Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
A technique to generate restriction maps from single large DNA molecules by spreading the DNA onto a glass surface, digesting with DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES, staining with FLUORESCENT DYES, and visualizing the DNA cleavage sites by FLUORESCENCE MICROSCOPY.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Enzyme systems containing a single subunit and requiring only magnesium for endonucleolytic activity. The corresponding modification methylases are separate enzymes. The systems recognize specific short DNA sequences and cleave either within, or at a short specific distance from, the recognition sequence to give specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. Enzymes from different microorganisms with the same specificity are called isoschizomers. EC 3.1.21.4.
Reduction in caloric intake without reduction in adequate nutrition. In experimental animals, caloric restriction has been shown to extend lifespan and enhance other physiological variables.
A temperate inducible phage and type species of the genus lambda-like viruses, in the family SIPHOVIRIDAE. Its natural host is E. coli K12. Its VIRION contains linear double-stranded DNA with single-stranded 12-base 5' sticky ends. The DNA circularizes on infection.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence G/AATTC at the slash. EcoRI is from E coliRY13. Several isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A form of GENE LIBRARY containing the complete DNA sequences present in the genome of a given organism. It contrasts with a cDNA library which contains only sequences utilized in protein coding (lacking introns).
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
Mapping of the linear order of genes on a chromosome with units indicating their distances by using methods other than genetic recombination. These methods include nucleotide sequencing, overlapping deletions in polytene chromosomes, and electron micrography of heteroduplex DNA. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 5th ed)
The failure of a FETUS to attain its expected FETAL GROWTH at any GESTATIONAL AGE.
Recording of regional electrophysiological information by analysis of surface potentials to give a complete picture of the effects of the currents from the heart on the body surface. It has been applied to the diagnosis of old inferior myocardial infarction, localization of the bypass pathway in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, recognition of ventricular hypertrophy, estimation of the size of a myocardial infarct, and the effects of different interventions designed to reduce infarct size. The limiting factor at present is the complexity of the recording and analysis, which requires 100 or more electrodes, sophisticated instrumentation, and dedicated personnel. (Braunwald, Heart Disease, 4th ed)
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Recording the locations and measurements of electrical activity in the EPICARDIUM by placing electrodes on the surface of the heart to analyze the patterns of activation and to locate arrhythmogenic sites.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.
Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.
One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence A/AGCTT at the slash. HindIII is from Haemophilus influenzae R(d). Numerous isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.
One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence G/GATCC at the slash. BamHI is from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens N. Numerous isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.
Systems consisting of two enzymes, a modification methylase and a restriction endonuclease. They are closely related in their specificity and protect the DNA of a given bacterial species. The methylase adds methyl groups to adenine or cytosine residues in the same target sequence that constitutes the restriction enzyme binding site. The methylation renders the target site resistant to restriction, thereby protecting DNA against cleavage.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The normal length of time of an organism's life.
A method for ordering genetic loci along CHROMOSOMES. The method involves fusing irradiated donor cells with host cells from another species. Following cell fusion, fragments of DNA from the irradiated cells become integrated into the chromosomes of the host cells. Molecular probing of DNA obtained from the fused cells is used to determine if two or more genetic loci are located within the same fragment of donor cell DNA.
Two-dimensional separation and analysis of nucleotides.
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
Enzyme systems containing three different subunits and requiring ATP, S-adenosylmethionine, and magnesium for endonucleolytic activity to give random double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. They function also as DNA-dependent ATPases and modification methylases, catalyzing the reactions of EC 2.1.1.72 and EC 2.1.1.73 with similar site-specificity. The systems recognize specific short DNA sequences and cleave at sites remote from the recognition sequence. Enzymes from different microorganisms with the same specificity are called isoschizomers. EC 3.1.21.3.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequences C/CGG and GGC/C at the slash. HpaII is from Haemophilus parainfluenzae. Several isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Creating a representation of areas of the earth or other celestial bodies, for the purpose of visualizing spatial distributions of various information.
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
A diet that contains limited amounts of protein. It is prescribed in some cases to slow the progression of renal failure. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
A diet designed to cause an individual to lose weight.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Short tracts of DNA sequence that are used as landmarks in GENOME mapping. In most instances, 200 to 500 base pairs of sequence define a Sequence Tagged Site (STS) that is operationally unique in the human genome (i.e., can be specifically detected by the polymerase chain reaction in the presence of all other genomic sequences). The overwhelming advantage of STSs over mapping landmarks defined in other ways is that the means of testing for the presence of a particular STS can be completely described as information in a database.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
A diet which contains very little sodium chloride. It is prescribed by some for hypertension and for edematous states. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Nonrandom association of linked genes. This is the tendency of the alleles of two separate but already linked loci to be found together more frequently than would be expected by chance alone.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the internal bonds and thereby the formation of polynucleotides or oligonucleotides from ribo- or deoxyribonucleotide chains. EC 3.1.-.
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.
Failure of the PLACENTA to deliver an adequate supply of nutrients and OXYGEN to the FETUS.
Removal of tissue with electrical current delivered via electrodes positioned at the distal end of a catheter. Energy sources are commonly direct current (DC-shock) or alternating current at radiofrequencies (usually 750 kHz). The technique is used most often to ablate the AV junction and/or accessory pathways in order to interrupt AV conduction and produce AV block in the treatment of various tachyarrhythmias.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
A reaction that severs one of the covalent sugar-phosphate linkages between NUCLEOTIDES that compose the sugar phosphate backbone of DNA. It is catalyzed enzymatically, chemically or by radiation. Cleavage may be exonucleolytic - removing the end nucleotide, or endonucleolytic - splitting the strand in two.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Methods for determining interaction between PROTEINS.
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Enzyme systems composed of two subunits and requiring ATP and magnesium for endonucleolytic activity; they do not function as ATPases. They exist as complexes with modification methylases of similar specificity listed under EC 2.1.1.72 or EC 2.1.1.73. The systems recognize specific short DNA sequences and cleave a short distance, about 24 to 27 bases, away from the recognition sequence to give specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. Enzymes from different microorganisms with the same specificity are called isoschizomers. EC 3.1.21.5.
The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
An enzyme responsible for producing a species-characteristic methylation pattern on adenine residues in a specific short base sequence in the host cell DNA. The enzyme catalyzes the methylation of DNA adenine in the presence of S-adenosyl-L-methionine to form DNA containing 6-methylaminopurine and S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine. EC 2.1.1.72.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.
Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
The state of being deprived of sleep under experimental conditions, due to life events, or from a wide variety of pathophysiologic causes such as medication effect, chronic illness, psychiatric illness, or sleep disorder.
Enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of single-stranded regions of DNA or RNA molecules while leaving the double-stranded regions intact. They are particularly useful in the laboratory for producing "blunt-ended" DNA molecules from DNA with single-stranded ends and for sensitive GENETIC TECHNIQUES such as NUCLEASE PROTECTION ASSAYS that involve the detection of single-stranded DNA and RNA.
Representations, normally to scale and on a flat medium, of a selection of material or abstract features on the surface of the earth, the heavens, or celestial bodies.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Chromosomes in which fragments of exogenous DNA ranging in length up to several hundred kilobase pairs have been cloned into yeast through ligation to vector sequences. These artificial chromosomes are used extensively in molecular biology for the construction of comprehensive genomic libraries of higher organisms.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
The magnitude of INBREEDING in humans.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
Chromosomal, biochemical, intracellular, and other methods used in the study of genetics.
The consumption of edible substances.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
An impulse-conducting system composed of modified cardiac muscle, having the power of spontaneous rhythmicity and conduction more highly developed than the rest of the heart.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.
An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
Methylases that are specific for CYTOSINE residues found on DNA.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A form of gene interaction whereby the expression of one gene interferes with or masks the expression of a different gene or genes. Genes whose expression interferes with or masks the effects of other genes are said to be epistatic to the effected genes. Genes whose expression is affected (blocked or masked) are hypostatic to the interfering genes.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.

Optical mapping of Plasmodium falciparum chromosome 2. (1/17643)

Detailed restriction maps of microbial genomes are a valuable resource in genome sequencing studies but are toilsome to construct by contig construction of maps derived from cloned DNA. Analysis of genomic DNA enables large stretches of the genome to be mapped and circumvents library construction and associated cloning artifacts. We used pulsed-field gel electrophoresis purified Plasmodium falciparum chromosome 2 DNA as the starting material for optical mapping, a system for making ordered restriction maps from ensembles of individual DNA molecules. DNA molecules were bound to derivatized glass surfaces, cleaved with NheI or BamHI, and imaged by digital fluorescence microscopy. Large pieces of the chromosome containing ordered DNA restriction fragments were mapped. Maps were assembled from 50 molecules producing an average contig depth of 15 molecules and high-resolution restriction maps covering the entire chromosome. Chromosome 2 was found to be 976 kb by optical mapping with NheI, and 946 kb with BamHI, which compares closely to the published size of 947 kb from large-scale sequencing. The maps were used to further verify assemblies from the plasmid library used for sequencing. Maps generated in silico from the sequence data were compared to the optical mapping data, and good correspondence was found. Such high-resolution restriction maps may become an indispensable resource for large-scale genome sequencing projects.  (+info)

Cloning and characterisation of a novel ompB operon from Vibrio cholerae 569B. (2/17643)

The ompB operon of Vibrio cholerae 569B has been cloned and fully sequenced. The operon encodes two proteins, OmpR and EnvZ, which share sequence identity with the OmpR and EnvZ proteins of a variety of other bacteria. Although the order of the ompR and envZ genes of V. cholerae is similar to that of the ompB operon of E. coli, S. typhimurium and X. nematophilus, the Vibrio operon exhibits a number of novel features. The structural organisation and features of the V. cholerae ompB operon are described.  (+info)

Alternative splicing generates multiple mRNA forms of the acetylcholine receptor gamma-subunit in rat muscle. (3/17643)

The fetal type acetylcholine receptor, composed of the alphabeta gammadelta subunits, has shown a highly variable channel kinetics during postnatal development. We examine the hypothesis whether such a variability could result from multiple channel forms, differing in the N-terminus of the gamma-subunit. RT-PCR revealed, in addition to the full-length mRNA, three new forms lacking exon 4. One of them in addition lacks 19 nucleotides from exon 5, predicting a complete subunit, with a 43 residues shorter N-terminus. A third one lacking the complete exon 5 predicts a subunit without transmembrane segments. These forms, generated by alternative splicing, may account for the kinetic variability of the acetylcholine receptor channel.  (+info)

Cloning, expression, and enzymatic characterization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa topoisomerase IV. (4/17643)

The topoisomerase IV subunit A gene, parC homolog, has been cloned and sequenced from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, with cDNA encoding the N-terminal region of Escherichia coli parC used as a probe. The homolog and its upstream gene were presumed to be parC and parE through sequence homology with the parC and parE genes of other organisms. The deduced amino acid sequence of ParC and ParE showed 33 and 32% identity with that of the P. aeruginosa DNA gyrase subunits, GyrA and GyrB, respectively, and 69 and 75% identity with that of E. coli ParC and ParE, respectively. The putative ParC and ParE proteins were overexpressed and separately purified by use of a fusion system with a maltose-binding protein, and their enzymatic properties were examined. The reconstituted enzyme had ATP-dependent decatenation activity, which is the main catalytic activity of bacterial topoisomerase IV, and relaxing activities but had no supercoiling activity. So, the cloned genes were identified as P. aeruginosa topoisomerase IV genes. The inhibitory effects of quinolones on the activities of topoisomerase IV and DNA gyrase were compared. The 50% inhibitory concentrations of quinolones for the decatenation activity of topoisomerase IV were from five to eight times higher than those for the supercoiling activities of P. aeruginosa DNA gyrase. These results confirmed that topoisomerase IV is less sensitive to fluoroquinolones than is DNA gyrase and may be a secondary target of new quinolones in wild-type P. aeruginosa.  (+info)

Cloning and expression of the algL gene, encoding the Azotobacter chroococcum alginate lyase: purification and characterization of the enzyme. (5/17643)

The alginate lyase-encoding gene (algL) of Azotobacter chroococcum was localized to a 3.1-kb EcoRI DNA fragment that revealed an open reading frame of 1,116 bp. This open reading frame encodes a protein of 42.98 kDa, in agreement with the value previously reported by us for this protein. The deduced protein has a potential N-terminal signal peptide that is consistent with its proposed periplasmic location. The analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence indicated that the gene sequence has a high homology (90% identity) to the Azotobacter vinelandii gene sequence, which has very recently been deposited in the GenBank database, and that it has 64% identity to the Pseudomonas aeruginosa gene sequence but that it has rather low homology (15 to 22% identity) to the gene sequences encoding alginate lyase in other bacteria. The A. chroococcum AlgL protein was overproduced in Escherichia coli and purified to electrophoretic homogeneity in a two-step chromatography procedure on hydroxyapatite and phenyl-Sepharose. The kinetic and molecular parameters of the recombinant alginate lyase are similar to those found for the native enzyme.  (+info)

Ferritin mutants of Escherichia coli are iron deficient and growth impaired, and fur mutants are iron deficient. (6/17643)

Escherichia coli contains at least two iron storage proteins, a ferritin (FtnA) and a bacterioferritin (Bfr). To investigate their specific functions, the corresponding genes (ftnA and bfr) were inactivated by replacing the chromosomal ftnA and bfr genes with disrupted derivatives containing antibiotic resistance cassettes in place of internal segments of the corresponding coding regions. Single mutants (ftnA::spc and bfr::kan) and a double mutant (ftnA::spc bfr::kan) were generated and confirmed by Western and Southern blot analyses. The iron contents of the parental strain (W3110) and the bfr mutant increased by 1.5- to 2-fold during the transition from logarithmic to stationary phase in iron-rich media, whereas the iron contents of the ftnA and ftnA bfr mutants remained unchanged. The ftnA and ftnA bfr mutants were growth impaired in iron-deficient media, but this was apparent only after the mutant and parental strains had been precultured in iron-rich media. Surprisingly, ferric iron uptake regulation (fur) mutants also had very low iron contents (2.5-fold less iron than Fur+ strains) despite constitutive expression of the iron acquisition systems. The iron deficiencies of the ftnA and fur mutants were confirmed by Mossbauer spectroscopy, which further showed that the low iron contents of ftnA mutants are due to a lack of magnetically ordered ferric iron clusters likely to correspond to FtnA iron cores. In combination with the fur mutation, ftnA and bfr mutations produced an enhanced sensitivity to hydroperoxides, presumably due to an increase in production of "reactive ferrous iron." It is concluded that FtnA acts as an iron store accommodating up to 50% of the cellular iron during postexponential growth in iron-rich media and providing a source of iron that partially compensates for iron deficiency during iron-restricted growth. In addition to repressing the iron acquisition systems, Fur appears to regulate the demand for iron, probably by controlling the expression of iron-containing proteins. The role of Bfr remains unclear.  (+info)

Analysis of 4-phosphopantetheinylation of polyhydroxybutyrate synthase from Ralstonia eutropha: generation of beta-alanine auxotrophic Tn5 mutants and cloning of the panD gene region. (7/17643)

The postulated posttranslational modification of the polyhydroxybutyrate (PHA) synthase from Ralstonia eutropha by 4-phosphopantetheine was investigated. Four beta-alanine auxotrophic Tn5-induced mutants of R. eutropha HF39 were isolated, and two insertions were mapped in an open reading frame with strong similarity to the panD gene from Escherichia coli, encoding L-aspartate-1-decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.15), whereas two other insertions were mapped in an open reading frame (ORF) with strong similarity to the NAD(P)+ transhydrogenase (EC 1.6.1.1) alpha 1 subunit, encoded by the pntAA gene from Escherichia coli. The panD gene was cloned by complementation of the panD mutant of R. eutropha Q20. DNA sequencing of the panD gene region (3,312 bp) revealed an ORF of 365 bp, encoding a protein with 63 and 67% amino acid sequence similarity to PanD from E. coli and Bacillus subtilis, respectively. Subcloning of only this ORF into vectors pBBR1MCS-3 and pBluescript KS- led to complementation of the panD mutants of R. eutropha and E. coli SJ16, respectively. panD-encoded L-aspartate-1-decarboxylase was further confirmed by an enzymatic assay. Upstream of panD, an ORF with strong similarity to pntAA from E. coli, encoding NAD(P)+ transhydrogenase subunit alpha 1 was found; downstream of panD, two ORFs with strong similarity to pntAB and pntB, encoding subunits alpha 2 and beta of the NAD(P)+ transhydrogenase, respectively, were identified. Thus, a hitherto undetermined organization of pan and pnt genes was found in R. eutropha. Labeling experiments using one of the R. eutropha panD mutants and [2-14C]beta-alanine provided no evidence that R. eutropha PHA synthase is covalently modified by posttranslational attachment of 4-phosphopantetheine, nor did the E. coli panD mutant exhibit detectable labeling of functional PHA synthase from R. eutropha.  (+info)

A novel reduced flavin mononucleotide-dependent methanesulfonate sulfonatase encoded by the sulfur-regulated msu operon of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (8/17643)

When Pseudomonas aeruginosa is grown with organosulfur compounds as sulfur sources, it synthesizes a set of proteins whose synthesis is repressed in the presence of sulfate, cysteine, or thiocyanate (so-called sulfate starvation-induced proteins). The gene encoding one of these proteins, PA13, was isolated from a cosmid library of P. aeruginosa PAO1 and sequenced. It encoded a 381-amino-acid protein that was related to several reduced flavin mononucleotide (FMNH2)-dependent monooxygenases, and it was the second in an operon of three genes, which we have named msuEDC. The MsuD protein catalyzed the desulfonation of alkanesulfonates, requiring oxygen and FMNH2 for the reaction, and showed highest activity with methanesulfonate. MsuE was an NADH-dependent flavin mononucleotide (FMN) reductase, which provided reduced FMN for the MsuD enzyme. Expression of the msu operon was analyzed with a transcriptional msuD::xylE fusion and was found to be repressed in the presence of sulfate, sulfite, sulfide, or cysteine and derepressed during growth with methionine or alkanesulfonates. Growth with methanesulfonate required an intact cysB gene, and the msu operon is therefore part of the cys regulon, since sulfite utilization was found to be CysB independent in this species. Measurements of msuD::xylE expression in cysN and cysI genetic backgrounds showed that sulfate, sulfite, and sulfide or cysteine play independent roles in negatively regulating msu expression, and sulfonate utilization therefore appears to be tightly regulated.  (+info)

You searched for: Journal Theoretical and applied genetics Remove constraint Journal: Theoretical and applied genetics Source 1990 v.80 no.3 Remove constraint Source: 1990 v.80 no.3 Subject DNA Remove constraint Subject: DNA Subject restriction mapping Remove constraint Subject: restriction mapping ...
Rat kallikrein-binding protein is a novel serine-proteinase inhibitor that forms a covalent complex with tissue kallikrein. We have purified rat kallikrein-binding protein and cloned the cDNA and the gene encoding rat kallikrein-binding protein [Chao, Chai, Chen, Xiong, Chao, Woodley-Miller, Wang, Lu and Chao (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 16394-16401; Chai, Ma, Murray, Chao and Chao (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 16029-16036]. In the present study, we have expressed rat kallikrein-binding protein in Escherichia coli with a T7-polymerase/promoter expression system. A high level of expression was detected by an e.l.i.s.a. with an average of 24.2 mg of recombinant rat kallikrein-binding protein per 1 of culture. The recombinant protein appeared as a major protein in a crude extract of Escherichia coli on SDS/PAGE. It showed a molecular mass of 43 kDa and was recognized by polyclonal antibody to the native rat kallikrein-binding protein in Western-blot analysis. The recombinant rat kallikrein-binding ...
Linear) (Six-base) MAPSORT of: KIEE0945.seq Check: 8372 from: 1 to: 1050 KIEE0945.orf With 182 enzymes: SgfI * April 24, 2009 13:19 .. AcuI CTGAAGnnnnnnnnnnnnnn_nn Cuts at: 0 162 271 645 1050 Size: 162 109 374 405 Fragments arranged by size: 405 374 162 109 AflIII ACryG_T Cuts at: 0 396 518 1050 Size: 396 122 532 Fragments arranged by size: 532 396 122 AlfI GCAnnnnnnTGCnnnnnnnnnn_nn Cuts at: 0 329 1050 Size: 329 721 AloI GAACnnnnnnTCCnnnnnnn_nnnnn Cuts at: 0 694 726 1050 Size: 694 32 324 Fragments arranged by size: 694 324 32 AlwNI CAG_nnnCTG Cuts at: 0 375 645 1050 Size: 375 270 405 Fragments arranged by size: 405 375 270 AseI ATTA_AT Cuts at: 0 566 1050 Size: 566 484 AvaI CyCGr_G Cuts at: 0 41 1050 Size: 41 1009 BanI GGyrC_C Cuts at: 0 48 1050 Size: 48 1002 BbsI GAAGACnnnnnn_ Cuts at: 0 634 1050 Size: 634 416 BciVI GTATCCnnnnn_n Cuts at: 0 999 1050 Size: 999 51 BclI TGATC_A Cuts at: 0 74 1050 Size: 74 976 BglI GCCn_nnnnGGC Cuts at: 0 590 1050 Size: 590 460 Bme1580I G_kGCmC Cuts ...
Linear) (Six-base) MAPSORT of: KIAA0030.seq Check: 2035 from: 1 to: 2712 KIAA0030.orf With 182 enzymes: SgfI * March 3, 2008 10:54 .. AarI CACCTGCnnnnnnnn_ Cuts at: 0 869 2517 2712 Size: 869 1648 195 Fragments arranged by size: 1648 869 195 AatII G_ACGTC Cuts at: 0 2372 2712 Size: 2372 340 AccI GTmk_AC Cuts at: 0 620 2712 Size: 620 2092 AcuI CTGAAGnnnnnnnnnnnnnn_nn Cuts at: 0 2179 2527 2640 2712 Size: 2179 348 113 72 Fragments arranged by size: 2179 348 113 72 AfeI AGCGCT Cuts at: 0 2100 2712 Size: 2100 612 AflIII ACryG_T Cuts at: 0 662 2123 2712 Size: 662 1461 589 Fragments arranged by size: 1461 662 589 AhdI GACnn_nnnGTC Cuts at: 0 320 2712 Size: 320 2392 AlfI GCAnnnnnnTGCnnnnnnnnnn_nn Cuts at: 0 2359 2712 Size: 2359 353 ApaI G_GGCCC Cuts at: 0 185 571 1725 2559 2712 Size: 185 386 1154 834 153 Fragments arranged by size: 1154 834 386 185 153 ApoI rAATT_y Cuts at: 0 1762 2712 Size: 1762 950 AvrII CCTAG_G Cuts at: 0 168 2712 Size: 168 2544 BaeI ACnnnnGTAyCnnnnnnn_nnnnn Cuts at: 0 ...
Cosmid.net - Mechelle Someones Knocking (Jul 15, 2014) 103 images totaling 74M Download set with the VG-Ripper MultiHosters.com K2S | RG | TF | UL
Cosmid.net - Sonny Twister Time With Sonny (Jul 25, 2014) 106 images totaling 63M Download set with the VG-Ripper MultiHosters.com K2S | RG | TF | UL
CiteWeb id: 19830000003. CiteWeb score: 27848. DOI: 10.1016/0003-2697(83)90418-9. A technique for conveniently radiolabeling DNA restriction endonuclease fragments to high specific activity is described. DNA fragments are purified from agarose gels directly by ethanol precipitation and are then denatured and labeled with the large fragment of DNA polymerase I, using random oligonucleotides as primers. Over 70% of the precursor triphosphate is routinely incorporated into complementary DNA, and specific activities of over 109 dpm/μg of DNA can be obtained using relatively small amounts of precursor. These oligolabeled DNA fragments serve as efficient probes in filter hybridization experiments.. Links: ...
Restriction mapping of HPV6BV cloned from Chinese women with 14 enzymes was established and compared with that of HPV6b from West Germany and different subtypes of HPV6 reported by foreign reseaehers to find the differences.
What I am confused by though, is the 1/2 and 1/4 component of the answer given. Can anyone give me a breakdown of that please ...
Restriction landmark genomic scanning (RLGS) has been used to study aberrant CpG island methylation in cancer for more than ten years. This approach remains one of the most reliable ways to characterize CpG island hypermethylation in cancer and has been used both to characterize differences in aberrant methylation phenotypes and also to identify tumor suppressor genes. Not only have known tumor suppressor genes like Cdkn2a (p16), Itga4 (α 4-integrin) [1], and Igfbp7 [2] been identified as targets of aberrant methylation in cancer by RLGS, but also novel tumor suppressor genes such as TCF21 [3], SLC5A8 [4], ID4 [5], BMP3B [6], and SOCS1 [7] have been identified by RLGS.. RLGS is a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis method [8] that allows detection of DNA methylation if a methylation sensitive landmark enzyme such as NotI is used. Up to 2,000 end-labeled landmark sites are displayed in a single RLGS profile. The labeling of the sites is based on incorporation of radionucleotides into the NotI ...
A restriction map is a map of known restriction sites within a sequence of DNA. Restriction mapping requires the use of restriction enzymes. In molecular biology, restriction maps are used as a reference to engineer plasmids or other relatively short pieces of DNA, and sometimes for longer genomic DNA. There are other ways of mapping features on DNA for longer length DNA molecules, such as mapping by transduction. One approach in constructing a restriction map of a DNA molecule is to sequence the whole molecule and to run the sequence through a computer program that will find the recognition sites that are present for every restriction enzyme known. Before sequencing was automated, it would have been prohibitively expensive to sequence an entire DNA strand. To find the relative positions of restriction sites on a plasmid, a technique involving single and double restriction digests is used. Based on the sizes of the resultant DNA fragments the positions of the sites can be inferred. Restriction ...
Plasmid pPSU1 from Dr. Song Tans lab contains the inserts 500 bp EcoRV fragment, 1000 bp EcoRV fragment, 1500 bp EcoRV fragment, 2000 bp EcoRV fragment, 500 bp PstI fragment, 700 bp PstI fragment, 800 bp PstI fragment, 900 bp PstI fragment, 1000 bp PstI fragment, and 2000 bp PstI fragment and is published in Sci Rep. 2017 May 26;7(1):2438. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-02693-1. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
Purchase Recombinant Saccharopolyspora erythraea Alanine--tRNA ligase(alaS) ,partial. It is produced in Yeast. High purity. Good price.
Watch Konomi Kohara Movies, Featured movies and series of Konomi Kohara. Watch Konomi Kohara introduction and new movie works on Yesflicks.com
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an autosomal dominant disorder with a high penetrance characterized by tumors of the parathyroid glands, the endocrine pancreas, and the anterior pituitary. The MEN1 gene, a putative tumor suppressor gene, has been mapped to a 3- to 8-cM region in chromosome 11q13 but it remains elusive as yet. We have combined the efforts and resources from four laboratories to form the European Consortium on MEN1 with the aims of establishing the genetic and the physical maps of 11q13 and of further narrowing the MEN1 region. A 5-Mb integrated map of the region was established by fluorescence in situ hybridization on both metaphase chromosomes and DNA fibers, by hybridization to DNA from somatic cell hybrids containing various parts of human chromosome 11, by long-range restriction mapping, and by characterization of YACs and cosmids. Polymorphic markers were positioned and ordered by physical mapping and genetic linkage in 86 MEN1 families with 452 affected individuals.
Research groupsGene regulation and morphogenesis Genetics and functional genomics of genes with small open reading frames Dr Juan Pablo ..
Research groupsGene regulation and morphogenesis Genetics and functional genomics of genes with small open reading frames Dr Juan Pablo ..
Hi All, I am in trouble. I am developing an algorithm for restriction enzyme analysis but it is taking too long. The reason is because there are so many degenerate bases in the DNA sequence and thus it takes very long to analyze for all of them considering the possible combiantions they make. All the more the recognition sequence also have degenerate bases. Is there anybody out there to help me optimize the algorithm? Yes, there is. So thanking in advance to all those who respond. Ravi Gupta. Research Scholar DA University, M.P., India. -----------== Posted via Deja News, The Discussion Network ==---------- http://www.dejanews.com/ Search, Read, Discuss, or Start Your Own ...
Restriction Digest Protocol, Principle, result. restriction enzyme digestion. restriction digestion principle. restriction digest time
This chapter summarizes the recent findings of bacterial genomics and comments on the themes and trends which are emerging. A variety of techniques and methods are available to construct physical maps, and those most commonly employed involve pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of macrorestriction fragments generated by digesting intact genomic DNA, immobilized in agarose plugs, with rare-cutting enzymes. Hybridization techniques are often used to construct a map and to deduce the positions of genetic markers. In recent years significant effort has been devoted to developing direct-mapping techniques for large DNA molecules that do not require gel electrophoresis. Among the more promising of these are two new methods known as DNA combing and optical mapping, both of which make use of fluorescence microscopy and image analysis to visualize single DNA molecules. Overall, bacterial genomes range in size from about 0.6 to 9.4 Mb. In a recent review, it was suggested that there may be a relationship
Genomic organization, chromosomal mapping, nucleotide sequence, and predicted amino acid sequence of the murine MCP-5 gene. (A) Partial restriction map and ge
The SageELF is an electrophoresis system that separates DNA or protein samples by size, and then fractionates the whole sample, or section of sample, into 12 fractions. The system is equipped with pulsed-field electrophoresis for resolving large DNA.. Fractionation ranges are estimated and adjusted in software, and fractions are collected in buffer. One sample is fractionated on a single precast agarose cassette, and one or two cassettes may be processed at one time.. Benefits of the SageELF System: ...
Thanks kashonal for asking..yes, the enzymes are ok. fortunately i was able to digest my plasmids now. However i wasnt able to figure out where my mistake was in my previous 2 tries ...
View Notes - lab Write-up from ENGLISH 1011 at Berkeley. Jacob Zipperstein H. Bio Med January 28, 2009 Title: DNA Restriction Analysis (Lambda DNA) Purpose: The purpose of this lab is to analyze
Restriction digestion troubleshooting - posted in Molecular Cloning: Hello all! I am trying to cut my vector with XhoI and SpeI. I setup a digestion reaction like this: 3.3 ul template (1ug) 2 ul 10x NEB Buffer 4 2 ul 10x BSA (I prepared this by diluting 100x stock in water, not 1X buffer) 1ul XhoI 1ul SpeI 11.7 ul H20 Incubation 37 C for 1h, inactivation 65 C for 20 min. Then I run on a gel the cut and uncut vector. In each lane, I got two top bands that were quite faint, defin...
Cosmid clones containing alpha 1-antitrypsin (alpha 1AT) gene sequences were observed to contain alpha 1AT-like sequences approximately 12 kb downstream of the authentic alpha 1AT gene. Restriction mapping suggested the alpha 1AT-like gene lacks promoter sequences. Cosmid clones from one library con …
A BioBrick is a sequence of DNA with a predefined structure and function. This payload is held in a circular plasmid, which is an isolated, circular piece of DNA that can replicate in bacteria. BioBricks™ are created with the intention of being easily joined and manipulated. In order for this to be possible, the BioBrick™ assembly standard requires the use of defined prefix and suffix sequences (flanking both sides of the BioBrick) that contain specific restriction endonuclease sites. These sites are called EcoRI, NotI and XbaI in the upstream, and SpeI, NotI, and PstI in the downstream. Naturally, the parts must also be engineered such that these sites are not present in the functional region of the sequence.[3] Cutting the BioBrick at specific restriction sites (using restriction enzymes) is what gives a BioBrick its interlocking ends. The end of one BioBrick can then be connected, or ligated, together with the end of another BioBrick, allowing you to effectively string together ...
A BioBrick is a sequence of DNA with a predefined structure and function. This payload is held in a circular plasmid, which is an isolated, circular piece of DNA that can replicate in bacteria. BioBricks™ are created with the intention of being easily joined and manipulated. In order for this to be possible, the BioBrick™ assembly standard requires the use of defined prefix and suffix sequences (flanking both sides of the BioBrick) that contain specific restriction endonuclease sites. These sites are called EcoRI, NotI and XbaI in the upstream, and SpeI, NotI, and PstI in the downstream. Naturally, the parts must also be engineered such that these sites are not present in the functional region of the sequence[3]. Cutting the BioBrick at specific restriction sites (using restriction enzymes) is what gives a BioBrick its interlocking ends. The end of one BioBrick can then be connected, or ligated, together with the end of another BioBrick, allowing you to effectively string together ...
Qui presentiamo lassemblaggio di chimera mediante il recupero del plasmide e linserimento del sito enzimatico di restrizione ...
Hier präsentieren wir die Chimären-Assemblierung durch Plasmid-Wiedergewinnung und Restriktionsenzym-Insertion (CAPRRESI), ein...
A genomic library is a collection of bacteria which have been genetically engineered to hold the entire DNA of an organism. This...
thanks a lot I understood little bit , but in my case as told to me that the ordered nucleotide sequence will be incoroporated with the plasmid and then i have to to subclone it into E.coli TOF competent cell and then i have to plate it select for the colonies and then do the mini prep to get the plasmid and then I have to do the pcr... I really didnt understand How can I do the pcr with the plasmid (Although my gene of intreset in there). but my question is if i do by this process and I do the pcr Should I get the band on 1,4kb AND THEN I EXCISE IT AND CARRYOUT MY FURTHER PROCESS: IF i am right kindly tell me or wrong please guide me with your answer. I would be highly obliged to you, I am unableto understnd this concept ...
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Molecular Cloning, also known as Maniatis, has served as the foundation of technical expertise in labs worldwide for 30 years. No other manual has been so popular, or so influential.
Expression In Bacteria Of Beta-Galactosidase Fusion Proteins Carrying Antigenic Determinants Of The 2 X-Gene Products Of Bovine Leukemia- ...
Wardell, JN, Stocks, SM, Thomas, CR and Bushell, ME (2002) Decreasing the hyphal branching rate of Saccharopolyspora erythraea NRRL 2338 leads to increased resistance to breakage and increased antibiotic production ...
(KudoZ) English to Polish translation of complete open reading frame of a cDNA molecule: otwarta ramka odczytu (cząsteczki cDNA) [Medical].
Plasmid Construction. The pGL3-promoter and pGL3-basic plasmids were purchased from Promega. The pL6 plasmid was generated by ligation of the 1.3-kb KpnI and XhoI (-1326 to +1; the translation start site was designated as +1) DNA fragment of mouse MOR into the polylinker sites of a promoterless luciferase vector, pGL3-basic (Promega, Madison, WI). The sequence of the insertion was confirmed by sequencing. The DNA fragment flanking the poly (A) site was generated by PCR from mouse genomic DNA with a pair of primers (sense, 5′-AATAGGCCGGCCGCATTAGGAGCATTGCTGAG-3′; antisense, 5′-ACGCGTCGACCCTAACTCTGGGATGGCAAG-3′; the underlined nucleotides indicate the overhanging restriction enzyme sites for FseI and SalI, respectively). The pL6PA and pGL3pPA plasmids were constructed by subcloning this DNA fragment after digestion with FseI and SalI into pL6 and pGL3-promoter plasmid, respectively. The pL6 and pGL3-promoter plasmids also have been digested by FseI and SalI, to replace the original SV40 ...
Edvotek. Analysis of Eco RI Cleavage Patterns of Lambda DNAThis experiment introduces the use of restriction enzymes as a tool to digest DNA at specific nucleotide sequences. …
Nucleic acids from ATCC Genuine Cultures can save you the time and expense of isolating DNA yourself. ATCC offers genomic DNA from well-characterized and authenticated fungal and yeast strains.
Nucleic acids from ATCC Genuine Cultures can save you the time and expense of isolating DNA yourself. ATCC offers genomic DNA from well-characterized and authenticated fungal and yeast strains.
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
DNA restriction is a technique often useful in DNA fingerprinting. DNA restriction basically implies that there is a cut or cleavage of a particular DNA molecule.
Study Flashcards On restriction enzymes/plasmids at Cram.com. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want!
1 ATGCCTGGGG AGCAGATGGA CCCTACTGGA AGTCAGTTGG ATTCAGATTT CTCTCAGCAA 61 GATACTCCTT GCCTGATAAT TGAAGATTCT CAGCCTGAAA GCCAGGTTCT AGAGGATGAT 121 TCTGGTTCTC ACTTCAGTAT GCTATCTCGA CACCTTCCTA ATCTCCAGAC GCACAAAGAA 181 AATCCTGTGT TGGATGTTGT GTCCAATCCT GAACAAACAG CTGGAGAAGA ACGAGGAGAC 241 GGTAATAGTG GGTTCAATGA ACATTTGAAA GAAAACAAGG TTGCAGACCC TGTGGATTCT 301 TCTAACTTGG ACACATGTGG TTCCATCAGT CAGGTCATTG AGCAGTTACC TCAGCCAAAC 361 AGGACAAGCA GTGTTCTGGG AATGTCAGTG GAATCTGCTC CTGCTGTGGA GGAAGAGAAG 421 GGAGAAGAGT TGGAACAGAA GGAGAAAGAG AAGGAAGAAG ATACTTCAGG CAATACTACA 481 CATTCCCTTG GTGCTGAAGA TACTGCCTCA TCACAGTTGG GTTTTGGGGT TCTGGAACTC 541 TCCCAGAGCC AGGATGTTGA GGAAAATACT GTGCCATATG AAGTGGACAA AGAGCAGCTA 601 CAATCAGTAA CCACCAACTC TGGTTATACC AGGCTGTCTG ATGTGGATGC TAATACTGCA 661 ATTAAGCATG AAGAACAGTC CAACGAAGAT ATCCCCATAG CAGAACAGTC CAGCAAGGAC 721 ATCCCTGTGA CAGCACAGCC CAGTAAGGAT GTACATGTTG TAAAAGAGCA AAATCCACCA 781 CCTGCAAGGT CAGAGGACAT GCCTTTTAGC CCCAAAGCAT CTGTTGCTGC TATGGAAGCA 841 AAAGAACAGT TGTCTGCACA ...
Hoo boy, thats ugly. But it seems to work, and the tabs at the top are sorta nice - you can separate feeds by category. (Not sure Simpy plays nice with that - its supposed to, but…) Oh, and theres a minimum width otherwise you get side-scrolling, dont like that ...
You can take anything you find here, provided I made it myself and have not included it under someone elses terms, and do anything you want with it. You can do things I dont like, you can make money and not give me any, you can attribute the work to me or not, and you can tell me what youre up to or not, as you choose. You dont have to ask first ...
1 ATGGGAAAAA TCAGCAGTCT TCCAACCCAA TTATTTAAGT GCTGCTTTTG TGATTTCTTG 61 AAGGTGAAGA TGCACACCAT GTCCTCCTCG CATCTCTTCT ACCTGGCGCT GTGCCTGCTC 121 ACCTTCACCA GCTCTGCCAC GGCTGGACCG GAGACGCTCT GCGGGGCTGA GCTGGTGGAT 181 GCTCTTCAGT TCGTGTGTGG AGACAGGGGC TTTTATTTCA ACAAGCCCAC AGGGTATGGC 241 TCCAGCAGTC GGAGGGCGCC TCAGACAGGC ATCGTGGATG AGTGCTGCTT CCGGAGCTGT 301 GATCTAAGGA GGCTGGAGAT GTATTGCGCA CCCCTCAAGC CTGCCAAGTC AGCTCGCTCT 361 GTCCGTGCCC AGCGCCACAC CGACATGCCC AAGACCCAGA AGGAAGTACA TTTGAAGAAC 421 GCAAGTAGAG GGAGTGCAGG AAACAAGAAC TACAGGATGT AG ...
Rescue of the ABI3 coding region into a Gateway Entry vector. (A) Schematic diagram showing the location of primers and restriction enzyme sites used for analys
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Anantharaman TS, Mishra B, Schwartz D (1997). "Genomics via optical mapping. II: Ordered restriction maps". J Comput Biol. 4 (2 ... Anantharaman T, Mishra B, Schwartz D (1999). "Genomics via optical mapping. III: Contiging genomic DNA". Proc Int Conf Intell ... into the field of biostatistics and the application of Bayesian methods to the analysis of single molecule Optical Mapping ...
... {1953- }, Gwulo, 10 May 2019 Google (August 7, 2013). "Route Twisk Restrictions" (Map). Google Maps. Google. ... Route map: Template:Attached KML/Route Twisk KML is from Wikidata CentaLink map of Route Twisk (incorrectly labelled Tsuen Kam ... List of streets and roads in Hong Kong Google (August 6, 2013). "Route Twisk" (Map). Google Maps. Google. Retrieved August 6, ... Road; the correct English name is shown if the map is zoomed in). ...
In 2012, it returned with restriction of use. National Pipeline Maps can still be bought from PennWell Corporation. As of 2014 ... The National Pipeline Mapping System (NPMS) was removed for a number of months from public use after September 11, due to ... The user may zoom in to a map scale of 1:24,000. Buckeye's Liquid Transmission Pipeline Integrity Management Program PennWell ... Official website Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration in the Federal Register PHMSA Public Map Viewer - ...
"Restriction on maps in India". https://www.policycode.com/analysis/new-mapping-policy-to-be-promising-and-growth-ridden-step- ... Open Series Map (OSM): new map numbering system introduced as per the National Map Policy of 2005 by Survey of India. India and ... Many other rules govern the sale and use of Survey of India maps. Only an Indian citizen may purchase topographic maps and ... Survey of India publishes maps and the unrestricted category maps can be obtained at very affordable prices from its several ...
doi:10.1111/j.1574-6968.1990.tb04189.x. Labidi, A.; David, H.L.; Roulland-Dussoix, D. (1985). "Restriction endonuclease mapping ... Boyer, H.; Scibienski, E.; Slocum, H.; Roulland-Dussoix, D. (1971). "The in vitro restriction of the replicative form of W.T. ... She was one of the discoverers of restriction enzymes during her doctoral studies. There is controversy over whether she should ... Boyer, H.W; Roulland-Dussoix, D. (1969). "A complementation analysis of the restriction and modification of DNA in Escherichia ...
This restriction mapping sets up a fundamental correspondence: Theorem. Suppose G acts on X transitively with quasi-invariant ... In that case, each such measure is the image of (a totally finite version) of Haar measure on X by the map g ↦ g ⋅ x 0 . {\ ... We would like to show that there is actually a mapping on representations which corresponds to this relation. For finite groups ... We can write down explicit formulas for these representations by describing the restrictions to N and H. Case (1). The ...
He continued work on the phylogeny of Clarkia, using restriction site mapping of chloroplast DNA and then in 1996 Ford and ... restriction site mapping of chloroplast DNA". Systematic Botany. 15 (2): 280-295. doi:10.2307/2419184. JSTOR 2419184. Lee, J.; ... It wasn't until 1986 that he applied a newer molecular technique: chloroplast DNA variation using Restriction fragment length ...
The mapping approaches have certain restrictions on the kind of filters; However, it brings many important advantages, such as ... So we usually use appropriate mapping techniques to achieve perfect reconstruction.. A polyphase mapping method is proposed to ... Mapping based design in popularly used to design nonseparable multidimensional filter banks with good frequency responses. ... There are different mapping technique that can be used to get above result. If we do not want perfect reconstruction filter ...
The mapping approaches have certain restrictions on the kind of filters; however, it brings many important advantages, such as ... Mapping based design in popularly used to design nonseparable multidimensional filter banks with good frequency responses. ... There are different mapping technique that can be used to get above result. When perfect reconstruction is not needed, the ...
The size of restriction fragments determines the resolution of interaction mapping. Restriction enzymes (REs) that make cuts on ... The contact map value at each coordinate will be the true signal at that position times bias associated with the two contact ... There are two major ways of normalizing raw Hi-C contact heat maps. The first way is to assume equal visibility, meaning there ... Therefore, the true signal of a Hi-C contact map should be a balanced matrix (Balanced matrix has constant row sums and column ...
... inferred from ribosomal DNA restriction maps". Zoological Research. 17: 89-93.. *. Wiens, Frank (2002). Behavior and ecology of ... restriction enzymes,[48] and DNA sequences[49] were focused on understanding the relationships between a few species, not the ... an approach using mitochondrial DNA restriction enzyme analysis". International Journal of Primatology. 14 (1): 167-175. doi: ...
Plasmid Restriction map Vector (molecular biology) CGView Dong, X; Stothard P; Forsythe IJ; Wishart DS. (July 2004). " ... It is a particularly useful online service for molecular biologists wishing to generate plasmid maps without having to purchase ... restriction sites, reporter genes, affinity tags, selectable marker genes, origins of replication and open reading frames. ... "PlasMapper: a web server for drawing and auto-annotating plasmid maps". Nucleic Acids Research. 32 (Web Server issue): W660-4. ...
Kenny, Aisling (1 May 2020). "Taoiseach addresses nation on road map to ease restrictions". RTÉ News and Current Affairs. ... On 24 November, Tánaiste Leo Varadkar stated in Dáil Éireann that a third wave of restrictions may be required in the new year ... "Additional public health restrictions - people urged to stay at home". gov.ie. Department of the Taoiseach. 6 January 2021. ... "Current public health restrictions to continue until 5th April". gov.ie. Department of the Taoiseach. 23 February 2021. ...
Pesticide Action Network map of Lindane bans and restrictions. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007- ...
Kenny, Aisling (1 May 2020). "Taoiseach addresses nation on road map to ease restrictions". RTÉ News and Current Affairs. ... "Ireland placed on full Level 5 Restrictions of the Plan for Living with COVID-19". gov.ie. Department of the Taoiseach. 30 ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Easing of lockdown restrictions: A reminder of what we can and can't do from today". ... O'Brien, Carl (19 October 2020). "Covid-19: Schools and colleges to remain open during Level 5 restrictions". The Irish Times. ...
Kenny, Aisling (1 May 2020). "Taoiseach addresses nation on road map to ease restrictions". RTÉ News and Current Affairs. ... "The Covid-19 restrictions being lifted from Monday". RTÉ News and Current Affairs. 15 May 2020. Retrieved 22 June 2020. Thomas ... The Government of Ireland confirmed that phase one of easing the COVID-19 restrictions would begin on Monday 18 May. Among the ... Farrell, Peter (1 May 2020). "At a glance: What restrictions are going to be lifted and when?". RTÉ News and Current Affairs. ...
Kenny, Aisling (1 May 2020). "Taoiseach addresses nation on road map to ease restrictions". RTÉ News and Current Affairs. ... Travel restrictions from the United Kingdom to remain in place until 6 January 2021. On 31 December, a further 1,620 cases and ... Travel restrictions from the United Kingdom will remain in place until 31 December. On 23 December, in a statement from the ... Under Level 5 restrictions: Restaurants and gastro-pubs must close at 3pm on 24 December (Christmas Eve). Hotels may provide ...
"Internet Censorship 2020: A Global Map of Internet Restrictions". Comparitech. 2020-01-15. Retrieved 2020-10-29. "Boliva: anti- ...
In 2012 mass assignment on Ruby on Rails allowed bypassing of mapping restrictions and resulted in proof of concept injection ... In ASP.NET Core mapping restriction can be declared using the [BindNever] attribute. Data transfer object (DTO) "CWE-915: ... Many web application frameworks offer an active record and object-relational mapping features, where external data in ...
Jalel l'apiculteur flickr.com [Retrieved 2011-12-20] "Restriction Maps". colostate.edu. Archived from the original on 2015-11- ... cleavage maps obtained through the use of restriction enzymes showed that the Spanish honey bee contains mtDNA similar to ...
1992). "Gene analysis of Mennonite maple syrup urine disease kindred using primer-specified restriction map modification". J. ...
Current facilities, maps and restrictions are published by Metropolitan Transportation Commission. On October 21, 2020, the ...
"Restriction endonuclease mapping of a plasmid that confers oncogenicity upon Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain B6-806". Plasmid ... Some notable early milestones in the studies of Ti plasmids include the mapping of a Ti plasmid in 1978 and the studying of ... Engler G, Depicker A, Maenhaut R, Villarroel R, Van Montagu M, Schell J (October 1981). "Physical mapping of DNA base sequence ... Agrobacterium tumefaciens plasmid pTi-SAKURA, complete sequence Ti Plasmid Genetic Map Crown gall disease. ...
"Phylogenetic relationships among coprinoid taxa and allies based on data from restriction site mapping of nuclear rDNA" (PDF). ...
Botstein, D.; White, R.; Skolnick, M.; Davis, R. (1980). "Construction of a genetic linkage map in man using restriction ... Davis proposed a method for constructing a genetic linkage map using restriction fragment length polymorphisms that was used in ... Variations of this method were used in the mapping efforts that predated and enabled the sequencing phase of the Human Genome ... Retrieved 2006-10-19.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) The Daily Princetonian - Mapping the path of genetics Botstein, ...
The theorems are valid if one places certain restrictions on the maps involved. For example, the first isomorphism theorem ... that implies various restrictions on the homotopy type of G. Some of these restrictions hold in the broader context of H-spaces ... If X = Y then the image of this net under the addition map X × X → X denotes the sum of these two nets: x• + y• := ( xi + yj )( ... Checking continuity The product map is continuous if and only if for any x, y ∈ G and any neighborhood W of xy in G, there ...
Green, Matthew (November 8, 2016). "MAP: States With New Voting Restrictions in Place for the 2016 Presidential Election". KQED ... "New Voting Restrictions in America". Brennan Center for Justice. Berman, Ari (May 9, 2017). "Wisconsin's Voter-ID Law ... "Trump's incredible shrinking map". Politico. Retrieved January 12, 2017. Douglas, Schwartz (June 7, 2016). "Clinton tops Trump ... Haberman, Maggie (July 30, 2016). "Electoral Map Gives Donald Trump Few Places to Go". The New York Times. Retrieved July 31, ...
The game also imposes firearm restrictions based on each season in each map. The most prevalent restrictions are those that ... Nevada is the only map with no signs of civilization. Every other map has fences, trails, or buildings. Nevada is the only map ... The only map in the 2004 Season that does not border a map from its own game or this game is Texas. The game's guides to each ... The other maps either contain trails, or no trails at all. Nevada and Utah are the only maps that do not have trails. This rule ...
His highest cited paper is "Construction of a genetic linkage map in man using restriction fragment length polymorphisms" at ... Finally, Skolnick and his group developed a method called Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms (RFLPs) for genetic mapping ... "Construction of a genetic linkage map in man using restriction fragment length polymorphisms". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 32: 314-331. ... After that point on his group focused on this technique and started to map and clone genes that caused diseases. The first gene ...
Botstein, D.; White, R.; Skolnick, M.; Davis, R. (1980). "Construction of a genetic linkage map in man using restriction ... and Ray White developed the method for constructing a genetic linkage map using restriction fragment length polymorphisms that ... He and his colleagues submitted a proposal to NIH to map the human genome in 1979; that proposal was turned down as being too ... Davis developed the R-loop technique of electron microscopy for mapping coding RNAs which led to the discovery of RNA splicing ...
World map by countries: confirmed per capita *China. *Hospital beds by country ...
... the CDC recommends that restrictions on public activity, including travel restrictions, are not required for the following ... Reports emerged that maps of the area were inaccurate, not so much hampering medical providers as epidemiologists and officials ... the CDC defined four risk levels used to determine the level of 21-day monitoring for symptoms and restrictions on public ... "Most Maps of the New Ebola Outbreak Are Wrong: Villages, and sometimes whole regions of the Congo, are misplaced-but the ...
1. A graph homomorphism is a mapping from the vertex set of one graph to the vertex set of another graph that maps adjacent ... The word "class" is used rather than "set" because, unless special restrictions are made (such as restricting the vertices to ... A k-haven is a function that maps every set X of fewer than k vertices to one of its flaps, often satisfying additional ... This type of mapping between graphs is the one that is most commonly used in category-theoretic approaches to graph theory. A ...
... "support for workplace smoking restrictions is slightly higher than support for such restrictions in restaurants (84% vs. 79%). ... Prevalence of smoking and information on smoking bans in an interactive world map ... Smokers facing these restrictions consume 11%-15% less than average and quit at a rate that is 84% higher than average."[80] ... After this restriction was criticized as being "too harsh" by some members of the governing party CSU, it was relaxed one year ...
Map of Indian civilian exodus from Burma into Manipur, Bengal, and Assam, between January and July 1942 ... This easing of restrictions plus the ban on exports created about four months of relative price stability.[150] In mid-October ... 154-57; Iqbal 2010, chapter 6, see for example the map on page 187; Klein 1973. ...
"A1 (Croatia)" (Map). Google Maps. Google. Retrieved 16 March 2018.. *^ Željko Rogošić (30 November 2004). "Autocesta učinila ... The system comprises variable traffic signs used to communicate changing driving conditions, possible restrictions and other ...
"Human Brain Mapping. 30 (11): 3475-94. doi:10.1002/hbm.20771. PMC 2767459 . PMID 19387980.. ... The neuroscience of free will places restrictions on both compatibilist and incompatibilist free will conceptions. ... It suggests that the indeterminacy of agent volition processes could map to the indeterminacy of certain physical events - and ... map to the underlying indeterminacy of the physical construct. This relationship, however, requires a causative role over ...
Mapping multi-byte binary values to memory[edit]. Big-Endian. Little-Endian. ... even when alignment restrictions are imposed). For example, a 32-bit memory location with content 4A 00 00 00 can be read at ... Mapping this number as a binary value to a sequence of 4 bytes in memory in big-endian style also writes the bytes from left to ... This simplifies unaligned memory access as well as memory mapped access to registers other than 32 bit. With ARMv7 and later, ...
"Harlow Cycle Map" (PDF). Harlow Council.. *^ Memorial University - Department of Geography Archived 21 January 2008 at the ... In 2006 the entire South East of England was affected by drought, with Harlow covered by a water restriction order, preventing ...
Recent advances in mapping of the human genome have identified other genetic causes of low vision or blindness. One such ... Defined as having central visual acuity of less than 3/60 with normal fields of vision, or gross visual field restriction. ...
A map showing the main trade routes for goods within late medieval Europe. ... Policy issues featured in one survey of American Economic Association economists include trade restrictions, social insurance ...
A map of countries participating in the Youth Climate Movement Legend: Participating countries ...
This can be done by chemical-shift mapping, which is seeing which resonances are shifted upon binding of the other molecule, or ... made with restriction enzymes, was reported 1981.[12] This work was also the first report of nucleic acid NMR spectra obtained ... "A 300 MHz and 600 MHz proton NMR study of a 12 base pair restriction fragment: investigation of structure by relaxation ...
Roberts, RJ (1976). "Restriction endonucleases". CRC Crit. Rev. Biochem. 4 (2): 123-64. doi:10.3109/10409237609105456. PMID ... Other research foci: autism genetics; mapping of the mammalian brain; neural correlates of decision making. ... In 1973, Richard J. Roberts begins development and dissemination of a large library of restriction enzymes, basic tools for ...
c) Those states that did choose electors by popular vote had widely varying restrictions on suffrage via property requirements. ... the map above assumes that the presidential votes are exactly the votes for Adams or Jefferson. Green denotes states won by ...
... though some maps had started using this name as early as 1914. John Bowron himself died in 1906, and was extremely involved ... a number of other rules and restrictions have been established, all of which contribute to conservation efforts and/or help ...
"Aboriginal Protection and Restriction of the Sale of Opium Act 1897 (Qld)". Museum of Australian Democracy. Retrieved 19 ... "Skin pigmentation, biogeographical ancestry and admixture mapping" (PDF). Human Genetics. 112 (4): 387-399. doi:10.1007/s00439 ...
"The Pearl of the Antilles and the Crescent City: Historic Maps of the Caribbean in the Latin American Library Map Collections" ... In this period, the state legislature passed more restrictions on manumissions of slaves and virtually ended it in 1852.[35] ... Map of racial distribution in New Orleans, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people: White, Black, Asian, Hispanic, or Other ( ... "New Study Maps Rate of New Orleans Sinking". May 16, 2016.. *^ Brock, Eric J. New Orleans, Arcadia Publishing, Charleston, ...
A map of woman's suffrage successes as of 1917. The states that had adopted suffrage are colored white (or dotted and crosses, ... New Jersey, on confederation of the United States following the Revolutionary War, placed only one restriction on the general ...
There were restrictions for menstruating women and couples who were pregnant. Children were encouraged to be industrious ... Map of present-day reservations. Following acquisition of Ute territory from Mexico by the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo the ...
Syntactic mappings into RDF are specified[32][36] for languages in the OWL family. Several RDF serialization formats have been ... OWL DL includes all OWL language constructs, but they can be used only under certain restrictions (for example, number ... Each leads to a syntax for languages in the OWL family through this mapping. RDF/XML is normative.[32][36] ... It is used by OWL2 to specify semantics, mappings to exchange syntaxes and profiles.[34] ...
"NUJ warns Climate Camp over restrictions on media". National Union of Journalists. 7 August 2007.. ... Sipson would disappear from the map if the third runway at Heathrow was built.[26] ... "Village faces being wiped off map". BBC News Online. Retrieved 4 March 2008 ...
"A quantitative map of nucleotide substitution rates in bacterial rRNA". Nucleic Acids Research 24 (17): 3381-91. PMC 146102 ... "Diversity of uncultured microorganisms associated with the seagrass Halophila stipulacea estimated by restriction fragment ...
A Chinese quarter arose on Main Street, as there were no restrictions on foreign property ownership in Dakota Territory, and a ... Show map of the United States. Coordinates: 44°22′36″N 103°43′45″W / 44.37667°N 103.72917°W / 44.37667; -103.72917 ...
1882 Reynolds Map of the East End. Development has now eliminated the open fields shown on the earlier map. ... By 1824, with restrictions on importation of French silks relaxed, up to half these looms had become idle, and prices were ... Part of Charles Booth's poverty map showing the Old Nichol slum. Published 1889 in Life and Labour of the People in London. The ... Including maps, statistical trends and historical descriptions Vision of Britain - Population data: Metropolitan Borough of ...
In 1968, the EEOC declared age restrictions on flight attendants' employment to be illegal sex discrimination under Title VII ... The restriction of hiring only women was lifted at all airlines in 1971 due to the decisive court case of Diaz vs. Pan Am.[19] ... Regional carriers using small aircraft with low ceilings can have height restrictions. ... the weight restrictions,[21] were relaxed in the 1990s through litigation and negotiations.[22] By the end of the 1970s, the ...
"BSBI Distribution Maps, Papaver somniferum". London, U.K.: Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland.. ... as they don't produce the substance that is the basis for the restrictions.[5] ...
The homographies on P(A) are described by matrix mappings. U. (. z. ,. 1. ). (. a. c. b. d. ). =. U. (. z. a. +. b. ,. z. c. + ... Given another plane Q, which does not contain O, the restriction to Q of the above projection is called a perspectivity. ... There is therefore a unique homography h of this line onto F ∪ ∞ that maps a to ∞, b to 0, and c to 1. Given a fourth point on ... In a projective space, P, of dimension n ≥ 2, a collineation of P is a bijection from P onto P that maps lines onto lines. A ...
I may view the itinerary from my office on a large screen and want to see the map, or I may view it at the airport from my ... However, newer smartphones overcome some of these restrictions. Some problems which may be encountered include: *Small screen ...
"Mapping Europe's party systems: which parties are the most right-wing and left-wing in Europe?". London School of Economics / ... to the views of the mainstream parties by promoting the removal of restrictions on the number of foreign students, abolishing ... A map showing the representation of the Green Party of England and Wales at the Borough/City/District level of government, ... A map showing the representation of the Green Party of England and Wales at the County/Unitary Authority level of government. ...
function initMap() { const geocoder = new google.maps.Geocoder(); const map = new google.maps.Map(document.getElementById(map ... function initMap() { const geocoder = new google.maps.Geocoder(); const map = new google.maps.Map(document.getElementById(map ... new google.maps.Geocoder(); const map = new google.maps.Map(document.getElementById(map), { zoom: 8, center: { lat: -33.865, ... map); } ); } function geocodeAddress(geocoder: google.maps.Geocoder, map: google.maps.Map) { geocoder.geocode( { ...
Start Dreaming: Check out our brand-new Travel Restriction Map. You can now use MyDiveGuide and the Center Locator to plan your ... SSI has created a Travel Restriction Map to give you an overview of where you can and cannot travel to SSI Training Centers, in ... COVID 19 has created travel restrictions worldwide. Since travel is such an integral part of our sport, the diving industry has ... World Travel Restrictions (United Nations World Food Programme - Emergency Division in collaboration with Management Services ...
Two algorithms are described that rapidly construct restriction maps of DNA molecules from single- and double-digest data. The ... Algorithms for the restriction-site mapping of DNA molecules. M Krawczak. PNAS October 1, 1988 85 (19) 7298-7301; https://doi. ... implementation of these algorithms into the Pascal programs AMAPK and AMARD allows such mapping to be done on microcomputers. ...
You have isolated DNA of a 500 bp EcoRI restriction fragment and you would like to determine its restriction map. The enzyme ... A 1000 bp EcoRI restriction fragment contains a gene you are interested in. As a first step, you construct a restriction map of ... a) Draw a restriction map of the fragment and show the distances, in base pairs, between the HindIII, EcoRI, and SmaI sites. ... Draw a restriction map of the fragment and show the distances, in base pairs, between the HindIII, SmaI, and EcoRI sites. Next ...
function initMap() { var geocoder = new google.maps.Geocoder; var map = new google.maps.Map(document.getElementById(map), { ... new google.maps.Geocoder; var map = new google.maps.Map(document.getElementById(map), { zoom: 8, center: {lat: -33.865, lng: ... map,,/div,. /* Always set the map height explicitly to define the size of the div * element that contains the map. */ #map { ... map.setCenter(results[0].geometry.location); new google.maps.Marker({ map: map, position: results[0].geometry.location }); } ...
... Send questions or suggestions to SGD. BLAST search , Genome Restriction Map , Design Primers for ...
... Send questions or suggestions to SGD. BLAST search , Genome Restriction Map , Design Primers ...
... Danny Reda reda at globalserve.net Mon Dec 21 02:34:33 EST 1998 *Previous ... graphical maps! Go from sequence to fully labeled, colorful map in ONE mouse click! * Paste maps into other Windows ... Map restriction sites using an included tool set of nearly 1000 enzymes (much more than you get with other programs). Select ... Edit maps in a WYSIWYG environment so that printed output matches whats on the screen. * Instantly parse sequence files on ...
Restriction enzymes function like a primitive immune system. Bacteria use these enzymes to cut DNA from foreign sources, like ... Other Type II restriction enzymes generate blunt ends by cutting in the middle of the palindrome. For example, the enzyme SmaI ... Restriction enzymes function like a primitive immune system. Bacteria use these enzymes to cut DNA from foreign sources, like ... Molecular biologists use restriction endonucleases (the term endonuclease means that the enzyme cuts nucleic acids in the ...
Google is adding features on its Maps service to alert users about COVID-19-related travel restrictions to help them plan their ... Reuters) - Google is adding features on its Maps service to alert users about COVID-19-related travel restrictions to help them ... Google has invested billions of dollars from its search ads business to digitally map the world, drawing 1 billion users on ... The new features would also include details on COVID-19 checkpoints and restrictions on crossing national borders, starting ...
NO CUT ENZYMES ( 98 enzymes) # ################################## AatII AccIII AclI AcyI AflIII AgeI Alw44I ApaLI AscI AspHI AspI AvrII BbeI BbrPI BcgI BciVI BglII BlnI BlpI Bpu1102I BsaBI BsaHI BsaWI BseAI BsiEI BsiHKAI BsiWI BsmBI BsmI BspDI BspEI BspLU11I BssHII BssSI Bst1107I BstXI BstZ17I CelII ClaI CpoI DraI DraIII DrdI DsaI EagI EclXI Eco52I EcoT22I FseI HgaI Hin1I HincII HindII HindIII HpaI KasI KspI MamI MfeI MluI MroI MunI NarI NcoI NdeI NheI NotI NruI NsiI NspI PacI PaeR7I PflFI PinAI PmaCI PmeI PmlI PshAI Psp1406I PvuI RsrII SacI SacII SalI SapI SbfI ScaI SfiI SfoI SgrAI SnaBI SphI Sse8387I SspI SwaI Tth111I XbaI XhoI ################################### # ONE CUT ENZYMES ( 48 enzymes) # ################################### Acc65I 1329 GGTACC G^GTACC AflII 447 CTTAAG C^TTAAG Aor51HI 808 AGCGCT AGC^GCT ApaI 743 GGGCCC GGGCC^C AseI 2200 ATTAAT AT^TAAT AsnI 2200 ATTAAT AT^TAAT Asp700I 2385 GAACAAATTC GAA[ACGT][ACGT]^[ACGT][ACGT]TTC Asp718I 1329 GGTACC G^GTACC AviII 10 TGCGCA TGC^GCA BamHI ...
NO CUT ENZYMES ( 88 enzymes) # ################################## AatII AccI AccIII AclI AcsI AflII AflIII AgeI ApoI AscI AseI AsnI AviII AvrII BbeI BbrPI BciVI BclI BfrI BlnI BsaAI BseAI BsiWI BspDI BspEI BspHI BspLU11I BssHII BssSI Bst1107I BstBI BstEII BstPI BstZ17I ClaI CpoI DraI DrdI EcoO65I EcoRI EcoRV EcoT22I FbaI FseI FspI HindIII HpaI KasI KspI MfeI MluI MroI MunI NarI NdeI NheI NotI NruI NsiI NspV PacI PaeR7I PinAI PmaCI PmeI PmlI PshBI Psp1406I PvuI RcaI RsrII SacI SacII SalI SapI SbfI ScaI SfoI SfuI SgrAI SnaBI SpeI SphI Sse8387I SspI SwaI XbaI XhoI ################################### # ONE CUT ENZYMES ( 53 enzymes) # ################################### Acc65I 3579 GGTACC G^GTACC AcyI 468 GACGCC G[GA]^CG[CT]C AhdI 945 GACAGCACGTC GAC[ACGT][ACGT][ACGT]^[ACGT][ACGT]GTC Alw44I 4308 GTGCAC G^TGCAC Aor51HI 293 AGCGCT AGC^GCT ApaLI 4308 GTGCAC G^TGCAC Asp700I 1512 GAAAAACTTC GAA[ACGT][ACGT]^[ACGT][ACGT]TTC Asp718I 3579 GGTACC G^GTACC AspEI 945 GACAGCACGTC ...
... Identifier: 0741-b28-fb-v28.b.37 Greenville street map where over-night parking is going to be ... Greenville (N.C.)--Maps. Finding Aid. Daily Reflector Negative Collection. Other Items. in this box in this collection ... North Carolina Maps Collection. Subject(s). Automobile parking--Law and legislation--North Carolina--Greenville. ... Greenville street map where over-night parking is going to be restricted. Date from negative sleeve. ...
You Are Here: Home » Government Documents, Health Care, Transportation » AAA COVID-19 Travel Restrictions Map ... "This map contains the most up-to-date information on COVID-19 related travel restrictions within the US and Canada. It also ... This map is created and maintained by AAA GIS Data Services at the National Office in Heathrow, FL." The data on this map ... AAA COVID-19 Travel Restrictions Map. by Sabrina I. Pacifici on Aug 3, 2020. ...
This is accomplished by digesting lambda DNA with the 3 restriction enzymes alone and in combination. A restriction map can be ... This kit provides data that allow students to assemble a map of cutting sites for ApaI, Eco0109I, and HindIII on the genome of ... A restriction map can be generated by using information gained from the electrophoresis of the lambda restriction fragments. ... A restriction map can be generated by using information gained from the electrophoresis of the lambda restriction fragments. ...
Click on each port or country in the map below for more details. Map will be updated on a daily basis, thrice per day. Last ... With your safety as our priority, we have created an overview of port restrictions worldwide. ... ports are imposing various restrictions on vessels and crew. ... Coronavirus - Global Port Restrictions Map Due to the current ... Coronavirus - Global Port Restrictions Map. Due to the current Coronavirus outbreak, ports are imposing various restrictions on ...
Template talk:DE:Map Features:restrictions. From OpenStreetMap Wiki. (Redirected from Template talk:De:Map Features: ... Retrieved from "http://wiki.openstreetmap.org/w/index.php?title=Template_talk:DE:Map_Features:restrictions&oldid=1061453" ...
Google Maps to alert users about COVID-19-related travel restrictions Reuters June 09, 2020 11:27 IST Updated: June 09, 2020 12 ... Google is adding features on its Maps service to alert users about COVID-19-related travel restrictions to help them plan their ... www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/technology/google-maps-to-alert-users-about-covid-19-related-travel-restrictions/article31784846.ece ... Google has invested billions of dollars from its search ads business to digitally map the world, drawing 1 billion users on ...
plasmid restriction map- free software - (Nov/10/2004 ). hi, I want to find a free software to generate plasmid map using ... restriction digesion of the plasmid . any body know where to find?. chandima ...
A restriction map is a map of known restriction sites within a sequence of DNA. Restriction mapping requires the use of ... such as mapping by transduction. One approach in constructing a restriction map of a DNA molecule is to sequence the whole ... Restriction mapping is a very useful technique when used for determining the orientation of an insert in a cloning vector, by ... In molecular biology, restriction maps are used as a reference to engineer plasmids or other relatively short pieces of DNA, ...
Restriction Mapping. You are here. Home » Products » Sequencher » Sequencher Features » Sanger Sequencing » Restriction Mapping ... Restriction Mapping. Sequencher provides a rich set of tools for generating linear restriction maps of your DNA sequence. ...
p,Please visit DNA Sequences and Maps for complete sequence and restriction maps of all our vectors.,/p, ,p,,a target=_blank ... FAQ: Where can I find sequence and restriction maps of NEBs expression vectors?. Please visit DNA Sequences and Maps for ... complete sequence and restriction maps of all our vectors.. NEBcutter®, a computer program for restriction enzyme site mapping ... Home FAQs Where can I find sequence and restriction maps of NEBs expression vectors? ...
... Across town or across the ... Maps will alert users to testing checkpoints along the way and any travel restrictions. These pushes are available for ... Plus, Maps will show its live busyness tracker at the top of schedule boards for transit stations in the next few weeks - the ... Still, movement restrictions are in place and, for transit riders, service reductions and mask requirements remain the name of ...
The company set up a new interactive map that highlights where, exactly, we can travel to within the United St ... This map shows where you can travel within the United States and what restrictions are in place. This one comes courtesy of ... Site map. © 2021 Time Out England Limited and affiliated companies owned by Time Out Group Plc. All rights reserved. Time Out ... The company set up a new interactive map that highlights where, exactly, we can travel to within the United States and what ...
Restriction Mapping. Discussion of all aspects of biological molecules, biochemical processes and laboratory procedures in the ... Agronomy, I believe you can easily find a restriction map of that plasmid on the web, so that you can answer your question ... Provided there is at least one restriction site for the said enzyme in your sequence. Of course ...
RFLP maps and sequencing of RFLP probes: The present study is based on the Igri × Franka molecular linkage map (I/F map; Graner ... 1996 Genetic map of diploid wheat Triticum monococcum L., and its comparison with maps of Hordeum vulgare L. Genetics 143: 983- ... On the basis of the gene collinearity among Triticeae, Hohmann et al. (1995b) mapped many RFLP markers of the I/F map 7H to a ... Cytologically Integrated Physical Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Maps for the Barley Genome Based on Translocation ...
HaeII and HaeIII that was determined by the analysis of restriction enzyme cleavage patterns of ColEl, two independent ColEl:: ... This paper reports a cleavage site map of Tn5 for restriction enzymes BamHI, Bg/I, Bg/II, Hind II, HindIII, HpaI, Sa/I, Aval, ... A restriction enzyme cleavage map of Tn5 and location of a region encoding neomycin resistance Mol Gen Genet. 1979;177(1):65-72 ... This paper reports a cleavage site map of Tn5 for restriction enzymes BamHI, Bg/I, Bg/II, Hind II, HindIII, HpaI, Sa/I, Aval, ...
The map relies on IATA s Timatic database which is updated more than 200 times per day to provide accurate travel restrictions ... IATA has launched a free online interactive world map to provide travelers with the latest COVID19 entry regulations by country ... The map relies on IATA s Timatic database which is updated more than 200 times per day to provide accurate travel restrictions ... Increase in Freighter Movements IATA Launches Interactive Map with Latest COVID19 Travel Restrictions White Glove Service at ...
A cladistic analysis of phenotypic associations with haplotypes inferred from restriction endonuclease mapping. IV. Nested ... A cladistic analysis of phenotypic associations with haplotypes inferred from restriction endonuclease mapping. IV. Nested ... A cladistic analysis of phenotypic associations with haplotypes inferred from restriction endonuclease mapping. IV. Nested ... A cladistic analysis of phenotypic associations with haplotypes inferred from restriction endonuclease mapping. IV. Nested ...
... was sampled to construct a linkage map using restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-Seq). With low coverage data, ... The genetic linkage map coverage, Coa, was 97.24%. Thirty-nine QTL-peak loci, for seven growth-related traits, were identified ... A total of 1373 segregating SNPs were used to construct a sex-average linkage map. This spanned 1091.81 centimorgans (cM), with ... To obtain more genetic information for breeding purposes, we constructed a high-density linkage map of P. fucata and identified ...
  • If you digested the Salmonella typhimurium chromosome with a restriction endonuclease that recognizes a 8 bp DNA sequence, how many DNA fragments would you expect to obtain? (sdsu.edu)
  • Molecular biologists use restriction endonucleases (the term endonuclease means that the enzyme cuts nucleic acids in the middle of a molecule rather than from one end) to cleave DNAs because these enzymes cut only DNA, and more importantly, only at particular short sequences in the double helix. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • If all of the digests produce fragments that add up one may infer the position of the REN (restriction endonuclease) sites by placing them in spots on the original DNA fragment that would satisfy the fragment sizes produced by all three digests. (wikipedia.org)
  • A cladistic analysis of phenotypic associations with haplotypes inferred from restriction endonuclease mapping. (genetics.org)
  • Restriction endonuclease mapping of cellular DNA has been used to identify chromosomes that carry the mutant Hb Presbyterian β-globin genes in a family with individuals heterozygous for this disease. (springer.com)
  • Phillips JA, Pawny SR, Kazazian HH Jr, Boehm CO, Scott AF, Smith KO (1980) Prenatal diagnosis of sickle cell anemia by restriction endonuclease analysis: Hind III polymorphisms in γ-globin genes extend test applicability. (springer.com)
  • Tuan D, Biro PA, De Riel JK, Lazarus H, Forget BG (1979) Restriction endonuclease mapping of the human γ-globin gene loci. (springer.com)
  • Comparative restriction endonuclease maps of proviral DNA of the primate type C simian sarcoma-associated virus and gibbon ape leukemia virus group. (asm.org)
  • These proviral DNA molecules were digested with different restriction endonucleases, and the resultant fragments were oriented to the viral RNA by a combination of partial digestions, codigestion with more than one endonuclease, digestion of integrated proviral DNA, and hybridization with 3'- and 5'-specific viral probes. (asm.org)
  • The genomic DNA, after digestion with restriction endonuclease and electrophoresis, may give rise to a continuous array of different sizes of fragments. (qforquestions.com)
  • The gDNA was digested with restriction endonucleases and subjected to agarose gel electrophoresis. (jyi.org)
  • These variations are monitored as changes in the length of defined individual DNA fragments produced by digestion of DNA sample is restriction endonucleases. (qforquestions.com)
  • Specific restriction enzymes, called restriction endonucleases, insert segments of DNA into existing segments of DNA, essentially making them a part of an organism's genome. (livestrong.com)
  • Drs. Mary Campbell and Shawn Farrell, in their book "Biochemistry," explain that by using this property of restriction endonucleases, biochemical researchers can make bacterial species include non-native sequences in their DNA, and produce non-native proteins. (livestrong.com)
  • A restriction map can be generated by using information gained from the electrophoresis of the lambda restriction fragments. (carolina.com)
  • Ordered restriction maps were then created from genomic DNA without reliance on cloned or amplified sequences for hybridization or analytical gel electrophoresis. (sciencemag.org)
  • If we take a DNA sample, digest it with a specific restriction enzyme and then subject the sample to gel electrophoresis, we will notice a series of band on the gel slab or cylinder. (qforquestions.com)
  • Goal for this lab: Purify the amplified DNA from first lab, digest it with restriction enzymes, and assess the results with gel electrophoresis. (umass.edu)
  • By determining the fragment size and using agarose gel electrophoresis, the relative positions of the restriction sites can be mapped. (discoveringdna.com)
  • In this activity students will perform agarose electrophoresis on three DNA samples that have already been treated with restriction enzymes. (isaactech.com)
  • In this experiment, DNA markers and pre-digested plasmid DNA fragments are mapped using agarose gel electrophoresis. (edvotek.com)
  • Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFG) showed that the restriction enzyme Not I produced ten and six DNA fragments from the genomes of S. mutans strain MT8148 and S. sobrinus strain 6715, respectively. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Another technique of molecular genetic markers in the form of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) is helpful. (qforquestions.com)
  • Therefore these variations are termed as restriction fragment length polymorphisms. (qforquestions.com)
  • This approach significantly reduces the uncertainty of clone placement by using clone ends to synchronize the positionin of clones within different maps, each map being constructed from fragment-length data produced by digestion of each clone with a specific restriction enzyme. (wustl.edu)
  • In molecular biology, restriction maps are used as a reference to engineer plasmids or other relatively short pieces of DNA, and sometimes for longer genomic DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Optical mapping is a genomic technology, pioneered by David Schwartz, which can map the location of restriction sites along a genomic chromosome. (umd.edu)
  • The objective of the present study was to construct a high-density linkage map using SNPs generated by next-generation RAD sequencing in S. meridionalis for future genetic and genomic studies. (nih.gov)
  • In order to improve our knowledge of the human immunoglobulin variable lambda locus (IGLV), we mapped one cosmid clone (designated as C40.2) isolated by screening a Colo320HSR genomic library. (cnrs.fr)
  • Large regions of genomic colinearity have been demonstrated among grass species by recombinational mapping, but the degree of chromosomal conservation at the sub-centimorgan level has not been extensively investigated. (pnas.org)
  • Chromosome Conformation Capture Carbon Copy (5C): a massively parallel solution for mapping interactions between genomic elements. (nature.com)
  • The modern optical mapping platform works as follows: Genomic DNA is obtained from lysed cells, and randomly sheared to produce a "library" of large genomic molecules for optical mapping. (wikipedia.org)
  • Individual optical maps are combined to produce a consensus, genomic optical map. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, since maps are constructed directly from genomic DNA molecules, cloning or PCR artifacts are avoided. (wikipedia.org)
  • In practice, multiple optical maps are created from molecules of the same genomic region, and an algorithm is used to determine the best consensus map. (wikipedia.org)
  • To serve as scaffolds for assembly, assembled sequence contigs can be scanned for restriction sites in silico using known sequence data and aligning them to the assembled genomic optical map. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasmid lets you: * Draw high resolution, publication quality circular or linear maps, with or without DNA sequences. (bio.net)
  • The most useful enzymes are the so‐called Type II restriction enzymes that cut double‐stranded DNA at short palindromic sequences ( palindromes are sequences that read the same in the 5′ to 3′ direction). (cliffsnotes.com)
  • Please visit DNA Sequences and Maps for complete sequence and restriction maps of all our vectors. (neb.com)
  • NEBcutter® , a computer program for restriction enzyme site mapping, accepts sequences from local files, GenBank or input sequence pasted into a designated field. (neb.com)
  • These enzymes cut, or digest, DNA molecules at short, specific sequences termed as restriction sites. (qforquestions.com)
  • http://www.neb.com/nebecomm/tech_reference/ restriction _enzymes/dna_sequences_ maps .asp? (yahoo.com)
  • Is the Subject Area "Chromosome mapping" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
  • Particularly common, and troublesome for gene mapping programs, are segmental duplications at adjacent sites on the same chromosome arm ( 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • Forty-six second-chromosome lines of Drosophila melanogaster isolated from five natural populations were surveyed for restriction map variation in a 65-kb region surrounding the gene (Ddc) encoding dopa decarboxylase (DDC). (mysciencework.com)
  • The findings for barley support the conclusions drawn from deletion mapping in wheat that for all plant genomes, notwithstanding their size, the marker-rich regions are all of similar gene density and recombination activity and, therefore, should be equally accessible to map-based cloning. (genetics.org)
  • MOLECULAR linkage maps of cereals are improved rapidly by adding new types of markers, by merging different species-specific maps and by comparative mapping of markers between related genomes. (genetics.org)
  • In contrast, the restriction sites within the unique portion of the provirus were not strongly conserved within this group of viruses, even though they were related along most of their genomes. (asm.org)
  • The use of common sets of DNA markers to map higher plant genomes has uncovered extensive conservation of both gene content and gene order in the grasses ( 1 - 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • Commercial company, Opgen has provided optical mappings for microbial genomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • For larger eukaryotic genomes, only the David C. Schwartz lab (now at Madison-Wisconsin) has produced optical maps for mouse, human, rice, and maize. (wikipedia.org)
  • The size of the resulting individual restriction fragments was determined by relative fluorescence intensity and apparent molecular contour length. (sciencemag.org)
  • try to recheck ur answer by predicting the fragment lengths on digestion using the plasim map u suspected. (biology-online.org)
  • You can also annotate restriction fragments for each of the digestion reactions you showed above. (biostars.org)
  • Restriction enzyme digestion of elongated individual DNA molecules (about 0.2 to 1.0 megabases in size) was imaged by fluorescence microscopy after fixation in agarose gel. (sciencemag.org)
  • GCK eliminates tedious examination of DNA sequence data by automatically identifying open reading frames (ORF's), keeping track of sticky ends during cutting and pasting of restriction enzyme digestion fragments, assisting with PCR primer design , and enabling comprehensive annotation of DNA sequence features. (textco.com)
  • The DNA molecule is digested by added restriction enzymes, which cleave at specific digestion sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • COVID 19 has created travel restrictions worldwide. (divessi.com)
  • Reuters) - Google is adding features on its Maps service to alert users about COVID-19-related travel restrictions to help them plan their trips better, the Alphabet Inc ( GOOGL.O ) unit said on Monday. (reuters.com)
  • The new features would also include details on COVID-19 checkpoints and restrictions on crossing national borders, starting with Canada, Mexico and the United States. (reuters.com)
  • As announced on May 4, all COVID-19 mitigation restrictions except for mask-wearing will be lifted on Memorial Day. (lehighvalleylive.com)
  • Just in time for Memorial Day - in fact, exactly on Memorial Day - all COVID-19 mitigation restrictions, except for mask-wearing, will be lifted, per an announcement from Wolf and the state's COVID-19 Vaccine Joint Task Force. (lehighvalleylive.com)
  • Some are calling it a wake-up call, and more COVID-19 restrictions will now be in place. (wishtv.com)
  • With the COVID-19 outbreak, ports are imposing various restrictions on vessels and crew. (oceanplus.gr)
  • If you need some assistance keeping track of everything, you may be interested in United Airlines' new interactive map -a resource to help us navigate the variety of evolving COVID travel restrictions. (orbviral.com)
  • Regardless of whether you're actually flying with United (or any other airline) any time soon, the map is an easy-to-use updated resource on COVID travel information. (orbviral.com)
  • Because of the Covid-19 pandemic that affects the entire planet, many countries imposed strong travel restrictions , especially by air. (freshupnews.com)
  • The United States, the country with the most Covid-19 infections in the world, applies restrictions total to travelers from about 30 European and Asian countries. (freshupnews.com)
  • You will immediately begin to receive notifications and daily alerts about the number of cases, restrictions health or any data of interest related to the Covid-19 pandemic. (freshupnews.com)
  • The Alphabet Inc. unit said Google is adding features to its Maps services to alert users to travel restrictions related to the Covid-19 to improve their travel plans. (enews.pk)
  • Commenting on the new restrictions in Wolverhampton, Ian Brookfield, the leader of the city council, said: "All the evidence shows that close contact within the home or between households is a major cause of the spread of Covid-19. (yahoo.com)
  • Farmington - 2020 Fireworks Restrictions, Map, and Safety Fayette - As of June 30 2020 Fayette does not have any restrictions on fireworks above what the state of Utah policy and guidelines are. (maxxtec.com.br)
  • Fire Restrictions Effective on Nov. 11, 2020, at 8:00 a.m., fire restrictions for Bureau of Land Management (BLM) lands administered by the Arizona Strip District will be lifted. (maxxtec.com.br)
  • Stage I Fire Restrictions have been put in place on all National Forest System lands described in linked Order, all within the exterior boundaries of the Pine Valley, Cedar City, Powell, and Escalante Ranger Districts of the Dixie National Forest beginning June 26, 2020 at 00:01 a.m. and continuing until further notice. (maxxtec.com.br)
  • Restriction fragments were visualized with ethidium bromide staining and subjected to Southern hybridization with a digoxigenin labeled probe of the full length LdLIP3 gene. (jyi.org)
  • Whereas the 5' 60 to 70% of the RNA of these viruses was more closely related by liquid hybridization experiments than was the 3' 30 to 40%, restriction sites within this region were not preferentially conserved, suggesting that small sequence differences or point mutations or both exist throughout the entire unique portion of the genome among these viruses. (asm.org)
  • Some of the features of restriction map can be confirmed by nucleic acid hybridization. (qforquestions.com)
  • Draw a restriction map of the fragment and show the distances, in base pairs, between the Hin dIII, Sma I, and Eco RI sites. (sdsu.edu)
  • a) Draw a restriction map of the fragment and show the distances, in base pairs, between the Hind III, Eco RI, and Sma I sites. (sdsu.edu)
  • Map restriction sites using an included tool set of nearly 1000 enzymes (much more than you get with other programs). (bio.net)
  • By finding restriction sites that other programs may miss, Plasmid can help you design more efficient cloning experiments. (bio.net)
  • This kit provides data that allow students to assemble a map of cutting sites for ApaI , Eco 0109I, and Hin dIII on the genome of the lambda virus. (carolina.com)
  • A restriction map is a map of known restriction sites within a sequence of DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • One approach in constructing a restriction map of a DNA molecule is to sequence the whole molecule and to run the sequence through a computer program that will find the recognition sites that are present for every restriction enzyme known. (wikipedia.org)
  • To find the relative positions of restriction sites on a plasmid, a technique involving single and double restriction digests is used. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bonus points: the gadget also highlights guidelines involving things to do in the area (think restrictions involving restaurants, museums and sites, shops and tourist accommodations, for example). (timeout.com)
  • Thens you can take a look on where the restriction sites for both enzymes located from the combined enzyme data. (biology-online.org)
  • Antonarakis SE, Boehm CD, Giardina PJV, Kazazian HH Jr (1982) Nonrandom association of polymorphic restriction sites in the β-globin gene cluster. (springer.com)
  • Four restriction enzymes (KpnI, SmaI, PstI, and SstI) recognized sites within the large terminal redundancies, and these sites were conserved within all the isolates tested. (asm.org)
  • if you then display restriction enzyme sites with the appropriate option, you obtain your restriction map. (biostars.org)
  • Restriction mapping is a physical mapping technique to determine the relative location of restriction sites on a DNA fragment to give a restriction map. (qforquestions.com)
  • Using this information, we can find the overlapping regions in A and B digests and find out the sites of cleavage by A and B. This will then allow us to prepare the restriction map as we can see in Figure.2. (qforquestions.com)
  • Fig:1 Construction of restriction map showing restriction sites of enzymes A and B in two overlapping fragments. (qforquestions.com)
  • It is because the restriction sites often do not change due to mutation. (qforquestions.com)
  • We have mapped homologues of these two genes to tightly linked sites in the homeologous region of the sorghum genome (A. Melake-Berhan, and J.L.B., unpublished observation). (pnas.org)
  • Restriction enzymes cut DNA at specific sites. (livestrong.com)
  • Specifically, bacteria use restriction enzymes to cut DNA at specific sites. (livestrong.com)
  • Conclude how many EcoRV restriction-enzyme sites there must be in the Control plasmid, and how many EcoRV restriction-enzyme sites there must be in Clone 15, and explain your answer. (assignmenthelps.co.uk)
  • Use this information to draw a map of Clone 15 (similar to the map of pBP1 in Figure 1) which shows the location of Gene X, the LacZ gene, the HindIII sites, and the EcoRV sites, and gives the distances (in kilobases) between each of these restriction- enzyme sites. (assignmenthelps.co.uk)
  • Sixty-nine restriction sites were scored, 13 of which were polymorphic. (mysciencework.com)
  • Basic definitions of different kinds of maps, such as restriction sites maps, restriction fragment maps and clone end maps, are presented. (wustl.edu)
  • By mapping the location of restriction enzyme sites along the unknown DNA of an organism, the spectrum of resulting DNA fragments collectively serves as a unique "fingerprint" or "barcode" for that sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, each OM process is still affected by false positive and negative sites because not all restriction sites are cleaved in each molecule and some sites may be incorrectly cut. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two algorithms are described that rapidly construct restriction maps of DNA molecules from single- and double-digest data. (pnas.org)
  • There are other ways of mapping features on DNA for longer length DNA molecules, such as mapping by transduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • This produces an optical map of single molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • An improvement on optical mapping, called "Nanocoding", has potential to boost throughput by trapping elongated DNA molecules in nanoconfinements. (wikipedia.org)
  • 病原性之動物病毒。基於核酸序列分析(sequence analysis)及限制酶切寓圖( restriction enzyme cleavage (yahoo.com)
  • Complete cleavage maps were established for the enzymes EcoRI, Sal and Sma and an almost complete map for HindIII. (elsevier.com)
  • Restriction enzyme was pre-mixed with the molten agarose before DNA placement and cleavage was triggered by addition of magnesium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Redasoft Plasmid 1.0 is an exciting new software tool designed to help life scientists create and publish high quality vector maps and perform DNA sequence analysis quickly and easily. (bio.net)
  • The Chinese hamster HPRT gene: restriction map, sequence analysis, and multiplex PCR deletion screen. (openrepository.com)
  • How could you identify clones that contained opposite orientations of fragment a without sequencing the DNA or using restriction enzymes? (sdsu.edu)
  • In our project we plan to rely on the complementary strengths of mapping and sequencing data to help improve genome assembly. (umd.edu)
  • Restriction site−associated DNA sequencing produced 4661 polymorphic single-nucleotide polymorphism loci after strict filtering. (g3journal.org)
  • Restriction Mapping and DNA Sequencing. (pnas.org)
  • Optical sequencing is a single molecule DNA sequencing technique that follows sequence-by-synthesis and uses optical mapping technology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whether you are a catalog company selling engineered plasmids or are performing restriction analysis for recombinant cloning experiments, SimVector will help you simulate the experiments and create publication quality plasmid maps from start to finish. (premierbiosoft.com)
  • Scientists can also use restriction enzymes to map plasmids, through a process called restriction mapping. (livestrong.com)
  • Researchers often want to map plasmids in order to produce specific plasmids, which they then use to insert a specific DNA sequence into a bacterial population, explain Drs. Campbell and Farrell. (livestrong.com)
  • 300 genetically mapped RFLP probes. (genetics.org)
  • The regions of highest recombination frequency (≤1 Mb/cM) correspond to only 4.9% of the total barley genome and harbor 47.3% of the 429 markers of the studied RFLP map. (genetics.org)
  • glycinea Kuan and Erwin were mapped with RFLP markers in the second study. (iastate.edu)
  • The mapping was conducted by first screening, with RFLP markers, a series of near isogenic lines (NILs). (iastate.edu)
  • Linkage was found between RFLP markers and Rps1, Rps2, Rps3, Rps4 and Rps5;A variant for the A[subscript]4 polypeptide of the glycinin storage protein was mapped and genetically analyzed in the third study. (iastate.edu)
  • The variant was identified in PI 468916, the G. soja parent of the population being used to form a public RFLP map. (iastate.edu)
  • The individuals in the population used to form the RFLP map were evaluated for the segregation of the A[subscript]4 polypeptide. (iastate.edu)
  • This segregation data was integrated with the RFLP segregation data set and was used to genetically map Gy4, the gene that encodes A[subscript]4. (iastate.edu)
  • Length Polymorphism),當時精神不好把 RFLP 跟 restriction map 搞混了。 限制酶圖譜講的 (yahoo.com)
  • A circular bacterial plasmid (pBP1 shown in Figure 1) has a single HindIII restriction-enzyme site (red line) in the middle of its LacZ gene (blue box) that can be used for blue / white selection during gene cloning. (assignmenthelps.co.uk)
  • Clone 15 was studied further by restriction analysis using HindIII and another restriction enzyme, EcoRV. (assignmenthelps.co.uk)
  • The restriction enzymes HindIII and EcoRI produce 16 and 7 fragments respectively, whereas Sal and Sma produce 4 fragments each. (elsevier.com)
  • The TRIMs were cut with restriction enzymes HindIII and Xbal as well as HindIII and XhoI in order to try to correctly extract the TRIM from the plasmid at the correct spot. (lifeandbiology.com)
  • I'm having problem drawing a plasmid map with the following combination enzymes. (biology-online.org)
  • now try to make out the only Hind result from this to narrow down the possible plasmid map possibilities. (biology-online.org)
  • Efficient use of the resulting dense maps, therefore, requires detailed insights into the relationship between genetic and physical distances. (genetics.org)
  • An alternative approach is to integrate physical landmarks into genetic maps. (genetics.org)
  • Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and high-density genetic maps are important resources for marker-assisted selection, mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and genome structure analysis. (nih.gov)
  • Recently developed restriction site-associated DNA (RAD) markers have proved to be a promising tool for SNP detection and genetic map construction. (nih.gov)
  • Among these markers, 4514 were linked to the female genetic map, 23 718 to the male map and 6715 effective loci were linked to the integrated map spanning 5918.31 centimorgans (cM), with an average marker interval of 0.89 cM. (nih.gov)
  • High-resolution genetic maps are a useful tool for both marker-assisted breeding and various genome investigations in catfish, such as sequence assembly, gene localization, QTL detection and genome structure comparison. (nih.gov)
  • To this point, association and quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping approaches in this species have relied on relatively small numbers of genetic markers. (g3journal.org)
  • Once the restriction map is ready, we can compare it with the genetic map. (qforquestions.com)
  • Changes due to deletions, duplications, inversions and interchanges on the genetic map can be easily located on restriction map. (qforquestions.com)
  • It is useful in generating genetic linkage maps in human beings maize, tomato etc. (qforquestions.com)
  • The correlation of the genetic and functional map of the phage with the arrangement of fragments produced by the different enzymes has been established. (elsevier.com)
  • With iOS 14, Apple is also adding speed camera and traffic light markers to the map in the UK and Ireland. (sexymanmug.com)
  • As a first step, you decide to construct a restriction map of the fragment for the enzymes Eco RI and Sma I. Below is shown an agarose gel of the appropriate digests. (sdsu.edu)
  • The technique of individual and double digests can be supplemented with other techniques for actual construction of maps. (qforquestions.com)
  • The purpose of this thesis was to map traits of interest to soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr. (iastate.edu)
  • The presence of the polymorphic Hind III restriction site in the G γ-globolin gene and its absence in the A γ-globolin gene were shown to be in phase with the Hb Presbyterian mutation yielding a haplotype constellation that is diagnostic for any further affected offspring. (springer.com)
  • How often would you expect to find a 4 bp restriction site in a random DNA sequence? (sdsu.edu)
  • Restriction mapping is a very useful technique when used for determining the orientation of an insert in a cloning vector, by mapping the position of an off-center restriction site in the insert. (wikipedia.org)
  • Provided there is at least one restriction site for the said enzyme in your sequence. (biology-online.org)
  • In such cases, a cladogram can be constructed from the restriction site data to estimate the evolutionary steps that interrelate the observed haplotypes to one another. (genetics.org)
  • to annotate it in the map, or alternatively you can substitute those Ns in the cutting position with the actual restriction site of the pertinent enzyme (e.g. (biostars.org)
  • Additional restrictions, from the Utah State Fire Marshal's web site: Class C Prohibited 4-15-15. (maxxtec.com.br)
  • The distribution of restriction site variation shows no significant departure from that expected under an equilibrium neutral model. (mysciencework.com)
  • The thesis consists of three separate studies;In the first study, quantitative trait loci (QTL) for seed size, protein and oil content and for the content of the fatty acids palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate and linolenate were mapped. (iastate.edu)
  • donovani gDNA was performed to generate a restriction map of the LdLIP3 gene loci and to determine its copy number in the genome. (jyi.org)
  • In maize, the sh2 and a1 loci have been cloned on a single YAC, and map about 140 kb apart ( 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • DNA mapping is a common procedure used to determine the location of genes. (edvotek.com)
  • Several virulence-associated genes of S. mutans were placed on the Not I restriction map. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • P1 Transduction Mapping of the trg Locus in rac+ and rac Strains of Escherichia coli K-12" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • Other Type II restriction enzymes generate blunt ends by cutting in the middle of the palindrome. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • As a first step, you construct a restriction map of the fragment using the enzymes Sma I and Hin dIII. (sdsu.edu)
  • Initially, the optical mapping system has been used to construct whole-genome restriction maps of bacteria, parasites, and fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • Maps containing both fragments-length data and clone-end data are maintained for each restriction enzyme, and sychronization between two such maps is achieved by requiring them to have "compatible" clone-end map projections. (wustl.edu)
  • The latest announcement, which includes Cardiff, Swansea and Llanelli, means local lockdown restrictions are now in place across nine areas of Wales. (anglenews.com)
  • Two recent studies have demonstrated microcolinearity between rice chromosomal DNA on yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) and fine scale recombinational maps in the Triticeae ( 9 , 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • NoSQL supports most JPA annotations and others have different restrictions than mapping relational data. (eclipse.org)
  • This map is created and maintained by AAA GIS Data Services at the National Office in Heathrow, FL. (bespacific.com)
  • The data on this map appears to be updated daily. (bespacific.com)
  • Plus, Maps will show its live busyness tracker at the top of schedule boards for transit stations in the next few weeks - the data comes from those who have Google Location History turned on. (androidpolice.com)
  • After mapping many TBs into different linkage groups, an increasing refinement of the karyologically defined TB positions was possible by the use of a specific software program that was developed to process the corresponding data for that purpose. (genetics.org)
  • Optical mapping data can help remove many of the incorrect options, thus allowing us to more quickly and accurately identify the correct path through the graph. (umd.edu)
  • defines the class as mapping to non-relational data. (eclipse.org)
  • Google Maps keynote "What can you do with intelligent data for your city or community? (localyse.eu)
  • maps a class to an XML document, this can be used with XML data-stores, XML files, XML messaging systems, and other XML systems. (eclipse.org)
  • This can be used to map to key/value stores, JSON databases, and other structured data systems. (eclipse.org)
  • This would produce the following mapped data. (eclipse.org)
  • We noted last week that Apple Maps London coverage has been significantly improved as part of a shift to the company using its own UK mapping data sourced from both satellite imagery and Apple Maps cars. (sexymanmug.com)
  • When the new Maps project launched in the US last year, Apple said bringing the map data in-house would allow the company to make the map more accurate and more responsive to changes in the real world. (sexymanmug.com)
  • Among the data shown highlights which destinations apply travel restrictions totally, partially or even none. (freshupnews.com)
  • Bacteria refrain from cutting their own DNA by modifying it, usually by methylating it, so that it is not a substrate for the restriction enzymes. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • Bacteria defend themselves from their own restriction enzymes by methylating their DNA. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • Restriction enzymes are functional proteins found in bacteria. (livestrong.com)
  • This is useful to the bacteria for protecting against infection, but scientists can also take advantage of the function of a restriction enzyme and there are many different uses for restriction enzymes both by bacteria and in the lab. (livestrong.com)
  • The DNA Restriction Mapping Model simulates the cutting of a DNA molecule at each occurrence of the sequence GTGCAC or GTTAAC, turning the DNA strand into several smaller strands. (compadre.org)
  • These fragments can then be pieced together to create a map of the original DNA molecule, a process that is called Restriction Mapping. (compadre.org)
  • The implementation of these algorithms into the Pascal programs AMAPK and AMARD allows such mapping to be done on microcomputers. (pnas.org)
  • Guidance on traveling and travel restrictions varies across the U.S. This patchwork of restrictions highlights the ability of states to take different approaches while making their way through the coronavirus pandemic. (dabatvnews.com)
  • Hence, such a high-density linkage map will serve as a valuable resource for comparative genomics and fine-scale QTL mapping in catfish species. (nih.gov)
  • Although linkage maps in certain catfish species have been obtained, high-density maps remain unavailable in the economically important southern catfish ( Silurus meridionalis ). (nih.gov)
  • Bacterial species use restriction enzymes to help protect themselves against foreign DNA. (livestrong.com)
  • Significant associations are observed between level of DDC enzyme activity and restriction map variants. (mysciencework.com)
  • But there are some variants: Russia, China, India and Argentina apply restrictions total for non-residents, but New Zealand allows the transit of travelers bound for Chile and Brazil. (freshupnews.com)
  • The restriction enzyme(s) you would use to cleave the vector. (sdsu.edu)
  • As we are all trying to get to the other side of this pandemic, regulations for re-opening change daily, making it hard to plan a future trip.For this reason, SSI has created a Travel Restriction Map to give you an overview of where you can and cannot travel to SSI Training Centers, in real-time. (divessi.com)
  • The map relies on IATA s Timatic database which is updated more than 200 times per day to provide accurate travel restrictions specific to the ongoing pandemic. (asiatraveltips.com)
  • While the restrictions that were put in place at the outset of the pandemic have been a major source of frustration for many Pennsylvanians and businesses, it is the collaborative work of this bipartisan Task Force that is allowing us to finally roll back the restrictions and get back to normal life," said Sen. Ryan Aument, a member of the task force. (lehighvalleylive.com)
  • An interactive map created by IATA shows detailed information about travel restrictions around the world put in place during the coronavirus pandemic. (openjaw.com)
  • In the case of Mexico, and despite the fact that in this country the pandemic is at the peak of the first wave, there are no type of travel restrictions. (freshupnews.com)
  • Check out our brand-new Travel Restriction Map. (divessi.com)
  • Google Maps is catching up with these changes by pushing more travel alerts when users pull up directions. (androidpolice.com)
  • If the destination is across country borders, Maps will alert users to testing checkpoints along the way and any travel restrictions. (androidpolice.com)
  • The company set up a new interactive map that highlights where, exactly, we can travel to within the United States and what restrictions are in place once we get there. (timeout.com)
  • We know it's a challenge to keep up with the ever-changing list of travel restrictions, policies and regulations so we are offering a simple, easy tool that helps customers decide where to travel next," said Linda Jojo, the executive vice president for technology and chief digital officer at United, in an official statement. (timeout.com)
  • In a recent survey commissioned by IATA regarding concerns people had about air travel post-crisis, more than 80% of travelers said they are as concerned about potential quarantine restrictions as they are about actually catching the virus during travel. (asiatraveltips.com)
  • The local authority areas we cover are suffering from the travel restrictions that have impacted so heavily on Edinburgh Airport. (fifechamber.co.uk)
  • In our latest version of Google Maps for Android and iOS we present features that will help you easily find important information if you need to travel, whether it's by car or on public transport", the press release says. (corvid19map.com)
  • Given that travel restrictions are an important part of containing the spread of infectious disease, this makes sense. (orbviral.com)
  • While all of the Northeast and most of the mid-Atlantic states have implemented statewide travel restrictions, more than half the states, including two of the biggest, California and Texas, have no such restrictions. (dabatvnews.com)
  • States hit the hardest when the epidemic began in the United States in the early spring, such as New York, New Jersey and Connecticut, have the toughest travel restrictions. (dabatvnews.com)
  • Instead of opting for statewide restrictions, some local officials have imposed restrictions on travel to the most populous cities. (dabatvnews.com)
  • Check the interactive map below to see the latest guidance on travel and possible travel restrictions. (dabatvnews.com)
  • Currently some European countries, as well as the United States and others are raising the travel restrictions to the extent that the contagion curve flattens. (freshupnews.com)
  • The International Air Travel Association (IATA for its acronym in English) decided to create an interactive map that shows in real time which countries have travel restrictions and what are the air routes affected. (freshupnews.com)
  • The map is managed through the IATA Timatic platform, a large database with information shared by the affiliated airlines about the documents and requirements required for international travel around the world. (freshupnews.com)
  • Which countries apply travel restrictions according to the IATA map? (freshupnews.com)
  • According to the IATA map for mid-June, most countries in the world apply travel restrictions total, which means that non-residents cannot enter their territory. (freshupnews.com)
  • Turkey eliminated all travel restriction on June 12, but mandatory medical examination is applied to crews and passengers when getting off the plane. (freshupnews.com)
  • Simultaneously to the map of travel restrictions , IATA launched a subscription service to receive information on the health situation in each part of the world. (freshupnews.com)
  • Thus, optical mapping provides a long-range sparse representation of a genome, complementing the high resolution but localized information provided by the reads. (umd.edu)
  • Comprehensive mapping of long-range interactions reveals folding principles of the human genome. (nature.com)
  • The Not I restriction map of S. mutans MT8148 genome was constructed by Southern blot analysis with probes that overlapped two adjacent Not I fragments. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The area in green has some level of fire restrictions enacted. (coemergency.com)
  • Important information regarding fire closures and fire restrictions for BLM Oregon and Washington. (maxxtec.com.br)
  • Fire restrictions are in place in Mesa County and to help residents learn more about how the restrictions affect them personally a map has been created to show where and what level of restrictions are currently in place. (1230espn.com)
  • To introduce people to fire restrictions and what can be done to help prevent accidental fires they created a humorous informative video titled 'May the Forest Be With You. (1230espn.com)
  • This is accomplished by digesting lambda DNA with the 3 restriction enzymes alone and in combination. (carolina.com)
  • IATA has launched a free online interactive world map to provide travelers with the latest COVID19 entry regulations by country. (asiatraveltips.com)
  • IATA s COVID19 interactive world map, also available for mobile, can be viewed here . (asiatraveltips.com)
  • The interactive map will continue to be updated by IATA as countries relax restrictions and reopen borders. (openjaw.com)
  • IATA highlights that a work team is responsible for updating this map up to 200 times a day, with the latest information available. (freshupnews.com)
  • Use even more than one font style and color in a single textual word anywhere in the map including in the feature annotations. (premierbiosoft.com)