Sleep Apnea, Obstructive: A disorder characterized by recurrent apneas during sleep despite persistent respiratory efforts. It is due to upper airway obstruction. The respiratory pauses may induce HYPERCAPNIA or HYPOXIA. Cardiac arrhythmias and elevation of systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures may occur. Frequent partial arousals occur throughout sleep, resulting in relative SLEEP DEPRIVATION and daytime tiredness. Associated conditions include OBESITY; ACROMEGALY; MYXEDEMA; micrognathia; MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY; adenotonsilar dystrophy; and NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395)Sleep Apnea Syndromes: Disorders characterized by multiple cessations of respirations during sleep that induce partial arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. Sleep apnea syndromes are divided into central (see SLEEP APNEA, CENTRAL), obstructive (see SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE), and mixed central-obstructive types.Sleep Apnea, Central: A condition associated with multiple episodes of sleep apnea which are distinguished from obstructive sleep apnea (SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE) by the complete cessation of efforts to breathe. This disorder is associated with dysfunction of central nervous system centers that regulate respiration.Polysomnography: Simultaneous and continuous monitoring of several parameters during sleep to study normal and abnormal sleep. The study includes monitoring of brain waves, to assess sleep stages, and other physiological variables such as breathing, eye movements, and blood oxygen levels which exhibit a disrupted pattern with sleep disturbances.Continuous Positive Airway Pressure: A technique of respiratory therapy, in either spontaneously breathing or mechanically ventilated patients, in which airway pressure is maintained above atmospheric pressure throughout the respiratory cycle by pressurization of the ventilatory circuit. (On-Line Medical Dictionary [Internet]. Newcastle upon Tyne(UK): The University Dept. of Medical Oncology: The CancerWEB Project; c1997-2003 [cited 2003 Apr 17]. Available from: http://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk/omd/)Snoring: Rough, noisy breathing during sleep, due to vibration of the uvula and soft palate.Palate, Soft: A movable fold suspended from the posterior border of the hard palate. The uvula hangs from the middle of the lower border.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Uvula: A fleshy extension at the back of the soft palate that hangs above the opening of the throat.Mandibular Advancement: Moving a retruded mandible forward to a normal position. It is commonly performed for malocclusion and retrognathia. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Sleep: A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.Pharynx: A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).Positive-Pressure Respiration: A method of mechanical ventilation in which pressure is maintained to increase the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of expiration, thus reducing the shunting of blood through the lungs and improving gas exchange.Disorders of Excessive Somnolence: Disorders characterized by hypersomnolence during normal waking hours that may impair cognitive functioning. Subtypes include primary hypersomnia disorders (e.g., IDIOPATHIC HYPERSOMNOLENCE; NARCOLEPSY; and KLEINE-LEVIN SYNDROME) and secondary hypersomnia disorders where excessive somnolence can be attributed to a known cause (e.g., drug affect, MENTAL DISORDERS, and SLEEP APNEA SYNDROME). (From J Neurol Sci 1998 Jan 8;153(2):192-202; Thorpy, Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine, 2nd ed, p320)Adenoidectomy: Excision of the adenoids. (Dorland, 28th ed)Tonsillectomy: Surgical removal of a tonsil or tonsils. (Dorland, 28th ed)Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Oximetry: The determination of oxygen-hemoglobin saturation of blood either by withdrawing a sample and passing it through a classical photoelectric oximeter or by electrodes attached to some translucent part of the body like finger, earlobe, or skin fold. It includes non-invasive oxygen monitoring by pulse oximetry.Sleep, REM: A stage of sleep characterized by rapid movements of the eye and low voltage fast pattern EEG. It is usually associated with dreaming.Cheyne-Stokes Respiration: An abnormal pattern of breathing characterized by alternating periods of apnea and deep, rapid breathing. The cycle begins with slow, shallow breaths that gradually increase in depth and rate and is then followed by a period of apnea. The period of apnea can last 5 to 30 seconds, then the cycle repeats every 45 seconds to 3 minutes.Wakefulness: A state in which there is an enhanced potential for sensitivity and an efficient responsiveness to external stimuli.Airway Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.Tongue: A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Pharyngeal Muscles: The muscles of the PHARYNX are voluntary muscles arranged in two layers. The external circular layer consists of three constrictors (superior, middle, and inferior). The internal longitudinal layer consists of the palatopharyngeus, the salpingopharyngeus, and the stylopharyngeus. During swallowing, the outer layer constricts the pharyngeal wall and the inner layer elevates pharynx and LARYNX.Pulmonary Ventilation: The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.Arousal: Cortical vigilance or readiness of tone, presumed to be in response to sensory stimulation via the reticular activating system.Occlusal Splints: Rigid or flexible appliances that overlay the occlusal surfaces of the teeth. They are used to treat clenching and bruxism and their sequelae, and to provide temporary relief from muscle or temporomandibular joint pain.Hypercapnia: A clinical manifestation of abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.Bradycardia: Cardiac arrhythmias that are characterized by excessively slow HEART RATE, usually below 50 beats per minute in human adults. They can be classified broadly into SINOATRIAL NODE dysfunction and ATRIOVENTRICULAR BLOCK.Adenoids: A collection of lymphoid nodules on the posterior wall and roof of the NASOPHARYNX.Orthodontic Appliances, Removable: Dental devices such as RETAINERS, ORTHODONTIC used to improve gaps in teeth and structure of the jaws. These devices can be removed and reinserted at will.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Nasal Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the nose. The obstruction may be unilateral or bilateral, and may involve any part of the NASAL CAVITY.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Oropharynx: The middle portion of the pharynx that lies posterior to the mouth, inferior to the SOFT PALATE, and superior to the base of the tongue and EPIGLOTTIS. It has a digestive function as food passes from the mouth into the oropharynx before entering ESOPHAGUS.Airway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.Laryngeal Nerves: Branches of the VAGUS NERVE. The superior laryngeal nerves originate near the nodose ganglion and separate into external branches, which supply motor fibers to the cricothyroid muscles, and internal branches, which carry sensory fibers. The RECURRENT LARYNGEAL NERVE originates more caudally and carries efferents to all muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid. The laryngeal nerves and their various branches also carry sensory and autonomic fibers to the laryngeal, pharyngeal, tracheal, and cardiac regions.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Diving: An activity in which the organism plunges into water. It includes scuba and bell diving. Diving as natural behavior of animals goes here, as well as diving in decompression experiments with humans or animals.Respiratory Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Chemoreceptor Cells: Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.Larynx: A tubular organ of VOICE production. It is located in the anterior neck, superior to the TRACHEA and inferior to the tongue and HYOID BONE.Monitoring, Physiologic: The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Nose: A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.Cephalometry: The measurement of the dimensions of the HEAD.Hyoid Bone: A mobile U-shaped bone that lies in the anterior part of the neck at the level of the third CERVICAL VERTEBRAE. The hyoid bone is suspended from the processes of the TEMPORAL BONES by ligaments, and is firmly bound to the THYROID CARTILAGE by muscles.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Hypocapnia: Clinical manifestation consisting of a deficiency of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.Supine Position: The posture of an individual lying face up.Monitoring, Ambulatory: The use of electronic equipment to observe or record physiologic processes while the patient undergoes normal daily activities.Hypoventilation: A reduction in the amount of air entering the pulmonary alveoli.Sleep Disorders: Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Mouth Breathing: Abnormal breathing through the mouth, usually associated with obstructive disorders of the nasal passages.Hypopharynx: The bottom portion of the pharynx situated below the OROPHARYNX and posterior to the LARYNX. The hypopharynx communicates with the larynx through the laryngeal inlet, and is also called laryngopharynx.Neck: The part of a human or animal body connecting the HEAD to the rest of the body.Infant, Premature, DiseasesInhalation: The act of BREATHING in.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Hypoglossal Nerve: The 12th cranial nerve. The hypoglossal nerve originates in the hypoglossal nucleus of the medulla and supplies motor innervation to all of the muscles of the tongue except the palatoglossus (which is supplied by the vagus). This nerve also contains proprioceptive afferents from the tongue muscles.Fluid Shifts: Translocation of body fluids from one compartment to another, such as from the vascular to the interstitial compartments. Fluid shifts are associated with profound changes in vascular permeability and WATER-ELECTROLYTE IMBALANCE. The shift can also be from the lower body to the upper body as in conditions of weightlessness.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Respiratory System: The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.Otorhinolaryngologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the ear and its parts, the nose and nasal cavity, or the throat, including surgery of the adenoids, tonsils, pharynx, and trachea.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Hyperventilation: A pulmonary ventilation rate faster than is metabolically necessary for the exchange of gases. It is the result of an increased frequency of breathing, an increased tidal volume, or a combination of both. It causes an excess intake of oxygen and the blowing off of carbon dioxide.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Nocturnal Myoclonus Syndrome: Excessive periodic leg movements during sleep that cause micro-arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. This condition induces a state of relative sleep deprivation which manifests as excessive daytime hypersomnolence. The movements are characterized by repetitive contractions of the tibialis anterior muscle, extension of the toe, and intermittent flexion of the hip, knee and ankle. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p387)Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Electrooculography: Recording of the average amplitude of the resting potential arising between the cornea and the retina in light and dark adaptation as the eyes turn a standard distance to the right and the left. The increase in potential with light adaptation is used to evaluate the condition of the retinal pigment epithelium.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Respiration Disorders: Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.Oxygen Inhalation Therapy: Inhalation of oxygen aimed at restoring toward normal any pathophysiologic alterations of gas exchange in the cardiopulmonary system, as by the use of a respirator, nasal catheter, tent, chamber, or mask. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)Partial Pressure: The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome: HYPOVENTILATION syndrome in very obese persons with excessive ADIPOSE TISSUE around the ABDOMEN and DIAPHRAGM. It is characterized by diminished to absent ventilatory chemoresponsiveness; chronic HYPOXIA; HYPERCAPNIA; POLYCYTHEMIA; and long periods of sleep during day and night (HYPERSOMNOLENCE). It is a condition often related to OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA but can occur separately.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Phrenic Nerve: The motor nerve of the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve fibers originate in the cervical spinal column (mostly C4) and travel through the cervical plexus to the diaphragm.Infant, Premature: A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Exhalation: The act of BREATHING out.Orthodontic Appliances: Devices used for influencing tooth position. Orthodontic appliances may be classified as fixed or removable, active or retaining, and intraoral or extraoral. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p19)Respiratory Center: Part of the brain located in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA and PONS. It receives neural, chemical and hormonal signals, and controls the rate and depth of respiratory movements of the DIAPHRAGM and other respiratory muscles.Masks: Devices that cover the nose and mouth to maintain aseptic conditions or to administer inhaled anesthetics or other gases. (UMDNS, 1999)Respiratory Muscles: These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Sleep Deprivation: The state of being deprived of sleep under experimental conditions, due to life events, or from a wide variety of pathophysiologic causes such as medication effect, chronic illness, psychiatric illness, or sleep disorder.Asphyxia: A pathological condition caused by lack of oxygen, manifested in impending or actual cessation of life.Obesity, Morbid: The condition of weighing two, three, or more times the ideal weight, so called because it is associated with many serious and life-threatening disorders. In the BODY MASS INDEX, morbid obesity is defined as having a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2.Glossectomy: Partial or total surgical excision of the tongue. (Dorland, 28th ed)Sudden Infant Death: The abrupt and unexplained death of an apparently healthy infant under one year of age, remaining unexplained after a thorough case investigation, including performance of a complete autopsy, examination of the death scene, and review of the clinical history. (Pediatr Pathol 1991 Sep-Oct;11(5):677-84)Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Sleep Disorders, Intrinsic: Dyssomnias (i.e., insomnias or hypersomnias) associated with dysfunction of internal sleep mechanisms or secondary to a sleep-related medical disorder (e.g., sleep apnea, post-traumatic sleep disorders, etc.). (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)Palatine Tonsil: A round-to-oval mass of lymphoid tissue embedded in the lateral wall of the PHARYNX. There is one on each side of the oropharynx in the fauces between the anterior and posterior pillars of the SOFT PALATE.Tracheotomy: Surgical incision of the trachea.Pulmonary Stretch Receptors: Stretch receptors found in the bronchi and bronchioles. Pulmonary stretch receptors are sensors for a reflex which stops inspiration. In humans, the reflex is protective and is probably not activated during normal respiration.Respiratory Rate: The number of times an organism breathes with the lungs (RESPIRATION) per unit time, usually per minute.Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Rhinomanometry: Technique for measuring air pressure and the rate of airflow in the nasal cavity during respiration.Glottis: The vocal apparatus of the larynx, situated in the middle section of the larynx. Glottis consists of the VOCAL FOLDS and an opening (rima glottidis) between the folds.Ventilators, Negative-Pressure: Body ventilators that assist ventilation by applying intermittent subatmospheric pressure around the thorax, abdomen, or airway and periodically expand the chest wall and inflate the lungs. They are relatively simple to operate and do not require tracheostomy. These devices include the tank ventilators ("iron lung"), Portalung, Pneumowrap, and chest cuirass ("tortoise shell").Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Hypnotics and Sedatives: Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.Narcolepsy: A condition characterized by recurrent episodes of daytime somnolence and lapses in consciousness (microsomnias) that may be associated with automatic behaviors and AMNESIA. CATAPLEXY; SLEEP PARALYSIS, and hypnagogic HALLUCINATIONS frequently accompany narcolepsy. The pathophysiology of this disorder includes sleep-onset rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, which normally follows stage III or IV sleep. (From Neurology 1998 Feb;50(2 Suppl 1):S2-S7)Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Oxyhemoglobins: A compound formed by the combination of hemoglobin and oxygen. It is a complex in which the oxygen is bound directly to the iron without causing a change from the ferrous to the ferric state.Automobile Driving: The effect of environmental or physiological factors on the driver and driving ability. Included are driving fatigue, and the effect of drugs, disease, and physical disabilities on driving.Diaphragm: The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.Vagotomy: The interruption or removal of any part of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. Vagotomy may be performed for research or for therapeutic purposes.Tidal Volume: The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.Velopharyngeal Insufficiency: Failure of the SOFT PALATE to reach the posterior pharyngeal wall to close the opening between the oral and nasal cavities. Incomplete velopharyngeal closure is primarily related to surgeries (ADENOIDECTOMY; CLEFT PALATE) or an incompetent PALATOPHARYNGEAL SPHINCTER. It is characterized by hypernasal speech.Air Pressure: The force per unit area that the air exerts on any surface in contact with it. Primarily used for articles pertaining to air pressure within a closed environment.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Palate: The structure that forms the roof of the mouth. It consists of the anterior hard palate (PALATE, HARD) and the posterior soft palate (PALATE, SOFT).Brain Death: A state of prolonged irreversible cessation of all brain activity, including lower brain stem function with the complete absence of voluntary movements, responses to stimuli, brain stem reflexes, and spontaneous respirations. Reversible conditions which mimic this clinical state (e.g., sedative overdose, hypothermia, etc.) are excluded prior to making the determination of brain death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp348-9)Sleep Medicine Specialty: A medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of SLEEP WAKE DISORDERS and their causes.Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders: Disorders characterized by impairment of the ability to initiate or maintain sleep. This may occur as a primary disorder or in association with another medical or psychiatric condition.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Laryngopharyngeal Reflux: Back flow of gastric contents to the LARYNGOPHARYNX where it comes in contact with tissues of the upper aerodigestive tract. Laryngopharyngeal reflux is an extraesophageal manifestation of GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX.Sleep Disorders, Circadian Rhythm: Dyssomnias associated with disruption of the normal 24 hour sleep wake cycle secondary to travel (e.g., JET LAG SYNDROME), shift work, or other causes.Nasal Cavity: The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted: Application of computer programs designed to assist the physician in solving a diagnostic problem.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Azabicyclo Compounds: Bicyclic bridged compounds that contain a nitrogen which has three bonds. The nomenclature indicates the number of atoms in each path around the rings, such as [2.2.2] for three equal length paths. Some members are TROPANES and BETA LACTAMS.Succinylcholine: A quaternary skeletal muscle relaxant usually used in the form of its bromide, chloride, or iodide. It is a depolarizing relaxant, acting in about 30 seconds and with a duration of effect averaging three to five minutes. Succinylcholine is used in surgical, anesthetic, and other procedures in which a brief period of muscle relaxation is called for.Autonomic Nervous System: The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.Orthodontic Appliance Design: The planning, calculation, and creation of an apparatus for the purpose of correcting the placement or straightening of teeth.Facial Bones: The facial skeleton, consisting of bones situated between the cranial base and the mandibular region. While some consider the facial bones to comprise the hyoid (HYOID BONE), palatine (HARD PALATE), and zygomatic (ZYGOMA) bones, MANDIBLE, and MAXILLA, others include also the lacrimal and nasal bones, inferior nasal concha, and vomer but exclude the hyoid bone. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p113)Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Restless Legs Syndrome: A disorder characterized by aching or burning sensations in the lower and rarely the upper extremities that occur prior to sleep or may awaken the patient from sleep.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Seals, Earless: The family Phocidae, suborder PINNIPEDIA, order CARNIVORA, comprising the true seals. They lack external ears and are unable to use their hind flippers to walk. It includes over 18 species including the harp seal, probably the best known seal species in the world.Mandible: The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Bariatric Surgery: Surgical procedures aimed at affecting metabolism and producing major WEIGHT REDUCTION in patients with MORBID OBESITY.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Respiration, Artificial: Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).Sleep Arousal Disorders: Sleep disorders characterized by impaired arousal from the deeper stages of sleep (generally stage III or IV sleep).Expiratory Reserve Volume: The extra volume of air that can be expired with maximum effort beyond the level reached at the end of a normal, quiet expiration. Common abbreviation is ERV.Epiglottis: A thin leaf-shaped cartilage that is covered with LARYNGEAL MUCOSA and situated posterior to the root of the tongue and HYOID BONE. During swallowing, the epiglottis folds back over the larynx inlet thus prevents foods from entering the airway.Tracheostomy: Surgical formation of an opening into the trachea through the neck, or the opening so created.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Plethysmography, Whole Body: Measurement of the volume of gas in the lungs, including that which is trapped in poorly communicating air spaces. It is of particular use in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Periodicity: The tendency of a phenomenon to recur at regular intervals; in biological systems, the recurrence of certain activities (including hormonal, cellular, neural) may be annual, seasonal, monthly, daily, or more frequently (ultradian).Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Dichlorvos: An organophosphorus insecticide that inhibits ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Anesthesia, General: Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Propofol: An intravenous anesthetic agent which has the advantage of a very rapid onset after infusion or bolus injection plus a very short recovery period of a couple of minutes. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, 1st ed, p206). Propofol has been used as ANTICONVULSANTS and ANTIEMETICS.Nasal Decongestants: Drugs designed to treat inflammation of the nasal passages, generally the result of an infection (more often than not the common cold) or an allergy related condition, e.g., hay fever. The inflammation involves swelling of the mucous membrane that lines the nasal passages and results in inordinate mucus production. The primary class of nasal decongestants are vasoconstrictor agents. (From PharmAssist, The Family Guide to Health and Medicine, 1993)Breath Holding: An involuntary or voluntary pause in breathing, sometimes accompanied by loss of consciousness.Hypertrophy: General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).Deglutition: The act of taking solids and liquids into the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT through the mouth and throat.Gastroesophageal Reflux: Retrograde flow of gastric juice (GASTRIC ACID) and/or duodenal contents (BILE ACIDS; PANCREATIC JUICE) into the distal ESOPHAGUS, commonly due to incompetence of the LOWER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Medulla Oblongata: The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Laryngismus: A disorder in which the adductor muscles of the VOCAL CORDS exhibit increased activity leading to laryngeal spasm. Laryngismus causes closure of the VOCAL FOLDS and airflow obstruction during inspiration.Hernia, Inguinal: An abdominal hernia with an external bulge in the GROIN region. It can be classified by the location of herniation. Indirect inguinal hernias occur through the internal inguinal ring. Direct inguinal hernias occur through defects in the ABDOMINAL WALL (transversalis fascia) in Hesselbach's triangle. The former type is commonly seen in children and young adults; the latter in adults.Intermittent Positive-Pressure Ventilation: Application of positive pressure to the inspiratory phase when the patient has an artificial airway in place and is connected to a ventilator.Night Care: Institutional night care of patients.Cardiovascular System: The HEART and the BLOOD VESSELS by which BLOOD is pumped and circulated through the body.Hyperoxia: An abnormal increase in the amount of oxygen in the tissues and organs.Diagnostic Techniques, Respiratory System: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the respiratory tract or its organs. It includes RESPIRATORY FUNCTION TESTS.Interactive Ventilatory Support: Mechanical ventilation delivered to match the patient's efforts in breathing as detected by the interactive ventilation device.Prone Position: The posture of an individual lying face down.Weight Loss: Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.Gagging: Contraction of the muscle of the PHARYNX caused by stimulation of sensory receptors on the SOFT PALATE, by psychic stimuli, or systemically by drugs.Blood Gas Monitoring, Transcutaneous: The noninvasive measurement or determination of the partial pressure (tension) of oxygen and/or carbon dioxide locally in the capillaries of a tissue by the application to the skin of a special set of electrodes. These electrodes contain photoelectric sensors capable of picking up the specific wavelengths of radiation emitted by oxygenated versus reduced hemoglobin.Baroreflex: A response by the BARORECEPTORS to increased BLOOD PRESSURE. Increased pressure stretches BLOOD VESSELS which activates the baroreceptors in the vessel walls. The net response of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM is a reduction of central sympathetic outflow. This reduces blood pressure both by decreasing peripheral VASCULAR RESISTANCE and by lowering CARDIAC OUTPUT. Because the baroreceptors are tonically active, the baroreflex can compensate rapidly for both increases and decreases in blood pressure.Immersion: The placing of a body or a part thereof into a liquid.Respiratory Insufficiency: Failure to adequately provide oxygen to cells of the body and to remove excess carbon dioxide from them. (Stedman, 25th ed)Respiratory Physiological Processes: Biological actions and events that support the functions of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Implantable Neurostimulators: Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION of nerve tissue is delivered.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Lung Volume Measurements: Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.Actigraphy: The measurement and recording of MOTOR ACTIVITY to assess rest/activity cycles.Motor Vehicles: AUTOMOBILES, trucks, buses, or similar engine-driven conveyances. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Photoplethysmography: Plethysmographic determination in which the intensity of light reflected from the skin surface and the red cells below is measured to determine the blood volume of the respective area. There are two types, transmission and reflectance.Acromegaly: A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excessive HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE in adults. It is characterized by bony enlargement of the FACE; lower jaw (PROGNATHISM); hands; FEET; HEAD; and THORAX. The most common etiology is a GROWTH HORMONE-SECRETING PITUITARY ADENOMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch36, pp79-80)
The results of the study were published in October 2014; both the launch and the study results were widely discussed in the ... apnea; and serious depression.[citation needed] In contrast to common belief, Kenneth Ring argues that attempted suicides do ... In 2001, Sam Parnia and colleagues published the results of a year-long study of cardiac arrest survivors that was conducted at ... A review article analyzing the results reports that, out of 2060 cardiac arrest events, 101 of 140 cardiac arrest survivors ...
Obstructive Sleep Apnea[edit]. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) affects around 4% of men and 2% of women in the United States.[47] ... Combining results from 17 studies on insomnia in China, a pooled prevalence of 15.0% is reported for the country.[45] This is ... Sleep apnea, obstructive sleep apnea, obstruction of the airway during sleep, causing lack of sufficient deep sleep, often ... Other forms of sleep apnea include central sleep apnea and sleep-related hypoventilation.[9] ...
Such appliances have been proven to be effective in reducing snoring and sleep apnea in cases where the apnea is mild to ... After healing, this results in stiffening of the treated area. The procedure takes less than one hour, is usually performed on ... In obstructive sleep apnea, the airway at the rear of the throat is prone to closure. Surgery is also available as a method of ... A U.S. study estimates that roughly one in every 15 Americans is affected by at least a moderate degree of sleep apnea. In ...
Obstructive Sleep Apnea[edit]. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) affects around 4% of men and 2% of women in the United States.[47] ... Combining results from 17 studies on insomnia in China, a pooled prevalence of 15.0% is reported for the country.[44] This is ... Sleep apnea, obstructive sleep apnea, obstruction of the airway during sleep, causing lack of sufficient deep sleep, often ... Other forms of sleep apnea are less common.[8] Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a medical disorder that is caused by repetitive ...
Main article: Obstructive sleep apnea. Obstructive sleep apnea is apnea either as the result of obstruction of the air passages ... Central sleep apnea syndrome[edit]. Main article: Sleep apnea. Sleep apnea (or sleep apnoea in British English; /æpˈniːə/) is a ... When the subject falls asleep, ventilation decreases and pCO2 rises, resulting in hypoventilation or even apnea. These ... So falling asleep results in decreased ventilation and a higher pCO2, above the wakefulness set point. On wakefulness, this ...
Also, breathing (apnea) and weight problems (obesity) may occur. Structurally, scoliosis, bowed legs (genu varum), and ... Failure of this process throughout the body results in skeletal dysplasia. It also leads to very early onset of osteoarthritis ... The resulting Mendelian ratio of offspring from this mating would then be: 1 homozygous dominant, or TT 2 heterozygous, or Tt 1 ... arthritis may result. There is no treatment at this time to promote bone growth in chondrodystrophy patients. Certain types of ...
Normal test results show little to no episodes of sleep apnea and normal electrical activity in the individual's brain and ... These include, Insomnia disorder, Hypersomnolence disorder, Narcolepsy, Obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea, Central sleep apnea, ... Sexual behaviors that result from sexsomnia are not to be mistaken with normal nocturnal sexual behaviors, which do not occur ... Increased exposure has resulted in a conversation between those who have the disorder and those directly affected. Sexsomnia ...
Apnea is defined as "the cessation of breathing". Prolonged apnea refers to a patient who has stopped breathing for a long ... Fasciculations may result in muscle pain on awakening. Laryngoscopy and intubation are uncomfortable procedures, so etomidate ... These symptoms will lead to apnea without any signs of warning. Diagnosis requires clinical evaluation. If there was a foreign ... One common symptom of respiratory arrest is cyanosis, a bluish discoloration of the skin resulting from an inadequate amount of ...
Poor sleep quality can occur as a result of, for example, restless legs, sleep apnea or major depression. Poor sleep quality is ... Insomnia can occur independently or as a result of another problem. Conditions that can result in insomnia include ... It may result in an increased risk of motor vehicle collisions, as well as problems focusing and learning. Insomnia can be ... For example, children with ADHD tend to have trouble falling asleep because of their hyperactivity and, as a result, tend to be ...
... and can result in a retrognathic posture that results in glossal blockage of the oropharynx as the tongue relaxes in sleep. ... Obstructive sleep apnea. Rheumatoid arthritis. Systemic joint laxity. Chronic back pain. Irritable bowel syndrome. Headache. ... The results of one study suggested that the periods of highest pain in TMD can be correlated with rapid periods of change in ... This mechanism is exacerbated by alcohol consumption, as well as other chemicals that result in reduced myotonic status of the ...
The result is reduction of the testis' production of testosterone and a further increase in adipokine levels. This then feeds ... Obesity is a risk factor for obstructive sleep apnea. Obesity hypoventilation syndrome is defined as the combination of obesity ... A review in 2013 came to the result that obesity increases the risk of oligospermia and azoospermia in men, with an of odds ... Lyford, Joanna (August 2014). "Rising obesity levels in UK could result in 4,000 extra cancer cases each year". The ...
Obstructive sleep apnea can also cause ADHD type symptoms. Reviews of ADHD biomarkers have noted that platelet monoamine ... A 2014 review found that an elimination diet results in a small overall benefit. A 2016 review stated that the use of a gluten- ... In this respect it is worth noting that the enhancement of functioning at TAAR1 seen with modafanil was not a result of a ... Results suggest there is moderate-to-high-level evidence that combined pharmacological and behavioral interventions, and ...
Results of parallel randomized and nonrandomized trials". JAMA. 263 (15): 2066-73. doi:10.1001/jama.1990.03440150074029. PMID ... The relationship between enuresis and obstructive apnea, and the benefit of adenoidectomy by implication, is complex and ... Widest agreement surrounds the removal of the adenoid for obstructive sleep apnea, usually combined with tonsillectomy. Even ... and relationship with obstructive sleep apnea". J. Pediatr. 159 (2): 238-42.e1. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2011.01.036. PMID 21397910 ...
"Final results for Static Apnea and wrap-up for Lignano - AIDA International". Aidainternational.org. 2011-10-17. Archived from ... team: Goran Čolak, Božidar Petani and Veljano Zanki "APNEA.cz ranking - 2nd Submania Apnea Cup 2006". Teamname.apnea.cz. ... Goran Čolak won the dynamic apnea without fins finals with a 206 m dive, the dynamic apnea with fins with a 281 m dive, which ... At the same competition he won two silver medals in dynamic apnea with fins (260 m) and dynamic apnea without fins (194 m). ...
It generally indicates a poor prognosis, and usually progresses to complete apnea. The term is sometimes used interchangeably ... This could be related to the fact that treatment for Biot's Respirations typically results with intubation immediately upon ... with irregular pauses and increasing periods of apnea. As the breathing pattern deteriorates, it merges with agonal ...
UARS is similar to certain types of sleep apneas. Symptoms of UARS are similar to those of obstructive sleep apnea, but are ... As a result, patients typically experience frequent sleep disruptions. Loud snoring also serves as a possible indicator of the ... It is unclear as to whether UARS is merely a phase that occurs between simple snoring and sleep apneas, or whether UARS is a ... A typical UARS patient is not obese and possesses a triangular face and misaligned jaw, which can result in a smaller amount of ...
Reductions in the width of the airway, potentially causing obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), may also result from headgear. In ...
... which resolves their apneas but not their EDS, it is necessary to seek other causes for the EDS. Obstructive sleep apnea " ... In some cases it results from a physical problem, such as a tumor, head trauma, or dysfunction of the autonomic or central ... Sleep apnea can occur 10 times as often in uremic patients than in the general population and can affect up to 30-80% of ... Sleep apnea is the most frequent cause of secondary hypersomnia, affecting up to 4% of middle-aged adults, mostly men. Upper ...
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may be a cause of LAE in some cases. When an OSA event occurs, an attempt is made to breathe with ... Over time, the repetitive stretching of the left atrium may result in a persistent left atrial enlargement. Left atrial ... Latina JM, Estes III NAM, Garlitski AC (2013). "The Relationship between Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Atrial Fibrillation: A ...
Other side effects include paralysis resulting in the inability to breath. It is not recommended with streptomycin or other ... Neuromuscular blockade can lead to skeletal muscle weakness and respiratory depression or paralysis (apnea). Using anti- ... Combined with aminoglycosides: can increase the possibility of ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity and neuromuscular block, result in ... apnea). Capreomycin, an antiphlogistic antibiotic which was produced in the USA in 1960, and be applied in clinic in 1968. In ...
Follicular flushing has not been found to increase pregnancy rates, nor result in an increase in oocyte yield. On the other ... These include asphyxia caused by airway obstruction, apnea, hypotension, and pulmonary aspiration of stomach contents. Propofol ... Additional complications may result from the administration of intravenous sedation or general anesthesia. ... anesthetic techniques result in significant concentrations of propofol in follicular fluid. As propofol has been shown to have ...
It is often associated with patients with high body mass index and obstructive sleep apnea. Floppy eyelid syndrome is thought ... These can cause instability of the eyelid scaffold, resulting in the malposition of the eyelid. "Floppy eyelid syndrome. -- ...
However, prolonged disinhibition can be lethal for mammals, as it results in apnea and bradycardia. With increased neural ...
Treatment for sleep apnea and obstructive airway disorder can improve airflow and improve sleep resulting in improved brain and ... Also, people with insomnia who have resulting racing thoughts will find Sleep Apnea treatment & Nasal surgery helpful to ... Since amphetamines are a stimulant, use of these drugs result in a state that resembles the manic phase of bipolar disorder and ... While racing thoughts are most commonly described in people with bipolar disorder and sleep apnea, they are also common with ...
Trigonocephaly is a result from the premature closure of the metopic suture. Using Virchow's law again to predict the resulting ... Bannink N, Nout E, Wolvius EB, Hoeve HL, Joosten KF, Mathijssen IM (February 2010). "Obstructive sleep apnea in children with ... Sometimes the resulting growth pattern provides the necessary space for the growing brain, but results in an abnormal head ... The resulting shape can best be assessed from a top view again, which will reveal a somewhat triangular form of the head. ...
Dural ectasia, the weakening of the connective tissue of the dural sac encasing the spinal cord, can result in a loss of ... Other possible pulmonary manifestations of Marfan syndrome include sleep apnea and idiopathic obstructive lung disease. ... It involves a mutation to the gene that makes fibrillin which results in abnormal connective tissue. Diagnosis is often based ... The inferior zonules are most frequently stretched resulting in the lens shifting upwards and outwards but it can shift in ...
When UPPP has been administered in isolation, the results are variable. As explained above, sleep apnea is often caused by ... Jeffrey Prinsell, published results which have approximated those of the Stanford team when UPPP was not included in their mix ... The Role of UPPP in the "Stanford Protocol" operation UPPP is also offered to sleep apnea patients who opt for a more ... The goal is to improve the airway and thereby treat (or possibly cure) sleep apnea. It has been found that obstructive sleep ...
As a result of the "potential for adverse cardiovascular outcomes", the FDA announced, in September 2014, a review of the ... exacerbation of sleep apnea. Adverse effects may also include minor side-effects such as acne and oily skin, as well as, ... Some studies argue that ART increases the risk of prostate cancer, although the results are not conclusive. As of September ...
Results In patients with CSA, CRT led to a significant decrease in AHI (19.2 ± 10.3 to 4.6 ± 4.4, p , 0.001) and PSQI (10.4 ± ... apnea hypopnea index. CRT. cardiac resynchronization therapy. CSA. central sleep apnea. HF. heart failure. LV. left ventricular ... The number of apneas and hypopneas per hour (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI]) and minimal oxygen saturation (Sao2min) were ... 2003) Sleep apnea and heart failure. Part II: Central sleep apnea. Circulation 107:1822-1826. ...
Centralsleep apnea (cessation of breathing during sleep), the focus of intense investigations over many years, has now been ... probably because of rebreathing its own carbon dioxide resulting in asphyxiation. The U.S. Consumer Products Safety Commission ... these results need to be confirmed by other studies. ...
Cardiac efficiency in patients with Cheyne-Stokes respiration as a result of heart insufficiency during long-term nasal ... A sophisticated three-layer algorithm distinguishes between obstructed and clear airway apneas and periodic breathing, such as ... Cardiovascular consequences of sleep apnea: III-impact of continuous positive airway pressure treatment/Uyku apnesinin ...
... the results of this study show that even mild forms of obstructive sleep apnea carry an increased risk for the development of ... Obstructive sleep apnea is a subtype of sleep disordered breathing. In obstructive sleep apnea, there is a physical obstruction ... Tagged as: AHI, apnea-hypopnea index, cardiac arrhythmia, Dr. Silje K. Namtvedt, obstructive sleep apnea, polysomnogram, ... "Cardiac Arrhythmias in Obstructive Sleep Apnea (from the Akershus Sleep Apnea Project)" The American Journal of Cardiology ...
Results/Implications for Practice: Nurse practitioners often see obese and overweight, patients who may be at risk for OHS. ... Obese individuals are more prone to respiratory complications, such as obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and obesity ... such as Obstructive Sleep Apnea, OSA), (2) provide diagnostic criteria of OHS, (3) provide work up recommendations, and (4) ... Results/Implications for Practice: Nurse practitioners often see obese and overweight, patients who may be at risk for OHS. ...
The secondary variant, on the other hand, can result from an underlying medical issue. Some of the medical factors that lead to ... Sleep apnea syndrome. *Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). *Medications - Neuroleptics or other antidopaminergic ... The diagnosis for PLMD is based on clinical history, a thorough physical exam and also the results of an overnight ...
... and severe sleep apnea returns in followup following an overnight sleep study. ... She returns today to review results of an inpatient study performed approximately two weeks ago.. In the meantime, the patient ... Her estimated apnea/hypopnea index was 3 per hour. Her average leak flow was 67 liters per minute.. The patients overnight ... There was evidence of a severe predominantly central sleep apnea during non-REM sleep at 173 episodes per hour and during REM ...
Symptoms suggestive of the diagnosis may include features of sleep apnoea (witnessed apnoea, snoring enuresis, nightmares, ... Changes in neuromodulators resulting from the effects of hypoxia may further exacerbate the problem by depressing arousal from ... Lavie P; Who was the first to use the term Pickwickian in connection with sleepy patients? History of sleep apnoea syndrome. ... Nocturnal oximetry should be carried out to determine whether sleep apnoea is also present (about one fifth of sleep apnoeic ...
Early adenotonsillectomy for obstructive sleep apnea helped children sleep better at night and behave better during the day but ... Baseline severity of sleep apnea didnt interact with the treatment impact. Change in sleep apnea severity didnt correlate ... The number of apnea-hypopnea events per hour dropped to normal in the early adenotonsillectomy group (from 4.8 to 1.3) compared ... Source Reference: Marcus CL, et al "A randomized trial of adenotonsillectomy for childhood sleep apnea" N Engl J Med 2013; DOI ...
... sleep apnea weight loss message boards, healthy recipes for weight loss, how much sugar is in your favorite foods ... not as much as an obstructive apnea but still results in disruption to sleep and oxygen desaturation. Complex Sleep Apnea ( ... Each episode (apnea event) results in a drop in your oxygen level as well as disruption to your brain wave activity.В That ... Justin passed away tragically in his sleep at the age of 33 as a result of complication related to sleep apnea (thus the reason ...
Exercise Intolerance in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome Patients (EXAOS). The safety and scientific validity of this study is ... Study record managers: refer to the Data Element Definitions if submitting registration or results information. ...
The Study of Skeletal Muscle Function in Obstructive Sleep Apnea. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... C-reactive protein and heart rate recovery in middle-aged men with severe obstructive sleep apnea. Sleep Breath. 2012 Sep;16(3 ... Study record managers: refer to the Data Element Definitions if submitting registration or results information. ...
Hi wondering if someone can help me please.I did a home sleep apnea machine back 2 weeks told I would hear results in 2-4 ... Sleep apnea results question. Talk about all aspects of sleep apnoea. Request help from others with the same problem, tell your ... I was given my test results in the form of a graph which I have now, this was given to me by the person who was "supposed" to ... if someone can help me please.I did a home sleep apnea test.took machine back 2 weeks ago.was told I would hear results in 2-4 ...
RESULTS Dynamic Apnea with monofinf - 17.06.2017 View the results Dynamic Apnea with... ... View the results. Static Apnea - 15.06.2017. View the results. Speed Apnea 100m - 15.06.2017. View the results. Dynamic Apnea ... RESULTS. Dynamic Apnea with monofinf - 17.06.2017. View the results. Dynamic Apnea with bifins - 16.06.2017. View the results. ... 5th Apnea Indoor Open European Championship - Results. free diving 21.06.2017 The CMAS 5.European Indoor 2017 ended up with 7 ...
Read a snorers results and experience with the program in this honest The Stop Snoring and Sleep Apnea Program Review! ... Is Christian Goodmans The Stop Snoring and Sleep Apnea Program a scam? ... Brief Summary of the Stop Snoring and Sleep Apnea Program. To put it simply, The Stop Snoring and Sleep Apnea Program provides ... About the Stop Snoring and Sleep Apnea Program. For starters, The Stop Snoring and Sleep Apnea Program is an online system that ...
Sleep Apnea Management for the Dentist , Continuing Education Course on dentalcare.com ... The Sleep Study Results At the initial appointment with a sleep physician, he or she will conduct an interview and physical ... Failure to complete ALL the steps will result in a loss of this test score, and you will not receive credit for this course. ... History: The patient is a 44 year old male with a complaint of snoring, nasal congestion, witnessed apnea and daytime ...
Determination of Optimal Cutoff Value for Screening Severe Hypoxemic OSA (Obstructive Sleep Apnea) Patients. The safety and ... Study record managers: refer to the Data Element Definitions if submitting registration or results information. ...
Results showed that sleep apnea patients receiving Inspire therapy experienced significant reductions in sleep apnea events and ... 79% reduction in apnea-hypopnea events from baseline (Figure 1). *Significant improvements daytime functioning, as measured by ... The Stimulation Therapy for Apnea Reduction (STAR) clinical trial began in 2010 at 22 leading medical centers across the United ...
Inspire Sleep Apnea Innovation was FDA approved in 2014 and is used by thousands of people worldwide. Over 90 peer-reviewed ... Clinical Results. Inspire was FDA approved in 2014 and is used by thousands of people worldwide. Over 90 peer-reviewed ... One-year STAR Trial results were published in the New England Journal of Medicine3, in January 2014, and Inspire therapy ... The STAR clinical trial, involving 126 Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) patients across the United States and Europe, began in ...
Final Results - VI PanAmerican Indoor Apnea Championship CMAS Veracruz, Mexico 2017. *Chile ... The VI PanAmerican Indoor Apnea Championship CMAS will be held in Veracruz, Mexico from October 25 to 29, 2017 ...
CW European Results. CW No Fins International Results. CW No Fins European Results. CWT BF International Results. CWT BF ... 1st CMAS European Apnea Outdoor Championship and Open International Competition Kaş, Antalya - Turkey 2017 Results - Photos. ... free diving 12.10.2017 Opening - 1st CMAS European Apnea Outdoor Championship and Open International Competition Kaş, Antalya ... history books winning the Gold medals in the 1st European Outdoor Apnea Championship in Kas (Turkey). Artnik and Molchanov, ...
Our board certified sleep physicians provide promt and accurate results. ... You can order a home sleep apnea testing kit to find out in the comfort of your own bed. ... Apnea link plus at home. Apnea link home sleep testing kit. Apnea link test results screen shot. Apnea Link Plus Home Sleep ... At Home Sleep Apnea Test Device Kit. Home Sleep Testing Service at 1800CPAP.COM. Apnea link is easy to use. Home Sleep Testing ...
... both with VA Sleep Apnea Claims, had such different outcomes at the BVA.Sourced through Scoop.it from: www.veteranslawblog.org ... Why Did 2 similar Veterans, both with VA Sleep Apnea Claims, Have Different Results at the BVA? - Veterans Law Blog. * Share ... Home » Why Did 2 similar Veterans, both with VA Sleep Apnea Claims, Have Different Results at the BVA? - Veterans Law Blog ... 4 Things Veterans Should Know about VA Sleep Apnea Disability Claims. *. Entitlement To Service Connection For Sleep Apnea, To ...
apnea, apnoea (s) (noun); apneas, apnoeas (pl). 1. The temporary stopping of breathing that takes place in some newborns and in ... Prolonged apnea can also occur because of certain drugs or as the result of airway obstructions, usually by food, drink, vomit ... Apnea involves the cessation of breathing either temporarily for a few seconds to a minute or two or for a longer period, which ... 2. In zoology, a decrease or a minimal breathing in hibernating animals: Natural apneas take place when animals have periods of ...
I have chronic severe tonsillar hypertrophy (4+) resulting in sleep apnea. Will I be OK if I left it untreated (no ... I have chronic severe tonsillar hypertrophy (4+) resulting in sleep apnea. Will I be OK if I left it untreated (no ... What can cause my 8 year olds sleep apnea if it not adnoids or tonsils.I dont want her on a cpap forever? ... I have grade 4 enlarged tonsils causing mild to moderate sleep apnea (AHI 10, nadir SpO2 88%). One dr said tonsil more I have ...
  • Sleep apnoea and other sleep-related breathing disorders (but these may co-exist). (patient.info)
  • Sleep apnoea is where breathing is completely obstructed and the sleeper wakes many times a night to recommence breathing, but usually remembers nothing at all about these episodes. (healthyweightforlife.com.au)
  • Many episodes of apnea of prematurity may start as either obstructive or central, but then involve elements of both, becoming mixed in nature. (wikipedia.org)
  • Increasing the environmental oxygen level by placing the infant in a tent of hood with supplemental oxygen can diminish the frequency of AOP, and may also help the infant maintain adequate oxygenation during short episodes of apnea. (wikipedia.org)
  • To learn more about sleep apnea, getting a better nights rest, and sleep in general, tune into KUTV Channel 2 on Tuesday, July 11th when Intermountain Healthcare caregivers will be discussing sleep on Ask the Expert. (intermountainhealthcare.org)
  • If this is the case, then the potential benefit of developing better screening tools to diagnose sleep apnea in the elderly who are often asymptomatic (to Alzheimer's) is enormous," senior study author Dr. Ricardo Osorio told DailyMail.co.uk . (naturalnews.com)
  • Usually as a last resort, mechanical ventilation is used to support infants whose apnea cannot be controlled sufficiently by other methods and where the potential risk of harm from recurrent hypoxia is felt to outweigh the risks of injury from ventilation. (wikipedia.org)
  • I have a friend that had a sleep study conducted and it revealed that he had a severe case of sleep apnea. (amazonaws.com)
  • Study record managers: refer to the Data Element Definitions if submitting registration or results information. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • If the results are unclear, the physician may recommend an in-lab sleep study. (sleepeducation.org)
  • Forty premature infants, gestation 28.7 ± 0.4 weeks (mean ± standard error of mean), postconceptual age at study 30.3 ± 0.6 weeks, birth weight 1256 ± 66 g, study weight 1260 ± 63 g who were being managed with conventional NCPAP for at least 24 hours for clinically significant apnea of prematurity, were enrolled in a trial of ventilator-generated conventional NCPAP versus infant NC at flows of up to 2.5 L/min. (aappublications.org)
  • The aim of this study was to quantify the NC flow required to generate PDP in premature neonates, and to compare HFNC with NCPAP in the management of apnea of prematurity. (aappublications.org)
  • The objective of this study is to examine the diurnal variability of C-reactive protein (CRP) in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). (springer.com)
  • I am new to the forum- I just had an at-home sleep study and received the following results, which are a bit difficult to follow at a few points. (apneaboard.com)
  • As a result of ATRI's study, the Owner-Operator Independent Drivers Association (OOIDA) requested and received an extension to the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration's comment period on its intent to develop a rule dealing with sleep apnea among truck drivers. (truckinsurancenitic.com)
  • Observational study - observes people and measures outcomes without affecting results. (mayo.edu)
  • If you are tired and sleep poorly, insist on a sleep study, even if you don't look like a typical sleep apnea patient," recommends Dr. Winter. (rd.com)
  • Sleep-disordered breathing and cardiovascular disease: cross-sectional results of the Sleep Heart Health Study. (springermedizin.at)
  • Heart Disease - A study from the University of Wisconsin found that sleep apnea is common in people who have heart disease. (kaneneighbors.com)
  • The study also shows that those who suffer from untreated, severe sleep apnea may be five times more likely to die from heart disease. (kaneneighbors.com)
  • In a study conducted in Germany, researchers found that this relationship may be due to the repetitive drop in blood oxygen levels that occurs during sleep as a result of sleep apnea. (kaneneighbors.com)
  • Sleep apnea increased incidence of primary central nervous system cancers: a nationwide cohort study. (springermedizin.de)
  • The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between sleep apnea indicators and injury in older farmers from Kentucky and South Carolina. (cdc.gov)
  • In 2006 the European Sleep Apnea Database (ESADA) began as an initiative between 27 European sleep study facilities to combine information and compile it into one shared resource. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 2010 research resulted from collaboration between 22 study centres across 16 countries in Europe involving 27 researchers. (wikipedia.org)
  • my husband has sleep apnea and it was me who pushed him to get a sleep study done. (healthboards.com)
  • Home sleep study tests are available and are one of the easiest ways to get your sleep apnea diagnosis. (hubpages.com)
  • Percentage of participants in diabetes support and education (DSE) and intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) whose obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) category improved (≥1 category change), worsened (≤1 category Change), or stayed the same (no change in category). (nih.gov)
  • Results Participants in the didgeridoo group practised an average of 5.9 days a week (SD 0.86) for 25.3 minutes (SD 3.4). (bmj.com)
  • The results show that just over 10% of participants experienced a farm injury in the past year. (cdc.gov)
  • Although loud snores are a symptom of sleep apnea, a silent night doesn't mean you don't have it, says W. Chris Winter, MD, neurologist, sleep specialist, and author of The Sleep Solution: Why Your Sleep Is Broken and How To Fix It . (rd.com)
  • Sleep apnea can be treated in a number of ways, with the most conservative, non-invasive methods being tried first. (eossleepdiagnostics.com)