Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Injuries to the optic nerve induced by a trauma to the face or head. These may occur with closed or penetrating injuries. Relatively minor compression of the superior aspect of orbit may also result in trauma to the optic nerve. Clinical manifestations may include visual loss, PAPILLEDEMA, and an afferent pupillary defect.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
An ocular disease, occurring in many forms, having as its primary characteristics an unstable or a sustained increase in the intraocular pressure which the eye cannot withstand without damage to its structure or impairment of its function. The consequences of the increased pressure may be manifested in a variety of symptoms, depending upon type and severity, such as excavation of the optic disk, hardness of the eyeball, corneal anesthesia, reduced visual acuity, seeing of colored halos around lights, disturbed dark adaptation, visual field defects, and headaches. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Clusters of multipolar neurons surrounded by a capsule of loosely organized CONNECTIVE TISSUE located outside the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Photosensitive proteins expressed in the ROD PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are the protein components of rod photoreceptor pigments such as RHODOPSIN.
Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.
The anterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which coordinate the general behavioral orienting responses to visual stimuli, such as whole-body turning, and reaching.
INTERNEURONS of the vertebrate RETINA. They integrate, modulate, and interpose a temporal domain in the visual message presented to the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS, with which they synapse in the inner plexiform layer.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
Transection or severing of an axon. This type of denervation is used often in experimental studies on neuronal physiology and neuronal death or survival, toward an understanding of nervous system disease.
Treatment of muscles and nerves under pressure as a result of crush injuries.
The X-shaped structure formed by the meeting of the two optic nerves. At the optic chiasm the fibers from the medial part of each retina cross to project to the other side of the brain while the lateral retinal fibers continue on the same side. As a result each half of the brain receives information about the contralateral visual field from both eyes.
The pressure of the fluids in the eye.
Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.
The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
A condition in which the intraocular pressure is elevated above normal and which may lead to glaucoma.
The conversion of absorbed light energy into molecular signals.
Conditions which produce injury or dysfunction of the second cranial or optic nerve, which is generally considered a component of the central nervous system. Damage to optic nerve fibers may occur at or near their origin in the retina, at the optic disk, or in the nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract, or lateral geniculate nuclei. Clinical manifestations may include decreased visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, impaired color vision, and an afferent pupillary defect.
Clusters of neurons in the somatic peripheral nervous system which contain the cell bodies of sensory nerve axons. Sensory ganglia may also have intrinsic interneurons and non-neuronal supporting cells.
Ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system including the paravertebral and the prevertebral ganglia. Among these are the sympathetic chain ganglia, the superior, middle, and inferior cervical ganglia, and the aorticorenal, celiac, and stellate ganglia.
Clusters of neurons and their processes in the autonomic nervous system. In the autonomic ganglia, the preganglionic fibers from the central nervous system synapse onto the neurons whose axons are the postganglionic fibers innervating target organs. The ganglia also contain intrinsic neurons and supporting cells and preganglionic fibers passing through to other ganglia.
Recording of electric potentials in the retina after stimulation by light.
Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.
The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
A retrogressive pathological change in the retina, focal or generalized, caused by genetic defects, inflammation, trauma, vascular disease, or aging. Degeneration affecting predominantly the macula lutea of the retina is MACULAR DEGENERATION. (Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p304)
Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.
Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.
A genus of the Ambystomatidae family. The best known species are the axolotl AMBYSTOMA MEXICANUM and the closely related tiger salamander Ambystoma tigrinum. They may retain gills and remain aquatic without developing all of the adult characteristics. However, under proper changes in the environment they metamorphose.
Dominant optic atrophy is a hereditary optic neuropathy causing decreased visual acuity, color vision deficits, a centrocecal scotoma, and optic nerve pallor (Hum. Genet. 1998; 102: 79-86). Mutations leading to this condition have been mapped to the OPA1 gene at chromosome 3q28-q29. OPA1 codes for a dynamin-related GTPase that localizes to mitochondria.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Part of the DIENCEPHALON inferior to the caudal end of the dorsal THALAMUS. Includes the lateral geniculate body which relays visual impulses from the OPTIC TRACT to the calcarine cortex, and the medial geniculate body which relays auditory impulses from the lateral lemniscus to the AUDITORY CORTEX.
Pathologic changes that occur in the axon and cell body of a neuron proximal to an axonal lesion. The process is characterized by central chromatolysis which features flattening and displacement of the nucleus, loss of Nissl bodies, and cellular edema. Central chromatolysis primarily occurs in lower motor neurons.
A family of mammalian POU domain factors that are expressed predominately in NEURONS.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.
Common name for Carassius auratus, a type of carp (CARPS).
The semilunar-shaped ganglion containing the cells of origin of most of the sensory fibers of the trigeminal nerve. It is situated within the dural cleft on the cerebral surface of the petrous portion of the temporal bone and gives off the ophthalmic, maxillary, and part of the mandibular nerves.
Ganglia of the parasympathetic nervous system, including the ciliary, pterygopalatine, submandibular, and otic ganglia in the cranial region and intrinsic (terminal) ganglia associated with target organs in the thorax and abdomen.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A POU domain factor that activates neuronal cell GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES encoding NEUROFILAMENT PROTEINS, alpha internexin, and SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25. Mutations in the Brn-3c gene have been associated with DEAFNESS.
Photosensitive afferent neurons located primarily within the FOVEA CENTRALIS of the MACULA LUTEA. There are three major types of cone cells (red, blue, and green) whose photopigments have different spectral sensitivity curves. Retinal cone cells operate in daylight vision (at photopic intensities) providing color recognition and central visual acuity.
INTERNEURONS of the vertebrate RETINA containing two processes. They receive inputs from the RETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS and send outputs to the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS. The bipolar cells also make lateral connections in the retina with the RETINAL HORIZONTAL CELLS and with the AMACRINE CELLS.
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
Constriction of the pupil in response to light stimulation of the retina. It refers also to any reflex involving the iris, with resultant alteration of the diameter of the pupil. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Specialized PHOTOTRANSDUCTION neurons in the vertebrates, such as the RETINAL ROD CELLS and the RETINAL CONE CELLS. Non-visual photoreceptor neurons have been reported in the deep brain, the PINEAL GLAND and organs of the circadian system.
The adjustment of the eye to variations in the intensity of light. Light adaptation is the adjustment of the eye when the light threshold is increased; DARK ADAPTATION when the light is greatly reduced. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Nerve cells of the RETINA in the pathway of transmitting light signals to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. They include the outer layer of PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS, the intermediate layer of RETINAL BIPOLAR CELLS and AMACRINE CELLS, and the internal layer of RETINAL GANGLION CELLS.
General term for a number of inherited defects of amino acid metabolism in which there is a deficiency or absence of pigment in the eyes, skin, or hair.
A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
An enzyme isolated from horseradish which is able to act as an antigen. It is frequently used as a histochemical tracer for light and electron microscopy. Its antigenicity has permitted its use as a combined antigen and marker in experimental immunology.
Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Adjustment of the eyes under conditions of low light. The sensitivity of the eye to light is increased during dark adaptation.
The electric response evoked in the cerebral cortex by visual stimulation or stimulation of the visual pathways.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The transparent, semigelatinous substance that fills the cavity behind the CRYSTALLINE LENS of the EYE and in front of the RETINA. It is contained in a thin hyaloid membrane and forms about four fifths of the optic globe.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
A member of the nerve growth factor family of trophic factors. In the brain BDNF has a trophic action on retinal, cholinergic, and dopaminergic neurons, and in the peripheral nervous system it acts on both motor and sensory neurons. (From Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.
Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with MICROVILLI. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use OPSINS that activate a PHOSPHODIESTERASE phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a PHOSPHOLIPASE C cascade.
The sensory ganglion of the COCHLEAR NERVE. The cells of the spiral ganglion send fibers peripherally to the cochlear hair cells and centrally to the COCHLEAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM.
Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
The portion of the optic nerve seen in the fundus with the ophthalmoscope. It is formed by the meeting of all the retinal ganglion cell axons as they enter the optic nerve.
Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID that contain one or more amino groups attached to the aliphatic structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobutryrate structure.
An order of the Amphibia class which includes salamanders and newts. They are characterized by usually having slim bodies and tails, four limbs of about equal size (except in Sirenidae), and a reduction in skull bones.
In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.
Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.
The process by which chemical compounds provide protection to cells against harmful agents.
Type III intermediate filament proteins that assemble into neurofilaments, the major cytoskeletal element in nerve axons and dendrites. They consist of three distinct polypeptides, the neurofilament triplet. Types I, II, and IV intermediate filament proteins form other cytoskeletal elements such as keratins and lamins. It appears that the metabolism of neurofilaments is disturbed in Alzheimer's disease, as indicated by the presence of neurofilament epitopes in the neurofibrillary tangles, as well as by the severe reduction of the expression of the gene for the light neurofilament subunit of the neurofilament triplet in brains of Alzheimer's patients. (Can J Neurol Sci 1990 Aug;17(3):302)
An amino acid that, as the D-isomer, is the defining agonist for the NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, NMDA).
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.
Compounds that contain three methine groups. They are frequently used as cationic dyes used for differential staining of biological materials.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The blood vessels which supply and drain the RETINA.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The administration of substances into the VITREOUS BODY of the eye with a hypodermic syringe.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Bulbous enlargement of the growing tip of nerve axons and dendrites. They are crucial to neuronal development because of their pathfinding ability and their role in synaptogenesis.
A paravertebral sympathetic ganglion formed by the fusion of the inferior cervical and first thoracic ganglia.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
The inferior (caudal) ganglion of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. The unipolar nodose ganglion cells are sensory cells with central projections to the medulla and peripheral processes traveling in various branches of the vagus nerve.
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on glycinergic systems. Glycinergic agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation or uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.
Drugs that bind to and activate excitatory amino acid receptors.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A maternally linked genetic disorder that presents in mid-life as acute or subacute central vision loss leading to central scotoma and blindness. The disease has been associated with missense mutations in the mtDNA, in genes for Complex I, III, and IV polypeptides, that can act autonomously or in association with each other to cause the disease. (from Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man,, MIM#535000 (April 17, 2001))
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
An alkaloid found in the seeds of STRYCHNOS NUX-VOMICA. It is a competitive antagonist at glycine receptors and thus a convulsant. It has been used as an analeptic, in the treatment of nonketotic hyperglycinemia and sleep apnea, and as a rat poison.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Photosensitive afferent neurons located in the peripheral retina, with their density increases radially away from the FOVEA CENTRALIS. Being much more sensitive to light than the RETINAL CONE CELLS, the rod cells are responsible for twilight vision (at scotopic intensities) as well as peripheral vision, but provide no color discrimination.
Method of measuring and mapping the scope of vision, from central to peripheral of each eye.
An imaging method using LASERS that is used for mapping subsurface structure. When a reflective site in the sample is at the same optical path length (coherence) as the reference mirror, the detector observes interference fringes.
The ability to detect sharp boundaries (stimuli) and to detect slight changes in luminance at regions without distinct contours. Psychophysical measurements of this visual function are used to evaluate visual acuity and to detect eye disease.
Measurement of ocular tension (INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE) with a tonometer. (Cline, et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
A neurotrophic factor that promotes the survival of various neuronal cell types and may play an important role in the injury response in the nervous system.
Inflammation of the optic nerve. Commonly associated conditions include autoimmune disorders such as MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, infections, and granulomatous diseases. Clinical features include retro-orbital pain that is aggravated by eye movement, loss of color vision, and contrast sensitivity that may progress to severe visual loss, an afferent pupillary defect (Marcus-Gunn pupil), and in some instances optic disc hyperemia and swelling. Inflammation may occur in the portion of the nerve within the globe (neuropapillitis or anterior optic neuritis) or the portion behind the globe (retrobulbar neuritis or posterior optic neuritis).
An eph family receptor found primarily in the nervous system. In the embryonic BRAIN EphB1 receptor expression occurs in the mantle layer and increases with the progression of embryogenesis. In adult brain it is found in the several regions including the CEREBELLUM; CEREBRAL CORTEX; and CAUDATE NUCLEUS; and PUTAMEN.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Semidomesticated variety of European polecat much used for hunting RODENTS and/or RABBITS and as a laboratory animal. It is in the subfamily Mustelinae, family MUSTELIDAE.
Glaucoma in which the angle of the anterior chamber is open and the trabecular meshwork does not encroach on the base of the iris.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Atrophy of the optic disk which may be congenital or acquired. This condition indicates a deficiency in the number of nerve fibers which arise in the RETINA and converge to form the OPTIC DISK; OPTIC NERVE; OPTIC CHIASM; and optic tracts. GLAUCOMA; ISCHEMIA; inflammation, a chronic elevation of intracranial pressure, toxins, optic nerve compression, and inherited conditions (see OPTIC ATROPHIES, HEREDITARY) are relatively common causes of this condition.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A nervous tissue specific protein which is highly expressed in NEURONS during development and NERVE REGENERATION. It has been implicated in neurite outgrowth, long-term potentiation, SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION, and NEUROTRANSMITTER release. (From Neurotoxicology 1994;15(1):41-7) It is also a substrate of PROTEIN KINASE C.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Ischemic injury to the OPTIC NERVE which usually affects the OPTIC DISK (optic neuropathy, anterior ischemic) and less frequently the retrobulbar portion of the nerve (optic neuropathy, posterior ischemic). The injury results from occlusion of arterial blood supply which may result from TEMPORAL ARTERITIS; ATHEROSCLEROSIS; COLLAGEN DISEASES; EMBOLISM; DIABETES MELLITUS; and other conditions. The disease primarily occurs in the sixth decade or later and presents with the sudden onset of painless and usually severe monocular visual loss. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy also features optic disk edema with microhemorrhages. The optic disk appears normal in posterior ischemic optic neuropathy. (Glaser, Neuro-Ophthalmology, 2nd ed, p135)
Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The largest and uppermost of the paravertebral sympathetic ganglia.
Subcellular structures found in nerve cell bodies and DENDRITES. They consist of granular endoplasmic reticulum (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH) and RIBOSOMES.
The aperture in the iris through which light passes.
The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.
NEURONS in the inner nuclear layer of the RETINA that synapse with both the RETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS and the RETINAL BIPOLAR CELLS, as well as other horizontal cells. The horizontal cells modulate the sensory signal.
An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.
A GLYCOINOSITOL PHOSPHOLIPID MEMBRANE ANCHOR containing ephrin found in developing tectum. It has been shown to mediate the bundling of cortical axons and repel the axonal growth of retinal ganglia axons. It is found in a variety of adult tissues of BRAIN; HEART; and KIDNEY.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A family of freshwater fish comprising the minnows or CARPS.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.
An area approximately 1.5 millimeters in diameter within the macula lutea where the retina thins out greatly because of the oblique shifting of all layers except the pigment epithelium layer. It includes the sloping walls of the fovea (clivus) and contains a few rods in its periphery. In its center (foveola) are the cones most adapted to yield high visual acuity, each cone being connected to only one ganglion cell. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Clusters of neuronal cell bodies in invertebrates. Invertebrate ganglia may also contain neuronal processes and non-neuronal supporting cells. Many invertebrate ganglia are favorable subjects for research because they have small numbers of functional neuronal types which can be identified from one animal to another.
A homolog of ALPHA-SYNUCLEIN that plays a role in neurofilament network integrity. It is overexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS and may be involved in modulating AXON architecture during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and in the adult. Gamma-Synuclein may also activate SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS associated with ETS-DOMAIN PROTEIN ELK-1.
Artificial device such as an externally-worn camera attached to a stimulator on the RETINA, OPTIC NERVE, or VISUAL CORTEX, intended to restore or amplify vision.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetylcholine from acetyl-CoA and choline. EC
The technique of using a cryostat or freezing microtome, in which the temperature is regulated to -20 degrees Celsius, to cut ultrathin frozen sections for microscopic (usually, electron microscopic) examination.
A noncompetitive antagonist at GABA-A receptors and thus a convulsant. Picrotoxin blocks the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-activated chloride ionophore. Although it is most often used as a research tool, it has been used as a CNS stimulant and an antidote in poisoning by CNS depressants, especially the barbiturates.
AMANTADINE derivative that has some dopaminergic effects. It has been proposed as an antiparkinson agent.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A GLYCOINOSITOL PHOSPHOLIPID MEMBRANE ANCHOR-containing ephrin with a high affinity for the EPHA3 RECEPTOR. Early in embryogenesis it is expressed at high levels in the MESENCEPHALON; SOMITES; branchial arches, and LIMB BUDS.
NERVE FIBERS which project from the central nervous system to AUTONOMIC GANGLIA. In the sympathetic division most preganglionic fibers originate with neurons in the intermediolateral column of the SPINAL CORD, exit via ventral roots from upper thoracic through lower lumbar segments, and project to the paravertebral ganglia; there they either terminate in SYNAPSES or continue through the SPLANCHNIC NERVES to the prevertebral ganglia. In the parasympathetic division the fibers originate in neurons of the BRAIN STEM and sacral spinal cord. In both divisions the principal transmitter is ACETYLCHOLINE but peptide cotransmitters may also be released.
The sensory ganglion of the facial (7th cranial) nerve. The geniculate ganglion cells send central processes to the brain stem and peripheral processes to the taste buds in the anterior tongue, the soft palate, and the skin of the external auditory meatus and the mastoid process.
The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.
The dorsal portion or roof of the midbrain which is composed of two pairs of bumps, the INFERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPERIOR COLLICULI. These four colliculi are also called the quadrigeminal bodies (TECTUM MESENCEPHALI). They are centers for visual sensorimotor integration.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Mental processing of chromatic signals (COLOR VISION) from the eye by the VISUAL CORTEX where they are converted into symbolic representations. Color perception involves numerous neurons, and is influenced not only by the distribution of wavelengths from the viewed object, but also by its background color and brightness contrast at its boundary.
Specialized junctions between NEURONS which connect the cytoplasm of one neuron to another allowing direct passage of an ion current.
An eph family receptor that is found primarily in adult BRAIN and variety of tissues in the developing embryo tissues. During embryonic development high levels of EphA3 receptor expression is seen in the nervous system and coincides with neuronal cell migration, suggesting a role for this protein in axonal pathfinding.
A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of 16 species inhabiting forests of Africa, Asia, and the islands of Borneo, Philippines, and Celebes.
A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)
A ring of tissue extending from the scleral spur to the ora serrata of the RETINA. It consists of the uveal portion and the epithelial portion. The ciliary muscle is in the uveal portion and the ciliary processes are in the epithelial portion.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.
Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Examination of the interior of the eye with an ophthalmoscope.
A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR; NEUROTROPHIN 3; neurotrophin 4 and neurotrophin 5. It is widely expressed in nervous tissue and plays a role in mediating the effects of neurotrophins on growth and differentiation of neuronal cells.
Involuntary contraction of the muscle fibers innervated by a motor unit. Fasciculations can often by visualized and take the form of a muscle twitch or dimpling under the skin, but usually do not generate sufficient force to move a limb. They may represent a benign condition or occur as a manifestation of MOTOR NEURON DISEASE or PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1294)
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate ADENOSINE A3 RECEPTORS.
Diseases of the BASAL GANGLIA including the PUTAMEN; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; claustrum; AMYGDALA; and CAUDATE NUCLEUS. DYSKINESIAS (most notably involuntary movements and alterations of the rate of movement) represent the primary clinical manifestations of these disorders. Common etiologies include CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES; and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.
Physiological integration of multiple SYNAPTIC POTENTIAL signals to reach the threshold and initiate postsynaptic ACTION POTENTIALS. In spatial summation stimulations from additional synaptic junctions are recruited to generate s response. In temporal summation succeeding stimuli signals are summed up to reach the threshold. The postsynaptic potentials can be either excitatory or inhibitory (EPSP or IPSP).
A form of GLAUCOMA in which chronic optic nerve damage and loss of vision normally attributable to buildup of intraocular pressure occurs despite prevailing conditions of normal intraocular pressure.
The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.
Cell-surface proteins that bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID with high affinity and trigger changes that influence the behavior of cells. GABA-A receptors control chloride channels formed by the receptor complex itself. They are blocked by bicuculline and usually have modulatory sites sensitive to benzodiazepines and barbiturates. GABA-B receptors act through G-proteins on several effector systems, are insensitive to bicuculline, and have a high affinity for L-baclofen.
The study of systems which respond disproportionately (nonlinearly) to initial conditions or perturbing stimuli. Nonlinear systems may exhibit "chaos" which is classically characterized as sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Chaotic systems, while distinguished from more ordered periodic systems, are not random. When their behavior over time is appropriately displayed (in "phase space"), constraints are evident which are described by "strange attractors". Phase space representations of chaotic systems, or strange attractors, usually reveal fractal (FRACTALS) self-similarity across time scales. Natural, including biological, systems often display nonlinear dynamics and chaos.
Processes and properties of the EYE as a whole or of any of its parts.
The first mixed agonist-antagonist analgesic to be marketed. It is an agonist at the kappa and sigma opioid receptors and has a weak antagonist action at the mu receptor. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1991, p97)
The absence of light.
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
A dense intricate feltwork of interwoven fine glial processes, fibrils, synaptic terminals, axons, and dendrites interspersed among the nerve cells in the gray matter of the central nervous system.
Visual impairments limiting one or more of the basic functions of the eye: visual acuity, dark adaptation, color vision, or peripheral vision. These may result from EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; VISUAL PATHWAY diseases; OCCIPITAL LOBE diseases; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS; and other conditions (From Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p132).
Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.

Correlated firing in rabbit retinal ganglion cells. (1/3596)

A ganglion cell's receptive field is defined as that region on the retinal surface in which a light stimulus will produce a response. While neighboring ganglion cells may respond to the same stimulus in a region where their receptive fields overlap, it generally has been assumed that each cell makes an independent decision about whether to fire. Recent recordings from cat and salamander retina using multiple electrodes have challenged this view of independent firing by showing that neighboring ganglion cells have an increased tendency to fire together within +/-5 ms. However, there is still uncertainty about which types of ganglion cells fire together, the mechanisms that produce coordinated spikes, and the overall function of coordinated firing. To address these issues, the responses of up to 80 rabbit retinal ganglion cells were recorded simultaneously using a multielectrode array. Of the 11 classes of rabbit ganglion cells previously identified, coordinated firing was observed in five. Plots of the spike train cross-correlation function suggested that coordinated firing occurred through two mechanisms. In the first mechanism, a spike in an interneuron diverged to produce simultaneous spikes in two ganglion cells. This mechanism predominated in four of the five classes including the ON brisk transient cells. In the second mechanism, ganglion cells appeared to activate each other reciprocally. This was the predominant pattern of correlated firing in OFF brisk transient cells. By comparing the receptive field profiles of ON and OFF brisk transient cells, a peripheral extension of the OFF brisk transient cell receptive field was identified that might be produced by lateral spike spread. Thus an individual OFF brisk transient cell can respond both to a light stimulus directed at the center of its receptive field and to stimuli that activate neighboring OFF brisk transient cells through their receptive field centers.  (+info)

CNTF, not other trophic factors, promotes axonal regeneration of axotomized retinal ganglion cells in adult hamsters. (2/3596)

PURPOSE: To investigate the in vivo effects of trophic factors on the axonal regeneration of axotomized retinal ganglion cells in adult hamsters. METHODS: The left optic nerve was transected intracranially or intraorbitally, and a peripheral nerve graft was apposed or sutured to the axotomized optic nerve to enhance regeneration. Trophic factors were applied intravitreally every 5 days. Animals were allowed to survive for 3 or 4 weeks. Regenerating retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) were labeled by applying the dye Fluoro-Gold to the distal end of the peripheral nerve graft 3 days before the animals were killed. RESULTS: Intravitreal application of ciliary neurotrophic factor substantially enhanced the regeneration of damaged axons into a sciatic nerve graft in both experimental conditions (intracranial and intraorbital optic nerve transections) but did not increase the survival of distally axotomized RGCs. Basic fibroblast growth factor and neurotrophins such as nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, neurotrophin-3, and neurotrophin-4/5 failed to enhance axonal regeneration of distally axotomized RGCs. CONCLUSIONS: Neurons of the adult central nervous system can regenerate in response to trophic supply after injury, and ciliary neurotrophic factor is at least one of the trophic factors that can promote axonal regeneration of axotomized RGCs.  (+info)

Pilocarpine toxicity in retinal ganglion cells. (3/3596)

PURPOSE: Muscarinic agents reduce intraocular pressure by enhancing aqueous outflow, probably by stimulating ciliary muscle contraction. However, pilocarpine is a well characterized neurotoxin and is widely used to generate animal seizure models. It was therefore investigated whether pilocarpine was also toxic to retinal ganglion cells. METHODS: Dissociated whole retinal preparations were prepared from postnatal day 16 to 19 rats. Retinal ganglion cells had been previously back-labeled with a fluorescent tracer. Retinal cells were incubated with pilocarpine, lithium, and inositol derivatives, and viability of the retrogradely labeled retinal ganglion cells was assayed after 24 hours. RESULTS: Pilocarpine was toxic to retinal ganglion cells in a dose-dependent fashion. This toxicity was potentiated by lithium and blocked by epi- and myo-inositol. CONCLUSIONS: Pilocarpine is toxic to retinal ganglion cells in a mixed culture assay. This toxicity appears to depend on the inositol pathway and is similar to its mode of action in other neurons. However, 0.4 mM pilocarpine (the lowest concentration that did not affect ganglion cell survival) is roughly 1000-fold higher than the vitreal concentration and 20-fold higher than the scleral concentration that can be obtained with topical administration of 2% pilocarpine in the rabbit eye.  (+info)

Retinal neurogenesis: the formation of the initial central patch of postmitotic cells. (4/3596)

We have investigated the relationship between the birthdate and the onset of differentiation of neurons in the embryonic zebrafish neural retina. Birthdates were established by a single injection of bromodeoxyuridine into embryos of closely spaced ages. Differentiation was revealed in the same embryos with a neuron-specific antibody, zn12. The first bromodeoxyuridine-negative (postmitotic) cells occupied the ganglion cell layer of ventronasal retina, where they formed a small cluster of 10 cells or less that included the first zn12-positive cells (neurons). New cells were recruited to both populations (bromodeoxyuridine-negative and zn12-positive) along the same front, similar to the unfolding of a fan, to produce a circular central patch of hundreds of cells in the ganglion cell layer about 9 h later. Thus the formation of this central patch, previously considered as the start of retinal neurogenesis, was actually a secondary event, with a developmental history of its own. The first neurons outside the ganglion cell layer also appeared in ventronasal retina, indicating that the ventronasal region was the site of initiation of all retinal neurogenesis. Within a column (a small cluster of neuroepithelial cells), postmitotic cells appeared first in the ganglion cell layer, then the inner nuclear layer, and then the outer nuclear layer, so cell birthday and cell fate were correlated within a column. The terminal mitoses occurred in three bursts separated by two 10-h intervals during which proliferation continued without terminal mitoses.  (+info)

Modulation of glycine receptors in retinal ganglion cells by zinc. (5/3596)

Effects of zinc, an endogenous neuromodulator in the central nervous system, on glycine receptors (GlyRs) in retinal ganglion cells were investigated by using the whole-cell voltage-clamp technique. Zn2+ at low concentration (<2 microM) potentiated the glycine-induced chloride current and at higher concentration (>10 microM) suppressed it. This biphasic regulatory action of zinc acted selectively on the fast component of the glycine-induced current mediated by the strychnine-sensitive GlyRs, but not on the slow component mediated by the 5,7-dichlorokynurenic acid-sensitive GlyRs. Dose-response studies showed that 1 microM Zn2+ increased the maximum glycine response (I approximately) and shifted the EC50 to the left, suggesting that Zn2+ at low concentrations acts as an allosteric activator of the strychnine-sensitive GlyRs. Zn2+ at a concentration of 100 microM did not alter I approximately and shifted the EC50 to the right, indicating that Zn2+ at high concentrations acts as a competitive inhibitor of the GlyRs. Physiological functions of zinc modulation of GlyRs in retinal ganglion cells are discussed.  (+info)

Action potentials in the dendrites of retinal ganglion cells. (6/3596)

The somas and dendrites of intact retinal ganglion cells were exposed by enzymatic removal of the overlying endfeet of the Muller glia. Simultaneous whole cell patch recordings were made from a ganglion cell's dendrite and the cell's soma. When a dendrite was stimulated with depolarizing current, impulses often propagated to the soma, where they appeared as a mixture of small depolarizations and action potentials. When the soma was stimulated, action potentials always propagated back through the dendrite. The site of initiation of action potentials, as judged by their timing, could be shifted between soma and dendrite by changing the site of stimulation. Applying QX-314 to the soma could eliminate somatic action potentials while leaving dendritic impulses intact. The absolute amplitudes of the dendritic action potentials varied somewhat at different distances from the soma, and it is not clear whether these variations are real or technical. Nonetheless, the qualitative experiments clearly suggest that the dendrites of retinal ganglion cells generate regenerative Na+ action potentials, at least in response to large direct depolarizations.  (+info)

Immunohistological studies of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 6-deficient mice show no abnormality of retinal cell organization and ganglion cell maturation. (7/3596)

Immature retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) initially show a multistratified dendritic pattern, and, during the postnatal period, these dendrites gradually monostratify into ON and OFF sublaminae. The selective agonist of group III metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR), L-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (L-AP-4), hyperpolarizes ON bipolar cells and reduces glutamate release. On the basis of L-AP-4-evoked inhibitory effects on ON-OFF segregation of developing RGCs, it has been hypothesized that glutamate-mediated synaptic activity is crucial for formation of the ON-OFF network. Gene-targeted ablation of mGluR6 specifically expressed in ON bipolar cells blocks normal ON responses but has been predicted to enhance glutamate release from ON bipolar cells. The mGluR6 knock-out mouse therefore provides a unique opportunity to investigate whether glutamate release and ON responses are important factors in the development of ON-OFF segregation. The combination of several different morphological analyses indicates that ON bipolar cells, as well as several distinct amacrine cells, in mGluR6 knock-out mice are normally distributed and correctly extend their terminals to defined retinal laminae. Importantly, both alpha and delta RGCs in adult mGluR6 knock-out mice are found monostratified into cell type-specific layers. Furthermore, no difference between wild-type and mGluR6 knock-out mice is observed in the maturation and dendritic stratification of developing RGCs. Hence, despite a deficit in normal ON responses, mGluR6 deficiency causes no abnormality in the retinal cellular organization nor in the stratifications of both ON bipolar cells and developing and mature RGCs. Based on these findings, we discuss several possible mechanisms that may underlie ON-OFF segregation of RGCs.  (+info)

Differential effects of apamin- and charybdotoxin-sensitive K+ conductances on spontaneous discharge patterns of developing retinal ganglion cells. (8/3596)

The spontaneous discharge patterns of developing retinal ganglion cells are thought to play a crucial role in the refinement of early retinofugal projections. To investigate the contributions of intrinsic membrane properties to the spontaneous activity of developing ganglion cells, we assessed the effects of blocking large and small calcium-activated potassium conductances on the temporal pattern of such discharges by means of patch-clamp recordings from the intact retina of developing ferrets. Application of apamin and charybdotoxin (CTX), which selectively block the small and large calcium-activated potassium channels, respectively, resulted in significant changes in spontaneous firings. In cells recorded from the oldest animals [postnatal day 30 (P30)-P45], which manifested relatively sustained discharge patterns, application of either blocker induced bursting activity. With CTX the bursts were highly periodic, short in duration, and of high frequency. In contrast, with apamin the interburst intervals were longer, less regular, and lower in overall spike frequency. These differences between the effects of the two blockers on spontaneous activity were documented by spectral analysis of discharge patterns. Filling cells from which recordings were made with Lucifer yellow revealed that these effects were obtained in all three morphological classes of cells: alpha, beta, and gamma. These findings provide the first evidence that apamin- and CTX-sensitive K+ conductances can have differential effects on the spontaneous discharge patterns of retinal ganglion cells. Remarkably, the bursts of activity obtained after apamin application in more mature neurons appeared very similar to the spontaneous bursting patterns observed in developing neurons. These findings suggest that the maturation of calcium-activated potassium channels, particularly the apamin-sensitive conductance, may contribute to the changes in spontaneous firings exhibited by retinal ganglion cells during the course of normal development.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular biology of retinal ganglion cells. AU - Xiang, Mengqing. AU - Zhou, Hao. AU - Nathans, Jeremy. PY - 1996/1/23. Y1 - 1996/1/23. N2 - Retinal ganglion cells are the output neurons that encode and transmit information from the eye to the brain. Their diverse physiologic and anatomic properties have been intensively studied and appear to account well for a number of psychophysical phenomena such as lateral inhibition and chromatic opponency. In this paper, we summarize our current view of retinal ganglion cell properties and pose a number of questions regarding underlying molecular mechanisms. As an example of one approach to understanding molecular mechanisms, we describe recent work on several POU domain transcription factors that are expressed in subsets of retinal ganglion cells and that appear to be involved in ganglion cell development.. AB - Retinal ganglion cells are the output neurons that encode and transmit information from the eye to the brain. Their diverse ...
A number of studies have reported the selective loss of larger retinal ganglion cells in glaucoma.1-4 Analysis of changes in the axon size distribution and cell soma size distribution show a reduction in the proportion of cells with larger soma sizes, suggesting a selective loss of cells belonging to the magnocellular (parasol) cell class. The results of the present study, based on the proportion of identifiable parasol to midget retinal ganglion cells in the primate model of experimental glaucoma, were not consistent with this being the predominant pattern of retinal ganglion cell death. Cell soma size analysis also revealed populations of large retinal ganglion cells in areas of high cell loss. These findings warrant consideration of the technical aspects of the present study.. The principal advantage of implanting tracer directly into the optic nerve is that it allows for non-selective labelling of retinal ganglion cells and permits an estimate of the proportion of relative cell types6 ...
DeParis, S W; Caprara, C; Grimm, C (2012). Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells are resistant to N-methyl-D-aspartic acid excitotoxicity. Molecular Vision, 18:2814-2827. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Gene expression profile of the adult human retinal ganglion cell layer. AU - Kim, Chan Y.. AU - Kuehn, Markus H.. AU - Clark, Abbot F.. AU - Kwon, Young H.. PY - 2006/12/22. Y1 - 2006/12/22. N2 - Purpose: Pathophysiological events in the retinal ganglion cell layer (GCL) are a prominent feature of several optic neuropathies including glaucoma. The purpose of this study was to identify and catalog genes whose expression in the human retina is restricted to the GCL. Methods: Laser capture microdissection (LCM) technology was used to isolate tissue from the perimacular retina of three human donors without retinal or optic nerve disease. RNA was isolated from the (1) retinal GCL and (2) the inner and outer nuclear layers of the same retina, and the gene expression profiles of both fractions were determined using Affymetrix Hu133Plus 2.0 GeneChips. Data were analyzed to identify those genes whose expression is substantially more prevalent in the GCL when compared to the outer retinal ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The pathogenesis of retinal ganglia cell apoptosis induced by glaucoma. AU - Pang, Iok-Hou. AU - Li, Byron. AU - Clark, Abbot. PY - 2004/7/1. Y1 - 2004/7/1. UR - M3 - Review article. C2 - 15454071. AN - SCOPUS:28744438258. VL - 40. SP - 495. EP - 499. JO - Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology. JF - Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology. SN - 0412-4081. IS - 7. ER - ...
Tetrandrine protects mouse retinal ganglion cells from ischemic injury Weiyi Li,1,2 Chen Yang,2 Jing Lu,2 Ping Huang,1 Colin J Barnstable,2 Chun Zhang,1 Samuel S Zhang2,3 1Department of Ophthalmology, Peking University Third Hospital, Peking University Eye Center, Beijing, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Neural and Behavioral Sciences, Penn State University, Hershey, PA, USA; 3Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore Abstract: This study aimed to determine the protective effects of tetrandrine (Tet) on murine ischemia-injured retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). For this, we used serum deprivation cell model, glutamate and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced RGC-5 cell death models, and staurosporine-differentiated neuron-like RGC-5 in vitro. We also investigated cell survival of purified primary-cultured RGCs treated with Tet. An in vivo retinal ischemia/reperfusion model was used to examine RGC survival after Tet administration 1 day before ischemia. We found
The development of the nervous system is dependent on a complex set of signals whose precise co-ordination ensures that the correct number of neurones are generated. This regulation is achieved through a variety of cues that influence both the generation and the maintenance of neurones during development. We show that in the chick embryo, stratified retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are themselves responsible for providing the signals that control the number of RGCs that are generated, both by inhibiting the generation of new ganglion cells and by killing incoming migratory ganglion cells. Selective toxicological ablation of RGCs in the chick embryo resulted in the achronic generation of ganglion cells, which eventually led to the repopulation of the ganglion cell layer and a large decrease in the physiological cell death affecting postmitotic migratory neurones. Interestingly, the application of exogenous NGF reversed the effects of ganglion cell ablation on ganglion cell death. Because the only ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - An efficient method that reveals both the dendrites and the soma mosaics of retinal ganglion cells. AU - Zhan, Xue J.. AU - Troy, John B. PY - 1997/3/1. Y1 - 1997/3/1. N2 - A method of using neurobiotin to stain both the dendrites and the soma mosaics of retinal ganglion cells in fresh retinae is described. This method is simple to use and efficient in revealing morphological details for a large number of retinal ganglion cells. It has five advantages over currently available staining methods. (1) It stains all ganglion cells in the whole retina or in a selected retinal area, permitting ganglion cell distributions across the retina to be obtained. (2) It reveals cell dendrites in great detail, especially in regions outside the area centralis. The dendritic field mosaics and, therefore the dendritic field coverage factors, of different ganglion cell types across the whole retina can be obtained easily. (3) It works reliably, efficiently, and does not require the expensive set-up ...
A retinal ganglion cell (RGC) is a type of neuron located near the inner surface (the ganglion cell layer) of the retina of the eye. It receives visual information from photoreceptors via two intermediate neuron types: bipolar cells and retina amacrine cells. Retina amacrine cells, particularly narrow field cells, are important for creating functional subunits within the ganglion cell layer and making it so that ganglion cells can observe a small dot moving a small distance. Retinal ganglion cells collectively transmit image-forming and non-image forming visual information from the retina in the form of action potential to several regions in the thalamus, hypothalamus, and mesencephalon, or midbrain. Retinal ganglion cells vary significantly in terms of their size, connections, and responses to visual stimulation but they all share the defining property of having a long axon that extends into the brain. These axons form the optic nerve, optic chiasm, and optic tract. A small percentage of ...
Autophagy is an essential recycling pathway implicated in neurodegeneration either as a pro-survival or a pro-death mechanism. Its role after axonal injury is still uncertain. Axotomy of the optic nerve is a classical model of neurodegeneration. It induces retinal ganglion cell death, a process also occurring in glaucoma and other optic neuropathies. We analyzed autophagy induction and cell survival following optic nerve transection (ONT) in mice. Our results demonstrate activation of autophagy shortly after axotomy with autophagosome formation, upregulation of the autophagy regulator Atg5 and apoptotic death of 50% of the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) after 5 days. Genetic downregulation of autophagy using knockout mice for Atg4B (another regulator of autophagy) or with specific deletion of Atg5 in retinal ganglion cells, using the Atg5flox/flox mice reduces cell survival after ONT, whereas pharmacological induction of autophagy in vivo increases the number of surviving cells. In conclusion, ...
Action potentials in retinal ganglion cells are initiated at the site of maximal curvature of the extracellular potential.: We present a framework how to estima
Purpose : Previously we demonstrated that the mouse retinal ganglion cell (GC) space-time receptive field can be separated into five subfilters. To elucidate the anatomic underpinnings of each subfilter, we studied their functional alteration with removal of photoreceptor to ON-bipolar cell (BC) signaling using the drug LAP4. This approach allows us to answer fundamental questions such as the nature of the biphasic temporal filtering and antagonistic surround. Methods : Flat-mount retinal preparations from three-month-old dark-adapted C57/B6 mice were placed onto a multi-electrode array (MEA) for multicellular recording. Retinas were first perfused with oxygenated solution, followed by 20 μM LAP4 solution. Receptive fields (RFs) were mapped using a binary white noise checkerboard stimulus with 50 μm squares presented at 15 Hz. Spike-triggered averages (STA) were used to identify the average stimulus preceding a spike in each condition. Subsequent model fitting identified tuning properties. ...
Abstract: : Purpose: To examine whether cultured RPE cells can be coaxed to differentiate towards retinal ganglion cells using chick ath5 (cath5), either alone or in combination with bFGF. Vertebrate ath5 is a homologue of the Drosophila proneural gene «atonal» and plays an important role in the production of retinal ganglion cells. Previously, we reported that bFGF induced RPE cells to express RA4 immunoreactivity. But bFGF alone did not induce the expression of additional markers or the development of a neural morphology typical of retinal ganglion cells. Methods: RPE was isolated from day 6 chick embryos, and cultured as dissociated cells in the presence of 10% fetal calf serum. RPE cell culture was infected with retrovirus RCAS-cath5 to achieve ectopic expression of cath5. RPE transdifferentiation was assayed using chick retinal ganglion cell markers, including monoclonal antibodies RA4, 4H6, 3A10, and MAP2. Results: Rather surprisingly, ectopic expression of cath5 in cultured RPE cells ...
Diabetic retinopathy is a common diabetic eye disease caused by changes in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). It is an ocular manifestation of systemic disease, which affects up to 80% of all patients who have had diabetes for 10 years or more. The genetically diabetic db/db mouse, as a model of type-2 diabetes, shows diabetic retinopathy induced by apoptosis of RGCs. Astaxanthin is a carotenoid with powerful antioxidant properties that exists naturally in various plants, algae and seafood. Here, astaxanthin was shown to reduce the apoptosis of RGCs and improve the levels of oxidative stress markers, including superoxide anion, malondialdehyde (MDA, a marker of lipid peroxidation), 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, indicator of oxidative DNA damage) and MnSOD (manganese superoxide dismutase) activity in the retinal tissue of db/db mouse. In addition, astaxanthin attenuated hydrogen peroxide(H2O2)-induced apoptosis in the transformed rat retinal ganglion cell line RGC-5. Therefore, astaxanthin may be
Dr. Adriana Di Polos laboratory focuses on the pathobiology of retinal ganglion cells, the neurons that convey visual information from the retina to the brain via their axons in the optic nerve. Loss of vision in glaucoma, the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide, is caused by the death of retinal ganglion cells. At present, there is no cure for glaucoma and current treatments are often insufficient to stop disease progression. We seek to understand the mechanisms underlying retinal ganglion cell death and to develop novel therapeutics to preserve and restore vision.. ...
The respective midget bipolar cells are almost solely synaptic upon single midget ganglion cells (Fig. 14), except in the very central fovea where a few midget bipolar synapses are shared with neighboring midget ganglion cells because of the crowding of neurons and neuropil (Fig. 13). Since we know (Nelson et al., 1978) that ganglion cells branching in sublamina a will be OFF center and those branching in sublamina b will be ON center we can be sure that midget ganglion cells branching close to the amacrine cell layer will be OFF center and those branching close to the ganglion cell layer will be ON center. This ON and OFF midget ganglion cell organization in primate has now been proved conclusively by Dacey and coauthors (2000). So it appears that in the foveal region and out to the borders of the central retina (about 4 mm from the fovea center) the midget pathways of the human fovea are organized in the following manner: 1 cone to 2 midget bipolar cells (ON- and OFF-center bipolar types) to 2 ...
As described above, ON/OFF DS ganglion cells can be divided into 4 subtypes differing in their directional preference, ventral, dorsal, nasal, or temporal. Recent research has identified markers for distinguishing between the different subtypes, and for separating ON/OFF DSGCs from other retinal ganglion cells. These markers are independent of experience, and suggest a method for how these cells obtain different inputs. Recent research has lead to the development of transgenic mouse lines that selectively mark ON/OFF DSGCs that prefer ventral or nasal motion and another line that marks ventral and dorsal preferring DSGCs. These lines were used to identify cell surface molecules (including Cadherin 6, CollagenXXV1, and Matrix metalloprotease 17), that allow each of the four types of ON/OFF DSGCs to be differentiated. A neuropeptide, CART (cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript) has been found to differentiate ON/OFF DSGCs from all other retinal ganglion cells. Strikingly, these patterns of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Photon capture and signalling by melanopsin retinal ganglion cells. AU - Do, Michael Tri H.. AU - Kang, Shin H.. AU - Xue, Tian. AU - Zhong, Haining. AU - Liao, Hsi Wen. AU - Bergles, Dwight E.. AU - Yau, King Wai. PY - 2009/1/15. Y1 - 2009/1/15. N2 - A subset of retinal ganglion cells has recently been discovered to be intrinsically photosensitive, with melanopsin as the pigment. These cells project primarily to brain centres for non-image-forming visual functions such as the pupillary light reflex and circadian photoentrainment. How well they signal intrinsic light absorption to drive behaviour remains unclear. Here we report fundamental parameters governing their intrinsic light responses and associated spike generation. The membrane density of melanopsin is 10 4-fold lower than that of rod and cone pigments, resulting in a very low photon catch and a phototransducing role only in relatively bright light. Nonetheless, each captured photon elicits a large and extraordinarily ...
Cellular Basis for Glaucoma. Researchers at Catalyst for a Cure (CFC) consortium, a division of the Glaucoma Research Foundation, have announced their continuing work in 2011: studying how and why retinal ganglion cells degenerate in people with glaucoma. Retinal ganglion cells are types of neuron located near the inner surface eyes retina. They receive visual images from the photoreceptors and transmit the information to the brain.. These CFC researchers are looking at the onset and progression of glaucoma at the level of the cells and molecular pathways. They have noted that the degeneration of the retinal ganglion cells is related to the loss of connectivity that accompanies glaucoma. According to the CFC: These degenerative changes compromise the neurons ability to process and transmit visual information well before the neurons actually die. The team has determined that the retinal ganglion cells are particularly vulnerable early in the development of glaucoma, when these cells are more ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Circuit Mechanisms of a Retinal Ganglion Cell with Stimulus-Dependent Response Latency and Activation Beyond Its Dendrites. AU - Mani, Adam. AU - Schwartz, Gregory William. PY - 2017/2/20. Y1 - 2017/2/20. N2 - Center-surround antagonism has been used as the canonical model to describe receptive fields of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) for decades. We describe a newly identified RGC type in the mouse, called the ON delayed (OND) RGC, with receptive field properties that deviate from center-surround organization. Responding with an unusually long latency to light stimulation, OND RGCs respond earlier as the visual stimulus increases in size. Furthermore, OND RGCs are excited by light falling far beyond their dendrites. We unravel details of the circuit mechanisms behind these phenomena, revealing new roles for inhibition in controlling both temporal and spatial receptive field properties. The non-canonical receptive field properties of the OND RGC-integration of long temporal and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Math5 is required for retinal ganglion cell and optic nerve formation. AU - Brown, Nadean L. AU - Patel, S.. AU - Brzezinski, J.. AU - Glaser, Thomas M. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - The vertebrate retina contains seven major neuronal and glial cell types in an interconnected network that collects, processes and sends visual signals through the optic nerve to the brain. Retinal neuron differentiation is thought to require both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, yet few intrinsic gene products have been identified that direct this process. Math5 (Atoh7) encodes a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor that is specifically expressed by mouse retinal progenitors. Math5 is highly homologous to atonal, which is critically required for R8 neuron formation during Drosophila eye development. Like R8 cells in the fly eye, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are the first neurons in the vertebrate eye. Here we show that Math5 mutant mice are fully viable, yet lack RGCs and optic nerves. ...
NEURON mod files for the K-A current from the papers: (model) Benison G, Keizer J, Chalupa LM, Robinson DW. Modeling temporal behavior of postnatal cat retinal ganglion cells. J.Theor.Biol. 210:187-199 (2001) and (experiment) Skaliora I, Robinson DW, Scobey RP, Chalupa LM., Properties of K+ conductances in cat retinal ganglion cells during the period of activity-mediated refinements in retinofugal pathways. Eur.J.Neurosci. 7:1558-1568 (1995 ...
Fig. 50. The physiological responses of melanopsin ganglion cells to light. The response on the left shows the melanopsin cells slow onset steady state depolarizing spiking that occurs to a light flash as compared the slow but faster onset hyperpolarization of the green cones in the mouse retina. The action spectra to the right show the melanopsin ganglion cell to have a peak sensitivity to light of 484 nm compared with the rods and other cone types in the mouse. After Berson, 2003. Ralph Nelson. Last Updated: April 10, 2007.. References:. Ammermuller J, Muller J, Kolb H. The organization of the turtle inner retina. II. Analysis of color-coded and directionally selective cells. J Comp Neurol.1995;358:35-62. [PubMed]. Amthor FR, Oyster CW, Takahashi ES. Morphology of ON-OFF direction-selective ganglion cells in the rabbit retina. Brain Res. 1984;298:187-190. [PubMed]. Amthor FR, Takahashi ES, Oyster CW. Morphologies of rabbit retinal ganglion cells with concentric receptive fields. J Comp ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Time-Course and Extent of Retinal Ganglion Cell Death Following Ablation of the Superior Colliculus in Neonatal Rats. AU - Harvey, A.R.. AU - Robertson, Donald. PY - 1992. Y1 - 1992. M3 - Article. VL - 325. SP - 83. EP - 94. JO - The Journal of Comparative Neurology. JF - The Journal of Comparative Neurology. SN - 0021-9967. ER - ...
TY - GEN. T1 - Cycloheximide reduces retinal ganglion cell death induced by tectal ablation in neonatal rats. AU - Harvey, Alan. AU - Cui, Q.. AU - Robertson, Donald. PY - 1993. Y1 - 1993. M3 - Conference paper. VL - 4. SP - 36. EP - 36. BT - Australian Neuroscience Society Meeting. A2 - Powis, D.. PB - Australian Neuroscience Society. CY - Melbourne. ER - ...
Roh M, Zhang Y, Murakami Y, Thanos A, Lee SC, Vavvas DG, Benowitz LI, Miller JW. Etanercept, a widely used inhibitor of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), prevents retinal ganglion cell loss in a rat model of glaucoma. PLoS One 2012;7(7):e40065.
|span||b|Purpose:|/b| The present study examines the role of |i|Sox11|/i| in the initial response of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) to axon damage and in optic nerve regeneration in mouse. |b|Methods:|/b| Markers of retinal injury were identified using the normal retina database and optic nerve crush (ONC)|/span| …
TY - JOUR. T1 - Data descriptor. T2 - Single cell RNA sequencing of stem cell-derived retinal ganglion cells. AU - Daniszewski, Maciej. AU - Senabouth, Anne. AU - Nguyen, Quan H.. AU - Crombie, Duncan E.. AU - Lukowski, Samuel W.. AU - Kulkarni, Tejal. AU - Sluch, Valentin M.. AU - Jabbari, Jafar S.. AU - Chamling, Xitiz. AU - Zack, Donald J.. AU - Pébay, Alice. AU - Powell, Joseph E.. AU - Hewitt, Alex W.. PY - 2018/2/13. Y1 - 2018/2/13. N2 - We used single cell sequencing technology to characterize the transcriptomes of 1,174 human embryonic stem cell-derived retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) at the single cell level. The human embryonic stem cell line BRN3B-mCherry (A81-H7), was differentiated to RGCs using a guided differentiation approach. Cells were harvested at day 36 and prepared for single cell RNA sequencing. Our data indicates the presence of three distinct subpopulations of cells, with various degrees of maturity. One cluster of 288 cells showed increased expression of genes involved in ...
Retinal ganglion cells represent the output neurons of the retina. They are responsible for integrating electrical signals that originate with the photoreceptors and, via their axons that comprise the optic nerve, transmit that information to higher visual centers of the brain. The retinal ganglion cells reside on the inner surface of the retina and their axons course across
Mouse vision is based on the parallel output of more than 30 functional types of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Little is known about how representations of visual information change between retina and dorsolateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) of the thalamus, the main relay between retina and cortex. Here, we functionally characterized responses of retrogradely labeled dLGN-projecting RGCs and dLGN neurons to the same set of visual stimuli. We found that many of the previously identified functional RGC types innervate dLGN, which maintained a high degree of functional diversity. Using a linear model to assess functional connectivity between RGC types and dLGN neurons, we found that responses of dLGN neurons could be predicted as linear combination of inputs from on average five RGC types, but only two of those had the strongest functional impact. Thus, mouse dLGN receives functional input from a diverse population of RGC types with limited convergence. ...
Retinae from species of six orders of mammals (table 1) were processed by an on-the-slide neurofibrillar staining method to establish whether alpha-type ganglion cells are generally present in placental mammals. Alpha cells of the domestic cat, where they were first defined as a type, are used as a standard of reference. Alpha cells were found in all the twenty species examined; characteristically they have the largest somata and large dendritic fields with a typical branching pattern. In keeping with the common morphology there are inner and outer stratifying subpopulations and therefore a presumptive on-centre and off-centre responsiveness to light. Depending on the species, alpha cells form between 1 and 4% of the ganglion-cell population and their dendritic fields cover the retina three to four times. The morphology of alpha ganglion cells, and many of their quantitative features, are conserved in mammals coming from different habitats and having a wide variety of behaviours. Because it ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Investigating structural and biochemical correlates of ganglion cell dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. AU - Bui, Bang. AU - Loeliger, Michelle. AU - Thomas, Merlin. AU - Vingrys, Algis. AU - Rees, Sandra. AU - Nguyen, Christine. AU - He, Zheng. AU - Tolcos, Mary. PY - 2009. Y1 - 2009. N2 - The aim of this study was to determine whether inner retinal dysfunction in diabetic rats is correlated with structural and/or biochemical changes in the retina and optic nerve. Using the electroretinogram (ERG; -5.83 to 1.28 log cd.s.m(-2)) retinal function (photoreceptor, bipolar, amacrine and ganglion cell components) was measured in control (n=13; citrate buffer) and diabetic (n=13; streptozotocin, STZ, 50 mg kg(-1)) rats, 12 weeks following treatment. Retinae and optic nerves were analyzed for structural changes and retinae were assessed for alterations in growth factor/cytokine expression using quantitative real-time PCR. We found that phototransduction efficiency was ...
Certain mammalian retinal ganglion cells that express melanopsin act as photoreceptors that regulate circadian and pupillary responses. Although melanopsin is required for the photosensitivity of these cells, and has been proposed to act as a photopigment, its exact function has been uncertain. Two groups, Qiu et al. and Melyan et al., have now shown that heterologous expression of melanopsin conferred photosensitivity to mammalian cell lines. Qiu et al. expressed mouse melanopsin in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells that stably expressed the receptor-operated cation channel TRPC3 and found that this led to light-evoked membrane potential depolarization, as well as light-evoked increases in free intracellular calcium. Light-evoked depolarization was blocked by internal application of GDPβS [an antagonist of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein (G protein) signaling] or of a Gq/11 antagonist or by bath application of a phospholipase C antagonist. Experiments in which cells were exposed to ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The ERG responses to light stimuli of melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells that are independent of rods and cones. AU - Fukuda, Yumi. AU - Tsujimura, Sei ichi. AU - Higuchi, Shigekazu. AU - Yasukouchi, Akira. AU - Morita, Takeshi. PY - 2010/8/1. Y1 - 2010/8/1. N2 - The mechanisms by which melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs) regulate circadian rhythms in humans have not been established. To understand mRGC characteristics and their role independent of effects due to the rods and cones, mRGC responses should be induced or measured independent of cone and rod responses. In the present study, we obtained results from light stimuli which differentially induce only the mRGC response by using a receptor-silent substitution technique. The mRGCs responded linearly to contrast changes of light stimuli, whereas they showed complicated responses to frequency changes with regard to the latency of response time. These results suggest that mRGC behavior is not a simple ...
Parkinsons disease (PD) patients often suffer from non-motor symptoms like sleep dysregulation, mood disturbances or circadian rhythms dysfunction. The melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells are involved in the control and regulation of these processes and may be affected in PD, as other retinal and visual implications have been described in the disease. Number and morphology of human melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells were evaluated by immunohistochemistry in eyes from donors with PD or control. The Sholl number of intersections, the number of branches, and the number of terminals from the Sholl analysis were significantly reduced in PD melanopsin ganglion cells. Also, the density of these cells significantly decreased in PD compared to controls. Degeneration and impairment of the retinal melanopsin system may affect to sleep and circadian dysfunction reported in PD pathology, and its protection or stimulation may lead to better disease prospect and global quality of life of patients.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Kynurenic acid protects against ischemia/reperfusion-induced retinal ganglion cell death in mice. AU - Nahomi, Rooban B.. AU - Nam, Mi Hyun. AU - Rankenberg, Johanna. AU - Rakete, Stefan. AU - Houck, Julie A.. AU - Johnson, Ginger C.. AU - Stankowska, Dorota L.. AU - Pantcheva, Mina B.. AU - Maclean, Paul S.. AU - Nagaraj, Ram H.. N1 - Funding Information: Funding: This research was funded by a challenge grant from Research to Prevent Blindness, NY to the Department of Ophthalmology, University of Colorado School of Medicine and Fight for Sight Grant-In-Aid (DLS). and research cores in the Colorado Nutrition Obesity Research Center (P30 DK48520). Publisher Copyright: © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.. PY - 2020/3/1. Y1 - 2020/3/1. N2 - Background: Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy and involves the progressive degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), which leads to blindness in patients. We investigated the role of the neuroprotective kynurenic acid ...
We reviewed the role of melanopsin-containing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) in light-dependent functions, including circadian rhythm that is important for health and visual perception. We then discussed the implications for lighting design.
Recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors can be used to introduce neurotrophic genes into injured CNS neurons, promoting survival and axonal regeneration. Gene therapy holds much promise for the treatment of neurotrauma and neurodegenerative diseases; however, neurotrophic factors are known to alter dendritic architecture, and thus we set out to determine whether such transgenes also change the morphology of transduced neurons. We compared changes in dendritic morphology of regenerating adult rat retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) after long-term transduction with rAAV2 encoding: (i) green fluorescent protein (GFP), or (ii) bi-cistronic vectors encoding GFP and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) or growth-associated protein-43 (GAP43). To enhance regeneration, rats received an autologous peripheral nerve graft onto the cut optic nerve of each rAAV2 injected eye. After 5-8 months, RGCs with regenerated axons were retrogradely labeled with fluorogold (FG).
Experiments with rodless, coneless humans allowed another possible role for the receptor to be studied. In 2007, a new role was found for the photoreceptive ganglion cell. Zaidi and colleagues showed that in humans the retinal ganglion cell photoreceptor contributes to conscious sight as well as to non-image-forming functions like circadian rhythms, behaviour and pupillary reactions.[5] Since these cells respond mostly to blue light, it has been suggested that they have a role in mesopic vision[citation needed] and that the old theory of a purely duplex retina with rod (dark) and cone (light) light vision was simplistic. Zaidi and colleagues work with rodless, coneless human subjects hence has also opened the door into image-forming (visual) roles for the ganglion cell photoreceptor. The discovery that there are parallel pathways for vision was made: one classic rod- and cone-based arising from the outer retina, the other a rudimentary visual brightness detector arising from the inner retina. ...
The specific routing of retinal ganglion cell axons at the mammalian optic chiasm into the ipsilateral or contralateral optic tracts results from axon pathfinding. Using time-lapse microscopy, we show that encounters between axons from opposite eyes at the chiasm induce axon turning, but do not alwa …
Background/aims: To correlate ganglion cell function with defined parameters of the elevated intraocular pressure profile (IOP) in a mouse glaucoma model and to determine the temporal relationship of these functional changes with ganglion cell death. Methods: Unilateral chronic ocular hypertension was induced in C57BL6/J mice by laser ablation of the limbal episcleral veins. Scotopic flash electroretinograms were recorded after 5, 10, 20, and 40 days to isolate specific outer and inner retinal responses. Inner retinal function was correlated with the pressure differential between treated and non-treated eyes at time of ERG recording, and with the cumulative IOP insult (the integral of the IOP.time profile). Peripheral and central ganglion cell densities were quantified by Brn-3 immunohistochemistry. Results: Elevated IOP induced a preferential deficit in inner retinal function. The positive scotopic threshold response (pSTR) was suppressed by 68% on day five, by 50% on day 10, by 54% on day 20, ...
Dominant inheritance of retinal ganglion cell resistance to optic nerve crush in mice. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Fohlmeister JF, Miller RF. Impulse encoding mechanisms of ganglion cells in the tiger salamander retina. J Neurophysiol 1997 Oct;78(4):1935-47 A reprint of this article can be obtained from This model is initially setup to produce figure 1 automatically. After viewing the currents, you may simulate figure 3a in the followng way. 1) close the 6 graph windows. 2) Destroy the SEClamp object by executing the statement objref VoltageClamp 3) Select the NEURONMainMenu/File/LoadSession menuitem and double click on the file. 4) press the Init&Run button. The following parameter changes to the current working code supplied by Bob Millers lab were made in collaboration with Michael Hines in order to semi-quantitatively reproduce figures 1 and 3a. 1) Table 1 indicates that gnabar_spike = .05 S/cm2. However the curves for the Na-current portion of Fig 1 use the default mod file value of gnabar_spike = .04 . 2) The initial Ca Rev. Potential of Fig 1 ...
In addition to rod and cone photoreceptors, the retina contains a subset of retinal ganglion cells that are rendered intrinsically photosensitive due to the expression of the photopigment melanopsin. These melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells innervate several central targets, notably those associated with non-image forming light responses. One area is the olivary pretectal nucleus (OPN), a relay-station for the pupillary light reflex. We aimed to characterise the contribution of melanopsin and cone photoreceptors to light-evoked activity within the OPN in vivo. Neuronal activity was assessed via multi-electrode recordings in the pretectum of mice anaesthetised with urethane (1.5g/kg). 460nm and 655nm stimuli were delivered via an LED light source to the contralateral eye, and light-dependent changes in spike-firing rate were determined. The contribution of each photoreceptor was initially examined by describing stimulus-response relationships for transgenic mice lacking rods and cones ...
(2016) Yamashita et al. Journal of Ophthalmology. Purpose. To report a reduction in macular ganglion cell layer and inner plexiform layer (GCL+IPL) thickness and circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (cpRNFL) thickness using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in patients with homony...
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These results provide the first direct evidence that increased OPA1 expression using an AAV2 vector system can increase RGC survival in glaucomatous DBA/2J mice with elevated IOP in vivo and in differentiated RGC-5 cells exposed to elevated hydrostatic pressure in vitro. Moreover, increased OPA1 expression significantly reduced the activation of both astroglia and microglia in glaucomatous retina, and blocked apoptotic cell death in RGC-5 cells exposed to elevated hydrostatic pressure. These findings suggest that increasing OPA1 expression may protect RGCs against glaucomatous damage. Emerging evidence indicates that mitochondrial structural and functional dynamics play an important role in cell and animal physiology. Imbalance in the control of mitochondrial fusion and fission dramatically alters overall mitochondrial morphology [9]. Recent evidence suggests that excessive mitochondrial fission can lead to the breakdown of the mitochondrial network, loss of mitochondrial DNA, and respiratory ...
A postdoctoral fellow position is available in the Retinal Circuits Development and Genetics Unit of the National Eye Institute on the National Institutes of Health campus in Bethesda, Maryland, USA. The goal of our research is to understand how visual circuits develop and how they function. More specifically, we study the diversification of Retinal Ganglion Cells (RGC), the neurons that relay visual information from the eye to the brain.
The anatomical (Wässle et al., 1989; Boycott and Wässle, 1991; Goodchild et al., 1996; Calkins and Sterling, 1996), physiological (Dacheux and Raviola, 1990; Dacey et al., 1996, 2000a,b), and psychophysical (Mullen and Kingdom, 2002) data from outer retina consistent with the random connection model (Lennie, 1980; Paulus and Kroger-Paulus, 1983; Shapley and Perry, 1986; Lennie et al., 1991; Mullen and Kingdom, 1996) might be reconciled with the selective connection model (Reid and Shapley, 1992; Dacey, 1993; Lee et al., 1998; Martin et al., 2001) by invoking inner retinal selectivity. However, selective connections are inconsistent with the covariance of horizontal and ganglion cell L/(L + M) ratios at single retinal locations, as is the lack of peripheral midget opponency. These findings extend the evidence in favor of the random connection model to the circuitry of inner retina, sharpening not reconciling contradictions with previous studies.. Although the best way to discriminate the two ...
Read A Retinal Ganglion Cell Neurotrophic Factor Purified from the Superior Colliculus, Journal of Neurochemistry on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
So how do these observations resolve your question? Quite simply, the lateral movement of information from the foveal/macular photoreceptors happens predominantly in the outer plexiform layer. That buys the inner plexiform layer considerably more space to further spread those signals laterally to ganglion cells, and avoids the problematic situation you suggested of having an extra-thick ring of ganglion cells immediately around the fovea. The end result is that ganglion cells that respond to photoreceptors in the foveal region of space are even further out from the retina than the bipolar cells they connect to, which are themselves displaced.. As far as why a cherry red spot looks so large, that honestly depends on two factors: the disease or disorder in question and the zoom used. Bear in mind that the red color comes from, as far as I know, the blood vessels in the choroid itself. It would therefore not necessarily correspond exactly to the size of the macula, but instead to any area which is ...
Apr. 7, 2015, 5:00 pm - 6:00 pm.On Tuesday, April 7, 2015, David Berson, Dept. of Neuroscience, Brown University, will be presenting
Supplementary Materials Supplemental_Video_1. and retinas, and is at the same range as the threshold for activating retinal ganglion cells near their somas. In the peripheral retina, 45% of electrodes that turned on specific ganglion cells (17% of most electrodes) did therefore without activating bundles. This allowed selective activation of 21% of documented ganglion cells (7% of anticipated ganglion cells) within the array. In a single documenting in the central retina, 75% of electrodes that turned on specific ganglion cells (16% of most electrodes) did therefore without activating bundles. The capability to selectively activate a subset of retinal JTC-801 reversible enzyme inhibition ganglion cells without axon bundles suggests JTC-801 reversible enzyme inhibition a feasible novel structures for upcoming epiretinal prostheses. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Large-scale multielectrode documenting and stimulation had been used to check how selectively retinal ganglion cells could be electrically turned on ...
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INDIANAPOLIS - The fourth annual Vision Research Symposium held by the Department of Ophthalmology at the Eugene and Marilyn Glick Eye Institute is scheduled for Friday, Oct. 25.. The keynote speaker will be Colm OBrien, M.D., of University College Dublin in Ireland. Dr. OBrien is the lead clinician in the Department of Ophthalmology at Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, a teaching hospital in the north inner city of Dublin. He is a member of the Glaucoma Program Committee of the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology and has served on multiple boards and committees for ophthalmology and glaucoma associations.. Dr. OBriens research interests include matrix (differential gene expression) and vascular (endothelial dysfunction) biology in glaucoma; health services research; retinal ganglion cell apoptosis; phenotyping/genotyping of glaucoma patients; and proteomics of pseudo-exfoliation glaucoma.. We are thrilled to have Dr. OBrien present the keynote lecture at our fourth ...
This work was supported by grants from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, the Peter Lougheed Medical Research Foundation, the Fonds de Recherche en Santé du Québec, and the Canada Foundation for Innovation. We are grateful to S. Brown, M. Cayouette, C. Jolicoeur, A. Kania, M. Lévesque, S. K. McConnell, S. Morin, A. Okada, E. Ruthazer, J. Sandink, and D. Van Meyel for providing advice and/or reagents. We thank J. Barthe, J. Cardin, A. Daigneault, and S. Morin for expert technical assistance and J. Pham for schematics. The 4D7 and 2H3 antibodies were obtained from the Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank developed under the auspices of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and maintained by the University of Iowa. We thank M. Cayouette, A. Kania, and P. T. Yam for critical comments on this manuscript.. ...
In this study, we show that Sema3d plays an important role in guiding the midline crossing decision of RGC axons during formation of the optic chiasm. Global Sema3d expression or knockdown caused RGC axons to project to the ipsilateral optic tectum in a species whose visual pathway is normally entirely crossed. Live imaging revealed that ubiquitous Sema3d slowed RGC axon growth rates and increased growth cone pausing and complexity at the chiasm midline, whereas Sema3d knockdown caused repeated growth cone retraction or pausing, and impaired the ability of RGC axons to leave the midline region. Both manipulations reduced midline crossing of RGC axons, suggesting that Sema3d normally directs RGC axons across the chiasm midline and into the contralateral optic tract.. Our data support a model in which RGC axons encounter Sema3d at the midline of the ventral diencephalon and are repelled down a gradient away from the midline and into the contralateral optic tract. This proposed model has three ...
Purpose: : The photopic negative response (PhNR) may be useful as a tool to monitor longitudinal change in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) function. The goal was to assess PhNR test-retest reliability, and to estimate the amount of change between tests that is likely to be statistically significant for an individual test subject. Methods: : Photopic electroretinograms (ERGs) were recorded from 49 visually normal subjects (mean age, 38.9 years; range, 21-72 years). Signals were acquired using Dawson-Trick-Litzkow (DTL) electrodes in response to red stimulus at four flash energies (0.5, 1, 2.25, 3 cd·s/m2) on a blue background (10 cd/m2). The PhNR amplitude was recorded from prestimulus baseline to trough (BT), prestimulus baseline to fixed time point (BF), and b-wave peak to trough (PT). The ratio of baseline PhNR to b-wave amplitude (BT/b-wave) was calculated. Reliability was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC2,1) and coefficient of repeatability (CoR). Results: : Flash ...
Acute glaucoma, characterized by a sudden elevation in intraocular pressure (IOP) and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) death, is a major cause of irreversible blindness worldwide that lacks approved effective therapies, validated treatment targets and clear molecular mechanisms. We sought to explore the potential molecular mechanisms underlying the causal link between high IOP and glaucomatous RGCs death. A murine retinal ischemia/ reperfusion (RIR) model and an in vitro oxygen and glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGDR) model were used to investigate the pathogenic mechanisms of acute glaucoma. Our findings reveal a novel mechanism of microglia-induced pyroptosis-mediated RGCs death associated with glaucomatous vision loss. Genetic deletion of gasdermin D (GSDMD), the effector of pyroptosis, markedly ameliorated the RGCs death and retinal tissue damage in acute glaucoma. Moreover, GSDMD cleavage of microglial cells was dependent on caspase-8 (CASP8)-hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) signaling.
OBJECTIVES: During mouse retina maturation, the final number of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) is determined by highly regulated programmed cell death. Previous studies demonstrated that the immunoregulatory receptor programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) promotes developmental RGC death. To identify the functional signaling partner(s) for PD-1, we identified retinal expression of PD-1 ligands and examined the effect of PD-1 ligand expression on RGC number. We also explored the hypothesis that PD-1 signaling promotes the development of functional visual circuitry. METHODS: Characterization of retinal and brain programmed cell death-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression were examined by immunofluorescence on tissue sections. The contribution of PD-ligands, PD-L1, and programmed cell death-1 ligand 2 (PD-L2) to RGC number was examined in PD-ligand knockout mice lacking 1 or both ligands. Retinal architecture was assessed by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, and retinal function was analyzed by ...
The anterior visual pathway is frequently affected in multiple sclerosis (MS), but how axonal damage extends from the site of the lesion to neuronal bodies in the retina or lateral geniculate nucleus is poorly understood. Thanks to optical coherence tomography (OCT), it is possible to map and quantify the retrograde diffusion of axonal damage to the retina.1 Lesions in the anterior optic pathway promote significant atrophy of retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL), which develops in the first 3 months after damage and remains stable after 3 months. Moreover, it has been recently demonstrated that retinal damage in MS is complex and may distinctly affect retinal layers, combining either layer thinning (suggesting the presence of synapse loss and neuronal loss) or layer thickening (suggesting the presence of oedema and inflammation). In fact, the analysis of the ganglion cell/inner plexiform layer (ganglion cell layer (GCL)+inner plexiform layer complex (IPL)) and inner nuclear layer (INL) better ...
We have isolated mutants in the zebrafish Danio rerio that have defects in axonal connectivity between the retina and tectum. 5-day-old fish larvae were screened by labeling retinal ganglion cells with DiI and DiO and observing their axonal projections to and on the tectum. 82 mutations, representing 13 complementation groups and 6 single allele loci, were found that have defects in retinal ganglion cell axon pathfinding to the tectum. These pathfinding genes fall into five classes, based on the location of pathfinding errors between eye and tectum. In Class I mutant larvae (belladonna, detour, you-too, iguana, umleitung, blowout) axons grow directly to the ipsilateral tectal lobe after leaving the eye. Class II mutant larvae (chameleon, bashful) have ipsilaterally projecting axons and, in addition, pathfinding mistakes are seen within the eye. In Class III mutant larvae (esrom, tilsit, tofu) fewer axons than normal cross the midline, but some axons do reach the contralateral tectal lobe. Class ...
The effects of a glutathione-containing intra-ocular irrigation solution, BSS Plus®, on retinal function and on the survival of ganglion cells in whole-mount retinal explants were studied. Evidence is provided that the perfused ex vivo bovine retina can serve as an alternative to in vivo animal testing. Isolated bovine retinas were prepared and perfused with an oxygen-saturated standard irrigation solution, and an electroretinogram was recorded to assess retinal function. After stable b-waves were detected, the isolated retinas were perfused with BSS Plus for 45 minutes. To investigate the effects of BSS Plus on photoreceptor function, 1mM aspartate was added to the irrigation solution in order to obtain a-waves, and the ERG trace was monitored for 75 minutes. For histological analysis, isolated whole retinal mounts were stored for 24 hours at 4°C, in the dark. The percentages of cell death in the retinal ganglion cell layer and in the outer and inner nuclear layers were estimated by using an ...
Degeneration of axons of the retinal ganglion cells (the optic nerve) is a hallmark of glaucoma. Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) ... Retinal ganglion cells spontaneously fire action potentials at a base rate while at rest. Excitation of retinal ganglion cells ... there are at least five main classes of retinal ganglion cells: Midget cell (parvocellular, or P pathway; P cells) Parasol cell ... A retinal ganglion cell (RGC) is a type of neuron located near the inner surface (the ganglion cell layer) of the retina of the ...
... are photosensitive ganglion cells with large dendritic trees discovered in the human and macaque ... 2005). Giant retinal ganglion cells contain a photo-pigment, melanopsin, allowing them to respond directly to light. They also ... responses to the rods and cones are superimposed on the melanopsin response of giant retinal ganglion cells. Giants encode ... found the giants' receptive field sizes to be about three times the diameter of those of parasol ganglion cells. When a giant ...
Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), also called photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (pRGC), or ... Recent research has shown that these retinal ganglion cells, unlike other retinal ganglion cells, are intrinsically ... a new role was found for the photoreceptive ganglion cell. Zaidi and colleagues showed that in humans the retinal ganglion cell ... "Parallel Inhibition of Dopamine Amacrine Cells and Intrinsically Photosensitive Retinal Ganglion Cells in a Non-Image-Forming ...
Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) are a subset (≈1-3%) of retinal ganglion cells, unlike other ... which transmit then to the retinal ganglion cells. Retinal ganglion cell axons collectively form the optic nerve, via which ... the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells. These cells are thought not to contribute to sight directly, but have ... and intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells. The two classic photoreceptor cells are rods and cones, each ...
Bozzano, A.; S.P. Collin (April 2000). "Retinal ganglion cell topography in elasmobranchs". Brain, Behavior and Evolution. 55 ( ... Unlike other sharks, the retina of the cookiecutter shark has ganglion cells concentrated in a concentric area rather than in a ...
... he demonstrated that the optic nerve initially showed predominant loss of the largest class of retinal ganglion cells (M-cells ... Blanks, Janet C.; Hinton, David R.; Sadun, Alfredo A.; Miller, Carol A. (November 6, 1989). "Retinal ganglion cell degeneration ... and found out that degeneration in the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) is characterized by a vacuolated, 'frothy' appearance of ... He based his study on light-microscopic and ultrastructural characteristics of ganglion cell degeneration in the retinas of ...
These mitochondria are made within the central somata of the retinal ganglion cell, transported down axons, and distributed ... "Retinal ganglion cell neurodegeneration in mitochondrial inherited disorders". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - ... that present with visual disturbances resultant from mitochondrial dysfunction within the anatomy of the Retinal Ganglion Cells ... The optic neuropathy differed from that of LHON or DOA, displaying a pattern of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) loss and no ...
Only about two percent of all retinal ganglion cells are ipRGCs, whose cell bodies are in mainly the ganglion cell layer (and ... The retinohypothalamic tract consists of retinal ganglion cells. A distinct population of ganglion cells, known as ... The origin of the retinohypothalamic tract is the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGC), which contain ... intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), is critically responsible for providing non-image-forming visual ...
Wong, Rachel Oi Lun (1985). "Ontogeny of the cat retinal ganglion cell layer". doi:10.25911/5d651306e496d. {{cite journal}}: ... investigated the cellular organization and ontogeny of the cat retinal ganglion cell layer. She moved to the National Research ... Rachel Wong: A Researcher with an Eye for Great Science Studying Retinal Cell Rewiring After Damage". People Behind the Science ... "Synchronous bursts of action potentials in ganglion cells of the developing mammalian retina". Science. 252 (5008): 939-943. ...
Hannibal J, Fahrenkrug J (April 2004). "Target areas innervated by PACAP-immunoreactive retinal ganglion cells". Cell and ... Feigl B, Zele AJ (August 2014). "Melanopsin-expressing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells in retinal disease ... These retinal ganglion cells were found to be innately photosensitive, since they responded to light even while isolated, and ... In humans, melanopsin is found in intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs). It is also found in the iris of ...
Amacrine cell Retinal ganglion cell Kevin S. LaBar; Purves, Dale; Elizabeth M. Brannon; Cabeza, Roberto; Huettel, Scott A. ( ... Rod bipolar cells do not synapse directly on to ganglion cells. Instead, rod bipolar cells synapse on to a Retina amacrine cell ... As a part of the retina, bipolar cells exist between photoreceptors (rod cells and cone cells) and ganglion cells. They act, ... Bipolar cells effectively transfer information from rods and cones to ganglion cells. The horizontal cells and the amacrine ...
"Survival and axonal regeneration of retinal ganglion cells in adult cats". Progress in Retinal and Eye Research. 21 (6): 529-53 ... Xia, Y; Nawy, S; Carroll, RC (Nov 7, 2007). "Activity-dependent synaptic plasticity in retinal ganglion cells". The Journal of ... Progress has also been made in understanding retinal ganglion cell regeneration and in re-establishing synaptic connections ...
"Dendrodendritic Electrical Synapses between Mammalian Retinal Ganglion Cells". The Journal of Neuroscience. 24 (46): 10553- ... homologous gap junctions have been found as a way of communication between dendrites in the retinal α-type Ganglion cells to ... These granule cells form dendrodendritic synapses with mitral cells to convey odor information from the olfactory bulb. Lateral ... The granule cells of the olfactory bulb communicate exclusively through dendrodendritic synapses because they lack axons. ...
The initiative targets photoreceptors and retinal ganglion cells. Currently, the AGI funds three research consortia, ... By studying how immune cells, also known as T cells, attack other parts of the body, researchers may gain further information ... NEI help fund the first retinal implant device called Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System, developed in 2011 by Second Sight Inc ... which is a layer of cells that nourishes the light sensors or photoreceptors cells of the retina. LCA patients with this form ...
She is studying how gene activity can transform stem cells into retinal ganglion cells which could be used for restoring vision ... Half of the retinal ganglion cells send information to one side of the thalamus, whereas the other half send information to the ... To understand how this happens, Mason used a camera lucida to trace out the axons at the root of retinal ganglion cells. Mason ... Her research focuses on the retinal ganglion cell. She was elected a member of the National Academy of Sciences in 2018. Mason ...
... and Melanopsin Retinal Ganglion Cells". Annual Review of Neuroscience. 40 (1): 539-556. doi:10.1146/annurev-neuro-072116-031324 ... is inhibited by light and permitted by darkness as registered by photosensitive ganglion cells in the retina. To some degree, ... Phototherapy is an effective treatment because it forces skin cells to manufacture melanin to protect the body from UV damage. ... Bilirubin, a yellow pigment normally formed in the liver during the breakdown of old red blood cells, cannot always be ...
Niclou SP; Jia L; Raper JA (2000). "Slit2 is a repellent for retinal ganglion cell axons". J. Neurosci. 20 (13): 4962-74. doi: ... Wong K; Park HT; Wu JY; Rao Y (2003). "Slit proteins: molecular guidance cues for cells ranging from neurons to leukocytes". ... 1999). "Slit proteins bind Robo receptors and have an evolutionarily conserved role in repulsive axon guidance". Cell. 96 (6): ... Cell. 96 (6): 807-18. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)80591-7. PMID 10102269. Nguyen Ba-Charvet KT, Brose K, Marillat V, et al. (1999 ...
1994) Apoptosis in adult retinal ganglion cells after axotomy. J Neurobiol 25: 431-438. PMID 8077968 DOI: 10.1002/neu.480250408 ... almost always leads to cell death. The mode of cell death is often apoptosis. Central neurons, upon being severed, generally ... Autophagy could either clear the way for neuronal degeneration or it could be a medium for cell destruction. Upon injury of a ... Axotomy may cause neuronal cell death, especially in embryonic or neonatal animals, as this is the period in which neurons are ...
"Tissue engineering the retinal ganglion cell nerve fiber layer". Biomaterials. 34 (17): 4242-4250. doi:10.1016/j.biomaterials. ... Lavik conducted the experiment on 50 female paraplegic rats, and 7 out of 10 rats fitted with Lavik's scaffold-stem cell design ... Her technique, which layers adult stem cells, was selected by the National Eye Institute's 3-D Retina Organoid Challenge. She ... Lavik created polymer scaffolds were seeded with neural stem cells, and implanted them in to paralysed rats. These spinal ...
Schiller PH, Malpeli JG (March 1977). "Properties and tectal projections of monkey retinal ganglion cells". Journal of ... de Monasterio FM (November 1978). "Properties of ganglion cells with atypical receptive-field organization in retina of ... Marrocco RT, Li RH (July 1977). "Monkey superior colliculus: properties of single cells and their afferent inputs". Journal of ... Electrophysiological evidence from the late 1970s has shown that there is no direct retinal input from S-cones to the superior ...
"Selectivity for Multiple Stimulus Features in Retinal Ganglion Cells". Journal of Neurophysiology. 96 (5): 2724-2738. doi: ...
... bipolar cell, and the ganglion cell. The first action potential occurs in the retinal ganglion cell. This pathway is the most ... The five basic classes of neurons within the retina are photoreceptor cells, bipolar cells, ganglion cells, horizontal cells, ... Retinal ganglion cells are involved in the sympathetic response. Of the ~1.3 million ganglion cells present in the retina, 1-2 ... Glaucoma - loss of retinal ganglion cells which causes some loss of vision to blindness. Diabetic retinopathy - poor blood ...
Warland DK, Reinagel P, Meister M (November 1997). "Decoding visual information from a population of retinal ganglion cells". J ... Many studies look at spike train data gathered from the ganglion cells in the retina, since this area has the benefits of being ... a particular subset of ganglion cells within a structure of the visual system. Other studies use spike trains to evaluate the ... Brain-reading Bursting Correlation coding Grandmother cell Independent-spike coding Multielectrode array Nervous system network ...
It consists of over one million retinal ganglion cell axons. The optic nerve head, or optic disc is the anterior end of the ... They are thought to be the remnants of the axonal transport system of degenerated retinal ganglion cells. ODD have also been ... The central retinal artery and vein can be seen in the middle of the disc as it exits the scleral canal with the optic nerve to ... The optic disc margins are characteristically irregular in ODD but not blurred as there is no swelling of the retinal nerve ...
Hattar, S.; Liao, H.-W.; Takao, M.; Berson, D. M.; Yau, K.-W. (8 February 2002). "Melanopsin-Containing Retinal Ganglion Cells ... Later studies showed that melanopsin expressing photoreceptive retinal ganglion cells (pGRCs) were accountable for non-rod, non ... photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (pRGCs) in the mammalian retina which provide input to the circadian rhythm system. He ... Mice without cones or without both photoreceptive cells (rd/rd cl allele) still entrained to light. Meanwhile, mice with eyes ...
C. Enroth-Cugell; J. G. Robson (1966). "The Contrast Sensitivity of Retinal Ganglion Cells of the Cat". Journal of Physiology. ... 1.6 and the receptive fields of ganglion cells in the retina with K~5. It may easily be used in recursive schemes and is used ... "The Classical Receptive Field Surround of Primate Parasol Ganglion Cells Is Mediated Primarily by a Non-GABAergic Pathway" (PDF ... Young, Richard (1987). "The Gaussian derivative model for spatial vision: I. Retinal mechanisms". Spatial Vision. 2 (4): 273- ...
Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) mediate numerous nonvisual phenomena, including entrainment of the ... December 2005). "Physiologic diversity and development of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells". Neuron. 48 (6 ... These ganglion cells, which contain melanopsin, convey their signals to the "circadian clock" via the retinohypothalamic tract ... entrain to the 24-hour light/dark cycle have eyes with functioning retinas including operative non-visual light-sensitive cells ...
The photosensitive retinal ganglion cells contain a pigment called melanopsin. This photopigment is depolarized in the presence ... The rod cells are the photoreceptor cells in the retina capable of sensing light. However, they are not what sets the ... Also, pharmacological manipulation, cell culture imaging and computational biology all make attempts at doing this but in the ... However, they did prove that the basal ganglia and SMA are highly involved in rhythm perception. In a study where patients ...
Kolodin YO (2008-04-27). "Ionic conductances underlying excitability in tonically firing retinal ganglion cells of adult rat". ... and in retinal ganglion cells. Kv3.1/Kv3.2 conductance is necessary and kinetically optimized for high-frequency action ... important for the high-frequency firing of fast spiking GABAergic interneurons and retinal ganglion cells; and GABA release via ...
Hattar, S; Liao HW; Takao M; Berson DM; Yau KW (2002). "Melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells: architecture, projections ... expressing retinal ganglion cells in the mouse". Journal of Comparative Neurology. 497 (3): 326-349. doi:10.1002/cne.20970. PMC ... expressing retinal ganglion cells in the mouse", 518 citations Yau, KW (1994). "The Friedenwald Lecture: Phototransduction ... "Melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells: architecture, projections, and intrinsic photosensitivity", 1579 citations 2003 " ...
Ten-m3 facilitates the retinotopic mapping of ipsilateral axons from the ventrotemporal retinal ganglion cells, which encode ... cell-cell adhesion and neurite outgrowth using atomic force microscopy-based single-cell force spectroscopy". Nano Letters. 13 ... Ten-m3 mRNA is prominently co-expressed with Ten-m2 and Ten-m4 in the Purkinje's cell zone of the cerebellum. Ten-m3 protein is ... They are also expressed in some non-neuronal tissues that regulate pattern formation and sites of cell migration. Some Ten-m3 ...
AII amacrine cell serve the critical role of transferring light signals from rod photoreceptors to the retinal ganglion cells ( ... cone bipolar cells in turn contact the ON- and OFF-centre retinal ganglion cells, respectively. Note: A small proportion of ... Other AII amacrine cells ON-cone bipolar cells In sublamina A, the dendrites of the AII amacrine cell usually form inhibitory ... This rod bipolar cell will directly (exclusively) synapse with an AII amacrine cell in sublamina B (within the inner plexiform ...
... that retinal ganglion cells may receive asymmetrical inhibitory inputs directly from starburst amacrine cells, and therefore ... ON/OFF DS ganglion cells, ON DS ganglion cells, and OFF DS ganglion cells. Each has a distinctive physiology and anatomy. ... ganglion cells receive inputs from bipolar cells and starburst amacrine cells. The DS ganglion cells respond to their preferred ... Unlike ON/OFF DS ganglion cells that respond both to the leading and the trailing edge of a stimulus, ON DS ganglion cells are ...
The brains of all species are composed primarily of two broad classes of cells: neurons and glial cells. Glial cells (also ... The basal ganglia are the central site at which decisions are made: the basal ganglia exert a sustained inhibitory control over ... Wong, RO (1999). "Retinal waves and visual system development". Annual Review of Neuroscience. St. Louis, MO. 22: 29-47. doi: ... Glial cells are different: as with most types of cells in the body, they are generated throughout the lifespan. There has long ...
... retinal ganglion cell/axon degeneration, glial support cell, immune system, aging mechanisms of neuron loss, and severing of ... Degeneration of axons of the retinal ganglion cells (the optic nerve) is a hallmark of glaucoma. The inconsistent relationship ... Hernández M, Urcola JH, Vecino E (May 2008). "Retinal ganglion cell neuroprotection in a rat model of glaucoma following ... the excavation of the optic nerve head due to retinal ganglion cell loss. The first reliable instrument to measure intraocular ...
"Teneurin-3 specifies morphological and functional connectivity of retinal ganglion cells in the vertebrate visual system". Cell ... Teneurin-3 regulates the structural and functional wiring of retinal ganglion cells in the vertebrate visual system. Ten-m1-4, ... Cell Biol. 39 (2): 292-7. doi:10.1016/j.biocel.2006.09.012. PMID 17095284. Kenzelmann D, Chiquet-Ehrismann R, Tucker RP (June ... The intracellular domain of some, if not all, teneurins can be cleaved and transported to the cell nucleus, where it proposed ...
They may damage and destroy brain cells by interfering with cell-to-cell communication, among others. The collection of beta- ... Visual selective attention is a brain function that controls the processing of retinal input based on whether it is relevant or ... Animal research and positron emission tomography (PET) studies have shown the role of the basal ganglia in selective attention ... the brain of someone with Alzheimer's has fewer cells and there are fewer connections among surviving cells. This inevitably ...
Cells on the posterior aspect of the occipital lobes' gray matter are arranged as a spatial map of the retinal field. ... Occipital lobe in blue Occipital lobe Occipital lobe Ventricles of brain and basal ganglia. Superior view. Horizontal section. ... The retinal inputs pass through a "way station" in the lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus before projecting to the ... Functional neuroimaging reveals similar patterns of response in cortical tissue of the lobes when the retinal fields are ...
Calderone, JB; Reese, BE; Jacobs, GH (2003). "Topography of photoreceptors and retinal ganglion cells in the spotted hyena ( ... Special bipolar and ganglion cells pass those signals from S cones and there is evidence that they have a separate signal ... In vertebrates with three types of cone cells, at low light intensities the rod cells may contribute to color vision. Humans ... For example, moderate stimulation of a medium-wavelength cone cell could mean that it is being stimulated by very bright red ( ...
... retinal neurons called ganglion cells, and in cells of the B- and T-lymphocytic lineages. Brn3a was initially discovered in ... and expression in subsets of retinal ganglion cells and somatosensory neurons". The Journal of Neuroscience. 15 (7 Pt 1): 4762- ... and expression in subsets of retinal ganglion cells and somatosensory neurons". The Journal of Neuroscience. 15 (7 Pt 1): 4762- ... dorsal root ganglia, trigeminal ganglion, and hindbrain sensory ganglia), certain regions of the central nervous system, ...
Glioblastomas are the most common primary malignancies to hemorrhage while thyroid, renal cell carcinoma, melanoma, and lung ... rather than deep white matter or basal ganglia. These are usually described as "lobar". These bleedings are not associated with ... or cardiac arrhythmias Nuchal rigidity Subhyaloid retinal hemorrhages Altered level of consciousness Anisocoria, nystagmus ... transformation of an ischemic stroke Cerebral venous thrombosis Sympathomimetic drug abuse Moyamoya disease Sickle cell disease ...
Meynert originally called this group of cells the 'ganglion of the ansa peduncularis' (ganglion der Hirnschenkelschlinge), ... The axons it sends to the visual cortex provide collaterals to pyramidal cells in layer IV (the input layer for retinal fibres ... The nucleus basalis is thought to consist of several subdivisions based on the location of the cells and their projections to ... Studies of the firing patterns of nucleus basalis neurons in nonhuman primates indicate that the cells are associated with ...
That is, it is cell-autonomous. This was shown by Gene Block in isolated mollusk basal retinal neurons (BRNs). At the same time ... But the retina also contains specialized ganglion cells that are directly photosensitive, and project directly to the SCN, ... cell-autonomous and self-sustained oscillators pass time to daughter cells". Cell. 119 (5): 693-705. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2004.11 ... the period family genes Photosensitive ganglion cell: part of the eye which is involved in regulating circadian rhythm. ...
Eye structure retina retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) photoreceptor cell retinal ganglion cell macula capillary lamina of ... with the application of gene therapy and stem-cell therapy to retinal dystrophies (inherited conditions). MacLaren has been a ... implanting missing or faulty genes to correct retinal dystrophies (inherited conditions). As well as retinal issues, research ... Electronic retinal implants have already been trialled to treat retinitis pigmentosa, and trials are now being conducted to ...
The frequency of these cells' activity is detected by cells in the dorsal striatum at the base of the forebrain. His model ... In other words, despite the reality that the two retinal images were actually spatially aligned, the flashed object was usually ... Time perception is handled by a highly distributed system involving the cerebral cortex, cerebellum and basal ganglia. One ... He found the representation of time to be generated by the oscillatory activity of cells in the upper cortex. ...
... degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and their axons that leads to an acute or subacute loss of central vision; this ... which is the main energy source for cells, and also inhibits lipoperoxide formation. Positive effects on the energy household ...
Light/dark information reaches the suprachiasmatic nuclei from retinal photosensitive ganglion cells of the eyes rather than ... In these cells, synthesis starts with D-erythrose 4-phosphate and phosphoenolpyruvate, and in photosynthetic cells with carbon ... expressed in immunocompetent cells. In preclinical studies, melatonin may enhance cytokine production and stimulate T cell ... Lincoln GA, Andersson H, Loudon A (October 2003). "Clock genes in calendar cells as the basis of annual timekeeping in mammals- ...
... in the inner nuclear layer and in small ganglion cells of the ganglion cell layer. PTPRK has been shown to interact with: Beta- ... "Receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases are expressed by cycling retinal progenitor cells and involved in neuronal development ... PTPkappa mediates homophilic cell-cell aggregation via its extracellular domain. PTPkappa only mediates binding between cells ... In these cells, adhesion to matrigel, transwell migration, and cell growth were all increased following the reduction of PTPRK ...
Ebbesson, Sven O. E.; Ito, Hironobu (1980). "Bilateral retinal projections in the black piranah (Serrasalmus niger)". Cell ... As a result of such decussations: The efferent connections of the cerebrum to the basal ganglia, the cerebellum and the spine ... Loosemore, Guy (2011). "Translocation of progenitor retinal cells on bifurcation of the optic primordium: a contrarian view". ... See figure; this path is known as the optic radiation.) As a result, the retinal map shows the visual periphery on the medial ...
See also: retinal ganglion cell Oculomotor nerve (cranial nerve 3) Eye movement (except rotation), including constriction of ... place cell, grid cells, border cells, head direction cells, spatial view cells, pyramidal cells, granule cells also barrier ... brain cell) and nervous tissue Classifying brain cells/neurons by type: ... Receptor cells, which are highly unevenly distributed throughout the body, found in low through extremely high densities, ...
However, there is increasing evidence that dolichocephalic dogs, thanks to a higher number of retinal ganglion cells in their " ... "A strong correlation exists between the distribution of retinal ganglion cells and nose length in the dog", Brain, Behavior and ... Cell Reports (#19) 697-708, 2017. Phillips, A. A., and M. M. Willcock, (eds.). Xenophon & Arrian on Hunting with Hounds. Oxford ...
Neurons who received less frequent input from retinal ganglion cells during early postnatal periods were more prone to be ... Within these cells, some also inhibit specific pyramidal cell dendrites. By inhibiting PV cells activity, the neuromodulator- ... As resident immune cells of the central nervous system, microglia's main role is phagocytosis and engulfment. Studies have ... Furthermore, the cells that did respond selected for edges and bars with distinct orientation preferences. Nevertheless, these ...
The low frequency drop-off is due to lateral inhibition within the retinal ganglion cells. A typical retinal ganglion cell ... The high-frequency cut-off is related to the packing density of the retinal photoreceptor cells: a finer matrix can resolve ... By using coarse gratings, the bright bands fall on the inhibitory as well as the excitatory region of the ganglion cell ... Decreased contrast sensitivity arises from multiple etiologies, including retinal disorders such as Age-Related Macular ...
... differs from other cell types that re-enter the cell cycle. In retinal ganglion cells, p75NTR is mediated by p38MAPK and then ... Unscheduled re-entry into the cell cycle induced by NGF precedes cell death in nascent retinal neurones. J Cell Sci 113, 1139- ... These neurons re-enter the cell cycle as they travel to the ganglion cell layer when they are activated by p75NTR. These ... The cell cycle uses these CDKs and CKIs to regulate the cell cycle through checkpoints. These checkpoints ensure that the cell ...
... including rod and cone photoreceptors and melanopsin ganglion cells, will send signals to the oculomotor nerve, specifically ... Hughes, A. (2013) [1977]. "The topography of vision in mammals of contrasting life style: comparative optics and retinal ... The sensory pathway (rod or cone, bipolar, ganglion) is linked with its counterpart in the other eye by a partial crossover of ... The dilator pupillae, innervated by sympathetic nerves from the superior cervical ganglion, cause the pupil to dilate when they ...
... and the recently discovered photosensitive ganglion cells respond to a full range of light intensities and contribute to ... ISBN 978-1-4377-2207-9. Westheimer, Gerald; McKee, Suzanne P (1975). "Visual acuity in the presence of retinal-image motion". ... Three types of cells in the retina convert light energy into electrical energy used by the nervous system: rods respond to low ... As the light waves enter the eye they excite electrons that can cause harm to the cells in the eye, but they can cause ...
Guenther, E.; Zrenner, E. (1993). "The spectral sensitivity of dark- and light-adapted cat retinal ganglion cells". Journal of ... A response to middle wavelengths from a system other than the rod cells might be due to a third type of cone. This appears to ... The domestic cat has rather poor color vision and only two types of cone cells, optimized for sensitivity to blue and yellowish ...
PTCH2 Basal cell carcinoma, somatic; 605462; RASA1 Basal cell nevus syndrome; 109400; PTCH1 Basal ganglia disease, biotin- ... AK2 Retinal cone dystrophy 3; 610024; PDE6H Retinal cone dystrophy 3B; 610356; KCNV2 Retinal cone dystrophy 4; 610478; CACNA2D4 ... T cell-negative, B-cell/natural killer-cell positive; 608971; CD3D Severe combined immunodeficiency, T cell-negative, B-cell/ ... T cell-negative, B-cell/natural killer-cell positive; 608971; PTPRC Severe combined immunodeficiency, T-cell negative, B-cell/ ...
... orientation-selective cells, local edge detectors, and uniformity detectors (suppressed by contrast cells) were recorded in an ... Ganglion cells that had complex receptive field properties, namely, On-Off and On direction-selective cells, ... Morphologies of rabbit retinal ganglion cells with complex receptive fields J Comp Neurol. 1989 Feb 1;280(1):97-121. doi: ... Ganglion cells that had complex receptive field properties, namely, On-Off and On direction-selective cells, orientation- ...
Retinal ganglion cells of inbred and outbred strains, wild species and subspecies, andF1 hybrids were studied using an unbiased ... Genetic and Environmental Control of Variation in Retinal Ganglion Cell Number in Mice. Robert W. Williams, Richelle C. Strom, ... Genetic and Environmental Control of Variation in Retinal Ganglion Cell Number in Mice ... Genetic and Environmental Control of Variation in Retinal Ganglion Cell Number in Mice ...
... retinal regions or animal species. By comparing top DEGs among those different transcriptome profiles, we discuss whether ... retinal regions or animal species. By comparing top DEGs among those different transcriptome profiles, we discuss whether ... Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are the neurons in the retina which directly project to the brain and transmit visual information ... Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are the neurons in the retina which directly project to the brain and transmit visual information ...
Ganglion Cell Physiology by Ralph Nelson. *Melanopsin-expressing, Intrinsically Photosensitive Retinal Ganglion Cells (ipRGCs) ... This work gets at the remodeling issue in retinal degenerative diseaseby examining the last cells in the chain of retinal cells ... Undersized Dendritic Arborizations in Retinal Ganglion Cells of the rd1 Mutant Mouse: A Paradigm of Early Onset Photoreceptor ... Development of Retinal Ganglion Cell Dendritic Structure and Synaptic Connections by Ning Tian ...
Retinal whole mount, showing ganglion cell bodies and their axon bundles (red), astrocytes (green), and vasculature (blue) ...
SUMMARY/ABSTRACT Glaucoma is a disease characterized by visual field loss as a result of the death of retinal ganglion cells. ... it is becoming clear that a wide range of other factors can also lead to ganglion cell loss. Pharmacological or surgical ... effects in a number of CNS regions including the retina and is a leading candidate for slowing the progression of ganglion cell ... It is the basic premise of this proposal that these neuroprotective mechanisms can be exploited to prevent much of the cell ...
expression in the retina is specifically increased after acute injury to retinal ganglion cell axons and in a murine chronic ... Here, we demonstrate that growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) is associated with retinal ganglion cell death. Gdf15. ... GDF15 is elevated in mice following retinal ganglion cell death and in glaucoma patients. ... GDF15 is elevated in mice following retinal ganglion cell death and in glaucoma patients. ...
Autonomous System to study effects of Intraocular and Intracranial pressure differential on Human Retinal Ganglion Cells.. ... A cell culture roller was utilized to align cells towards the ONH. These iPSC-derived RGCs (N=3) were cultured for 6 days ... Autonomous System to study effects of Intraocular and Intracranial pressure differential on Human Retinal Ganglion Cells. ... Autonomous System to study effects of Intraocular and Intracranial pressure differential on Human Retinal Ganglion Cells. ...
Retinal Ganglion Cell Gene Therapy and Visual System Repair. In: Current gene therapy. 2011 ; Vol. 11, No. 2. pp. 116-131. ... Hellstrom, M., & Harvey, A. (2011). Retinal Ganglion Cell Gene Therapy and Visual System Repair. Current gene therapy, 11(2), ... Hellstrom, M & Harvey, A 2011, Retinal Ganglion Cell Gene Therapy and Visual System Repair, Current gene therapy, vol. 11, no ... Retinal Ganglion Cell Gene Therapy and Visual System Repair. Current gene therapy. 2011;11(2):116-131. ...
Vision loss from glaucoma is caused by the death of retinal ganglion cells, important nerve cells which carry vision from the ... Vision loss from glaucoma is caused by the death of retinal ganglion cells, important nerve cells that carry vision from the ... to see if the retinal ganglion cells become less prone to dying. Any identified genes then become prime candidates for ... Welsbie and colleagues are using gene therapy to better understand the signals that trigger the death of these ganglion cells. ...
Erratum: Specificity of cone inputs to macaque retinal ganglion cells (Journal of Neurophysiology (2006) 95, (837-849) DOI: ... Erratum: Specificity of cone inputs to macaque retinal ganglion cells (Journal of Neurophysiology (2006) 95, (837-849) DOI: ...
Troy, J. B., & Lee, B. B. (1991). Steady discharges of macaque retinal ganglion cells. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual ... Steady discharges of macaque retinal ganglion cells. ...
... increases the metabolic demand of the retinal ganglion cells, and alters their electrophysiological responses. This project ... The effect of intraocular pressure on retinal ganglion cell function The effect of intraocular pressure on retinal ganglion ...
Mitochondrial DNA instability and dysregulated mitochondrial quality control contribute to progressive retinal ganglion cell ... Mitochondrial DNA instability and dysregulated mitochondrial quality control contribute to progressive retinal ganglion cell ...
Although substantial literature exists on ganglion cell morphology and function, there appears to be significant differences ... Comprehensive anatomical studies of mammalian ganglion cells began in the late 19th century, followed by physiologic research ... Retinal Ganglion Cells; Retinal Anatomy; Feline Retinal Ganglion Cells; Rabbit Retinal Ganglion Cells; Macaque Monkey. ... Comprehensive anatomical studies of mammalian ganglion cells began in the late 19th century, followed by physiologic research ...
These responses arise from interactions between inhibition and excitation throughout the retinal circuit (Franke et al., 2017; ... We propose that this diversity will contribute to the richness of retinal inhibitory processing. ... some amacrine cells and vi RGCs (Haverkamp, Muller, Zeilhofer, Harvey, & Wassle, 2004; Heinze et al., 2007). The roles for GlyR ... represent the culmination of all retinal signaling and their output forms the substrate for vision throughout the rest of the ...
... retinal ganglion cell (RGC) dendrites extend from the cell body and form synapses with nearby amacrine and bipolar cells. RGC ... Xenopus laevis Retinal Ganglion Cell Dendritic Arbors Develop Independently of Visual Stimulation. Institution: Davidson ... Xenopus laevis Retinal Ganglion Cell Dendritic Arbors Develop Independently of Visual Stimulation ... Newly formed neurons must locate their appropriate target cells and then form synaptic connections with these targets in order ...
... Author: Reinhard, Katja; Mutter, Marion; Gustafsson, ...
Retinal Ganglion Cells: Ion Channels & Transmitters Lipton, Stuart A. Childrens Hospital Boston, Boston, MA, United States ... For this purpose cultures of rodent retinal ganglion cells, labeled with fluorescent probes, are used in this laboratory. The ... Viability of retinal ganglion cells will also be monitored after incubation with putative transmitters. Ionic mechanisms ... and evoked postsynaptic currents that occur in cultured ganglion cells that have formed synapses with other retinal cells. 3. ...
2022 University of Miami Health Systems. All Rights Reserved. ...
Schwartz, Greg ; Berry, Michael J. / Sophisticated temporal pattern recognition in retinal ganglion cells. In: Journal of ... Schwartz, G., & Berry, M. J. (2008). Sophisticated temporal pattern recognition in retinal ganglion cells. Journal of ... Schwartz, G & Berry, MJ 2008, Sophisticated temporal pattern recognition in retinal ganglion cells, Journal of ... Sophisticated temporal pattern recognition in retinal ganglion cells. Journal of neurophysiology. 2008 Apr;99(4):1787-1798. doi ...
Signalling by melanopsin (OPN4) expressing photosensitive retinal ganglion cells - (Eye 30, 247 (February 2016)). 11 February ...
Retinal ganglion cell neuronal damage in diabetes and diabetic retinopathy.. Ng DSK, Chiang PPC, Tan G, et al.. CLINICAL AND ... Retinal scans were performed on cases and controls using Cirrus HD-OCT. The ganglion cell analysis algorithm, incorporated into ... The authors conclude that retinal ganglion cell loss is present in subjects with diabetes and no DR, and is progressive in ... Retinal ganglion cell loss in diabetes and diabetic retinopathy Reviewed by Anjali Gupta. ...
Increased Retinal Ganglion Cell Survival by Exogenous IL-2 Depends on IL-10, Dopamine D1 Receptors, and Classical IL-2/IL-2R ... Increased Retinal Ganglion Cell Survival by Exogenous IL-2 Depends on IL-10, Dopamine D1 Receptors, and Classical IL-2/IL-2R ... IGF-1 and IGF-1R modulate the effects of IL-4 on retinal ganglion cells survival: The involvement of M1 muscarinic receptor ... A phospholipase A2 isolated from Lachesis muta snake venom increases the survival of retinal ganglion cells in vitro. ...
GDF15 is elevated in mice following retinal ganglion cell death and in glaucoma patients. In: JCI Insight. 2017 ; Vol. 2, No. 9 ... GDF15 is elevated in mice following retinal ganglion cell death and in glaucoma patients. JCI Insight. 2017 May 4;2(9):e91455. ... GDF15 is elevated in mice following retinal ganglion cell death and in glaucoma patients. / Ban, Norimitsu; Siegfried, Carla J. ... Gdf15 expression in the retina is specifically increased after acute injury to retinal ganglion cell axons and in a murine ...
Topical Ripasudil Suppresses Retinal Ganglion Cell Death in a Mouse Model of Normal Tension Glaucoma ... Topical Ripasudil Suppresses Retinal Ganglion Cell Death in a Mouse Model of Normal Tension Glaucoma ... Retrograde labeling of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), immunoblot, and immunohistochemical analyses of phosphorylated p38 ... Topical ripasudil ameliorated retinal degeneration and improved visual function in EAAC1 KO mice at both 8 and 12 weeks old. ...
Retinal dystrophy with inner retinal dysfunction and ganglion cell anomalies. What is Retinal dystrophy with inner retinal ... Retinal dystrophy with inner retinal dysfunction and ganglion cell anomalies is a rare, genetic, retinal dystrophy disorder ... characterized by decreased central retinal sensitivity associated with hyper-reflectivity of ganglion cells and nerve fiber ...
To investigate this, we use four-dimensional microscopy of developing retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in live zebrafish embryos. ... We find that the situation is indeed very different in vivo, where axons emerge directly from uniformly polarized cells in the ... Holt CE: A single-cell analysis of early retinal ganglion cell differentiation in Xenopus: from soma to axon tip. J Neurosci. ... Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) polarize in vitro after a period of plastic behavior. (a) Time-lapse analysis of dissociated ath5 ...
  • Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are the neurons in the retina which directly project to the brain and transmit visual information along the optic nerve. (
  • Several transcriptomic studies with RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) or microarray have uncovered differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in RGCs or whole retina depending on disease progression, retinal regions, animal species or RGC subtypes. (
  • This paper by Devid Damiani, Elena Novelli, Francesca Mazzoni and Enrica Strettoi documents continued negative plasticity in retina by examining ganglion cells in the rd1 mouse. (
  • This proposal focuses on one neuroprotective molecule, CNTF, a factor that has already been shown to have potent neuroprotective effects in a number of CNS regions including the retina and is a leading candidate for slowing the progression of ganglion cell loss. (
  • Gdf15 expression in the retina is specifically increased after acute injury to retinal ganglion cell axons and in a murine chronic glaucoma model. (
  • In the vertebrate retina, retinal ganglion cell (RGC) dendrites extend from the cell body and form synapses with nearby amacrine and bipolar cells. (
  • We stimulated the retina of tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) with periodic dark flash sequences and found that retinal ganglion cells had a wide variety of different responses to a periodic flash sequence with many firing when a flash was omitted. (
  • We discuss the implications of retinal pattern recognition on the neural code of the retina and visual processing in general. (
  • Retinal scans were performed on cases and controls using Cirrus HD-OCT. The ganglion cell analysis algorithm, incorporated into Cirrus HD-OCT, was used to demarcate and measure the thicknesses of the ganglion cell inner plexiform layer (GC-IPL), retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) and the outer retina. (
  • Retrograde labeling of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), immunoblot, and immunohistochemical analyses of phosphorylated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in the retina were performed at 8 weeks old. (
  • Immature astrocytes and blood vessels enter the developing mammalian retina at the optic nerve head and migrate peripherally to colonize the entire retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL). (
  • Whole-cell recordings from retinal ganglion cells were obtained in a superfused retina-eyecup preparation of the mudpuppy or tiger salamander, combined with antidromic stimulation of the optic nerve. (
  • A 3-D human retina organoid system that mimics the physiological and morphological features of the in vivo biology, consists of the major retina cell types (rod and cone photoreceptors, horizontal, bipolar, amacrine, and ganglion cells and Muller glia) with appropriate lamination and synaptic organization, and represents their biological functions and interplay. (
  • Retina organoids that are generated entirely from human cells (e.g. derived from iPSCs, hESCs, multipotent cells, or adult cells subjected to a combination of transdifferentiation and/or reprogramming methods). (
  • Tissue-on-a-chip systems that use cells grown in 2-D co-culture and do not fully represent the structure, morphology, and function of the human retina are also not of interest. (
  • Solutions will be evaluated for establishment of a human PSC-derived in vitro retina model system that resembles the morphology of a healthy-native retina and is viable through formation of photoreceptor outer segments and/or long-term survival of retinal ganglion cells with extension of axonal processes. (
  • Characterization of retinal cell types, retina organoid structure, and retina organoid function are expected. (
  • To advance our understanding of the etiology of blinding diseases, we used single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) to analyze the transcriptomes of ∼85,000 cells from the fovea and peripheral retina of seven adult human donors. (
  • In particular, cells within the retina called retinal ganglion cells die over time. (
  • Unusual physiological properties of smooth monostratified ganglion cell types in primate retina. (
  • In this genetic context, all cell types are present in a functional retina. (
  • However, when only one allele of Gsk3α or Gsk3β is present, all cell types are present with a functional retina. (
  • In this work, we use a minimal conductance-based model of the ON rod pathways in the vertebrate retina to study the effects of electrical synaptic coupling via gap junctions among rods and among AII amacrine cells on the dynamic range of the retina. (
  • The optical portion of retina houses two distinct type of photo receptors cells RODS & CONES. (
  • Posterior cups were seeded with human iPSC-derived RGCs and Matrigel to form a thin layer of cells on the cup. (
  • Recellularized posterior cups were stained for ECM component (COL4A1), RGCs (BRN3A), and glial cells (GFAP). (
  • Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) represent the culmination of all retinal signaling and their output forms the substrate for vision throughout the rest of the brain. (
  • To investigate this, we use four-dimensional microscopy of developing retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in live zebrafish embryos. (
  • Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are an excellent model system with which to study the above questions. (
  • We find that migrating astrocytes associate closely with the axons of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), their neighbors in the RNFL. (
  • Mature retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) do not normally regenerate injured axons and undergo apoptosis after axotomy. (
  • Outcomes RGCs express mRNA with robust TRPV1 proteins localization towards the cell axon and body. (
  • For isolated RGCs under great pressure TRPV1 antagonism improved cell denseness and decreased apoptosis to ambient amounts (≤ 0.05) whereas for RGCs at ambient pressure TRPV1 agonism reduced denseness and increased apoptosis to amounts for elevated pressure (≤ 0.01). (
  • That is therefore specifically in sensory function and in sympathetic systems where different membrane-bound receptors play a significant part in transducing pressure to neural indicators.1-7 Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is a respected risk element for the degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and their axons during traumatic injury and in chronic disease particularly glaucoma.8-11 Nevertheless the mechanisms by which pressure means RGC death aren't known. (
  • Right here we demonstrate that TRPV1 indicated by RGCs plays a part in pressure-induced apoptosis which the TRPV1-initiated cascade requires the influx of Ca2+ as with additional cell types.49-53 Textiles and Methods Pets and Tissue Preparation This research was conducted relative to regulations established in the ARVO Statement for the usage of Pets in Ophthalmic and Vision Study. (
  • Researches showed that the mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis and autophagy play an important role in the survival of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in glaucoma.However, whether high pressure will lead to mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis and autophagy is not elucidated. (
  • photoreceptors are lost in age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy, and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are lost in glaucoma ( 1 - 3 ). (
  • However, we unexpectedly detected a large number of cells in the inner nuclear layer expressing retinal ganglion cell (RGC)-specific markers (called displaced RGCs, dRGCs) when at least one allele of Gsk3α is expressed. (
  • Newly formed neurons must locate their appropriate target cells and then form synaptic connections with these targets in order to establish a functional nervous system. (
  • Detailed studies of the effects of putative neurotransmitters/modulators and their mechanism of action on postnatal neurons of the mammalian visual system would be aided by studying identified cells in a controlled in vitro environment. (
  • In dissociated cell cultures, neurons develop in the presence of very scarce external cues, and so must perforce break symmetry intrinsically. (
  • Components (neurons, retinal pigment epithelium [RPE], glia) may be produced separately or dissociated and recombined (1) if protocol addresses a significant biological or technical hurdle and (2) if in the process of re-assembly, specific functions/roles of cell types are delineated. (
  • Neural networks for efficient Bayesian decoding of natural images from retinal neurons. (
  • Whereas pregeniculate lesions cause direct retrograde degeneration of RGC axons and cell bodies, postgeniculate lesions cause indirect, trans-synaptic retrograde degeneration following retrograde degeneration of geniculocortical neurons. (
  • While mutant viruses lacking the Us9 gene have no obvious growth or plaque size defects in tissue culture, these mutants are defective for anterograde directional spread in a subset of retinal ganglion neurons that make up visual circuitry after infection of the rat eye. (
  • The large lateral somatic cell columns contain motor neurons that innervate the extraocular muscles. (
  • 1987. The influence of skeletal muscle on the electrical excitability of dorsal root ganglion neurons in culture. (
  • In this review, we present a comprehensive overview of pathological features in a variety of animal models of glaucoma and top differentially expressed genes (DEGs) depending on disease progression, RGC subtypes, retinal regions or animal species. (
  • Glaucoma is a retinal neurodegenerative disease that affects 64 million people worldwide. (
  • PROJECT SUMMARY/ABSTRACT Glaucoma is a disease characterized by visual field loss as a result of the death of retinal ganglion cells. (
  • Although increased intraocular pressure remains the most clearly defined risk factor for glaucoma, it is becoming clear that a wide range of other factors can also lead to ganglion cell loss. (
  • It is the basic premise of this proposal that these neuroprotective mechanisms can be exploited to prevent much of the cell death associated with diseases such as glaucoma. (
  • Vision loss from glaucoma is caused by the death of retinal ganglion cells, important nerve cells which carry vision from the eye to the brain. (
  • Lessons learned from this work on glaucoma may also help to explain why nerve cells die in stroke, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease. (
  • Neuroprotection refers to our ability to keep the retinal ganglion cells alive and bolster their health despite the insult of glaucoma. (
  • Glaucoma is an acquired progressive optic neuropathy which is characterized by changes in the optic nerve head and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL). (
  • Disruption of 24-Hour Rhythm in Intraocular Pressure Correlates with Retinal Ganglion Cell Loss in Glaucoma. (
  • The Glaucoma Module Premium Edition provides a comprehensive and personalized analysis of the optic nerve head, retinal nerve fiber layer, and macular ganglion cell layer by precisely matching unique scan patterns to the fine anatomic structures relevant in glaucoma diagnostics. (
  • We find that the situation is indeed very different in vivo , where axons emerge directly from uniformly polarized cells in the absence of other neurites. (
  • Astrocytes follow ganglion cell axons to establish an angiogenic template during retinal development. (
  • Specialized extensions of retinal ganglion cells, called axons, form the optic nerves, so when retinal ganglion cells die, the optic nerves break down (atrophy) and cannot transmit visual information to the brain. (
  • A novel retinal lesion following the anatomic distribution of the optic nerve axons occurred in 14.6% (97.5% CI 7.1%-25.6%) of EVD survivors and no controls, suggesting neuronal transmission as a route of ocular entry. (
  • SLP provides RNFL thickness measurements based upon the birefringence of the retinal ganglion cell axons. (
  • Retinal dystrophy with inner retinal dysfunction and ganglion cell anomalies is a rare, genetic, retinal dystrophy disorder characterized by decreased central retinal sensitivity associated with hyper-reflectivity of ganglion cells and nerve fiber layer with loss of optic nerve fibers manifesting with fotophobia, optic disc pallor and progressive loss of central vision with preservation of peripheral visual field. (
  • Methods: Retinal nerve fiver layer thickness (RNFLT) and ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer thickness (GCIPT) were measured using Cirrus optical coherence tomography (OCT) in 133 relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients (149 nonoptic neuritis (ON), 97 ON eyes, last ON ?6 months). (
  • Homozygous deletion did not alter gross retinal or optic nerve head morphology, nor did it switch the ocular hypertensive profile of D2 mice. (
  • [ 4 ] An intranasal endoscopic approach is favored because of the proximity of the optic nerve to the sphenoid sinus and Onodi cell. (
  • Chen et al reported that endoscopic optic nerve decompression can be safely and effectively achieved via a direct sphenoidotomy performed through the sphenoid ostium, in patients with high sphenoidal pneumatization and no supersphenoethmoidal air cells. (
  • Obtain imaging studies to delineate the exact anatomical relationship of the optic nerve and carotid artery to the posterior ethmoid cells and sphenoid sinus. (
  • Any approach that can protect nerve cells from ischemic injuries can improve the healing process. (
  • A rare genetic retinal dystrophy disorder with characteristics of decreased central retinal sensitivity associated with hyper-reflectivity of ganglion cells and nerve fibre layer with loss of optic nerve fibres manifesting with photophobia, optic disc pallor and progressive loss of central vision with preservation of peripheral visual field. (
  • The oculomotor nerve complex, which is positioned in the most ventral part of the periaqueductal gray (PAG) at the level of the superior colliculi, comprises the somatic cell column, the Edinger-Westphal nucleus, and an additional dorsal (supraoculomotor) nucleus in each half of the midbrain (Figs. 1A-1C) (Vitosevic et al. (
  • Ganglion cells, fluorescently labeled by retrograde transport, will be dissociated from the retinas of rodents, maintained in culture, and recorded from with the patch-clamp technique. (
  • It is known that retinal ganglion cell pathology of any cause leads to anterograde and retrograde retinal ganglion cell degeneration, as well as trans-synaptic (transneuronal) anterograde degeneration. (
  • Novel Ex-Vivo Translaminar Autonomous System to study effects of Intraocular and Intracranial pressure differential on Human Retinal Ganglion Cells. (
  • Our study aimed to detect if any specific retinal signs can be attributed to past EVD in survivors, to describe the implications for visual acuity, and to assess for EBOV persistence in survivors with cataracts amenable to cataract surgery where no intraocular inflammation was present. (
  • This study was conducted to explore whether elevated pressure can directly induce the mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis and autophagy in cultured RGC-5 cells in vitro . (
  • Elevated pressure induces the morphologic change of RGC-5 cells, results in mitochondrial membrane potential reduction and mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis and autophagy. (
  • Additionally, the OPA1 protein plays a role in the maintenance of the DNA within mitochondria, called mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and in controlled cell death (apoptosis). (
  • Cells that contain these poorly functioning mitochondria are more susceptible to apoptosis. (
  • Organic solvent-induced proximal tubular cell apoptosis via caspase-9 activation. (
  • Classically, necrosis and apoptosis have been described as separated and opposite entities by the fact that the hallmark of necrosis is the generation of inflammation caused by the uncontrolled release of the cellular debris in the micro-environment, while apoptosis, as well as the other forms of Programmed Cell Death, avoid inflammation by means of integrated biochemical steps. (
  • TNF-α binds specific receptors on the cell surface that transduce death signals via the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis, in other words by activating caspase 8. (
  • As such its a notable effort that needs further work in additional models of retinal degeneration. (
  • Topical ripasudil ameliorated retinal degeneration and improved visual function in EAAC1 KO mice at both 8 and 12 weeks old. (
  • These results suggest that, in addition to IOP reduction, ripasudil prevents glaucomatous retinal degeneration by neuroprotection, which is achieved by suppressing cell-death signaling pathways. (
  • Patients with X-linked juvenile retinoschisis are commonly observed to present with early-onset macular degeneration, loss in visual acuity, and the splitting of retinal layers. (
  • We recently used pattern recognition analysis to show macula areas can be classified into statistically distinct clusters in accordance to their age-related retinal ganglion cell layer (RGCL) thickness change in a normal population. (
  • We measured the axial current of mouse retinal ganglion cells using whole-cell recordings with post-hoc AIS labeling. (
  • Here we show that the complete loss of GSK3 signaling in mouse retinal progenitors leads to microphthalmia with broad morphologic defects. (
  • 3. To quantify plasticity effects of the putative neurotransmitters and modulators and their selective blocking agents by monitoring outgrowth of processes and survival of retinal ganglion cells in culture. (
  • Preliminary experiments have suggested that several agents, such as nicotinic agonists and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), influence the outgrowth of neurites and the survival of cultured retinal ganglion cells. (
  • Ionic mechanisms underlying process outgrowth and survival of retinal ganglion cells may be uncovered in these experiments since the ionic basis for the current induced by each substance will have been studied in the patch clamp experiments. (
  • Retinal ganglion cell survival. (
  • Graphs showing the dose-dependent effect of histone deacetylase inhibitors and erythropoietin on retinal ganglion cell (RGC) survival after 48 h in culture. (
  • To analyze the structure and function of the thin axonal segment described in retinal ganglion cells. (
  • The thin axonal segment of retinal ganglion cells appears to play an important role in cell function and can have a major influence on impulse encoding behavior: its small size raises questions about cell vulnerability and toxicity. (
  • Miller, RF & Fohlmeister, J 1996, ' On the Achilles' heel of retinal ganglion cells: A physiological and modeling study of the thin axonal segment ', Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science , vol. 37, no. 3, pp. (
  • In most ganglion cells, the axon begins at the soma with a relatively large axon hillock, which tapers to a very thing segment of 0.1 to 0.3 μm diameter and 35 to 130 μm in length, then increasing in diameter. (
  • Using pharmacology to investigate the retinal circuitry involved, we found that inhibitory transmission from amacrine cells was not required, but ON bipolar cells were required. (
  • The aim of this observational case control study was to evaluate the association of diabetes and diabetic retinopathy (DR) with retinal ganglion cell loss. (
  • In IRDs, genetic mutations lead to the death of photoreceptor cells or retinal ganglion cells , resulting in progressive, often severe vision loss. (
  • Cells were first classified by their characteristic extracellular responses to manually controlled stimuli similar to those which have been used in previous in vivo studies. (
  • Recent work has suggested that inducing small, transient elevations in the pressure in the eye (intra-ocular pressure) increases the metabolic demand of the retinal ganglion cells, and alters their electrophysiological responses. (
  • These responses arise from interactions between inhibition and excitation throughout the retinal circuit (Franke et al. (
  • Reconstruction of natural images from responses of primate retinal ganglion cells. (
  • Multilayer recurrent network models of primate retinal ganglion cell responses. (
  • Overview of salamander ganglion cell responses to natural images. (
  • in retinal ganglion cells, acetylcarnitine and acetylcholine inhibited gabaergic responses to exogenous gaba and gabaergic inhibitory postsynaptic currents [2].in dogs with coronary ligation, (-)-carnitine chloride (lcc) (300 mg/kg) and acetyl (-)-carnitine chloride (alcc) (300 mg/kg) inhibited the ventricular arrhythmia. (
  • Oxidative stress induced by engineered NP is due to acellular factors such as particle surface, size, composition, and presence of metals, while cellular responses such as mitochondrial respiration, NP-cell interaction, and immune cell activation are responsible for ROS-mediated damage. (
  • NP-induced oxidative stress responses are torch bearers for further pathophysiological effects including genotoxicity, inflammation, and fibrosis as demonstrated by activation of associated cell signaling pathways. (
  • Proteins normally associated with the apical junctional complexes of epithelial cells, such as Par-3, Par-6 and atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) have a role in polarization in vitro . (
  • in vitro, and on the other hand, HHT causes raised ROS era in ETP-treated AML cells. (
  • These agents include classical chemicals such as acetylcholine, GABA, glycine, and glutamate and its analogs, as well as many peptides that are found in the amacrine cells that normally synapse on the ganglion cells. (
  • The OPA1 protein is active in the inner membrane of cell structures called mitochondria, which are the energy-producing centers in cells. (
  • The OPA1 protein is also involved in a process that takes place in mitochondria called oxidative phosphorylation, from which cells derive much of their energy. (
  • Endogenous RGC replacement involves utilizing already existing cellular sources for RGC replacement, such as Müller glia, retinal pigment epithelial cells, and stem cells. (
  • Data shows a majority of non-neuronal cell types are present including astrocytes, Muller glia, RPE cells, pericytes, endothelial cells, and microglia. (
  • Finally, we compared gene expression signatures of cell types between human and the cynomolgus macaque monkey, Macaca fascicularis . (
  • Comprehensive anatomical studies of mammalian ganglion cells began in the late 19th century, followed by physiologic research in the 1940's, coinciding with the advent of microelectrodes. (
  • To study physiologically and pharmacologically the direct effects of putative neurotransmitters and modulators on solitary mammalian retinal ganglion cells in culture. (
  • Furthermore, using cell type-specific chemical-genetic tools to selectively ablate astrocytes , we show that the astrocyte template is required for angiogenesis and vessel patterning. (
  • Genetic contributors have been discovered for all of these retinal diseases, largely through genome-wide association studies (GWAS) ( 4 - 6 ). (
  • Some of the paradigms for NP-mediated toxicity include oxidative stress, inflammation, genetic damage, and the inhibition of cell division and cell death [ 8 - 11 ]. (
  • De Souza CEA, Andrade Pires AR, Cardoso CR, Carlos RM, Cadena SMSC, Acco A (2020) Antineoplastic activity of a novel ruthenium complex against human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) and human cervical adenocarcinoma (HeLa) cells. (
  • In the present study, we investigated the effect of miR-124a loss on neuronal differentiation in mice and in embryonic stem (ES) cells. (
  • The molecular mechanisms that enable the virus to invade and spread in the nervous systems of so many different animals are not known, but it is well known that the virion envelope proteins gE and gI are required in almost every case studied for efficient cell-to-cell spread both in non-neuronal and neuronal cells. (
  • The timing of the omitted stimulus response (OSR) depended on the period, with individual cells tracking the stimulus period down to increments of 5 ms. When flashes occurred earlier than expected, cells updated their expectation of the next flash time by as much as 50 ms. When flashes occurred later than expected, cells fired an OSR and reset their temporal expectation to the average time interval between flashes. (
  • 2. To identify the transmitters used at chemical synapses onto ganglion cells. (
  • For example, the effects of antagonists to the various putative transmitters and modulators will be characterized on spontaneous and evoked postsynaptic currents that occur in cultured ganglion cells that have formed synapses with other retinal cells. (
  • There is abundant evidence that the eye, like other regions of the CNS, contains endogenous neurotrophic/neuroprotective factors that function to limit cell injury. (
  • To test the effect on process outgrowth, drugs will be applied directly to the growth cone of a neurite of an isolated retinal ganglion cell while monitoring growth with computer-enhanced video microscopy. (
  • Physiological recordings from ganglion cell somas reveal large amplitude, antidromic spikes, indicating that the thin segments must propagate impulses. (
  • Kim YJ, Brackbill N, Batty E, Lee J, Mitelut C, Tong W, Chichilnisky EJ, Paninski L (2021) Nonlinear Decoding of Natural Images From Large-Scale Primate Retinal Ganglion Recordings . (
  • Ganglion cells that had complex receptive field properties, namely, On-Off and On direction-selective cells, orientation-selective cells, local edge detectors, and uniformity detectors (suppressed by contrast cells) were recorded in an isolated superfused rabbit eyecup preparation. (
  • Each of the complex receptive field ganglion cell classes exhibited a distinctive three-dimensional dendritic arborization pattern uniquely associated with that physiological class. (
  • A) Schematic of the sequence of 300 natural images presented individually in a pseudo-random fashion for 200 ms each, with an inter-stimulus-interval of 800 ms. B) Left: One of the 300 natural images, overlaid with the 3-sigma outline of the receptive field of a sample retinal ganglion cell. (
  • The rd1 mouse is one of many models of retinal degenerative disease, in this case as an autosomal recessive retinal degenerative disease. (
  • What Enrica and her team found was preservation of ganglion cells late into the degenerative disease process, but 50% of cells demonstrated altered dendritic branching or trees that covered much less area than normal. (
  • Most irreversible blindness results from retinal disease. (
  • Viability of retinal ganglion cells will also be monitored after incubation with putative transmitters. (
  • Needlessly to say, the trypan blue exclusion assay demonstrated a dose-dependent decease of cell viability by treatment of HHT and ETP by itself (Amount 1A). (
  • Moreover, the mixture treatment exhibited a stark synergistic influence on reducing the cell viability of both THP1 and HL60 cells (Amount 1A), recommending synergistic cytotoxicity in AML cell lines. (
  • Results showed that all subjects with diabetes (with and without DR) had significantly thinner average GC-IPL and average RNFL, but not average outer retinal layer than controls. (
  • These findings indicate that different alleles at one or two genes have major effects on normal variation in ganglion cell number. (
  • These cells are lost (permanently) because they express genes that instruct them to die. (
  • Using automated microscopes and robots, Dr. Welsbie and colleagues will turn down the expression of all 19,000 or so genes, one-by-one, to see if the retinal ganglion cells become less prone to dying. (
  • We then used the human retinal atlas to map expression of 636 genes implicated as causes of or risk factors for blinding diseases. (
  • Although substantial literature exists on ganglion cell morphology and function, there appears to be significant differences between species. (
  • As a first step toward addressing these issues, we recently used high throughput single cell RNA-seq (scRNA-seq) to generate a retinal cell atlas from cynomolgus macaque ( Macaca fascicularis ), a non-human primate that is closely related to humans and frequently used in preclinical ophthalmological studies ( 9 - 11 ). (
  • Submissions should address significant physiological barriers to the field (e.g. vasculature, additional cell types, fovea, etc. (
  • Solutions presented should have a sustained, powerful influence on the understanding of retinal diseases and accelerating research toward new therapies. (
  • The solution will have a lasting impact on how retinal diseases and how treatments are studied. (
  • Inherited retinal diseases (IRDs) consist of a broad range of genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous retinal disorders. (
  • Fast Five Quiz: Inherited Retinal Diseases - Medscape - Mar 31, 2023. (
  • similarly, microglia (resident immune cells in the central nervous system) undergoes necroptotic death mediated by JNK when caspase 8 is blocked. (
  • However, recently, in-depth investigations showed that in certain settings also necrotic death can occur through pre-definite molecular pathways, while certain key steps of Programmed Cell Death can result in a necrosis-like death. (
  • For instance, CNT-induced oxidative stress triggers cell signaling pathways resulting in increased expression of proinflammatory and fibrotic cytokines [ 12 ]. (
  • D: Schematic view of lateral somatic cell columns containing motor neuron for the extraocular muscles innervation. (
  • A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS , the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM . (
  • We propose that this diversity will contribute to the richness of retinal inhibitory processing. (
  • In doing so, these researchers hope to identify new drug targets that could be used to prevent cell death and vision loss. (
  • Among cases, subjects with moderate or severe DR had thinner GC-IPL than subjects with no DR. The authors conclude that retinal ganglion cell loss is present in subjects with diabetes and no DR, and is progressive in moderate or severe DR. (
  • The features of these conditions are likely caused by the loss of cells in multiple tissues due to poor mitochondrial function. (
  • However, it can detect defects in the visual field only after the loss of as many as 40% of the ganglion cells. (
  • The first stage of growth after loss of a limb is the formation of a mass of stem cells at the end of the stump called a blastema, which is used to gradually reconstruct the lost body part. (
  • The substances that influence solitary ganglion cells will be tested for their effects on synaptic activity found in the ganglion cells in more dense cultures during whole-cell patch-clamp recording. (
  • Learning a neural response metric for retinal prosthesis. (
  • Ces spikes transmettent collectivement de l'information sur le stimulus en formant des motifs spatio-temporels qui constituent le code neural. (
  • Ganglion cell numbers among diverse types of mice are highly variable, ranging from 32,000 to 87,000. (
  • It is shown that most retinal ganglion cells that project to the SCN express the photopigment melanopsin, which mediates circadian entrainment in mice. (
  • Off-cone), and Retinal Ganglion Cells (identify at least three subtypes). (