: Venous vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry oxygenated, nutrient-rich blood from the mother to the FETUS via the PLACENTA. In humans, there is normally one umbilical vein.Iliac Vein: A vein on either side of the body which is formed by the union of the external and internal iliac veins and passes upward to join with its fellow of the opposite side to form the inferior vena cava.Venous Pressure: The blood pressure in the VEINS. It is usually measured to assess the filling PRESSURE to the HEART VENTRICLE.Vascular Diseases: Pathological processes involving any of the BLOOD VESSELS in the cardiac or peripheral circulation. They include diseases of ARTERIES; VEINS; and rest of the vasculature system in the body.Iris: The most anterior portion of the uveal layer, separating the anterior chamber from the posterior. It consists of two layers - the stroma and the pigmented epithelium. Color of the iris depends on the amount of melanin in the stroma on reflection from the pigmented epithelium.Ophthalmoscopy: Examination of the interior of the eye with an ophthalmoscope.Eye Diseases: Diseases affecting the eye.Intraocular Pressure: The pressure of the fluids in the eye.Retreatment: The therapy of the same disease in a patient, with the same agent or procedure repeated after initial treatment, or with an additional or alternate measure or follow-up. It does not include therapy which requires more than one administration of a therapeutic agent or regimen. Retreatment is often used with reference to a different modality when the original one was inadequate, harmful, or unsuccessful.Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Triamcinolone: A glucocorticoid given, as the free alcohol or in esterified form, orally, intramuscularly, by local injection, by inhalation, or applied topically in the management of various disorders in which corticosteroids are indicated. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p739)Vitreous Hemorrhage: Hemorrhage into the VITREOUS BODY.Hepatic Veins: Veins which drain the liver.Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Ischemia: A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.Popliteal Vein: The vein formed by the union of the anterior and posterior tibial veins; it courses through the popliteal space and becomes the femoral vein.Blood Viscosity: The internal resistance of the BLOOD to shear forces. The in vitro measure of whole blood viscosity is of limited clinical utility because it bears little relationship to the actual viscosity within the circulation, but an increase in the viscosity of circulating blood can contribute to morbidity in patients suffering from disorders such as SICKLE CELL ANEMIA and POLYCYTHEMIA.Constriction, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.Rose Bengal: A bright bluish pink compound that has been used as a dye, biological stain, and diagnostic aid.Macula Lutea: An oval area in the retina, 3 to 5 mm in diameter, usually located temporal to the posterior pole of the eye and slightly below the level of the optic disk. It is characterized by the presence of a yellow pigment diffusely permeating the inner layers, contains the fovea centralis in its center, and provides the best phototropic visual acuity. It is devoid of retinal blood vessels, except in its periphery, and receives nourishment from the choriocapillaris of the choroid. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Angiogenesis Inhibitors: Agents and endogenous substances that antagonize or inhibit the development of new blood vessels.Laser Therapy: The use of photothermal effects of LASERS to coagulate, incise, vaporize, resect, dissect, or resurface tissue.Electroretinography: Recording of electric potentials in the retina after stimulation by light.Vision Disorders: Visual impairments limiting one or more of the basic functions of the eye: visual acuity, dark adaptation, color vision, or peripheral vision. These may result from EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; VISUAL PATHWAY diseases; OCCIPITAL LOBE diseases; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS; and other conditions (From Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p132).Polarography: An electrochemical technique for measuring the current that flows in solution as a function of an applied voltage. The observed polarographic wave, resulting from the electrochemical response, depends on the way voltage is applied (linear sweep or differential pulse) and the type of electrode used. Usually a mercury drop electrode is used.Dalteparin: A low-molecular-weight fragment of heparin, prepared by nitrous acid depolymerization of porcine mucosal heparin. The mean molecular weight is 4000-6000 daltons. It is used therapeutically as an antithrombotic agent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Subclavian Vein: The continuation of the axillary vein which follows the subclavian artery and then joins the internal jugular vein to form the brachiocephalic vein.Splenic Vein: Vein formed by the union (at the hilus of the spleen) of several small veins from the stomach, pancreas, spleen and mesentery.Iris Diseases: Diseases, dysfunctions, or disorders of or located in the iris.Ophthalmic Artery: Artery originating from the internal carotid artery and distributing to the eye, orbit and adjacent facial structures.Protein S Deficiency: An autosomal dominant disorder showing decreased levels of plasma protein S antigen or activity, associated with venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. PROTEIN S is a vitamin K-dependent plasma protein that inhibits blood clotting by serving as a cofactor for activated PROTEIN C (also a vitamin K-dependent protein), and the clinical manifestations of its deficiency are virtually identical to those of protein C deficiency. Treatment with heparin for acute thrombotic processes is usually followed by maintenance administration of coumarin drugs for the prevention of recurrent thrombosis. (From Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 12th ed, p1511; Wintrobe's Clinical Hematology, 9th ed, p1523)Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the eye or any of its parts.Cerebral Veins: Veins draining the cerebrum.Optic Disk: The portion of the optic nerve seen in the fundus with the ophthalmoscope. It is formed by the meeting of all the retinal ganglion cell axons as they enter the optic nerve.Choroid: The thin, highly vascular membrane covering most of the posterior of the eye between the RETINA and SCLERA.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized: Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.Hemodilution: Reduction of blood viscosity usually by the addition of cell free solutions. Used clinically (1) in states of impaired microcirculation, (2) for replacement of intraoperative blood loss without homologous blood transfusion, and (3) in cardiopulmonary bypass and hypothermia.Decompression, Surgical: A surgical operation for the relief of pressure in a body compartment or on a body part. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Photography: Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.Eye Hemorrhage: Intraocular hemorrhage from the vessels of various tissues of the eye.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A: The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Glaucoma: An ocular disease, occurring in many forms, having as its primary characteristics an unstable or a sustained increase in the intraocular pressure which the eye cannot withstand without damage to its structure or impairment of its function. The consequences of the increased pressure may be manifested in a variety of symptoms, depending upon type and severity, such as excavation of the optic disk, hardness of the eyeball, corneal anesthesia, reduced visual acuity, seeing of colored halos around lights, disturbed dark adaptation, visual field defects, and headaches. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Azygos Vein: A vein which arises from the right ascending lumbar vein or the vena cava, enters the thorax through the aortic orifice in the diaphragm, and terminates in the superior vena cava.Capillaries: The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.Brachiocephalic Veins: Large veins on either side of the root of the neck formed by the junction of the internal jugular and subclavian veins. They drain blood from the head, neck, and upper extremities, and unite to form the superior vena cava.Fovea Centralis: An area approximately 1.5 millimeters in diameter within the macula lutea where the retina thins out greatly because of the oblique shifting of all layers except the pigment epithelium layer. It includes the sloping walls of the fovea (clivus) and contains a few rods in its periphery. In its center (foveola) are the cones most adapted to yield high visual acuity, each cone being connected to only one ganglion cell. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Ocular Hypertension: A condition in which the intraocular pressure is elevated above normal and which may lead to glaucoma.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Aqueous Humor: The clear, watery fluid which fills the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye. It has a refractive index lower than the crystalline lens, which it surrounds, and is involved in the metabolism of the cornea and the crystalline lens. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p319)Epiretinal Membrane: A membrane on the vitreal surface of the retina resulting from the proliferation of one or more of three retinal elements: (1) fibrous astrocytes; (2) fibrocytes; and (3) retinal pigment epithelial cells. Localized epiretinal membranes may occur at the posterior pole of the eye without clinical signs or may cause marked loss of vision as a result of covering, distorting, or detaching the fovea centralis. Epiretinal membranes may cause vascular leakage and secondary retinal edema. In younger individuals some membranes appear to be developmental in origin and occur in otherwise normal eyes. The majority occur in association with retinal holes, ocular concussions, retinal inflammation, or after ocular surgery. (Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p291)Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Axillary Vein: The venous trunk of the upper limb; a continuation of the basilar and brachial veins running from the lower border of the teres major muscle to the outer border of the first rib where it becomes the subclavian vein.

Chronic retinal vein occlusion in glaucoma. (1/210)

Asymptomatic chronic retinal vein occlusion that occurs in chronic simple glaucoma is described. The condition is characterized by marked elevation of retinal vein pressure with collateral vessels and vein loops at the optic disc in cases of central vein occlusion, or retinal veno-venous anastomoses along a horizontal line temporal and nasal to the disc in hemisphere vein occlusion. No patient had visible arterial changes, capillary closure, fluorescein leakage, or haemorrhages. The vein occlusion was not limited to "end stage" glaucoma. The role of increased intraocular pressure and glaucomatous enlargement of the optic cup with retinal vein distortion in the pathogenesis of the condition was stressed. Follow-up of these patients revealed persistence of the retinal vein occlusion shown by elevated retinal vein pressures. This would reduce effective perfusion of the inner retina and optic disc and may affect the long-term visual prognosis.  (+info)

Microvasculature of the rat optic nerve head. (2/210)

PURPOSE: To describe the arterial blood supply, capillary bed, and venous drainage of the rat optic nerve head. METHODS: Ocular microvascular castings from 6 Wistar rats were prepared by injection of epoxy resin through the common carotid arteries. After polymerization, tissues were digested with 6 M KOH, and the castings washed, dried, and coated for scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS: Immediately posterior to the globe, the ophthalmic artery trifurcates into the central retinal artery and two posterior ciliary arteries. The central retinal artery directly provides capillaries to the nerve fiber layer and only contributes to capillary beds in the neck of the nerve head. The remainder is supplied by branches of the posterior ciliary arteries that are analogous to the primate circle of Zinn-Haller. Arterioles arising from these branches supply the capillaries of the transitional, or laminar, region of the optic nerve head. These capillaries are continuous with those of the neck and retrobulbar optic nerve head. All optic nerve head capillaries drain into the central retinal vein and veins of the optic nerve sheath. A flat choroidal sinus communicates with the central retinal vein, the choriocapillaris, and with large veins of the optic nerve sheath. CONCLUSIONS: The microvasculature of the rat optic nerve head bears several similarities to that of the primate, with a centripetal blood supply from posterior ciliary arteries and drainage into the central retinal and optic nerve sheath veins. Association of nerve sheath veins with the choroid represents an important difference from the primate.  (+info)

Optic nerve and peripapillary choroidal microvasculature of the rat eye. (3/210)

PURPOSE: To investigate the three-dimensional microvascular anatomy of the optic nerve and peripapillary choroid in the rat eye. METHODS: Gross vascular anatomy of the posterior eye segment of Wistar rats was studied in serial microsections with a light microscope. The optic nerve and peripapillary choroidal vessels were sequentially microdissected, using methylmethacrylate corrosion microvascular castings, and were examined with a scanning electron microscope to determine the three-dimensional relationships of the vessels. RESULTS: The posterior ciliary artery traveled along the inferior side of the optic nerve sheath, directly entered the optic nerve head, and divided into three branches: the central retinal artery and medial and lateral long posterior ciliary arteries, which provided several short branches to the choroid. The optic nerve head vasculature was consistently nourished by a recurrent arteriole from the central retinal artery and an arteriole from the choroidal artery at the peripapillary choroid. The central retinal vein flowed into a venous anastomosis along the optic disc border of the peripapillary choroid. Capillaries within the optic nerve drained into the central retinal vein, the marginal venous anastomosis of the peripapillary choroid, and the pial veins, all of which flowed into the posterior ciliary veins along the optic nerve sheath. CONCLUSIONS: The findings illustrate vascular anatomic differences in optic nerve and peripapillary choroidal microcirculation between rat and human. In rats, the peripapillary choroid plays a significant role in both blood supply and venous drainage of the optic nerve head. The central retinal artery also contributes to the optic nerve head circulation.  (+info)

Polymerase chain reaction for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in epiretinal membrane in Eales' disease. (4/210)

PURPOSE: Tuberculous etiology has been suggested in Eales' disease. Because epiretinal membrane (ERM) is formed on the inner surface of the retina in Eales' disease, it could be the most appropriate intraocular specimen for investigation. Therefore, a nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR), which detects MPB64 gene of Mycobacterium tuberculosis on the archival specimens of ERM of well-documented Eales' and non-Eales' patients, was applied and the results compared. METHODS: nPCR technique was standardized, and the sensitivity and specificity of the primers were determined. nPCR technique was applied to tissue sections obtained from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues of ERM from 23 patients with Eales' disease and 27 noninfective and non-Eales' disease patients as controls. RESULTS: nPCR technique was specific for M. tuberculosis genome and sensitive enough to detect 0.25 fg (corresponding to the presence of a single bacillus). Eleven (47.8%) ERM of 23 Eales' disease and 3 (11.1%) of 27 controls were positive for M. tuberculosis genome. The difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P = 0.001), indicating association of this bacterium with Eales' disease. CONCLUSIONS: The demonstration of the presence of M. tuberculosis DNA by nPCR technique in significant number of ERM of Eales' disease compared with the controls further emphasizes the probable role of this bacterium in the pathogenesis of this enigmatic clinical condition.  (+info)

Laser treatment and the mechanism of edema reduction in branch retinal vein occlusion. (5/210)

PURPOSE: To test a hypothesis on the physiological mechanism of the disappearance of macular edema after laser treatment. The hypothesis is based on the effect grid laser treatment has on retinal oxygenation and hemodynamics. It predicts that laser-induced reduction of macular edema is associated with shortening and narrowing of retinal vessels in patients with branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). METHODS: The study included 12 subjects, treated with argon laser photocoagulation for BRVO and macular edema. Fundus photographs taken at the time of diagnosis and again after laser treatment, were digitized, and diameter and segment length of retinal vessels was measured using NIH-Image program. RESULTS: Macular edema disappeared or was dramatically reduced in all cases after laser treatment. The diameter of occluded venules constricted to 0.81+/-0.02 (mean +/- SD, P = 0.019) of the prelaser diameter and adjacent arterioles constricted to 0.78+/-0.01 (P = 0.008). The laser treatment also led to shortening of the affected vessels. The final segment length of the occluded venules was 0.95+/-0.17 (P = 0.005) of the length before treatment. The corresponding value for the adjacent arterioles is 0.95+/-0.14 (P = 0.008). Control arterioles and venules in the same fundus did not change in either length or width. CONCLUSIONS: These results do not reject the authors' hypothesis that the disappearance of macular edema in BRVO can be explained by the effect the laser photocoagulation has on retinal oxygenation. Increased oxygenation causes vessel constriction and shortening and lower intravascular pressure, which reduces edema formation according to Starling's law.  (+info)

Experimental preretinal neovascularization by laser-induced thrombosis in albino rats. (6/210)

The primary objective of this study was to develop a simple experimental model of angiogenesis by photodynamic thrombosis of the retinal veins in Sprague-Dawley rats. After a tail vein injection of rose bengal (40 mg/kg), all major retinal veins adjacent to the optic nerve head were photocoagulated with an argon green laser. The eyes were examined regularly for the following eight weeks. A grading system was devised using fluorescein angiograms and ADPase staining to describe the progression of the new vessels. Nine out of ten eyes showed development of the preretinal new vessels by day 14. Seven weeks after laser coagulation, 2 of 5 eyes developed localized tractional retinal detachment. Regression of the neovascularization was not noted in any of the animals during the follow-up period. The authors were able to establish an experimental model for preretinal neovascularization by vein occlusion. This model may be applied in study of the pathogenesis and treatment of retinal neovascularization.  (+info)

Bilateral simultaneous retinal vein occlusion. (7/210)

Central retinal vein occlusion (CVO) is a common retinal vascular disorder with potentially blinding complications. However, a simultaneous bilateral affection is not a common entity. One such patient is described here.  (+info)

Colour Doppler imaging of the orbital vasculature in Graves' disease with computed tomographic correlation. (8/210)

AIMS: To evaluate alterations in orbital blood flow parameters and their correlations with extraocular muscle enlargement, proptosis, and intraocular pressure in patients with Graves' disease. METHODS: In this multicentre study blood flow parameters in the ophthalmic artery, superior ophthalmic vein, central retinal artery and vein were determined by colour Doppler imaging in 111 patients with Graves' disease in two groups (A and B) and 46 normal control subjects. Group A consisted of 42 patients with Graves' disease without ophthalmopathy; group B of 69 patients with Graves' disease with ophthalmopathy as detected by orbital computed tomographic scanning. RESULTS: Peak systolic and end diastolic velocities in the ophthalmic artery, peak systolic velocity in the central retinal artery, and maximal and minimal velocities in the central retinal vein in patients in group B were statistically significantly higher than those in group A and the normal controls, whereas maximal and minimal velocities in the superior ophthalmic vein in patients in group B were statistically significantly lower than those in group A and the control subjects. Peak systolic and end diastolic velocities in the ophthalmic artery, peak systolic velocity in the central retinal artery, and maximal and minimal velocities in the central retinal vein also correlated with the sum of all extraocular muscle diameters in group B (r > or =0.31, p< or =0.021). Blood flow parameters had no consistent correlation with proptosis or intraocular pressure (p>0.05). No statistically significant difference was found in resistivity indices between the groups (p>0.05). Reversed blood flow was noted in nine (13%) superior ophthalmic veins in group B. CONCLUSION: Orbital blood flow velocities are altered in patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy and may be detected by colour Doppler imaging. Some of these changes also correlate with the enlargement of extraocular muscles. The increased blood flow velocities in arteries may be secondary to orbital inflammation.  (+info)

  • In 2018, the global Retinal Vein Occlusion market size was xx million US$ and it is expected to reach xx million US$ by the end of 2025, with a CAGR of xx% during 2019-2025. (giiresearch.com)
  • The risk of these disorders increases with age, therefore retinal vein occlusion most often affects older people. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is a disease that is often associated with a variety of systemic disorders including arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and systemic vasculitis. (springer.com)
  • Vascular dysfunction is at the heart of many chronic neurological and retinal disorders because high energy demands in the brain and eye render these tissues exceptionally vulnerable to disruption in blood supply," said the study`s first author, Maria Avrutsky, PhD, a postdoctoral research scientist in pathology & cell biology at Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons. (india.com)
  • In a press release, the team of surgeons that carried out the operation called this technique of retinal vein cannulation (RVC) "a revolutionary treatment that addresses the cause of retinal vein occlusion by removing the blood clot in the retinal vein. (healio.com)
  • After reporting positive results from the VIEW 1 and VIEW 2 Phase 3 studies for the treatment of the neovascular form of age-related macular degeneration, or wet AMD, we are very pleased to now also have two positive Phase 3 trials with VEGF Trap-Eye in central retinal vein occlusion,' said Kemal Malik , M.D., Head of Global Development and member of the Bayer HealthCare Executive Committee. (prnewswire.com)
  • Serious ocular adverse events were uncommon and in the BRAVO study included one case of retinal detachment/tear in the 0.3 mg dose group and one case of endophthalmitis in the 0.5 mg dose group. (healthcanal.com)