Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
A technique to generate restriction maps from single large DNA molecules by spreading the DNA onto a glass surface, digesting with DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES, staining with FLUORESCENT DYES, and visualizing the DNA cleavage sites by FLUORESCENCE MICROSCOPY.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Enzyme systems containing a single subunit and requiring only magnesium for endonucleolytic activity. The corresponding modification methylases are separate enzymes. The systems recognize specific short DNA sequences and cleave either within, or at a short specific distance from, the recognition sequence to give specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. Enzymes from different microorganisms with the same specificity are called isoschizomers. EC
Reduction in caloric intake without reduction in adequate nutrition. In experimental animals, caloric restriction has been shown to extend lifespan and enhance other physiological variables.
A temperate inducible phage and type species of the genus lambda-like viruses, in the family SIPHOVIRIDAE. Its natural host is E. coli K12. Its VIRION contains linear double-stranded DNA with single-stranded 12-base 5' sticky ends. The DNA circularizes on infection.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC It recognizes and cleaves the sequence G/AATTC at the slash. EcoRI is from E coliRY13. Several isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A form of GENE LIBRARY containing the complete DNA sequences present in the genome of a given organism. It contrasts with a cDNA library which contains only sequences utilized in protein coding (lacking introns).
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
Mapping of the linear order of genes on a chromosome with units indicating their distances by using methods other than genetic recombination. These methods include nucleotide sequencing, overlapping deletions in polytene chromosomes, and electron micrography of heteroduplex DNA. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 5th ed)
The failure of a FETUS to attain its expected FETAL GROWTH at any GESTATIONAL AGE.
Recording of regional electrophysiological information by analysis of surface potentials to give a complete picture of the effects of the currents from the heart on the body surface. It has been applied to the diagnosis of old inferior myocardial infarction, localization of the bypass pathway in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, recognition of ventricular hypertrophy, estimation of the size of a myocardial infarct, and the effects of different interventions designed to reduce infarct size. The limiting factor at present is the complexity of the recording and analysis, which requires 100 or more electrodes, sophisticated instrumentation, and dedicated personnel. (Braunwald, Heart Disease, 4th ed)
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Recording the locations and measurements of electrical activity in the EPICARDIUM by placing electrodes on the surface of the heart to analyze the patterns of activation and to locate arrhythmogenic sites.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.
Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.
One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC It recognizes and cleaves the sequence A/AGCTT at the slash. HindIII is from Haemophilus influenzae R(d). Numerous isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.
One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC It recognizes and cleaves the sequence G/GATCC at the slash. BamHI is from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens N. Numerous isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.
Systems consisting of two enzymes, a modification methylase and a restriction endonuclease. They are closely related in their specificity and protect the DNA of a given bacterial species. The methylase adds methyl groups to adenine or cytosine residues in the same target sequence that constitutes the restriction enzyme binding site. The methylation renders the target site resistant to restriction, thereby protecting DNA against cleavage.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The normal length of time of an organism's life.
A method for ordering genetic loci along CHROMOSOMES. The method involves fusing irradiated donor cells with host cells from another species. Following cell fusion, fragments of DNA from the irradiated cells become integrated into the chromosomes of the host cells. Molecular probing of DNA obtained from the fused cells is used to determine if two or more genetic loci are located within the same fragment of donor cell DNA.
Two-dimensional separation and analysis of nucleotides.
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
Enzyme systems containing three different subunits and requiring ATP, S-adenosylmethionine, and magnesium for endonucleolytic activity to give random double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. They function also as DNA-dependent ATPases and modification methylases, catalyzing the reactions of EC and EC with similar site-specificity. The systems recognize specific short DNA sequences and cleave at sites remote from the recognition sequence. Enzymes from different microorganisms with the same specificity are called isoschizomers. EC
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC It recognizes and cleaves the sequences C/CGG and GGC/C at the slash. HpaII is from Haemophilus parainfluenzae. Several isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Creating a representation of areas of the earth or other celestial bodies, for the purpose of visualizing spatial distributions of various information.
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
A diet that contains limited amounts of protein. It is prescribed in some cases to slow the progression of renal failure. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
A diet designed to cause an individual to lose weight.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Short tracts of DNA sequence that are used as landmarks in GENOME mapping. In most instances, 200 to 500 base pairs of sequence define a Sequence Tagged Site (STS) that is operationally unique in the human genome (i.e., can be specifically detected by the polymerase chain reaction in the presence of all other genomic sequences). The overwhelming advantage of STSs over mapping landmarks defined in other ways is that the means of testing for the presence of a particular STS can be completely described as information in a database.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
A diet which contains very little sodium chloride. It is prescribed by some for hypertension and for edematous states. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Nonrandom association of linked genes. This is the tendency of the alleles of two separate but already linked loci to be found together more frequently than would be expected by chance alone.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the internal bonds and thereby the formation of polynucleotides or oligonucleotides from ribo- or deoxyribonucleotide chains. EC 3.1.-.
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.
Failure of the PLACENTA to deliver an adequate supply of nutrients and OXYGEN to the FETUS.
Removal of tissue with electrical current delivered via electrodes positioned at the distal end of a catheter. Energy sources are commonly direct current (DC-shock) or alternating current at radiofrequencies (usually 750 kHz). The technique is used most often to ablate the AV junction and/or accessory pathways in order to interrupt AV conduction and produce AV block in the treatment of various tachyarrhythmias.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
A reaction that severs one of the covalent sugar-phosphate linkages between NUCLEOTIDES that compose the sugar phosphate backbone of DNA. It is catalyzed enzymatically, chemically or by radiation. Cleavage may be exonucleolytic - removing the end nucleotide, or endonucleolytic - splitting the strand in two.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Methods for determining interaction between PROTEINS.
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Enzyme systems composed of two subunits and requiring ATP and magnesium for endonucleolytic activity; they do not function as ATPases. They exist as complexes with modification methylases of similar specificity listed under EC or EC The systems recognize specific short DNA sequences and cleave a short distance, about 24 to 27 bases, away from the recognition sequence to give specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. Enzymes from different microorganisms with the same specificity are called isoschizomers. EC
The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
An enzyme responsible for producing a species-characteristic methylation pattern on adenine residues in a specific short base sequence in the host cell DNA. The enzyme catalyzes the methylation of DNA adenine in the presence of S-adenosyl-L-methionine to form DNA containing 6-methylaminopurine and S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine. EC
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.
Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
The state of being deprived of sleep under experimental conditions, due to life events, or from a wide variety of pathophysiologic causes such as medication effect, chronic illness, psychiatric illness, or sleep disorder.
Enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of single-stranded regions of DNA or RNA molecules while leaving the double-stranded regions intact. They are particularly useful in the laboratory for producing "blunt-ended" DNA molecules from DNA with single-stranded ends and for sensitive GENETIC TECHNIQUES such as NUCLEASE PROTECTION ASSAYS that involve the detection of single-stranded DNA and RNA.
Representations, normally to scale and on a flat medium, of a selection of material or abstract features on the surface of the earth, the heavens, or celestial bodies.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Chromosomes in which fragments of exogenous DNA ranging in length up to several hundred kilobase pairs have been cloned into yeast through ligation to vector sequences. These artificial chromosomes are used extensively in molecular biology for the construction of comprehensive genomic libraries of higher organisms.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
The magnitude of INBREEDING in humans.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
Chromosomal, biochemical, intracellular, and other methods used in the study of genetics.
The consumption of edible substances.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
An impulse-conducting system composed of modified cardiac muscle, having the power of spontaneous rhythmicity and conduction more highly developed than the rest of the heart.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.
An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
Methylases that are specific for CYTOSINE residues found on DNA.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A form of gene interaction whereby the expression of one gene interferes with or masks the expression of a different gene or genes. Genes whose expression interferes with or masks the effects of other genes are said to be epistatic to the effected genes. Genes whose expression is affected (blocked or masked) are hypostatic to the interfering genes.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.

Optical mapping of Plasmodium falciparum chromosome 2. (1/17643)

Detailed restriction maps of microbial genomes are a valuable resource in genome sequencing studies but are toilsome to construct by contig construction of maps derived from cloned DNA. Analysis of genomic DNA enables large stretches of the genome to be mapped and circumvents library construction and associated cloning artifacts. We used pulsed-field gel electrophoresis purified Plasmodium falciparum chromosome 2 DNA as the starting material for optical mapping, a system for making ordered restriction maps from ensembles of individual DNA molecules. DNA molecules were bound to derivatized glass surfaces, cleaved with NheI or BamHI, and imaged by digital fluorescence microscopy. Large pieces of the chromosome containing ordered DNA restriction fragments were mapped. Maps were assembled from 50 molecules producing an average contig depth of 15 molecules and high-resolution restriction maps covering the entire chromosome. Chromosome 2 was found to be 976 kb by optical mapping with NheI, and 946 kb with BamHI, which compares closely to the published size of 947 kb from large-scale sequencing. The maps were used to further verify assemblies from the plasmid library used for sequencing. Maps generated in silico from the sequence data were compared to the optical mapping data, and good correspondence was found. Such high-resolution restriction maps may become an indispensable resource for large-scale genome sequencing projects.  (+info)

Cloning and characterisation of a novel ompB operon from Vibrio cholerae 569B. (2/17643)

The ompB operon of Vibrio cholerae 569B has been cloned and fully sequenced. The operon encodes two proteins, OmpR and EnvZ, which share sequence identity with the OmpR and EnvZ proteins of a variety of other bacteria. Although the order of the ompR and envZ genes of V. cholerae is similar to that of the ompB operon of E. coli, S. typhimurium and X. nematophilus, the Vibrio operon exhibits a number of novel features. The structural organisation and features of the V. cholerae ompB operon are described.  (+info)

Alternative splicing generates multiple mRNA forms of the acetylcholine receptor gamma-subunit in rat muscle. (3/17643)

The fetal type acetylcholine receptor, composed of the alphabeta gammadelta subunits, has shown a highly variable channel kinetics during postnatal development. We examine the hypothesis whether such a variability could result from multiple channel forms, differing in the N-terminus of the gamma-subunit. RT-PCR revealed, in addition to the full-length mRNA, three new forms lacking exon 4. One of them in addition lacks 19 nucleotides from exon 5, predicting a complete subunit, with a 43 residues shorter N-terminus. A third one lacking the complete exon 5 predicts a subunit without transmembrane segments. These forms, generated by alternative splicing, may account for the kinetic variability of the acetylcholine receptor channel.  (+info)

Cloning, expression, and enzymatic characterization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa topoisomerase IV. (4/17643)

The topoisomerase IV subunit A gene, parC homolog, has been cloned and sequenced from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, with cDNA encoding the N-terminal region of Escherichia coli parC used as a probe. The homolog and its upstream gene were presumed to be parC and parE through sequence homology with the parC and parE genes of other organisms. The deduced amino acid sequence of ParC and ParE showed 33 and 32% identity with that of the P. aeruginosa DNA gyrase subunits, GyrA and GyrB, respectively, and 69 and 75% identity with that of E. coli ParC and ParE, respectively. The putative ParC and ParE proteins were overexpressed and separately purified by use of a fusion system with a maltose-binding protein, and their enzymatic properties were examined. The reconstituted enzyme had ATP-dependent decatenation activity, which is the main catalytic activity of bacterial topoisomerase IV, and relaxing activities but had no supercoiling activity. So, the cloned genes were identified as P. aeruginosa topoisomerase IV genes. The inhibitory effects of quinolones on the activities of topoisomerase IV and DNA gyrase were compared. The 50% inhibitory concentrations of quinolones for the decatenation activity of topoisomerase IV were from five to eight times higher than those for the supercoiling activities of P. aeruginosa DNA gyrase. These results confirmed that topoisomerase IV is less sensitive to fluoroquinolones than is DNA gyrase and may be a secondary target of new quinolones in wild-type P. aeruginosa.  (+info)

Cloning and expression of the algL gene, encoding the Azotobacter chroococcum alginate lyase: purification and characterization of the enzyme. (5/17643)

The alginate lyase-encoding gene (algL) of Azotobacter chroococcum was localized to a 3.1-kb EcoRI DNA fragment that revealed an open reading frame of 1,116 bp. This open reading frame encodes a protein of 42.98 kDa, in agreement with the value previously reported by us for this protein. The deduced protein has a potential N-terminal signal peptide that is consistent with its proposed periplasmic location. The analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence indicated that the gene sequence has a high homology (90% identity) to the Azotobacter vinelandii gene sequence, which has very recently been deposited in the GenBank database, and that it has 64% identity to the Pseudomonas aeruginosa gene sequence but that it has rather low homology (15 to 22% identity) to the gene sequences encoding alginate lyase in other bacteria. The A. chroococcum AlgL protein was overproduced in Escherichia coli and purified to electrophoretic homogeneity in a two-step chromatography procedure on hydroxyapatite and phenyl-Sepharose. The kinetic and molecular parameters of the recombinant alginate lyase are similar to those found for the native enzyme.  (+info)

Ferritin mutants of Escherichia coli are iron deficient and growth impaired, and fur mutants are iron deficient. (6/17643)

Escherichia coli contains at least two iron storage proteins, a ferritin (FtnA) and a bacterioferritin (Bfr). To investigate their specific functions, the corresponding genes (ftnA and bfr) were inactivated by replacing the chromosomal ftnA and bfr genes with disrupted derivatives containing antibiotic resistance cassettes in place of internal segments of the corresponding coding regions. Single mutants (ftnA::spc and bfr::kan) and a double mutant (ftnA::spc bfr::kan) were generated and confirmed by Western and Southern blot analyses. The iron contents of the parental strain (W3110) and the bfr mutant increased by 1.5- to 2-fold during the transition from logarithmic to stationary phase in iron-rich media, whereas the iron contents of the ftnA and ftnA bfr mutants remained unchanged. The ftnA and ftnA bfr mutants were growth impaired in iron-deficient media, but this was apparent only after the mutant and parental strains had been precultured in iron-rich media. Surprisingly, ferric iron uptake regulation (fur) mutants also had very low iron contents (2.5-fold less iron than Fur+ strains) despite constitutive expression of the iron acquisition systems. The iron deficiencies of the ftnA and fur mutants were confirmed by Mossbauer spectroscopy, which further showed that the low iron contents of ftnA mutants are due to a lack of magnetically ordered ferric iron clusters likely to correspond to FtnA iron cores. In combination with the fur mutation, ftnA and bfr mutations produced an enhanced sensitivity to hydroperoxides, presumably due to an increase in production of "reactive ferrous iron." It is concluded that FtnA acts as an iron store accommodating up to 50% of the cellular iron during postexponential growth in iron-rich media and providing a source of iron that partially compensates for iron deficiency during iron-restricted growth. In addition to repressing the iron acquisition systems, Fur appears to regulate the demand for iron, probably by controlling the expression of iron-containing proteins. The role of Bfr remains unclear.  (+info)

Analysis of 4-phosphopantetheinylation of polyhydroxybutyrate synthase from Ralstonia eutropha: generation of beta-alanine auxotrophic Tn5 mutants and cloning of the panD gene region. (7/17643)

The postulated posttranslational modification of the polyhydroxybutyrate (PHA) synthase from Ralstonia eutropha by 4-phosphopantetheine was investigated. Four beta-alanine auxotrophic Tn5-induced mutants of R. eutropha HF39 were isolated, and two insertions were mapped in an open reading frame with strong similarity to the panD gene from Escherichia coli, encoding L-aspartate-1-decarboxylase (EC, whereas two other insertions were mapped in an open reading frame (ORF) with strong similarity to the NAD(P)+ transhydrogenase (EC alpha 1 subunit, encoded by the pntAA gene from Escherichia coli. The panD gene was cloned by complementation of the panD mutant of R. eutropha Q20. DNA sequencing of the panD gene region (3,312 bp) revealed an ORF of 365 bp, encoding a protein with 63 and 67% amino acid sequence similarity to PanD from E. coli and Bacillus subtilis, respectively. Subcloning of only this ORF into vectors pBBR1MCS-3 and pBluescript KS- led to complementation of the panD mutants of R. eutropha and E. coli SJ16, respectively. panD-encoded L-aspartate-1-decarboxylase was further confirmed by an enzymatic assay. Upstream of panD, an ORF with strong similarity to pntAA from E. coli, encoding NAD(P)+ transhydrogenase subunit alpha 1 was found; downstream of panD, two ORFs with strong similarity to pntAB and pntB, encoding subunits alpha 2 and beta of the NAD(P)+ transhydrogenase, respectively, were identified. Thus, a hitherto undetermined organization of pan and pnt genes was found in R. eutropha. Labeling experiments using one of the R. eutropha panD mutants and [2-14C]beta-alanine provided no evidence that R. eutropha PHA synthase is covalently modified by posttranslational attachment of 4-phosphopantetheine, nor did the E. coli panD mutant exhibit detectable labeling of functional PHA synthase from R. eutropha.  (+info)

A novel reduced flavin mononucleotide-dependent methanesulfonate sulfonatase encoded by the sulfur-regulated msu operon of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (8/17643)

When Pseudomonas aeruginosa is grown with organosulfur compounds as sulfur sources, it synthesizes a set of proteins whose synthesis is repressed in the presence of sulfate, cysteine, or thiocyanate (so-called sulfate starvation-induced proteins). The gene encoding one of these proteins, PA13, was isolated from a cosmid library of P. aeruginosa PAO1 and sequenced. It encoded a 381-amino-acid protein that was related to several reduced flavin mononucleotide (FMNH2)-dependent monooxygenases, and it was the second in an operon of three genes, which we have named msuEDC. The MsuD protein catalyzed the desulfonation of alkanesulfonates, requiring oxygen and FMNH2 for the reaction, and showed highest activity with methanesulfonate. MsuE was an NADH-dependent flavin mononucleotide (FMN) reductase, which provided reduced FMN for the MsuD enzyme. Expression of the msu operon was analyzed with a transcriptional msuD::xylE fusion and was found to be repressed in the presence of sulfate, sulfite, sulfide, or cysteine and derepressed during growth with methionine or alkanesulfonates. Growth with methanesulfonate required an intact cysB gene, and the msu operon is therefore part of the cys regulon, since sulfite utilization was found to be CysB independent in this species. Measurements of msuD::xylE expression in cysN and cysI genetic backgrounds showed that sulfate, sulfite, and sulfide or cysteine play independent roles in negatively regulating msu expression, and sulfonate utilization therefore appears to be tightly regulated.  (+info)

You searched for: Journal Theoretical and applied genetics Remove constraint Journal: Theoretical and applied genetics Source 1990 v.80 no.3 Remove constraint Source: 1990 v.80 no.3 Subject DNA Remove constraint Subject: DNA Subject restriction mapping Remove constraint Subject: restriction mapping ...
Rat kallikrein-binding protein is a novel serine-proteinase inhibitor that forms a covalent complex with tissue kallikrein. We have purified rat kallikrein-binding protein and cloned the cDNA and the gene encoding rat kallikrein-binding protein [Chao, Chai, Chen, Xiong, Chao, Woodley-Miller, Wang, Lu and Chao (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 16394-16401; Chai, Ma, Murray, Chao and Chao (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 16029-16036]. In the present study, we have expressed rat kallikrein-binding protein in Escherichia coli with a T7-polymerase/promoter expression system. A high level of expression was detected by an e.l.i.s.a. with an average of 24.2 mg of recombinant rat kallikrein-binding protein per 1 of culture. The recombinant protein appeared as a major protein in a crude extract of Escherichia coli on SDS/PAGE. It showed a molecular mass of 43 kDa and was recognized by polyclonal antibody to the native rat kallikrein-binding protein in Western-blot analysis. The recombinant rat kallikrein-binding ...
Linear) (Six-base) MAPSORT of: KIEE0945.seq Check: 8372 from: 1 to: 1050 KIEE0945.orf With 182 enzymes: SgfI * April 24, 2009 13:19 .. AcuI CTGAAGnnnnnnnnnnnnnn_nn Cuts at: 0 162 271 645 1050 Size: 162 109 374 405 Fragments arranged by size: 405 374 162 109 AflIII ACryG_T Cuts at: 0 396 518 1050 Size: 396 122 532 Fragments arranged by size: 532 396 122 AlfI GCAnnnnnnTGCnnnnnnnnnn_nn Cuts at: 0 329 1050 Size: 329 721 AloI GAACnnnnnnTCCnnnnnnn_nnnnn Cuts at: 0 694 726 1050 Size: 694 32 324 Fragments arranged by size: 694 324 32 AlwNI CAG_nnnCTG Cuts at: 0 375 645 1050 Size: 375 270 405 Fragments arranged by size: 405 375 270 AseI ATTA_AT Cuts at: 0 566 1050 Size: 566 484 AvaI CyCGr_G Cuts at: 0 41 1050 Size: 41 1009 BanI GGyrC_C Cuts at: 0 48 1050 Size: 48 1002 BbsI GAAGACnnnnnn_ Cuts at: 0 634 1050 Size: 634 416 BciVI GTATCCnnnnn_n Cuts at: 0 999 1050 Size: 999 51 BclI TGATC_A Cuts at: 0 74 1050 Size: 74 976 BglI GCCn_nnnnGGC Cuts at: 0 590 1050 Size: 590 460 Bme1580I G_kGCmC Cuts ...
Linear) (Six-base) MAPSORT of: KIAA0030.seq Check: 2035 from: 1 to: 2712 KIAA0030.orf With 182 enzymes: SgfI * March 3, 2008 10:54 .. AarI CACCTGCnnnnnnnn_ Cuts at: 0 869 2517 2712 Size: 869 1648 195 Fragments arranged by size: 1648 869 195 AatII G_ACGTC Cuts at: 0 2372 2712 Size: 2372 340 AccI GTmk_AC Cuts at: 0 620 2712 Size: 620 2092 AcuI CTGAAGnnnnnnnnnnnnnn_nn Cuts at: 0 2179 2527 2640 2712 Size: 2179 348 113 72 Fragments arranged by size: 2179 348 113 72 AfeI AGCGCT Cuts at: 0 2100 2712 Size: 2100 612 AflIII ACryG_T Cuts at: 0 662 2123 2712 Size: 662 1461 589 Fragments arranged by size: 1461 662 589 AhdI GACnn_nnnGTC Cuts at: 0 320 2712 Size: 320 2392 AlfI GCAnnnnnnTGCnnnnnnnnnn_nn Cuts at: 0 2359 2712 Size: 2359 353 ApaI G_GGCCC Cuts at: 0 185 571 1725 2559 2712 Size: 185 386 1154 834 153 Fragments arranged by size: 1154 834 386 185 153 ApoI rAATT_y Cuts at: 0 1762 2712 Size: 1762 950 AvrII CCTAG_G Cuts at: 0 168 2712 Size: 168 2544 BaeI ACnnnnGTAyCnnnnnnn_nnnnn Cuts at: 0 ... - Mechelle Someones Knocking (Jul 15, 2014) 103 images totaling 74M Download set with the VG-Ripper K2S | RG | TF | UL - Sonny Twister Time With Sonny (Jul 25, 2014) 106 images totaling 63M Download set with the VG-Ripper K2S | RG | TF | UL
CiteWeb id: 19830000003. CiteWeb score: 27848. DOI: 10.1016/0003-2697(83)90418-9. A technique for conveniently radiolabeling DNA restriction endonuclease fragments to high specific activity is described. DNA fragments are purified from agarose gels directly by ethanol precipitation and are then denatured and labeled with the large fragment of DNA polymerase I, using random oligonucleotides as primers. Over 70% of the precursor triphosphate is routinely incorporated into complementary DNA, and specific activities of over 109 dpm/μg of DNA can be obtained using relatively small amounts of precursor. These oligolabeled DNA fragments serve as efficient probes in filter hybridization experiments.. Links: ...
Restriction mapping of HPV6BV cloned from Chinese women with 14 enzymes was established and compared with that of HPV6b from West Germany and different subtypes of HPV6 reported by foreign reseaehers to find the differences.
What I am confused by though, is the 1/2 and 1/4 component of the answer given. Can anyone give me a breakdown of that please ...
Restriction landmark genomic scanning (RLGS) has been used to study aberrant CpG island methylation in cancer for more than ten years. This approach remains one of the most reliable ways to characterize CpG island hypermethylation in cancer and has been used both to characterize differences in aberrant methylation phenotypes and also to identify tumor suppressor genes. Not only have known tumor suppressor genes like Cdkn2a (p16), Itga4 (α 4-integrin) [1], and Igfbp7 [2] been identified as targets of aberrant methylation in cancer by RLGS, but also novel tumor suppressor genes such as TCF21 [3], SLC5A8 [4], ID4 [5], BMP3B [6], and SOCS1 [7] have been identified by RLGS.. RLGS is a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis method [8] that allows detection of DNA methylation if a methylation sensitive landmark enzyme such as NotI is used. Up to 2,000 end-labeled landmark sites are displayed in a single RLGS profile. The labeling of the sites is based on incorporation of radionucleotides into the NotI ...
A restriction map is a map of known restriction sites within a sequence of DNA. Restriction mapping requires the use of restriction enzymes. In molecular biology, restriction maps are used as a reference to engineer plasmids or other relatively short pieces of DNA, and sometimes for longer genomic DNA. There are other ways of mapping features on DNA for longer length DNA molecules, such as mapping by transduction. One approach in constructing a restriction map of a DNA molecule is to sequence the whole molecule and to run the sequence through a computer program that will find the recognition sites that are present for every restriction enzyme known. Before sequencing was automated, it would have been prohibitively expensive to sequence an entire DNA strand. To find the relative positions of restriction sites on a plasmid, a technique involving single and double restriction digests is used. Based on the sizes of the resultant DNA fragments the positions of the sites can be inferred. Restriction ...
Plasmid pPSU1 from Dr. Song Tans lab contains the inserts 500 bp EcoRV fragment, 1000 bp EcoRV fragment, 1500 bp EcoRV fragment, 2000 bp EcoRV fragment, 500 bp PstI fragment, 700 bp PstI fragment, 800 bp PstI fragment, 900 bp PstI fragment, 1000 bp PstI fragment, and 2000 bp PstI fragment and is published in Sci Rep. 2017 May 26;7(1):2438. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-02693-1. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
Purchase Recombinant Saccharopolyspora erythraea Alanine--tRNA ligase(alaS) ,partial. It is produced in Yeast. High purity. Good price.
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Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an autosomal dominant disorder with a high penetrance characterized by tumors of the parathyroid glands, the endocrine pancreas, and the anterior pituitary. The MEN1 gene, a putative tumor suppressor gene, has been mapped to a 3- to 8-cM region in chromosome 11q13 but it remains elusive as yet. We have combined the efforts and resources from four laboratories to form the European Consortium on MEN1 with the aims of establishing the genetic and the physical maps of 11q13 and of further narrowing the MEN1 region. A 5-Mb integrated map of the region was established by fluorescence in situ hybridization on both metaphase chromosomes and DNA fibers, by hybridization to DNA from somatic cell hybrids containing various parts of human chromosome 11, by long-range restriction mapping, and by characterization of YACs and cosmids. Polymorphic markers were positioned and ordered by physical mapping and genetic linkage in 86 MEN1 families with 452 affected individuals.
Research groupsGene regulation and morphogenesis Genetics and functional genomics of genes with small open reading frames Dr Juan Pablo ..
Research groupsGene regulation and morphogenesis Genetics and functional genomics of genes with small open reading frames Dr Juan Pablo ..
Hi All, I am in trouble. I am developing an algorithm for restriction enzyme analysis but it is taking too long. The reason is because there are so many degenerate bases in the DNA sequence and thus it takes very long to analyze for all of them considering the possible combiantions they make. All the more the recognition sequence also have degenerate bases. Is there anybody out there to help me optimize the algorithm? Yes, there is. So thanking in advance to all those who respond. Ravi Gupta. Research Scholar DA University, M.P., India. -----------== Posted via Deja News, The Discussion Network ==---------- Search, Read, Discuss, or Start Your Own ...
Restriction Digest Protocol, Principle, result. restriction enzyme digestion. restriction digestion principle. restriction digest time
This chapter summarizes the recent findings of bacterial genomics and comments on the themes and trends which are emerging. A variety of techniques and methods are available to construct physical maps, and those most commonly employed involve pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of macrorestriction fragments generated by digesting intact genomic DNA, immobilized in agarose plugs, with rare-cutting enzymes. Hybridization techniques are often used to construct a map and to deduce the positions of genetic markers. In recent years significant effort has been devoted to developing direct-mapping techniques for large DNA molecules that do not require gel electrophoresis. Among the more promising of these are two new methods known as DNA combing and optical mapping, both of which make use of fluorescence microscopy and image analysis to visualize single DNA molecules. Overall, bacterial genomes range in size from about 0.6 to 9.4 Mb. In a recent review, it was suggested that there may be a relationship
Genomic organization, chromosomal mapping, nucleotide sequence, and predicted amino acid sequence of the murine MCP-5 gene. (A) Partial restriction map and ge
The SageELF is an electrophoresis system that separates DNA or protein samples by size, and then fractionates the whole sample, or section of sample, into 12 fractions. The system is equipped with pulsed-field electrophoresis for resolving large DNA.. Fractionation ranges are estimated and adjusted in software, and fractions are collected in buffer. One sample is fractionated on a single precast agarose cassette, and one or two cassettes may be processed at one time.. Benefits of the SageELF System: ...
Thanks kashonal for asking..yes, the enzymes are ok. fortunately i was able to digest my plasmids now. However i wasnt able to figure out where my mistake was in my previous 2 tries ...
View Notes - lab Write-up from ENGLISH 1011 at Berkeley. Jacob Zipperstein H. Bio Med January 28, 2009 Title: DNA Restriction Analysis (Lambda DNA) Purpose: The purpose of this lab is to analyze
Restriction digestion troubleshooting - posted in Molecular Cloning: Hello all! I am trying to cut my vector with XhoI and SpeI. I setup a digestion reaction like this: 3.3 ul template (1ug) 2 ul 10x NEB Buffer 4 2 ul 10x BSA (I prepared this by diluting 100x stock in water, not 1X buffer) 1ul XhoI 1ul SpeI 11.7 ul H20 Incubation 37 C for 1h, inactivation 65 C for 20 min. Then I run on a gel the cut and uncut vector. In each lane, I got two top bands that were quite faint, defin...
Cosmid clones containing alpha 1-antitrypsin (alpha 1AT) gene sequences were observed to contain alpha 1AT-like sequences approximately 12 kb downstream of the authentic alpha 1AT gene. Restriction mapping suggested the alpha 1AT-like gene lacks promoter sequences. Cosmid clones from one library con …
A BioBrick is a sequence of DNA with a predefined structure and function. This payload is held in a circular plasmid, which is an isolated, circular piece of DNA that can replicate in bacteria. BioBricks™ are created with the intention of being easily joined and manipulated. In order for this to be possible, the BioBrick™ assembly standard requires the use of defined prefix and suffix sequences (flanking both sides of the BioBrick) that contain specific restriction endonuclease sites. These sites are called EcoRI, NotI and XbaI in the upstream, and SpeI, NotI, and PstI in the downstream. Naturally, the parts must also be engineered such that these sites are not present in the functional region of the sequence.[3] Cutting the BioBrick at specific restriction sites (using restriction enzymes) is what gives a BioBrick its interlocking ends. The end of one BioBrick can then be connected, or ligated, together with the end of another BioBrick, allowing you to effectively string together ...
A BioBrick is a sequence of DNA with a predefined structure and function. This payload is held in a circular plasmid, which is an isolated, circular piece of DNA that can replicate in bacteria. BioBricks™ are created with the intention of being easily joined and manipulated. In order for this to be possible, the BioBrick™ assembly standard requires the use of defined prefix and suffix sequences (flanking both sides of the BioBrick) that contain specific restriction endonuclease sites. These sites are called EcoRI, NotI and XbaI in the upstream, and SpeI, NotI, and PstI in the downstream. Naturally, the parts must also be engineered such that these sites are not present in the functional region of the sequence[3]. Cutting the BioBrick at specific restriction sites (using restriction enzymes) is what gives a BioBrick its interlocking ends. The end of one BioBrick can then be connected, or ligated, together with the end of another BioBrick, allowing you to effectively string together ...
Qui presentiamo lassemblaggio di chimera mediante il recupero del plasmide e linserimento del sito enzimatico di restrizione ...
Hier präsentieren wir die Chimären-Assemblierung durch Plasmid-Wiedergewinnung und Restriktionsenzym-Insertion (CAPRRESI), ein...
A genomic library is a collection of bacteria which have been genetically engineered to hold the entire DNA of an organism. This...
thanks a lot I understood little bit , but in my case as told to me that the ordered nucleotide sequence will be incoroporated with the plasmid and then i have to to subclone it into E.coli TOF competent cell and then i have to plate it select for the colonies and then do the mini prep to get the plasmid and then I have to do the pcr... I really didnt understand How can I do the pcr with the plasmid (Although my gene of intreset in there). but my question is if i do by this process and I do the pcr Should I get the band on 1,4kb AND THEN I EXCISE IT AND CARRYOUT MY FURTHER PROCESS: IF i am right kindly tell me or wrong please guide me with your answer. I would be highly obliged to you, I am unableto understnd this concept ...
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Molecular Cloning, also known as Maniatis, has served as the foundation of technical expertise in labs worldwide for 30 years. No other manual has been so popular, or so influential.
The OT-XL is an open top tool bag. Its the perfect king-sized, all-purpose tool storage bag for those fill ´em up and go situations.
Expression In Bacteria Of Beta-Galactosidase Fusion Proteins Carrying Antigenic Determinants Of The 2 X-Gene Products Of Bovine Leukemia- ...
Wardell, JN, Stocks, SM, Thomas, CR and Bushell, ME (2002) Decreasing the hyphal branching rate of Saccharopolyspora erythraea NRRL 2338 leads to increased resistance to breakage and increased antibiotic production ...
(KudoZ) English to Polish translation of complete open reading frame of a cDNA molecule: otwarta ramka odczytu (cząsteczki cDNA) [Medical].
Plasmid Construction. The pGL3-promoter and pGL3-basic plasmids were purchased from Promega. The pL6 plasmid was generated by ligation of the 1.3-kb KpnI and XhoI (-1326 to +1; the translation start site was designated as +1) DNA fragment of mouse MOR into the polylinker sites of a promoterless luciferase vector, pGL3-basic (Promega, Madison, WI). The sequence of the insertion was confirmed by sequencing. The DNA fragment flanking the poly (A) site was generated by PCR from mouse genomic DNA with a pair of primers (sense, 5′-AATAGGCCGGCCGCATTAGGAGCATTGCTGAG-3′; antisense, 5′-ACGCGTCGACCCTAACTCTGGGATGGCAAG-3′; the underlined nucleotides indicate the overhanging restriction enzyme sites for FseI and SalI, respectively). The pL6PA and pGL3pPA plasmids were constructed by subcloning this DNA fragment after digestion with FseI and SalI into pL6 and pGL3-promoter plasmid, respectively. The pL6 and pGL3-promoter plasmids also have been digested by FseI and SalI, to replace the original SV40 ...
Edvotek. Analysis of Eco RI Cleavage Patterns of Lambda DNAThis experiment introduces the use of restriction enzymes as a tool to digest DNA at specific nucleotide sequences. …
Nucleic acids from ATCC Genuine Cultures can save you the time and expense of isolating DNA yourself. ATCC offers genomic DNA from well-characterized and authenticated fungal and yeast strains.
Nucleic acids from ATCC Genuine Cultures can save you the time and expense of isolating DNA yourself. ATCC offers genomic DNA from well-characterized and authenticated fungal and yeast strains.
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
DNA restriction is a technique often useful in DNA fingerprinting. DNA restriction basically implies that there is a cut or cleavage of a particular DNA molecule.
Study Flashcards On restriction enzymes/plasmids at Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. makes it easy to get the grade you want!
Hoo boy, thats ugly. But it seems to work, and the tabs at the top are sorta nice - you can separate feeds by category. (Not sure Simpy plays nice with that - its supposed to, but…) Oh, and theres a minimum width otherwise you get side-scrolling, dont like that ...
You can take anything you find here, provided I made it myself and have not included it under someone elses terms, and do anything you want with it. You can do things I dont like, you can make money and not give me any, you can attribute the work to me or not, and you can tell me what youre up to or not, as you choose. You dont have to ask first ...
Rescue of the ABI3 coding region into a Gateway Entry vector. (A) Schematic diagram showing the location of primers and restriction enzyme sites used for analys
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A restriction map is a map of known restriction sites within a sequence of DNA. Restriction mapping requires the use of ... such as mapping by transduction. One approach in constructing a restriction map of a DNA molecule is to sequence the whole ... Restriction mapping is a very useful technique when used for determining the orientation of an insert in a cloning vector, by ... In molecular biology, restriction maps are used as a reference to engineer plasmids or other relatively short pieces of DNA, ...
... is an alternative genomic mapping technique to short-range, also called fine-scale mapping. Both ... The formation of a long-range restriction map is similar to a short-range map, but there is an increase in experimental ... These restriction sites are an integral component to the formation of long-range mapping. Genetic linkage data can be combined ... These types of restriction maps can provide insight into the identification of genes in many disorders, eventually increasing ...
... and those with altered restriction sites will not be cut and will generate only a single band. A DNA map by restriction digest ... a restriction enzyme EcoRI - a restriction enzyme HindIII - a restriction enzyme Homing endonuclease List of homing ... Cooper S (2003). "Restriction Map". University of Wisconsin. Retrieved 10 May 2021. Pingoud A, Jeltsch A ( ... The restriction enzymes studied by Arber and Meselson were type I restriction enzymes, which cleave DNA randomly away from the ...
Anantharaman TS, Mishra B, Schwartz D (1997). "Genomics via optical mapping. II: Ordered restriction maps". J Comput Biol. 4 (2 ... Anantharaman T, Mishra B, Schwartz D (1999). "Genomics via optical mapping. III: Contiging genomic DNA". Proc Int Conf Intell ... into the field of biostatistics and the application of Bayesian methods to the analysis of single molecule Optical Mapping ...
"Restriction on maps in India". 3 December 2010.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link) Chaudhary, Swapnil (17 February 2021 ... Open Series Map (OSM): new map numbering system introduced as per the National Map Policy of 2005 by Survey of India. India and ... Dean, Riaz (2019). Mapping The Great Game: Explorers, Spies & Maps in Nineteenth-century Asia. Oxford: Casemate (UK). pp. 72-83 ... Many other rules govern the sale and use of Survey of India maps. Only an Indian citizen may purchase topographic maps and ...
... description & restriction map Louro, Ricardo O.; Crichton, Robert R. (2013). Practical approaches to biological inorganic ... providing for many restriction endonucleases restriction sites. In addition to β-galactosidase, pUC19 also encodes for an ... However, due to the presence of MCS and several restriction sites, a foreign piece of DNA of choice can be introduced into it ... The recognition sites for HindIII, SphI, PstI, SalI, XbaI, BamHI, SmaI, KpnI, SacI and EcoRI restriction enzymes have been ...
... {1953- }, Gwulo, 10 May 2019 Google (August 7, 2013). "Route Twisk Restrictions" (Map). Google Maps. Google. ... Route map: KML file (edit • help) Template:Attached KML/Route Twisk KML is from Wikidata CentaLink map of Route Twisk ( ... List of streets and roads in Hong Kong Google (August 6, 2013). "Route Twisk" (Map). Google Maps. Google. Retrieved August 6, ... incorrectly labelled Tsuen Kam Road; the correct English name is shown if the map is zoomed in) (Articles with short ...
Rowland GC, Lim PP, Glass RE (July 1992). "'Stop-codon-specific' restriction endonucleases: their use in mapping and gene ... This article contains a list of the most studied restriction enzymes whose names start with Ba to Bc inclusive. It contains ... Schildkraut I, Lynch J, Morgan R (July 1987). "The cleavage site for the restriction endonucleases BanI and HgiC I is 5' ...G ... Ueno H, Kato I, Ishino Y (June 1996). "Cloning and expression of the BalI restriction-modification system". Nucleic Acids Res. ...
"Destination and Travel Restrictions Map , Delta Air Lines". "Southwest Airlines Intends to Serve Fresno and Santa Barbara". ... "Route maps , Alaska Airlines". "Buy Now! Southwest Airlines Service In Fresno & Santa Barbara To Begin In April 2021 With One- ... 1985 Connectair route map, December 1, 1968 Cable Commuter Airlines system timetable http://www. ..., July 1, 1984 Pacific Coast Airlines route map ...
"pBluescript II KS(+/−), pBluescript II SK(+/−): description & restriction map". Fermentas. Archived from the original on 19 ...
doi:10.1111/j.1574-6968.1990.tb04189.x. Labidi, A.; David, H.L.; Roulland-Dussoix, D. (1985). "Restriction endonuclease mapping ... Boyer, H.; Scibienski, E.; Slocum, H.; Roulland-Dussoix, D. (1971). "The in vitro restriction of the replicative form of W.T. ... She was one of the discoverers of restriction enzymes during her doctoral studies. There is controversy over whether she should ... Boyer, H.W; Roulland-Dussoix, D. (1969). "A complementation analysis of the restriction and modification of DNA in Escherichia ...
Plasmid Restriction map Vector (molecular biology) CGView Dong, X; Stothard P; Forsythe IJ; Wishart DS (July 2004). "PlasMapper ... It is a particularly useful online service for molecular biologists wishing to generate plasmid maps without having to purchase ... restriction sites, reporter genes, affinity tags, selectable marker genes, origins of replication and open reading frames. ... a web server for drawing and auto-annotating plasmid maps". Nucleic Acids Research. 32 (Web Server issue): W660-4. doi:10.1093/ ...
This restriction mapping sets up a fundamental correspondence: Theorem. Suppose G acts on X transitively with quasi-invariant ... In that case, each such measure is the image of (a totally finite version) of Haar measure on X by the map g ↦ g ⋅ x 0 . {\ ... We would like to show that there is actually a mapping on representations which corresponds to this relation. For finite groups ... We can write down explicit formulas for these representations by describing the restrictions to N and H. Case 1. The ...
"CER maps out electricity price restrictions". April 21, 2010. "Energy prices will not decrease dramaticaly, says ...
He continued work on the phylogeny of Clarkia, using restriction site mapping of chloroplast DNA and then in 1996 Ford and ... restriction site mapping of chloroplast DNA". Systematic Botany. 15 (2): 280-295. doi:10.2307/2419184. JSTOR 2419184. Lee, J.; ... It wasn't until 1986 that he applied a newer molecular technique: chloroplast DNA variation using Restriction fragment length ...
Jalel l'apiculteur [Retrieved 2011-12-20] "Restriction Maps". Archived from the original on 2015-11- ... cleavage maps obtained through the use of restriction enzymes showed that the Spanish honey bee contains mtDNA (mitochondrial ...
Rowland GC, Lim PP, Glass RE (July 1992). "'Stop-codon-specific' restriction endonucleases: their use in mapping and gene ... REBASE Number: Number used to identify restriction enzymes in the REBASE restriction enzyme database. This database includes ... This article contains a list of restriction enzymes whose names start with A and have a clearly defined cutting site. The ... Dou D, Inagati K, Kita K, Ohshima A, Hiraoka N, Kishimoto N, Sugio T, Tano T (September 1989). "Restriction endonuclease AfaI ...
... high-resolution restriction maps from single, stained molecules of DNA, called "optical maps". By mapping the location of ... Initially, the optical mapping system has been used to construct whole-genome restriction maps of bacteria, parasites, and ... "Ordered Restriction Maps of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Chromosomes Constructed by Optical Mapping." Science 262.5130 (1993): 110- ... whereas the order needs to be reconstructed using restriction mapping. In addition, since maps are constructed directly from ...
... restriction endonuclease recognition sequence and its cleavage map of SV40 DNA". Biochemistry. 15: 3612- ... "A physical map of human Alu repeats cleavage by restriction endonucleases". BMC Genomics. 9: 305. doi:10.1186/1471-2164-9-305. ... The restriction site Alu-I itself is a 4-base cutter: AG/CT. The Alu retrotransposon is named after the bacterium's ... The restriction endonuclease cleaves SV40 form I DNA into 32 fragments, this is quite unusual since most others cleave much ...
The size of restriction fragments determines the resolution of interaction mapping. Restriction enzymes (REs) that make cuts on ... The contact map value at each coordinate will be the true signal at that position times bias associated with the two contact ... There are two major ways of normalizing raw Hi-C contact heat maps. The first way is to assume equal visibility, meaning there ... Therefore, the true signal of a Hi-C contact map should be a balanced matrix (Balanced matrix has constant row sums and column ...
Orientation of the clones is determined by restriction mapping of the clones. Thus, new chromosomal regions present in the ... To put it another way, it's utilized to find, isolate, and clone a specific sequence existing near the gene to be mapped. ... After screening, the clone is overlapped with the probe and overlapping fragments are mapped. These fragments are then used as ...
Pesticide Action Network map of Lindane bans and restrictions. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007- ...
Kenny, Aisling (1 May 2020). "Taoiseach addresses nation on road map to ease restrictions". RTÉ News and Current Affairs. ... O'Brien, Carl (19 October 2020). "Covid-19: Schools and colleges to remain open during Level 5 restrictions". The Irish Times. ... Bray, Jennifer; Burns, Sarah; Power, Jack; Hilliard, Mark (30 December 2020). "Level 5 restrictions to remain in place until ... Ryan, Philip; Sheahan, Fionnán; Lynott, Laura (30 December 2020). "Covid restrictions Ireland: Micheál Martin confirms 'full- ...
Kenny, Aisling (1 May 2020). "Taoiseach addresses nation on road map to ease restrictions". RTÉ News and Current Affairs. ... "The Covid-19 restrictions being lifted from Monday". RTÉ News and Current Affairs. 15 May 2020. Retrieved 22 June 2020. Thomas ... The Government of Ireland confirmed that phase one of easing the COVID-19 restrictions would begin on Monday 18 May. Among the ... Farrell, Peter (1 May 2020). "At a glance: What restrictions are going to be lifted and when?". RTÉ News and Current Affairs. ...
"Internet Censorship 2020: A Global Map of Internet Restrictions". Comparitech. 2020-01-15. Retrieved 2020-10-29. "Boliva: anti- ...
Botstein, D.; White, R.; Skolnick, M.; Davis, R. (1980). "Construction of a genetic linkage map in man using restriction ... Davis proposed a method for constructing a genetic linkage map using restriction fragment length polymorphisms that was used in ... The Daily Princetonian - Mapping the path of genetics Botstein, David (1967). The Synthesis and Maturation of Phage-P22 DNA ( ... "The Daily Princetonian - Mapping the path of genetics". Archived from the original on October 20, 2006. Retrieved October 19, ...
In 2012 mass assignment on Ruby on Rails allowed bypassing of mapping restrictions and resulted in proof of concept injection ... In ASP.NET Core mapping restriction can be declared using the [BindNever] attribute. Data transfer object (DTO) "CWE-915: ... Many web application frameworks offer an active record and object-relational mapping features, where external data in ...
Wang D, Fang H, Cantor CR, Smith CL (April 1992). "A contiguous Not I restriction map of band q22.3 of human chromosome 21". ... Moreover, the PFKL gene maps to the triplicated region of chromosome 21 responsible for DS, indicating that this gene, too, has ... The interactive pathway map can be edited at WikiPathways: "GlycolysisGluconeogenesis_WP534". Model organisms have been used in ... "Functional proteomics mapping of a human signaling pathway". Genome Research. 14 (7): 1324-32. doi:10.1101/gr.2334104. PMC ...
Restriction mapping, Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), and Sequence tagged site (STS) mapping. Restriction mapping is a ... Two approaches to generating gene maps include physical mapping and genetic mapping. Physical mapping utilizes molecular ... The basis to restriction mapping involves digesting (or cutting) DNA with restriction enzymes. The digested DNA fragments are ... Generating a gene map is the critical first step towards identifying disease genes. Gene maps allow for variant alleles to be ...
His highest cited paper is "Construction of a genetic linkage map in man using restriction fragment length polymorphisms" at ... Finally, Skolnick and his group developed a method called Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms (RFLPs) for genetic mapping ... "Construction of a genetic linkage map in man using restriction fragment length polymorphisms". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 32 (3): 314- ... After that point on his group focused on this technique and started to map and clone genes that caused diseases. The first gene ...
Urban Mapping, Inc. Retrieved 9 March 2013. "Researching Residence Parks". SF West History. 10 (4). Oct-Dec 2014. Echeverria, ... The neighborhood was an early adopter of zoning restrictions, including single-family zoning to ban apartment buildings and ... Pages using infobox settlement with no map, Pages using infobox settlement with no coordinates, Coordinates on Wikidata, ...
While tobacco products are not prohibited, there are some restrictions that exist on the sale of tobacco products. E-cigarettes ... Li, Cheng (2012-10-25). "The Political Mapping of China's Tobacco Industry and Anti-Smoking Campaign". Brookings. Retrieved ... While tobacco products are not prohibited, there are some restrictions that exist on the manufacture, importation, and sale of ... The FCTC encourages states to reduce tobacco production and use through measures like cigarette taxes, restrictions on ...
The size restriction seems to have less to do with structural impediment caused by the added section and more to do with the ... Users can use three dimensional structure of a protein and the peptides selected from phage display experiment to map ... Explanation of "Protein interaction mapping" from The Wellcome Trust Lunder M, Bratkovic T, Doljak B, Kreft S, Urleb U, ... characterize small molecules-protein interactions and map protein-protein interactions. ...
... with which toll restriction features could easily be programmed. Today, Hutteries widely use telephones for both business and ... "This map of Hutterite colonies shows evolution at work". Retrieved April 3, 2022 - via ...
Despite this restriction, the funicular was timed to connect with the main line trains, which operate every half-hour on ... cite web}}: Missing or empty ,title= (help) Photographic description and map of the line from Trens de Catalunya (in Catalan) ...
A news report after a year of the communication blackout and subsequent restriction on high-speed internet highlighted that it ... Mapping Consensus in Ethical and Rights-Based Approaches to Principles for AI". SSRN Electronic Journal. doi:10.2139/ssrn. ...
... then so too are its restrictions. However, the transitive closure of a restriction is a subset of the restriction of the ... Essentially, the various types of semiheaps appear whenever we consider binary relations (and partial one-one mappings) between ... On the other hand, the transitive closure of "is parent of" is "is ancestor of"; its restriction to females does relate a woman ... Also, the various concepts of completeness (not to be confused with being "total") do not carry over to restrictions. For ...
The Irish restriction was given effect by the twenty-seventh amendment to the Irish Constitution in 2004. The position in UK ... "NI election results 2022: The assembly poll in maps and charts". BBC News. 8 May 2022. Retrieved 9 May 2022. "countries within ... As in all of the UK, the economy of Northern Ireland was negatively impacted by the lockdowns and travel restrictions ... The county boundaries still appear on Ordnance Survey of Northern Ireland Maps and the Philip's Street Atlases, among others. ...
The restrictions were so inclusive that - while the Jews made up 20.4% of the student body in 1928 - by 1937 their share was ... All maps from Judaism: History, Belief, and Practice) Museum of the History of Polish Jews Virtual Shtetl The Polish Jews Home ... The new czar, Alexander III, blamed the Jews for the riots and issued a series of harsh restrictions on Jewish movements. ... Numerous restrictions and prohibitions targeting Jews were introduced and brutally enforced. For example, Jews were forbidden ...
The Kyiv Modern-ballet Theatre answered the lockdown restrictions of the pandemic period with the online production of The ... she developed the 3D mapping for the ballets Viy (2019) and The Little Prince (2020) and the continuum of added reality for The ...
It has a pair of big eyes, which allow him to scan different objects and project a map hologram. The team initially ... depending on whether the player abided by restrictions on the character's health (i.e. never recovered health or took any ... When requested, BD-1 will project the map hologram of the planet, showing players the location of the current objectives. Doors ...
Power consumption is 25 kW, and one of the tasks it was used for was the part of human genome mapping that China was ... O'Keeffe, Kate; Fitch, Asa (21 June 2019). "U.S. Targets China's Supercomputing Push With New Export Restrictions". The Wall ...
The restrictions on land prevent development from responding to housing and employment demands, which is an issue particularly ... "2020 CENSUS - SCHOOL DISTRICT REFERENCE MAP: Santa Cruz County, CA" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved July 25, 2022. - Text ... Short term rentals in particular have been a rising concern to local politicians, who have proposed parking restrictions to ... "California's 18th Congressional District - Representatives & District Map". Civic Impulse, LLC. Retrieved March 13, 2013. ...
Maryland State Highway Administration (2013). Maryland: Official Highway Map (Map) (2013-2014 ed.). Baltimore: Maryland State ... of Maryland towns near borders with other states became known as places to get married quickly and without many restrictions, ... on climate maps. As of the census of 2010, there were 15,443 people, 5,580 households, and 3,673 families living in the town. ...
In part this was due to restrictions placed on BEA by the British government on serving destinations further east than Cyprus, ... Screens had a moving-map system which provides real-time flight information such position and direction of the plane, altitude ...
S. Boyd, S. J. Kim, L. Vandenberghe, and A. Hassibi, A Tutorial on Geometric Programming v t e (Functions and mappings, All ... Posynomials are a special case of signomials, the latter not having the restriction that the c k {\displaystyle c_{k}} be ...
The state, with only minor changes, adopted all three maps from the Texas federal district court as the permanent maps in June ... "the Court has established that not only are the legacies of Jim Crow no longer a valid justification for proactive restrictions ... The Texas federal district court used the state-derived maps as a starting point and issued their new maps by February 2012. ... The state, defending its maps, issued an emergency request to the United States Supreme Court to reject the District Court maps ...
"A cladistic analysis of phenotypic associations with haplotypes inferred from restriction endonuclease mapping and DNA sequence ...
However, high-income users can always avoid the travel restrictions by owning a second car and users with relatively inelastic ... "Mobility, Access and Pricing Study (MAPS) Fact Sheet" (PDF). San Francisco County Transportation Authority. Retrieved 2010-06- ... A 2020 study that analyzed driving restrictions in Beijing estimated that the implementation of congestion pricing would reduce ... cite journal}}: Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) "Vehicle Restrictions. Limiting Automobile Travel At Certain Times and ...
These include the strategic extension of Jerusalem's municipal boundaries, bureaucratic and legal restrictions on Palestinian ... Mapping Out the Rapid Judaization of East Jerusalem (CS1 maint: unfit URL, Webarchive template wayback links, CS1: long volume ... The road map to nowhere: Israel/Palestine since 2003 (Illustrated ed.), Verso, ISBN 978-1-84467-076-5 Rejwan, Nissim (1998), ... bureaucratic and legal restrictions on Palestinian land use, disenfranchisement of Jerusalem residents, the expansion of ...
EMCDDA (2006), European Legal Map on Possession of cannabis for personal use Fazey, Cindy: A Growing Market: The Domestic ... They favored weak controls because existing restrictions on production and export had directly affected large segments of their ... a mapping of global supply, demand and needs" in Spivack D. (ed.) Feasibility Study on Opium Licensing in Afghanistan, Kabul, ... The Single Convention places the same restrictions on cannabis cultivation that it does on opium cultivation. Article 23 and ...
... restrictions on Jewish immigration and increased vigilance against illegal immigration. Part of the reason why the British ... underneath a hand holding a rifle in the foreground of a map showing both Mandatory Palestine and the Emirate of Transjordan ( ...
"2022 U.S. Map & Case Count". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 1 December 2022. "Puerto Rico confirma el ... harsh restrictions on everyday life in response to the COVID-19 pandemic while not encouraging similar restrictions in response ... "2022 Monkeypox Outbreak Global Map". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 24 November 2022. "Primer cas de ... Monkeypox outbreak - by the World Health Organization 2022 Monkeypox and Orthopoxvirus Outbreak Global Map - CDC Monkeypox ...
The exhibit featured upwards of 200 maps from around the world. William III and Mary II of England were the focus of a 1988 ... and No Restrictions - The Collection Cost Years of Effort". The New York Times. May 23, 1897. Retrieved June 1, 2012. Lynes, ... "Power of Maps Opens in IG". Annals of the Smithsonian Institution, 1994. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1994 ... "The Power of Maps", which was its first exhibition to be shown on the National Mall at the S. Dillon Ripley Gallery. ...
1957 Interactive Map of Frank Lloyd Wright Buildings, created in the Harvard WorldMap Platform Map of the Frank Lloyd Wright ... a design previously not possible due to the physical restrictions of gas lighting).[citation needed] In 1897, Wright received a ... works - Wikiartmap, the art map of the public space Fay Jones and Frank Lloyd Wright: Organic Architecture Comes to Arkansas ...
"No 'green restriction' for Metro on Mutha riverbed as NGT clears project". Hindustan Times. 4 August 2018. Retrieved 4 August ... It was decided that all the routes in the city would be underground, although the map and the details of phases showed elevated ... In July 2018, the Department of Defence of the MoD notified height restrictions in a six-kilometer radius of the National ... "Department of defence issues height restrictions, now 4 FSI along Pune Metro corridors not possible". Hindustan Times. 4 July ...
"Colonel Yule said he had for thirty or forty years looked with intense interest at the dark spot of Kafiristan on the map of ... To get around the restriction, McNair applied for a one-year leave in March 1883. On 9 April I was at Nowshera, where "by three ... William Lockhart, in the area in 1885-6, wrote, "the map . . . is all wrong. This Shawal is the furthest point reached by ... and was specially employed in the risky work of mapping the frontier line from Kohat to Bannu, including a wide strip of trans- ...
Messenger Rooms allows users to add up to 50 people per room, without restrictions on time. It does not require a Facebook ... Welch, Chris (4 June 2015). "Facebook Messenger now lets you send friends a map with your location". The Verge. Vox Media. ...
... and removed some restrictions from port mapping rules. In addition to IEEE standard 1164, several child standards were ... NOT1 port map (E, E_NOT); U1: AND2 port map (E, D, OUT_AND1); U2: AND2 port map (E_NOT, Q, OUT_AND2); U3: OR2 port map (OUT_ ... A final point is that when a VHDL model is translated into the "gates and wires" that are mapped onto a programmable logic ... Synthesis is a process where a VHDL is compiled and mapped into an implementation technology such as an FPGA or an ASIC. Not ...
"Town of Memerambi" (Map). Queensland Government. 1979. Archived from the original on 20 April 2022. Retrieved 20 April 2022. " ... State Library of Queensland This image is free of copyright restrictions. Australian Dictionary of Biography Archived 7 March ... "Parish of Wooroolin" (Map). Queensland Government. 1978. Archived from the original on 20 April 2022. Retrieved 20 April 2022 ... "Town map of Memerambi". Queensland Government. 1979. (Australian Statistical Geography Standard 2016 ID same as Wikidata, ...
The mtDNA of each species was analyzed using 17 restriction enzymes and restriction maps were built. A high level of ... Key words: Plebeia / stingless bee / mtDNA / rflp / restriction map Correspondence and reprints: Maria Cristina Arias e-mail: ... Mitochondrial DNA restriction and genomic maps of seven species of Melipona (Apidae: Meliponini) Apidologie 35, 365-370 (2004) ... Mitochondrial DNA characterization of five species of Plebeia (Apidae: Meliponini): RFLP and restriction maps Flávio de ...
Unit 19 Restrictions. Visit the Game Management Unit 19 Restrictions page. Regulations. View the regulations book entry for GMU ... Map of GMU 19. View high-resolution map of Unit 19 (PDF 318 kB) ... Note: Use of these maps indicates that you have read and ...
Restriction maps and restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the human 21-hydroxylase genes. Biochemical and Biophysical ... Restriction maps and restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the human 21-hydroxylase genes. In: Biochemical and ... Restriction maps and restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the human 21-hydroxylase genes. / Donohoue, Patricia A.; ... Donohoue, PA, Jospe, N, Migeon, CJ, McLean, RH, Bias, WB, White, PC & Van Dop, C 1986, Restriction maps and restriction ...
... with COVID-19 restrictions still in place across much of the country. ... Triple-A has published a COVID-19 Travel Restrictions interacive map to assist for vacation planning. Mobile user can click ... AAA offers interactive COVID-19 Travel Restriction Map. Published September 3, 2020. ... LAKE MARY, Fla. - Fewer Floridians will be traveling this Labor Day weekend, with COVID-19 restrictions still in place across ...
Fire Restrictions * Maps * EMAC * Avian Influenza * DHSEM Website * Boulder Fires and Straight Line Winds ...
Mapping tables do not have not null restriction for companyId column after an upgrade. ...
Many restrictions apply. Stay cautious. Not Allowed These markets do not allow short term rentals in residential zone areas for ... Search our boundary map with regulation data on thousands of zip codes and municipalities. Our data is constantly being updated ...
The result of the sequence analysis and the restriction map shows that an open reading frame of the carp growth hormone gene ...
Mapping of additional restriction enzyme cleavage sites on bacteriophage MB78 enzyme.. Authors: Murty, S S. Pandey, B. ... Mapping of additional restriction enzyme cleavage sites on bacteriophage MB78 enzyme. Journal of Biosciences. 1998 Jun; 23(2): ... The cleavage sites for a few more restriction endonucleasesli ke ApaI, AvaI, Bg/!, Hindlll, KpnI and XhoI have now been mapped ... A physical map of bacteriophage MB78 DNA indicating the cleavage sites for the enzyme Bg/II, ClaI, EcoRI, Pvull, Sa/! and SmaI ...
Calculation of Restriction Map *equivariant-cohomology. asked Mar 18, 2015 at 0:13. ...
British Airways has created a new online interactive map showing the entry requirements for every destination the airline flies ... British Airways creates digital heat map of global travel restrictions. July 23rd 2021. AviationTech ... The British Airways heat map has been created partnership with global tech company Sherpa, which has developed an online tool ... Users will be able to see what travel restrictions each country has in place before booking a trip, searching visually by ...
Watering Restriction Map *Frequently Asked Questions. * Watershed Education * What is a watershed ... Water Map. There is a lot to know about water in our region. Explore our new interactive water regions map to learn more! ... Riparian Analysis Map. Visit the Riparian Analysis Map to learn more about the state of riparian health across 47 waterways ... If you are looking for property-specific technical details, launch the RDN Web Map, and select the Environment layer. ...
Basic analysis for a user-entered sequence; includes restriction sites and map ...
5 and restriction enzyme HinfI. All parameters characteristic of multilocus DNA fingerprints were found to differ signi … ... 5 and restriction enzyme HinfI. All parameters characteristic of multilocus DNA fingerprints were found to differ significantly ...
COVID-19 outbreak and the rate of infections has charge some sea ports around the globe to impose certain restrictions on ships ... You are here Home » Blog » Map: Sea Port Global Restrictions Due to COVID-19 ... COVID-19 outbreak and the rate of infections has charge some sea ports around the globe to impose certain restrictions on ships ... the wilhelmsen ship management and ships agency point out ports and countries where there are restrictions either for crew ...
The post-alarm restriction map, community by community: no perimeter closures and only four curfews. 2 years ago Admin ... The post-alarm restriction map, community by community: no perimeter closures and only four curfews. ... Tags: alarm, closures, communities, four, perimeter, remains, restrictions, touches, will apply Continue Reading. Previous ... Also since then, the communities will be in charge of deciding what restrictions they impose to stop COVID-19. During the end ...
Map of closures and restrictions. Credit: ITV News. It comes as the National Maritime Museum in Falmouth will be used as a ... Devon and Cornwall Police and Falmouth Town council have released further details of the restrictions which will be in place ... G7 Cornwall: Map showing no-go areas released by police ahead of summit ... G7 Summit Cornwall: Latest on local restrictions ahead of next weeks conference. *. ...
Find and explore maps by keyword, location, or by browsing a map. ... mappery is a diverse collection of real life maps contributed ... West Bank Land Restrictions Map. Map of land restrictions in West Bank as of 1993 ... Maps by City. Maps by Country. Maps by Continent. Top Map Keywords. ... Asolo Italy Area Map. Tourist map of Asolo, Italy surroundings. Shows monuments, art centers, museums, and city walls. ...
Mapping of restrictions on the entry, stay and residence of people living with HIV. By: UNAIDSMaterial type: TextPublication ... Details for: Mapping of restrictions on the entry, stay and residence of people living with HIV. ... details: Geneva : UNAIDS, 2009. Description: 13 pISBN: 9789291737949Title translated: Cartographie des restrictions à lentrée ...
Click on each port or country in the map below to view the latest port restrictions and updates. Map will be updated up to 2 ... Click on each port or country in the map below to view port restrictions. Map will be updated up to 2 times per day. Last ... COVID-19 Global Port Restrictions Map With the COVID-19 outbreak, ports are imposing various restrictions on vessels and crew. ... Ukraine-Russia Port Situation Map With the ongoing Ukraine-Russia situation, various ports are imposing new restrictions and ...
Mapping Regulatory Restrictions in US States. Patrick McLaughlin, Mark Febrizio. February 26, 2019 ...
Restriction Mapping. EN. dc.subject. Severity of Illness Index. EN. dc.subject.mesh. DNA Mutational Analysis. EN. ... using polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction site assay methods. The study included 16 Saudi patients [‏9 SMA type I ...
... renaming SYMB-MAP-ITEMS+ RESTRICTION ::= hide SYMB-ITEMS+ , reveal SYMB-MAP-ITEMS+ SPEC-DEFN ::= spec-defn SPEC-NAME GENERICITY ... SYMB-MAP ::= symb-map SYMB SYMB SYMB-OR-MAP ::= SYMB , SYMB-MAP SPEC-NAME ::= SIMPLE-ID VIEW-NAME ::= SIMPLE-ID TOKEN-ID ... SYMB-MAP-ITEMS* VIEW-TYPE ::= view-type SPEC SPEC SYMB-ITEMS ::= symb-items SYMB-KIND SYMB+ SYMB-MAP-ITEMS ::= symb-map-items ... SPEC ::= BASIC-SPEC , translation SPEC RENAMING , reduction SPEC RESTRICTION , union SPEC+ , extension SPEC+ , free-spec SPEC ...
... requirements and restrictions for travel established by the different countries. Plan your flight ensuring that you meet all ... Look how easy it is! The map will show you all the countries you can travel to and whether you need any additional ... COVID: Travel restrictions. Check the regulations, requirements and restrictions for travel established by the different ... What if the COVID restrictions at the destination change? If the entry requirements for your destination change after you have ...
Bluesky Announces Prototype UAV Flight Restriction Map. Leicestershire, UK, July 28, 2015 - Aerial mapping company Bluesky has ... Bluesky has combined an expertise in flight planning and 3D aerial mapping with various geographic datasets to come up with the ... Leicestershire, UK, 27 January 2016 - Aerial mapping company, Bluesky, is partnering with airborne inspection and surveying ... produced a prototype map showing where it may be unsafe or even illegal to fly Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), commonly ...
evaluate restriction maps of bacterial plasmids; *analyze models of DNA gel electrophoresis; and *predict the sizes of unknown ... They will then look at how DNA is "cut up" with special molecular scissors (called restriction enzymes), so it can be analyzed ...
UN World Food Programme - World travel restrictions - ... However, restrictions adopted at the national level, which have in some cases prevented seafarers from disembarking to carry ... Wilhelmsen COVID-19 Global Port Restrictions Map - ... The article examines the serious challenges seafarers have faced relating to quarantine requirements, restrictions on border ...
Zone maps are subject to the following restrictions:. * A table can be a fact table for at most one zone map. A table can be a ... Use this clause to create a basic zone map or a join zone map. To create a basic zone map, specify a single base table in the ... The fact table for the zone map is sales. and the zone map has two dimension tables: products. and customers. . The zone map ... The following statement creates a join zone map called sales_zmap. . The fact table for the zone map is sales. and the zone map ...
  • The mtDNA of each species was analyzed using 17 restriction enzymes and restriction maps were built. (
  • A technique to generate restriction maps from single large DNA molecules by spreading the DNA onto a glass surface, digesting with DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES, staining with FLUORESCENT DYES, and visualizing the DNA cleavage sites by FLUORESCENCE MICROSCOPY. (
  • They will then look at how DNA is "cut up" with special molecular scissors (called restriction enzymes), so it can be analyzed. (
  • Displays a graphical map based on nucleotide sequence data labeled with restriction enzymes, plasmid features, ORFs (theoretical open reading frames) and primers. (
  • List of restriction enzymes that can cut a given nucleotide sequence. (
  • The search for new and unusual restriction enzymes continued apace so that, by 1982, a list of 357 identified restriction enzymes recognizing 90 different dna sequences was published 7. (
  • Restriction enzymes recognize and cut at specific places along the dna molecule called restriction sites. (
  • Restriction enzymes are part of a bacterial immune system, and have been very useful as a tool to cut and paste dna sequences in laboratory applications. (
  • Who ate the cheese use restriction enzymes to cut dna and place on a chart to simulate movement of fragments during eletrophoresis. (
  • Other types of restriction enzymes cleave dna at positions somewhat distant from their. (
  • Restriction enzymes are not only sequence specific but also structure sensitive and may exhibit either enhanced or inhibited cleavage activity. (
  • Enzymes, which are produced naturally by bacteria, cut dna molecules at specific sites denoted by base sequences when a restriction enzyme is used to cut different dna molecules, the size of the fragments generated will be unique to each molecule. (
  • Introduction to restriction enzymes objectives at the end of this activity, students should be able to 1. (
  • Cut smarter with restriction enzymes from neb with over 40 years of offering restriction enzymes to the research community, neb has earned the reputation of being a leader in enzyme technologies. (
  • However, most of naturally occurring restriction enzymes recognize only 48 basepair sequences so that their scission sites statistically appear at every 4 4 256, 4 6 4096, and 4 8 65,536 basepair sequences, respectively. (
  • Inside a prokaryote, the restriction enzymes selectively cut up foreign dna in a process called. (
  • Restriction enzymes are special proteins produced by bacteria to prevent or restrict invasion by foreign dna such as from viruses. (
  • As part of bacterial defense system, restriction enzymes cut digest any foreign dna. (
  • These enzymes are called sitespecific restriction endonucleases, or more simply restriction enzymes, and they naturally function as part of bacterial defenses against viruses and other sources of foreign dna. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Mapping of additional restriction enzyme cleavage sites on bacteriophage MB78 enzyme. (
  • The statistical analysis is reported of 256 paternity cases referred to seven different German laboratories for multilocus DNA fingerprinting with oligonucleotide probe (CAC)5/(GTG)5 and restriction enzyme HinfI. (
  • ITS PCR-restriction analysis using the in silico-selected restriction enzyme MaeII or HphI differentiated the three MCC members from one another and from other RGM and SGM species without sequencing. (
  • The activity of a restriction enzyme in each of the four standard. (
  • Here is an example of a restriction enzyme called ecori that cuts dna at a particular sequence, creating sticky ends. (
  • If you dont see any interesting for you, use our search form on bottom v. In order to facilitate the topics of restriction enzyme digestion and the generation of compatible ends in the process of gene cloning, an inclass activity was designed. (
  • Restriction enzyme are used to cut desired double stranded dna at specific base sequences called recognition sites to create sticky ends the plasmid is then cut by the same restriction enzyme, creating the same sticky ends as the desired donor dna. (
  • Restriction enzyme lab report essay example graduateway. (
  • Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA . (
  • There are states that have travel restrictions and quarantines in place, so you do need to check ahead,' Williams said. (
  • Triple-A has published a COVID-19 Travel Restrictions interacive map to assist for vacation planning. (
  • Users will be able to see what travel restrictions each country has in place before booking a trip, searching visually by traffic light colour or by typing in their choice of destination. (
  • Bear in mind that travel restrictions depend in many cases on the origin or destination of your flight, your nationality, the place where you reside and if you have been fully vaccinated. (
  • Now covering travel restrictions due to lockdown regulations. (
  • Although many of the principles at the heart of the public health response to COVID-19 and Ebola are the same, such as the importance of engaging and informing local communities and effective screening and contact tracing, COVID-19 presents some unique challenges for responders as a result of international travel restrictions, shortages of key equipment and the novelty of the disease. (
  • Through a combination of PCR and examination of restriction fragment length polymorphism, the locations of 14 of the main mitochondrial genes were located on restriction maps. (
  • Restriction fragment length polymorphisms were found with EcoRI, HindIII and AccI that resulted from polymorphic endonuclease sites outside the genes. (
  • It is therefore crucial that everyone continues to follow as closely as possible the spirit of the guidance set out in the route map out of lockdown in order to support the key public health messages at each stage. (
  • Greece will not experience lockdown-type restrictions of movement and activities again and the government does not intend to impose restrictive measures in the autumn and in winter, Health Minister Thanos Plevris said on Tuesday. (
  • No more infections counting, no lockdown even if they reach 10,000," Greece's Development Minister Adonis Georgiadis said on Tuesday, the day coronavirus cases are expected to reach a new record and the government is to announce new measures and restrictions across the country. (
  • Map of closures and restrictions. (
  • The article examines the serious challenges seafarers have faced relating to quarantine requirements, restrictions on border crossings with border closures, repatriation and crew changeovers, abandonment, renewals of certificates and licencing of seafarers, resupply and ship surveys. (
  • Additional updates on restrictions and closures at Fishing Access Sites, State Parks and Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs) is available at MyFWP. (
  • Use text editor or plasmid mapping software to view sequence. (
  • visual tool for automatically generating SPARQL executable mappings among OWL ontologies that is based on correspondences and restrictions. (
  • An important note, however, is that this deletion restriction only comes into effect once the executable is mapped into an image section. (
  • LAKE MARY, Fla. - Fewer Floridians will be traveling this Labor Day weekend, with COVID-19 restrictions still in place across much of the country. (
  • COVID-19 outbreak and the rate of infections has charge some sea ports around the globe to impose certain restrictions on ships, seafarers, and port activities. (
  • Also since then, the communities will be in charge of deciding what restrictions they impose to stop COVID-19. (
  • With the COVID-19 outbreak, ports are imposing various restrictions on vessels and crew. (
  • ECDC publishes maps and data on the COVID-19 pandemic across the EU/EEA every Thursday. (
  • The colour-coded maps of EU Member States/ EEA countries, linked to the Council Recommendation on a coordinated approach to facilitate safe free movement during the COVID-19 pandemic , have been discontinued while their utility and continuation is being reassessed. (
  • We used the disability-inclusive health 'Missing Billion' framework to map and inform barriers to inclusive health care during COVID-19 and disparities in outcomes faced by people with disabilities. (
  • With the ongoing Ukraine-Russia situation, various ports are imposing new restrictions and regulations on vessels and port calls. (
  • All businesses must therefore satisfy themselves that they are able to operate lawfully in compliance with The Health Protection (Coronavirus) (Restrictions) (Scotland) Regulations 2020 (as amended) . (
  • Check the regulations, requirements and restrictions for travel established by the different countries. (
  • BOSTON--(BUSINESS WIRE)--China's government has issued new regulations related to developing maps and gathering location information in China for both domestic. (
  • If you are planning to fly a drone near a city or country, you should download a Drone No Fly Zone Map to ensure that you are flying safely and in compliance with FAA regulations. (
  • Restriction maps were constructed for the two human 21-hydroxylase genes (21-OHA and 21-OHB) by using DNA from subjects homozygous for a deletion of each gene. (
  • Comparing the patterns of these two genes, a KpnI restriction site occurred in the 21-OHA gene in place of a TaqI site in the 21-OHB gene about 1-kb from the 5′ end of the gene, and an extra EcoRI site was located 500 bp 5′ to the common EcoRI site. (
  • 2. We remain grateful for the cooperation of the people of Scotland in supporting our national response to the coronavirus pandemic, and very conscious of the considerable personal and professional sacrifices arising from the restrictions currently in place on individuals and businesses. (
  • Work was also well underway on the 2020 REHIS Annual forum, which was sadly cancelled due to the restrictions of the pandemic. (
  • As with all organisations, the Institute has felt the impact of the global pandemic and subsequent restrictions resulting in the sad, difficult decision to place the majority of REHIS staff on furlough. (
  • In this study, we aimed to develop a concept map to measure the impact of the pandemic on adolescents caused by the new coronavirus. (
  • The conceptual map developed made it possible to organize systemic thoughts about a dimension of the pandemic that is still little addressed scientifically: the adolescents' experience. (
  • The result of the sequence analysis and the restriction map shows that an open reading frame of the carp growth hormone gene contains 630 base pairs which code for a polypeptide of 210 amino acids including 22 amino acids of the signal peptide and 188 amino acids of the nature growth hormone. (
  • C) Alignment of map for B. ancashensis predicted in silico from the complete genome sequence with the experimentally observed B. ancashensis map. (
  • Hindlll, KpnI and XhoI have now been mapped. (
  • Method for rapid identification and differentiation of the species of the Mycobacterium chelonae complex based on 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer PCR-restriction analysis. (
  • In addition to the previously reported locus on chromosome 7B for which a candidate gene has been proposed, loci were mapped on chromosomes 1B, 2A, 2B, 3A, 3B, 4A, 6A and 7D. (
  • statement and include attribute clustered columns in the zone map. (
  • This can be done using 1 of 2 methods - LDAP directory mappings or SAML attribute mappings. (
  • Attribute mappings can be much more complex, but allow for complete control of resources through SAML attributes (see Creating SAML Attribute Mappings for more information). (
  • In an inheritance hierarchy this attribute allows to override the assocation mapping definitions of the parent mappings. (
  • On March 30, 2022, all Google Maps Platform APIs will stop accepting certain obsolete place IDs . (
  • Optical Restriction Mapping" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • maps:to_list/1 indeed appears arbitrary. (
  • function is mapped into an arbitrary location in a given process (virtual address space), as is the code that is trying to call it. (
  • Search our boundary map with regulation data on thousands of zip codes and municipalities. (
  • Retrieving search queries in Maps URLs. (
  • A common way of using place IDs is to search for a place (using the Places API or the Places library in the Maps JavaScript API, for example) then use the returned place ID to retrieve place details. (
  • Zone maps are commonly used with star schemas in data warehousing environments. (
  • Oracle Database uses these objects to maintain the zone map data. (
  • The A2Spatial service offers users multiple platforms to view and interact with our spatial data, from simple map graphics, PDF's to interactive web based maps which uses live data from our GIS databases. (
  • The day before the circuit court ruling, Eric Eeckhoff used the registry data to create a per-capita drone operator map, and published his findings . (
  • Are they any restrictions for mapping data be used for navigational purpose? (
  • The mapping data can be used for navigational purpose after the data has been scrutinized and approved by Defense Geospatial Division, JUPEM. (
  • How the fees of mapping and survey data determine? (
  • The fees for mapping and survey data are determined by referring to Fees and Payments (Services, Survey and Mapping Data and Reproduction) Order 2010. (
  • It is possible for company/agency instead of JUPEM doing the collection of mapping and survey data? (
  • All companies/agencies who intend to collect mapping and survey data must apply to JUPEM for approval. (
  • Following discussions in the EU Integrated Political Crisis Response meeting and in light of the evolving approaches and decreasing trends in testing volumes in Member States, resulting in limited reliable data, the maps will be discontinued during the summer period. (
  • EPest-low estimates usually reflect these restrictions because they are based primarily on surveyed data. (
  • IOM has developed a global mobility database to map and gather data on the locations, status, and different restrictions at Points of Entries and internal transit points, globally. (
  • The data can be queried to produce tables and maps using the interactive system below. (
  • Devon and Cornwall Police and Falmouth Town council have released further details of the restrictions which will be in place during the G7 summit. (
  • Don't miss Ari Berman's map of states with new voting restriction put in place after 2010. (
  • From the image above you can see multiple mappings in place, these can be added and removed as required and are built by the attributes selected in the dropdown menus. (
  • Place IDs uniquely identify a place in the Google Places database and on Google Maps. (
  • Retrieving an address for a Place ID in the Geocoding API web service and Geocoding Service, Maps JavaScript API. (
  • Using Place ID parameters in Maps Embed API. (
  • Alternatively, you can view the place ID finder with its code in the Maps JavaScript API documentation. (
  • You can use the same place ID across the Places API and a number of Google Maps Platform APIs. (
  • For example, you can use the same place ID to reference a place in the Places API , the Maps JavaScript API , the Geocoding API , the Maps Embed API and the Roads API . (
  • Place IDs are exempt from the caching restrictions stated in Section 3.2.3(b) of the Google Maps Platform Terms of Service. (
  • Maps of MSHA Districts are not available for miners' place of residence. (
  • A zone map is a special type of materialized view that stores information about zones. (
  • When a SQL statement contains predicates on columns in a zone map, the database compares the predicate values to the minimum and maximum table column values stored in each zone to determine which zones to read during SQL execution. (
  • A rating method used when a building is Pre-FIRM, the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) zone is unknown, and the community in which the building is located has no V Zones. (
  • Strategic Plan for Neglected Tropical Diseases in the African Region 2014-2020" as the framework for implementing the global road map for the elimination of NTDs and the World Health Assembly resolution on NTDs. (
  • Districts, states and Malaysia's map are available at sales centre at all JUPEM's offices and headquarters or through eBiz system at . (
  • The restrictive measures observed across these locations include restrictions on entry and exit, changes in visa and document requirements, medical requirements, restrictions on nationalities, and other measures limiting mobility, (
  • Opens in new window. (
  • The reason, for this 'surprising' order of maps, is the alternative of using the normal arithmetic order for keys is much worse. (
  • I appeal to the states that continue to maintain these restrictions to lift them urgently, in order to enable people to seek safety and protection," said UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Filippo Grandi. (
  • So, in order to allow proper code sharing of calling code (left side above) and called code (right side), you cannot apply any fix-ups to the calling code directly since that will 'damage' how it works in the other processes (that wouldn't matter if it mapped to the same location in every process but that's a bit of a restriction, especially if something else had already been mapped there). (
  • The logic behind these mappings is that all attributes within a single set must be satisfied in order to have access to the resources listed. (
  • Click on each port or country in the map below to view the latest port restrictions and updates. (
  • Unlike materialized views, you can create a refresh-on-commit zone map even if there are no materialized view logs on the base tables. (
  • Click a county to view today's burning restrictions / fire danger. (
  • EPest-high estimates include more extensive estimates of pesticide use not reported in surveys, which sometimes include States or areas where use restrictions have been imposed. (
  • These areas have restrictions on take-off and landing. (
  • Using this map, you can identify the areas where drones are not allowed, as well as the height of the drones allowed in these areas. (
  • Explore our interactive map to find out the specific rebates and routes for each toll rebate scheme based on vessel type. (
  • Click on the image below to launch the Riparian Analysis Map Viewer. (
  • Google Maps viewer of RDF resources with Geometrical Information. (
  • This map of United States, reveals geographic variation in the frequency of Navy recruits, reacting to a histoplasmin sensitivity test, between the years, 1958-1965. (
  • Using the registry, flight restriction tool AirMap released a map showing concentrations of drone operators . (
  • Using a local drone map can help you identify drone restrictions in your area. (
  • There are a number of reasons to follow local government rules when flying your drone, and a great way to ensure your drone flight is not in a danger zone is to check the no-fly zone map. (
  • This free app combines FAA-approved drone flight restrictions with real-time weather to make sure your drone flights are not affecting the safety of local citizens. (
  • Leicestershire, UK, 27 January 2016 - Aerial mapping company, Bluesky, is partnering with airborne inspection and surveying expert, Cyberhawk, to provide a broader range of aerial survey and mapping services through the use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) otherwise known as drones. (
  • Call today for your maps and Restrictions and covenants for this super location! (
  • In an attempt to make travel planning easier for consumers, British Airways has created a new online interactive map showing the entry requirements for every destination the airline flies to. (
  • Explore our new interactive water regions map to learn more! (
  • How to obtain and purchase districts map, states map and map of Malaysia? (
  • Directory mappings can simply be selected using the dropdown menu as shown, you may pick as many records as you wish to give access to based on the provision strategy you employ. (
  • We are making it possible for burial and cremation authorities around the country to convert their register records, maps and photographs into digital form and bring them together into a central searchable collection. (
  • You can access all maps including Hellgate, Catacombs etc. without any restrictions. (
  • It did not stop there, work is ongoing to help our Approved Training Centres to teach remotely and at present in a blended fashion, where the route map and current restrictions allow. (
  • This work continues to evolve as we learn more and move through the Scottish Governments Route Map, and particularly with the recent restrictions announced by the First Minister a couple of days ago on the 22 September. (
  • Tip for remembering where you parked: Open your phone's mapping app, zoom in, and stick a pin in your location. (
  • Many restrictions apply. (
  • Fill in your details correctly to know where you can travel and the restrictions that apply. (
  • Pets are welcome, although weight and breed restrictions apply. (
  • The map will show you all the countries you can travel to and whether you need any additional documentation. (
  • The Disney World app also contains maps, and it lists current waiting times. (
  • Colorado DHSEM Current Wildfires Map is updated with fires more than 200 acres. (
  • Details for: Mapping of restrictions on the entry, stay and residence of people living with HIV. (
  • 0000-0003-0157-7461 the description and mapping of mobile applications to support family members of newborns. (
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Optical Restriction Mapping" by people in this website by year, and whether "Optical Restriction Mapping" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (
  • B) Phylogeny based on map similarity constructed by using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean. (