Mutagens: Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.Mutagenicity Tests: Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.Antimutagenic Agents: Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced mutations independently of the mechanism involved.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Ethylnitrosourea: A nitrosourea compound with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.Ethyl Methanesulfonate: An antineoplastic agent with alkylating properties. It also acts as a mutagen by damaging DNA and is used experimentally for that effect.Furylfuramide: Used formerly as antimicrobial food additive. It causes mutations in many cell cultures and may be carcinogenic.Salmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.Cooking: The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.4-Nitroquinoline-1-oxide: A potent mutagen and carcinogen. This compound and its metabolite 4-HYDROXYAMINOQUINOLINE-1-OXIDE bind to nucleic acids. It inactivates bacteria but not bacteriophage.Methylnitronitrosoguanidine: A nitrosoguanidine derivative with potent mutagenic and carcinogenic properties.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.7,8-Dihydro-7,8-dihydroxybenzo(a)pyrene 9,10-oxide: 7,8,8a,9a-Tetrahydrobenzo(10,11)chryseno (3,4-b)oxirene-7,8-diol. A benzopyrene derivative with carcinogenic and mutagenic activity.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Aminacrine: A highly fluorescent anti-infective dye used clinically as a topical antiseptic and experimentally as a mutagen, due to its interaction with DNA. It is also used as an intracellular pH indicator.Heterocyclic Compounds: Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Amines: A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Carcinogens, Environmental: Carcinogenic substances that are found in the environment.Micronucleus Tests: Induction and quantitative measurement of chromosomal damage leading to the formation of micronuclei (MICRONUCLEI, CHROMOSOME-DEFECTIVE) in cells which have been exposed to genotoxic agents or IONIZING RADIATION.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.QuinolinesBenzo(a)pyrene: A potent mutagen and carcinogen. It is a public health concern because of its possible effects on industrial workers, as an environmental pollutant, an as a component of tobacco smoke.Carbolines: A group of pyrido-indole compounds. Included are any points of fusion of pyridine with the five-membered ring of indole and any derivatives of these compounds. These are similar to CARBAZOLES which are benzo-indoles.DNA Adducts: The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.Nitro Compounds: Compounds having the nitro group, -NO2, attached to carbon. When attached to nitrogen they are nitramines and attached to oxygen they are NITRATES.Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Alkylating Agents: Highly reactive chemicals that introduce alkyl radicals into biologically active molecules and thereby prevent their proper functioning. Many are used as antineoplastic agents, but most are very toxic, with carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, and immunosuppressant actions. They have also been used as components in poison gases.Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Chrysenes: 1,2-Benzphenanthrenes. POLYCYCLIC COMPOUNDS obtained from coal tar.Fluorenes: A family of diphenylenemethane derivatives.Hycanthone: Potentially toxic, but effective antischistosomal agent, it is a metabolite of LUCANTHONE.Polycyclic Compounds: Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Sister Chromatid Exchange: An exchange of segments between the sister chromatids of a chromosome, either between the sister chromatids of a meiotic tetrad or between the sister chromatids of a duplicated somatic chromosome. Its frequency is increased by ultraviolet and ionizing radiation and other mutagenic agents and is particularly high in BLOOM SYNDROME.Methyl Methanesulfonate: An alkylating agent in cancer therapy that may also act as a mutagen by interfering with and causing damage to DNA.DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.Nitrogen Mustard Compounds: A group of alkylating agents derived from mustard gas, with the sulfur replaced by nitrogen. They were formerly used as toxicants and vesicants, but now function as antineoplastic agents. These compounds are also powerful mutagens, teratogens, immunosuppressants, and carcinogens.Food Analysis: Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.AcridinesNitrosoguanidinesChromosome Aberrations: Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Aflatoxin B1: A potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic mycotoxin produced by the Aspergillus flavus group of fungi. It is also mutagenic, teratogenic, and causes immunosuppression in animals. It is found as a contaminant in peanuts, cottonseed meal, corn, and other grains. The mycotoxin requires epoxidation to aflatoxin B1 2,3-oxide for activation. Microsomal monooxygenases biotransform the toxin to the less toxic metabolites aflatoxin M1 and Q1.Comet Assay: A genotoxicological technique for measuring DNA damage in an individual cell using single-cell gel electrophoresis. Cell DNA fragments assume a "comet with tail" formation on electrophoresis and are detected with an image analysis system. Alkaline assay conditions facilitate sensitive detection of single-strand damage.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Chromatids: Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Nitrous Acid: Nitrous acid (HNO2). A weak acid that exists only in solution. It can form water-soluble nitrites and stable esters. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Pyrenes: A group of condensed ring hydrocarbons.Biological Assay: A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.Benz(a)Anthracenes: Four fused benzyl rings with three linear and one angular, that can be viewed as a benzyl-phenanthrenes. Compare with NAPHTHACENES which are four linear rings.Water Pollutants: Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.Radiation Genetics: A subdiscipline of genetics that studies RADIATION EFFECTS on the components and processes of biological inheritance.Chlorophyllides: Products of the hydrolysis of chlorophylls in which the phytic acid side chain has been removed and the carboxylic acids saponified.Micronuclei, Chromosome-Defective: Defective nuclei produced during the TELOPHASE of MITOSIS or MEIOSIS by lagging CHROMOSOMES or chromosome fragments derived from spontaneous or experimentally induced chromosomal structural changes.QuinoxalinesCytochrome P-450 CYP1A2: A cytochrome P450 enzyme subtype that has specificity for relatively planar heteroaromatic small molecules, such as CAFFEINE and ACETAMINOPHEN.Epoxy Compounds: Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.Dimethylnitrosamine: A nitrosamine derivative with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties. It causes serious liver damage and is a hepatocarcinogen in rodents.Environmental Pollutants: Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of acetyl groups from ACETYL-COA to arylamines. It can also catalyze acetyl transfer between arylamines without COENZYME A and has a wide specificity for aromatic amines, including SEROTONIN. However, arylamine N-acetyltransferase should not be confused with the enzyme ARYLALKYLAMINE N-ACETYLTRANSFERASE which is also referred to as SEROTONIN ACETYLTRANSFERASE.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Gamma Rays: Penetrating, high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted from atomic nuclei during NUCLEAR DECAY. The range of wavelengths of emitted radiation is between 0.1 - 100 pm which overlaps the shorter, more energetic hard X-RAYS wavelengths. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.Mesylates: Organic salts or esters of methanesulfonic acid.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Hypoxanthine Phosphoribosyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate and hypoxanthine, guanine, or 6-mercaptopurine to the corresponding 5'-mononucleotides and pyrophosphate. The enzyme is important in purine biosynthesis as well as central nervous system functions. Complete lack of enzyme activity is associated with the LESCH-NYHAN SYNDROME, while partial deficiency results in overproduction of uric acid. EC 2.4.2.8.Thioxanthenes: Compounds with three aromatic rings in linear arrangement with a SULFUR in the center ring.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Nitroso CompoundsPolycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)Niridazole: An antischistosomal agent that has become obsolete.N-Nitrosopyrrolidine: Carcinogenic nitrosamine that may be formed from preservatives in meats during their preparation or in the liver during metabolism.
  • The environmental pollutant 6-nitrochrysene (6-NC) is a powerful mammary carcinogen and mutagen in rats. (nyu.edu)
  • On the basis of the results of the present study, we hypothesize that [R,R]-1,2-DHD-6-NC is the proximate carcinogen of 6-NC in the rat mammary gland in vivo and will test this hypothesis in a future study. (nyu.edu)
  • The results from this systematic review suggest that genetic variation in the inflammatory response and DNA repair pathway is involved in meat-related colorectal carcinogenesis, whereas no support for the involvement of heme and iron from meat or cooking mutagens was found. (springer.com)
  • This documents presents a methodology which addresses the effects of a direct-acting mutagen (radiation) on aquantic organisms by applying sensitive techniques for assessing damage to genetic material. (unt.edu)
  • As a result, disturbance of the circadian system, either through environmental exposures, or through genetic alterations in the key circadian genes, may have important implications for a variety of biological pathways. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Summary of results of the safety evaluations of esters of terpenoid alcohols and aliphatic carboxylic acids Step 1: All of the substances in the group are in structural class I, the human intake threshold of which is 1800 g per day. (inchem.org)
  • The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977 failed to result in substantial reductions of the emissions of these very threatening substances. (epa.gov)
  • Radioactive substances have entered aquatic environments as a result of research and production activities, intentional disposal, and accidental discharges. (unt.edu)
  • We studied alteration of mitochondrial genome induced with minimal dose of two mutagens, methothexate or ethidium bromide in vivo. (nii.ac.jp)
  • However, biweekly administration for 13 or 26 weeks in the rat at 2.1 and 7.2 mg/m2 (approximately one fifteenth and one fourth the human dose) resulted in decreased spermatogenesis and prostate/seminal vesicle secretion. (cancermonthly.com)
  • Oral single dose up to 2000 mg/kg of TS extract resulted in no mortalities or abnormal clinical signs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Moreover, results of a recent meta-analysis found a statistically significant dose-response relationship between the quantity of alcohol consumption and overall prostate cancer risk or mortality ( 8 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The next step of this research should be an experiment to see if the mutagen-induced mtation of mitochondrial genome chould be induced in oocytes or germ-line cells when these mutagens are injected into pregnant mice. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Supporting activities include the development of epidemiological, experimental laboratory, and risk-assessment methods that could produce internationally comparable results, and the development of manpower in the field of toxicology. (intox.org)
  • Microsomal enzymes isolated from human liver tissue, but not lung tissue, also converted quinoline to a mutagen. (cdc.gov)
  • At its present meeting, the Committee reviewed the results of the long-term studies in mice and rats. (inchem.org)
  • Enzyme preparations from rats pretreated with p-448 dependent aryl-hydrocarbon hydroxylase (9037529) inducers (3- methylcholanthrene (MCA) (56495) and beta-naphthoflavone) and MCA treated responsive C57BL mice also metabolized quinoline to a mutagen, but phenobarbital (50066) and pregnenolone-16alpha- carbonitrile pretreatment did not yield active preparations. (cdc.gov)
  • In a screen for RNA mutagen resistance, we isolated a high fidelity RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) variant of Coxsackie virus B3 (CVB3). (prolekare.cz)
  • We isolated one of these same CVB3 RdRp mutants in a screen for resistance to RNA mutagens with the goal of identifying higher fidelity RdRp variants. (prolekare.cz)
  • Consistent with this mechanism of action, several Fc-engineered IgG with increased FcRn affinity and conserved pH dependency were designed and resulted in longer half-life in vivo in human FcRn-transgenic mice (hFcRn), cynomolgus monkeys, and recently in healthy humans. (frontiersin.org)
  • This work has revealed several prominent hotspots in the spontaneous spectrum and different hotspots in each of the mutagen-induced sets. (genetics.org)
  • The eggshell abnormalities observed in this mutant result from defective amplification of clusters of chorion protein genes, which is a form of DNA replication specific to follicle cells (for review see C alvi and S pradling 1999 ). (genetics.org)
  • Just one missing or abnormal protein can have an enormous effect on the entire body: albinism, for instance, is the result of one missing protein. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Imidazolinone herbicides, such as imazethapyr, target and bind the acetolactate synthase (ALS) enzyme thereby inhibiting the biosynthesis of branched chain amino acids, resulting in a decrease in protein synthesis and eventual death of the plant. (gc.ca)
  • Boiled down simplistically, a gene is a blueprint for the making of a protein, and the protein is what results in the observable trait. (mcgill.ca)
  • 3) If something changes a gene's code words, the resulting protein may change. (slideserve.com)
  • Consistent with these results, men in the upper tertile of cumulative lifetime intake had increased odds of high-grade prostate cancer diagnosis (OR = 3.20, P trend = 0.003). (aacrjournals.org)
  • IMPACT Results do not provide strong evidence that HCAs increase risk of prostate cancers. (uzh.ch)
  • The accident at the Chernobyl power station in the former Soviet Union (FSU) has resulted in the contamination of biota present in the Kiev Reservoir. (unt.edu)
  • Consuming more than 10 cigarettes a day resulted in a higher urinary excretion of mutagens with medium-tar cigarettes than with high-tar cigarettes. (nih.gov)
  • Smoking 5 RCN cigarettes a day by habitual smokers resulted in a higher urinary excretion of mutagens than smoking 5 commercial brand of cigarettes. (nih.gov)
  • In contrast, smoking 10 RCN cigarettes resulted in a lower urinary excretion of mutagens than smoking 10 commercial brand of cigarettes. (nih.gov)
  • These two mutagens have srong mutagenic action to especiaaly mitochondrial genomes and toxicity for mitochodrial respiratory function. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Results from these acute and subchronic toxicity assessments of TS extract under Good Laboratory Practice regulations indicate that TS extract appears to be safe for human consumption. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A malignant condition of the lymphoid tissues which results in the enlargement of the lymph nodes, spleen, and liver, and sometimes fever and weight loss. (commonweal.org)
  • Our analysis indicated that passive smoking may interact with mutagen sensitivity and other risk factors to increase the risk of head and neck cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The mutagen-sensitive-101 ( mus101 ) gene of Drosophila melanogaster was first identified 25 years ago through mutations conferring larval hypersensitivity to DNA-damaging agents. (genetics.org)
  • They are an excellent source of vitamins, especially vitamin C. Processing Citrus fruits results in a significant amount of waste (peels, seeds, and pulps), which accounts for 50% of the fruit [ 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • TNF-α treatment in cultured cells resulted in increased gene mutations, gene amplification, micronuclei formation, and chromosomal instability. (aacrjournals.org)
  • While it is known that melanoma results from problems with melanin-producing cells, the factors that damage DNA in these skin cells is unknown, reports May. (reference.com)
  • Cisplatin is a mutagen in bacterial and cultured mammalian cells. (inchem.org)
  • 4) selecting or screening, in tk - IBRV host cells, for tk - IBRV from the virus produced in step (3) so as to produce an infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus mutant which fails to produce any functional thymidine kinase as a result of an insertion in the IBRV tk gene. (google.com.au)
  • The X-linked locus mus101 was among the very first such mutagen-sensitive ( mus ) genes to be identified. (genetics.org)
  • As TNF-α is involved in chronic inflammatory diseases, such as chronic hepatitis, ulcerative colitis, and chronic skin ulcers, and these diseases predispose the patients to cancer development, our results suggest a novel pathway through which TNF-α promotes cancer development through induction of gene mutations, in addition to the previously reported mechanisms, in which nuclear factor-κB activation was implicated. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Although TNF-α is not known to damage DNA directly and there is no published report of other cytokine-induced instability, our study revealed that TNF-α is a potent mutagen that causes DNA damage through the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). (aacrjournals.org)