Hyperopia: A refractive error in which rays of light entering the eye parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus behind the retina, as a result of the eyeball being too short from front to back. It is also called farsightedness because the near point is more distant than it is in emmetropia with an equal amplitude of accommodation. (Dorland, 27th ed)Myopia: A refractive error in which rays of light entering the EYE parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus in front of the RETINA when accommodation (ACCOMMODATION, OCULAR) is relaxed. This results from an overly curved CORNEA or from the eyeball being too long from front to back. It is also called nearsightedness.Refraction, Ocular: Refraction of LIGHT effected by the media of the EYE.Refractive Errors: Deviations from the average or standard indices of refraction of the eye through its dioptric or refractive apparatus.Myopia, Degenerative: Excessive axial myopia associated with complications (especially posterior staphyloma and CHOROIDAL NEOVASCULARIZATION) that can lead to BLINDNESS.Eyeglasses: A pair of ophthalmic lenses in a frame or mounting which is supported by the nose and ears. The purpose is to aid or improve vision. It does not include goggles or nonprescription sun glasses for which EYE PROTECTIVE DEVICES is available.Astigmatism: Unequal curvature of the refractive surfaces of the eye. Thus a point source of light cannot be brought to a point focus on the retina but is spread over a more or less diffuse area. This results from the radius of curvature in one plane being longer or shorter than the radius at right angles to it. (Dorland, 27th ed)Retinoscopy: An objective determination of the refractive state of the eye (NEARSIGHTEDNESS; FARSIGHTEDNESS; ASTIGMATISM). By using a RETINOSCOPE, the amount of correction and the power of lens needed can be determined.Emmetropia: The condition of where images are correctly brought to a focus on the retina.Accommodation, Ocular: The dioptric adjustment of the EYE (to attain maximal sharpness of retinal imagery for an object of regard) referring to the ability, to the mechanism, or to the process. Ocular accommodation is the effecting of refractive changes by changes in the shape of the CRYSTALLINE LENS. Loosely, it refers to ocular adjustments for VISION, OCULAR at various distances. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Eye: The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.Tupaiidae: The only family of the order SCANDENTIA, variously included in the order Insectivora or in the order Primates, and often in the order Microscelidea, consisting of five genera. They are TUPAIA, Ananthana (Indian tree shrew), Dendrogale (small smooth-tailed tree shrew), Urogale (Mindanao tree shrew), and Ptilocercus (pen-tailed tree shrew). The tree shrews inhabit the forest areas of eastern Asia from India and southwestern China to Borneo and the Philippines.Visual Acuity: Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.Sensory Deprivation: The absence or restriction of the usual external sensory stimuli to which the individual responds.Biometry: The use of statistical and mathematical methods to analyze biological observations and phenomena.Keratomileusis, Laser In Situ: A surgical procedure to correct MYOPIA by CORNEAL STROMA subtraction. It involves the use of a microkeratome to make a lamellar dissection of the CORNEA creating a flap with intact CORNEAL EPITHELIUM. After the flap is lifted, the underlying midstroma is reshaped with an EXCIMER LASER and the flap is returned to its original position.Axial Length, Eye: The distance between the anterior and posterior poles of the eye, measured either by ULTRASONOGRAPHY or by partial coherence interferometry.Anisometropia: A condition of an inequality of refractive power of the two eyes.Photorefractive Keratectomy: A type of refractive surgery of the CORNEA to correct MYOPIA and ASTIGMATISM. An EXCIMER LASER is used directly on the surface of the EYE to remove some of the CORNEAL EPITHELIUM thus reshaping the anterior curvature of the cornea.Lasers, Excimer: Gas lasers with excited dimers (i.e., excimers) as the active medium. The most commonly used are rare gas monohalides (e.g., argon fluoride, xenon chloride). Their principal emission wavelengths are in the ultraviolet range and depend on the monohalide used (e.g., 193 nm for ArF, 308 nm for Xe Cl). These lasers are operated in pulsed and Q-switched modes and used in photoablative decomposition involving actual removal of tissue. (UMDNS, 2005)Lenses: Pieces of glass or other transparent materials used for magnification or increased visual acuity.Mydriatics: Agents that dilate the pupil. They may be either sympathomimetics or parasympatholytics.Cyclopentolate: A parasympatholytic anticholinergic used solely to obtain mydriasis or cycloplegia.Esotropia: A form of ocular misalignment characterized by an excessive convergence of the visual axes, resulting in a "cross-eye" appearance. An example of this condition occurs when paralysis of the lateral rectus muscle causes an abnormal inward deviation of one eye on attempted gaze.Refractometry: Measurement of the index of refraction (the ratio of the velocity of light or other radiation in the first of two media to its velocity in the second as it passes from one into the other).Contact Lenses: Lenses designed to be worn on the front surface of the eyeball. (UMDNS, 1999)Keratotomy, Radial: A procedure to surgically correct REFRACTIVE ERRORS by cutting radial slits into the CORNEA to change its refractive properties.Vision Screening: Application of tests and examinations to identify visual defects or vision disorders occurring in specific populations, as in school children, the elderly, etc. It is differentiated from VISION TESTS, which are given to evaluate/measure individual visual performance not related to a specific population.Cornea: The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Refractive Surgical Procedures: Surgical procedures employed to correct REFRACTIVE ERRORS such as MYOPIA; HYPEROPIA; or ASTIGMATISM. These may involve altering the curvature of the CORNEA; removal or replacement of the CRYSTALLINE LENS; or modification of the SCLERA to change the axial length of the eye.Corneal Topography: The measurement of curvature and shape of the anterior surface of the cornea using techniques such as keratometry, keratoscopy, photokeratoscopy, profile photography, computer-assisted image processing and videokeratography. This measurement is often applied in the fitting of contact lenses and in diagnosing corneal diseases or corneal changes including keratoconus, which occur after keratotomy and keratoplasty.Vitreous Body: The transparent, semigelatinous substance that fills the cavity behind the CRYSTALLINE LENS of the EYE and in front of the RETINA. It is contained in a thin hyaloid membrane and forms about four fifths of the optic globe.Anterior Chamber: The space in the eye, filled with aqueous humor, bounded anteriorly by the cornea and a small portion of the sclera and posteriorly by a small portion of the ciliary body, the iris, and that part of the crystalline lens which presents through the pupil. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p109)SingaporeSclera: The white, opaque, fibrous, outer tunic of the eyeball, covering it entirely excepting the segment covered anteriorly by the cornea. It is essentially avascular but contains apertures for vessels, lymphatics, and nerves. It receives the tendons of insertion of the extraocular muscles and at the corneoscleral junction contains the canal of Schlemm. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Barbados: An island in the Lesser Antilles in the West Indies. It is chiefly of coral formation with no good harbors and only small streams. It was probably discovered by the Portuguese in the sixteenth century. The name was given by 16th-century Spanish explorers from barbados, the plural for "bearded", with reference to the beard-like leaves or trails of moss on the trees that grew there in abundance. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p116 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p49)Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the eye or any of its parts.Microphthalmos: Congenital or developmental anomaly in which the eyeballs are abnormally small.Vision, Binocular: The blending of separate images seen by each eye into one composite image.Eye Diseases, Hereditary: Transmission of gene defects or chromosomal aberrations/abnormalities which are expressed in extreme variation in the structure or function of the eye. These may be evident at birth, but may be manifested later with progression of the disorder.Strabismus: Misalignment of the visual axes of the eyes. In comitant strabismus the degree of ocular misalignment does not vary with the direction of gaze. In noncomitant strabismus the degree of misalignment varies depending on direction of gaze or which eye is fixating on the target. (Miller, Walsh & Hoyt's Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p641)Amblyopia: A nonspecific term referring to impaired vision. Major subcategories include stimulus deprivation-induced amblyopia and toxic amblyopia. Stimulus deprivation-induced amblyopia is a developmental disorder of the visual cortex. A discrepancy between visual information received by the visual cortex from each eye results in abnormal cortical development. STRABISMUS and REFRACTIVE ERRORS may cause this condition. Toxic amblyopia is a disorder of the OPTIC NERVE which is associated with ALCOHOLISM, tobacco SMOKING, and other toxins and as an adverse effect of the use of some medications.Vision Tests: A series of tests used to assess various functions of the eyes.Holmium: Holmium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Ho, atomic number 67, and atomic weight 164.93.Lens DiseasesPresbyopia: The normal decreasing elasticity of the crystalline lens that leads to loss of accommodation.Tupaia: A genus of tree shrews of the family TUPAIIDAE which consists of about 12 species. One of the most frequently encountered species is T. glis. Members of this genus inhabit rain forests and secondary growth areas in southeast Asia.Pupil: The aperture in the iris through which light passes.Lens, Crystalline: A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.Asian Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Glaucoma, Angle-Closure: A form of glaucoma in which the intraocular pressure increases because the angle of the anterior chamber is blocked and the aqueous humor cannot drain from the anterior chamber.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Serine Proteases: Peptide hydrolases that contain at the active site a SERINE residue involved in catalysis.Cataract: Partial or complete opacity on or in the lens or capsule of one or both eyes, impairing vision or causing blindness. The many kinds of cataract are classified by their morphology (size, shape, location) or etiology (cause and time of occurrence). (Dorland, 27th ed)Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Los AngelesVision Disorders: Visual impairments limiting one or more of the basic functions of the eye: visual acuity, dark adaptation, color vision, or peripheral vision. These may result from EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; VISUAL PATHWAY diseases; OCCIPITAL LOBE diseases; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS; and other conditions (From Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p132).Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the eye or of vision disorders.Lens Implantation, Intraocular: Insertion of an artificial lens to replace the natural CRYSTALLINE LENS after CATARACT EXTRACTION or to supplement the natural lens which is left in place.Exotropia: A form of ocular misalignment where the visual axes diverge inappropriately. For example, medial rectus muscle weakness may produce this condition as the affected eye will deviate laterally upon attempted forward gaze. An exotropia occurs due to the relatively unopposed force exerted on the eye by the lateral rectus muscle, which pulls the eye in an outward direction.BaltimoreOrthokeratologic Procedures: An alternative to REFRACTIVE SURGICAL PROCEDURES. A therapeutic procedure for correcting REFRACTIVE ERRORS. It involves wearing CONTACT LENSES designed to force corrective changes to the curvature of the CORNEA that remain after the lenses are removed. The effect is temporary but is maintained by wearing the therapeutic lenses daily, usually during sleep.
Axial myopia is attributed to an increase in the eye's axial length. Refractive myopia is attributed to the condition of the ... High myopia usually describes myopia of −6.00 or more. People with high myopia are more likely to have retinal detachments and ... The opposite of myopia in English is hyperopia (long-sightedness). Myopia in animals "Facts About Refractive Errors". NEI. ... used in the repair of retinal detachments may induce myopia by increasing the axial length of the eye. Index myopia is ...
... refractive myopia) or an eyeball that is too long (axial myopia). Myopia can be corrected with a concave lens which causes the ... refractive hyperopia) or an eyeball that is too short (axial hyperopia). This can be corrected with convex lenses which cause ... Myopia has also been reported in X-linked disorders caused by mutations in loci involved in retinal photoreceptor function (NYX ... The word "ametropia" can be used interchangeably with "refractive error". Types of ametropia include myopia, hyperopia and ...
Phakic intraocular lens
"Excimer laser refractive surgery versus phakic intraocular lenses for the correction of moderate to high myopia." The Cochrane ... Although PIOLs for hyperopia are being investigated, there is less enthusiasm for these lenses because the anterior chamber ... The power of phakic lens is independent of the axial length of the eye. Rather it depends on central corneal power, anterior ... lens exchange the PIOL has the advantage of preserving natural accommodation and may have a lower risk of postoperative retinal ...
Other types of refractive error are hyperopia, astigmatism, and presbyopia. Types. Various forms of myopia have been ... Scleral buckles, used in the repair of retinal detachments may induce myopia by increasing the axial length of the eye. ... Myopia in animals. References. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "Facts About Refractive Errors". NEI. October 2010. ... High myopia usually describes myopia of −6.00 or more. People with high myopia are more likely to have retinal ...
Axial eye growth and refractive error development can be modified by exposing the peripheral retina to relative myopic or...
Imposing peripheral hyperopic defocus produces axial myopia, whereas peripheral myopic defocus produces axial hyperopia. The ... Eye growth and refractive state can be manipulated by altering peripheral retinal defocus. ... Axial eye growth and refractive error development can be modified by exposing the peripheral retina to relative myopic or ... Axial Eye Growth and Refractive Error Development Can Be Modified by Exposing the Peripheral Retina to Relative Myopic or ...
Retinal Thickness by OCT in Subjects With Emmetropia, Hyperopia and Myopia | IOVS | ARVO Journals
... macular or temporal retina was not significantly correlated with the axial length or refractive power of the eye. A lack of ... Retinal Thickness by OCT in Subjects With Emmetropia, Hyperopia and Myopia You will receive an email whenever this article is ... E Garcia-Valenzuela, NG Anderson, M Pons, R Iezzi; Retinal Thickness by OCT in Subjects With Emmetropia, Hyperopia and Myopia ... The axial length of the eyes ranged from 21.7 to 26.4 mm. OCT was used to measure the retinal thickness in 3 locations of one ...
Axial Eye Growth and Refractive Error Development Can Be Modified by Exposing the Peripheral Retina to Relative Myopic or...
Imposing peripheral hyperopic defocus produces axial myopia, whereas peripheral myopic defocus produces axial hyperopia. The ... The growth and refractive state of the eye can be manipulated by controlling imposed retinal defocus. Changes in eye growth ... Mutti DO Hayes JR Michell GL Refractive error, axial length, and relative peripheral refractive error before and after the ... Axial Eye Growth and Refractive Error Development Can Be Modified by Exposing the Peripheral Retina to Relative Myopic or ...
Eyeglasses: Why and When Do Children Need Them?
They include myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism, compound refractive errors, and anisometropia. Most children with bilateral myopia ... the axial length (from front to back) is longer than normal (emmetropia). In farsightedness (hyperopia), the axial length is ... for hyperopia) are used to focus the objects image on the appropriate retinal point. ... Many children have a combination of either myopia and astigmatism or hyperopia and astigmatism (compound refractive errors). It ...
The Science Behind Myopia by Brittany J. Carr and William K. Stell
Pathological myopia is characterized by rapid, extreme axial elongation of the globe, leading to a high refractive error ( ... Unilateral lesioning of this system, while leaving retinal ganglion cell axons intact, results in hyperopia in the eye ... and myopia, but affixing a positive lens over the eye causes inhibition of axial elongation, and far-sightedness (hyperopia) ( ... such as baseline refractive error and axial length, number of myopic parents, age at myopia onset, and time spent doing near ...
Pesquisa | Portal Regional da BVS
With advancing age, refractive surgery was performed for lower magnitudes of myopia and hyperopia. The magnitude of cylinder ... All mice were exposed to the light for 4 weeks; animals were measured weekly for refractive error and axial parameters. Retinal ... Retinal mechanisms underlying this response remain unknown. This study used a mouse model of lens-induced myopia to evaluate ... In Gnat2-/- mice, violet light did not induce hyperopia or inhibit lens-induced myopia. Conclusions: These findings show that ...
Molecular Vision: Retinal degeneration increases susceptibility to myopia in mice
A mismatch of power and axial length produces either myopia, where the visual image forms in front of the retina, or hyperopia ... Patients with retinal degeneration also have characteristic refractive errors. For instance, hyperopia correlates with ... Abnormal refractive development most commonly results in myopia. The prevalence of myopia continues to rise, reaching 42% in ... Purpose: Retinal diseases are often associated with refractive errors, suggesting the importance of normal retinal signaling ...
Vision Disorders - Refractive Errors, Hyperopia/presbyopia, Other Refractive Errors, Strabismus, Nonparalytic Strabismus,...
When the axial length is longer than normal, distant objects appear blurry. This error is called myopia, or short-sightedness. ... Myopia, Astigmatism, Glaucoma, Secondary glaucomas, Degeneration of the macula, Retinal dystrophies. ... Vision Disorders - Refractive Errors, Hyperopia/presbyopia, Other Refractive Errors, Strabismus, Nonparalytic Strabismus, ... Vision Disorders - Refractive Errors, Hyperopia/presbyopia, Other Refractive Errors, Strabismus, Nonparalytic Strabismus, ...
Effect of Altered Retinal Cones/Opsins on Refractive Development under Monochromatic Lights in Guinea Pigs
Compared to the WL group, the eyes in the SL group demonstrated more hyperopia by 1.95 D and a shorter axial length by 0.26 mm ... Myopia is the most common ocular disorder that causes visual dysfunction such as premature cataracts, glaucoma, retinal ... Effect of Altered Retinal Cones/Opsins on Refractive Development under Monochromatic Lights in Guinea Pigs. Leilei Zou,1,2,3 ... Altered retinal cones/opsins induced by monochromatic lights might be involved in the refractive development in guinea pigs. ...
APLP2 Regulates Refractive Error and Myopia Development in Mice and Humans
Here, we combined gene expression profiling in a monkey model of myopia, human GWAS, and a gene-targeted mouse model of myopia ... The majority of genetic variants underlying myopia seems to be of small effect and/or low frequency, which makes them difficult ... Author Summary Gene variants identified by GWAS studies to date explain only a small fraction of myopia cases because myopia ... hyperopia) or nearsightedness (myopia). Myopia is the most common vision disorder worldwide . The prevalence of myopia has ...
Retinal Fibre Layer Thickness Measurement in Normal Paediatric Population in Sweden Using Optical Coherence Tomography
Effect of Refractive Error on RNFL Thickness. The spherical equivalent (SE) ranged from −5.25 to +7.5 D with a mean refractive ... concluded that children with high hyperopia had thicker average in total and inferior RNFL compared to those with low hyperopia ... RNFL thickness in myopic eyes may be a result of mechanical eye globe elongation associated with myopia and therefore retinal ... In addition, we did not measure the axial length of the eyes examined; therefore we could not verify the optical magnification ...
Refraction and keratometry in 40 week old premature (corrected age) and term infants | British Journal of Ophthalmology
... and Hibino et al4 reported that children with retinal residua of ROP had myopia as a result of a combination of increased axial ... of myopia and high myopia were higher in infants with anisometropia or astigmatism than in infants without these refractive ... 3 In the present prospective study we detected only mild hyperopia in the premature group at 40 weeks PCA; refraction (in ... Stone RA, Lin T, Laties AM, et al. Retinal dopamine and form-deprivation myopia. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1989;86:704-6. ...
The Science Behind Myopia - Webvision - NCBI Bookshelf
... which causes the refractive image formed by the cornea and the lens to fall in front of the photoreceptors of the retina ( ... is the most common refractive vision disorder in children. It is characterized by blurring of objects viewed at a distance, and ... and myopia, but affixing a positive lens over the eye causes inhibition of axial elongation, and far-sightedness (hyperopia) ( ... retinal dopamine levels and subsequent effects on myopia are sensitive to modulation by other drugs. Myopia-prevention by the ...
Near-sightedness - Wikipedia
Axial myopia is attributed to an increase in the eyes axial length. Refractive myopia is attributed to the condition of the ... High myopia usually describes myopia of −6.00 or more. People with high myopia are more likely to have retinal detachments and ... The opposite of myopia in English is hyperopia (long-sightedness). Myopia in animals "Facts About Refractive Errors". NEI. ... used in the repair of retinal detachments may induce myopia by increasing the axial length of the eye. Index myopia is ...
Focus on Myopia: vision-research.eu - The Gateway to European Vision Research
... is clear that it would be most intriguing to find out how insulin interferes with the retinal image processor that guides axial ... 46, 3965-3972). New spectacle lens design are currently tested that impose myopia, rather than hyperopia, in the periphery with ... We assume a relationship between myopia progression and the patterns of imposed peripheral refractive errors also in children. ... Regular spectacle lenses for myopia correction often impose relative hyperopia in the periphery which could further stimulate ...
Dr. Morgan & Why You Should Trust Us About Vision Improvement - Endmyopia
Myopia in humans results from an imbalance between the refractive power of the cornea and lens and the axial length of the eye ... High myopia is further associated with retinal detachment and degeneration, and a complex of other degenerative signs such as ... Inducing myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism in chicks. Optom Vis Sci 1991;68:364-8. 31. IrvingEL,SivakJG,CallenderMG. ... The increased axial length of the eye is the underlying cause of both the refractive error, which needs correction, and longer- ...
EyeWorld | EyeWorld/ASCRS reports from the 2018 ESCRS Congress
Corneal refractive surgical outcomes for high myopia (-6 to -10 SE) have improved. Jodhbir Mehta, MD, Singapore, said that high ... He performs the treatment of high hyperopia (+3.0 D to +6.0 D) by means of corneal refractive surgery, including an extensive ... There was a 77% reduction in mean progression of myopia and strong correlation with axial length. However, in year 3, there was ... Specialists should be aware of associated retinal pathologies, and for very high myopia, Dr. Mehta recommends ICL implantation. ...
Molecular Vision: Evaluation of MFRP as a candidate gene for high hyperopia
... is a common refractive error in children and adults [1-3]. Hyperopia may be classified as low hyperopia (+2.00 diopters [D] or ... Common MFRP sequence variants are not associated with moderate to high hyperopia, isolated microphthalmia, and high myopia. Mol ... Since the simple hyperopia cases represent a less severe form of a short axial length that is similar to the delineation of ... and retinal detachment. The morphological characteristics of high hyperopia include a short eye axis, a narrow angle between ...
Refractive error - Wikipedia
... refractive myopia) or an eyeball that is too long (axial myopia). Myopia can be corrected with a concave lens which causes the ... refractive hyperopia) or an eyeball that is too short (axial hyperopia). This can be corrected with convex lenses which cause ... Myopia has also been reported in X-linked disorders caused by mutations in loci involved in retinal photoreceptor function (NYX ... The word "ametropia" can be used interchangeably with "refractive error". Types of ametropia include myopia, hyperopia and ...
Search | Global Index Medicus
RESULTS: As hyperopia progresses to myopia, the axial length became longer, the ODA became smaller (r=-0.442, p=0.000) and the ... Refractive Errors/physiopathology , Retinal Ganglion Cells/pathology , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Visual Acuity ... PURPOSE: We analyzed the effect of the changes of the optic disc area (ODA) caused by the axial length and the refractive error ... METHODS: Ninety-four refractive-accommodative esotropia patients were divided into 3 groups according to hyperopia level: group ...
Cataract Surgery Procedure Info - Palm Desert, CA & Palm Springs, CA: Desert Ophthalmology
... and/or that the axial length of your eye is long (, 25.00 mm), your risk for a complication called a retinal detachment is ... you can have refractive surgery called LASIK or PRK. *your surgeon can perform a procedure before, during, or after cataract ... If your ophthalmologist has informed you that you have a high degree of farsightedness (hyperopia ,5.0 diopters) and/or that ... If your ophthalmologist has informed you that you have a high degree of nearsightedness (myopia , -7.0 diopters) ...
Optical Defocus to Stimulate Eye Elongation in Hyperopia - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
... axial hyperopia) or by the cornea being too flat or the crystalline lens being to weak (refractive hyperopia). It has been ... axial focus while manipulating peripheral defocus can either discourage or encourage axial growth to treat myopia or hyperopia ... If an abnormally short eye has resulted in hyperopia, exposing such an eye to retinal images partially located behind the ... Hyperopia. Refractive Error. Ocular Biometrics. Axial Length. Contact Lenses. Bifocal Contact Lenses. ...
RLE indicated on case-by-case basis | Ophthalmology Times
Refractive lens exchange (RLE) is not reversible so doctors need to apply their surgical wisdom to identify the most ... Speaking about RLE for myopia, hyperopia and presbyopia, Dr Alió noted that adequate IOLs do not exist for all cases but RLE is ... Refractive lensectomy is the preferred refractive technique, offering precise outcomes, and its becoming more popular as a ... He said the best cases for presbyopic RLE are accommodative IOLs, where theres a short axial length in the eye, low-powered ...
Full text] Refractive predictability in eyes with intraocular gas tamponade - res | OPTH
When using a Z-haptic IOL, aiming for slight residual hyperopia (+0.50 D) is suggested in patients having phacovitrectomy. ... Keywords: IOL power prediction error, myopic shift, intraocular gas tamponade, biometry, pars plana vitrectomy, axial length ... and axial length.Results: Thirty-four patients with epiretinal membranes and 18 patients with cataract only were enrolled. ... To determine the postoperative refractive error in eyes with intraocular gas tamponade in combined phacovitrectomy using a Z- ...
Repair Correction Of Refractive Errors Ppt Tutorial
Laser Sub-Epithelial Keratomileusis• LASEK can treat mild to moderate myopia and hyperopia +/- astigmatism.• Can be performed ... axial myopia) : more common • excessive Human Eye Optics Physics Spectacles 2. You can keep your great finds in clipboards ... Astigmatism correction requires prescription of Retinal - oblique placement of macula [rare] 88. • Symptoms : Blurring of ... refractive errors Sahithi Ganeshula Refractive errors Muhammad Saim Eyes - Refractive Errors.ppt Shama Refractive errors of ...
Retinal peripheral changes after LASIK
It is very important to inform patients that LASIK only corrects the refractive aspect of myopia; the risk of complications ... Most myopes have increased axial length; vitreous and peripheral fundus abnormalities in myopic eyes are the major factors that ... 3. Ibrahim O. Laser in situ keratomileusis for hyperopia and hyperopic astigmatism. J Refract Surg 1998; 14(2 Suppl): S179-82 ... Ogawa A, Tanaka M. The relationship between refractive errors and retinal detachment analysis of 1,166 retinal detachment cases ...
Agreement in Cone Density Derived from Gaze-Directed Single Images Versus Wide-Field Montage Using Adaptive Optics Flood...
... and refractive errors of greater than −6.0 diopters (D) of myopia, greater than +4.0 D of hyperopia, or 4.0 D of astigmatism ... 10 The retinal magnification factor for each eye was calculated from axial length measured by IOLMaster 500 according to the ... Optic disc photogrammetry: magnification factors for eye position, centration, and ametropias, refractive and axial; and their ... Subjective refraction was performed to determine refractive error. Axial length and corneal curvature measurements were ...
Peripapillary choroidal thickness in healthy Chinese subjects | BMC Ophthalmology | Full Text
Exclusion criteria included high myopia or hyperopia (greater than + 6 or −6 diopters of spherical equivalent refractive error ... refractive error, axial length, average retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, intraocular pressure, diastolic blood pressure, ... RE)); any retinal or retinal pigment epithelial detachment; any retinal abnormalities such as choroidal neovascularization, ... The RE and axial length were found to correlate with macular choroidal thickness in previous studies of us and others [13, 22 ...
August 2016 - Page 2 - New β-secretase inhibitors for treatment of Alzheimer's disease
... of vision diseases.1 2 For children and young adults myopia hyperopia and astigmatism represent the categories of refractive ... Myopia reflects the mismatch between the refracting power of the eye and its optical axial length. Most myopia is usually ... 1).3 Myopia carries an increased risk of a variety of sight-threatening pathologies including myopic maculopathy retinal ... Myopia is the most common type of refractive errors and one. Myopia is the most common type of refractive errors and one of the ...
Refractive Lens Exchange. 2 How the eye works Light rays enter the eye through the clear cornea, pupil and lens. These light...
Four types of refractive error: Myopia (nearsightedness) Hyperopia (farsightedness) Astigmatism Presbyopia ... 3 Refractive errors Inability to see clearly is often caused by refractive error. ... Retinal exam. The axial length of the eye from the cornea to the retina (A-scan). The depth of the anterior chamber. A ... Myopia (nearsightedness) Hyperopia (farsightedness) Astigmatism Presbyopia 4 4 Refractive errors: myopia In myopia ( ...
GlaucomaPresbyopiaPrevalence of myopiaProgression of myopiaMacularShort-sightednessDEVELOPMENT OF MYOPIACataractsProgressive myopiaDioptersCause of myopiaCommon refractive errorReduce myopia progressionPigment epitheliumCorrectionChoroidalVitreousForm deprivation myopiaTreat myopiaResults in myopiaAnteriorOnset of myopiaPhakicAssociated with refractive errorGanglion CellsOutcomesIncrease in axialGrowth and refractive stateRate of myopia progressionHighBifocalPostoperativeLensesChoroidComplicationsDegenerationError and axialPatientsDiseasesSurgery
- OCT has evolved into an invaluable clinical tool in ophthalmology with a wide range of applications, though it has mainly been used for the detection and follow-up of retinal disease and glaucoma by means of measurement of macular thickness, optic head, and RNFL thickness [ 1 - 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Glaucoma and other optic neuropathies cause retinal ganglion cell damage, thus causing thinning of the RNFL. (hindawi.com)
- Current diagnostic tools cannot accurately differentiate changes shared by both high myopia and glaucoma. (eyeworld.org)
- Transient myopia associated with acute glaucoma and retinal edema following vaginal administration of sulfanilamide. (scholarena.co)
- Review of sulfonamide-induced acute myopia and acute bilateral angle-closure glaucoma. (scholarena.co)
- The relationship between glaucoma and myopia: the Blue Mountains Eye Study. (endmyopia.org)
- Speaking about RLE for myopia, hyperopia and presbyopia, Dr Alió noted that adequate IOLs do not exist for all cases but RLE is an important area of future research and improvements are emerging all the time. (ophthalmologytimes.com)
- 7 7 Refractive errors: presbyopia Presbyopia is an age-related condition in which your eyes gradually lose the ability to see things up close, because the lens of the aging eye can no longer change shape. (slideplayer.com)
- Correction of presbyopia and gaining spectacle-independence in elderly patients with no anatomical ocular pathologies and normal axial length is also an important indication for RLE. (biomedcentral.com)
Prevalence of myopia23
- The prevalence of myopia varies greatly, depending on ethnicity, geographical location, and socioeconomic status, but is rising rapidly in most populations studied (Fig. 2). (utah.edu)
- The prevalence of myopia is increasing, while there has not been a breakthrough in the prevention and treatment of myopia because the underlying mechanisms have not fully been understood. (hindawi.com)
- A survey of epidemiology showed that the prevalence of myopia is significantly lower in the students with color vision deficiencies than in those with normal color vision [ 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
- The rapid rate of change in the prevalence of myopia in East Asia, that is particularly well-documented in Singapore8 and Taiwan,9-11 rules out simple genetic explanations, since human gene pools do not change that fast. (endmyopia.org)
- This suggests that the predominant factors which are leading to the increased prevalence of myopia are environmental. (endmyopia.org)
- Due to the increasing prevalence of myopia across the globe, researchers and clinicians are searching for better therapies. (reviewofophthalmology.com)
- F or many people, their world seems to be getting smaller: The prevalence of myopia, commonly due to an increase in axial length of the eye causing a distant image to be projected anterior to the retinal plane, 1 is increasing. (reviewofophthalmology.com)
- The prevalence of myopia in the United States increased from 25 percent to 41.6 percent between the years 1971 and 2004. (reviewofophthalmology.com)
- In 2000, the highest prevalence of myopia was in people ages 25 to 29. (reviewofophthalmology.com)
- This increasing prevalence of myopia and its subsequent consequences pose a major public health concern. (reviewofophthalmology.com)
- Researchers observed an increased prevalence of myopia in children with inflammatory disease such as type 1 diabetes mellitus, uveitis and systemic lupus erythematosus. (reviewofophthalmology.com)
- Increased prevalence of myopia in the United States between 1971-1972 and 1999-2004. (scholarena.co)
- Prevalence of myopia in the United States. (scholarena.co)
- The prevalence of myopia varies greatly between different populations and ethnic groups. (eyewiki.org)
- There has been a tremendous increase over the past few decades in the prevalence of myopia worldwide. (pointsdevue.com)
- Although, multiple cross-sectional epidemiological studies have confirmed that there is a high prevalence of myopia in high school-aged students in China. (biomedcentral.com)
- In the present study, we investigate changes in the prevalence of myopia in third year junior high school (grade 9) students in the Haidian District of Beijing, China, from 2006 to 2015. (biomedcentral.com)
- and the difference in the prevalence of myopia between male and female subjects. (biomedcentral.com)
- When the entire population was considered, the overall prevalence of myopia increased from 55.95% in 2005 to 65.48% in 2015. (biomedcentral.com)
- There was a significant positive relationship between the year and the prevalence of myopia in both girls and boys. (biomedcentral.com)
- During the last 10 years, the prevalence of myopia significantly increased on an annual basis among third-year junior high school students in the Haidian District of Beijing, China. (biomedcentral.com)
- The total prevalence of myopia was significantly higher in girl than in boy participants. (biomedcentral.com)
- Recent epidemiological studies have revealed that the prevalence of myopia is rapidly increasing globally, especially in East and Southeast Asian countries. (biomedcentral.com)
Progression of myopia16
- BestBets: Can Contact Lenses control/reduce the progression of myopia in children? (bestbets.org)
- A parent of a 9 year old male suffering from myopia came to the clinic wondering if using contact lenses would slow the progression of myopia in her child as she read in the Internet. (bestbets.org)
- Also, clinical trials of ocular hypotensives have had unconvincing effects on halting the progression of myopia. (bmj.com)
- Controlled studies and randomized clinical trials show that corneal reshaping contact lenses can slow the progression of myopia in children. (reviewofcontactlenses.com)
- One study found a synergistic effect of acupoint treatment (a model of the various acupoints is shown here) and low-dose atropine in decreasing the progression of myopia. (reviewofophthalmology.com)
- Soft contact lenses and rigid gas-permeable contact lenses have both been studied to see their effects on the progression of myopia. (reviewofophthalmology.com)
- 4 Interventions, which have shown clinically significant efficacy for reducing refractive and axial progression of myopia, include progressive and bifocal spectacles, orthokeratology (ortho-K), dual focus and multifocal soft contact lenses (MFSCL), and atropine in various concentrations. (mieducation.com)
- Myopia management" is a series of treatments that eye doctors use to slow the progression of myopia in children. (2020-eye-care.com)
- Our myopia management treatments can induce changes in the structure of the eye by diminishing the stress and fatigue linked to the development and progression of myopia. (2020-eye-care.com)
- The 20/20 Eye Care's Myopia Management Center currently offers several different customized treatment options to slow the progression of myopia. (2020-eye-care.com)
- 20/20 Eye Care's Myopia Management Center is a Myopia Management practice that offers evidence-based treatment to prevent the onset or reduce the progression of myopia in pediatric patients. (2020-eye-care.com)
- It is important to initiate a protocol to limit the progression of myopia. (pointsdevue.com)
- The Carolina Forest Family Eyecare's Myopia Control Center currently offers several different customized treatment options to slow the progression of myopia. (carolinaforesteyecare.com)
- Can myopia treatments reduce the progression of myopia? (familyeyecareoptometrist.com)
- Myopia management treatment uses specific types of glasses, contact lenses and eye drops to slow down the progression of myopia. (familyeyecareoptometrist.com)
- At Southwest Family Eye Health Center , we provide our patients with effective, customized treatment to control the progression of myopia. (swfamilyeye.com)
- The aim of this review was to discuss the utility of en-face OCT in the diagnosis and management of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV). (ijo.in)
- The highly myopic patients may also have myopic macular degeneration, epi-retinal membranes or other significant changes. (cataractcoach.com)
- Topiramate-induced angle closure with acute myopia, macular striae. (scholarena.co)
- Firstly, we know it is imperative to reduce the final level of myopia for an individual because this will reduce their lifelong risk of vision impairment from myopia-associated pathologies like myopic macular degeneration. (mieducation.com)
- Myopia (near- or short-sightedness) occurs when the axial length of the eye is too long, and light is focussed in front of the photoreceptors (b). (utah.edu)
- This error is called myopia, or short-sightedness. (jrank.org)
- Myopia (short-sightedness) affects 1.45 billion people worldwide, many of whom will develop sight-threatening secondary disorders. (frontiersin.org)
- Myopia is what most people call short-sightedness. (timduffy.com.au)
DEVELOPMENT OF MYOPIA3
- The greater corneal curvature may contribute to the development of myopia. (bmj.com)
- A previous article by this author ( Optometry Today , June 2016) described the pre-myope - the child with a cluster of risk factors for future development of myopia. (aop.org.uk)
- There is no doubt genetics plays a role in the development of myopia in children. (pointsdevue.com)
- Birth History Birth Weight Full-term vs Premature What kind of delivery Complications ¾ During pregnancy ¾ During delivery Hypoxia Bleeding Family History Night blindness Color vision High myopia Nystagmus Cataracts CNS disorders Visual Acuity Does the baby fixate while eating? (spotidoc.com)
- Instead, surveys show that ultraviolet radiation is the main cause of some eye diseases, such as keratitis, cataracts, retinal damage. (myblog.de)
- approximately 66% of patients with myopia have less than 2 diopters (D) of myopia and 95% of myopic patients have less than 6 diopters . (eyewiki.org)
- Methods: An observational descriptive longitudinal study was conducted of 43 children aged 3-15 years diagnosed with myopia equal to or greater than 6 diopters in one or both eyes (72 eyes) who attended the Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus Service at Ramón Pando Ferrer Cuban Institute of Ophthalmology from January to December 2018. (bvsalud.org)
Cause of myopia3
- The underlying biological cause of myopia is unknown, and there is no widely accepted means of prevention or cure. (utah.edu)
- Instead of myopia being caused by a defect in a structural protein, defects in the control of these structural proteins might be the actual cause of myopia. (wikipedia.org)
- Understanding the underlying cause of myopia could help identify potential targets for therapeutic intervention and slow or prevent progression and myopic complications. (reviewofophthalmology.com)
Common refractive error2
Reduce myopia progression1
- The membrane-type frizzled-related protein (MFRP) gene is selectively expressed in the retinal pigment epithelium and ciliary body, and mutations of this gene cause nanophthalmos. (cdc.gov)
- 70. Zhang Y, Liu Y, Wildsoet CF. Bidirectional, optical sign-dependent regulation of BMP2 gene expression in chick retinal pigment epithelium. (berkeley.edu)
- Regular spectacle lenses for myopia correction often impose relative hyperopia in the periphery which could further stimulate eye growth into myopia. (vision-research.eu)
- Correction Of Refractive Errors Ppt But aside from that it's free. (fiftysixtysoftware.com)
- In a prospective study, 200 eyes of 100 patients, 49 male and 51 female, with a mean age of 29.7 years, had a complete posterior pole examination before and at 1 week, 1, 3 and 12 months after bilateral simultaneous LASIK for the correction of myopia. (scielo.br)
- Both patient and doctor should be aware that, even after the refractive error correction, the risk of complications related to the myopic eye would persist. (scielo.br)
- The added possibility of myopia control makes OK a very attractive mode of correction, especially in children. (envisionmagazine.ca)
- Although spectacle correction can improve vision, uncorrected refractive error is the most common cause of distance vision impairment and the second most common cause of blindness globally. (reviewofophthalmology.com)
- Inaccurate refractive correction, which inevitably occurs during periods of emmetropisation, should also be checked for. (alpfmedical.info)
- While traditional OCT has produced longitudinal cross-sectional images, advancements in data processing have led to the development of en-face OCT, which produces transverse images of retinal and choroidal layers at any specified depth. (ijo.in)
- En-face OCT has also enabled high-resolution analysis and quantification of pathological structures such as reticular pseudodrusen (RPD) and choroidal neovascularization, which have the potential to become useful markers for disease monitoring. (ijo.in)
- En-face Doppler OCT enables subtle changes in the choroidal vasculature to be detected in eyes with RPD and AMD, which has significantly advanced our understanding of their pathogenesis. (ijo.in)
- Choroidal effusion as a mechanism for transient myopia induced by hydrochlorothiazide and triamterene. (scholarena.co)
- We measured the central and peripheral mean spherical refractive error (MSE), vitreous chamber depth (VC), pupil diameter (PD), calculated eye growth, and myopia progression rates prior to and during treatment. (nih.gov)
- Hyperopia could be attributed to shallower vitreous chambers in WT animals. (bvsalud.org)
Form deprivation myopia3
- However, the retinal degeneration models with low basal levels of DOPAC had increased susceptibility to form deprivation myopia. (molvis.org)
- Furthermore, mouse studies revealed that lack of Aplp2 has a dose-dependent suppressive effect on susceptibility to form-deprivation myopia, providing a potential gene-specific target for therapeutic intervention to treat myopia. (plos.org)
- The phenotype was significantly stronger than form-deprivation myopia. (nature.com)
Results in myopia2
- For hyperopia, Dr Alió noted that RLE is indicated when useful residual accommodation is less than 1 D and if the patient presents a normal anterior segment. (ophthalmologytimes.com)
- In eyes with high axial myopia, depth and stability of the anterior chamber are abnormal, which necessitates the use of dispersive (heavy) viscoelastic material. (biomedcentral.com)
- Myelinated retinal nerve fiber layers (MRNF) are retinal nerve fibers anterior to the lamina cribrosa that, unlike normal retinal nerve fibers, have a myelin sheath. (eyewiki.org)
Onset of myopia3
- Instead of a simple one-gene locus controlling the onset of myopia, a complex interaction of many mutated proteins acting in concert may be the cause. (wikipedia.org)
- 7,8 For these reasons, delaying the onset of myopia and/or slowing myopia progression has been the focus of significant study. (reviewofophthalmology.com)
- Despite the global pandemic of myopia, the precise molecular mechanism of the onset of myopia remains largely unknown. (nature.com)
- Phakic IOL is preferable over LASIK surgery in most patients with severe myopia. (medscape.com)
- The future of phakic IOLs shall be determined by the newer techniques of corneal refractive surgery, especially the wave-guided ablations. (medscape.com)
- Situations do exist where phakic IOLs and corneal procedures can be combined to provide the best refractive results. (medscape.com)
- Whether a phakic myopia IOL in a young patient will be a problem in future decades is still unknown. (medscape.com)
Associated with refractive error1
- These factors may also vary with refractive error if spatiotemporal sensitivity is affected by structural changes during the emmetropization process that may differentially affect distinct ganglion cells. (arvojournals.org)
- It is not clear whether the downstream neurons, the retinal ganglion cells, still have access to this information-and whether it ultimately reaches the brain. (cambridge.org)
- We have analyzed the spike rates of chicken retinal ganglion cells in vitro using a microelectrode array. (cambridge.org)
- Thus, the studied retinal ganglion cells did not distinguish between a loss of contrast at a given spatial frequency due to reduced contrast of the stimulus pattern or because the pattern was presented out of focus. (cambridge.org)
- Founding and facilitating the popular 'Myopia Profile' Facebook group some two years ago has seen the author observe an interesting combination of practitioner attitudes to the evidence - from reticence to accept credible studies to equating anecdotal observations with research outcomes. (mieducation.com)
- the last few decades and this progress has improved our post-op refractive outcomes. (coursera.org)
Increase in axial1
Growth and refractive state1
Rate of myopia progression1
- It also demonstrates an important role for APLP2 in refractive development in mice and humans, suggesting a high level of evolutionary conservation of the signaling pathways underlying refractive eye development. (plos.org)
- In cases of high myopia, a staphyloma can sometimes be seen on fundoscopic examination. (wikipedia.org)
- While one might think that the inhibitory effect of outside activity on myopia is due to the longer viewing distances, and the lack of 'near work', our recent experiments in chickens show that the development of deprivation myopia (induced by frosted diffusers in front of the eye) is inhibited by high light levels. (vision-research.eu)
- It could be that temporary exposure to high light may represent a simple way to interfere with myopia also in children - monkey expriments are planned. (vision-research.eu)
- Mutations in the membrane-type frizzled-related protein ( MFRP ) gene have been identified in patients with pathologic high hyperopia associated with nanophthalmos or microphthalmia. (molvis.org)
- This study is to test if a mutation in MFRP is responsible for physiologic high hyperopia. (molvis.org)
- Our results imply that MFRP is less likely to play a major role in physiologic high hyperopia. (molvis.org)
- Most cases of high hyperopia are physiologic high hyperopia that is not associated with other ocular or systemic anomalies. (molvis.org)
- RLE should not be indicated in high myopia where patients are under 35, useful residual accommodation remains greater or equal to 2 D, or where refractive ambylopia associated to hyperopia is greater than or equal to 9 D. (ophthalmologytimes.com)
- SE⩽−0.5D) and high myopia (SE⩽−3.0D). (bmj.com)
- 5 These risks increase with high myopia (greater than -6 D). 6 Also, it's estimated that the global economic burden associated with uncorrected distance refractive error is $202 to 268 billion per year. (reviewofophthalmology.com)
- Children who exhibit myopia by age six to seven years are over six times more likely to progress to high myopia (over 5D) compared to older age of onset of 11-12 years of age, independent of ethnicity and gender. (aop.org.uk)
- Greene believed that this tensile weakening, plus the increase of IOP caused by the EOM's - anywhere from 5 to 14 mm. of pressure increase during convergence - were the proximal causes of the myopic staphyloma formation seen in high myopia. (simplybrainy.com)
- Notice the nanophthalmic eyes all have very high hyperopia which in fact is one of the diagnostic indices. (blogspot.com)
- Sequence variants of the MFRP gene do not appear to be associated with either the less severe forms of hyperopia, extreme forms of limited eye growth and development, or high myopia. (cdc.gov)
- Note the 5 high-amplitude spikes and the steeply rising retinal spike, as well as the good resolution of the separate retinal and scleral spikes. (medscape.com)
- Pathologic myopia is generally classified as a high myopic refractive error that is progressive and generally presents very early in childhood. (eyewiki.org)
- Patients with high axial myopia are at a greater risk of developing progressive retinal degeneration and other vision threatening pathology. (eyewiki.org)
- It is well documented that pathological non-syndromic high myopia and associated syndromic high myopia show evidence of familial inheritance. (eyewiki.org)
- High myopia is also a symptom of several multi-system complex diseases. (eyewiki.org)
- The prevalence rates of myopia in the United States have been reported as 20-50% and as high as 80-90% in some parts of Asia . (eyewiki.org)
- In terms of safe and effective treatment, orthokeratology is now known to be successful in controlling myopia and has even been shown to slow down progression in individuals with high myopia. (pointsdevue.com)
- Practitioners are more and more concerned with regard to the increased incidence of patients moving into the category of high myopia. (pointsdevue.com)
- The ocular health consequences of sequelae related to high myopia can be devastating in later life. (pointsdevue.com)
- 2.Laser eye surgery.Excimer laser corneal refractive surgery one of the fastest developed medical high-techs, is approaching perfect, Adolescents, who are growing up, should be given much caution on the operation. (myblog.de)
- moreover, high incidence of retinal changes is reported as a result of prematurity. (ac.ir)
- High incidence of myopia in premature infants could be related to preterm birth, ROP, or disease treatment (13). (ac.ir)
- Important factors to consider include the presence of useful residual accommodation, the risk of endophthalmitis, intraoperative hazards, potential postoperative complications and refractive alternatives, Dr Alió remarked. (ophthalmologytimes.com)
- These patients may need a second surgical procedure to fine-tune the postoperative refractive result. (cataractcoach.com)
- In other words, there is a strong tendency for a postoperative hyperopic surprise in these patients, so aim for some residual postoperative myopia. (cataractcoach.com)
- A postoperative refractive goal of a mild amount of residual myopia, such as -0.5 D to -1 D, can be helpful to avoid a hyperopic surprise. (cataractcoach.com)
- Concave lenses that diverge light rays (for myopia) and convex lenses that converge light rays (for hyperopia) are used to focus the object's image on the appropriate retinal point. (healio.com)
- When we found in 1987 that young chickens, treated with spectacle lenses (Figure 1), change their eye axial growth exactly so that they reach again normal refractions - with the lenses still in front of the eye -, we (with my co-authors Adrian Glasser and Howard Howland) believed that we had found 'the mechanism' that also drives myopia development in humans (Schaeffel et al, Vision Research 28, 639-657, 1988). (vision-research.eu)
- Orthokeratology (OK) lenses can reduce the rate of progression of childhood myopia over the long term. (bestbets.org)
- Moreover, it was shown that the amount of retinal glucagon mRNA increased during treatment with positive lenses. (cambridge.org)
- These are complications commonly caused by other eye diseases such as iritis, injury, blockage to the retinal vein, or long-term use of steroid eye drops for other disorders. (jrank.org)
- Although retinal pathologic conditions have been described as complications after LASIK, our data did not reveal a cause-effect relationship between the refractive error corrective procedure and retinal complications. (scielo.br)
- In addition, there are increased risks of complications such as retinal lesions, which could limit the visual recovery. (cataractcoach.com)
- This study examines the influence of photoreceptor degeneration on refractive development by testing two mouse models of retinitis pigmentosa under normal and form deprivation visual conditions. (molvis.org)
- Refractive development under normal visual conditions was disrupted toward greater hyperopia from 4 to 12 weeks of age in these photoreceptor degeneration models, despite significantly lower DOPAC levels. (molvis.org)
- These results indicate that photoreceptor degeneration may alter dopamine metabolism, leading to increased susceptibility to myopia with an environmental visual challenge. (molvis.org)
- Two L / M cone opsin interchange mutants, designated LIAVA and LVAVA , are associated with clinical diagnoses, including red-green color vision deficiency, blue cone monochromacy, cone degeneration, myopia, and Bornholm Eye Disease. (arvojournals.org)
- Retinitis pigmentosa (RP), the most common type of inherited retinal degeneration causing blindness, initially manifests as severely impaired rod function followed by deteriorating cone function. (bioscirep.org)
- Retinitis pigmentosa (RP, OMIM 268000) is the most common type of inherited, blindness-causing retinal degeneration. (bioscirep.org)
Error and axial1
- Patients who have had LASIK or other refractive surgeries are especially difficult to measure precisely. (deserteyedoc.com)
- When using a Z-haptic IOL, aiming for slight residual hyperopia (+0.50 D) is suggested in patients having phacovitrectomy. (dovepress.com)
- The retinal changes found after LASIK in this series of patients, appear to reflect the predisposition of myopes. (scielo.br)
- While AO cameras have been shown to capture images successfully from the same retinal area over follow-up visits to follow progression of lesions with excellent accuracy in patients with stable foveal fixation, 1 there often are a number of retinal lesions in several retinal areas that should be tracked over time, and fixation locus may drift due to foveal involvement by the lesion. (arvojournals.org)
- However, there is a wealth of scientific evidence for engaging products and management processes today, in your practice, to slow down the race of your paediatric patients towards ever increasing myopia, and the associated escalating risks of ocular pathology. (aop.org.uk)
- Table I. Refractive error of patients and volunteers (5 eyes/group). (blogspot.com)
- It highlights the need to balance the available evidence with emerging knowledge when discussing options for myopia control with patients and their carers. (mieducation.com)
- An understanding of the difference between the evidence base and anecdotal observations in myopia control efficacy, to ensure appropriate informed consent for parents and young myopic patients. (mieducation.com)
- Many clinicians are implementing a systematic approach to establish a control protocol for their patients with rapidly progressing myopia. (pointsdevue.com)
- ABSTRACT Objective: Identify the characteristics of pediatric patients with greater than 6 diopter myopia. (bvsalud.org)
- Patients that have had previous refractive surgery frequently show additional loss of contrast with a reduction in visual quality 6). (ophtec.com)
- 8 8 What is refractive surgery? (slideplayer.com)
- 9 9 What is refractive surgery? (slideplayer.com)
- LASIK is currently the most popular type of refractive surgery. (medscape.com)
- Corneal Molding (CM) is a non-surgical alternative to refractive surgery, yet has many advantages over refractive surgery (PRK, LASIK, LASEK, RK). (mypremiereyecare.com)