The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.
Specialized PHOTOTRANSDUCTION neurons in the vertebrates, such as the RETINAL ROD CELLS and the RETINAL CONE CELLS. Non-visual photoreceptor neurons have been reported in the deep brain, the PINEAL GLAND and organs of the circadian system.
Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with MICROVILLI. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use OPSINS that activate a PHOSPHODIESTERASE phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a PHOSPHOLIPASE C cascade.
A retrogressive pathological change in the retina, focal or generalized, caused by genetic defects, inflammation, trauma, vascular disease, or aging. Degeneration affecting predominantly the macula lutea of the retina is MACULAR DEGENERATION. (Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p304)
The blood vessels which supply and drain the RETINA.
Photosensitive afferent neurons located primarily within the FOVEA CENTRALIS of the MACULA LUTEA. There are three major types of cone cells (red, blue, and green) whose photopigments have different spectral sensitivity curves. Retinal cone cells operate in daylight vision (at photopic intensities) providing color recognition and central visual acuity.
Recording of electric potentials in the retina after stimulation by light.
INTERNEURONS of the vertebrate RETINA. They integrate, modulate, and interpose a temporal domain in the visual message presented to the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS, with which they synapse in the inner plexiform layer.
Photosensitive afferent neurons located in the peripheral retina, with their density increases radially away from the FOVEA CENTRALIS. Being much more sensitive to light than the RETINAL CONE CELLS, the rod cells are responsible for twilight vision (at scotopic intensities) as well as peripheral vision, but provide no color discrimination.
The layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA; the CILIARY BODY; and the IRIS in the eye.
Adjustment of the eyes under conditions of low light. The sensitivity of the eye to light is increased during dark adaptation.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
Photosensitive proteins expressed in the ROD PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are the protein components of rod photoreceptor pigments such as RHODOPSIN.
INTERNEURONS of the vertebrate RETINA containing two processes. They receive inputs from the RETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS and send outputs to the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS. The bipolar cells also make lateral connections in the retina with the RETINAL HORIZONTAL CELLS and with the AMACRINE CELLS.
Nerve cells of the RETINA in the pathway of transmitting light signals to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. They include the outer layer of PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS, the intermediate layer of RETINAL BIPOLAR CELLS and AMACRINE CELLS, and the internal layer of RETINAL GANGLION CELLS.
The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.
The thin, highly vascular membrane covering most of the posterior of the eye between the RETINA and SCLERA.
The transparent, semigelatinous substance that fills the cavity behind the CRYSTALLINE LENS of the EYE and in front of the RETINA. It is contained in a thin hyaloid membrane and forms about four fifths of the optic globe.
The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.
NEURONS in the inner nuclear layer of the RETINA that synapse with both the RETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS and the RETINAL BIPOLAR CELLS, as well as other horizontal cells. The horizontal cells modulate the sensory signal.
The single layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA, situated closely to the tips (outer segments) of the RETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. These epithelial cells are macroglia that perform essential functions for the photoreceptor cells, such as in nutrient transport, phagocytosis of the shed photoreceptor membranes, and ensuring retinal attachment.
Common name for Carassius auratus, a type of carp (CARPS).
A purplish-red, light-sensitive pigment found in RETINAL ROD CELLS of most vertebrates. It is a complex consisting of a molecule of ROD OPSIN and a molecule of 11-cis retinal (RETINALDEHYDE). Rhodopsin exhibits peak absorption wavelength at about 500 nm.
Photosensitive protein complexes of varied light absorption properties which are expressed in the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are OPSINS conjugated with VITAMIN A-based chromophores. Chromophores capture photons of light, leading to the activation of opsins and a biochemical cascade that ultimately excites the photoreceptor cells.
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
Separation of the inner layers of the retina (neural retina) from the pigment epithelium. Retinal detachment occurs more commonly in men than in women, in eyes with degenerative myopia, in aging and in aphakia. It may occur after an uncomplicated cataract extraction, but it is seen more often if vitreous humor has been lost during surgery. (Dorland, 27th ed; Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p310-12).
Formation of new blood vessels originating from the retinal veins and extending along the inner (vitreal) surface of the retina.
Photosensitive proteins in the membranes of PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS such as the rods and the cones. Opsins have varied light absorption properties and are members of the G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS family. Their ligands are VITAMIN A-based chromophores.
Disease of the RETINA as a complication of DIABETES MELLITUS. It is characterized by the progressive microvascular complications, such as ANEURYSM, interretinal EDEMA, and intraocular PATHOLOGIC NEOVASCULARIZATION.
The adjustment of the eye to variations in the intensity of light. Light adaptation is the adjustment of the eye when the light threshold is increased; DARK ADAPTATION when the light is greatly reduced. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
The portion of a retinal rod cell situated between the ROD INNER SEGMENT and the RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. It contains a stack of photosensitive disk membranes laden with RHODOPSIN.
A specialized transport barrier, in the EYE, formed by the retinal pigment EPITHELIUM, and the ENDOTHELIUM of the BLOOD VESSELS of the RETINA. TIGHT JUNCTIONS joining adjacent cells keep the barrier between cells continuous.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Hereditary, progressive degeneration of the neuroepithelium of the retina characterized by night blindness and progressive contraction of the visual field.
A genus of the Ambystomatidae family. The best known species are the axolotl AMBYSTOMA MEXICANUM and the closely related tiger salamander Ambystoma tigrinum. They may retain gills and remain aquatic without developing all of the adult characteristics. However, under proper changes in the environment they metamorphose.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The concave interior of the eye, consisting of the retina, the choroid, the sclera, the optic disk, and blood vessels, seen by means of the ophthalmoscope. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Inflammation of the RETINA. It is rarely limited to the retina, but is commonly associated with diseases of the choroid (CHORIORETINITIS) and of the OPTIC DISK (neuroretinitis).
An order of the Amphibia class which includes salamanders and newts. They are characterized by usually having slim bodies and tails, four limbs of about equal size (except in Sirenidae), and a reduction in skull bones.
The absence of light.
Visualization of a vascular system after intravenous injection of a fluorescein solution. The images may be photographed or televised. It is used especially in studying the retinal and uveal vasculature.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
Examination of the interior of the eye with an ophthalmoscope.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Experimentally produced harmful effects of ionizing or non-ionizing RADIATION in CHORDATA animals.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.
Diseases of the uvea.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The conversion of absorbed light energy into molecular signals.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
The anterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which coordinate the general behavioral orienting responses to visual stimuli, such as whole-body turning, and reaching.
A neuronal calcium-sensor protein that is found in ROD PHOTORECEPTORS and CONE PHOTORECEPTORS. It interacts with G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTOR KINASE 1 in a Ca2+ dependent manner and plays an important role in PHOTOTRANSDUCTION.
A family of freshwater fish comprising the minnows or CARPS.
An oval area in the retina, 3 to 5 mm in diameter, usually located temporal to the posterior pole of the eye and slightly below the level of the optic disk. It is characterized by the presence of a yellow pigment diffusely permeating the inner layers, contains the fovea centralis in its center, and provides the best phototropic visual acuity. It is devoid of retinal blood vessels, except in its periphery, and receives nourishment from the choriocapillaris of the choroid. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
A bilateral retinopathy occurring in premature infants treated with excessively high concentrations of oxygen, characterized by vascular dilatation, proliferation, and tortuosity, edema, and retinal detachment, with ultimate conversion of the retina into a fibrous mass that can be seen as a dense retrolental membrane. Usually growth of the eye is arrested and may result in microophthalmia, and blindness may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)
An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.
An area approximately 1.5 millimeters in diameter within the macula lutea where the retina thins out greatly because of the oblique shifting of all layers except the pigment epithelium layer. It includes the sloping walls of the fovea (clivus) and contains a few rods in its periphery. In its center (foveola) are the cones most adapted to yield high visual acuity, each cone being connected to only one ganglion cell. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
A ring of tissue extending from the scleral spur to the ora serrata of the RETINA. It consists of the uveal portion and the epithelial portion. The ciliary muscle is in the uveal portion and the ciliary processes are in the epithelial portion.
A 48-Kd protein of the outer segment of the retinal rods and a component of the phototransduction cascade. Arrestin quenches G-protein activation by binding to phosphorylated photolyzed rhodopsin. Arrestin causes experimental autoimmune uveitis when injected into laboratory animals.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID that contain one or more amino groups attached to the aliphatic structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobutryrate structure.
Rats bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
The light sensitive outer portion of a retinal rod or a cone photoreceptor cell. The outer segment contains a stack of disk membranes laden with photoreceptive pigments (RETINAL PIGMENTS). The outer segment is connected to the inner segment by a PHOTORECEPTOR CONNECTING CILIUM.
Degenerative changes in the RETINA usually of older adults which results in a loss of vision in the center of the visual field (the MACULA LUTEA) because of damage to the retina. It occurs in dry and wet forms.
Electrodes which can be used to measure the concentration of particular ions in cells, tissues, or solutions.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A common name for fish of the family Percidae, belonging to the suborder Percoidei, order PERCIFORMES.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.
An ocular disease, occurring in many forms, having as its primary characteristics an unstable or a sustained increase in the intraocular pressure which the eye cannot withstand without damage to its structure or impairment of its function. The consequences of the increased pressure may be manifested in a variety of symptoms, depending upon type and severity, such as excavation of the optic disk, hardness of the eyeball, corneal anesthesia, reduced visual acuity, seeing of colored halos around lights, disturbed dark adaptation, visual field defects, and headaches. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
A calbindin protein found in many mammalian tissues, including the UTERUS, PLACENTA, BONE, PITUITARY GLAND, and KIDNEYS. In intestinal ENTEROCYTES it mediates intracellular calcium transport from apical to basolateral membranes via calcium binding at two EF-HAND MOTIFS. Expression is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.
A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.
Congenital, often bilateral, retinal abnormality characterized by the arrangement of outer nuclear retinal cells in a palisading or radiating pattern surrounding a central ocular space. This disorder is sometimes hereditary.
An imaging method using LASERS that is used for mapping subsurface structure. When a reflective site in the sample is at the same optical path length (coherence) as the reference mirror, the detector observes interference fringes.
The administration of substances into the eye with a hypodermic syringe.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
Photosensitive proteins expressed in the CONE PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are the protein components of cone photopigments. Cone opsins are classified by their peak absorption wavelengths.
General term for a number of inherited defects of amino acid metabolism in which there is a deficiency or absence of pigment in the eyes, skin, or hair.
Cell-surface proteins that bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID with high affinity and trigger changes that influence the behavior of cells. GABA-A receptors control chloride channels formed by the receptor complex itself. They are blocked by bicuculline and usually have modulatory sites sensitive to benzodiazepines and barbiturates. GABA-B receptors act through G-proteins on several effector systems, are insensitive to bicuculline, and have a high affinity for L-baclofen.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.
Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.
The portion of the optic nerve seen in the fundus with the ophthalmoscope. It is formed by the meeting of all the retinal ganglion cell axons as they enter the optic nerve.
Enzymes that catalyze the rearrangement of geometry about double bonds. EC 5.2.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
A light-sensitive neuroendocrine organ attached to the roof of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain. The pineal gland secretes MELATONIN, other BIOGENIC AMINES and NEUROPEPTIDES.
The administration of substances into the VITREOUS BODY of the eye with a hypodermic syringe.

oko meduzy mutations affect neuronal patterning in the zebrafish retina and reveal cell-cell interactions of the retinal neuroepithelial sheet. (1/12697)

Mutations of the oko meduzy (ome) locus cause drastic neuronal patterning defect in the zebrafish retina. The precise, stratified appearance of the wild-type retina is absent in the mutants. Despite the lack of lamination, at least seven retinal cell types differentiate in oko meduzy. The ome phenotype is already expressed in the retinal neuroepithelium affecting morphology of the neuroepithelial cells. Our experiments indicate that previously unknown cell-cell interactions are involved in development of the retinal neuroepithelial sheet. In genetically mosaic animals, cell-cell interactions are sufficient to rescue the phenotype of oko meduzy retinal neuroepithelial cells. These cell-cell interactions may play a critical role in the patterning events that lead to differentiation of distinct neuronal laminae in the vertebrate retina.  (+info)

The cytoskeletal network controls c-Jun expression and glucocorticoid receptor transcriptional activity in an antagonistic and cell-type-specific manner. (2/12697)

The physical and functional link between adhesion molecules and the cytoskeletal network suggests that the cytoskeleton might mediate the transduction of cell-to-cell contact signals, which often regulate growth and differentiation in an antagonistic manner. Depolymerization of the cytoskeleton in confluent cell cultures is reportedly sufficient to initiate DNA synthesis. Here we show that depolymerization of the cytoskeleton is also sufficient to repress differentiation-specific gene expression. Glutamine synthetase is a glia-specific differentiation marker gene whose expression in the retinal tissue is regulated by glucocorticoids and is ultimately dependent on glia-neuron cell contacts. Depolymerization of the actin or microtubule network in cells of the intact retina mimics the effects of cell separation, repressing glutamine synthetase induction by a mechanism that involves induction of c-Jun and inhibition of glucocorticoid receptor transcriptional activity. Depolymerization of the cytoskeleton activates JNK and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and induces c-Jun expression by a signaling pathway that depends on tyrosine kinase activity. Induction of c-Jun expression is restricted to Muller glial cells, the only cells in the tissue that express glutamine synthetase and maintain the ability to proliferate upon cell separation. Our results suggest that the cytoskeletal network might play a part in the transduction of cell contact signals to the nucleus.  (+info)

Identification of a novel family of targets of PYK2 related to Drosophila retinal degeneration B (rdgB) protein. (3/12697)

The protein tyrosine kinase PYK2 has been implicated in signaling pathways activated by G-protein-coupled receptors, intracellular calcium, and stress signals. Here we describe the molecular cloning and characterization of a novel family of PYK2-binding proteins designated Nirs (PYK2 N-terminal domain-interacting receptors). The three Nir proteins (Nir1, Nir2, and Nir3) bind to the amino-terminal domain of PYK2 via a conserved sequence motif located in the carboxy terminus. The primary structures of Nirs reveal six putative transmembrane domains, a region homologous to phosphatidylinositol (PI) transfer protein, and an acidic domain. The Nir proteins are the human homologues of the Drosophila retinal degeneration B protein (rdgB), a protein implicated in the visual transduction pathway in flies. We demonstrate that Nirs are calcium-binding proteins that exhibit PI transfer activity in vivo. Activation of PYK2 by agents that elevate intracellular calcium or by phorbol ester induce tyrosine phosphorylation of Nirs. Moreover, PYK2 and Nirs exhibit similar expression patterns in several regions of the brain and retina. In addition, PYK2-Nir complexes are detected in lysates prepared from cultured cells or from brain tissues. Finally, the Nir1-encoding gene is located at human chromosome 17p13.1, in proximity to a locus responsible for several human retinal diseases. We propose that the Nir and rdgB proteins represent a new family of evolutionarily conserved PYK2-binding proteins that play a role in the control of calcium and phosphoinositide metabolism downstream of G-protein-coupled receptors.  (+info)

Involvement of poly (ADP-ribose)-polymerase in the Pax-6 gene regulation in neuroretina. (4/12697)

The quail Pax-6 gene is expressed from two promoters named P0 and P1. P0 promoter is under the control of a neuroretina-specific enhancer (EP). This enhancer activates the P0 promoter specifically in neuroretina cells and in a developmental stage-dependent manner. The EP enhancer binds efficiently, as revealed by southwestern experiments, to a 110 kDa protein present in neuroretina cells but not in Quail Embryos Cells and Retinal Pigmented Epithelium which do not express the P0-initiated mRNAs. To study the role of p110 in Pax-6 regulation, we have purified the p110 from neuroretina cells extracts. Based on the peptide sequence of the purified protein, we have identified the p110 as the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Using bandshift experiments and footprinting studies, we present evidence that PARP is a component of protein complexes bound to the EP enhancer that increases the on rate of the protein complex formation to DNA. Using PARP inhibitors (3AB and 6.5 Hphe), we show that these products are able to inhibit EP enhancer activity in neuroretina cells. Finally, we demonstrate that these inhibitors are able to decrease the expression of the P0-initiated mRNA in the MC29-infected RPE cells which, in contrast to the RPE cells, accumulated the PARP in response to v-myc expression. Our results suggest that PARP is involved in the Pax-6 regulation.  (+info)

Cloning of a bovine orphan transporter and its short splicing variant. (5/12697)

We have isolated a cDNA (bv7-3) encoding a member of the Na+,Cl(-)-dependent transporter family and its short splicing variant (bv7-3s) by screening a bovine retina cDNA library. Sequence analysis revealed that bv7-3 encodes a protein of 729 amino acids and is a bovine homologue of the rat orphan transporter v7-3-2. bv7-3s contains 265 amino acids, sharing 252 N-terminal amino acids with bv7-3. Both mRNAs for bv7-3 and bv7-3s were detected in nervous system by Northern blot analysis. In immunofluorescence analysis in transfected HEK 293T cells, myc-tagged bv7-3 was mainly detected on the plasma membrane, whereas myc-tagged bv7-3s showed a pattern of intracellular membrane staining.  (+info)

Cell junctions in the developing compound eye of the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria. (6/12697)

Intercellular junctions in the developing retina of the locust Schistocerca gregaria have been examined by electron microscopy. Different types of junction appear in a well defined sequence during development. Five stages of ommatidial development are described. Close junctions and punctate junctions are present throughout development. Gap junctions appear transiently amongst the undifferentiated cells, before clearly defined preommatidia can be distinguished. The subsequent disappearance of gap junctions may be correlated with cell determination. Lanthanum studies confirm these findings. The later sequential appearance of adhesive junction types is described. These include septate desmosomes and two types of desmosomes. In the fully differentiated ommatidium only two types of junction remain, these are: desmosomes and rhabdomeric junctions.  (+info)

The neuronal basis of a sensory analyser, the acridid movement detector system. I. Effects of simple incremental and decremental stimuli in light and dark adapted animals. (7/12697)

1. The response of the movement detector (MD) system to proportionally constant incremental and decremental stimuli has been studied at various degrees of light and dark adaptation. Action potentials in the descending contralateral movement detector neurone were taken as the indicator of response. 2. Over a range of at least six log10 units of adapting luminance, the MD system behaves as an ON/OFF unit, giving responses to both incremental and decremental changes in the illumination of a 5 degrees target. 3. With increasing amplitudes of stimuli, both the ON and OFF responses saturate rapidly. Saturation is reached sooner at higher levels of light adaptation. At all levels of light adaptation, the OFF response is greater than the ON. The ratio for saturating stimuli is approximately constant at around 3:2. 4. At the brightest adapting luminances used (20 000 cd/m2) the ON response is reduced but not lost. At the lowest (0-004 cd/m2) the OFF response to a 5 degrees disc fails, but can be regained by increasing the test area to 10 degrees. 5. From what is known of the retina of locusts and other insects, it is thought that light and dark adaptation in the MD system can be adequately explained by events at the retinula cell.  (+info)

Light-induced calcium influx into retinal axons is regulated by presynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor activity in vivo. (8/12697)

Visual activity is thought to be a critical factor in controlling the development of central retinal projections. Neuronal activity increases cytosolic calcium, which was hypothesized to regulate process outgrowth in neurons. We performed an in vivo imaging study in the retinotectal system of albino Xenopus laevis tadpoles with the fluorescent calcium indicator calcium green 1 dextran (CaGD) to test the role of calcium in regulating axon arbor development. We find that visual stimulus to the retina increased CaGD fluorescence intensity in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axon arbors within the optic tectum and that branch additions to retinotectal axon arbors correlated with a local rise in calcium in the parent branch. We find three types of responses to visual stimulus, which roughly correlate with the ON, OFF, and SUSTAINED response types of RGC reported by physiological criteria. Imaging in bandscan mode indicated that patterns of calcium transients were nonuniform throughout the axons. We tested whether the increase in calcium in the retinotectal axons required synaptic activity in the retina; intraocular application of tetrodotoxin (10 microM) or nifedipine (1 and 10 microM) blocked the stimulus-induced increase in RGC axonal fluorescence. A second series of pharmacological investigations was designed to determine the mechanism of the calcium elevation in the axon terminals within the optic tectum. Injection of bis-(o-aminophenoxy)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid-AM (BAPTA-AM) (20 mM) into the tectal ventricle reduced axonal calcium levels, supporting the idea that visual stimulation increases axonal calcium. Injection of BAPTA (20 mM) into the tectal ventricle to chelate extracellular calcium also attenuated the calcium response to visual stimulation, indicating that calcium enters the axon from the extracellular medium. Caffeine (10 mM) caused a large increase in axonal calcium, indicating that intracellular stores contribute to the calcium signal. Presynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) may play a role in axon arbor development and the formation of the topographic retinotectal projection. Injection of nicotine (10 microM) into the tectal ventricle significantly elevated RGC axonal calcium levels, whereas application of the nAChR antagonist alphaBTX (100 nM) reduced the stimulus-evoked rise in RGC calcium fluorescence. These data suggest that light stimulus to the retina increases calcium in the axon terminal arbors through a mechanism that includes influx through nAChRs and amplification by calcium-induced calcium release from intracellular calcium stores. Such a mechanism may contribute to developmental plasticity of the retinotectal system by influencing both axon arbor elaboration and the strength of synaptic transmission.  (+info)

Purpose.: To examine the presence and distribution of proteoglycan (PG) core proteins in the adult human retina, choroid, and sclera. Methods.: Postmortem human eye tissue was dissected into Bruchs membrane/choroid complex, isolated Bruchs membrane, or neurosensory retina. PGs were extracted and partially purified by anion exchange chromatography. Trypsinized peptides were analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry and PG core proteins identified by database search. The distribution of PGs was examined by immunofluorescence microscopy on human macular tissue sections. Results.: The basement membrane PGs perlecan, agrin, and collagen-XVIII were identified in the human retina, and were present in the internal limiting membrane, blood vessel walls, and Bruchs membrane. The hyalectans versican and aggrecan were also detected. Versican was identified in Bruchs membrane, while aggrecan was distributed throughout the retina, choroid, and sclera. The cartilage link protein HAPLN1 was abundant in the ...
There are many complex structures that make up the human eye. Our practice, The Retina Group of Washington focuses on the retina The retina is the light sensitive area at the back of the eye where light coming through the eye is converted into images. Sometimes the retina can become detached from the back of the eye, which will cause retina complications in Bethesda and possibly a loss of vision. A detached retina often starts with a tear or hole on the retina that allows tissue or fluid in between the retina and the eyes wall. When tissue builds up behind the retina it can pull away and eventually detach from the wall.. There are several symptoms to look out for associated with a detached retina. The most common symptom is floaters, or dark spots and string-like shapes floating around your field of vision. Vitreous gel that has aged or loose blood or pigment causes these retina complications in Bethesda. Floaters dont necessarily mean that there is a retinal detachment but they are an ...
Purpose : The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase exists in two distinct complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2, with only mTORC1 containing the regulatory-associated protein of mTOR (Raptor). mTORC1 is a key regulatory control point of metabolism and protein synthesis. Little is known about the role of mTORC1 in retinal physiology. To determine if mTORC1 is necessary for retinal development the effect of negating mTORC1 function in the embryonic neural retina on visual acuity and retinal anatomy was examined. Methods : Six3cre mice were bred with Rptorf/f mice to cause conditional knockout (cKO) of Raptor expression in the neural retina beginning at approximately embryonic day 9. Six3cre-Rptorf/f mice were compared to Six3cre and to Rptorf/f controls. PCR confirmed Rptor gene editing and qRT-PCR confirmed a decrease of Raptor mRNA expression in whole retinas. Optokinetic response monitoring was used to examine visual acuity at 8 weeks of age. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used to ...
For proper function of the retina, the correct proportions of retinal cell types must be generated, they must be organized into cell-specific laminae, and appropriate synaptic connections must be made. To understand the genetic regulation of retinal development, we have analyzed mutations in the mosaic eyes gene that disrupt retinal lamination, the localization of retinal cell divisions to the retinal pigmented epithelial surface and retinal pigmented epithelial development. Although retinal organization is severely disrupted in mosaic eyes mutants, surprisingly, retinal cell differentiation occurs. The positions of dividing cells and neurons in the brain appear normal in mosaic eyes mutants, suggesting that wild-type mosaic eyes function is specifically required for normal retinal development. We demonstrate that mosaic eyes function is required within the retinal pigmented epithelium, rather than in dividing retinal cells. This analysis reveals an interaction between the retinal pigmented ...
The presently acknowledged onset of synaptogenesis in the chick retina from embryonic day 12 (E12) onward stands in contrast with the appearance of spontaneous electrical activity, of presynaptic proteins, or of neurotransmitters during early formation of the inner (E6-E8) and outer (E9) plexiform layers. Therefore, we investigated the chick retina from E6 to E12 at which age first synapses appear by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The study provides evidence that synaptogenesis in the chick retina begins shortly after the plexiform layers have started to emerge. The first synapses are electrical synapses, which appear on E7, one day after the future inner plexiform layer emerged, and towards the end of E8 in the nascent outer plexiform layer. Conventional chemical synapses appear in both plexiform layers on E8, in the inner plexiform layer (stage 34) only a few hours earlier than in the outer plexiform layer (stage 35). The first synapses are formed close to the apex of the optic fissure and
The retina is the light-sensitive layer of tissue at the back of the eyeball. Images that come through the eyes lens are focused on the retina. The retina then converts these images to electric signals and sends them along the optic nerve to the brain.. The retina usually looks red or orange because there are many blood vessels right behind it. An ophthalmoscope allows a health care provider to see through your pupil and lens to the retina. Sometimes photos or special scans of the retina can show things that the provider cannot see just by looking at the retina through the ophthalmoscope. If other eye problems block the providers view of the retina, ultrasound can be used.. Anyone who experiences these vision problems should get a retinal examination:. ...
DC Retina Washington DC Retina Washington retina practice Washington area retina practice Washington metropolitan retina practice Washington medical and surgical retina Advanced Retina Care with Compassion We specialize in medical & surgical treatment of retinal, macular, & vitreous conditions. DC Retina offers state-of-the-art diagnostic equipment. Our clinic houses an advanced treatment facility. Dr. Neal Adams is a nationally-recognized leader in the field. We are dedicated to providing the finest care to our patients! We accept emergency patients and treat emergency conditions. We offer same-day treatment for many eye conditions. Insurance: We accept most insurance, including Medicare and Medicaid.
The peptide somatostatin-14 (SRIF) acts in the mammalian retina through its distinct receptors (sst1-5). Scarce information is available on SRIF function in the retina, including the elucidation of transduction pathways mediating SRIF action. We have investigated SRIF and SRIF receptor modulation of adenylyl cyclase (AC) activity in both wild type (WT) retinas and sst1 or sst2 knock-out (KO) retinas which are known to over-express sst2 or sst1 receptors, respectively. In WT retinas, application of SRIF compounds does not affect forskolin-stimulated AC activity. In contrast, activation of sst1 or sst2 receptors inhibits AC in the presence of sst2 or sst1 receptor antagonists, respectively. Results from sst1 KO retinas demonstrate that either SRIF or octreotide, pertussis toxin-dependently inhibit AC activity. In contrast, in sst2 KO retinas, neither SRIF nor CH-275, an sst1 receptor agonist, are found to influence AC activity. As revealed by immunoblotting experiments, in sst1 KO retinas, levels ...
We at Austin Retina Associates™ are relentlessly committed to the journey of delivering excellence in retina care while treating everyone with respect and dignity. We are the largest group of retina specialists in Greater Austin and Central Texas. At our retinal diagnostic centers, we use a combination of cutting-edge technologies and state-of-the-art procedures to provide our patients with the best retinal care possible. By putting your retinal and overall health first and foremost, weve been at the leading edge of specialized retina care for more than 40 years.. Each of the highly respected physicians at Austin Retina is a board-certified, licensed ophthalmologist, fellowship-trained retinal specialist and retina surgeon who is an expert in managing diseases involving the retina, vitreous and macula. Between them is over one hundred years of combined medical knowledge and professional experience in providing patients with the very best vitreoretinal care available. They have been listed ...
Define central vein of retina. central vein of retina synonyms, central vein of retina pronunciation, central vein of retina translation, English dictionary definition of central vein of retina. Noun 1. central vein of retina - vein formed by the union of the retinal veins; accompanies central arteries of the retina in the optic nerve vena centrales...
Establishment of the DV and AP axes constitutes a fundamental step in eye development. Several transcription factors and signaling molecules expressed asymmetrically in the early retina are key to establishing the AP and DV axes of the retina: e.g. Vax (Barbieri et al., 2002; Mui et al., 2002; Schulte et al., 1999) and Ventroptin (Sakuta et al., 2001) in the ventral retina, and Tbx5 and BMP4 (Koshiba-Takeuchi et al., 2000) in the dorsal retina. In addition to these early DV molecules, retinoic acid (RA) activity is asymmetrically distributed along the DV axis in the retina, suggesting that it may play a patterning role. The presence of a dorsal and a ventral zone of RA activity in the retina, separated by a middle zone that is free of RA, is conserved among vertebrate species such as zebrafish, chick and mice (Marsh-Armstrong et al., 1994; McCaffery et al., 1999; Mey et al., 1997). The two zones of RA activity are determined by the expression of two RA-synthesizing enzymes, RALDH1 in the dorsal ...
Are you looking for a top-notch eye doctor who specializes in retina surgery and retina care? If so, you can absolutely do no better than to come to our highly-esteemed retina care practice, The Retina Group of Washington. We currently have 26 doctors on staff, with expertise in all areas of retina and macular, who specialize in treating eye problems. Our offices are located throughout the Washington DC area, so that patients can easily access our practices offices. When you need the very best eye surgeon in Fredericksburg, for surgery and treatment options, make sure that you have an appointment to see us at our eye care practice.. At our Fredericksburg location our top-notch retina specialists are Dr. T. Mark Johnson and Dr. Eric S. Lee. When you see one of our eye doctors your condition actually has the attention of all of our 26 doctors; our ophthalmologists often consult with one another regarding specific cases because many of our ophthalmologists have specialties in specific retina and ...
Retina Image Bank: A vast open-access library of more than 22,000 unique and downloadable retina images.. Annual Meeting Archives: A clinical treasure trove featuring enduring scientific meeting content from presentations and posters to papers on demand. Best Clinical Retina Practices: The ASRS is committed to helping members maintain excellence in practice and patient care. Best Clinical Retina Practices is a growing collection of statements offer definitive guidance on what the Society deems to be the current gold standard for clinical retina practice.. PAT Survey: The annual Preferences and Trends Survey (PAT) measures member preferences on a wide range of medical, surgical and socioeconomic topics and allows participants to benchmark themselves against their peers in real time. Members are eligible to participate and to receive survey results. ASRS also offers the Global Trends in Retina Survey examining retina practice trends worldwide.. Publications: ASRS provides first-class publications ...
The vitreous is the area anterior to the retina. It contains a gel -like substance that thins as we age. The layer of tissue lining the inside of the back of the eye is called the retina. It contains millions of photoreceptor cells which convert light into images. The macula is where light comes to a focus - it has mainly cone cells for color vision.. The vitreous is a clear gelatin-like substance between the lens of the eye and the retina. Light rays, carrying images to the brain, must pass through this clear gel on the way to the retina. The retina transmits information (carried by light rays) to the brain via the optic nerve. When disease or injury causes clouding of the vitreous or damage to the retina, the result is a partial or complete loss of vision.. Diabetic retinopathy is the most common of all retinal diseases. A direct result of diabetes is diabetic retinopathy. Retinopathy is an alteration of blood vessels that provide nourishment to the retina. These blood vessels may leak, ...
Taken together, the evidence strongly supports the notion that the inverted retina and its major consequence (the positioning of the photoreceptors in the outer section of the retina where they are in intimate contact with the choriocapillaris) is a specific adaptation designed to deliver abundant quantities of oxygen to the photoreceptor cells commensurate with their high energy demands--especially in metabolically active groups such as the birds and mammals. Rather than being a case of maladaptation, the inverted retina is probably an essential element in the overall design of the vertebrate visual system.. This conclusion is reinforced by the difficulty of envisaging alternative means of delivering the required amounts of oxygen to the photoreceptor cell layer if the retina had the typical non-inverted design of the sort that might appeal to a tidy-minded engineer. Blood absorbs light strongly, as witnessed by the fact that in the area centralis or macular region--which is the high-visual ...
The retina is a thin nerve membrane that detects light entering the eye. Nerve cells in the retina send signals of what the eye sees along the optic nerve to the brain.. The retina lines the back two-thirds of the eye and is made up of two layers: the sensory retina and the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE).. The macula, near the center of the retina at the back of the eyeball, provides the sharp, detailed, central vision a person uses for focusing on what is directly in the line of sight. The rest of the retina provides side (peripheral) vision, which lets a person see shapes but not fine details.. ...
Retinal Vein Occlusions (RVOs) occur when small veins in the retina suddenly close off for a period of time. This leads to a sudden increase in blood pressure in the affected area of the retina that causes blood to spill out of the veins into the retinal tissue, often damaging part retina. RVOs can vary greatly in their severity. Sometimes vision is not affected, other times it can be severely affected.. Vision loss with RVOs can occur due to the blood vessels in the retina closing off permanently (ischemia). Vision may also be affected by blood vessels becoming leaky. Serum (clear fluid within the blood) can leak from these blood vessels into the retina making it thick and swollen and allowing proteins and fats to accumulate in the retina. When this retinal swelling occurs in the center of the retina, it can make the vision very blurry (macular edema). Macular edema can often be treated with eye injections or with laser.. Sometimes abnormal blood vessels can start growing in the eye after an ...
Figure 2. Immunocytochemical labeling of adult human retinas. A: Retina treated with no primary antibody but with Cy-2- (green) and Cy-5- (blue) labeled secondary antibodies shows strong autofluorescence of lipofuscin granules in the retinal pigment epithelium (R). p, photoreceptor layer; n, inner nuclear layer; g, ganglion cell layer. B: Retina treated with polyclonal anti-PEDF (green) that had been pre-adsorbed with the immunizing peptide. Note absence of label in photoreceptors (p), inner nuclear layer (n) and ganglion cell layer (g). However, some photoreceptor outer segments (*) are weakly positive, suggesting that this label may not be due to authentic PEDF. C: Polyclonal anti-PEDF (green) labels photoreceptor outer segments and rod and cone cytoplasm. The interphotoreceptor matrix is labeled (blue) with anti-IRBP. Note PEDF-positive rod nuclei (r) but PEDF-negative cone nuclei (arrowheads). The ganglion cells (g) and some cells in the inner nuclear layer (n) are labeled (green) with pAb ...
The effects of a glutathione-containing intra-ocular irrigation solution, BSS Plus®, on retinal function and on the survival of ganglion cells in whole-mount retinal explants were studied. Evidence is provided that the perfused ex vivo bovine retina can serve as an alternative to in vivo animal testing. Isolated bovine retinas were prepared and perfused with an oxygen-saturated standard irrigation solution, and an electroretinogram was recorded to assess retinal function. After stable b-waves were detected, the isolated retinas were perfused with BSS Plus for 45 minutes. To investigate the effects of BSS Plus on photoreceptor function, 1mM aspartate was added to the irrigation solution in order to obtain a-waves, and the ERG trace was monitored for 75 minutes. For histological analysis, isolated whole retinal mounts were stored for 24 hours at 4°C, in the dark. The percentages of cell death in the retinal ganglion cell layer and in the outer and inner nuclear layers were estimated by using an ...
Are you or your child suffering from retinal detachment? The Retina Group of Washington has your perfect Annandale pediatric retina doctor. We have years of experience treating this and many other conditions.. At The Retina Group of Washington, we pride ourselves on our commitment to our community and our patient satisfaction. We always do our utmost to keep our patients comfortable and informed throughout all therapies and treatments. We are your go to Annandale pediatric retina doctor for your every possible eye care need. The retina is the light-sensitive layer of tissue that lines the inside of the eye and sends visual messages through the optic nerve to the brain. When the retina detaches, it is lifted or pulled from its normal position. If not promptly treated, retinal detachment can cause permanent vision loss. In some cases there may be small areas of the retina that are torn. These areas, called retinal tears or retinal breaks, can lead to retinal detachment. We have a great deal of ...
Figure 2. Comparison of the pathology of normal and rdd chicken retinas at 3-4 months. Comparison of normal (A) and rdd (B) retina at 3-4 months of age, both to scale. The rdd retina shows marked atrophy of all layers with virtually complete loss of photoreceptors and replacement by gliosis. GCL = ganglion cell layer, IPL = inner plexiform layer, INL = inner nuclear layer, PRL = photoreceptor layer and RPE = retinal pigment epithelium. Both haematoxylin and eosin at 340x magnification. (C) High power view of the rdd retina showing marked atrophy. Note in particular the complete absence of the outer nuclear layer (usually seen between the inner nuclear and photoreceptor layers). The photoreceptor layer shows loss of photoreceptors, gliosis and prominent clefts above the remnant of the retinal pigment epithelium. GCL = ganglion cell layer, IPL = inner plexiform layer, INL = inner nuclear layer, PRL = photoreceptor layer, RPE = retinal pigment epithelium. Haematoxylin and eosin at 1,800x ...
The retina is a sensory tissue that collects light and color information of objects and converts into electrical signals, which are then sent to the brain. After light detection by the photoreceptors in the retina, the first step in visual processing occurs in retinal interneurons that are either stimulated or inhibited by photoreceptors during the transmission of the light information to retinal ganglion cells wired to the brain. Changes in the composition and connectivity of these retinal interneurons, therefore, alter the output of the retina, modifying the visual information sent to the brain.. Neurons comprising the retina are produced before animals open their eyes for the first time. This process is regulated by various transcription factors, which bind specific DNA sequences and induce the expression of target genes that define the features of each cell type. Paired-homeobox 6 (PAX6) is an important transcription factor of retinal interneurons named as amacrine cells that tune the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Exposing primary rat retina cell cultures to γ-rays. T2 - An in vitro model for evaluating radiation responses. AU - Gaddini, Lucia. AU - Balduzzi, Maria. AU - Campa, Alessandro. AU - Esposito, Giuseppe. AU - Malchiodi-Albedi, Fiorella. AU - Patrono, Clarice. AU - Matteucci, Andrea. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. N2 - Retinal tissue can receive incidental γ-rays exposure during radiotherapy either of tumors of the eye and optic nerve or of head-and-neck tumors, and during medical diagnostic procedures. Healthy retina is therefore at risk of suffering radiation-related side effects and the knowledge of pathophysiological response of retinal cells to ionizing radiations could be useful to design possible strategies of prevention and management of radiotoxicity. In this study, we have exploited an in vitro model (primary rat retinal cell culture) to study an array of biological effects induced on retinal neurons by γ-rays. Most of the different cell types present in retinal tissue ...
There are many different parts of your eyes that work together to provide you with adequate eyesight. Issues or diseases that affect these parts of the eye can have a drastic effect on your vision if not treated properly or in a time sensitive manner. Problems that may affect the retina can quickly lead to vision damage or vision loss, but here at The Retina Group of Washington our Edgewater retina specialist is here to provide you with the comprehensive care and treatment you need to resolve any such concerns, including surgery or cryotherapy.. Retinal tears or instances of retinal detachment should be treated immediately and are considered emergencies. If your retina detaches, you may lose your eyesight, but it can be restored if attended to as soon as possible. Retinal tears are a bit different, but should still be treated promptly, and we here at The Retina Group of Washington can use cryotherapy to help. Cryotherapy involves placing a cold probe against the wall of your eye. This is used to ...
Incubation of cat retinas with 3H-glycine in vitro, followed by horizontal sectioning and autoradiography, showed labeling of 10-12% of bipolar cells and 45% of amacrine cells. To ascertain the effects of glycine-accumulating bipolar and amacrine cells on the response properties of retinal ganglion cells, in vivo iontophoretic studies were performed in the cat eye. Glycine inhibited all ganglion cells, and this action was blocked by strychnine. Aminophosphonobutyric acid (APB) suppressed ON-ganglion cells, but activated OFF-ganglion cells. The influence of APB upon OFF-ganglion cells could be completely blocked by strychnine. In the mudpuppy, APB suppressed ON-bipolar cells without affecting OFF-bipolar cells and without direct effects on other retinal neurons (Slaughter and Miller, 1981, 1985). If APB has the same mode of action in the cat retina, the present results suggest a glycinergic inhibitory input of the ON-channel upon OFF-ganglion cells.. ...
Rods and cones of the retina. False-colour scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of rod and cone cells of the eye retina. Rod cells (orange) and less numerous cone cells (blue) are specialized light-sensitive cells. They occur on the surface of the retina. They are responsible for detecting visible images, which are transmitted as nerve impulses to the optic nerve and the brain. There are about 130 million rod cells in the human retina; they detect light intensity and so are important for day and night vision. While the less numerous cone-like cone cells (about 6.5 million in the human retina) respond specifically to colour. Magnification: unknown. - Stock Image P424/0080
The retina is a layer of photosensitive tissue at the back of the eye that sends signals to your brain and makes it possible to see. Conditions that affect the retina can severely affect vision and even lead to blindness. Joshi Retina Institute offers effective treatment for retinal tears. A retina tear is not painful ...
The retina is the thin membrane that lines the back of the eye and contains the rods and cones that transfer light focused by the cornea and lens into electric impulses carried by the optic nerve to the brain. The eye takes the picture and the brain develops it.. In the center of the retina, similar to the central bulls-eye of a target, is the macula, the most sensitive part of the retina and the part that gives precise vision for reading and driving. Some common disorders of the retina include macular degeneration, floaters and retinal detachment. Many patients with macular degeneration can now be treated with vitamins and medication to avert severe vision loss.. Patients with diabetes can develop a growth of new blood vessels in the retina which may bleed and affect vision. We use special instruments, cameras and lasers to detect retina problems and can usually treat most problems in the office.. ...
Group leader : Muriel Perron Our SCaNR research group is associated with the private laboratory of Retina France association, the CERTO (Centre dEtudes et de Recherches Thérapeutiques en Ophtalmologie), with whom we are developing our research projects in collaboration.. Our long-term goal is to provide foundations for the development of innovative therapeutic approaches in patients afflicted with degenerative retinal diseases, such as Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP) or Aged Macular Degeneration (AMD).. One of the intended strategy is to revitalize the naturally limited regenerative capacity of the mammalian retina. In fish and amphibians , different populations of stem cells contribute efficiently to the regeneration of the retina following injury. These animals thus offers powerful model system to dissect the signaling pathways underlying regeneration and provide essential information to stimulate the proliferation and neurogenic potential of dormant retinal stem cells in mammals. In this context, ...
Synonyms for ablatio retinae in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for ablatio retinae. 2 synonyms for retinal detachment: detached retina, detachment of the retina. What are synonyms for ablatio retinae?
Müller cells, that belong to the family of radial glia cells, have central functions during retinogenesis. They form a stabilizing scaffold, they are candidate targets for the mediation of extraneous retinogenetic factors, and they are an important source for retina-borne retinogenetic factors. Reaggregate cultures allow the analysis of retinogenesis from dispersed cells to fully laminated tissues. Reaggregating cells from the embryonic chick retina reassemble to reversed laminated cellular spheres including constituents of all retinal layers, yet the outer nuclear layer is represented by internal rosettes. Using spheroids, we tested whether Müller cells have a decisive function in establishing retinal polarity and in determining the lamination pattern. To this end, we established confluent monolayers of highly enriched Müller cells derived from E6 or E13 chicken retinas, and then let dispersed E5.5 retinal cells reaggregate either in the absence of these monolayers or on top of them. In the ...
When chick embryos are treated with a monoclonal antibody specifically blocking the activity of neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), the development of the retina is profoundly affected. Fewer axons are found in the optic nerve, and the retina shows abnormalities in all layers. Early during retinogenesis, the proportion of dividing cells is higher in NT-3-deprived embryos compared with age-matched controls and that of differentiated neurons is smaller. The NT-3 receptor trkC is expressed early by a majority of retinal cells, and NT-3 is present in the retina at the earliest stage studied. Initially, it is located mainly in the pigmented epithelium, with a shift toward the neural retina as development proceeds. Thus, NT-3 seems to be an essential intrinsic signal acting early in development to promote the differentiation and survival of many retinal neurons ...
Here, we illustrate an optical method for directly measuring the light-regulated synaptic output of neurons in the retina. The method allows simultaneous recording from many retinal neurons in intact flat-mount preparations of the vertebrate retina.
OSLI Retina focuses exclusively on retinal diseases, surgery and pharmacotherapy. OSLI Retina will offer an expedited submission to publication effort of peer-reviewed clinical science and case report articles. The front of the journal offers practical clinical and practice management features and columns specific to retina specialists.
Retina Display Images have been Found in the new iBooks 2 & iTunes U Apps for the iPad, which confirm the rumors that a Retina Display iPad will be released by Apple in near future. For those who do not under stand how these images work : Non Retina display images are smaller in size & Retina Images are bigger in size to take advantage of the higher pixel rate of a Retina display. Also to note in the iOS the default files for non-Retina iDevices are simply named like this example-ribbon.png but for the Retina iDevices the same image will be named [email protected].. It is rumored that Apple will release a new model of iPad in March.. [via]. ...
As a result of injury, tumors, or disease, the retina can become completely or partially detached, causing diminished vision. The retina can be repaired by laser, cryoprobe, or surgery.. ...
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How often do you think about your retina? Were guessing not all that much. And if youre not having a problem, then theres no reason to, of course. Your retina is the part of your eye, located at the back, where light is focused after it enters the cornea at the front of your eye. And in the center of the retina is the macula. Its natural to take your vision and your eye health for granted. But at The Retina Group of Washington, its our job to ensure that you are able to enjoy optimal eyesight and good optical well-being for the long term. Our adult ophthalmologist in Fredericksburg has been helping people just like you for over four decades. And we continue to do so. Diseases related to your retina include diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, complications of cataracts, and age-related macular degeneration.. With our advanced diagnostic testing, our adult ophthalmologist in Fredericksburg can help you by detecting eye diseases in their early stages. Age-related macular degeneration becomes a ...
Understanding the development of tissues and organs can also help researchers understand why certain types of pediatric tumors occur. The study provides strong evidence that retinoblastoma is a developmental tumor, caused by a genetic abnormality in a tissue or organ present in the developing embryo. Following birth, this abnormality triggers cancer in that tissue or organ during infancy or childhood. The St. Jude study also broke new ground in the study of retinal development by overcoming a major obstacle blocking earlier researchers from studying the role of Rb in mice lacking this gene. Normally, such studies would be done in Rb knockout mice, in which the Rb gene had been artificially eliminated by researchers. But Rb knockout mice die while still embryos, making it impossible to study the effect of this mutation on the developing retina. However, Dyer s team was able to demonstrate the critical roles the Rb protein plays in retinal development by using several unique genetic approaches ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Gene expression profile of the adult human retinal ganglion cell layer. AU - Kim, Chan Y.. AU - Kuehn, Markus H.. AU - Clark, Abbot F.. AU - Kwon, Young H.. PY - 2006/12/22. Y1 - 2006/12/22. N2 - Purpose: Pathophysiological events in the retinal ganglion cell layer (GCL) are a prominent feature of several optic neuropathies including glaucoma. The purpose of this study was to identify and catalog genes whose expression in the human retina is restricted to the GCL. Methods: Laser capture microdissection (LCM) technology was used to isolate tissue from the perimacular retina of three human donors without retinal or optic nerve disease. RNA was isolated from the (1) retinal GCL and (2) the inner and outer nuclear layers of the same retina, and the gene expression profiles of both fractions were determined using Affymetrix Hu133Plus 2.0 GeneChips. Data were analyzed to identify those genes whose expression is substantially more prevalent in the GCL when compared to the outer retinal ...
The chicken retina is an established animal model for myopia and light-associated growth studies. It has a unique morphology: it is afoveate and avascular; oxygen and nutrition to the inner retina is delivered by a vascular tissue (pecten) that protrudes into the vitreous. Here we present, to the best of our knowledge, the first in vivo, volumetric high-resolution images of the chicken retina. Images were acquired with an ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography (UHROCT) system with 3.5 µm axial resolution in the retina, at the rate of 47,000 A-scans/s. Spatial variations in the thickness of the nerve fiber and ganglion cell layers were mapped by segmenting and measuring the layer thickness with a semi-automatic segmentation algorithm. Volumetric visualization of the morphology and morphometric analysis of the chicken retina could aid significantly studies with chicken retinal models of ophthalmic diseases.. ©2011 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Organization and development of horizontal cells in the goldfish retina, I. T2 - The use of monoclonal antibody AT101. AU - Lam, Dominic Man Kit. AU - Peng, You Wei. PY - 1991/4. Y1 - 1991/4. N2 - We have produced and characterized a monoclonal antibody, AT101, which selectively labels both viable and formaldehyde-fixed horizontal cell axon terminals, but not their somas or axons, of the goldfish (Carassius auratus) retina. The antigen recognized by AT101 appears to be a cell surface glycoprotein with a molecular weight of about 35,000 Daltons, and is present exclusively or predominantly in nervous tissues of all vertebrate species examined. We have used AT101 as a probe to analyze immunocytochemically the organization of horizontal cell axon terminals (HCATs) in the adult goldfish retina, and the emergence and maturation of these terminals during retinal development. Because of continued growth at the retinal margin in adult goldfish, there is a peripheral-to-central gradient in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - An efficient method that reveals both the dendrites and the soma mosaics of retinal ganglion cells. AU - Zhan, Xue J.. AU - Troy, John B. PY - 1997/3/1. Y1 - 1997/3/1. N2 - A method of using neurobiotin to stain both the dendrites and the soma mosaics of retinal ganglion cells in fresh retinae is described. This method is simple to use and efficient in revealing morphological details for a large number of retinal ganglion cells. It has five advantages over currently available staining methods. (1) It stains all ganglion cells in the whole retina or in a selected retinal area, permitting ganglion cell distributions across the retina to be obtained. (2) It reveals cell dendrites in great detail, especially in regions outside the area centralis. The dendritic field mosaics and, therefore the dendritic field coverage factors, of different ganglion cell types across the whole retina can be obtained easily. (3) It works reliably, efficiently, and does not require the expensive set-up ...
The retina is the light-sensitive tissue lining the back of our eye. Light rays are focused onto the retina through our cornea, pupil and lens. The retina converts the light rays into impulses that travel through the optic nerve to our brain, where they are interpreted as the images we see.. The middle of our eye is filled with a clear gel called vitreous (vit-ree-us) that is attached to the retina. As we get older, the vitreous may shrink and pull on the retina. When this happens, you may notice what look like flashing lights, lightning streaks or the sensation of seeing stars. These are called flashes.. Usually the vitreous moves away from the retina without causing problems. But sometimes the vitreous pulls hard enough to tear the retina in one or more places. Fluid may pass through a retinal tear, lifting the retina off the back of the eye - much as wallpaper can peel off a wall. When the retina is pulled away from the back of the eye like this, it is called a retinal detachment. The ...
Definition of ora serrata retinae in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is ora serrata retinae? Meaning of ora serrata retinae as a legal term. What does ora serrata retinae mean in law?
The role of nitric oxide (NO) as a novel neurochemical mechanism controlling light adaptation of the outer retina is discussed by considering mainly published results. The emphasis is on the retinae of fishes and amphibia, but some data from the mammalian (rabbit) retinae have also been included for completeness. In the fish retina, application of NO donors in the dark caused light-adaptive photomechanical movements of cones. The normal effect of light adaptation in inducing cone contractions was suppressed by pretreatment of retinae with an NO scavenger. NO donors modulated horizontal cell activity by uncoupling the cells lateral gap junctional interconnections and enhancing negative feedback to cones, again consistent with a light-adaptive role of NO. Direct evidence for light adaptation-induced release of NO has been obtained in fish (carp) and rabbit retinae. The results strongly suggest that control of retinal light adaptation is, under multiple neurochemical control, with NO and dopamine having
TY - JOUR. T1 - Oxygen distribution in the macaque retina. AU - Ahmed, J.. AU - Braun, R. D.. AU - Dunn, R.. AU - Linsenmeier, Robert A. PY - 1993/1/1. Y1 - 1993/1/1. N2 - Purpose. Oxygen distribution was characterized in the macaque retina, which is more like the human retina than others studied previously. Methods. Profiles of oxygen tension (PO2) as a function of distance were recorded in a parafoveal region about halfway between the fovea and optic disk, and from the fovea in one animal. A one-dimensional diffusion model was used to determine photoreceptor oxygen consumption (QO2). Results. In the parafovea, the PO2 decreased as the electrode was withdrawn from the choroid toward the inner retina, reaching a minimum value during dark adaptation of about 9 mmHg at about 70% retinal depth, and then increasing more proximally. Approximately 90% of the oxygen requirement of the photoreceptors was supplied by the choroidal circulation and 10% by the retinal circulation. In light adaptation, there ...
The topographic map of cell position in the avian retina is inverted in its projection to the optic tectum. Dorsal retinal ganglion cell axons project to ventral tectum, and ventral retinal ganglion cells project to dorsal tectum. Topographic gradients of toponymic (TOP) cell surface molecules along the dorsoventral axes of retina and tectum also are inverted. TOP molecules are most abundant in dorsal retina and ventral tectum and least abundant in ventral retina and dorsal tectum during the period of initial retinal-tectal interaction. Thus, TOP molecules may be involved in orienting the retinotectal map. ...
Board-certified ophthalmologist and retina specialist Deborah Y. Chong, M.D., joins Texas Retina Associates August 1 and will see patients in our Dallas Main office.. A member of the American Society of Retina Specialists and the American Academy of Ophthalmology, Dr. Chong most recently served as assistant professor of medical and surgical diseases of the vitreous, retina and macula in the department of ophthalmology at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center. She completed her fellowship in medical and surgical retina at Texas Retina Associates. Prior to that, she served as chief resident at Kellogg Eye Center, University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, where she earned the George Slocum Resident Research Award. Dr. Chong completed her internship at St. Joseph Mercy Hospital, also in Ann Arbor, Michigan, and earned her medical degree from Harvard Medical School in Boston, Massachusetts.. The demand for care in our Dallas community continues to grow, said Texas Retina Associates Chief ...
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Originally from Santa Maria, California, Patrick Williams, MD, met fellow Texas Retina Associates physician Christopher Fuller, MD, in medical school at Texas Tech in Lubbock. That led to the opportunity to shadow Dr. Christopher Fullers father Dwain Fuller, MD, at Texas Retina Associates when Dr. Williams was a second-year medical student. This inspired a passion for ophthalmology and retina surgery. He then went on to complete his vitreoretinal fellowship at Texas Retina Associates after his residency at UT Southwestern Dallas. A board-certified ophthalmologist and fellowship-trained retina specialist, Dr. Williams provides a full range of medical and surgical retina care at our Arlington, Fort Worth and Grapevine offices and has a special interest in age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and surgical repair of retinal diseases. What inspired you to become a physician and then a retina specialist ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular biology of retinal ganglion cells. AU - Xiang, Mengqing. AU - Zhou, Hao. AU - Nathans, Jeremy. PY - 1996/1/23. Y1 - 1996/1/23. N2 - Retinal ganglion cells are the output neurons that encode and transmit information from the eye to the brain. Their diverse physiologic and anatomic properties have been intensively studied and appear to account well for a number of psychophysical phenomena such as lateral inhibition and chromatic opponency. In this paper, we summarize our current view of retinal ganglion cell properties and pose a number of questions regarding underlying molecular mechanisms. As an example of one approach to understanding molecular mechanisms, we describe recent work on several POU domain transcription factors that are expressed in subsets of retinal ganglion cells and that appear to be involved in ganglion cell development.. AB - Retinal ganglion cells are the output neurons that encode and transmit information from the eye to the brain. Their diverse ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential distribution of signal-transducing G-proteins in retina. AU - Lad, Rajnikant P.. AU - Simons, Cyrena. AU - Gierschik, Peter. AU - Milligan, Graeme. AU - Woodaard, Charles. AU - Griffo, Mark. AU - Goldsmith, Paul. AU - Ornberg, Richard. AU - Gerfen, Charles R.. AU - Spiegel, Allen. PY - 1987/10/13. Y1 - 1987/10/13. N2 - We used specific antibodies in immunoblot studies of membrane fractions derived from bovine retina, and in immunohistochemical studies of sections of rat retina to determine the distribution of two guanine nucleotide binding proteins Go (a G-protein of unknown function discovered in the brain) and transducin, in retina. Both Go and transducin were readily detected in membranes derived from whole retina, and in crude rod outer segment membranes. Purification of rod outer segment membranes by sucrose density gradient centrifugation resulted in enrichment in transducin and depletion of Go immunoreactivity. Transducin-α immunoreactivity was localized to ...
The intricate circuitry formed by amacrine cells in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) of the retina suggests that these interneurons play a major role in shaping the visual message. The majority of amacrine cells in the vertebrate retina are GABAergic. Thus, elucidating how GABAergic signaling is modulated in the IPL is critical in order to understand how the visual message is processed in the retina. The results presented here suggest that GABAergic signaling between amacrine cells can be modulated by the activation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) or by the production of the second messenger, nitric oxide (NO). A novel mGluR5 splice variant was isolated from the chicken retina with a truncated carboxy-terminal tail. Whole cell electrophysiological experiments indicated that activation of mGluR5 enhances GABA-gated currents recorded from cultured chick amacrine cells. This mGluR5-dependent enhancement occurred through the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate pathway and was dependent upon ...
With age, mobilization and migration of cells found within the retina may spread outward along the surface of the central retina forming a macular scar. This thin layer of scar tissue is known as a macular pucker. Macular pucker is known by a variety of names, including epiretinal membrane, surface wrinkling retinopathy, cellophane retinopathy, and internal limiting membrane disease. All of these names relate to the fact that there is a layer of thin scar tissue on the surface of the macula which result in mechanical wrinkling and distortion of the retina. Since the scar cells are attached to the retina, the retina itself becomes wrinkled in association with the progression of the scar. When this occurs in the central, critical portion of vision, the macula, visual symptoms may result.. The symptoms of a macular pucker include: distortion in lines or letters while reading, a decrease in central vision for distance and reading activities, and blurring or distortion of images when looking at ...
A retinal ganglion cell (RGC) is a type of neuron located near the inner surface (the ganglion cell layer) of the retina of the eye. It receives visual information from photoreceptors via two intermediate neuron types: bipolar cells and retina amacrine cells. Retina amacrine cells, particularly narrow field cells, are important for creating functional subunits within the ganglion cell layer and making it so that ganglion cells can observe a small dot moving a small distance. Retinal ganglion cells collectively transmit image-forming and non-image forming visual information from the retina in the form of action potential to several regions in the thalamus, hypothalamus, and mesencephalon, or midbrain. Retinal ganglion cells vary significantly in terms of their size, connections, and responses to visual stimulation but they all share the defining property of having a long axon that extends into the brain. These axons form the optic nerve, optic chiasm, and optic tract. A small percentage of ...
She currently serves as the Secretary of the Retina Society, Secretary of the Chicago Ophthalmology Society, Associate Deputy Editor of JAMA Ophthalmology, Chairperson of the Nominating Committee for the Macula Society and is on the ASRS Board. She is on the Editorial Board of Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science (IOVS). She is the AAO Councilor for the Retina Society. She belongs to and has held leadership positions within the Retina Society, Macula Society, American Society of Retinal Specialists (ASRS), Women in Ophthalmology (WIO) and Chinese American Ophthalmology Society. She has been the Director of the Retina Subspecialty Day, Retina Subcommittee Chairperson of the American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) Annual Meeting Planning Committee, the President of WIO, President of CAOS, Chair of Women in Retina, Chairperson of Retina Society Credentialing Committee, Chairperson of the Macula Society Research and Education Committee . She has served on the Editorial Boards of EyeNet, ...
Amacrine cells are interneurons in the retina. Amacrine cells are responsible for 70% of input to retinal ganglion cells. Bipolar cells, which are responsible for the other 30% of input to retinal ganglia, are regulated by amacrine cells. Amacrine cells operate at the inner plexiform layer (IPL), the second synaptic retinal layer where bipolar cells and ganglion cells form synapses. There are about 40 different types of amacrine cells and are classified by the width of their field of connection, which layer(s) of the stratum in the IPL they are in, and by neurotransmitter type. No single type of amacrine cell predominates; the type with most frequency is observed only 13% of total population, and the remainders are distributed among many types of cell, each making up 5% or less of the total amacrine cell population. The average diameter of dendritic field for each type varies over 34 to 400 microns, and their overall shapes alone are enough to serve as criterion of classification. There is no ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Endogenous D-serine contributes to NMDA-receptor-mediated light-evoked responses in the vertebrate retina. AU - Gustafson, Eric C.. AU - Stevens, Eric R.. AU - Wolosker, Herman. AU - Miller, Robert F.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2007/7. Y1 - 2007/7. N2 - We have combined electrophysiology and chemical separation and measurement techniques with capillary electrophoresis (CE) to evaluate the role of endogenous D-serine as an NMDA receptor (NMDAR) coagonist in the salamander retina. Electrophysiological experiments were carried out using whole cell recordings from retinal ganglion cells and extracellular recordings of the proximal negative response (PNR), while bath applying two D-serine degrading enzymes, including Damino acid oxidase (DAAO) and D-serine deaminase (DsdA). The addition of either enzyme resulted in a significant and rapid decline in the light-evoked responses observed in ganglion cell and PNR recordings. The addition of ...
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axotomy and death on the thickness of the inner plexiform (IPL), inner nuclear (INL), and outer plexiform layers (OPL), as well as the densities of short- (S) and middle-to-long-wavelength (M/L) cones in the porcine retina. Unilateral, peripapillary RGC axotomy was performed in six domestic pigs using an argon laser. In eight additional pigs the optic nerve was surgically transected. With the exception of two eyes that underwent sham surgeries, the contralateral eyes were not treated and served as controls. Damage to the retinal vasculature was ruled out with fluorescein angiography. Nine months later the retinas were flat mounted, and biopsies were taken at four retinal locations. Cone densities were determined with anti-visual pigment antibodies, COS-1 for M/L and OS-2 for S pigment. Semithin cross sections were made through all biopsies to measure the thickness of the retinal layers. The effect of ...
The vision correction and eye care center of The Retina Group of Washington will give you the best possible care to keep your eyes healthy and strong. Our retina specialists and retinal surgeons in Rockville believe that clear, comfortable vision is your right and your priority. Many of our patients have come to us for retinal surgery and treatment for retinal detachment in particular.. A retinal detachment is a serious and vision threatening event. A retinal detachment occurs when the retina, the light sensitive inner lining of the back of the eye, becomes separated from its underlying supportive tissue. The retina cannot function when it detaches, and unless it is reattached soon, permanent vision loss may result. If you suddenly notice spots, floaters, or flashes of light, you may be experiencing a retinal detachment. Your vision might become blurry, or you might have poor vision. These symptoms can occur gradually as the retina pulls away from the supportive tissue, or they may occur ...
Action potentials in retinal ganglion cells are initiated at the site of maximal curvature of the extracellular potential.: We present a framework how to estima
Computerized Assessment of Intraretinal and Subretinal Fluid Regions in Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Images of the Retina
Below the photoreceptor level of the retina, there is an intermediate layer containing three types of cells: bipolar cells, amacrine cells, and horizontal cells. Ganglionic cells are located under the intermediate layer. Their axons form the optic nerve.  I: outer nuclear layer  II: outer plexiform layer  III: inner nuclear layer  IV: inner plexiform layer  V: ganglion cell layer Optic nerve Ganglion cell Amacrine cell Bipolar cells Horizontal cell ConeRod I II III IV V Light Info Neurons of the Retina
Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) is a widely used method to observe retinal layers and follow pathological events in human. Recently, this technique has been adapted for animal imaging. This non-invasive technology brings a cross-sectional visualization of the retina, which permits to observe precisely each layer. There is a clear expansion of the use of this imaging modality in rodents, thus, a precise characterization of the different outer retinal layers observed by SD-OCT is now necessary to make the most of this technology. The identification of the inner strata until the outer nuclear layer has already been clearly established, while the attribution of the layers observed by SD-OCT to the structures corresponding to photoreceptors segments and retinal pigment epithelium is much more questionable. To progress in the understanding of experimental SD-OCT imaging, we developed a method for averaging SD-OCT data to generate a mean image allowing to better delineate layers in the
We studied the uptake of 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) and the synthesis of its phosphorylated product 2DG-6-phosphate (2DG-6P) by the retinas of the clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) and the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana). Autoradiographs showed that most of the retinal 2DG uptake is by the photoreceptor layer. The 2DG accumulation by isolated Xenopus retinas was time and concentration dependent. The Kt for transport was 5.05 mM; Vmax was 6.99 X 10(-10) mol . mg-1 tissue wet weight min-1. The Km for 2DG-6P formation was estimated to be 2-3 mM and Vmax to be approximately 4 x 10(-9) mol . mg-1 min-1. 2DG uptake was inhibited competitively by glucose with a Ki of 2.29 mM. Exposure to light reduced 2DG uptake by no more than 10% as compared with dark uptake. Low sodium or ouabain (10(-4)-10(-7) M) treatment did not significantly alter 2DG uptake as compared with control retinas. In experiments upon intact, anesthetized bullfrogs, light reduced both the total amount of radioactivity acquired by the retina and ...
Cellular Basis for Glaucoma. Researchers at Catalyst for a Cure (CFC) consortium, a division of the Glaucoma Research Foundation, have announced their continuing work in 2011: studying how and why retinal ganglion cells degenerate in people with glaucoma. Retinal ganglion cells are types of neuron located near the inner surface eyes retina. They receive visual images from the photoreceptors and transmit the information to the brain.. These CFC researchers are looking at the onset and progression of glaucoma at the level of the cells and molecular pathways. They have noted that the degeneration of the retinal ganglion cells is related to the loss of connectivity that accompanies glaucoma. According to the CFC: These degenerative changes compromise the neurons ability to process and transmit visual information well before the neurons actually die. The team has determined that the retinal ganglion cells are particularly vulnerable early in the development of glaucoma, when these cells are more ...
The time-course of the light-induced changes in membrane voltage and resistance were measured for single photoreceptors in the retina of Gekko gekko. In the surgically isolated retina, small stimuli directed toward the impaled receptor produced a membrane hyperpolarization the time-course of which was identical to that of the increase in membrane resistance. In the eyecup preparation nearly identical time-courses were evoked only after perfusion of the vitreous surface with solution having high (Mg++). Disparate time-courses were obtained in (a) the isolated retina when large or displaced stimuli were used, and (b) the eyecup preparation when it was treated normally (see Pinto and Pak. 1974. J. Gen. Physiol. 64:49) and when it was exposed to aspartate ions or hypoxia. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the receptor potential (elicited in the impaled receptor as a result of quanta only it captures) is generated by a single ionic process that decreases membrane conductance. ...
Looking for online definition of pars iridica retinae in the Medical Dictionary? pars iridica retinae explanation free. What is pars iridica retinae? Meaning of pars iridica retinae medical term. What does pars iridica retinae mean?
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The retina is an inverted stack of neurons requiring light to traverse its full thickness before being absorbed by photoreceptors to initiate vision (1). Retinal neurons anterior to photoreceptors-including ganglion cells (GCs)-are therefore nearly transparent and well index matched to surrounding cells. These properties, combined with tight packing of the GCs, ocular blur, and retina motion, make these neurons extremely challenging to image in the living human eye (2⇓-4). Ex vivo studies overcome these by removing the retina and using stains and fluorescent markers (5⇓-7), two-photon excitation (8, 9), differential interference contrast optics (10), and extreme 3D resolution (11) to enhance contrast. Recently, some of these powerful methods have been applied successfully to animals in vivo as, for example, two-photon excitation (12), but work remains to translate them to human. However, standard methods of imaging the human retina in vivo-including fundus photography, scanning laser ...
Fig. 50. The physiological responses of melanopsin ganglion cells to light. The response on the left shows the melanopsin cells slow onset steady state depolarizing spiking that occurs to a light flash as compared the slow but faster onset hyperpolarization of the green cones in the mouse retina. The action spectra to the right show the melanopsin ganglion cell to have a peak sensitivity to light of 484 nm compared with the rods and other cone types in the mouse. After Berson, 2003. Ralph Nelson. Last Updated: April 10, 2007.. References:. Ammermuller J, Muller J, Kolb H. The organization of the turtle inner retina. II. Analysis of color-coded and directionally selective cells. J Comp Neurol.1995;358:35-62. [PubMed]. Amthor FR, Oyster CW, Takahashi ES. Morphology of ON-OFF direction-selective ganglion cells in the rabbit retina. Brain Res. 1984;298:187-190. [PubMed]. Amthor FR, Takahashi ES, Oyster CW. Morphologies of rabbit retinal ganglion cells with concentric receptive fields. J Comp ...
Autoradiographic studies of cat retina showed an accumulation of [3H]dopamine in a subpopulation of amacrine cells whose process ramify in the outermost stratum of the inner plexiform layer. Dendrites of these cells are characterized by numerous varicosities measuring up to 2 micron in diameter whic …
TY - JOUR. T1 - Calcium increases in retinal glial cells evoked by light-induced neuronal activity. AU - Newman, Eric A.. PY - 2005/6/8. Y1 - 2005/6/8. N2 - Electrical stimulation of neurons in brain slices evokes increases in cytoplasmic Ca2+ in neighboring astrocytes. The present study tests whether similar neuron-to-glial signaling occurs in the isolated rat retina in response to light stimulation. Results demonstrate that Müller cells, the principal retinal glial cells, generate transient increases in Ca2+ under constant illumination. A flickering light stimulus increases the occurrence of these Ca2+ transients. Antidromic activation of ganglion cell axons also increases the generation of Müller cell Ca 2+ transients. The increases in Ca2+ transients evoked by light and antidromic stimulation are blocked by the purinergic antagonist suramin and by TTX. The addition of adenosine greatly potentiates the response to light, with light ON evoking large Ca2+ increases in Müller cells. Suramin, ...
Normally, the retina lies against the back of the eye where blood vessels furnish it with oxygen and nutrients. Tears in the retina may impair vision and lead to a detached retina. ...
Usually affecting both eyes, it occurs when diabetes damages the tiny blood vessels on the retina, the light-sensitive tissue located on the back inner-wall of the eye.. Eye doctors commonly separate Diabetic Retinopathy into 2 stages: Non-proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy (NPDR) and Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy (PDR).. In NPDR, the earliest stage of diabetic retinopathy, microaneurysms occur. They are small areas of balloon-like swelling in the tiny blood vessels that nourish the retina. As they increase in number, they tend to cluster and leak fluid into the complex retinal layers.. As the disease progresses, the retinal blood vessels may become irregularly shaped, dilated and leaky. Small hemorrhages may occur and discrete whitish-yellow fat residue can accumulate as a result of the leakage.. The damaged blood vessels can also lose their ability to transport blood, depriving areas of the retina of their nourishing blood and oxygen supply.. Sometimes, the macula, the part of the retina ...
Abstract: Abstract Background The multiplex, lattice mosaic of cone photoreceptors in the adult fish retina is a compelling example of a highly ordered epithelial cell pattern, with single cell width rows and columns of cones and precisely defined neighbor relationships among different cone types. Cellular mechanisms patterning this multiplex mosaic are not understood. Physical models can provide new insights into fundamental mechanisms of biological patterning. In earlier work, we developed a mathematical model of photoreceptor cell packing in the zebrafish retina, which predicted that anisotropic mechanical tension in the retinal epithelium orients planar polarized adhesive interfaces to align the columns as cone photoreceptors are generated at the retinal margin during post-embryonic growth. Methods With cell-specific fluorescent reporters and in vivo imaging of the growing retinal margin in transparent juvenile zebrafish we provide the first view of how cell packing, spatial arrangement, and ...
Amacrine cells are interneurons in the retina. Amacrine cells operate at the inner plexiform layer (IPL), the second synaptic retinal layer where bipolar cells and ganglion cells form synapses. There are about 40 different types of amacrine cells and are classified by the width of their field of connection, which layer(s) of the stratum in the IPL they are in, and by neurotransmitter type. No single type of amacrine cell predominates; the type with most frequency is observed only 13% of total population, and the remainders are distributed among many types of cell, each making up 5% or less of the total amacrine cell population. The average diameter of dendritic field for each type varies over 34 to 400 microns, and their overall shapes alone are enough to serve as criterion of classification. There is no clear distinction between dendrites and axons in the processes of most of the amacrine cells, though they are often referred to as dendrites in general. Like horizontal cells, amacrine cells ...
Immune intraocular inflammation was induced in primates with homologous retinal outer segments. Perivascular retinitis, uveitis, and edema of the optic nerve head were the prominent acute clinical features. Acute and chronic inflammation was seen in the central and peripheral retinal vessels and granulomatous infiltration was present in the choroid of the uvea. Selective degeneration of the outer segments of the photoreceptor cells of the retina with sparing of the inner segments and of the adjacent pigment epithelium was confirmed by light and electron microscopy. This study strongly suggests that photoreceptor outer segments are highly and specifically immunogenic. The inciting antigen has yet to be identified. Implication of rhodopsin will have to await further studies since it exists as the essential protein in the outer segment.
The cell cycle is a highly complex process that is under the control of several pathways. Failure to regulate and/or complete the cell cycle often leads to cell cycle arrest, which may be followed by programmed cell death (apoptosis). One cell type that has a variety of unique cell cycle properties is the horizontal cell of the chicken retina. In this thesis we aimed to characterize the final cell cycle of retinal horizontal cells. In addition, the regulation of the cell cycle and the resistance to apoptosis of retinal horizontal cells are investigated.. Our results show that the final cell cycle of Lim1-expressing horizontal progenitor cells is heterogenic and three different cell cycle behaviors can be distinguished. The horizontal cells are generated by: (i) an interkinetic nuclear migration with an apical mitosis; (ii) a final cell cycle with an S-phase that is not followed by mitosis, such cells remain with a fully or partially replicated genome; or (iii) non-apical (basal) mitoses. ...
Characterizing the Impact of Off-Axis Scan Acquisition on the Reproducibility of Total Retinal Thickness Measurements in SDOCT Volumes
Author(s): Elstrott, Justin Blake | Abstract: Whether capturing prey or evading predators, an animals ability to detect movement in the world is critical for its survival. The first cells in the visual pathway that are tuned to detect motion are a subset of retinal ganglion cells called direction-selective ganglion cells (DSGCs). DSGCs respond strongly to motion in the preferred direction and weakly to motion in the opposite, or null direction. The circuitry underlying this computation consists of precise wiring between inhibitory interneurons, called amacrine cells, and the DSGCs. The role of neural activity in guiding this wiring is not known. We performed a series of experiments to examine whether DSGCs require activity for normal development. First, we tested whether visual experience was required for the establishment of direction selectivity in the retina. We recorded from the retinas of dark-reared mice using large-scale multi-electrode arrays, which allow for the recording from hundreds of
Apple's Retina MacBook Pro controversy[edit]. In 2012, Apple's Retina MacBook Pro debuted on EPEAT with a Gold rating after ... "The Retina MacBook Pro was 'verified' EPEAT Gold, But it's Not Green". ifixit.org. Retrieved October 21, 2012 ...
In the cat, it is observed that A-type horizontal cells have a density of 225 cells/mm2 near the center of the retina and a ... Demb, JB; Singaer, JH (2015). "Functional Circuitry of the Retina". Annual Review of Vision Science. 1: 263-289. doi:10.1146/ ... Wässle, H; Riemann, HJ (1978). "The Mosaic of Nerve Cells in the Mammalian Retina". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: ... Horizontal cells are the laterally interconnecting neurons having cell bodies in the inner nuclear layer of the retina of ...
The macula or macula lutea is an oval-shaped pigmented area near the center of the retina of the human eye and some other ... The macula is an oval-shaped pigmented area near the center of the retina of the human eye and some other animalian eyes. The ... Photograph of the retina of the human eye, with overlay diagrams showing the positions and sizes of the macula, fovea, and ... Photoreceptor cells (Cone cell, Rod cell) → (Horizontal cell) → Bipolar cell → (Amacrine cell) → Retina ganglion cell (Midget ...
Retina[edit]. Neurons within the retina show extensive coupling, both within populations of one cell type, and between ... monkey retina,[26] rabbit cornea,[27] fish blastoderm,[28] frog embryos,[29] rabbit ovary,[30] re-aggregating cells,[31][32] ... "Gap junctions mediate bystander cell death in developing retina". J. Neurosci. 23 (16): 6413-22. PMID 12878681.. ... "Gap junctions between photoreceptor cells in the vertebrate retina". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 70 (6): 1677-81. Bibcode ...
... can be a symptom of a number of eye disorders involving the retina or macula. Some of these conditions include ... "Retina Summary Benchmarks - 2019". American Academy of Ophthalmology. 2017-11-01. Retrieved 2020-12-07. Simunovic, Matthew P. ( ... The mechanisms that result in the development of metamorphopsia involve structural changes in the retina of the eye (retinal ... sight Dysmorphopsia Hallucination Retina. Ryan, Stephen J., 1940-2013. (5th ed.). [London?]: Saunders. 2013. p. 309. ISBN 978-1 ...
... results of the Pan-American Collaborative Retina Study Group at 12 months follow-up". Retina. 28 (10): 1387-94. doi:10.1097/IAE ...
In a survey from 2017 in Japan, 28 of 34 retina specialists (82.4%) said they used PRN, irrespective of the severity of the ... Survey results of retina specialists in Japan" (PDF). Jpn J Ophthalmol. 63 (5): 365-373. doi:10.1007/s10384-019-00685-4. PMID ... Retina. 37 (4): 702-709. doi:10.1097/IAE.0000000000001224. PMID 27471827. S2CID 25073873.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors ...
The retina has a static contrast ratio of around 100:1 (about 6.5 f-stops). As soon as the eye moves rapidly to acquire a ... The visual system in the human brain is too slow to process information if images are slipping across the retina at more than a ... It is induced when the entire visual scene drifts across the retina, eliciting eye rotation in the same direction and at a ... Rod and cone cells in the retina are photoreceptive cells which are able to detect visible light and convey this information to ...
Fundus of the eye The central portion of the retina on back or deepest part of the eye. Damage to the fundus, even if the rest ... Special drops are used to enlarge the pupils, enabling the doctor to view the retina at the back of the eye for damage. See ... Macular edema A swelling (edema) in the macula, an area near the center of the retina of the eye that is responsible for fine ... Others develop when a person has had diabetes for a time (often years, or even decades). These include damage to the retina of ...
... region of the retina. As such, a standard vision test may underrepresent the visual deficit experienced by patients who report ... is an advanced form of age-related macular degeneration that can result in the progressive and irreversible loss of retina ( ... Retina. 36 (10): 1806-1822. doi:10.1097/IAE.0000000000001283. PMC 5384792. PMID 27652913. Brown, Jamie C.; Goldstein, Judith E ... Ophthalmol Retina. 3 (6): 478-488. doi:10.1016/j.oret.2019.01.024. PMID 31174669. Nassisi, M (21 August 2018). " ...
Medical Retina. Retina. 2 (4th ed.). St. Louis: Mosby. OCLC 936652565. Ferry, Andrew P. (September 1963). "Macular detachment ... The most popular theory behind this association is a separation of the layers of the retina, known as retinoschisis, due to ... Centrally located optic pits are less likely to cause changes in the retina. However, if located more peripherally in the optic ... Treatment for optic pit-associated macular detachment involves photocoagulation of the retina by use of an ion laser (either ...
Feist R, Morris R, Witherspoon C, Blair N, Ticho B, White M (1990). "Vitrectomy in asteroid hyalosis". Retina. 10 (3): 173-7. ... and may interfere significantly with visualization and testing of the retina. While treatment of asteroid hyalosis is usually ...
Retina. 32 (3): 499-505. doi:10.1097/IAE.0b013e31822529cf. PMID 22392091. S2CID 31308270. Kokavec, Jan; Min, San H; Tan, Mei H ... obstructing light from reaching the retina at the back of the eye. Cataracts may develop in 0.7 to 8.0% of cases following ... but removes enough to allow light to pass directly through to the retina. Serious side effects are rare. Posterior capsular ... involves accumulation of clumps of protein or yellow-brown pigment in the lens that reduces transmission of light to the retina ...
"Retina Today - Use of Intravitreal Steroids in the Clinic". Retina Today. Retrieved 2020-05-03. Ghasemi Falavarjani, K; Nguyen ... Both of these conditions cause damage to the retina leading to vision loss. There are three widely used Anti-VEGF drugs to ... This fluid can cause sensory tissues to detach from the retina, thus losing their source of nutrition, and slowly killing the ... Mount Sinai researchers have developed a method to measure retina damage from long term intravitreal injection using optimal ...
"Retina Today - Dexamethasone Intravitreal Implant: Pharmacology and Clinical Update". Retina Today. Retrieved 2020-04-26. ... Anti-VEGF drugs are often injected to reduce the swelling or bleeding of the retina, which can be used to treat wet age-related ... MD, By Ingrid U. Scott, MD, MPH, and Harry W. Flynn Jr; Specialist, Retina. "An Update on the Intravitreal Injection Procedure ... published the first guidelines for intravitreal injection in the journal 'Retina', fomivirsen was still the only medication ...
Laser surgery is a treatment option which uses a laser beam to seal off damaged blood vessels in the retina. Anti-vascular ... Retinal haemorrhage is a disorder of the eye in which bleeding occurs in the retina, the light sensitive tissue, located on the ... There are photoreceptor cells in the retina called rods and cones, which transduce light energy into nerve signals that can be ... Retina. 26 (3): 275-8. doi:10.1097/00006982-200603000-00004. PMID 16508426. S2CID 8262505. "Age-Related Macular Degeneration ...
Retina. 3 (12): 1013-1015. doi:10.1016/j.oret.2019.08.002. PMID 31810570. Garg SP, Dada T, Talwar D, Biswas NR (November 1997 ... When the disorder is active it is characterized by leakage of fluid under the retina that has a propensity to accumulate under ... Boscia F (April 2010). "When to Treat and Not to Treat Patients With Central Serous Retinopathy". Retina Today. Archived from ... Additionally, fluid can leak from these damaged vessels and accumulate under the retina. Different stages of the pachychoroid ...
Retina. 26 (1): 1-4. doi:10.1097/00006982-200601000-00001. PMID 16395131. Solomon AS (June 2006). "Pterygium". The British ...
The retina extends farthest in the superior-nasal 45° quadrant (in the direction from the pupil to the bridge of the nose) with ... Mollon, J D; Regan, B C; Bowmaker, J K (1998). "What is the function of the cone-rich rim of the retina?" (PDF). Eye. 12 (3b): ... In terms of visual acuity, "foveal vision" may be defined as vision using the part of the retina in which a visual acuity of at ... This is because the density of receptor and ganglion cells in the retina is greater at the center and lowest at the edges, and ...
Mittra, Robert A.; Mieler, William F. (2013). "Drug Toxicity of the Posterior Segment". Retina. pp. 1532-1554. doi:10.1016/B978 ...
Helga K (February 2012). "Photoreceptors". In Kolb H, Fernandez E, Nelson R (eds.). Webvision: The Organization of the Retina ... By blocking the isomerisation of retinol, emixustat hydrochloride may decrease the oxygen demand of the retina and therefore ... Zarbin M. "Pathogenesis of Age-Related Macular Degeneration" (PDF). Medical Retina; ESASO Course Series. Institute of ... Retina. 34 (3): 603-9. doi:10.1097/01.iae.0000434565.80060.f8. PMID 24056528. S2CID 5068619. Akula JD, Hansen RM, Tzekov R, ...
"Retina". The Wills eye manual : office and emergency room diagnosis and treatment of eye disease (7th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: ... an elastic tissue containing membrane of the retina that may become calcified and crack. Up to 50% of angioid streak cases are ...
Retina. 31 (3): 626-628. doi:10.1097/IAE.0b013e318206cd52. PMID 21336075.. ...
PVR is graded as Grade A, B, or C by the Silicone Oil Study and as Grade A, B, C, or D by the Retina Society Terminology ... The retina can be reattached even with the membrane in place. The other type forms as very thick contractile membranes which ... PVR can be treated with surgery to reattach the detached retina but the visual outcome of the surgery is very poor. PVR was ... The ECM laid on the vitreous side of the retina are referred to as epiretinal or preretinal membranes (ERM) and those laid down ...
Furthermore, the edges of the capillaries can become blurred due to dye leakage and imaging of the retina can only be 2D when ... An algorithm developed by Jia et al., is used to determine blood flow in the retina. The split-spectrum amplitude decorrelation ... International Journal of Retina and Vitreous. 1 (1): 5. doi:10.1186/s40942-015-0005-8. ISSN 2056-9920. PMC 5066513. PMID ... International Journal of Retina and Vitreous. 1 (1): 5. doi:10.1186/s40942-015-0005-8. ISSN 2056-9920. PMC 5066513. PMID ...
In a PHP test, the macula (central area of the retina) is scanned with a succession of stimuli, each stimulus consisting of a ... If the stimulus is projected on a damaged region of the retina, a pathological distortion may be perceived instead of the ... When a stimulus is projected on a healthy portion of the retina, the examinee identifies the artificial distortion and is ... Retina. 27 (7): 873-878. doi:10.1097/IAE.0b013e318050d2ec. PMID 17891011. Achard OD, Safran AB, Duret FC, Ragama E (September ...
The epiretinal device is known as the Retina Implant and was originally developed in Germany by Retina Implant AG. It completed ... The close proximity between the implant and the retina also increases the possibility of thermal damage to the retina from heat ... on the retina), subretinal (behind the retina), and suprachoroidal (between the choroid and the sclera). Retinal implants ... Retina implant AG reported 12 months results on the Alpha IMS study in Feb 2013 showing that six out of nine patients had a ...
... is an inflammation of the choroid (thin pigmented vascular coat of the eye) and retina of the eye. It is a form ... If only the choroid is inflamed, not the retina, the condition is termed choroiditis. The ophthalmologist's goal in treating ... Retina. 32 (3): 468-72. doi:10.1097/IAE.0b013e318229b220. PMID 21817958. "UpToDate". www.uptodate.com. Retrieved 2019-09-11. ...
Retina. 1998;18(1):84-6; author reply 86-8. 24. Berger JW, D'Amico DJ. Modeling of erbium: YAG laser-mediated explosive ... Retina. 2002 Dec;22(6):683-90. 5. Berger JW, Madjarov B. Augmented reality fundus biomicroscopy: a working clinical prototype. ... Retina. 2000;20(3):275-81. 12. Berger JW. Wavelength considerations for laser prophylaxis in AMD. Ophthalmology. 2000 Jun;107(6 ... Berger was also Chief of the Retina Service at the Philadelphia VA Medical Center. Jeff was diagnosed with gastric ...
Presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome causes chorioretinitis, where the choroid and retina of the eyes are scarred, resulting ... Retina. 32 (3): 468-72. doi:10.1097/IAE.0b013e318229b220. PMID 21817958. S2CID 25507234. Macher A, Rodrigues MM, Kaplan W, ...
Around the fovea extends the central retina for about 6 mm and then the peripheral retina. The farthest edge of the retina is ... The vertebrate retina is inverted in the sense that the light sensing cells are in back of the retina, so that light has to ... Photobiology of the retina "Light-Induced Damage to the Retina". Archived from the original on 9 August 2012. Retrieved 27 July ... The entire retina contains about 7 million cones and 75 to 150 million rods. The optic disc, a part of the retina sometimes ...
A duplex retina is a retina consisting of both rod cells and cone cells. In contrast to duplex retinas, pure rod and pure cone ... "The two-step development of a duplex retina involves distinct events of cone and rod neurogenesis and differentiation". ...
... Retina. Say: ret-i-nuh. The retina is at the back of your eye and it has light-sensitive cells called rods and ... When you look at something, light hits the retina, the rods and cones send electrical signals to the brain along the optic ...
Anchored by the expertise of Cameron Javid, MD, April Harris, MD, Egbert Saavedra, MD, and Mark Walsh, MD, Retina Associates ... In addition to his role with Retina Associates, Cameron Javid, MD, serves as the Clinical Associate Professor of Ophthalmology ... April Harris, MD, joined Retina Associates in 2004, and Drs. Saavedra and Walsh joined in 2006 and 2009, respectively. All four ... Each of them maintains membership with the American Society of Retina Specialists, the American Academy of Ophthalmology, the ...
In the cat, it is observed that A-type horizontal cells have a density of 225 cells/mm2 near the center of the retina and a ... Demb, JB; Singaer, JH (2015). "Functional Circuitry of the Retina". Annual Review of Vision Science. 1: 263-289. doi:10.1146/ ... Wässle, H; Riemann, HJ (1978). "The Mosaic of Nerve Cells in the Mammalian Retina". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: ... Horizontal cells are the laterally interconnecting neurons having cell bodies in the inner nuclear layer of the retina of ...
Fundusperipherie und Ablatio retinae Äquatoriale und gittrige Degeneration. * Differentialdiagnose der äquatorialen oder ... Amotio retinae Angiographie Auge Augenheilkunde Diagnostik Fluoreszenzangiographie Glaukom Morphologie Netzhaut ... Periphere Retina. * Physiologische Besonderheiten der retinalen Peripherie; Funktionsproben und klinische Untersuchungsmethoden ...
retina* The light-sensitive membrane that lines the interior of the eye. The retina consists of two layers. The outer layer ( ... retina (ret-in-ă) n. the light-sensitive layer that lines the interior of the eye. The inner part of the retina, next to the ... retina The light-sensitive membrane that lines the interior of the eye. The retina consists of two layers. The outer layer ( ... retina The light-sensitive membrane in the eye on to which incoming light is focused. The retina has two layers; the outer ...
Introducing ​RETINA Roundup ​RETINA Roundup provides open source blog posts regarding various topics from the vitreoretinal ... RETINA EXPANSION TECHNIQUE FOR MACULAR HOLE APPOSITION REPORT 2: Efficacy, Closure Rate, and Risks of a Macular Detachment ... RETMA is a technique in closing large full-thickness macular holes using the internal elastic property of the retina. This ...
sensing part of the eye that collects images from the lens and translates them to chemical signals that can be interpreted by the ...
The retina is in the back of your eye. It senses light and sends images to your brain. A detachment (pulling away) is an ... The retina is a layer of tissue in the back of your eye that senses light and sends images to your brain. It provides the sharp ... A retinal detachment lifts or pulls the retina from its normal position. It can occur at any age, but it is more common in ... Retinal Detachment: Torn or Detached Retina Causes and Symptoms (Foundation of the American Academy of Ophthalmology) Also in ...
Images that come through the eyes lens are focused on the retina. The retina then converts these images to electric signals ... The retina is the light-sensitive layer of tissue at the back of the eyeball. ... Sometimes photos or special scans of the retina can show things that the provider cannot see just by looking at the retina ... The development of the retina. In: Schachat AP, Sadda SVR, Hinton DR, Wilkinson CP, Wiedemann P, eds. Ryans Retina. 6th ed. ...
São visiblebetween a camada a mais profunda ou ultraperiférica da retina, chamada a membrana de Bruch, e o epitélio retina ... Retina drusen são pontos amarelos pequenos no olho. ... Retina drusen são pontos amarelos pequenos no olho. São ... Acompanhando mudanças inclua a atrofia do RPE e do desaparecimento do pigmento retina em vários pontos. Estes são chamados ... visiblebetween a camada a mais profunda ou ultraperiférica da retina, chamada a membrana de Bruch, e o epitélio retina ...
With the Retina MacBook Pro, EPEAT felt there were three specific concerns about the product design that merited further ... Apples Retina MacBook Pro - the least repairable, least recyclable computer I have encountered in more than a decade of ... Does the Retina MacBook meet those criteria? On the surface, it seems that a product assembled with proprietary screws, glued- ... Apples MacBook Pro with Retina display is not repairable, its not upgradeable, and its not easy to disassemble for recycling ...
Richard Gaywood is upset that Apples new Retina MacBook Pro is just about the most locked-down pro computer device ever. ... Richard Gaywood is upset that Apples new Retina MacBook Pro is just about the most locked-down "pro" computer device ever. ...
On Nov 5, 2014, at 9:34 PM, George Gratzer ,gratzer at me.com, wrote: ,, ,, So what is the consensus? Is the Retina iMac a good ... OS X TeX] Retina iMac. Richard Seguin riseguin at earthlink.net Thu Nov 6 16:52:42 CET 2014 *Previous message (by thread): [OS ... However, Im quite happy with the Retina iMac in my current workflow (Aquamacs Emacs, using AUCTeX, along with Skim). One nice ... The retina iMac looks like a good deal too. If youre on the shorter end of the height spectrum though, the iMacs arent very ...
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sending radio signals to a tiny chip in the back of the retina. The chip, small enough to fit on a finger tip, is implanted ... Impulses are sent from the camera to the 60 receptors that are on the chip in her retina. So, what is Kathy seeing? ... She heard about an artificial retina being developed by a company called Second Sight and the Doheny Eye Institute in Los ... A good candidate for the artificial retina device is a person who is blind because of retinal blindness, he said. Theyve ...
Retina. 1999. Digital typeface. Variable. Gift of Hoefler & Frere-Jones. 1076.2010. © 2019 Frere-Jones Type. Architecture and ... Retina, in the words of the designers, fills in what human eye needs and what the brain expects when reading very fine print ... Many newspapers now use Retina not only for stock listings but also for sports scores, classified ads, movie and TV listings, ... Designed to be used at very small sizes-7-point or below-Retina departs from traditional letterforms altogether to instead ...
... is a primary output signal of the circadian clock in the retina and pineal gland. Melatonin enhances the susceptibility of rat ... Wiechmann, A.F., 1986, Melatonin: Parallels in pineal gland and retina,Exp. Eye Res. 42:507-527.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Dubocovich, M.L., 1983, Melatonin is a potent modulator of dopamine release in the retina,Nature 306:782-784.PubMedCrossRef ... Pang, S.F., Yu, H.S., Suen, H.C., and Brown, G.M., 1980, Melatonin in the retina of rats: a diurnal rhythm,J. Endocrinol. 87:89 ...
Retina organoids mimic the structure and function of the human retina to serve as a platform to study underlying causes of ... Retina organoids mimic the structure and function of the human retina to serve as a platform to study underlying causes of ... NIH solicits next-generation retina organoids in prize competition. NIH/National Eye Institute ...
But the retina iPad Mini is an almost unbelievable year-over-year update - four times the performance, a retina display (which ... When the full size iPad went retina, it was a two steps forward, one step back sort of upgrade: you got the beautiful retina ... The Retina iPad Mini. Friday, 15 November 2013. Pay attention to Apple for a few years, and you will see that its a company of ... The new retina iPad Mini exemplifies this.. When the original Mini debuted last year, it was a lesser iPad compared to the iPad ...
The eye is the window to the brain, say researchers who observed a link between electrical activity in the retina and the ... CORONADO, California - Changes in the retina might predict disease progress in patients with Parkinsons disease, according to ... In addition, on multifocal electroretinogram, a decline in retina electrical activity was seen in the Parkinsons group. And ... Cite this: Retina Changes May Predict Parkinsons Course - Medscape - Mar 05, 2015. ...
A display with more colors can trick the eye into thinking the resolution is better, so this will also help the "retina display ... One of the new features is a much higher resolution display: 2048 x 1536 pixels, which they advertise as a "retina" display: ad ... First, you should really read my post Resolving the iPhone resolution, where I first dissected the "retina display" claim for ... Thats actually a bit bigger than what your eye can see! So is this truly a "retina display"? ...
The electrodes are provided on the surface and are exposed to visible light impinging on the retina such that stimuli are ... The substrate comprises electrodes for stimulating cells within the retina. ... A retina implant has a substrate with a surface for applying same to a retina. ... Nano Retina Ltd.. Transfer of power and data. US9370417. Mar 14, 2013. Jun 21, 2016. Nano-Retina, Inc.. Foveated retinal ...
mobile UI Player UI app ui map app UI messaging app natalie phone ui retina Retina Display settings UI store app UI twitter app ...
Retina definition, the innermost coat of the posterior part of the eyeball that receives the image produced by the lens, is ... retina. Contemporary Examples. of retina. *. The updated iPad Mini, which will start at $399 ($599 for cell), gets a retina ... Word Origin and History for retina. n.. late 14c., from Medieval Latin retina "the retina," probably from Vulgar Latin (tunica ... The retina lines the rear of the eye-ball. The lens of the eye focuses waves of light on the retina. ...
The optic part of the retina is the central region of the retina. It is a yellowish spot called the macula lutea. It has a ... This depression is the region of the retina that produces the sharpest vision. This portion of the retina has differing ... The optic part of the retina lies over the uveal tracts pigment epithelium and the intraocular pressure pushes the optic part ... A jagged margin, called the ora serrata, marks the end of the optic part of the retina. ...
Researchers create self-powered artificial retina from optoelectronic polymer March 18, 2013 at 12:48 pm Interfacing neurons to ... and can also be used to build an artificial retina. ...
  • Photoreceptive cells in the retina slowly start to die leaving the patient visually impaired. (nsf.gov)
  • He described the neural circuit as the diagram that reveals how this cell is wired to other cells in the retina to acquire this unique sensitivity. (eurekalert.org)
  • There may be dedicated cells in the retina that help compile small bits of information in order to recognize objects according to new evidences from the University of Southern California. (medindia.net)
  • The cells in the retina appear to be coordinating their responses in a way that benefits shape recognition. (medindia.net)
  • Retina organoids mimic the structure and function of the human retina to serve as a platform to study underlying causes of retinal diseases, test new drug therapies, and provide a source of cells for transplantation. (eurekalert.org)
  • Previous research has established links between Parkinson's disease and changes in the human retina. (medscape.com)
  • Neurons that produce dopamine are present in the human retina and dopamine is affected in Parkinson's. (medscape.com)
  • Scientists have created what they say is essentially a miniature human retina in a dish, using human stem cells. (livescience.com)
  • We have basically created a miniature human retina in a dish that not only has the architectural organization of the retina, but also has the ability to sense light," study team leader Maria Valeria Canto-Soler, a developmental biologist at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in Baltimore, said in a statement. (livescience.com)
  • The most surprising and exciting thing was that stem cells were able to follow the whole process of forming a human retina in a petri dish almost on their own, to the point it was able to respond to light like a normal retina," Canto-Soler said. (livescience.com)
  • June 21, 2018 -- A boy in Greece burned a hole in his retina after repeatedly gazing into a laser pointer's beam, doctors say. (webmd.com)
  • Retina House / Arnau estudi d'arquitectura" [Casa Retina / Arnau estudi d'arquitectura] 30 May 2018. (archdaily.com)
  • Apple announced they were leaving the EPEAT registry soon after they released a slew of new laptops this summer, including the MacBook Pro with Retina display. (wired.com)
  • Last year's iPad 4 had a retina display, A6-class CPU, 1 GB of RAM, and a better camera. (daringfireball.net)
  • The original iPad Mini had a non-retina display, A5 CPU, 512 MB of RAM, and a lesser camera. (daringfireball.net)
  • I hoped for a retina display in this year's Mini, 1 but it never even occurred to me to hope for an A7 processor or the same quality cameras. (daringfireball.net)
  • That was a real irritation with the iPad 3 and 4 - those devices gained weight and thickness to accommodate a battery that could power a retina display and still supply 10 hours of real-world battery life - and that big-ass battery took a long time to fully charge. (daringfireball.net)
  • This update addresses an issue where the trackpad may not respond consistently to user input, and is recommended for all MacBook Pro with Retina display notebooks. (apple.com)
  • One of the new features is a much higher resolution display: 2048 x 1536 pixels, which they advertise as a "retina" display: ad-speak for pixels so small your eye can't see them. (slate.com)
  • First, you should really read my post Resolving the iPhone resolution , where I first dissected the "retina display" claim for when the iPhone 4 came out. (slate.com)
  • So, for the majority of people, the claim of a "retina display" is probably accurate. (slate.com)
  • A display with more colors can trick the eye into thinking the resolution is better, so this will also help the "retina display" claim. (slate.com)
  • The updated iPad Mini, which will start at $399 ($599 for cell), gets a retina display as well as better performance. (dictionary.com)
  • One and a half When the iPad with a retina display was released somebody showed an old iPad to people and told them it was a new one. (github.com)
  • Analyzing the iMac 5K Retina display: How do you get 5K @ 60Hz from a last-gen GPU? (extremetech.com)
  • With vastly superior internals, a retina display, and a lightning connector, the "iPad 4" is a much better device than the iPad 2. (extremetech.com)
  • At its October 22 event in San Francisco, Apple has surprised no one by releasing an iPad Mini with Retina display. (extremetech.com)
  • The original iPad Mini (without a Retina display) will continue to be sold, but starting at a lower price point of $300. (extremetech.com)
  • MeLLmo - one of the first software developers to embrace the iPhone and the iPad as business devices - has released new versions of its Roambi applications for the new iPad and its Retina display. (wired.com)
  • Apple's retina display is a high resolution screen, and developers must retune their applications to use it. (wired.com)
  • The Roambi apps have new been updated for the new iPad's Retina display. (wired.com)
  • The Retina display and enhanced graphics of iPad give us the tools to deliver business apps with unrivaled speed, clarity, and vivid imagery,' reads a canned statement from MeLLmo CEO Santiago Becerra. (wired.com)
  • I know that I need an external superdrive with the retina display. (apple.com)
  • CUPERTINO, California-July 29, 2014-Apple® today updated MacBook Pro® with Retina® display with faster processors, double the memory in both entry-level configurations, and a new, lower starting price for the top-of-the-line 15-inch notebook. (apple.com)
  • MacBook Pro with Retina display features a stunning high-resolution display, an amazing design just 0.71-inches thin, the latest processors and powerful graphics, and up to nine hours of battery life, delivering unbelievable performance in an incredibly portable design. (apple.com)
  • People love their MacBook Pro because of the thin and light, aluminum unibody design, beautiful Retina display, all day battery life and deep integration with OS X," said Philip Schiller, Apple's senior vice president of Worldwide Marketing. (apple.com)
  • The MacBook Pro with Retina display gets even better with faster processors, more memory, more affordable configurations and a free upgrade to OS X Yosemite this fall. (apple.com)
  • The 13-inch MacBook Pro with Retina display features dual-core Intel Core i5 processors up to 2.8 GHz with Turbo Boost speeds up to 3.3 GHz and 8GB of memory, up from 4GB in the entry-level notebook. (apple.com)
  • The top-of-the-line 15-inch MacBook Pro with Retina display has a new, lower starting price of $2,499. (apple.com)
  • MacBook Pro with Retina display and MacBook Pro are available today through the Apple Online Store ( www.apple.com ), Apple's retail stores and select Apple Authorized Resellers. (apple.com)
  • Apple is going to release a 13-inch retina-display MacBook Pro, alongside the iPad Mini at its big media event next week, Mark Gurman at 9 To 5 Mac reports . (businessinsider.com)
  • In addition to Gurman's report, sources familiar with Apple's plans tell AllThingsD that the company plans to unveil a smaller version of its MacBook Pro with Retina Display as well. (businessinsider.com)
  • If you're in the market for a premium OS X laptop right now, it's hard not to recommend the new MacBook Pro with Retina display. (macrumors.com)
  • And of course, it doesn't hurt to be even a little bit patient and wait for more apps to push Retina-optimized updates - if you get the MacBook Pro with Retina display now, you'll be waiting on the world to change. (macrumors.com)
  • The collection features sleeves for the iPhone, Galaxy S3, iPad, Macbook Air, Macbook Pro and the Pro with retina display. (killerstartups.com)
  • Thunderbolt Display is showing its age to put it mildly, now significantly overshadowed by Retina MacBooks and iMacs in terms of screen resolution and quality. (9to5mac.com)
  • Finally bringing it up to speed with its Retina display Mac cousins, the new 'Thunderbolt Display' will likely feature a 5K resolution display 5120×2880 pixels. (9to5mac.com)
  • If you own a MacBook Pro with Retina Display and desire extra screen real estate, then a 4K monitor can be a good investment, especially as the price of such monitors continue to dwindle. (9to5mac.com)
  • Earlier in the year , a small-but-not-insignificant number of Apple customers complained about screen issues with their new Retina MacBooks and Retina MacBook Pros, specifically cases where the anti-reflective display coating leaves marks and stains on the screen, ranging from small corner blobs to large patches. (9to5mac.com)
  • B&H now has multiple configurations of the new 27″ iMac with Retina 5K display available for pre-order. (photographybay.com)
  • The new Retina display iMac has been rumored for quite some time now. (photographybay.com)
  • Apple 5K Retina Display Coming? (photographybay.com)
  • Notably, the update adds support for the Retina Display on the Macbook Pro with Retina . (photographybay.com)
  • Rumor on the street says that a second generation of the iPad mini with Retina display is due in March of this year. (ulyssesonline.com)
  • A friend of mine who is a bit older, said that he couldn't really tell a difference between an iPad mini without a Retina display, and the original iPad equipped with a Retina display. (ulyssesonline.com)
  • But, the upcoming Retina display on the iPad mini will really make the screen much clearer. (ulyssesonline.com)
  • Some apps will really take advantage of the Retina display and make the iPad mini shine. (ulyssesonline.com)
  • In case of Retina display it's more obvious it takes up to 5 seconds if editor is in full screen mode (resolution is 2880 x 1800) to redraw a simple block after mouse release. (eclipse.org)
  • I asked Alexander to try the change out on his machine (which is a Mac), and we found that it improves performance significantly on a retina display. (eclipse.org)
  • Even though Microsoft's new Surface has a lower resolution screen than the Retina display on the new iPad, one Microsoft engineer has argued that the Surface offers superior picture quality because of "ClearType" display technology. (appleinsider.com)
  • Since it was released in March, the Retina display on the new iPad has been touted as a major improvement from its predecessor and one of the highest quality screens available on a mobile device. (appleinsider.com)
  • In addition to offering an increased resolution, display expert Raymond Soneira with DisplayMate said the iPad Retina display offers state-of-the-art sharpness and color saturation. (appleinsider.com)
  • The latest version of Elements for iPad has gotten a Retina support, which enhances all of the elements of the app to support the new iPad's Retina display. (thenextweb.com)
  • The latest release of Google's Chrome browser can render webpages with the resolution of Apple's Retina display, the company said on Tuesday, making good on a commitment it made several weeks ago. (pcworld.com)
  • Foremost among these is the long-awaited retina display. (webpronews.com)
  • People have been predicting a retina display iPad since Apple introduced the technology in 2010 with the iPhone 4. (webpronews.com)
  • The new iPad's retina display is great news for those who want to edit photos on the go. (webpronews.com)
  • With iPhoto for iPad, the new iPad's retina display can handle images up to 19 megapixels and provide users an impressive array of options for tweaking their photos. (webpronews.com)
  • Gaming gets a major boost with the new iPad's retina display, as well. (webpronews.com)
  • Games like Sky Gamblers and Infinity Blade: Dungeon, which were shown off at the event, will deliver retina display graphics almost immediately. (webpronews.com)
  • What do you think of the iPad's retina display? (webpronews.com)
  • When you refresh Rolando 2, everything gets that Retina display shine. (ign.com)
  • The company announced minor refreshes for its laptop line, introduced a stunning new laptop with a Retina display , and gave a sneak peek of iOS 6 , which will launch in the Fall. (osnews.com)
  • Apple's annual parade of dazzling new gadgetry, the World Wide Developers Conference, is upon us and one announcement that seems to have elated many Mac-using photographers is the update of Apple Aperture so that the photo-editing software can finally keep up with Apple's Retina display. (webpronews.com)
  • Apple has given Aperture a complete user-interface update as well as boosted the resolution by 400% thanks to the new Retina display that the new generation of MacBook Pros are going to be equipped with. (webpronews.com)
  • iPhoto & Aperture get an update to keep up with the new #Macbook Pro's retina display! (webpronews.com)
  • Aperture in Retina Display = get in my pants. (webpronews.com)
  • Is Your Website Retina Display Ready? (webhostinggeeks.com)
  • You've probably heard the term "Retina Display" here or there, but what does it mean to you? (webhostinggeeks.com)
  • Get ready for the new Retina Display and a new visual experience! (webhostinggeeks.com)
  • I suspect the same thing will happen with the new Retina Display and like the switch of TVs to HD and large flat screens ruining the standard 32" CRT TVs for consumers, there will be an output of cash for new hardware but there will also need to be an upgrade of the images now planted firmly on millions upon millions of web sites as well as the sites themselves. (webhostinggeeks.com)
  • When Apple announced the Retina Display MacBook Pro, one of the applications with which they demonstrated it was Photoshop, but not a current release version of Photoshop. (webhostinggeeks.com)
  • The current release version of CS6 opens images at the same size and the same resolution as on a non-Retina Display MacBook Pro. (webhostinggeeks.com)
  • An all-new iMac will reportedly debut around October, with a high chance of sporting a Retina Display. (webhostinggeeks.com)
  • Those sources also said that Apple is looking to expand its Retina Display across all product lines, which means the new iMac has a "high chance" of getting the high-resolution screen. (webhostinggeeks.com)
  • Apple is reportedly pushing the Retina Display for all its products in a bid to outshine its rivals in screen resolution. (webhostinggeeks.com)
  • With the recent announcement and release of the Retina Macbook Pro, Apple has brought double-density screens to all of the product categories in its current lineup, significantly paving the way for the next wave of display standards. (smashingmagazine.com)
  • On a Retina display, four times as many device pixels are on the same physical surface. (smashingmagazine.com)
  • Each bitmap pixel gets multiplied by four to fill the same physical surface on a Retina display. (smashingmagazine.com)
  • Don't expect an iPad 3 with a "retina display" this year: Apple's screen supplier(s) - LG and Samsung - can't make enough 9.7in, 2048 x 1536 panels to ship the tablet before 2012, it has been claimed. (theregister.co.uk)
  • By using a high-speed LED array to display the images, Greene found evidence that the two sides of the retina interact to enhance the effectiveness of shape cues, which he describes as "linkage. (medindia.net)
  • Highly detailed model of the new Macbook Pro with Retina display. (turbosquid.com)
  • Currently the Retina Display shows content at 326ppi. (techradar.com)
  • Photos claiming to depict the display found on the yet-unannounced iPad 2 show that Apple's next tablet might not feature a high-resolution Retina display. (pcworld.com)
  • Retina Display On iPad 3? (pcworld.com)
  • If the display leaked by iFixYouri is indeed the screen to be found on the iPad 2, this squashes rampant rumors of a higher-resolution retina display on the next-generation tablet that were circulated this month. (pcworld.com)
  • However, Daring Fireball's John Gruber argued that, as the latest leaked pics show, the iPad 2 does not have a retina display: "I believe the iPad 2's display will remain at 1,024? (pcworld.com)
  • The rumors of the iPad 3 having a Retina display appear to have gotten a significant boost with a report from Macrumors this evening. (thenextweb.com)
  • Apparently, their findings confirm the fact that Apple's next tablet will pack in a 2048×1536 Retina ready display. (thenextweb.com)
  • That being said, from the measurements and look of the display, this appears as legitimate a bit of proof that the iPad 3 will have a Retina screen as we're likely to see pre-release. (thenextweb.com)
  • The rumor mill has been kicking into overdrive about a Retina display coming in the iPad 3 among reports that Apple was asking developers to upgrade their app previews to Retina-ready resolutions. (thenextweb.com)
  • The iPad 3 is rumored to contain an A6 processor, either dual or quad-core, a Retina display and a 4G LTE capable radio in applicable models. (thenextweb.com)
  • Now, a new player enters the fray: the MacBook Pro with Retina display . (engadget.com)
  • The MacBook Pro with Retina display is a top-shelf laptop with a world-class display. (engadget.com)
  • How would you rate the MacBook Pro 15-inch with Retina display (mid 2012)? (engadget.com)
  • When physically placed between the 13-inch MacBook Air and the 15-inch Pro , it's clear that this new guy (who, for now, is simply called "MacBook Pro with Retina display") leans far toward the latter when it comes to design. (engadget.com)
  • The lack of ROM support helps this new model be as thin as it is -- and provides room for the extra batteries needed to keep that Retina display brightly and brilliantly backlit. (engadget.com)
  • As for everything in between, those non-Retina "standard" MacBook Pros, well. (macrumors.com)
  • Apple, after addressing slews of complaints from iOS 7 users, says it's working on a fix for its new MacBook Pros with Retina displays. (eweek.com)
  • The vertebrate retina is inverted in the sense that the light sensing cells are in back of the retina, so that light has to pass through layers of neurons and capillaries before it reaches the rods and cones. (wikipedia.org)
  • sending radio signals to a tiny chip in the back of the retina. (nsf.gov)
  • [5] In contrast, in the cephalopod retina the photoreceptors are in front, with processing neurons and capillaries behind them. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because one function of melatonin may be to increase the sensitivity of the retina to light as part of a dark-adaptation mechanism, an undesirable consequence of this may be an increased sensitivity by the photoreceptors to the damaging effects of light. (springer.com)
  • Consistent with its status as a full-fledged part of the central nervous system , the retina comprises complex neural circuitry that converts the graded electrical activity of photoreceptors into action potentials that travel to the brain via axons in the optic nerve . (nih.gov)
  • The indoor light spectrum has high red/green contrast, which activates these clusters of photoreceptors in the human eye, creating the equivalent of an artificial contrast image on the retina. (eurekalert.org)
  • Many forms of vision loss result from the malfunction or death of the light-sensitive cells known as photoreceptors in the retina. (livescience.com)
  • Some early adopters of the MacBook Pro laptops with Retina displays that Apple introduced Oct. 22 are already reporting issues with their machines. (eweek.com)
  • This means that users of 15-inch MacBook Pro laptops with Retina displays will be able to view webpages at a 2880-by-1800 resolution with Chrome 21 . (pcworld.com)
  • They discovered a large hole is in the macular, an area in the retina that helps distinguish detail in faces and while reading or driving. (webmd.com)
  • Examination revealed a large hole in the macula, a small area in the retina that helps with discerning detail in faces and while reading or driving, the doctors said in a case report published Wednesday in the New England Journal of Medicine. (cnn.com)
  • Information can also be transferred horizontally within the retina via a network of horizontal and amacrine cells (see illustration). (encyclopedia.com)
  • The two other types of neurons in the retina , horizontal cells and amacrine cells , have their cell bodies in the inner nuclear layer and are primarily responsible for lateral interactions within the retina. (nih.gov)
  • In section C the bipolar, horizontal and amacrine cells of the retina is discussed. (oxfordscholarship.com)
  • The optics of the eye create a focused two-dimensional image of the visual world on the retina, which translates that image into electrical neural impulses to the brain to create visual perception . (wikipedia.org)
  • The neural retina consists of several layers of neurons interconnected by synapses , and is supported by an outer layer of pigmented epithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • For those who would like more graphic information about how light enters the retina and how the neural signal leaves the retina this animation should be both useful and entertaining. (yorku.ca)
  • Structure of the neural retina. (medlineplus.gov)
  • When the light hits the retina, this produces an image that is translated into neural impulses and sent to the brain through the optic nerve. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Despite its peripheral location, the retina or neural portion of the eye, is actually part of the central nervous system . (nih.gov)
  • A) The retina develops as an outpocketing from the neural tube, called the optic vesicle. (nih.gov)
  • In this review, we summarize the current state of our knowledge regarding the expression and function of miRNA in the neural retina and we discuss their potential uses as biomarkers for some retinal disorders. (hindawi.com)
  • The neural retina is an established model for unraveling the molecular mechanisms behind neuronal crosstalk. (hindawi.com)
  • Each of them maintains membership with the American Society of Retina Specialists, the American Academy of Ophthalmology, the American Medical Association, the Arizona Ophthalmology Society, and the Pima County Medical Society. (flickr.com)
  • Ophthalmology Retina , a journal of the American Academy of Ophthalmology, serves society by publishing clinical and basic science research and other relevant manuscripts that relate to the sense of sight. (elsevier.com)
  • There is a greater density of horizontal cells towards the central region of the retina. (wikipedia.org)
  • The optic part of the retina is the central region of the retina. (innerbody.com)
  • The practice specializes in addressing disorders of the retina, including retinal tears and detachment, diabetes-related eye disorders, macular degeneration, eye injuries, and vitreous problems and tumors inside the eye. (flickr.com)
  • The initiation of the visual processing arises in the retina and, in accordance with its complex physiology, a broad number of coding genes have been detected and associated with different developmental stages, cellular components, and disorders of the retina. (hindawi.com)
  • Is the Retina iMac a good computer for TeXShop? (tug.org)
  • However, I'm quite happy with the Retina iMac in my current workflow (Aquamacs Emacs, using AUCTeX, along with Skim). (tug.org)
  • Apple sweetens its Retina iMac with a lower-cost version, and springs for AMD Radeon R9 M370X graphics in its top-end MacBook Pro - or, rather, wants you to spring for it. (extremetech.com)
  • The report does not mention whether a 21.5 inch Retina iMac is in the offing however, despite an El Capitan beta including 4K Retina artwork for such a product. (9to5mac.com)
  • Since Retina Displays are an expensive component, other PC vendors are unlikely to jump on the higher-resolution bandwagon at this time.Beyond launching a new iMac this year, Apple will also refresh both the iMac and Mac Pro next year with brand new models, according to the sources. (webhostinggeeks.com)
  • Retina 2017 is a leading scientific conference on retinal research for scientists, clinicians, pharmaceutical industry and policy makers. (constantcontact.com)
  • Retina 2017 is hosted by Irish patient-led organisation, Fighting Blindness in Dublin, Ireland. (constantcontact.com)
  • Horizontal cells are the laterally interconnecting neurons having cell bodies in the inner nuclear layer of the retina of vertebrate eyes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers have now demonstrated that a biocompatible polymer can activate neurons directly using light, and can also be used to build an artificial retina. (extremetech.com)
  • Although it has the same types of functional elements and neurotransmitters found in other parts of the central nervous system, the retina comprises only a few classes of neurons, and these are arranged in a manner that has been less difficult to unravel than the circuits in other areas of the brain. (nih.gov)
  • The retina is a complex structures that has five major classes of neurons, each of which comes in several subtypes. (oxfordscholarship.com)
  • When I think that most photos on most web pages should not be optimized for retina screens at all, they are illustrative or even decorative: a slightly blurry illustration could very well be good enough. (github.com)
  • In mid-June, Google said in a blog post that the Chrome development team was "off to the races" in enhancing the browser so that it could take advantage of ultra high-resolution Retina screens. (pcworld.com)
  • I'm having meter-pixel issues with screens that are Retina and non- retina . (csdn.net)
  • A good candidate for the artificial retina device is a person who is blind because of retinal blindness,' he said. (nsf.gov)
  • The Retina Conference, hosted by Irish patient-led charity Fighting Blindness, is an annual event which brings together leading international and Irish figures in the global effort to find treatments and cures for conditions causing vision impairment and blindness. (constantcontact.com)
  • Tuebingen - A bionic retina implant which registers light and transmits messages to the brain could cure degenerative blindness due to retinitis pigmentosa, according to a team of German researchers. (news24.com)
  • Apple's Retina MacBook Pro - the least repairable, least recyclable computer I have encountered in more than a decade of disassembling electronics - was just verified Gold , along with four other ultrabooks. (wired.com)
  • Relevance to mammalian retina? (bio.net)
  • The retina then converts these images to electric signals and sends them along the optic nerve to the brain. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In other words, an image focuses on the retina, nerve cells process the information, and they send it by electrical impulses through the optic nerve to the brain. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The cephalopod retina does not originate as an outgrowth of the brain, as the vertebrate one does. (wikipedia.org)
  • The retina of vertebrate animals contains rods and cones, specialized cells that absorb light. (dictionary.com)
  • This animated cartoon illustrates how light (white dot) enters the retina on the side containing the optic nerves and travels through all of the retinal layers before finally being absorbed by the photopigments in the outer segments of the receptors. (yorku.ca)
  • Impulses are sent from the camera to the 60 receptors that are on the chip in her retina. (nsf.gov)
  • Thus melatonin, synthesized at night, may act as a paracrine hormone, and bind to receptors in the retina and brain to increase the sensitivity of the visual system to facilitate dark adaptation and other diurnal events that occur in the retina. (springer.com)
  • The device - known as a sub-retinal implant - sits underneath the retina, directly replacing light receptors lost in retinal degeneration. (news24.com)
  • Retina World Congress 2019 is supported, in part, by independent educational grants from Allergan, Inc. (healio.com)
  • Apple today also lowered the starting price of the non-Retina 13-inch MacBook Pro, a very popular system with Windows switchers, by $100 to $1,099. (apple.com)
  • The Retina MacBook Pro should be available shortly after Apple announces it next week. (businessinsider.com)
  • Apple has coined the marketing term "Retina" for its double-density displays, claiming that the human eye can no longer distinguish individual pixels on the screen from a "natural" viewing distance. (smashingmagazine.com)
  • Retina MacBook Pro: Apple gets into the computer business. (slate.com)
  • The retina is at the back of your eye and it has light-sensitive cells called rods and cones. (kidshealth.org)
  • When you look at something, light hits the retina, the rods and cones send electrical signals to the brain along the optic nerve. (kidshealth.org)
  • Our retina suites offer imaging and advanced image analysis to support daily decision making in routine retina exams, diabetic retinopathy and vascular disease, dry and wet forms of age-related macular degeneration, central serous retinopathy and vitreoretinal interface disorders. (zeiss.com)
  • In section B the basic organization of the retina is described. (oxfordscholarship.com)
  • Retina World Congress is a non-profit organization dedicated to uniting international professionals to foster dialogue and to generate consensus about retinal diseases, emerging technologies and treatments, best practices and clinical research. (healio.com)
  • RETMA is a technique in closing large full-thickness macular holes using the internal elastic property of the retina. (lww.com)
  • The optic part of the retina lies over the uveal tract's pigment epithelium and the intraocular pressure pushes the optic part against it. (innerbody.com)
  • This hole allows liquid to pass from the vitreous space into the subretinal space between the sensory retina and the retinal pigment epithelium. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The pigment epithelium is the pigmented cell layer just outside the neurosensory retina. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Tractional retinal detachment is when an injury, inflammation, or neovascularization causes the fibrovascular tissue to pull the sensory retina from the retinal pigment epithelium. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The inner wall of the optic cup gives rise to the retina, while the outer wall gives rise to the pigment epithelium . (nih.gov)
  • The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive layer of tissue of the eye of most vertebrates and some molluscs . (wikipedia.org)
  • The retina is a layer of tissue in the back of your eye that senses light and sends images to your brain. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The retina is the light-sensitive layer of tissue at the back of the eyeball. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The retina is the layer of tissue that lines the inside of the eye. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Retina organoid transplant (six months post surgery) to retinal degenerate nude rat with responses in the brain. (eurekalert.org)
  • Other types of retinal implants - known as epiretinal implants - sit outside the retina and because they bypass the intact light-sensitive structures in the eyes they require the user to wear an external camera and processor unit. (news24.com)
  • A new #avianvision mystery: we found these structures in the # retina of #flycatchers . (twitter.com)
  • He thinks it is more likely that cell structures in the retina link the responses prior to sending the information to the visual cortex. (medindia.net)
  • She heard about an artificial retina being developed by a company called Second Sight and the Doheny Eye Institute in Los Angeles. (nsf.gov)
  • After being blind for more than a decade, the artificial retina has partially restored Barbara's sight, and she delights in the fact that her vision is still improving in subtle ways. (popularmechanics.com)
  • Rule is a clean, transparent, super flexible, retina-ready and fully responsive WordPress Theme (try resizing your browser), best suited for magazine websites, blog websites, and users who want to howcase their work on a neat portfolio site. (behance.net)
  • You found 6 responsive retina HTML5 multipurpose website templates. (themeforest.net)
  • In addition to his role with Retina Associates, Cameron Javid, MD, serves as the Clinical Associate Professor of Ophthalmology at the University of Arizona's College of Medicine. (flickr.com)
  • CORONADO, California - Changes in the retina might predict disease progress in patients with Parkinson's disease , according to a new study presented here at the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society 2015 Annual Meeting. (medscape.com)
  • To conduct the study, Schwartz and co-author Adam Mani, a postdoctoral fellow in ophthalmology at Feinberg, used microscopic glass electrodes to record electrical signals from cells in a mouse retina while presenting patterns of light on a digital projector. (eurekalert.org)
  • A new study, published in the Archives of Ophthalmology, detected no changes in visual function, signs of retina damage or intraocular pressure after the daily use for 6 months of sildenafil (Viagra) or tadalafil (Cialis). (reuters.com)
  • The most downloaded articles from Ophthalmology Retina in the last 90 days. (elsevier.com)
  • Recently published articles from Ophthalmology Retina. (elsevier.com)
  • Elements 2 is a Markdown enabled text editor for iPad and iPhone that syncs with dropbox and it's just received a nice update that adds Retina support. (thenextweb.com)
  • While the fourth-generation iPhone gave us a taste of the "non-Retina" Web in 2010, we had to wait for the third-generation iPad to fully realize how fuzzy and outdated our Web graphics and content images are. (smashingmagazine.com)
  • This means that the math does work out to a double-resolution Retina panel when compared to the iPad 2's 1024×768. (thenextweb.com)
  • We had also previously received reports that Retina resolution graphics found in the iPad 2's recent software updates were no accident, and that they were meant to prepare for the iPad 3. (thenextweb.com)
  • The retina has about 50 types of retinal ganglion cells, which together convey all the information we use to perceive the visual world. (eurekalert.org)
  • In the confines of Apple's walled garden, popular native apps get updated with Retina graphics in a timely fashion, with the help of a solid SDK and a well-documented transition process. (smashingmagazine.com)
  • RETINA Roundup provides open source blog posts regarding various topics from the vitreoretinal space, including conference briefings, publication highlights, industry news, healthcare policy updates, technology reviews, and featured journal content monthly. (lww.com)
  • Light striking the retina initiates a cascade of chemical and electrical events that ultimately trigger nerve impulses that are sent to various visual centres of the brain through the fibres of the optic nerve . (wikipedia.org)
  • retina The light-sensitive membrane that lines the interior of the eye. (encyclopedia.com)
  • It also appears to enhance the sensitivity of the retina and central visual system to light. (springer.com)
  • The electrodes are provided on the surface and are exposed to visible light impinging on the retina such that stimuli are exerted on the cells by. (google.com)
  • But if light be produced by an agitation of the retina , what is it that produces the agitation? (dictionary.com)
  • The lens of the eye focuses waves of light on the retina. (dictionary.com)
  • Photopsia/Light flashes (kilatan cahaya atau mungkin tepatnya kedipan cahaya.Keluhan seperti ada tirai yang menutupi sebagian lapang mata.Retina merupakan jaringan transparan yang begitu tipis. (scribd.com)
  • The retina is a thin layer of light-sensitive nerve cells at the back of the eye. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • When we see, light goes through the optical system of the eye and hits the retina, like in a nondigital camera. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Would shining light on premature babies' retina help restore proper 👁 vascular development? (twitter.com)
  • In this case, the light literally burned a crescent-shaped impression of the eclipse onto her retina. (treehugger.com)
  • Researchers have made retina cells that can detect light from stem cells. (livescience.com)
  • The retina is the layer of cells at the back of the eyeball that helps the eye sense light and relay visual data to the brain. (livescience.com)
  • Lots of people are looking for solutions for the problem that images look blurry on retina displays. (github.com)
  • Warning Be sure to only serve one-and-a-half-images to retina displays! (github.com)
  • Will we need to use media queries for non retina displays so the retina displays don't download background images twice? (css-tricks.com)
  • Because a bitmap pixel can't be further divided, it gets multiplied by four on Retina displays to preserve the same physical size of the image, losing detail along the way. (smashingmagazine.com)
  • Even though we are still in the early stages of this major shift, several approaches to optimizing Web graphics for Retina displays have sprung up, and more are popping up as we speak. (smashingmagazine.com)
  • A retina implant has a substrate with a surface for applying same to a retina. (google.com)
  • The retina serves a function analogous to that of the film or image sensor in a camera . (wikipedia.org)
  • The image on his retina is not the image of his consciousness. (dictionary.com)
  • It has long been long known the retina contains a signal to focus the image in the eye, and this signal is important for properly regulating eye growth during childhood. (eurekalert.org)
  • This image shows synaptic integration of graft retina into host mice. (eurekalert.org)