Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Injuries to the optic nerve induced by a trauma to the face or head. These may occur with closed or penetrating injuries. Relatively minor compression of the superior aspect of orbit may also result in trauma to the optic nerve. Clinical manifestations may include visual loss, PAPILLEDEMA, and an afferent pupillary defect.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
An ocular disease, occurring in many forms, having as its primary characteristics an unstable or a sustained increase in the intraocular pressure which the eye cannot withstand without damage to its structure or impairment of its function. The consequences of the increased pressure may be manifested in a variety of symptoms, depending upon type and severity, such as excavation of the optic disk, hardness of the eyeball, corneal anesthesia, reduced visual acuity, seeing of colored halos around lights, disturbed dark adaptation, visual field defects, and headaches. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Clusters of multipolar neurons surrounded by a capsule of loosely organized CONNECTIVE TISSUE located outside the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Photosensitive proteins expressed in the ROD PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are the protein components of rod photoreceptor pigments such as RHODOPSIN.
Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.
The anterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which coordinate the general behavioral orienting responses to visual stimuli, such as whole-body turning, and reaching.
A POU domain factor that represses GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES encoding NEUROFILAMENT PROTEINS, alpha internexin, and SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25.
INTERNEURONS of the vertebrate RETINA. They integrate, modulate, and interpose a temporal domain in the visual message presented to the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS, with which they synapse in the inner plexiform layer.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
STILBENES with AMIDINES attached.
Transection or severing of an axon. This type of denervation is used often in experimental studies on neuronal physiology and neuronal death or survival, toward an understanding of nervous system disease.
Treatment of muscles and nerves under pressure as a result of crush injuries.
A POU domain factor that activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES encoding NEUROFILAMENT PROTEINS; alpha internexin; SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25; and BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS.
The X-shaped structure formed by the meeting of the two optic nerves. At the optic chiasm the fibers from the medial part of each retina cross to project to the other side of the brain while the lateral retinal fibers continue on the same side. As a result each half of the brain receives information about the contralateral visual field from both eyes.
The pressure of the fluids in the eye.
Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.
The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
A condition in which the intraocular pressure is elevated above normal and which may lead to glaucoma.
The conversion of absorbed light energy into molecular signals.
Conditions which produce injury or dysfunction of the second cranial or optic nerve, which is generally considered a component of the central nervous system. Damage to optic nerve fibers may occur at or near their origin in the retina, at the optic disk, or in the nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract, or lateral geniculate nuclei. Clinical manifestations may include decreased visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, impaired color vision, and an afferent pupillary defect.
Clusters of neurons in the somatic peripheral nervous system which contain the cell bodies of sensory nerve axons. Sensory ganglia may also have intrinsic interneurons and non-neuronal supporting cells.
Ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system including the paravertebral and the prevertebral ganglia. Among these are the sympathetic chain ganglia, the superior, middle, and inferior cervical ganglia, and the aorticorenal, celiac, and stellate ganglia.
Clusters of neurons and their processes in the autonomic nervous system. In the autonomic ganglia, the preganglionic fibers from the central nervous system synapse onto the neurons whose axons are the postganglionic fibers innervating target organs. The ganglia also contain intrinsic neurons and supporting cells and preganglionic fibers passing through to other ganglia.
Recording of electric potentials in the retina after stimulation by light.
Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.
The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
A retrogressive pathological change in the retina, focal or generalized, caused by genetic defects, inflammation, trauma, vascular disease, or aging. Degeneration affecting predominantly the macula lutea of the retina is MACULAR DEGENERATION. (Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p304)
Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.
Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.
A genus of the Ambystomatidae family. The best known species are the axolotl AMBYSTOMA MEXICANUM and the closely related tiger salamander Ambystoma tigrinum. They may retain gills and remain aquatic without developing all of the adult characteristics. However, under proper changes in the environment they metamorphose.
Dominant optic atrophy is a hereditary optic neuropathy causing decreased visual acuity, color vision deficits, a centrocecal scotoma, and optic nerve pallor (Hum. Genet. 1998; 102: 79-86). Mutations leading to this condition have been mapped to the OPA1 gene at chromosome 3q28-q29. OPA1 codes for a dynamin-related GTPase that localizes to mitochondria.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Part of the DIENCEPHALON inferior to the caudal end of the dorsal THALAMUS. Includes the lateral geniculate body which relays visual impulses from the OPTIC TRACT to the calcarine cortex, and the medial geniculate body which relays auditory impulses from the lateral lemniscus to the AUDITORY CORTEX.
Pathologic changes that occur in the axon and cell body of a neuron proximal to an axonal lesion. The process is characterized by central chromatolysis which features flattening and displacement of the nucleus, loss of Nissl bodies, and cellular edema. Central chromatolysis primarily occurs in lower motor neurons.
A family of mammalian POU domain factors that are expressed predominately in NEURONS.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.
Common name for Carassius auratus, a type of carp (CARPS).
The semilunar-shaped ganglion containing the cells of origin of most of the sensory fibers of the trigeminal nerve. It is situated within the dural cleft on the cerebral surface of the petrous portion of the temporal bone and gives off the ophthalmic, maxillary, and part of the mandibular nerves.
Ganglia of the parasympathetic nervous system, including the ciliary, pterygopalatine, submandibular, and otic ganglia in the cranial region and intrinsic (terminal) ganglia associated with target organs in the thorax and abdomen.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A POU domain factor that activates neuronal cell GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES encoding NEUROFILAMENT PROTEINS, alpha internexin, and SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25. Mutations in the Brn-3c gene have been associated with DEAFNESS.
Photosensitive afferent neurons located primarily within the FOVEA CENTRALIS of the MACULA LUTEA. There are three major types of cone cells (red, blue, and green) whose photopigments have different spectral sensitivity curves. Retinal cone cells operate in daylight vision (at photopic intensities) providing color recognition and central visual acuity.
INTERNEURONS of the vertebrate RETINA containing two processes. They receive inputs from the RETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS and send outputs to the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS. The bipolar cells also make lateral connections in the retina with the RETINAL HORIZONTAL CELLS and with the AMACRINE CELLS.
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
Constriction of the pupil in response to light stimulation of the retina. It refers also to any reflex involving the iris, with resultant alteration of the diameter of the pupil. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Specialized PHOTOTRANSDUCTION neurons in the vertebrates, such as the RETINAL ROD CELLS and the RETINAL CONE CELLS. Non-visual photoreceptor neurons have been reported in the deep brain, the PINEAL GLAND and organs of the circadian system.
The adjustment of the eye to variations in the intensity of light. Light adaptation is the adjustment of the eye when the light threshold is increased; DARK ADAPTATION when the light is greatly reduced. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Nerve cells of the RETINA in the pathway of transmitting light signals to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. They include the outer layer of PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS, the intermediate layer of RETINAL BIPOLAR CELLS and AMACRINE CELLS, and the internal layer of RETINAL GANGLION CELLS.
General term for a number of inherited defects of amino acid metabolism in which there is a deficiency or absence of pigment in the eyes, skin, or hair.
A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
An enzyme isolated from horseradish which is able to act as an antigen. It is frequently used as a histochemical tracer for light and electron microscopy. Its antigenicity has permitted its use as a combined antigen and marker in experimental immunology.
Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Adjustment of the eyes under conditions of low light. The sensitivity of the eye to light is increased during dark adaptation.
The electric response evoked in the cerebral cortex by visual stimulation or stimulation of the visual pathways.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The transparent, semigelatinous substance that fills the cavity behind the CRYSTALLINE LENS of the EYE and in front of the RETINA. It is contained in a thin hyaloid membrane and forms about four fifths of the optic globe.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
A member of the nerve growth factor family of trophic factors. In the brain BDNF has a trophic action on retinal, cholinergic, and dopaminergic neurons, and in the peripheral nervous system it acts on both motor and sensory neurons. (From Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.
Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with MICROVILLI. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use OPSINS that activate a PHOSPHODIESTERASE phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a PHOSPHOLIPASE C cascade.
The sensory ganglion of the COCHLEAR NERVE. The cells of the spiral ganglion send fibers peripherally to the cochlear hair cells and centrally to the COCHLEAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM.
Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
The portion of the optic nerve seen in the fundus with the ophthalmoscope. It is formed by the meeting of all the retinal ganglion cell axons as they enter the optic nerve.
Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID that contain one or more amino groups attached to the aliphatic structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobutryrate structure.
An order of the Amphibia class which includes salamanders and newts. They are characterized by usually having slim bodies and tails, four limbs of about equal size (except in Sirenidae), and a reduction in skull bones.
In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.
Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.
The process by which chemical compounds provide protection to cells against harmful agents.
Type III intermediate filament proteins that assemble into neurofilaments, the major cytoskeletal element in nerve axons and dendrites. They consist of three distinct polypeptides, the neurofilament triplet. Types I, II, and IV intermediate filament proteins form other cytoskeletal elements such as keratins and lamins. It appears that the metabolism of neurofilaments is disturbed in Alzheimer's disease, as indicated by the presence of neurofilament epitopes in the neurofibrillary tangles, as well as by the severe reduction of the expression of the gene for the light neurofilament subunit of the neurofilament triplet in brains of Alzheimer's patients. (Can J Neurol Sci 1990 Aug;17(3):302)
An amino acid that, as the D-isomer, is the defining agonist for the NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, NMDA).
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.
Compounds that contain three methine groups. They are frequently used as cationic dyes used for differential staining of biological materials.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The blood vessels which supply and drain the RETINA.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The administration of substances into the VITREOUS BODY of the eye with a hypodermic syringe.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Bulbous enlargement of the growing tip of nerve axons and dendrites. They are crucial to neuronal development because of their pathfinding ability and their role in synaptogenesis.
A paravertebral sympathetic ganglion formed by the fusion of the inferior cervical and first thoracic ganglia.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
The inferior (caudal) ganglion of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. The unipolar nodose ganglion cells are sensory cells with central projections to the medulla and peripheral processes traveling in various branches of the vagus nerve.
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on glycinergic systems. Glycinergic agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation or uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.
Drugs that bind to and activate excitatory amino acid receptors.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A maternally linked genetic disorder that presents in mid-life as acute or subacute central vision loss leading to central scotoma and blindness. The disease has been associated with missense mutations in the mtDNA, in genes for Complex I, III, and IV polypeptides, that can act autonomously or in association with each other to cause the disease. (from Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Omim/, MIM#535000 (April 17, 2001))
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
An alkaloid found in the seeds of STRYCHNOS NUX-VOMICA. It is a competitive antagonist at glycine receptors and thus a convulsant. It has been used as an analeptic, in the treatment of nonketotic hyperglycinemia and sleep apnea, and as a rat poison.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Photosensitive afferent neurons located in the peripheral retina, with their density increases radially away from the FOVEA CENTRALIS. Being much more sensitive to light than the RETINAL CONE CELLS, the rod cells are responsible for twilight vision (at scotopic intensities) as well as peripheral vision, but provide no color discrimination.
Method of measuring and mapping the scope of vision, from central to peripheral of each eye.
An imaging method using LASERS that is used for mapping subsurface structure. When a reflective site in the sample is at the same optical path length (coherence) as the reference mirror, the detector observes interference fringes.
The ability to detect sharp boundaries (stimuli) and to detect slight changes in luminance at regions without distinct contours. Psychophysical measurements of this visual function are used to evaluate visual acuity and to detect eye disease.
Measurement of ocular tension (INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE) with a tonometer. (Cline, et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
A neurotrophic factor that promotes the survival of various neuronal cell types and may play an important role in the injury response in the nervous system.
Inflammation of the optic nerve. Commonly associated conditions include autoimmune disorders such as MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, infections, and granulomatous diseases. Clinical features include retro-orbital pain that is aggravated by eye movement, loss of color vision, and contrast sensitivity that may progress to severe visual loss, an afferent pupillary defect (Marcus-Gunn pupil), and in some instances optic disc hyperemia and swelling. Inflammation may occur in the portion of the nerve within the globe (neuropapillitis or anterior optic neuritis) or the portion behind the globe (retrobulbar neuritis or posterior optic neuritis).
An eph family receptor found primarily in the nervous system. In the embryonic BRAIN EphB1 receptor expression occurs in the mantle layer and increases with the progression of embryogenesis. In adult brain it is found in the several regions including the CEREBELLUM; CEREBRAL CORTEX; and CAUDATE NUCLEUS; and PUTAMEN.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Semidomesticated variety of European polecat much used for hunting RODENTS and/or RABBITS and as a laboratory animal. It is in the subfamily Mustelinae, family MUSTELIDAE.
Glaucoma in which the angle of the anterior chamber is open and the trabecular meshwork does not encroach on the base of the iris.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Atrophy of the optic disk which may be congenital or acquired. This condition indicates a deficiency in the number of nerve fibers which arise in the RETINA and converge to form the OPTIC DISK; OPTIC NERVE; OPTIC CHIASM; and optic tracts. GLAUCOMA; ISCHEMIA; inflammation, a chronic elevation of intracranial pressure, toxins, optic nerve compression, and inherited conditions (see OPTIC ATROPHIES, HEREDITARY) are relatively common causes of this condition.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A nervous tissue specific protein which is highly expressed in NEURONS during development and NERVE REGENERATION. It has been implicated in neurite outgrowth, long-term potentiation, SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION, and NEUROTRANSMITTER release. (From Neurotoxicology 1994;15(1):41-7) It is also a substrate of PROTEIN KINASE C.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Ischemic injury to the OPTIC NERVE which usually affects the OPTIC DISK (optic neuropathy, anterior ischemic) and less frequently the retrobulbar portion of the nerve (optic neuropathy, posterior ischemic). The injury results from occlusion of arterial blood supply which may result from TEMPORAL ARTERITIS; ATHEROSCLEROSIS; COLLAGEN DISEASES; EMBOLISM; DIABETES MELLITUS; and other conditions. The disease primarily occurs in the sixth decade or later and presents with the sudden onset of painless and usually severe monocular visual loss. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy also features optic disk edema with microhemorrhages. The optic disk appears normal in posterior ischemic optic neuropathy. (Glaser, Neuro-Ophthalmology, 2nd ed, p135)
Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The largest and uppermost of the paravertebral sympathetic ganglia.
Subcellular structures found in nerve cell bodies and DENDRITES. They consist of granular endoplasmic reticulum (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH) and RIBOSOMES.
The aperture in the iris through which light passes.
The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.
NEURONS in the inner nuclear layer of the RETINA that synapse with both the RETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS and the RETINAL BIPOLAR CELLS, as well as other horizontal cells. The horizontal cells modulate the sensory signal.
An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.
A GLYCOINOSITOL PHOSPHOLIPID MEMBRANE ANCHOR containing ephrin found in developing tectum. It has been shown to mediate the bundling of cortical axons and repel the axonal growth of retinal ganglia axons. It is found in a variety of adult tissues of BRAIN; HEART; and KIDNEY.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A family of freshwater fish comprising the minnows or CARPS.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.
An area approximately 1.5 millimeters in diameter within the macula lutea where the retina thins out greatly because of the oblique shifting of all layers except the pigment epithelium layer. It includes the sloping walls of the fovea (clivus) and contains a few rods in its periphery. In its center (foveola) are the cones most adapted to yield high visual acuity, each cone being connected to only one ganglion cell. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Clusters of neuronal cell bodies in invertebrates. Invertebrate ganglia may also contain neuronal processes and non-neuronal supporting cells. Many invertebrate ganglia are favorable subjects for research because they have small numbers of functional neuronal types which can be identified from one animal to another.
A homolog of ALPHA-SYNUCLEIN that plays a role in neurofilament network integrity. It is overexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS and may be involved in modulating AXON architecture during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and in the adult. Gamma-Synuclein may also activate SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS associated with ETS-DOMAIN PROTEIN ELK-1.
Artificial device such as an externally-worn camera attached to a stimulator on the RETINA, OPTIC NERVE, or VISUAL CORTEX, intended to restore or amplify vision.
Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetylcholine from acetyl-CoA and choline. EC 2.3.1.6.
The technique of using a cryostat or freezing microtome, in which the temperature is regulated to -20 degrees Celsius, to cut ultrathin frozen sections for microscopic (usually, electron microscopic) examination.
A noncompetitive antagonist at GABA-A receptors and thus a convulsant. Picrotoxin blocks the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-activated chloride ionophore. Although it is most often used as a research tool, it has been used as a CNS stimulant and an antidote in poisoning by CNS depressants, especially the barbiturates.
AMANTADINE derivative that has some dopaminergic effects. It has been proposed as an antiparkinson agent.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A GLYCOINOSITOL PHOSPHOLIPID MEMBRANE ANCHOR-containing ephrin with a high affinity for the EPHA3 RECEPTOR. Early in embryogenesis it is expressed at high levels in the MESENCEPHALON; SOMITES; branchial arches, and LIMB BUDS.
NERVE FIBERS which project from the central nervous system to AUTONOMIC GANGLIA. In the sympathetic division most preganglionic fibers originate with neurons in the intermediolateral column of the SPINAL CORD, exit via ventral roots from upper thoracic through lower lumbar segments, and project to the paravertebral ganglia; there they either terminate in SYNAPSES or continue through the SPLANCHNIC NERVES to the prevertebral ganglia. In the parasympathetic division the fibers originate in neurons of the BRAIN STEM and sacral spinal cord. In both divisions the principal transmitter is ACETYLCHOLINE but peptide cotransmitters may also be released.
The sensory ganglion of the facial (7th cranial) nerve. The geniculate ganglion cells send central processes to the brain stem and peripheral processes to the taste buds in the anterior tongue, the soft palate, and the skin of the external auditory meatus and the mastoid process.
The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.
The dorsal portion or roof of the midbrain which is composed of two pairs of bumps, the INFERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPERIOR COLLICULI. These four colliculi are also called the quadrigeminal bodies (TECTUM MESENCEPHALI). They are centers for visual sensorimotor integration.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Mental processing of chromatic signals (COLOR VISION) from the eye by the VISUAL CORTEX where they are converted into symbolic representations. Color perception involves numerous neurons, and is influenced not only by the distribution of wavelengths from the viewed object, but also by its background color and brightness contrast at its boundary.
Specialized junctions between NEURONS which connect the cytoplasm of one neuron to another allowing direct passage of an ion current.
An eph family receptor that is found primarily in adult BRAIN and variety of tissues in the developing embryo tissues. During embryonic development high levels of EphA3 receptor expression is seen in the nervous system and coincides with neuronal cell migration, suggesting a role for this protein in axonal pathfinding.
A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of 16 species inhabiting forests of Africa, Asia, and the islands of Borneo, Philippines, and Celebes.
A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)
A ring of tissue extending from the scleral spur to the ora serrata of the RETINA. It consists of the uveal portion and the epithelial portion. The ciliary muscle is in the uveal portion and the ciliary processes are in the epithelial portion.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.
Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Examination of the interior of the eye with an ophthalmoscope.
A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR; NEUROTROPHIN 3; neurotrophin 4 and neurotrophin 5. It is widely expressed in nervous tissue and plays a role in mediating the effects of neurotrophins on growth and differentiation of neuronal cells.
Involuntary contraction of the muscle fibers innervated by a motor unit. Fasciculations can often by visualized and take the form of a muscle twitch or dimpling under the skin, but usually do not generate sufficient force to move a limb. They may represent a benign condition or occur as a manifestation of MOTOR NEURON DISEASE or PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1294)
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate ADENOSINE A3 RECEPTORS.
Diseases of the BASAL GANGLIA including the PUTAMEN; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; claustrum; AMYGDALA; and CAUDATE NUCLEUS. DYSKINESIAS (most notably involuntary movements and alterations of the rate of movement) represent the primary clinical manifestations of these disorders. Common etiologies include CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES; and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.
Physiological integration of multiple SYNAPTIC POTENTIAL signals to reach the threshold and initiate postsynaptic ACTION POTENTIALS. In spatial summation stimulations from additional synaptic junctions are recruited to generate s response. In temporal summation succeeding stimuli signals are summed up to reach the threshold. The postsynaptic potentials can be either excitatory or inhibitory (EPSP or IPSP).
A form of GLAUCOMA in which chronic optic nerve damage and loss of vision normally attributable to buildup of intraocular pressure occurs despite prevailing conditions of normal intraocular pressure.
The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.
Cell-surface proteins that bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID with high affinity and trigger changes that influence the behavior of cells. GABA-A receptors control chloride channels formed by the receptor complex itself. They are blocked by bicuculline and usually have modulatory sites sensitive to benzodiazepines and barbiturates. GABA-B receptors act through G-proteins on several effector systems, are insensitive to bicuculline, and have a high affinity for L-baclofen.
The study of systems which respond disproportionately (nonlinearly) to initial conditions or perturbing stimuli. Nonlinear systems may exhibit "chaos" which is classically characterized as sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Chaotic systems, while distinguished from more ordered periodic systems, are not random. When their behavior over time is appropriately displayed (in "phase space"), constraints are evident which are described by "strange attractors". Phase space representations of chaotic systems, or strange attractors, usually reveal fractal (FRACTALS) self-similarity across time scales. Natural, including biological, systems often display nonlinear dynamics and chaos.
Processes and properties of the EYE as a whole or of any of its parts.
The first mixed agonist-antagonist analgesic to be marketed. It is an agonist at the kappa and sigma opioid receptors and has a weak antagonist action at the mu receptor. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1991, p97)
The absence of light.
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
A dense intricate feltwork of interwoven fine glial processes, fibrils, synaptic terminals, axons, and dendrites interspersed among the nerve cells in the gray matter of the central nervous system.
Visual impairments limiting one or more of the basic functions of the eye: visual acuity, dark adaptation, color vision, or peripheral vision. These may result from EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; VISUAL PATHWAY diseases; OCCIPITAL LOBE diseases; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS; and other conditions (From Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p132).
Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.

Correlated firing in rabbit retinal ganglion cells. (1/3596)

A ganglion cell's receptive field is defined as that region on the retinal surface in which a light stimulus will produce a response. While neighboring ganglion cells may respond to the same stimulus in a region where their receptive fields overlap, it generally has been assumed that each cell makes an independent decision about whether to fire. Recent recordings from cat and salamander retina using multiple electrodes have challenged this view of independent firing by showing that neighboring ganglion cells have an increased tendency to fire together within +/-5 ms. However, there is still uncertainty about which types of ganglion cells fire together, the mechanisms that produce coordinated spikes, and the overall function of coordinated firing. To address these issues, the responses of up to 80 rabbit retinal ganglion cells were recorded simultaneously using a multielectrode array. Of the 11 classes of rabbit ganglion cells previously identified, coordinated firing was observed in five. Plots of the spike train cross-correlation function suggested that coordinated firing occurred through two mechanisms. In the first mechanism, a spike in an interneuron diverged to produce simultaneous spikes in two ganglion cells. This mechanism predominated in four of the five classes including the ON brisk transient cells. In the second mechanism, ganglion cells appeared to activate each other reciprocally. This was the predominant pattern of correlated firing in OFF brisk transient cells. By comparing the receptive field profiles of ON and OFF brisk transient cells, a peripheral extension of the OFF brisk transient cell receptive field was identified that might be produced by lateral spike spread. Thus an individual OFF brisk transient cell can respond both to a light stimulus directed at the center of its receptive field and to stimuli that activate neighboring OFF brisk transient cells through their receptive field centers.  (+info)

CNTF, not other trophic factors, promotes axonal regeneration of axotomized retinal ganglion cells in adult hamsters. (2/3596)

PURPOSE: To investigate the in vivo effects of trophic factors on the axonal regeneration of axotomized retinal ganglion cells in adult hamsters. METHODS: The left optic nerve was transected intracranially or intraorbitally, and a peripheral nerve graft was apposed or sutured to the axotomized optic nerve to enhance regeneration. Trophic factors were applied intravitreally every 5 days. Animals were allowed to survive for 3 or 4 weeks. Regenerating retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) were labeled by applying the dye Fluoro-Gold to the distal end of the peripheral nerve graft 3 days before the animals were killed. RESULTS: Intravitreal application of ciliary neurotrophic factor substantially enhanced the regeneration of damaged axons into a sciatic nerve graft in both experimental conditions (intracranial and intraorbital optic nerve transections) but did not increase the survival of distally axotomized RGCs. Basic fibroblast growth factor and neurotrophins such as nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, neurotrophin-3, and neurotrophin-4/5 failed to enhance axonal regeneration of distally axotomized RGCs. CONCLUSIONS: Neurons of the adult central nervous system can regenerate in response to trophic supply after injury, and ciliary neurotrophic factor is at least one of the trophic factors that can promote axonal regeneration of axotomized RGCs.  (+info)

Pilocarpine toxicity in retinal ganglion cells. (3/3596)

PURPOSE: Muscarinic agents reduce intraocular pressure by enhancing aqueous outflow, probably by stimulating ciliary muscle contraction. However, pilocarpine is a well characterized neurotoxin and is widely used to generate animal seizure models. It was therefore investigated whether pilocarpine was also toxic to retinal ganglion cells. METHODS: Dissociated whole retinal preparations were prepared from postnatal day 16 to 19 rats. Retinal ganglion cells had been previously back-labeled with a fluorescent tracer. Retinal cells were incubated with pilocarpine, lithium, and inositol derivatives, and viability of the retrogradely labeled retinal ganglion cells was assayed after 24 hours. RESULTS: Pilocarpine was toxic to retinal ganglion cells in a dose-dependent fashion. This toxicity was potentiated by lithium and blocked by epi- and myo-inositol. CONCLUSIONS: Pilocarpine is toxic to retinal ganglion cells in a mixed culture assay. This toxicity appears to depend on the inositol pathway and is similar to its mode of action in other neurons. However, 0.4 mM pilocarpine (the lowest concentration that did not affect ganglion cell survival) is roughly 1000-fold higher than the vitreal concentration and 20-fold higher than the scleral concentration that can be obtained with topical administration of 2% pilocarpine in the rabbit eye.  (+info)

Retinal neurogenesis: the formation of the initial central patch of postmitotic cells. (4/3596)

We have investigated the relationship between the birthdate and the onset of differentiation of neurons in the embryonic zebrafish neural retina. Birthdates were established by a single injection of bromodeoxyuridine into embryos of closely spaced ages. Differentiation was revealed in the same embryos with a neuron-specific antibody, zn12. The first bromodeoxyuridine-negative (postmitotic) cells occupied the ganglion cell layer of ventronasal retina, where they formed a small cluster of 10 cells or less that included the first zn12-positive cells (neurons). New cells were recruited to both populations (bromodeoxyuridine-negative and zn12-positive) along the same front, similar to the unfolding of a fan, to produce a circular central patch of hundreds of cells in the ganglion cell layer about 9 h later. Thus the formation of this central patch, previously considered as the start of retinal neurogenesis, was actually a secondary event, with a developmental history of its own. The first neurons outside the ganglion cell layer also appeared in ventronasal retina, indicating that the ventronasal region was the site of initiation of all retinal neurogenesis. Within a column (a small cluster of neuroepithelial cells), postmitotic cells appeared first in the ganglion cell layer, then the inner nuclear layer, and then the outer nuclear layer, so cell birthday and cell fate were correlated within a column. The terminal mitoses occurred in three bursts separated by two 10-h intervals during which proliferation continued without terminal mitoses.  (+info)

Modulation of glycine receptors in retinal ganglion cells by zinc. (5/3596)

Effects of zinc, an endogenous neuromodulator in the central nervous system, on glycine receptors (GlyRs) in retinal ganglion cells were investigated by using the whole-cell voltage-clamp technique. Zn2+ at low concentration (<2 microM) potentiated the glycine-induced chloride current and at higher concentration (>10 microM) suppressed it. This biphasic regulatory action of zinc acted selectively on the fast component of the glycine-induced current mediated by the strychnine-sensitive GlyRs, but not on the slow component mediated by the 5,7-dichlorokynurenic acid-sensitive GlyRs. Dose-response studies showed that 1 microM Zn2+ increased the maximum glycine response (I approximately) and shifted the EC50 to the left, suggesting that Zn2+ at low concentrations acts as an allosteric activator of the strychnine-sensitive GlyRs. Zn2+ at a concentration of 100 microM did not alter I approximately and shifted the EC50 to the right, indicating that Zn2+ at high concentrations acts as a competitive inhibitor of the GlyRs. Physiological functions of zinc modulation of GlyRs in retinal ganglion cells are discussed.  (+info)

Action potentials in the dendrites of retinal ganglion cells. (6/3596)

The somas and dendrites of intact retinal ganglion cells were exposed by enzymatic removal of the overlying endfeet of the Muller glia. Simultaneous whole cell patch recordings were made from a ganglion cell's dendrite and the cell's soma. When a dendrite was stimulated with depolarizing current, impulses often propagated to the soma, where they appeared as a mixture of small depolarizations and action potentials. When the soma was stimulated, action potentials always propagated back through the dendrite. The site of initiation of action potentials, as judged by their timing, could be shifted between soma and dendrite by changing the site of stimulation. Applying QX-314 to the soma could eliminate somatic action potentials while leaving dendritic impulses intact. The absolute amplitudes of the dendritic action potentials varied somewhat at different distances from the soma, and it is not clear whether these variations are real or technical. Nonetheless, the qualitative experiments clearly suggest that the dendrites of retinal ganglion cells generate regenerative Na+ action potentials, at least in response to large direct depolarizations.  (+info)

Immunohistological studies of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 6-deficient mice show no abnormality of retinal cell organization and ganglion cell maturation. (7/3596)

Immature retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) initially show a multistratified dendritic pattern, and, during the postnatal period, these dendrites gradually monostratify into ON and OFF sublaminae. The selective agonist of group III metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR), L-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (L-AP-4), hyperpolarizes ON bipolar cells and reduces glutamate release. On the basis of L-AP-4-evoked inhibitory effects on ON-OFF segregation of developing RGCs, it has been hypothesized that glutamate-mediated synaptic activity is crucial for formation of the ON-OFF network. Gene-targeted ablation of mGluR6 specifically expressed in ON bipolar cells blocks normal ON responses but has been predicted to enhance glutamate release from ON bipolar cells. The mGluR6 knock-out mouse therefore provides a unique opportunity to investigate whether glutamate release and ON responses are important factors in the development of ON-OFF segregation. The combination of several different morphological analyses indicates that ON bipolar cells, as well as several distinct amacrine cells, in mGluR6 knock-out mice are normally distributed and correctly extend their terminals to defined retinal laminae. Importantly, both alpha and delta RGCs in adult mGluR6 knock-out mice are found monostratified into cell type-specific layers. Furthermore, no difference between wild-type and mGluR6 knock-out mice is observed in the maturation and dendritic stratification of developing RGCs. Hence, despite a deficit in normal ON responses, mGluR6 deficiency causes no abnormality in the retinal cellular organization nor in the stratifications of both ON bipolar cells and developing and mature RGCs. Based on these findings, we discuss several possible mechanisms that may underlie ON-OFF segregation of RGCs.  (+info)

Differential effects of apamin- and charybdotoxin-sensitive K+ conductances on spontaneous discharge patterns of developing retinal ganglion cells. (8/3596)

The spontaneous discharge patterns of developing retinal ganglion cells are thought to play a crucial role in the refinement of early retinofugal projections. To investigate the contributions of intrinsic membrane properties to the spontaneous activity of developing ganglion cells, we assessed the effects of blocking large and small calcium-activated potassium conductances on the temporal pattern of such discharges by means of patch-clamp recordings from the intact retina of developing ferrets. Application of apamin and charybdotoxin (CTX), which selectively block the small and large calcium-activated potassium channels, respectively, resulted in significant changes in spontaneous firings. In cells recorded from the oldest animals [postnatal day 30 (P30)-P45], which manifested relatively sustained discharge patterns, application of either blocker induced bursting activity. With CTX the bursts were highly periodic, short in duration, and of high frequency. In contrast, with apamin the interburst intervals were longer, less regular, and lower in overall spike frequency. These differences between the effects of the two blockers on spontaneous activity were documented by spectral analysis of discharge patterns. Filling cells from which recordings were made with Lucifer yellow revealed that these effects were obtained in all three morphological classes of cells: alpha, beta, and gamma. These findings provide the first evidence that apamin- and CTX-sensitive K+ conductances can have differential effects on the spontaneous discharge patterns of retinal ganglion cells. Remarkably, the bursts of activity obtained after apamin application in more mature neurons appeared very similar to the spontaneous bursting patterns observed in developing neurons. These findings suggest that the maturation of calcium-activated potassium channels, particularly the apamin-sensitive conductance, may contribute to the changes in spontaneous firings exhibited by retinal ganglion cells during the course of normal development.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular biology of retinal ganglion cells. AU - Xiang, Mengqing. AU - Zhou, Hao. AU - Nathans, Jeremy. PY - 1996/1/23. Y1 - 1996/1/23. N2 - Retinal ganglion cells are the output neurons that encode and transmit information from the eye to the brain. Their diverse physiologic and anatomic properties have been intensively studied and appear to account well for a number of psychophysical phenomena such as lateral inhibition and chromatic opponency. In this paper, we summarize our current view of retinal ganglion cell properties and pose a number of questions regarding underlying molecular mechanisms. As an example of one approach to understanding molecular mechanisms, we describe recent work on several POU domain transcription factors that are expressed in subsets of retinal ganglion cells and that appear to be involved in ganglion cell development.. AB - Retinal ganglion cells are the output neurons that encode and transmit information from the eye to the brain. Their diverse ...
A number of studies have reported the selective loss of larger retinal ganglion cells in glaucoma.1-4 Analysis of changes in the axon size distribution and cell soma size distribution show a reduction in the proportion of cells with larger soma sizes, suggesting a selective loss of cells belonging to the magnocellular (parasol) cell class. The results of the present study, based on the proportion of identifiable parasol to midget retinal ganglion cells in the primate model of experimental glaucoma, were not consistent with this being the predominant pattern of retinal ganglion cell death. Cell soma size analysis also revealed populations of large retinal ganglion cells in areas of high cell loss. These findings warrant consideration of the technical aspects of the present study.. The principal advantage of implanting tracer directly into the optic nerve is that it allows for non-selective labelling of retinal ganglion cells and permits an estimate of the proportion of relative cell types6 ...
DeParis, S W; Caprara, C; Grimm, C (2012). Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells are resistant to N-methyl-D-aspartic acid excitotoxicity. Molecular Vision, 18:2814-2827. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Gene expression profile of the adult human retinal ganglion cell layer. AU - Kim, Chan Y.. AU - Kuehn, Markus H.. AU - Clark, Abbot F.. AU - Kwon, Young H.. PY - 2006/12/22. Y1 - 2006/12/22. N2 - Purpose: Pathophysiological events in the retinal ganglion cell layer (GCL) are a prominent feature of several optic neuropathies including glaucoma. The purpose of this study was to identify and catalog genes whose expression in the human retina is restricted to the GCL. Methods: Laser capture microdissection (LCM) technology was used to isolate tissue from the perimacular retina of three human donors without retinal or optic nerve disease. RNA was isolated from the (1) retinal GCL and (2) the inner and outer nuclear layers of the same retina, and the gene expression profiles of both fractions were determined using Affymetrix Hu133Plus 2.0 GeneChips. Data were analyzed to identify those genes whose expression is substantially more prevalent in the GCL when compared to the outer retinal ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The pathogenesis of retinal ganglia cell apoptosis induced by glaucoma. AU - Pang, Iok-Hou. AU - Li, Byron. AU - Clark, Abbot. PY - 2004/7/1. Y1 - 2004/7/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=28744438258&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Review article. C2 - 15454071. AN - SCOPUS:28744438258. VL - 40. SP - 495. EP - 499. JO - Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology. JF - Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology. SN - 0412-4081. IS - 7. ER - ...
Tetrandrine protects mouse retinal ganglion cells from ischemic injury Weiyi Li,1,2 Chen Yang,2 Jing Lu,2 Ping Huang,1 Colin J Barnstable,2 Chun Zhang,1 Samuel S Zhang2,3 1Department of Ophthalmology, Peking University Third Hospital, Peking University Eye Center, Beijing, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Neural and Behavioral Sciences, Penn State University, Hershey, PA, USA; 3Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore Abstract: This study aimed to determine the protective effects of tetrandrine (Tet) on murine ischemia-injured retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). For this, we used serum deprivation cell model, glutamate and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced RGC-5 cell death models, and staurosporine-differentiated neuron-like RGC-5 in vitro. We also investigated cell survival of purified primary-cultured RGCs treated with Tet. An in vivo retinal ischemia/reperfusion model was used to examine RGC survival after Tet administration 1 day before ischemia. We found
The development of the nervous system is dependent on a complex set of signals whose precise co-ordination ensures that the correct number of neurones are generated. This regulation is achieved through a variety of cues that influence both the generation and the maintenance of neurones during development. We show that in the chick embryo, stratified retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are themselves responsible for providing the signals that control the number of RGCs that are generated, both by inhibiting the generation of new ganglion cells and by killing incoming migratory ganglion cells. Selective toxicological ablation of RGCs in the chick embryo resulted in the achronic generation of ganglion cells, which eventually led to the repopulation of the ganglion cell layer and a large decrease in the physiological cell death affecting postmitotic migratory neurones. Interestingly, the application of exogenous NGF reversed the effects of ganglion cell ablation on ganglion cell death. Because the only ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - An efficient method that reveals both the dendrites and the soma mosaics of retinal ganglion cells. AU - Zhan, Xue J.. AU - Troy, John B. PY - 1997/3/1. Y1 - 1997/3/1. N2 - A method of using neurobiotin to stain both the dendrites and the soma mosaics of retinal ganglion cells in fresh retinae is described. This method is simple to use and efficient in revealing morphological details for a large number of retinal ganglion cells. It has five advantages over currently available staining methods. (1) It stains all ganglion cells in the whole retina or in a selected retinal area, permitting ganglion cell distributions across the retina to be obtained. (2) It reveals cell dendrites in great detail, especially in regions outside the area centralis. The dendritic field mosaics and, therefore the dendritic field coverage factors, of different ganglion cell types across the whole retina can be obtained easily. (3) It works reliably, efficiently, and does not require the expensive set-up ...
A retinal ganglion cell (RGC) is a type of neuron located near the inner surface (the ganglion cell layer) of the retina of the eye. It receives visual information from photoreceptors via two intermediate neuron types: bipolar cells and retina amacrine cells. Retina amacrine cells, particularly narrow field cells, are important for creating functional subunits within the ganglion cell layer and making it so that ganglion cells can observe a small dot moving a small distance. Retinal ganglion cells collectively transmit image-forming and non-image forming visual information from the retina in the form of action potential to several regions in the thalamus, hypothalamus, and mesencephalon, or midbrain. Retinal ganglion cells vary significantly in terms of their size, connections, and responses to visual stimulation but they all share the defining property of having a long axon that extends into the brain. These axons form the optic nerve, optic chiasm, and optic tract. A small percentage of ...
Autophagy is an essential recycling pathway implicated in neurodegeneration either as a pro-survival or a pro-death mechanism. Its role after axonal injury is still uncertain. Axotomy of the optic nerve is a classical model of neurodegeneration. It induces retinal ganglion cell death, a process also occurring in glaucoma and other optic neuropathies. We analyzed autophagy induction and cell survival following optic nerve transection (ONT) in mice. Our results demonstrate activation of autophagy shortly after axotomy with autophagosome formation, upregulation of the autophagy regulator Atg5 and apoptotic death of 50% of the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) after 5 days. Genetic downregulation of autophagy using knockout mice for Atg4B (another regulator of autophagy) or with specific deletion of Atg5 in retinal ganglion cells, using the Atg5flox/flox mice reduces cell survival after ONT, whereas pharmacological induction of autophagy in vivo increases the number of surviving cells. In conclusion, ...
Action potentials in retinal ganglion cells are initiated at the site of maximal curvature of the extracellular potential.: We present a framework how to estima
Purpose : Previously we demonstrated that the mouse retinal ganglion cell (GC) space-time receptive field can be separated into five subfilters. To elucidate the anatomic underpinnings of each subfilter, we studied their functional alteration with removal of photoreceptor to ON-bipolar cell (BC) signaling using the drug LAP4. This approach allows us to answer fundamental questions such as the nature of the biphasic temporal filtering and antagonistic surround. Methods : Flat-mount retinal preparations from three-month-old dark-adapted C57/B6 mice were placed onto a multi-electrode array (MEA) for multicellular recording. Retinas were first perfused with oxygenated solution, followed by 20 μM LAP4 solution. Receptive fields (RFs) were mapped using a binary white noise checkerboard stimulus with 50 μm squares presented at 15 Hz. Spike-triggered averages (STA) were used to identify the average stimulus preceding a spike in each condition. Subsequent model fitting identified tuning properties. ...
Abstract: : Purpose: To examine whether cultured RPE cells can be coaxed to differentiate towards retinal ganglion cells using chick ath5 (cath5), either alone or in combination with bFGF. Vertebrate ath5 is a homologue of the Drosophila proneural gene «atonal» and plays an important role in the production of retinal ganglion cells. Previously, we reported that bFGF induced RPE cells to express RA4 immunoreactivity. But bFGF alone did not induce the expression of additional markers or the development of a neural morphology typical of retinal ganglion cells. Methods: RPE was isolated from day 6 chick embryos, and cultured as dissociated cells in the presence of 10% fetal calf serum. RPE cell culture was infected with retrovirus RCAS-cath5 to achieve ectopic expression of cath5. RPE transdifferentiation was assayed using chick retinal ganglion cell markers, including monoclonal antibodies RA4, 4H6, 3A10, and MAP2. Results: Rather surprisingly, ectopic expression of cath5 in cultured RPE cells ...
Diabetic retinopathy is a common diabetic eye disease caused by changes in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). It is an ocular manifestation of systemic disease, which affects up to 80% of all patients who have had diabetes for 10 years or more. The genetically diabetic db/db mouse, as a model of type-2 diabetes, shows diabetic retinopathy induced by apoptosis of RGCs. Astaxanthin is a carotenoid with powerful antioxidant properties that exists naturally in various plants, algae and seafood. Here, astaxanthin was shown to reduce the apoptosis of RGCs and improve the levels of oxidative stress markers, including superoxide anion, malondialdehyde (MDA, a marker of lipid peroxidation), 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, indicator of oxidative DNA damage) and MnSOD (manganese superoxide dismutase) activity in the retinal tissue of db/db mouse. In addition, astaxanthin attenuated hydrogen peroxide(H2O2)-induced apoptosis in the transformed rat retinal ganglion cell line RGC-5. Therefore, astaxanthin may be
Dr. Adriana Di Polos laboratory focuses on the pathobiology of retinal ganglion cells, the neurons that convey visual information from the retina to the brain via their axons in the optic nerve. Loss of vision in glaucoma, the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide, is caused by the death of retinal ganglion cells. At present, there is no cure for glaucoma and current treatments are often insufficient to stop disease progression. We seek to understand the mechanisms underlying retinal ganglion cell death and to develop novel therapeutics to preserve and restore vision.. ...
The respective midget bipolar cells are almost solely synaptic upon single midget ganglion cells (Fig. 14), except in the very central fovea where a few midget bipolar synapses are shared with neighboring midget ganglion cells because of the crowding of neurons and neuropil (Fig. 13). Since we know (Nelson et al., 1978) that ganglion cells branching in sublamina a will be OFF center and those branching in sublamina b will be ON center we can be sure that midget ganglion cells branching close to the amacrine cell layer will be OFF center and those branching close to the ganglion cell layer will be ON center. This ON and OFF midget ganglion cell organization in primate has now been proved conclusively by Dacey and coauthors (2000). So it appears that in the foveal region and out to the borders of the central retina (about 4 mm from the fovea center) the midget pathways of the human fovea are organized in the following manner: 1 cone to 2 midget bipolar cells (ON- and OFF-center bipolar types) to 2 ...
As described above, ON/OFF DS ganglion cells can be divided into 4 subtypes differing in their directional preference, ventral, dorsal, nasal, or temporal. Recent research has identified markers for distinguishing between the different subtypes, and for separating ON/OFF DSGCs from other retinal ganglion cells. These markers are independent of experience, and suggest a method for how these cells obtain different inputs. Recent research has lead to the development of transgenic mouse lines that selectively mark ON/OFF DSGCs that prefer ventral or nasal motion and another line that marks ventral and dorsal preferring DSGCs. These lines were used to identify cell surface molecules (including Cadherin 6, CollagenXXV1, and Matrix metalloprotease 17), that allow each of the four types of ON/OFF DSGCs to be differentiated. A neuropeptide, CART (cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript) has been found to differentiate ON/OFF DSGCs from all other retinal ganglion cells. Strikingly, these patterns of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Photon capture and signalling by melanopsin retinal ganglion cells. AU - Do, Michael Tri H.. AU - Kang, Shin H.. AU - Xue, Tian. AU - Zhong, Haining. AU - Liao, Hsi Wen. AU - Bergles, Dwight E.. AU - Yau, King Wai. PY - 2009/1/15. Y1 - 2009/1/15. N2 - A subset of retinal ganglion cells has recently been discovered to be intrinsically photosensitive, with melanopsin as the pigment. These cells project primarily to brain centres for non-image-forming visual functions such as the pupillary light reflex and circadian photoentrainment. How well they signal intrinsic light absorption to drive behaviour remains unclear. Here we report fundamental parameters governing their intrinsic light responses and associated spike generation. The membrane density of melanopsin is 10 4-fold lower than that of rod and cone pigments, resulting in a very low photon catch and a phototransducing role only in relatively bright light. Nonetheless, each captured photon elicits a large and extraordinarily ...
Cellular Basis for Glaucoma. Researchers at Catalyst for a Cure (CFC) consortium, a division of the Glaucoma Research Foundation, have announced their continuing work in 2011: studying how and why retinal ganglion cells degenerate in people with glaucoma. Retinal ganglion cells are types of neuron located near the inner surface eyes retina. They receive visual images from the photoreceptors and transmit the information to the brain.. These CFC researchers are looking at the onset and progression of glaucoma at the level of the cells and molecular pathways. They have noted that the degeneration of the retinal ganglion cells is related to the loss of connectivity that accompanies glaucoma. According to the CFC: These degenerative changes compromise the neurons ability to process and transmit visual information well before the neurons actually die. The team has determined that the retinal ganglion cells are particularly vulnerable early in the development of glaucoma, when these cells are more ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Circuit Mechanisms of a Retinal Ganglion Cell with Stimulus-Dependent Response Latency and Activation Beyond Its Dendrites. AU - Mani, Adam. AU - Schwartz, Gregory William. PY - 2017/2/20. Y1 - 2017/2/20. N2 - Center-surround antagonism has been used as the canonical model to describe receptive fields of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) for decades. We describe a newly identified RGC type in the mouse, called the ON delayed (OND) RGC, with receptive field properties that deviate from center-surround organization. Responding with an unusually long latency to light stimulation, OND RGCs respond earlier as the visual stimulus increases in size. Furthermore, OND RGCs are excited by light falling far beyond their dendrites. We unravel details of the circuit mechanisms behind these phenomena, revealing new roles for inhibition in controlling both temporal and spatial receptive field properties. The non-canonical receptive field properties of the OND RGC-integration of long temporal and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Math5 is required for retinal ganglion cell and optic nerve formation. AU - Brown, Nadean L. AU - Patel, S.. AU - Brzezinski, J.. AU - Glaser, Thomas M. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - The vertebrate retina contains seven major neuronal and glial cell types in an interconnected network that collects, processes and sends visual signals through the optic nerve to the brain. Retinal neuron differentiation is thought to require both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, yet few intrinsic gene products have been identified that direct this process. Math5 (Atoh7) encodes a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor that is specifically expressed by mouse retinal progenitors. Math5 is highly homologous to atonal, which is critically required for R8 neuron formation during Drosophila eye development. Like R8 cells in the fly eye, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are the first neurons in the vertebrate eye. Here we show that Math5 mutant mice are fully viable, yet lack RGCs and optic nerves. ...
NEURON mod files for the K-A current from the papers: (model) Benison G, Keizer J, Chalupa LM, Robinson DW. Modeling temporal behavior of postnatal cat retinal ganglion cells. J.Theor.Biol. 210:187-199 (2001) and (experiment) Skaliora I, Robinson DW, Scobey RP, Chalupa LM., Properties of K+ conductances in cat retinal ganglion cells during the period of activity-mediated refinements in retinofugal pathways. Eur.J.Neurosci. 7:1558-1568 (1995 ...
Fig. 50. The physiological responses of melanopsin ganglion cells to light. The response on the left shows the melanopsin cells slow onset steady state depolarizing spiking that occurs to a light flash as compared the slow but faster onset hyperpolarization of the green cones in the mouse retina. The action spectra to the right show the melanopsin ganglion cell to have a peak sensitivity to light of 484 nm compared with the rods and other cone types in the mouse. After Berson, 2003. Ralph Nelson. Last Updated: April 10, 2007.. References:. Ammermuller J, Muller J, Kolb H. The organization of the turtle inner retina. II. Analysis of color-coded and directionally selective cells. J Comp Neurol.1995;358:35-62. [PubMed]. Amthor FR, Oyster CW, Takahashi ES. Morphology of ON-OFF direction-selective ganglion cells in the rabbit retina. Brain Res. 1984;298:187-190. [PubMed]. Amthor FR, Takahashi ES, Oyster CW. Morphologies of rabbit retinal ganglion cells with concentric receptive fields. J Comp ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Time-Course and Extent of Retinal Ganglion Cell Death Following Ablation of the Superior Colliculus in Neonatal Rats. AU - Harvey, A.R.. AU - Robertson, Donald. PY - 1992. Y1 - 1992. M3 - Article. VL - 325. SP - 83. EP - 94. JO - The Journal of Comparative Neurology. JF - The Journal of Comparative Neurology. SN - 0021-9967. ER - ...
TY - GEN. T1 - Cycloheximide reduces retinal ganglion cell death induced by tectal ablation in neonatal rats. AU - Harvey, Alan. AU - Cui, Q.. AU - Robertson, Donald. PY - 1993. Y1 - 1993. M3 - Conference paper. VL - 4. SP - 36. EP - 36. BT - Australian Neuroscience Society Meeting. A2 - Powis, D.. PB - Australian Neuroscience Society. CY - Melbourne. ER - ...
Roh M, Zhang Y, Murakami Y, Thanos A, Lee SC, Vavvas DG, Benowitz LI, Miller JW. Etanercept, a widely used inhibitor of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), prevents retinal ganglion cell loss in a rat model of glaucoma. PLoS One 2012;7(7):e40065.
|span||b|Purpose:|/b| The present study examines the role of |i|Sox11|/i| in the initial response of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) to axon damage and in optic nerve regeneration in mouse. |b|Methods:|/b| Markers of retinal injury were identified using the normal retina database and optic nerve crush (ONC)|/span| …
TY - JOUR. T1 - Data descriptor. T2 - Single cell RNA sequencing of stem cell-derived retinal ganglion cells. AU - Daniszewski, Maciej. AU - Senabouth, Anne. AU - Nguyen, Quan H.. AU - Crombie, Duncan E.. AU - Lukowski, Samuel W.. AU - Kulkarni, Tejal. AU - Sluch, Valentin M.. AU - Jabbari, Jafar S.. AU - Chamling, Xitiz. AU - Zack, Donald J.. AU - Pébay, Alice. AU - Powell, Joseph E.. AU - Hewitt, Alex W.. PY - 2018/2/13. Y1 - 2018/2/13. N2 - We used single cell sequencing technology to characterize the transcriptomes of 1,174 human embryonic stem cell-derived retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) at the single cell level. The human embryonic stem cell line BRN3B-mCherry (A81-H7), was differentiated to RGCs using a guided differentiation approach. Cells were harvested at day 36 and prepared for single cell RNA sequencing. Our data indicates the presence of three distinct subpopulations of cells, with various degrees of maturity. One cluster of 288 cells showed increased expression of genes involved in ...
Retinal ganglion cells represent the output neurons of the retina. They are responsible for integrating electrical signals that originate with the photoreceptors and, via their axons that comprise the optic nerve, transmit that information to higher visual centers of the brain. The retinal ganglion cells reside on the inner surface of the retina and their axons course across
Mouse vision is based on the parallel output of more than 30 functional types of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Little is known about how representations of visual information change between retina and dorsolateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) of the thalamus, the main relay between retina and cortex. Here, we functionally characterized responses of retrogradely labeled dLGN-projecting RGCs and dLGN neurons to the same set of visual stimuli. We found that many of the previously identified functional RGC types innervate dLGN, which maintained a high degree of functional diversity. Using a linear model to assess functional connectivity between RGC types and dLGN neurons, we found that responses of dLGN neurons could be predicted as linear combination of inputs from on average five RGC types, but only two of those had the strongest functional impact. Thus, mouse dLGN receives functional input from a diverse population of RGC types with limited convergence. ...
Retinae from species of six orders of mammals (table 1) were processed by an on-the-slide neurofibrillar staining method to establish whether alpha-type ganglion cells are generally present in placental mammals. Alpha cells of the domestic cat, where they were first defined as a type, are used as a standard of reference. Alpha cells were found in all the twenty species examined; characteristically they have the largest somata and large dendritic fields with a typical branching pattern. In keeping with the common morphology there are inner and outer stratifying subpopulations and therefore a presumptive on-centre and off-centre responsiveness to light. Depending on the species, alpha cells form between 1 and 4% of the ganglion-cell population and their dendritic fields cover the retina three to four times. The morphology of alpha ganglion cells, and many of their quantitative features, are conserved in mammals coming from different habitats and having a wide variety of behaviours. Because it ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Investigating structural and biochemical correlates of ganglion cell dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. AU - Bui, Bang. AU - Loeliger, Michelle. AU - Thomas, Merlin. AU - Vingrys, Algis. AU - Rees, Sandra. AU - Nguyen, Christine. AU - He, Zheng. AU - Tolcos, Mary. PY - 2009. Y1 - 2009. N2 - The aim of this study was to determine whether inner retinal dysfunction in diabetic rats is correlated with structural and/or biochemical changes in the retina and optic nerve. Using the electroretinogram (ERG; -5.83 to 1.28 log cd.s.m(-2)) retinal function (photoreceptor, bipolar, amacrine and ganglion cell components) was measured in control (n=13; citrate buffer) and diabetic (n=13; streptozotocin, STZ, 50 mg kg(-1)) rats, 12 weeks following treatment. Retinae and optic nerves were analyzed for structural changes and retinae were assessed for alterations in growth factor/cytokine expression using quantitative real-time PCR. We found that phototransduction efficiency was ...
Certain mammalian retinal ganglion cells that express melanopsin act as photoreceptors that regulate circadian and pupillary responses. Although melanopsin is required for the photosensitivity of these cells, and has been proposed to act as a photopigment, its exact function has been uncertain. Two groups, Qiu et al. and Melyan et al., have now shown that heterologous expression of melanopsin conferred photosensitivity to mammalian cell lines. Qiu et al. expressed mouse melanopsin in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells that stably expressed the receptor-operated cation channel TRPC3 and found that this led to light-evoked membrane potential depolarization, as well as light-evoked increases in free intracellular calcium. Light-evoked depolarization was blocked by internal application of GDPβS [an antagonist of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein (G protein) signaling] or of a Gq/11 antagonist or by bath application of a phospholipase C antagonist. Experiments in which cells were exposed to ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The ERG responses to light stimuli of melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells that are independent of rods and cones. AU - Fukuda, Yumi. AU - Tsujimura, Sei ichi. AU - Higuchi, Shigekazu. AU - Yasukouchi, Akira. AU - Morita, Takeshi. PY - 2010/8/1. Y1 - 2010/8/1. N2 - The mechanisms by which melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs) regulate circadian rhythms in humans have not been established. To understand mRGC characteristics and their role independent of effects due to the rods and cones, mRGC responses should be induced or measured independent of cone and rod responses. In the present study, we obtained results from light stimuli which differentially induce only the mRGC response by using a receptor-silent substitution technique. The mRGCs responded linearly to contrast changes of light stimuli, whereas they showed complicated responses to frequency changes with regard to the latency of response time. These results suggest that mRGC behavior is not a simple ...
Parkinsons disease (PD) patients often suffer from non-motor symptoms like sleep dysregulation, mood disturbances or circadian rhythms dysfunction. The melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells are involved in the control and regulation of these processes and may be affected in PD, as other retinal and visual implications have been described in the disease. Number and morphology of human melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells were evaluated by immunohistochemistry in eyes from donors with PD or control. The Sholl number of intersections, the number of branches, and the number of terminals from the Sholl analysis were significantly reduced in PD melanopsin ganglion cells. Also, the density of these cells significantly decreased in PD compared to controls. Degeneration and impairment of the retinal melanopsin system may affect to sleep and circadian dysfunction reported in PD pathology, and its protection or stimulation may lead to better disease prospect and global quality of life of patients.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Kynurenic acid protects against ischemia/reperfusion-induced retinal ganglion cell death in mice. AU - Nahomi, Rooban B.. AU - Nam, Mi Hyun. AU - Rankenberg, Johanna. AU - Rakete, Stefan. AU - Houck, Julie A.. AU - Johnson, Ginger C.. AU - Stankowska, Dorota L.. AU - Pantcheva, Mina B.. AU - Maclean, Paul S.. AU - Nagaraj, Ram H.. N1 - Funding Information: Funding: This research was funded by a challenge grant from Research to Prevent Blindness, NY to the Department of Ophthalmology, University of Colorado School of Medicine and Fight for Sight Grant-In-Aid (DLS). and research cores in the Colorado Nutrition Obesity Research Center (P30 DK48520). Publisher Copyright: © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.. PY - 2020/3/1. Y1 - 2020/3/1. N2 - Background: Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy and involves the progressive degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), which leads to blindness in patients. We investigated the role of the neuroprotective kynurenic acid ...
We reviewed the role of melanopsin-containing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) in light-dependent functions, including circadian rhythm that is important for health and visual perception. We then discussed the implications for lighting design.
Recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors can be used to introduce neurotrophic genes into injured CNS neurons, promoting survival and axonal regeneration. Gene therapy holds much promise for the treatment of neurotrauma and neurodegenerative diseases; however, neurotrophic factors are known to alter dendritic architecture, and thus we set out to determine whether such transgenes also change the morphology of transduced neurons. We compared changes in dendritic morphology of regenerating adult rat retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) after long-term transduction with rAAV2 encoding: (i) green fluorescent protein (GFP), or (ii) bi-cistronic vectors encoding GFP and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) or growth-associated protein-43 (GAP43). To enhance regeneration, rats received an autologous peripheral nerve graft onto the cut optic nerve of each rAAV2 injected eye. After 5-8 months, RGCs with regenerated axons were retrogradely labeled with fluorogold (FG).
Experiments with rodless, coneless humans allowed another possible role for the receptor to be studied. In 2007, a new role was found for the photoreceptive ganglion cell. Zaidi and colleagues showed that in humans the retinal ganglion cell photoreceptor contributes to conscious sight as well as to non-image-forming functions like circadian rhythms, behaviour and pupillary reactions.[5] Since these cells respond mostly to blue light, it has been suggested that they have a role in mesopic vision[citation needed] and that the old theory of a purely duplex retina with rod (dark) and cone (light) light vision was simplistic. Zaidi and colleagues work with rodless, coneless human subjects hence has also opened the door into image-forming (visual) roles for the ganglion cell photoreceptor. The discovery that there are parallel pathways for vision was made: one classic rod- and cone-based arising from the outer retina, the other a rudimentary visual brightness detector arising from the inner retina. ...
The specific routing of retinal ganglion cell axons at the mammalian optic chiasm into the ipsilateral or contralateral optic tracts results from axon pathfinding. Using time-lapse microscopy, we show that encounters between axons from opposite eyes at the chiasm induce axon turning, but do not alwa …
Background/aims: To correlate ganglion cell function with defined parameters of the elevated intraocular pressure profile (IOP) in a mouse glaucoma model and to determine the temporal relationship of these functional changes with ganglion cell death. Methods: Unilateral chronic ocular hypertension was induced in C57BL6/J mice by laser ablation of the limbal episcleral veins. Scotopic flash electroretinograms were recorded after 5, 10, 20, and 40 days to isolate specific outer and inner retinal responses. Inner retinal function was correlated with the pressure differential between treated and non-treated eyes at time of ERG recording, and with the cumulative IOP insult (the integral of the IOP.time profile). Peripheral and central ganglion cell densities were quantified by Brn-3 immunohistochemistry. Results: Elevated IOP induced a preferential deficit in inner retinal function. The positive scotopic threshold response (pSTR) was suppressed by 68% on day five, by 50% on day 10, by 54% on day 20, ...
Dominant inheritance of retinal ganglion cell resistance to optic nerve crush in mice. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Fohlmeister JF, Miller RF. Impulse encoding mechanisms of ganglion cells in the tiger salamander retina. J Neurophysiol 1997 Oct;78(4):1935-47 A reprint of this article can be obtained from http://jn.physiology.org/cgi/reprint/78/4/1935 This model is initially setup to produce figure 1 automatically. After viewing the currents, you may simulate figure 3a in the followng way. 1) close the 6 graph windows. 2) Destroy the SEClamp object by executing the statement objref VoltageClamp 3) Select the NEURONMainMenu/File/LoadSession menuitem and double click on the fig3a.ses file. 4) press the Init&Run button. The following parameter changes to the current working code supplied by Bob Millers lab were made in collaboration with Michael Hines in order to semi-quantitatively reproduce figures 1 and 3a. 1) Table 1 indicates that gnabar_spike = .05 S/cm2. However the curves for the Na-current portion of Fig 1 use the default mod file value of gnabar_spike = .04 . 2) The initial Ca Rev. Potential of Fig 1 ...
In addition to rod and cone photoreceptors, the retina contains a subset of retinal ganglion cells that are rendered intrinsically photosensitive due to the expression of the photopigment melanopsin. These melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells innervate several central targets, notably those associated with non-image forming light responses. One area is the olivary pretectal nucleus (OPN), a relay-station for the pupillary light reflex. We aimed to characterise the contribution of melanopsin and cone photoreceptors to light-evoked activity within the OPN in vivo. Neuronal activity was assessed via multi-electrode recordings in the pretectum of mice anaesthetised with urethane (1.5g/kg). 460nm and 655nm stimuli were delivered via an LED light source to the contralateral eye, and light-dependent changes in spike-firing rate were determined. The contribution of each photoreceptor was initially examined by describing stimulus-response relationships for transgenic mice lacking rods and cones ...
(2016) Yamashita et al. Journal of Ophthalmology. Purpose. To report a reduction in macular ganglion cell layer and inner plexiform layer (GCL+IPL) thickness and circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (cpRNFL) thickness using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in patients with homony...
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These results provide the first direct evidence that increased OPA1 expression using an AAV2 vector system can increase RGC survival in glaucomatous DBA/2J mice with elevated IOP in vivo and in differentiated RGC-5 cells exposed to elevated hydrostatic pressure in vitro. Moreover, increased OPA1 expression significantly reduced the activation of both astroglia and microglia in glaucomatous retina, and blocked apoptotic cell death in RGC-5 cells exposed to elevated hydrostatic pressure. These findings suggest that increasing OPA1 expression may protect RGCs against glaucomatous damage. Emerging evidence indicates that mitochondrial structural and functional dynamics play an important role in cell and animal physiology. Imbalance in the control of mitochondrial fusion and fission dramatically alters overall mitochondrial morphology [9]. Recent evidence suggests that excessive mitochondrial fission can lead to the breakdown of the mitochondrial network, loss of mitochondrial DNA, and respiratory ...
A postdoctoral fellow position is available in the Retinal Circuits Development and Genetics Unit of the National Eye Institute on the National Institutes of Health campus in Bethesda, Maryland, USA. The goal of our research is to understand how visual circuits develop and how they function. More specifically, we study the diversification of Retinal Ganglion Cells (RGC), the neurons that relay visual information from the eye to the brain.
The anatomical (Wässle et al., 1989; Boycott and Wässle, 1991; Goodchild et al., 1996; Calkins and Sterling, 1996), physiological (Dacheux and Raviola, 1990; Dacey et al., 1996, 2000a,b), and psychophysical (Mullen and Kingdom, 2002) data from outer retina consistent with the random connection model (Lennie, 1980; Paulus and Kroger-Paulus, 1983; Shapley and Perry, 1986; Lennie et al., 1991; Mullen and Kingdom, 1996) might be reconciled with the selective connection model (Reid and Shapley, 1992; Dacey, 1993; Lee et al., 1998; Martin et al., 2001) by invoking inner retinal selectivity. However, selective connections are inconsistent with the covariance of horizontal and ganglion cell L/(L + M) ratios at single retinal locations, as is the lack of peripheral midget opponency. These findings extend the evidence in favor of the random connection model to the circuitry of inner retina, sharpening not reconciling contradictions with previous studies.. Although the best way to discriminate the two ...
Read A Retinal Ganglion Cell Neurotrophic Factor Purified from the Superior Colliculus, Journal of Neurochemistry on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
So how do these observations resolve your question? Quite simply, the lateral movement of information from the foveal/macular photoreceptors happens predominantly in the outer plexiform layer. That buys the inner plexiform layer considerably more space to further spread those signals laterally to ganglion cells, and avoids the problematic situation you suggested of having an extra-thick ring of ganglion cells immediately around the fovea. The end result is that ganglion cells that respond to photoreceptors in the foveal region of space are even further out from the retina than the bipolar cells they connect to, which are themselves displaced.. As far as why a cherry red spot looks so large, that honestly depends on two factors: the disease or disorder in question and the zoom used. Bear in mind that the red color comes from, as far as I know, the blood vessels in the choroid itself. It would therefore not necessarily correspond exactly to the size of the macula, but instead to any area which is ...
Apr. 7, 2015, 5:00 pm - 6:00 pm.On Tuesday, April 7, 2015, David Berson, Dept. of Neuroscience, Brown University, will be presenting
Supplementary Materials Supplemental_Video_1. and retinas, and is at the same range as the threshold for activating retinal ganglion cells near their somas. In the peripheral retina, 45% of electrodes that turned on specific ganglion cells (17% of most electrodes) did therefore without activating bundles. This allowed selective activation of 21% of documented ganglion cells (7% of anticipated ganglion cells) within the array. In a single documenting in the central retina, 75% of electrodes that turned on specific ganglion cells (16% of most electrodes) did therefore without activating bundles. The capability to selectively activate a subset of retinal JTC-801 reversible enzyme inhibition ganglion cells without axon bundles suggests JTC-801 reversible enzyme inhibition a feasible novel structures for upcoming epiretinal prostheses. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Large-scale multielectrode documenting and stimulation had been used to check how selectively retinal ganglion cells could be electrically turned on ...
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INDIANAPOLIS - The fourth annual Vision Research Symposium held by the Department of Ophthalmology at the Eugene and Marilyn Glick Eye Institute is scheduled for Friday, Oct. 25.. The keynote speaker will be Colm OBrien, M.D., of University College Dublin in Ireland. Dr. OBrien is the lead clinician in the Department of Ophthalmology at Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, a teaching hospital in the north inner city of Dublin. He is a member of the Glaucoma Program Committee of the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology and has served on multiple boards and committees for ophthalmology and glaucoma associations.. Dr. OBriens research interests include matrix (differential gene expression) and vascular (endothelial dysfunction) biology in glaucoma; health services research; retinal ganglion cell apoptosis; phenotyping/genotyping of glaucoma patients; and proteomics of pseudo-exfoliation glaucoma.. We are thrilled to have Dr. OBrien present the keynote lecture at our fourth ...
This work was supported by grants from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, the Peter Lougheed Medical Research Foundation, the Fonds de Recherche en Santé du Québec, and the Canada Foundation for Innovation. We are grateful to S. Brown, M. Cayouette, C. Jolicoeur, A. Kania, M. Lévesque, S. K. McConnell, S. Morin, A. Okada, E. Ruthazer, J. Sandink, and D. Van Meyel for providing advice and/or reagents. We thank J. Barthe, J. Cardin, A. Daigneault, and S. Morin for expert technical assistance and J. Pham for schematics. The 4D7 and 2H3 antibodies were obtained from the Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank developed under the auspices of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and maintained by the University of Iowa. We thank M. Cayouette, A. Kania, and P. T. Yam for critical comments on this manuscript.. ...
In this study, we show that Sema3d plays an important role in guiding the midline crossing decision of RGC axons during formation of the optic chiasm. Global Sema3d expression or knockdown caused RGC axons to project to the ipsilateral optic tectum in a species whose visual pathway is normally entirely crossed. Live imaging revealed that ubiquitous Sema3d slowed RGC axon growth rates and increased growth cone pausing and complexity at the chiasm midline, whereas Sema3d knockdown caused repeated growth cone retraction or pausing, and impaired the ability of RGC axons to leave the midline region. Both manipulations reduced midline crossing of RGC axons, suggesting that Sema3d normally directs RGC axons across the chiasm midline and into the contralateral optic tract.. Our data support a model in which RGC axons encounter Sema3d at the midline of the ventral diencephalon and are repelled down a gradient away from the midline and into the contralateral optic tract. This proposed model has three ...
Purpose: : The photopic negative response (PhNR) may be useful as a tool to monitor longitudinal change in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) function. The goal was to assess PhNR test-retest reliability, and to estimate the amount of change between tests that is likely to be statistically significant for an individual test subject. Methods: : Photopic electroretinograms (ERGs) were recorded from 49 visually normal subjects (mean age, 38.9 years; range, 21-72 years). Signals were acquired using Dawson-Trick-Litzkow (DTL) electrodes in response to red stimulus at four flash energies (0.5, 1, 2.25, 3 cd·s/m2) on a blue background (10 cd/m2). The PhNR amplitude was recorded from prestimulus baseline to trough (BT), prestimulus baseline to fixed time point (BF), and b-wave peak to trough (PT). The ratio of baseline PhNR to b-wave amplitude (BT/b-wave) was calculated. Reliability was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC2,1) and coefficient of repeatability (CoR). Results: : Flash ...
Acute glaucoma, characterized by a sudden elevation in intraocular pressure (IOP) and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) death, is a major cause of irreversible blindness worldwide that lacks approved effective therapies, validated treatment targets and clear molecular mechanisms. We sought to explore the potential molecular mechanisms underlying the causal link between high IOP and glaucomatous RGCs death. A murine retinal ischemia/ reperfusion (RIR) model and an in vitro oxygen and glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGDR) model were used to investigate the pathogenic mechanisms of acute glaucoma. Our findings reveal a novel mechanism of microglia-induced pyroptosis-mediated RGCs death associated with glaucomatous vision loss. Genetic deletion of gasdermin D (GSDMD), the effector of pyroptosis, markedly ameliorated the RGCs death and retinal tissue damage in acute glaucoma. Moreover, GSDMD cleavage of microglial cells was dependent on caspase-8 (CASP8)-hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) signaling.
OBJECTIVES: During mouse retina maturation, the final number of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) is determined by highly regulated programmed cell death. Previous studies demonstrated that the immunoregulatory receptor programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) promotes developmental RGC death. To identify the functional signaling partner(s) for PD-1, we identified retinal expression of PD-1 ligands and examined the effect of PD-1 ligand expression on RGC number. We also explored the hypothesis that PD-1 signaling promotes the development of functional visual circuitry. METHODS: Characterization of retinal and brain programmed cell death-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression were examined by immunofluorescence on tissue sections. The contribution of PD-ligands, PD-L1, and programmed cell death-1 ligand 2 (PD-L2) to RGC number was examined in PD-ligand knockout mice lacking 1 or both ligands. Retinal architecture was assessed by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, and retinal function was analyzed by ...
The anterior visual pathway is frequently affected in multiple sclerosis (MS), but how axonal damage extends from the site of the lesion to neuronal bodies in the retina or lateral geniculate nucleus is poorly understood. Thanks to optical coherence tomography (OCT), it is possible to map and quantify the retrograde diffusion of axonal damage to the retina.1 Lesions in the anterior optic pathway promote significant atrophy of retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL), which develops in the first 3 months after damage and remains stable after 3 months. Moreover, it has been recently demonstrated that retinal damage in MS is complex and may distinctly affect retinal layers, combining either layer thinning (suggesting the presence of synapse loss and neuronal loss) or layer thickening (suggesting the presence of oedema and inflammation). In fact, the analysis of the ganglion cell/inner plexiform layer (ganglion cell layer (GCL)+inner plexiform layer complex (IPL)) and inner nuclear layer (INL) better ...
We have isolated mutants in the zebrafish Danio rerio that have defects in axonal connectivity between the retina and tectum. 5-day-old fish larvae were screened by labeling retinal ganglion cells with DiI and DiO and observing their axonal projections to and on the tectum. 82 mutations, representing 13 complementation groups and 6 single allele loci, were found that have defects in retinal ganglion cell axon pathfinding to the tectum. These pathfinding genes fall into five classes, based on the location of pathfinding errors between eye and tectum. In Class I mutant larvae (belladonna, detour, you-too, iguana, umleitung, blowout) axons grow directly to the ipsilateral tectal lobe after leaving the eye. Class II mutant larvae (chameleon, bashful) have ipsilaterally projecting axons and, in addition, pathfinding mistakes are seen within the eye. In Class III mutant larvae (esrom, tilsit, tofu) fewer axons than normal cross the midline, but some axons do reach the contralateral tectal lobe. Class ...
The effects of a glutathione-containing intra-ocular irrigation solution, BSS Plus®, on retinal function and on the survival of ganglion cells in whole-mount retinal explants were studied. Evidence is provided that the perfused ex vivo bovine retina can serve as an alternative to in vivo animal testing. Isolated bovine retinas were prepared and perfused with an oxygen-saturated standard irrigation solution, and an electroretinogram was recorded to assess retinal function. After stable b-waves were detected, the isolated retinas were perfused with BSS Plus for 45 minutes. To investigate the effects of BSS Plus on photoreceptor function, 1mM aspartate was added to the irrigation solution in order to obtain a-waves, and the ERG trace was monitored for 75 minutes. For histological analysis, isolated whole retinal mounts were stored for 24 hours at 4°C, in the dark. The percentages of cell death in the retinal ganglion cell layer and in the outer and inner nuclear layers were estimated by using an ...
Bozzano, A.; S.P. Collin (April 2000). "Retinal ganglion cell topography in elasmobranchs". Brain, Behavior and Evolution. 55 ( ... Unlike other sharks, the retina of the cookiecutter shark has ganglion cells concentrated in a concentric area rather than in a ...
These mitochondria are made within the central somata of the retinal ganglion cell, transported down axons, and distributed ... "Retinal ganglion cell neurodegeneration in mitochondrial inherited disorders". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - ... that present with visual disturbances resultant from mitochondrial dysfunction within the anatomy of the Retinal Ganglion Cells ... The optic neuropathy differed from that of LHON or DOA, displaying a pattern of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) loss and no ...
Only about two percent of all retinal ganglion cells are ipRGCs, whose cell bodies are in mainly the ganglion cell layer (and ... The retinohypothalamic tract consists of retinal ganglion cells. A distinct population of ganglion cells, known as ... The origin of the retinohypothalamic tract is the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGC), which contain ... intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), is critically responsible for providing non-image-forming visual ...
Wong, Rachel Oi Lun (1985). "Ontogeny of the cat retinal ganglion cell layer". doi:10.25911/5d651306e496d. Cite journal ... investigated the cellular organization and ontogeny of the cat retinal ganglion cell layer. She moved to the National Research ... Rachel Wong: A Researcher with an Eye for Great Science Studying Retinal Cell Rewiring After Damage". People Behind the Science ... "Synchronous bursts of action potentials in ganglion cells of the developing mammalian retina". Science. 252 (5008): 939-943. ...
Hannibal J, Fahrenkrug J (April 2004). "Target areas innervated by PACAP-immunoreactive retinal ganglion cells". Cell and ... Feigl B, Zele AJ (August 2014). "Melanopsin-expressing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells in retinal disease ... These retinal ganglion cells were found to be innately photosensitive, since they responded to light even while isolated, and ... In humans, melanopsin is found in intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs). It is also found in the iris of ...
"Survival and axonal regeneration of retinal ganglion cells in adult cats". Progress in Retinal and Eye Research. 21 (6): 529-53 ... Xia, Y; Nawy, S; Carroll, RC (Nov 7, 2007). "Activity-dependent synaptic plasticity in retinal ganglion cells". The Journal of ... Progress has also been made in understanding retinal ganglion cell regeneration and in re-establishing synaptic connections ...
"Dendrodendritic Electrical Synapses between Mammalian Retinal Ganglion Cells". The Journal of Neuroscience. 24 (46): 10553- ... homologous gap junctions have been found as a way of communication between dendrites in the retinal α-type Ganglion cells to ... These granule cells form dendrodendritic synapses with mitral cells to convey odor information from the olfactory bulb. Lateral ... The granule cells of the olfactory bulb communicate exclusively through dendrodendritic synapses because they lack axons. ...
The initiative targets photoreceptors and retinal ganglion cells. Currently, the AGI funds three research consortia, ... By studying how immune cells, also known as T cells, attack other parts of the body, researchers may gain further information ... NEI help fund the first retinal implant device called Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System, developed in 2011 by Second Sight Inc ... which is a layer of cells that nourishes the light sensors or photoreceptors cells of the retina. LCA patients with this form ...
She is studying how gene activity can transform stem cells into retinal ganglion cells which could be used for restoring vision ... Half of the retinal ganglion cells send information to one side of the thalamus, whereas the other half send information to the ... To understand how this happens, Mason used a camera lucida to trace out the axons at the root of retinal ganglion cells. Mason ... Her research focuses on the retinal ganglion cell. She was elected a member of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) in 2018. ...
... and Melanopsin Retinal Ganglion Cells". Annual Review of Neuroscience. 40 (1): 539-556. doi:10.1146/annurev-neuro-072116-031324 ... is inhibited by light and permitted by darkness as registered by photosensitive ganglion cells in the retina. To some degree, ... Phototherapy is an effective treatment because it forces skin cells to manufacture melanin to protect the body from UV damage. ... Bilirubin, a yellow pigment normally formed in the liver during the breakdown of old red blood cells, cannot always be ...
Niclou SP; Jia L; Raper JA (2000). "Slit2 is a repellent for retinal ganglion cell axons". J. Neurosci. 20 (13): 4962-74. doi: ... Wong K; Park HT; Wu JY; Rao Y (2003). "Slit proteins: molecular guidance cues for cells ranging from neurons to leukocytes". ... 1999). "Slit proteins bind Robo receptors and have an evolutionarily conserved role in repulsive axon guidance". Cell. 96 (6): ... Cell. 96 (6): 807-18. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)80591-7. PMID 10102269. Nguyen Ba-Charvet KT, Brose K, Marillat V, et al. (1999 ...
1994) Apoptosis in adult retinal ganglion cells after axotomy. J Neurobiol 25: 431-438. PMID 8077968 DOI: 10.1002/neu.480250408 ... almost always leads to cell death. The mode of cell death is often apoptosis. Central neurons, upon being severed, generally ... Autophagy could either clear the way for neuronal degeneration or it could be a medium for cell destruction. Upon injury of a ... Axotomy may cause neuronal cell death, especially in embryonic or neonatal animals, as this is the period in which neurons are ...
"Tissue engineering the retinal ganglion cell nerve fiber layer". Biomaterials. 34 (17): 4242-4250. doi:10.1016/j.biomaterials. ... Lavik conducted the experiment on 50 female paraplegic rats, and 7 out of 10 rats fitted with Lavik's scaffold-stem cell design ... Her technique, which layers adult stem cells, was selected by the National Eye Institute's 3-D Retina Organoid Challenge. She ... Lavik created polymer scaffolds were seeded with neural stem cells, and implanted them in to paralysed rats. These spinal ...
Schiller PH, Malpeli JG (March 1977). "Properties and tectal projections of monkey retinal ganglion cells". Journal of ... de Monasterio FM (November 1978). "Properties of ganglion cells with atypical receptive-field organization in retina of ... Marrocco RT, Li RH (July 1977). "Monkey superior colliculus: properties of single cells and their afferent inputs". Journal of ... Electrophysiological evidence from the late 1970s has shown that there is no direct retinal input from S-cones to the superior ...
"Selectivity for Multiple Stimulus Features in Retinal Ganglion Cells". Journal of Neurophysiology. 96 (5): 2724-2738. doi: ...
... bipolar cell, and the ganglion cell. The first action potential occurs in the retinal ganglion cell. This pathway is the most ... The five basic classes of neurons within the retina are photoreceptor cells, bipolar cells, ganglion cells, horizontal cells, ... Retinal ganglion cells are involved in the sympathetic response. Of the ~1.3 million ganglion cells present in the retina, 1-2 ... Glaucoma - loss of retinal ganglion cells which causes some loss of vision to blindness. Diabetic retinopathy - poor blood ...
Warland DK, Reinagel P, Meister M (November 1997). "Decoding visual information from a population of retinal ganglion cells". J ... Many studies look at spike train data gathered from the ganglion cells in the retina, since this area has the benefits of being ... a particular subset of ganglion cells within a structure of the visual system. Other studies use spike trains to evaluate the ... Bursting Correlation coding Grandmother cell Independent-spike coding Multielectrode array Nervous system network models Neural ...
It consists of over one million retinal ganglion cell axons. The optic nerve head, or optic disc is the anterior end of the ... They are thought to be the remnants of the axonal transport system of degenerated retinal ganglion cells. ODD have also been ... The central retinal artery and vein can be seen in the middle of the disc as it exits the scleral canal with the optic nerve to ... The optic disc margins are characteristically irregular in ODD but not blurred as there is no swelling of the retinal nerve ...
Hattar, S.; Liao, H.-W.; Takao, M.; Berson, D. M.; Yau, K.-W. (8 February 2002). "Melanopsin-Containing Retinal Ganglion Cells ... Later studies showed that melanopsin expressing photoreceptive retinal ganglion cells (pGRCs) were accountable for non-rod, non ... photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (pRGCs) in the mammalian retina which provide input to the circadian rhythm system. He ... Mice without cones or without both photoreceptive cells (rd/rd cl allele) still entrained to light. Meanwhile, mice with eyes ...
Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) mediate numerous nonvisual phenomena, including entrainment of the ... December 2005). "Physiologic diversity and development of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells". Neuron. 48 (6 ... These ganglion cells, which contain melanopsin, convey their signals to the "circadian clock" via the retinohypothalamic tract ... entrain to the 24-hour light/dark cycle have eyes with functioning retinas including operative non-visual light-sensitive cells ...
The photosensitive retinal ganglion cells contain a pigment called melanopsin. This photopigment is depolarized in the presence ... The rod cells are the photoreceptor cells in the retina capable of sensing light. However, they are not what sets the ... Also, pharmacological manipulation, cell culture imaging and computational biology all make attempts at doing this but in the ... However, they did prove that the basal ganglia and SMA are highly involved in rhythm perception. In a study where patients ...
Kolodin YO (2008-04-27). "Ionic conductances underlying excitability in tonically firing retinal ganglion cells of adult rat". ... and in retinal ganglion cells. Kv3.1/Kv3.2 conductance is necessary and kinetically optimized for high-frequency action ... important for the high-frequency firing of fast spiking GABAergic interneurons and retinal ganglion cells; and GABA release via ...
Hattar, S; Liao HW; Takao M; Berson DM; Yau KW (2002). "Melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells: architecture, projections ... expressing retinal ganglion cells in the mouse". Journal of Comparative Neurology. 497 (3): 326-349. doi:10.1002/cne.20970. PMC ... expressing retinal ganglion cells in the mouse", 518 citations Yau, KW (1994). "The Friedenwald Lecture: Phototransduction ... "Melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells: architecture, projections, and intrinsic photosensitivity", 1579 citations 2003 " ...
Hughes A (1975). "A quantitative analysis of the cat retinal ganglion cell topography". J. Comp. Neurol. 163 (1): 107-28. doi: ... Guenther, Elke; Zrenner, Eberhart (April 1993). "The Spectral Sensitivity of Dark- and Light-adapted Cat Retinal Ganglion Cells ... In fact cats have an estimated 45 to 200 million odor-sensitive cells in their noses, whereas humans only have 5 million odor- ... sensitive cells. Cats also have a scent organ in the roof of their mouths called the vomeronasal (or Jacobson's) organ. When a ...
Hattar S, Liao HW, Takao M, Berson DM, Yau KW (February 2002). "Melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells: architecture, ... Cell. 144 (2): 268-81. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2010.12.019. PMID 21236481. S2CID 8159963. Heyers D, Manns M, Luksch H, Güntürkün O, ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2015.12.018. PMC 4721562. PMID 26724867. Song SH, Dick B, Penzkofer A, Pokorny R, Batschauer A, Essen LO ( ... Transfection of these cells with both the promoter and the first intron is required for restoration of circadian rhythms in ...
... and in retinal ganglion cells. Kv3.1/Kv3.2 conductance is necessary and kinetically optimized for high-frequency action ... retinal ganglion cells; regulation of action potential duration in presynaptic terminals. Kv3.1 currents in heterologous ... "Ionic conductances underlying excitability in tonically firing retinal ganglion cells of adult rat". Retrieved 2008-10-20. Rudy ... 1992). "The Shaw-related potassium channel gene, Kv3.1, on human chromosome 11, encodes the type l K+ channel in T cells". J. ...
ISBN 978-0-19-530548-7. Levick, W.; J. Zacks (1970). "Responses of cat retinal ganglion cells to brief flashes of light". ...
November 2012). "Taurine deficiency damages retinal neurones: cone photoreceptors and retinal ganglion cells". Amino Acids. 43 ... The retinal toxicity of vigabatrin can be attributed to a taurine depletion. Due to safety issues, the Vigabatrin REMS Program ... In 2003, vigabatrin was shown by Frisén and Malmgren to cause irreversible diffuse atrophy of the retinal nerve fiber layer in ... Buncic JR, Westall CA, Panton CM, Munn JR, MacKeen LD, Logan WJ (2004). "Characteristic retinal atrophy with secondary "inverse ...
February - Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells in the eye identified by Samer Hattar and colleagues. May 14 - ... 2002). "Phototransduction by retinal ganglion cells that set the circadian clock". Science. 295 (5557): 1070-3. Bibcode:2002Sci ... 2002). "Melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells: architecture, projections, and intrinsic photosensitivity". Science. 295 ... "for their discoveries concerning genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death" Turing Award: Ron Rivest, ...
... waves of spontaneous action potentials arise from the retinal ganglion cells and sweep across the retinal surface in the first ... where the principal neural stem cell is the radial glial cell. The first postmitotic cells must leave the stem cell niche and ... Galli, L; Maffei, L (7 October 1988). "Spontaneous impulse activity of rat retinal ganglion cells in prenatal life". Science. ... In explant cultures (which allow direct cell-cell interactions) the same cells differentiate into epidermis. This is due to the ...
... called intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGC), are a small subset (≈1-3%) of the retinal ganglion cells ... and photosensitive retinal ganglion cells. The two classic photoreceptor cells are rods and cones, each contributing ... horizontal cells, and amacrine cells in the retina. The final result is differing populations of ganglion cells in the retina, ... there are about 2.4 million to 3 million ganglion cells, with 1 to 2% of them being photosensitive. The axons of ganglion cells ...
Calderone, JB; Reese, BE; Jacobs, GH (2003). "Topography of photoreceptors and retinal ganglion cells in the spotted hyena ( ... Special bipolar and ganglion cells pass those signals from S cones and there is evidence that they have a separate signal ... In vertebrates with three types of cone cells, at low light intensities the rod cells may contribute to color vision. ... The normal explanation of trichromacy is that the organism's retina contains three types of color receptors (called cone cells ...
Glioblastomas are the most common primary malignancies to hemorrhage while thyroid, renal cell carcinoma, melanoma, and lung ... rather than deep white matter or basal ganglia. These are usually described as "lobar". These bleedings are not associated with ... or cardiac arrhythmias Nuchal rigidity Subhyaloid retinal hemorrhages Altered level of consciousness Anisocoria, Nystagmus ... Hemorrhagic transformation of an ischemic infarct Cerebral venous thrombosis Sympathomimetic drug abuse Moyamoya Sickle cell ...
... regulatory T cells - remission - renal - rescue therapy - resistance - retina - retinal detachment - retinitis - retrovirus - ... GAG - gamma globulin - gamma interferon - ganglion - GART - gastrointestinal (GI) - gene - gene therapy - genetic engineering ... T suppressor cells - T4 cell - T4 cells (T-helper cells) - T8 cells - Tanner staging - TAT - TB - template - TeachAIDS - ... B-cell lymphoma - B cells - B lymphocytes (B cells) - bactericidal - bacteriostatic - bacterium - baculovirus - baseline - ...
Cells. *Photoreceptor cells (Cone cell, Rod cell) → (Horizontal cell) → Bipolar cell → (Amacrine cell) → Retina ganglion cell ( ... Parasol cell, Bistratified cell, Giant retina ganglion cells, Photosensitive ganglion cell) → Diencephalon: P cell, M cell, K ... Retinal pigment epithelium. ... cells in the eye into lymphatic-like endothelial cells.[2][3][4 ...
Barlow, H.B.; Levick, W.R.; Yoon, M. (1971). "Responses to single quanta of light in retinal ganglion cells of the cat". Vision ... retinal + O2 + H2O → retinoic acid + H2O2 (catalyzed by retinal oxidase). catalyzed by retinal dehydrogenases[11] also known as ... Steps 3,4,5,6 occur in rod cell outer segments; Steps 1, 2, and 7 occur in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells. ... In cone cells the disks are defined by the cell's plasma membrane so that the N-terminus head extends outside of the cell. ...
A temporal (ear side) concentration of retinal ganglion cells, important for binocular vision, indicates a role in predation, ... Induces a Calcium-Dependent Current in Cultured Dorsal Root Ganglion Cells". Journal of Neurophysiology. 85 (3): 1340-5. doi: ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.02.024. PMID 16530039.. *^ Hughes, R. L.; Hall, L. S. (28 July 1998). "Early development and embryology ... This causes the cells at the edge of the yolk to be cytoplasmically continuous with the egg's cytoplasm. This allows the yolk, ...
... which is informed by retinal light-sensitive ganglion cells, which are not involved in vision. The information travels through ... "Extra-retinal photo receptors" (Interview). Science Show. ABC Radio National. Retrieved 2010-05-28. ...we have the ...
... such as retinal cells. Structural, functional, and genetic similarities exist between the two cell types. Structurally, both ... The SCN stimulates the release of Norepinephrine from sympathetic nerve fibers from the superior cervical ganglia that synapse ... As Type 1 cells contain serotonin, Type 2 cells contain melatonin and are thought to have similar characteristics as endocrine ... both photoreceptors and hair cells) suggests that the two cells are related to one another evolutionarily. Differences between ...
Of the retina's nerve cells, only the retinal ganglion cells and few amacrine cells create action potentials. ... Cells. *Photoreceptor cells (Cone cell, Rod cell) → (Horizontal cell) → Bipolar cell → (Amacrine cell) → Retina ganglion cell ( ... Parasol cell, Bistratified cell, Giant retina ganglion cells, Photosensitive ganglion cell) → Diencephalon: P cell, M cell, K ... Ganglion cell axons travelling towards the optic nerve 4. Ganglion cell layer (GCL). Ganglion cell bodies (and some displaced ...
... carotid or retinal tissues have been used in cell transplants, in which dissociated cells are injected into the substantia ... The main pathological characteristics of PD are cell death in the brain's basal ganglia (affecting up to 70% of the dopamine ... Stem cell transplants are a recent research target, because stem cells are easy to manipulate and stem cells transplanted into ... Brain cell death. There is speculation of several mechanisms by which the brain cells could be lost.[56] One mechanism consists ...
7] Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons leaving the eye through the optic nerve are blocked from exiting the developing pathway by ... Erskine, L.; Herrera, E. (2007). "The retinal ganglion cell axon's journey: Insights into molecular mechanisms of axon guidance ... Herrera, E; Erskine, L; Morenilla-Palao, C (2019). "Guidance of retinal axons in mammals". Seminars in Cell & Developmental ... 11] Chiasm crossing is also promoted by Nr-CAM (Ng-CAM-related cell adhesion molecule) and Semaphorin6D (Sema6D) expressed at ...
"Protection of retinal ganglion cells from natural and axotomy-induced cell death in neonatal transgenic mice overexpressing bcl ... Cell death in arthropods occurs first in the nervous system when ectoderm cells differentiate and one daughter cell becomes a ... "Ferroptosis: An Iron-Dependent Form of Nonapoptotic Cell Death". Cell. 149 (5): 1060-1072. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2012.03.042. Lang ... Programmed cell death (or PCD) is the death of a cell in any form, mediated by an intracellular program. PCD is carried out in ...
Those in Class III (R3) cells are about eight degrees and Class IV (R4) ganglion cells range from twelve to fifteen degrees. As ... Their response characteristic results from integration in a neuronal network involving retinal gangion cells R2, R3, R4, ... First, the retina is connected to the optic tectum by at least three types of ganglion cells, each with an excitatory receptive ... Diameters in Class II (R2) ganglion cells are approximately four degrees visual angle. ...
Light/dark information reaches the suprachiasmatic nuclei from retinal photosensitive ganglion cells of the eyes[81][82] rather ... In these cells, synthesis starts with D-erythrose 4-phosphate and phosphoenolpyruvate, and in photosynthetic cells with carbon ... Reiter RJ (May 1991). "Pineal melatonin: cell biology of its synthesis and of its physiological interactions". Endocr. Rev. 12 ... Lincoln GA, Andersson H, Loudon A (October 2003). "Clock genes in calendar cells as the basis of annual timekeeping in mammals ...
"Decreased retinal ganglion cell number and misdirected axon growth associated with fissure defects in Bst/+ mutant mice". ... "Emergence of orientation selective simple cells simulated in deterministic and stochastic neural networks" (PDF). Biological ...
"Melanopsin-Expressing Retinal Ganglion-Cell Photoreceptors: Cellular Diversity and Role in Pattern Vision". Neuron. 67 (1): 49- ... Cells. *Photoreceptor cells (Cone cell, Rod cell) → (Horizontal cell) → Bipolar cell → (Amacrine cell) → Retina ganglion cell ( ... Parasol cell, Bistratified cell, Giant retina ganglion cells, Photosensitive ganglion cell) → Diencephalon: P cell, M cell, K ... Of the ~1.3 million ganglion cells present in the retina, 1-2% are believed to be photosensitive ganglia.[8] These ...
VZV then remains latent in the dorsal ganglion cells of the sensory nerves. Reactivation of VZV results in the clinically ... "Acute retinal necrosis as a novel complication of chickenpox in adults". Br J Ophthalmol. 74 (7): 443-4. doi:10.1136/bjo.74.7. ... Cell-mediated immune responses are also important in limiting the scope and the duration of primary varicella infection. After ...
The ribbon synapse is a special type of synapse found in sensory neurons such as photoreceptor cells, retinal bipolar cells, ... "Current Opinion in Cell Biology. 22 (4): 496-505. doi:10.1016/j.ceb.2010.05.001. PMC 2963628. PMID 20561775.. ... A cell membrane can be thought of as a capacitor in that positive and negative ions are stored on both sides of the membrane. ... The protein ELKS binds to the cell adhesion protein, β-neurexin, and other proteins within the complex such as Piccolo and ...
... and morphological changes in retinal ganglion cell apoptosis under elevated pressure". PLOS ONE. 5 (10): e13437. Bibcode: ... HeLa cells are an immortalized cancer cell line used frequently in research. The cell line was established by removing cells ... leading to cell death. Cell death in organisms is necessary for the normal development of cells and the cell cycle maturation.[ ... HeLa cell[edit]. Apoptosis in HeLa[b] cells is inhibited by proteins produced by the cell; these inhibitory proteins target ...
Glaucoma is a progressive optic neuropathy where retinal ganglion cells and their axons die causing a corresponding visual ...
... has been attributed to increase the likelihood of ganglion cell damage in these patients with disc hemorrhages ... activated retinal astrocytes, elevated retinal venous pressure, optic nerve compartmentalization and fluctuating diffuse visual ... In these eyes, an elevated pressure in the retinal veins has been observed. Glaucoma patients with Flammer syndrome show some ... These nightly "dips" of blood pressure in normal tension glaucoma patients with Flammer syndrome can damage the sensory cells ...
The low frequency drop-off is due to lateral inhibition within the retinal ganglion cells. A typical retinal ganglion cell ... The high-frequency cut-off is related to the packing density of the retinal photoreceptor cells: a finer matrix can resolve ... By using coarse gratings, the bright bands fall on the inhibitory as well as the excitatory region of the ganglion cell ... Decreased contrast sensitivity arises from multiple etiologies, including retinal disorders such as Age-Related Macular ...
The fibers of the retinal ganglion cells of the optic disc become engorged and bulge anteriorly. Persistent and extensive optic ... Paton's lines (radial retinal lines cascading from the optic disc). On visual field examination, the physician may elicit an ... Glaucoma: central retinal vein occlusion, cavernous sinus thrombosis. *Local lesion: optic neuritis, Ischemic optic neuropathy ... Acute lymphocytic leukemia (caused by infiltration of the retinal vessels by immature leukocytes) ...
"The Contrast Sensitivity of Retinal Ganglion Cells of the Cat". Journal of Physiology. 187 (3): 517-23. doi:10.1113/jphysiol. ... 1.6 and the receptive fields of ganglion cells in the retina with K~5. It may easily be used in recursive schemes and is used ... "The Classical Receptive Field Surround of Primate Parasol Ganglion Cells Is Mediated Primarily by a Non-GABAergic Pathway" (PDF ... Young, Richard (1987). "The Gaussian derivative model for spatial vision: I. Retinal mechanisms". Spatial Vision. 2 (4): 273- ...
negative regulation of substrate adhesion-dependent cell spreading. • retinal ganglion cell axon guidance. • cellular response ... 1998). "Eph receptor-ligand interactions are necessary for guidance of retinal ganglion cell axons in vitro". Eur. J. Neurosci ... This mechanism is in fact the same one that mediates the guidance of retinal ganglion cells to distinct regions in the superior ... "In vitro guidance of retinal ganglion cell axons by RAGS, a 25 kDa tectal protein related to ligands for Eph receptor tyrosine ...
Magnocellular neurosecretory cell(英語:Magnocellular neurosecretory cell). *Parvocellular neurosecretory cell(英語:Parvocellular ... 基底核(Basal ganglia)是前腦中一組互相聯結的結構。基底核的首要功能可能是行為選擇(英語:action selection):它們將抑制信號發送到腦中可以引起動作行為的部位,而遇到恰當的情形可以解除抑制,於是動作發生系統可以發起動作。而獎
Retina: The pupillary reflex pathway begins with the photosensitive retinal ganglion cells, which convey information via the ... of light that falls on the retinal ganglion cells of the retina in the back of the eye, thereby assisting in adaptation to ... These intrinsic photosensitive ganglion cells are also referred to as melanopsin-containing cells, and they influence circadian ... Ganglion cells of the retina project fibers through the optic nerve to the ipsilateral pretectal nucleus. The efferent limb is ...
Degeneration of axons of the retinal ganglion cells (the optic nerve) is a hallmark of glaucoma. Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) ... Retinal ganglion cells spontaneously fire action potentials at a base rate while at rest. Excitation of retinal ganglion cells ... there are at least five main classes of retinal ganglion cells: Midget cell (parvocellular, or P pathway; P cells) Parasol cell ... A retinal ganglion cell (RGC) is a type of neuron located near the inner surface (the ganglion cell layer) of the retina of the ...
Giant retinal ganglion cells are photosensitive ganglion cells with large dendritic trees discovered in the human and macaque ... 2005). Giant retinal ganglion cells contain a photo-pigment, melanopsin, allowing them to respond directly to light. They also ... There are only about 3000 giant retinal ganglion cells in each retina, comprising about 0.2%[citation needed] of the total ... responses to the rods and cones are superimposed on the melanopsin response of giant retinal ganglion cells. Giants encode ...
Specification of Optic Nerve Oligodendrocyte Precursors by Retinal Ganglion Cell Axons Limin Gao and Robert H. Miller ... Molecular Fingerprinting of On-Off Direction-Selective Retinal Ganglion Cells Across Species and Relevance to Primate Visual ... Evidence from Genetically Identified Retinal Ganglion Cell Types Rana N. El-Danaf and Andrew D. Huberman ... Imaging Light Responses of Foveal Ganglion Cells in the Living Macaque Eye Lu Yin, Benjamin Masella, Deniz Dalkara, Jie Zhang, ...
The Retinal Ganglion Cell Biology section of the NEI Laboratory of Retinal Cell and Molecular Biology studies early changes in ... Use of an adult retinal explant model for screening of potential retinal ganglion cell neuroprotective therapies. Invest. ... Retinal Ganglion Cell Biology key staff. Key staff table Name. Title. Email. Phone. ... It is a group of optic neuropathies characterized by the death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), leading to a specific ...
Here, the authors show that distinct cell-types of mouse retinal ganglion cells that receive similar excitatory inputs have ... we demonstrate that four morphologically distinct types of mouse retinal ganglion cells with overlapping excitatory synaptic ... However, it is far from understood how different cell types tune this process to establish cell-type specific computations. ... We show that differences between cell types can likely be explained by differences in backpropagation efficiency, arising from ...
... retinal ganglion cell. Posted on July 6, 2011. January 3, 2016. Developmental mechanisms that regulate retinal ganglion cell ... Ganglion Cell Physiology by Ralph Nelson. *Melanopsin-expressing, Intrinsically Photosensitive Retinal Ganglion Cells (ipRGCs) ... Development of Retinal Ganglion Cell Dendritic Structure and Synaptic Connections by Ning Tian ... The Anatomy and Physiology of Direction-Selective Retinal Ganglion Cells by Jinyue Liu ...
To report a reduction in macular ganglion cell layer and inner plexiform layer (GCL+IPL) thickness and circumpapillary retinal ... Retinal Ganglion Cell Atrophy in Homonymous Hemianopia due to Acquired Occipital Lesions Observed Using Cirrus High-Definition- ... Yamashita, T., Miki, A., Goto, K., Araki, S., Takizawa, G., Ieki, Y., … Yagita, Y. (2016). Retinal Ganglion Cell Atrophy in ... To report a reduction in macular ganglion cell layer and inner plexiform layer (GCL+IPL) thickness and circumpapillary retinal ...
Here, the authors demonstrate restoration of light responses in foveal retinal ganglion cells of the living macaque following ... evoked by the optogenetic actuator ChrimsonR with natural photoreceptor mediated stimulation in the same retinal ganglion cells ... combine adaptive optics ophthalmoscopy with calcium imaging to optically record optogenetically restored retinal ganglion cell ... could be paired with any therapy to minimize the number of primates required to evaluate restored activity on the retinal level ...
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2005 Sep;289(3):C644-55. Epub 2005 May 4. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U. ... Rabbit retinal ganglion cells express functional alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.. Strang CE1, Andison ME, Amthor FR, ... It is well known that cholinergic agents affect ganglion cell (GC) firing rates and light responses in the retinas of many ... Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2005 Sep;289(3):C644-55. Epub 2005 May 4. ...
The contrast sensitivity of retinal ganglion cells of the cat.. Enroth-Cugell C1, Robson JG. ... 2. Summation over the receptive fields of some cells (X-cells) was found to be approximately linear, while for other cells (Y- ... cells) summation was very non-linear. 3. The mean discharge frequency of Y-cells (unlike that of X-cells) was greatly increased ... 7. Reducing the retinal illumination produced changes in the contrast sensitivity function of an X-cell which suggested that ...
Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), also called photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (pRGC), or ... Recent research has shown that these retinal ganglion cells, unlike other retinal ganglion cells, are intrinsically ... a new role was found for the photoreceptive ganglion cell. Zaidi and colleagues showed that in humans the retinal ganglion cell ... "Parallel inhibition of dopamine amacrine cells and intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells in a non-image-forming ...
We review the current perspectives on retinal ganglion cell apoptosis, the way in which this can be imaged, and the exciting ... has developed a minimally invasive method using fluorescent annexin A5 to detect rates of apoptosis in retinal ganglion cells, ... The DARC (Detection of Apoptosing Retinal Cells) project ... in models of glaucoma and other conditions where retinal ... Keywords: retinal ganglion cell; apoptosis; neurodegeneration; glaucoma; annexin; imaging retinal ganglion cell; apoptosis; ...
... locus completely eliminates the earliest-born retinal cells, the ganglion cells (RGCs). Instead, excess amacrine, bipolar, and ... Müller glial cells are generated in the mutant. The extra amacrines are found at ectopic locations in the ganglion cell layer. ... Mutation of the zebrafish lakritz (lak) locus completely eliminates the earliest-born retinal cells, the ganglion cells (RGCs ... Retinal ganglion cell genesis requires lakritz, a Zebrafish atonal Homolog Neuron. 2001 Jun;30(3):725-36. doi: 10.1016/s0896- ...
Ganglion Cell Physiology by Ralph Nelson. *Melanopsin-expressing, Intrinsically Photosensitive Retinal Ganglion Cells (ipRGCs) ... Interesting Review: Intrinsically Photosensitive Retinal Ganglion Cells. I remember when the first discussion of intrinsically ... Development of Retinal Ganglion Cell Dendritic Structure and Synaptic Connections by Ning Tian ... The Anatomy and Physiology of Direction-Selective Retinal Ganglion Cells by Jinyue Liu ...
Models for retinal ganglion cells.A, Model for the MC cells.I i is the retinal illuminance; LP1 is a low-pass filter consisting ... Models of retinal ganglion cells. We first developed models for all ganglion cell types from which we recorded. The model for ... Below 2-3 Hz, PC cell signals contained more power than those of MC cells. Response variation between individual ganglion cells ... M off-center PC cell, Gon for the +M-L on-center PC cell, Goff for the −M+L off-center PC cell, and Bon for the +S-ML cell. For ...
We used a multielectrode array (MEA) to record spiking in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). We found spontaneous oscillations in ... on retinal ON bipolar cells (BCs). Human TRPM1 mutations are associated with congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB). In ... These data suggest that a deficiency of TRPM1, but not of mGluR6, in rod ON bipolar cells may affect synaptic terminal ... We speculate that impaired signaling between rod BCs and AII amacrine cells (ACs) leads to spontaneous oscillations. TRPM1 and ...
... have identified 40 subtypes of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) along with the genetic markers and transcription factors that ... Single-cell sequencing technologies are filling in fine details in the catalog of life. Researchers at the University of ... New retinal ganglion cell subtypes emerge from single-cell RNA sequencing. By Joyce DallAcqua Peterson UConn, JAX researchers ... Rheaume et al.: Single cell transcriptome profiling of retinal ganglion cells identifies cellular subtypes. Nature ...
Ganglion cells in an isolated wholemount preparation of the rat retina were labeled using the DiOlistic labeling method (Gan ... When a dye-coated particle contacted the cell membrane, the entire cell was labeled. The ganglion cells were classified into ... Large-scale morophological survey of rat retinal ganglion cells Vis Neurosci. Jul-Aug 2002;19(4):483-93. doi: 10.1017/ ... This study therefore represents the most complete morphological classification of rat retinal ganglion cells available to date ...
... on murine ischemia-injured retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). For this, we used serum deprivation cell model, glutamate and ... We also investigated cell survival of purified primary-cultured RGCs treated with Tet. An in vivo retinal ischemia/reperfusion ... After 48 hours, Tet protected staurosporine-induced RGC-5 cells from serum deprivation-induced cell death and significantly ... Tet administration (10 µM, 2 µL) 1 day before retinal ischemia showed RGC layer loss (greater survival), which was less than ...
"Retinal Ganglion Cells" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Retinal Ganglion Cells" was a major or ... Response Profiles of Retinal Ganglion Cells to Sinusoidal Electric Stimulation vary for Low vs. High Frequencies. Annu Int Conf ... "Retinal Ganglion Cells" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Towards Controlling Functionally-Distinct Retinal Ganglion Cells In Degenerate Retina. Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. ...
Interestingly, the application of exogenous NGF reversed the effects of ganglion cell ablation on ganglion cell death. Because ... both by inhibiting the generation of new ganglion cells and by killing incoming migratory ganglion cells. Selective ... We show that in the chick embryo, stratified retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are themselves responsible for providing the signals ... which eventually led to the repopulation of the ganglion cell layer and a large decrease in the physiological cell death ...
Melanopsin retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs) are intrinsically photosensitive RGCs that mediate many relevant non-image forming ... Melanopsin retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs) are intrinsically photosensitive RGCs that mediate many relevant non-image forming ... Retinal ganglion cell degeneration is topological but not cell type specific in DBA/2J mice. J Cell Biol. (2005) 171:313-25. ... Melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells are resistant to cell injury, but not always. Mitochondrion (2017) 36:77-84. doi: ...
Artemin, a specific ligand for GFRα3, has a neuroprotective effect on axotomized retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in vivo and in ... Artemin augments survival and axon regeneration in axotomized retinal ganglion cells.. [Kazuko Omodaka, Takuji Kurimoto, Orie ... and spiral ganglion neurons both in vivo and in vitro. However, its effects on retinal cells and its intracellular signaling ... Artemin, a recently discovered member of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family, has neurotrophic ...
We compared changes in dendritic morphology of regenerating adult rat retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) after long-term ... After 5-8 months, RGCs with regenerated axons were retrogradely labeled with fluorogold (FG). Live retinal wholemounts were ... Thus in addition to promoting cell survival and axonal regeneration, vector-mediated expression of neurotrophic factors has ... Retinal ganglion cells Is the Subject Area "Retinal ganglion cells" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
The authors show that early removal of senescent cells in the retina protects the healthy retinal ganglion cells from death to ... The authors show that early removal of senescent cells in the retina protects the healthy retinal ganglion cells from death to ... Early removal of senescent cells protects retinal ganglion cells loss in experimental ocular hypertension Posted by Paul ...
Rewiring the retinal ganglion cell gene regulatory network: Neurod1 promotes retinal ganglion cell fate in the absence of Math5 ... Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2004; 15:115-23. [PMID: 15036214] * Nadean L, Brown TG. Math5 is required for retinal ganglion cell and ... Stem cells, retinal ganglion cells and glaucoma. Dev Ophthalmol. 2014; 53:111-21. [PMID: 24732765] ... A gene network downstream of transcription factor Math5 regulates retinal progenitor cell competence and ganglion cell fate. ...
POU domain factor Brn-3b is required for the development of a large set of retinal ganglion cells. L Gan, M Xiang, L Zhou, D S ... POU domain factor Brn-3b is required for the development of a large set of retinal ganglion cells ... POU domain factor Brn-3b is required for the development of a large set of retinal ganglion cells ... POU domain factor Brn-3b is required for the development of a large set of retinal ganglion cells ...
Dendritic democracy trumps noise: voting in the active dendrites of retinal direction selective ganglion cells ... ganglion cells (DSGCs), which respond robustly to objects moving in a preferred direction but not in the opposite or null ...
Reversal of Apoptosis in Retinal Ganglion Cells Farzana Rahman; Shereen Nizari; Joana Galvao; Miles Parnell; ABUBAKAR HABIB; ... Reversal of Apoptosis in Retinal Ganglion Cells You will receive an email whenever this article is corrected, updated, or cited ... Purpose: Early detection of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) apoptosis and its prevention holds promise as a novel and effective ... Reversal of Apoptosis in Retinal Ganglion Cells. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2013;54(15):434. ...
P, photoreceptor; BC, bipolar cell; AC, amacrine cell; GC, direction-selective ganglion cell. Direction selectivity is ... Dendritic Computation of Direction Selectivity by Retinal Ganglion Cells. By W. Rowland Taylor, Shigang He, William R. Levick, ... Dendritic Computation of Direction Selectivity by Retinal Ganglion Cells. By W. Rowland Taylor, Shigang He, William R. Levick, ... Dendritic Computation of Direction Selectivity by Retinal Ganglion Cells Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ...
  • In primates, including humans, there are generally three classes of RGCs: W-ganglion: small, 40% of total, broad fields in retina, excitation from rods. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a group of optic neuropathies characterized by the death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), leading to a specific deformation of the optic nerve head. (nih.gov)
  • RGCs receive their main excitatory drive from the bipolar cells (BCs), which pick up the photoreceptor signal in the outer retina. (nature.com)
  • We are able to drive the same foveal RGCs cells either optogenetically or through their normal photoreceptor pathway and compare the activation patterns produced. (nature.com)
  • In the fovea RGCs are laterally displaced from the photoreceptors that drive them (Fig. 1b ), making it possible to activate RGCs either by direct optogenetic stimulation, or through their normal cone inputs, using spatially localized stimuli applied either to the ganglion cells themselves or to their photoreceptors. (nature.com)
  • Through experimentation, the researchers were able to distinguish individual retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), which bear most of the responsibility of relaying visual information to the brain. (photonics.com)
  • David Williams, dean for research in arts, sciences, and engineering and the William G. Allyn Chair for Medical Optics at the University of Rochester, said by the time retinal nerve fiber thickness has changed detectably, a patient may have lost 100,000 RGCs or more. (photonics.com)
  • Not only did this technique allow the group to visualize individual RGCs, but structures within the cells, like nuclei, could also be distinguished in animals. (photonics.com)
  • The hope is that if they can achieve that level of resolution in humans, they will be able to assess glaucoma before the retinal nerve fiber thins - and even before any RGCs die - by detecting size and structure changes in RGC cell bodies. (photonics.com)
  • While RGCs were the main focus of the investigations, they are just one type of cell that can be imaged using this new technique. (photonics.com)
  • Not only RGCs, but potentially other translucent cell classes and cellular structures. (photonics.com)
  • Mutation of the zebrafish lakritz (lak) locus completely eliminates the earliest-born retinal cells, the ganglion cells (RGCs). (nih.gov)
  • We used a multielectrode array (MEA) to record spiking in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). (hindawi.com)
  • Here, we report a striking difference in the firing patterns of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) between TRPM1 KO and mGluR6 KO mouse retinas. (hindawi.com)
  • Researchers at the UConn Health and The Jackson Laboratory (JAX) have identified 40 subtypes of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) along with the genetic markers and transcription factors that differentiate them. (jax.org)
  • Using single-cell RNA sequencing, the research team analyzed 6,225 RGCs, detecting about 5,000 genes expressed per cell, from the left and right eyes of newborn mice. (jax.org)
  • The research team selected RGCs precisely because more of its subtypes have been identified to date compared to any other major neuronal cell type, and because other broad classes of retinal cell types (such as photoreceptors) have been studied at a single-cell level. (jax.org)
  • Gene delivery techniques have been described to express exogenous proteins in the retina of newborn mice but these approaches do not efficiently introduce genes into the only retinal cell type that transmits visual information to the brain, the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). (nih.gov)
  • This study aimed to determine the protective effects of tetrandrine (Tet) on murine ischemia-injured retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). (dovepress.com)
  • We also investigated cell survival of purified primary-cultured RGCs treated with Tet. (dovepress.com)
  • Thus, Tet conferred protective effects on serum deprivation models of staurosporine-differentiated neuron-like RGC-5 cells and primary cultured murine RGCs. (dovepress.com)
  • We show that in the chick embryo, stratified retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are themselves responsible for providing the signals that control the number of RGCs that are generated, both by inhibiting the generation of new ganglion cells and by killing incoming migratory ganglion cells. (biologists.org)
  • Selective toxicological ablation of RGCs in the chick embryo resulted in the achronic generation of ganglion cells, which eventually led to the repopulation of the ganglion cell layer and a large decrease in the physiological cell death affecting postmitotic migratory neurones. (biologists.org)
  • Melanopsin retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs) are intrinsically photosensitive RGCs that mediate many relevant non-image forming functions of the eye, including the pupillary light reflex, through the projections to the olivary pretectal nucleus. (frontiersin.org)
  • Melanopsin retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs) are intrinsically photosensitive RGCs expressing the photopigment melanopsin ( 1 , 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Artemin, a specific ligand for GFRα3, has a neuroprotective effect on axotomized retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in vivo and in vitro via activation of the extracellular signal-related kinase- and phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Akt signaling pathways. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Recent innovative three-dimensional (3D) culture studies [ 5 - 7 ] have demonstrated hiPSCs' intrinsic potential to self-form stratified eye cup-like structures, which consist of relevant retinal cell types including RGCs. (molvis.org)
  • However, a protracted and continuous culture period is required to gain a small number of RGCs in a mixed cell pool, and the RGC portion gradually disappears as the cultures continue. (molvis.org)
  • RGCs as part of a mixed cell culture with Muller cells were treated with human Gal-1 at concentrations of 2.5μM, 1.25 μM and 0.63μM. (arvojournals.org)
  • To contribute to this field, we present a dual-purpose device able to mechanically stimulate retinal tissue and to record the spiking activity of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). (frontiersin.org)
  • Müller cells support RGCs with essential functions such as removing excess glutamate and providing energy sources. (hindawi.com)
  • The impact of starvation and mitochondrial inhibition on the Müller cell ability to protect RGCs was studied. (hindawi.com)
  • Interactions between the most inner retinal neurons, the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), and the most abundant retinal glial cells, the Müller cells, are essential to a functional retinal homeostasis. (hindawi.com)
  • However, the present knowledge about the partnership between RGCs and Müller cells is limited. (hindawi.com)
  • We have previously reported that cell cultures of the human Müller glia cell line, MIO-M1 [ 24 ], are capable of increasing their glutamate uptake and their expression of EAAT1 during starvation [ 15 ], thus indicating a regulatory mechanism to prevent excitotoxicity of the RGCs. (hindawi.com)
  • The apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) is a hallmark of several optic neuropathies. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • It was observed that overexpression of miR-137 markedly aggravated hypoxia-induced cell apoptosis, whereas inhibition of miR-137 effectively protected RGCs against hypoxia-induced apoptosis. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are important neurons in the retina that transmit visual signals from the retina to the brain ( 1 , 2 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The loss of RGCs in a number of ocular pathologies, such as retinal detachment, leads to irreversible visual injury ( 1 , 2 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • thus, protecting RGCs against hypoxia-evoked cell apoptosis is crucial for treating hypoxia-induced retinal diseases. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • However, the role of Notch signaling in hypoxia-induced cell apoptosis of RGCs has not been extensively investigated. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • In this study we examine the spatial receptive fields of different types of rat retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). (arvojournals.org)
  • We demonstrate the presence of linear and nonlinear RGCs which appear analogous to X and Y cells found in other mammals. (arvojournals.org)
  • Using retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) as a model, the mechanisms that pattern dendritic development are beginning to emerge. (springer.com)
  • Studies investigating its application are looking at stem cells both as a source for secreting neurotrophic factors, which could enhance the survival of RGCs and promote axon growth, and as a method for replacing lost RGCs. (ophthalmologytimes.com)
  • Dr. Goldberg noted that success with stem cell therapy or RGC transplantation to replace lost RGCs will be more challenging than when the target is replacement of photoreceptor cells because of the anatomy-the RGCs have to grow dendrites into the inner plexiform layer and grow axons back to the brain. (ophthalmologytimes.com)
  • To investigate the effect of hyperbaric pressure on purified retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and the additive effect of hyperbaric pressure on glutamate-induced RGC death. (molvis.org)
  • We provide genetic evidence that sonic hedgehog (Shh) from retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) promotes the development of optic disc and stalk neuroepithelial cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We demonstrate that RGCs express Shh soon after differentiation, and cells at the optic disc in close proximity to the Shh-expressing RGCs upregulate Hh target genes, which suggests they are responding to RGC-derived Shh signaling. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Conditional ablation of Shh in RGCs caused a complete loss of optic disc astrocyte precursor cells, resulting in defective axon guidance in the retina, as well as conversion of the neuroepithelial cells in the optic stalk to pigmented cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Mouse vision is based on the parallel output of more than 30 functional types of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). (uni-muenchen.de)
  • This review is focussed primarily on the use of recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors to target neurons in inner retina, specifically retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). (eurekaselect.com)
  • We observed that retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) seemed to be the cells most susceptible to VEGF-A antagonism, so we looked at anterograde transport in these cells, due to their long axons requiring optimal protein and organelle trafficking. (harvard.edu)
  • This study aimed to modify a chronic ocular hypertension (OHT) rat model to screen for potential compounds to protect retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) from responding to increased intraocular pressure (IOP). (toxikon.com)
  • Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) loss is one of the most common causes of blindness in worldwide. (diva-portal.org)
  • Dreyer, Evan B. 1997-12-01 00:00:00 Loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) is a hallmark of many ophthalmic diseases including glaucoma, retinal ischemia due to central artery occlusion, anterior ischemic optic neuropathy and may be significant in optic neuritis, optic nerve trauma, and AIDS. (deepdyve.com)
  • PURPOSE Although in vitro and in vivo models demonstrate caspase activation in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) undergoing apoptosis, the caspase-independent component of RGC death is unclear. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The mammalian retina contains directly photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), which use the photopigment melanopsin. (bath.ac.uk)
  • Collectively, our data further elucidate the phototransduction pathway in the photosensitive RGCs and demonstrate that 2-APB can be used to silence activity in these cells both in vitro and in vivo. (bath.ac.uk)
  • We investigated the progressive degeneration of the inner retina in this strain, focussing on retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) fate. (ua.es)
  • In the mutant strain, there is also RGC loss with age: RGCs show their first symptoms of degeneration at P180, as revealed by an abnormal expression of cytoskeletal proteins which, at P365, translates into a significant loss of RGCs, that may ultimately be caused by displaced inner retinal vessels that drag and strangulate their axons. (ua.es)
  • The retinal projection neurons, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), can be categorized into distinct morphological and functional subtypes and by the laterality of their projections. (eneuro.org)
  • Here, we present a method for purifying the sparse population of ipsilaterally projecting RGCs in mouse retina from their contralaterally projecting counterparts during embryonic development through rapid retrograde labeling followed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. (eneuro.org)
  • Through microarray analysis, we uncovered the distinct molecular signatures that define and distinguish ipsilateral and contralateral RGCs during the critical period of axonal outgrowth and decussation, with more than 300 genes differentially expressed within these two cell populations. (eneuro.org)
  • This study presents a new method for isolating ipsilaterally and contralaterally projecting retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) via retrograde labeling and fluorescence-activated cell sorting. (eneuro.org)
  • Our results demonstrate activation of autophagy shortly after axotomy with autophagosome formation, upregulation of the autophagy regulator Atg5 and apoptotic death of 50% of the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) after 5 days. (sebbm.es)
  • In conclusion, our data support that autophagy has a cytoprotective role in RGCs after traumatic injury and may provide a new therapeutic strategy to ameliorate retinal diseases. (sebbm.es)
  • Unsicker, K. 1989-10-01 00:00:00 In a search for neurotrophic factors (NTFs) regulating retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death in the chick embryo we have used purified and cultured RGCs. (deepdyve.com)
  • In a search for neurotrophic factors (NTFs) regulating retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death in the chick embryo we have used purified and cultured RGCs. (deepdyve.com)
  • Purpose: Our previous study indicated that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage and mutations are crucial to the progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in a glaucomatous rat model. (elsevier.com)
  • ABSTRACT This review highlights important events during the morphological development of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), focusing on mechanisms that control axon and dendritic arborization as a means to understand synaptic connectivity with special emphasis on the role of neurotrophins during structural and functional development of RGCs. (ehu.es)
  • The retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) were counted at two different time points after the induction of diabetes and examined using the immunofluorescence technique and quantitative analysis. (nih.gov)
  • The number of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) exhibits a significantly difference in diabetic and control mice (n=10/group). (nih.gov)
  • In the percentage of RGCs for Brn3a (B) and NeuN (D), both markers were calculated in relation to the number of cells counted. (nih.gov)
  • and to observe the protective effect of Lycium barbarum L. extract on Retinal Ganglion Cells (RGCs) in rats with ocular hypertension. (alliedacademies.org)
  • The effects of Lycium barbarum L. extract on Intraocular Pressure (IOP), multifocal Electroretinogram (mfERG), apoptosis of RGCs and retinal Nitric Oxide (NO) content of rats with ocular hypertension were observed. (alliedacademies.org)
  • In glaucoma, degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) - the axons of which form the optic nerve connecting the retina to the brain - leads to permanent blindness. (stemcellsportal.com)
  • Dr. Ahmad and his team of investigators found that when the mTOR signaling pathway, present in all cell types and essential for cell survival, is activated in RGCs the cells begin to regenerate and thrive. (stemcellsportal.com)
  • Interest in neuroprotection for optic neuropathies is, in part, based on the assumption that retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) die, not only as a result of direct (primary) injury, but also indirectly as a result of negative effects from neighboring dying RGCs (secondary degeneration). (elsevier.com)
  • A retinal ganglion cell (RGC) is a type of neuron located near the inner surface (the ganglion cell layer) of the retina of the eye. (wikipedia.org)
  • It receives visual information from photoreceptors via two intermediate neuron types: bipolar cells and retina amacrine cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Retina amacrine cells, particularly narrow field cells, are important for creating functional subunits within the ganglion cell layer and making it so that ganglion cells can observe a small dot moving a small distance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Retinal ganglion cells collectively transmit image-forming and non-image forming visual information from the retina in the form of action potential to several regions in the thalamus, hypothalamus, and mesencephalon, or midbrain. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are about 0.7 to 1.5 million retinal ganglion cells in the human retina. (wikipedia.org)
  • With about 4.6 million cone cells and 92 million rod cells, or 96.6 million photoreceptors per retina, on average each retinal ganglion cell receives inputs from about 100 rods and cones. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the fovea (center of the retina), a single ganglion cell will communicate with as few as five photoreceptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the extreme periphery (edge of the retina), a single ganglion cell will receive information from many thousands of photoreceptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Giant retinal ganglion cells are photosensitive ganglion cells with large dendritic trees discovered in the human and macaque retina by Dacey et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are only about 3000 giant retinal ganglion cells in each retina, comprising about 0.2%[citation needed] of the total number of retinal ganglion cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study required both optical stimulation of, and optical recording from, the cells of the inner retina in the living macaque. (nature.com)
  • We sought to determine whether functional alpha(7) nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) contribute to the responses of specific retinal GC classes in rabbit retina. (nih.gov)
  • Ganglion cells were studied in the isolated retina, with extracellular recordings. (sciencemag.org)
  • Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells ( ipRGCs ), also called photosensitive retinal ganglion cells ( pRGC ), or melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells ( mRGCs ), are a type of neuron in the retina of the mammalian eye . (wikipedia.org)
  • An ipRGC, shown here as a complied image of the retina from proximal inner nuclear layer to the ganglion cell layer with fluorescent labeling of melanopsin. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to responding directly to light, these cells may receive excitatory and inhibitory influences from rods and cones by way of synaptic connections in the retina. (wikipedia.org)
  • These photoreceptor cells project both throughout the retina and into the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • A combined birth-dating and cell marker analysis demonstrates that lak/ath5 is essential for RGC determination during the first wave of neurogenesis in the retina. (nih.gov)
  • The neural retina is a highly structured tissue of the central nervous system that is formed by seven different cell types that are arranged in layers. (nih.gov)
  • Tet administration (10 µM, 2 µL) 1 day before retinal ischemia showed RGC layer loss (greater survival), which was less than those in groups with phosphate-buffered saline intravitreal injection plus ischemia in the central ( P =0.005, n=6), middle ( P =0.018, n=6), and peripheral ( P =0.017, n=6) parts of the retina. (dovepress.com)
  • Towards Controlling Functionally-Distinct Retinal Ganglion Cells In Degenerate Retina. (harvard.edu)
  • Because the only source of NGF in the retina is that produced by the stratified ganglion cells, we infer that these differentiated neurones regulate their own cell number by secreting NGF, a neurotrophin that has previously been shown to be responsible for the death of migrating ganglion cells. (biologists.org)
  • During development, expression of GFRα3, a specific receptor for artemin, is strong in the immature retina and gradually decreases during maturation, suggesting a possible role in the formation of retinal connections. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • cells of the innermost nuclear layer of the retina , the ganglion cell layer, which project axons through the optic nerve to the brain . (biology-online.org)
  • The authors show that early removal of senescent cells in the retina protects the healthy retinal ganglion cells from death to maintain vision. (lifeboat.com)
  • Within the retina, these factors are present only within subsets of ganglion cells. (pnas.org)
  • We show here that in the developing mouse retina, Brn-3b protein is first observed in presumptive ganglion cell precursors as they begin to migrate from the zone of dividing neuroblasts to the future ganglion cell layer, and that targeted disruption of the Brn-3b gene leads in the homozygous state to a selective loss of 70% of retinal ganglion cells. (pnas.org)
  • The data suggest that, under specific conditions of indentation, the retina perceive the mechanical stimulation as modulation of the visual input, besides the longer time-scale of activation, and the increase in spiking activity is not only localized under the indentation probe, but it propagates across the retinal tissue. (frontiersin.org)
  • Müller cells span the entire thickness of the retina from the inner nerve fiber layer near the vitreous to the outer segment near the retinal pigment epithelium. (hindawi.com)
  • They play a pivotal role in maintaining the structural integrity of the retina as well as sustaining the retinal homeostasis by participating in essential processes such as glucose metabolism, substrate exchange, and vascular regulation [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In the retina, the normal photoreceptive cells are of two types, the rod and cone [6]. (essaytown.com)
  • Bodnarenko S. R. and Chalupa L. M. (1993) Stratification of ON and OFF ganglion cell dendrites depends on glutamate-mediated afferent activity in the developing retina. (springer.com)
  • Altshuler D., Turner D., and Cepko C. (1991) Specification of cell type in the vertebrate retina, in Development of the Visual System (Lam D. and Shatz C. J., eds. (springer.com)
  • We are pursuing many new lines of inquiry about these cells, including their unexpected diversity (comprising at least six types), their diverse functional roles in visually driven behavior, and their surprising ability to distribute their output signals within the retina itself. (neco.edu)
  • These spikes are produced by retinal ganglion cells, the output neurons of the retina. (harvard.edu)
  • Recent clinical trials have shown that the use of replication deficient viral vectors to genetically modify cells in the retina can be of therapeutic benefit in the treatment of certain inherited degenerative conditions that compromise photoreceptor, and hence visual, function. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Müller cells are major glial cells in the retina and have a broad range of functions that are vital for the retinal neurons. (diva-portal.org)
  • The effects of this transactivation in injured retina attenuate injury-induced activation and dedifferentiation of Müller cells by attenuating injury-induced ERK signaling. (diva-portal.org)
  • RGC axonal compression begins also in the ventral retina and spreads from there causing RGC loss through the whole retinal surface. (ua.es)
  • Importantly, the cell cycle regulator cyclin D2 is highly expressed in peripheral ventral retina with a dynamic expression pattern that peaks during the period of ipsilateral RGC production. (eneuro.org)
  • La axotomía de nervio óptico constituye una lesión traumática del sistema nervioso central que conduce a la degeneración y muerte de las células ganglionares de la retina, hecho que también tiene lugar en otras alteraciones retinianas de alta prevalencia como el glaucoma. (sebbm.es)
  • Loss of vision in glaucoma results from the death of retinal ganglion cells, the neurons that send visual information from the retina to the brain. (umontreal.ca)
  • This study evaluated ganglion cell density of the retina, macula thickness, and RNFL using HD-OCT in severe pre-eclampsia cases, both during pregnancy and postpartum. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • David Hubel and Torsten Wiesel Left brain right visual field Research more on receptive fields - Receptive field is the area over which stimulation affects response of cell The retina is the outgrowth of the brain, and each eye converts light into signals. (coursehero.com)
  • This is a specific quantitative study of neural cell loss in the retina during diabetes. (nih.gov)
  • Consequently, electrical stimulation of the degenerating retina produces responses that differ according to the stage of retinal degeneration. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Layer of the retina that contains the ganglion cell bodies. (zfin.org)
  • These include diminished active transport between the retina and brain that evolves prior to loss of the myelinated tract and ganglion cell presynaptic terminals at target sites. (arvojournals.org)
  • The ability to resolve single cells noninvasively in the living retina has important applications for the study of normal retina, diseased retina, and the efficacy of therapies for retinal disease. (osapublishing.org)
  • Retinal axons which penetrated the fetal grafts contacted tectal neurons and GFAP-immunoreactive glia and formed typical retinocollicular axonal arbors as detected by anterograde labeling with RITC from the retina. (iospress.com)
  • In the retina PSA-NCAM is expressed in the glial cells in close proximity to retinal ganglion cell (RGC). (springeropen.com)
  • Using their new, noninvasive imaging technique, researchers at the University of Rochester Medical Center are able to make out individual cells at the back of the eye that are implicated in vision loss in diseases like glaucoma. (photonics.com)
  • The DARC (Detection of Apoptosing Retinal Cells) project has developed a minimally invasive method using fluorescent annexin A5 to detect rates of apoptosis in retinal ganglion cells, the key pathological process in glaucoma. (mdpi.com)
  • Numerous animal studies have used DARC to show efficacy of novel, pressure-independent treatment strategies in models of glaucoma and other conditions where retinal apoptosis is reported, including Alzheimer's disease. (mdpi.com)
  • The death of retinal ganglion cells is a hallmark of many optic neurodegenerative diseases such as glaucoma and retinopathy. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Our DKK1+Noggin+Lefty A/ Atoh7 -based RGC-induction regime could efficiently direct TiPSCs to differentiate along RGC lineage in a stage-specific manner, which may provide a benefit to develop possible cell therapies to treat retinal degenerative diseases such as glaucoma. (molvis.org)
  • This has important implications for exploring novel therapeutic strategies for other retinal neurodegenerative diseases, such as glaucoma. (molvis.org)
  • Thus, selectively guiding iPSCs along RGC lineage differentiation may offer a sufficient quantity of desired donor cells for glaucoma treatment. (molvis.org)
  • Early detection of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) apoptosis and its prevention holds promise as a novel and effective treatment for glaucoma. (arvojournals.org)
  • AIMS To determine whether parasol retinal ganglion cells (magnocellular pathway) are selectively lost in the primate model of glaucoma. (bmj.com)
  • CONCLUSION The results of this study do not support the hypothesis that selective loss of parasol retinal ganglion cells occurs in experimental glaucoma. (bmj.com)
  • The hypothesis that larger retinal ganglion cells are selectively lost in the early stages of glaucoma 1-4 has received considerable support. (bmj.com)
  • Anatomical evidence for preferential loss of a class of retinal ganglion cells rests on the assumption that the relation between cell type and cell size is preserved in glaucoma. (bmj.com)
  • A recent study, based on intracellular labelling of retinal ganglion cells in experimental glaucoma, has revealed changes in dendritic morphology and a reduction in retinal ganglion cell volume that precede cell loss. (bmj.com)
  • 9 If this finding holds true, inferences about the pattern of retinal ganglion cells death in experimental glaucoma based on cell soma or axon size distributions should be viewed with caution. (bmj.com)
  • In the present study, we therefore adopted a different approach to studying changes in the parasol and midget retinal ganglion cell population in experimental glaucoma by labelling retinal ganglion cells with the tracer horseradish peroxidase (HRP) applied to the optic nerve. (bmj.com)
  • Glaucoma refers to a group of diseases causing progressive degeneration of the retinal ganglion cells. (suny.edu)
  • To overcome these drawbacks, past research has focused on the use of objective methods of quantifying retinal function in patients with glaucoma such as electroretinograms, visually evoked potentials, pupillometry etc. (suny.edu)
  • Findings from basic science research elucidating the mechanisms of retinal ganglion cell axon degeneration, regeneration, and death have identified new therapeutic targets for glaucoma that are being investigated in preclinical and clinical studies. (ophthalmologytimes.com)
  • In this area, phase I trials have been conducted investigating NT-501 Encapsulated Cell Therapy (ECT, Neurotech), an implant of encapsulated human cells genetically modified to secrete therapeutic doses of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), in patients with ischemic optic neuropathy and glaucoma. (ophthalmologytimes.com)
  • GLUTAMATE toxicity in retinal ganglion cells has well documented both in vitro and in vivo, and has been suggested to play a role in the neuronal loss in glaucoma. (ovid.com)
  • Of note, glaucoma selectively damages larger retinal ganglion cells first, and we therefore sought to explore whether glutamate-mediated cell death was likewise more pronounced in larger retinal ganglion cells. (ovid.com)
  • These observations indicate that glutamate-mediated loss is seen first in larger retinal ganglion cells, in a similar fashion to the pattern of loss seen in glaucoma. (ovid.com)
  • Background: Visual loss in glaucoma is associated with pathological changes in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons and a slow decline in the RGC population. (harvard.edu)
  • Identification of the precise mechanisms of cell death in these distinct neurons is essential for the development of effective neuroprotective strategies in glaucoma. (semanticscholar.org)
  • It induces retinal ganglion cell death, a process also occurring in glaucoma and other optic neuropathies. (sebbm.es)
  • The principal mechanism leading to retinal ganglion cell damage during glaucoma is not well understood, however, putative culprits have been proposed including excitotoxicity, neurotrophin deprivation, mechanical compression, ischemia, reactive astrocytes and oxidative stress. (umontreal.ca)
  • In people who suffer from glaucoma, it's the degeneration of these cells that lead to loss of sight, Dr. Ahmad said. (stemcellsportal.com)
  • Dr. Ahmad has spent 25 years studying the stem cell approach to understand and treat glaucoma, which is called a silent robber of vision because it strikes without warning or any noticeable symptoms. (stemcellsportal.com)
  • The transplantation of Müller glial cells may represent a beneficial treatment for glaucoma, one of the leading causes of blindness. (stemcellsportal.com)
  • The degeneration of the retinal ganglion cell neuron and its axon in glaucoma involves several important contributors extrinsic to the ganglion cell itself. (arvojournals.org)
  • Finally, ganglion cell survival in glaucoma ought to depend also on the response of its targets in the brain to glaucomatous stressors like age and ocular pressure. (arvojournals.org)
  • Research in our laboratory has focused recently on multiple aspects of the response of the ganglion cell, its axon and target sites in the brain in glaucoma. (arvojournals.org)
  • The axons from these ganglia innervate regions of the brain related to object recognition, including the superior colliculus and dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus . (wikipedia.org)
  • They contain the photopigment melanopsin in varying quantities along the cell membrane, including on the axons up to the optic disc, the soma, and dendrites of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The axons of these cells make up the optic nerve. (xenbase.org)
  • Analysis of retinal ganglion cell soma distribution shows a selectively greater reduction in the proportion of larger retinal ganglion cells 2-4 with a corresponding loss of larger axons 1 5 in the optic nerve. (bmj.com)
  • Then, we found reduced RGC numbers in Nf1+/GFAPCKO mice, supporting a model in which the combination of optic nerve Nf1 heterozygosity and glial cell Nf1 loss results in disrupted axonal-glial relationships, subsequently culminating in the degeneration of optic nerve axons and loss of their parent RGC neurons. (ucsd.edu)
  • The numbers of axons growing from retinal ganglion cells (RGC) in vitro were counted to measure the regenerative propensity at various corticosteroid concentrations. (iospress.com)
  • The loss of transport in the superior colliculus, the primary target for ganglion cell axons in the rodent brain, can be predicted using Mn2+-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, a surrogate probe for Ca2+-dependent activity. (arvojournals.org)
  • 1. Responses from axons of single retinal ganglion cells in the rat's optic tract were used to measure the pooling of adaptive signals within the cells' receptive field. (escholarship.org)
  • The present work elucidates the connectivity of adult retinal ganglion cell axons regenerating through grafted peripheral nerve segments with co-grafted immature brain target cells. (iospress.com)
  • The rationale of the experimental setup was based on the fact that regrowth of retinal axons started at the 6th day after transection, whereas the fastest-growing axons reached the distal end of the transplanted peripheral nerve 4 weeks later growing with a velocity of about 1.33 mm/day. (iospress.com)
  • Therefore, grafting the fetal superior colliculus at the time axons arrive distally resulted in ingrowth of several hundreds of retinal axons into this immature, retinoreceptive brain tissue. (iospress.com)
  • The death of retinal ganglion cells is a hallmark of many optic neurod. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Role of tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 in the death of retinal ganglion cells following optic nerve crush injury in mice. (semanticscholar.org)
  • abstract = "Retinal ganglion cells are the output neurons that encode and transmit information from the eye to the brain. (elsevier.com)
  • A latest study, published in the Neural Regeneration Research (Vol. 8, No. 25, 2013), has shown that grape seed extract can protect retinal ganglion cells against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The retinal ganglion cells in these eyes were labelled retrogradely with the tracer horseradish peroxidase (HRP) implanted into the optic nerve and subsequently examined in retinal whole mount preparations. (bmj.com)
  • Evidence for selective cell death has come from anatomical studies of the retinal ganglion cell layer and optic nerve in the human and primate. (bmj.com)
  • In a previous study, we demonstrated that dietary supplementation with an association of forskolin, homotaurine, spearmint extract and B vitamins efficiently counteracts retinal dysfunction associated with retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death caused by optic nerve crush. (mdpi.com)
  • Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death associated with structural changes in the optic nerve head is the cause of vision loss in glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON). (molvis.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the progression of changes in retinal ganglion cells and optic nerve glia in neurofibromatosis-1 (NF1) genetically-engineered mice with optic glioma. (ucsd.edu)
  • Chen H, Weber AJ (2001) BDNF enhances retinal ganglion cell survival in cats with optic nerve damage. (springer.com)
  • We analyzed autophagy induction and cell survival following optic nerve transection (ONT) in mice. (sebbm.es)
  • Although glucocorticoids are commonly used for the treatment of optic nerve inflammations, little is known about direct effects of steroids on retinal nerve cells. (iospress.com)
  • Also involved are biomechanical mechanisms, which stress the ganglion cell axon as it passes unmyelinated and presumably vulnerable through the optic nerve head in forming the nerve. (arvojournals.org)
  • In an effort to understand the regulation of the transition of a mature neuron to the growth, or regenerating, state we have analyzed the composition of the axonally transported proteins in the retinal ganglion cells of the toad Bufo marinus after inducing axon regeneration by crushing the optic nerve. (rupress.org)
  • At increasing intervals after axotomy, we labeled the retinal ganglion cells with [35S]methionine and subsequently analyzed the labeled transported polypeptides in the crushed optic nerve by means of one- and two-dimensional electrophoretic techniques. (rupress.org)
  • Optogenetic therapies for vision restoration aim to confer intrinsic light sensitivity to retinal ganglion cells when photoreceptors have degenerated and light sensitivity has been irreversibly lost. (nature.com)
  • Therefore they constitute a third class of photoreceptors, in addition to rod and cone cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Photoreceptive ganglion cells have been isolated in humans where, in addition to regulating the circadian rhythm, they have been shown to mediate a degree of light recognition in rodless, coneless subjects suffering with disorders of rod and cone photoreceptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The phototransduction mechanism in these cells is not fully understood, but seems likely to resemble that in invertebrate rhabdomeric photoreceptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • We've had a chapter in Webvision on melanopsin ganglion cells by Dustin Graham for some time, but t his review by Gary Pickard and Particia Sollars also does a pretty nice job of summarizing ipRGCs, the discovery of melanopsin, its comparison of invertebrate and vertebrate photoreceptors, the mechanism of drive and some description of subtypes as well as current progress. (utah.edu)
  • These pathways originate in depolarizing ON bipolar cells (BCs) and hyperpolarizing OFF BCs, which respond with opposite polarity to light-evoked reductions in glutamate release from photoreceptors [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM. (harvard.edu)
  • The use of chromatic light stimuli to elicit transient and sustained pupil light reflexes may become a clinical pupil test that allows differentiation between disorders affecting photoreceptors and those affecting retinal ganglion cells. (ovid.com)
  • In comparison of the photoreceptors, the cone and rods verses the intrinsic photosensitive retinal ganglion there are notable differences that emerge. (essaytown.com)
  • A small subset of retinal ganglion cells exhibit robust light responses even when all influences from classical photoreceptors (rods and cones) are eliminated. (neco.edu)
  • The present study shows that the degeneration of photoreceptors and inner retinal neurons, characteristic of RP, has age-related degenerative effects on the melanopsin system and is associated with weaker circadian patterns. (ua.es)
  • For this, we used serum deprivation cell model, glutamate and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 )-induced RGC-5 cell death models, and staurosporine-differentiated neuron-like RGC-5 in vitro. (dovepress.com)
  • Artemin, a recently discovered member of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family, has neurotrophic effects on damaged neurons, including sympathetic neurons, dopamine neurons, and spiral ganglion neurons both in vivo and in vitro. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We further show that Shh signaling modulates the size of the Pax2(+) astrocyte precursor cell population at the optic disc in vitro. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Araujo EG, Linden R (1993) Trophic factors produced by retinal cells increase the survival of retinal ganglion cells in vitro. (springer.com)
  • Caspase-independent component of retinal ganglion cell death, in vitro. (semanticscholar.org)
  • En el presente trabajo hemos demostrado que la autofagia juega un papel citoprotector para estas neuronas ya que su activación farmacológica rescata de la muerte, tanto in vitro como in vivo, mientras que su bloqueo genético exacerba la degeneración. (sebbm.es)
  • To report a reduction in macular ganglion cell layer and inner plexiform layer (GCL+IPL) thickness and circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (cpRNFL) thickness using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in patients with homonymous hemianopia due to posterior cerebral artery (PCA) stroke. (mendeley.com)
  • Purpose: To determine the repeatability of measuring the thickness of the central macula, retinal nerve fiber layer, and ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GC-IPL) using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (Cirrus HD-OCT) in eyes with age-related macular degeneration. (octnews.org)
  • Retinal Imaging by Laser Polarimetry and Optical Coherence Tomography Evidence of Axonal Degeneration in Multiple Sclerosis. (octnews.org)
  • Y- ganglion: largest, 5%, very broad dendritic field, respond to rapid eye movement or rapid change in light intensity. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells are known as midget retinal ganglion cells, based on the small sizes of their dendritic trees and cell bodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The temporal correlation of dendritic signals varied also extensively, with the highest and lowest correlation in transient Off mini and transient Off alpha cells, respectively. (nature.com)
  • We show that differences between cell types can likely be explained by differences in backpropagation efficiency, arising from the specific combinations of dendritic morphology and ion channel densities. (nature.com)
  • Bodnarenko S. R., Jeyarasasingam G., and Chalupa L. M. (1995) Development and regulation of dendritic stratification in retinal ganglion cells by glutamate-mediated afferent activity. (springer.com)
  • Voyvodic J. T. (1989) Peripheral target regulation of dendritic geometry in the rat superior cervical ganglion. (springer.com)
  • Wässle H., Peichl L., and Boycott B. B. (1981) Dendritic territories of cat retinal ganglion cells. (springer.com)
  • The application of choline before synaptic blockade resulted in changes in retinal GC activity, including increases or decreases in maintained firing and/or enhancement or suppression of light responses. (nih.gov)
  • A lesion was inflicted by intraocular injection of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) at embryonic day 18 and the total population of retinal ganglion cells was studied using an automated cell counting of cells positive for the retinal ganglion cell marker Brn3a in flat-mounted retinas. (diva-portal.org)
  • In addition, the total population of retinal ganglion cells was analyzed in a series of normal embryonic day 8 to post-hatch day 11 retinas. (diva-portal.org)
  • I remember when the first discussion of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) started coming out. (utah.edu)
  • Interestingly, several of these symptoms such as headaches, ocular pain, light-sensitivity, and sleep disturbances may overlap and share underlying circuitry influenced by the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs). (neurology.org)
  • In view of the normal wave detections by the classical photoreceptor cells, the difference in the wide variety of wavelengths that the rod and cone cells detect is covered in this property of the ipRGCs. (essaytown.com)
  • These intrinsically sensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) use a novel photopigment called melanopsin to generate their intrinsic light responses. (neco.edu)
  • In addition, the change in cell soma size distributions following ocular hypertension suggests that both parasol and midget retinal ganglion cells undergo shrinkage before cell death. (bmj.com)
  • G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor protects retinal ganglion cells via inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress under hyperoxia. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • We now report that glutamate-which exerts its toxic effect on neurons predominantly through the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of glutamate receptor-is more toxic to larger retinal ganglion cells both in tissue culture and in the intact rat eye. (ovid.com)
  • Transplantation of cryopreserved MSC rescues retinal ganglion cells following I/R injury. (biolifesolutions.com)
  • This in vivo imaging approach could be paired with any therapy to minimize the number of primates required to evaluate restored activity on the retinal level, while maximizing translational benefit by using an appropriate pre-clinical model of the human visual system. (nature.com)
  • An in vivo retinal ischemia/reperfusion model was used to examine RGC survival after Tet administration 1 day before ischemia. (dovepress.com)
  • Genetic downregulation of autophagy using knockout mice for Atg4B (another regulator of autophagy) or with specific deletion of Atg5 in retinal ganglion cells, using the Atg5flox/flox mice reduces cell survival after ONT, whereas pharmacological induction of autophagy in vivo increases the number of surviving cells. (sebbm.es)
  • To explore the in vivo therapeutic and regenerative potential of HPL, researchers from the laboratory of Ioannis Papantoniou (KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium) compared FBS and HPL for the scalable, microcarrier‐based dynamic expansion of human periosteum‐derived stem cells (hPDCs) and assessed bone forming capacity by subcutaneous implantation in a small animal model. (stemcellsportal.com)
  • Type of neuron that receives neural inputs via bipolar, horizontal and amacrine cells. (xenbase.org)
  • Glia-neuron partnership is important for inner retinal homeostasis and any disturbances may result in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death. (hindawi.com)
  • Virtually every aspect of inner retinal homeostasis and function involves a glia-neuron partnership. (hindawi.com)
  • 7. The visual prosthesis according to claim 1, wherein the at least one visual neuron is at least one retinal neuron. (patentgenius.com)
  • 2012). In this circuit, direction is encoded by specialized direction-selective (DS) ganglion cells (DSGCs), which respond robustly to objects moving in a 'preferred' direction but not in the opposite or 'null' direction (Barlow and Levick, 1965), which we now know relies on the coordination of three transmitter systems: glutamate, GABA and acetylcholine (ACh). (mcgill.ca)
  • A postmortem study of the LGN in glaucomatous patients has also been interpreted as consistent with selective damage to those retinal ganglion cells comprising the magnocellular pathway. (bmj.com)
  • Transneuronal retrograde degeneration of retinal ganglion cells after damage to striate cortex in macaque monkeys: selective loss of P beta cells. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Retinal ganglion cells vary significantly in terms of their size, connections, and responses to visual stimulation but they all share the defining property of having a long axon that extends into the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recording from the intact eye of a living animal, we compare the patterns of activity evoked by the optogenetic actuator ChrimsonR with natural photoreceptor mediated stimulation in the same retinal ganglion cells. (nature.com)
  • Differential Responses to High-Frequency Electrical Stimulation in Brisk-Transient and Delta Retinal Ganglion Cells. (harvard.edu)
  • Response Profiles of Retinal Ganglion Cells to Sinusoidal Electric Stimulation vary for Low vs. High Frequencies. (harvard.edu)
  • In fact, mRGCs are characterized by a unique property, which is the capability of firing without fatigue in response to continuous stimulation, consistent with the intrinsic activation of these cells ( 12 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The short-duration stimulation signals are applied through the stimulating electrodes with varying frequencies that are substantially matched to a spiking range of frequencies of at least one ganglion cell for perceiving brightness or image. (patentgenius.com)
  • 9. The visual prosthesis according to claim 8, wherein the stimulation signals are adapted for stimulation of the at least one ganglion cell to the substantial exclusion of direct stimulation of the deeper retinal cells. (patentgenius.com)
  • The general concept of electrical stimulation of retinal cells to produce these flashes of light or phosphenes has been known for quite some time. (patentgenius.com)
  • The results show that α2-ADR stimulation by brimonidine (BMD) triggers Src-kinase mediated ligand-dependent and ligand-independent transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in both chicken and human Müller cells. (diva-portal.org)
  • This was obtained through optogenetic stimulation and subsequent confocal imaging of genetically targeted retinal ganglion cell sub-populations in the mouse. (strath.ac.uk)
  • Retinal ganglion cells : SPOTS , light spots and dark spots Visual brain cells: Lines or edges Retinotopy One to one map to from the map to the brain-Retinotopy and direct stimulation of visual cortex for the blind Touch uses visual cortex in blind Visual brain used during brail reading, the brain can reorganize itself. (coursehero.com)
  • We sought to delineate a degeneration stage-specific parameter for the response pattern of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) spikes as a strategy for stage-specific electrical stimulation for perceptual efficiency of prosthetic vision devices. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Retinal ganglion cell responses to voltage and current stimulation in wild-type and rd1 mouse retinas. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We discovered that myocilin increased cell proliferation and survival. (nih.gov)
  • Artemin augments survival and axon regeneration in axotomized retinal ganglion cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The aim was to explore the impact of Müller cells on RGC survival. (hindawi.com)
  • RGC survival was evaluated by cell viability assays and glutamate uptake was assessed by kinetic uptake assays. (hindawi.com)
  • We demonstrated a significantly increased RGC survival in presence of untreated and prestarved Müller cells. (hindawi.com)
  • Additionally, prestarved Müller cells significantly increased RGC survival after mitochondrial inhibition. (hindawi.com)
  • Overall, our study confirms essential roles of Müller cells in RGC survival. (hindawi.com)
  • Thus, miRNAs are involved in the regulation of a wide range of cellular processes, such as stress response, cell survival and apoptosis ( 22 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The effects of N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) and 2-amino-3-(5-methyl-3-oxo-1,2- oxazol-4-yl)propanoic acid (AMPA)/kainate receptor antagonists, MK-801, and 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (DNQX), on cell survival were assessed. (molvis.org)
  • Previous data from our group described that ouabain treatment increases retinal ganglion cells survival (RGC). (springer.com)
  • Here we investigated firstly the effects of VEGF-A neutralization on retinal neuronal survival in the Ins2Akita diabetic and JR5558 spontaneous choroidal neovascularization (CNV) mice, and then looked at potential mechanisms contributing to cell death. (harvard.edu)
  • Similarly, the survival of the ganglion cell depends not only on these extrinsic influences in its milieu, but also on its intrinsic response to age and pressure. (arvojournals.org)
  • We combine adaptive optics ophthalmoscopy with calcium imaging to optically record optogenetically restored retinal ganglion cell activity in the fovea of the living primate. (nature.com)
  • Only the primate has a human-like fovea, the retinal structure which mediates high acuity central vision and dominates our visual experience. (nature.com)
  • This study quantifies the performance of primate retinal ganglion cells in response to natural stimuli. (jneurosci.org)
  • Electroretinograms are objective, non-invasive method of assessing retinal function, and careful manipulation of the visual input or stimulus can result in extraction of signals particular to select classes of the retinal cells, and photopic negative response (PhNR) is a component of ERG that reflects primarily the retinal ganglion cell function. (suny.edu)
  • Therefore, these features facilitate the intrinsically photosensitive ganglion cells working towards meeting the role of the diffuse stimuli. (essaytown.com)
  • Background: The activity of melanopsin containing intrinsically photosensitive ganglion retinal cells (ipRGC) can be assessed by a means of pupil responses to bright blue (appr.480 nm) light. (diva-portal.org)
  • Under photopic conditions, a red light stimulus produces a pupil constriction mediated predominantly by cone input via trans-synaptic activation of melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells, whereas a blue light stimulus at high intensity produces a steady-state pupil constriction mediated primarily by direct intrinsic photoactivation of the melanopsin-expressing ganglion cells. (ovid.com)
  • Preliminary data in humans suggest that under photopic conditions, cones primarily drive the transient phase of the pupil light reflex, whereas intrinsic activation of the melanopsin-expressing ganglion cells contributes heavily to sustained pupil constriction. (ovid.com)
  • The ganglion cells are what constitute the intrinsic photosensitive response in the visualizing system. (essaytown.com)
  • Large populations of retinal ganglion cells can be labelled with this technique 6 though uniform labelling may be compromised in glaucomatous animals because of the effects of ocular hypertension on retrograde axonal transport. (bmj.com)
  • Wingate R. J. T., FitzGibbon T., and Thompson I. D. (1992) Lucifer yellow retrograde tracers and fractal analysis characterise adult ferret retinal ganglion cells. (springer.com)
  • The Müller cells are specialized radial glial cells and constitute an anatomical and functional link between neurons and the cellular environment such as blood vessels, the vitreous chamber, and subretinal space. (hindawi.com)
  • Now, the team returns with their new findings, reporting Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) as a pivotal molecule for self‐renewal of FGSCs. (stemcellsportal.com)
  • This study was undertaken to guide human Tenon's capsule fibroblasts-derived iPSCs (TiPSCs) to differentiate along the retinal ganglion cell (RGC) lineage, aiming at producing appropriate cellular material for RGC regeneration. (molvis.org)
  • Changes in axonally transported proteins during axon regeneration in toad retinal ganglion cells. (rupress.org)
  • This paper by Ning Tian in the Journal of Developmental Neurobiology reviews the developmental mechanisms involved in the formation of retinal ganglion cells (RGC) dendrites. (utah.edu)
  • Despite much effort, the genetic mechanisms that underlie retinal development are still poorly understood. (nih.gov)
  • This is important in terms of our understanding of the mechanisms of retinal ganglion cell death and is also clinically relevant since psychophysical tests that are tuned to the properties of these cells should reveal the earliest signs of disease. (bmj.com)
  • In this paper, we summarize our current view of retinal ganglion cell properties and pose a number of questions regarding underlying molecular mechanisms. (elsevier.com)
  • As an example of one approach to understanding molecular mechanisms, we describe recent work on several POU domain transcription factors that are expressed in subsets of retinal ganglion cells and that appear to be involved in ganglion cell development. (elsevier.com)
  • Of particular importance for future clinical use of NMDA receptor antagonists in the treatment of acute vascular insults is the finding that some drugs can prevent glutamate-induced neurotoxicity, even when administered a few hours after the onset of retinal ischemia. (deepdyve.com)
  • Decrease in retinal neuronal cells in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. (nih.gov)
  • Under naturalistic lighting conditions, responses to the rods and cones are superimposed on the melanopsin response of giant retinal ganglion cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fig. 1: GCaMP6s recording from foveal retinal ganglion cells in the living macaque shows ChrimsonR mediated responses to a drifting grating stimulus. (nature.com)
  • It is well known that cholinergic agents affect ganglion cell (GC) firing rates and light responses in the retinas of many species, but the specific receptor subtypes involved in mediating these effects have been only partially characterized. (nih.gov)
  • Many physiologically identified GC types, including sustained off, sustained on, transient off, and transient on cells, demonstrated responses to choline application while under synaptic blockade. (nih.gov)
  • 1. Spatial summation within cat retinal receptive fields was studied by recording from optic-tract fibres the responses of ganglion cells to grating patterns whose luminance perpendicular to the bars varied sinusoidally about the mean level. (nih.gov)
  • The performance of the cells was evaluated by investigating variability of cell responses to repeated stimulus presentations and by comparing measured to model responses. (jneurosci.org)
  • Although our final goal is a full spatiotemporal and chromatic analysis of ganglion cell responses to natural stimuli, we begin with a simpler stimulus, a spatially homogenous field modulated only in time and spectral properties. (jneurosci.org)
  • Stimuli were presented while responses were recorded from magnocellular (MC), parvocellular (PC), or short wavelength (S) cone-driven ganglion cells. (jneurosci.org)
  • TRPM1 and mGluR6 are both critical for initiating ON response in retinal BCs, and absence of either gene abolishes light responses in retinal ON BCs [ 15 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • CD4+ T-Cell Responses Mediate Progressive Neurodegeneration in Experimental Ischemic Retinopathy. (harvard.edu)
  • These findings help to explain why many physiological responses to light responses persist in mammals, including humans, with retinal blindness resulting from loss of rods and cones. (neco.edu)
  • Emergence of sustained spontaneous hyperactivity and temporary preservation of OFF responses in ganglion cells of the retinal degeneration (rd1) mouse. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The purpose of this study was the quantitative assessment of retinal neural cell number in diabetic mice. (nih.gov)
  • These data suggest that retinal neural cell reduction occurs in diabetic mice. (nih.gov)
  • Neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) plays important roles in the regulation of the brain plasticity during its development and in adulthood. (springeropen.com)
  • We speculate that impaired signaling between rod BCs and AII amacrine cells (ACs) leads to spontaneous oscillations. (hindawi.com)
  • The slow wave component of retinal activity in rd/rd mice recorded with a multi-electrode array. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We found that myocilin is expressed in bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and affects their differentiation into osteoblasts. (nih.gov)
  • By mimicking RGC genesis, we deliberately administered the whole differentiation process and directed the stage-specific differentiation of human TiPSCs toward an RGC fate via manipulation of the retinal inducers (DKK1+Noggin+Lefty A) alongside master gene ( Atoh7 ) sequentially. (molvis.org)
  • Upon retinal differentiation, a large fraction of the cells developed characteristics of retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) in response to simulated environment signaling (DKK1+Noggin+Lefty A), which was selectively recovered with manual isolation approaches and then maintained in the presence of mitogen for multiple passages. (molvis.org)
  • Although iPSCs have been shown to display a propensity to produce cells with retinal characteristics [ 8 , 9 ], this limited competence is far from enough to achieve targeted RGC differentiation by iPSCs' multipotency nature [ 10 , 11 ], and much remains to be done to enhance RGC differentiation. (molvis.org)
  • The Notch signaling pathway is extensively involved in regulating cell proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation through crosstalk with other signaling pathways ( 16 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • This neurotrophin regulates several neuronal functions as cell proliferation, viability, and differentiation. (springer.com)
  • Establishment of efficient differentiation method of retinal ganglion cells from human iPS cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The GFP was negative when the iPS cell when it was induced differentiation. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Mice iPS cells were dissociated to single cells, and 5×10^4 cells per 1 ml differentiation medium(see ref) were seeded into bacterial-grade dishes(10ml). (nii.ac.jp)
  • To perform a comparative study of the numbers of retinal ganglion cells (RGC) in mice with genetic defects affecting different subtypes of α1 adrenoreceptors. (springer.com)
  • The total numbers of retinal cells in mice of all the study strains were essentially identical. (springer.com)
  • The generation of mice lacking melanopsin has been invaluable in elucidating the function of these cells. (bath.ac.uk)
  • Little is known about retinal neuronal loss in the retinas of diabetic mice. (nih.gov)
  • Temporal response properties of retinal ganglion cells in rd1 mice evoked by amplitude-modulated electrical pulse trains. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Developmental time course distinguishes changes in spontaneous and light-evoked retinal ganglion cell activity in rd1 and rd10 mice. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The significance of this work, Dr. Ahmad said, is that it is done using human adult pluripotent stem cells, whereas previous work was done only in rats and mice. (stemcellsportal.com)
  • These data suggest that a deficiency of TRPM1, but not of mGluR6, in rod ON bipolar cells may affect synaptic terminal maturation. (hindawi.com)
  • Photosensitive ganglion cells, including but not limited to the giant retinal ganglion cells, contain their own photopigment, melanopsin, which makes them respond directly to light even in the absence of rods and cones. (wikipedia.org)
  • The photopigment of photoreceptive ganglion cells, melanopsin, is excited by light mainly in the blue portion of the visible spectrum (absorption peaks at ~480 nanometers [6] ). (wikipedia.org)
  • The melanopsin system consists of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells containing the photopigment melanopsin (mRGCs). (ua.es)
  • With the many molecular options available for optogenetic gene expression, we view this method as a versatile tool for matching function to genetic classifications, which can be extended to include morphological information if the density of labelled cells is at the correct level. (strath.ac.uk)
  • Retinal organization in the retinal degeneration 10 (rd10) mutant mouse: a morphological and ERG study. (semanticscholar.org)
  • M cells) Bistratified cell (koniocellular, or K pathway) Photosensitive ganglion cells Other ganglion cells projecting to the superior colliculus for eye movements (saccades) P-type retinal ganglion cells project to the parvocellular layers of the lateral geniculate nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Photosensitive ganglion cells innervate other brain targets, such as the center of pupillary control , the olivary pretectal nucleus of the midbrain . (wikipedia.org)
  • [7] Photosensitive ganglion cells respond to light by depolarizing thus increasing the rate at which they fire nerve impulses, which is opposite to that of other photoreceptor cells which hyperpolarize in response to light. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overall, the results of the present study demonstrated that miR-137 targets Notch1 expression, revealing a novel link between miR-137 and Notch signaling, and suggesting that a miR-137/Notch1 axis may serve as a potential molecular target for the treatment of hypoxia-induced retinal diseases. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The increasing availability of transcriptomic technologies within the last decade has facilitated high-throughput identification of gene expression differences that define distinct cell types as well as the molecular pathways that drive their specification. (eneuro.org)
  • Xiang, M, Zhou, H & Nathans, J 1996, ' Molecular biology of retinal ganglion cells ', Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , vol. 93, no. 2, pp. 596-601. (elsevier.com)
  • In this study, the neuritogenic effect of prednisolone on retinal ganglion cells was investigated using retinal organ cultures derived from adult rats and embryonic chickens. (iospress.com)
  • [2] They represent a very small subset (~1%) of the retinal ganglion cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • We used electrophysiology, pharmacology, immunohistochemistry, and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction to determine the pharmacological properties and expression of nAChR subtypes by specific rabbit retinal GC classes. (nih.gov)
  • Running the resulting data through clustering algorithms resulted in the cells' classification into 40 subtypes. (jax.org)
  • Besides identifying new RGC subtypes and their markers, the researchers demonstrate the amount of gene expression variability between cells needed to differentiate them into subtypes, and present a hierarchy from a cell type population to subtypes. (jax.org)
  • Single cell transcriptome profiling of retinal ganglion cells identifies cellular subtypes. (jax.org)
  • Thanks to recent advances in droplet-based single-cell RNA sequencing technologies, researchers can now isolate single cells and amplify their genetic material to probe their full complement of RNA. (jax.org)
  • In this study, we present a novel technique that combines large-scale micro-electrode array recordings with genetic identification and the anatomical location of the retinal ganglion cell soma. (strath.ac.uk)
  • We recently used pattern recognition analysis to show macula areas can be classified into statistically distinct clusters in accordance to their age-related retinal ganglion cell layer (RGCL) thickness change in a normal population. (utah.edu)
  • The topographical distributions of rods and thickness of the tapetum of the dog were quantified in retinal whole mounts stained with thionine, and spatial relationships among the tapetum, rod density and visual streak of high ganglion cell density were elucidated. (nih.gov)
  • This study was done to investigate the effects of severe preeclampsia on the RNFL, macula thickness, and ganglion cell density in pregnancy and postpartum, using HD-OCT. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • The mean RNFL, macula thickness, ganglion cell analysis, and IOP values during pregnancy were determined to be similar in both groups. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • No significant difference was determined postpartum between the groups in respect of mean systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, RNFL, macula thickness, ganglion cell analysis, and IOP values. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • As an alternative and desirable approach for regenerative medicine, human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) technology raises the possibility of developing patient-tailored cell therapies to treat intractable degenerative diseases in the future. (molvis.org)
  • The clinical translation of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) techniques to cell-based regenerative therapies in human degenerative diseases has been made a priority worldwide. (molvis.org)
  • We suggest that targeting Müller cell function could have potential for future treatment strategies to prevent blinding neurodegenerative retinal diseases. (hindawi.com)
  • Growing evidence supports this particular interaction as being fundamental for different aspects of neurodegenerative retinal diseases [ 2 - 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • 2. Summation over the receptive fields of some cells (X-cells) was found to be approximately linear, while for other cells (Y-cells) summation was very non-linear. (nih.gov)
  • 3. The mean discharge frequency of Y-cells (unlike that of X-cells) was greatly increased when grating patterns drifted across their receptive fields. (nih.gov)
  • 5. This finding supports the hypothesis that the sensitivities of the antagonistic centre and surround summating regions of ganglion cell receptive fields fall off as Gaussian functions of the distance from the field centre. (nih.gov)