Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Optical Restriction Mapping: A technique to generate restriction maps from single large DNA molecules by spreading the DNA onto a glass surface, digesting with DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES, staining with FLUORESCENT DYES, and visualizing the DNA cleavage sites by FLUORESCENCE MICROSCOPY.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.DNA, Recombinant: Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Cosmids: Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Deoxyribonucleases, Type II Site-Specific: Enzyme systems containing a single subunit and requiring only magnesium for endonucleolytic activity. The corresponding modification methylases are separate enzymes. The systems recognize specific short DNA sequences and cleave either within, or at a short specific distance from, the recognition sequence to give specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. Enzymes from different microorganisms with the same specificity are called isoschizomers. EC 3.1.21.4.Caloric Restriction: Reduction in caloric intake without reduction in adequate nutrition. In experimental animals, caloric restriction has been shown to extend lifespan and enhance other physiological variables.Bacteriophage lambda: A temperate inducible phage and type species of the genus lambda-like viruses, in the family SIPHOVIRIDAE. Its natural host is E. coli K12. Its VIRION contains linear double-stranded DNA with single-stranded 12-base 5' sticky ends. The DNA circularizes on infection.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Deoxyribonuclease EcoRI: One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence G/AATTC at the slash. EcoRI is from E coliRY13. Several isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Chromosome Deletion: Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Genomic Library: A form of GENE LIBRARY containing the complete DNA sequences present in the genome of a given organism. It contrasts with a cDNA library which contains only sequences utilized in protein coding (lacking introns).Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Peptide Mapping: Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.Epitope Mapping: Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Food Deprivation: The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Physical Chromosome Mapping: Mapping of the linear order of genes on a chromosome with units indicating their distances by using methods other than genetic recombination. These methods include nucleotide sequencing, overlapping deletions in polytene chromosomes, and electron micrography of heteroduplex DNA. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 5th ed)Fetal Growth Retardation: The failure of a FETUS to attain its expected FETAL GROWTH at any GESTATIONAL AGE.Body Surface Potential Mapping: Recording of regional electrophysiological information by analysis of surface potentials to give a complete picture of the effects of the currents from the heart on the body surface. It has been applied to the diagnosis of old inferior myocardial infarction, localization of the bypass pathway in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, recognition of ventricular hypertrophy, estimation of the size of a myocardial infarct, and the effects of different interventions designed to reduce infarct size. The limiting factor at present is the complexity of the recording and analysis, which requires 100 or more electrodes, sophisticated instrumentation, and dedicated personnel. (Braunwald, Heart Disease, 4th ed)Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Epicardial Mapping: Recording the locations and measurements of electrical activity in the EPICARDIUM by placing electrodes on the surface of the heart to analyze the patterns of activation and to locate arrhythmogenic sites.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Contig Mapping: Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.Electrophoresis, Agar Gel: Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.Deoxyribonuclease HindIII: One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence A/AGCTT at the slash. HindIII is from Haemophilus influenzae R(d). Numerous isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.Deoxyribonuclease BamHI: One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence G/GATCC at the slash. BamHI is from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens N. Numerous isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.DNA Restriction-Modification Enzymes: Systems consisting of two enzymes, a modification methylase and a restriction endonuclease. They are closely related in their specificity and protect the DNA of a given bacterial species. The methylase adds methyl groups to adenine or cytosine residues in the same target sequence that constitutes the restriction enzyme binding site. The methylation renders the target site resistant to restriction, thereby protecting DNA against cleavage.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Longevity: The normal length of time of an organism's life.Radiation Hybrid Mapping: A method for ordering genetic loci along CHROMOSOMES. The method involves fusing irradiated donor cells with host cells from another species. Following cell fusion, fragments of DNA from the irradiated cells become integrated into the chromosomes of the host cells. Molecular probing of DNA obtained from the fused cells is used to determine if two or more genetic loci are located within the same fragment of donor cell DNA.Nucleotide Mapping: Two-dimensional separation and analysis of nucleotides.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.DNA Fingerprinting: A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.DNA Probes: Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.Deoxyribonucleases, Type I Site-Specific: Enzyme systems containing three different subunits and requiring ATP, S-adenosylmethionine, and magnesium for endonucleolytic activity to give random double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. They function also as DNA-dependent ATPases and modification methylases, catalyzing the reactions of EC 2.1.1.72 and EC 2.1.1.73 with similar site-specificity. The systems recognize specific short DNA sequences and cleave at sites remote from the recognition sequence. Enzymes from different microorganisms with the same specificity are called isoschizomers. EC 3.1.21.3.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Deoxyribonuclease HpaII: One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequences C/CGG and GGC/C at the slash. HpaII is from Haemophilus parainfluenzae. Several isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Geographic Mapping: Creating a representation of areas of the earth or other celestial bodies, for the purpose of visualizing spatial distributions of various information.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Diet, Protein-Restricted: A diet that contains limited amounts of protein. It is prescribed in some cases to slow the progression of renal failure. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Diet, Reducing: A diet designed to cause an individual to lose weight.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Quantitative Trait, Heritable: A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Sequence Tagged Sites: Short tracts of DNA sequence that are used as landmarks in GENOME mapping. In most instances, 200 to 500 base pairs of sequence define a Sequence Tagged Site (STS) that is operationally unique in the human genome (i.e., can be specifically detected by the polymerase chain reaction in the presence of all other genomic sequences). The overwhelming advantage of STSs over mapping landmarks defined in other ways is that the means of testing for the presence of a particular STS can be completely described as information in a database.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Homozygote: An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.Diet, Sodium-Restricted: A diet which contains very little sodium chloride. It is prescribed by some for hypertension and for edematous states. (Dorland, 27th ed)DNA, Circular: Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field: Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Linkage Disequilibrium: Nonrandom association of linked genes. This is the tendency of the alleles of two separate but already linked loci to be found together more frequently than would be expected by chance alone.Endonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the internal bonds and thereby the formation of polynucleotides or oligonucleotides from ribo- or deoxyribonucleotide chains. EC 3.1.-.Bacteriophages: Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.Lod Score: The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.Placental Insufficiency: Failure of the PLACENTA to deliver an adequate supply of nutrients and OXYGEN to the FETUS.Catheter Ablation: Removal of tissue with electrical current delivered via electrodes positioned at the distal end of a catheter. Energy sources are commonly direct current (DC-shock) or alternating current at radiofrequencies (usually 750 kHz). The technique is used most often to ablate the AV junction and/or accessory pathways in order to interrupt AV conduction and produce AV block in the treatment of various tachyarrhythmias.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.DNA Cleavage: A reaction that severs one of the covalent sugar-phosphate linkages between NUCLEOTIDES that compose the sugar phosphate backbone of DNA. It is catalyzed enzymatically, chemically or by radiation. Cleavage may be exonucleolytic - removing the end nucleotide, or endonucleolytic - splitting the strand in two.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Hybrid Cells: Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Protein Interaction Mapping: Methods for determining interaction between PROTEINS.Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Deoxyribonucleases, Type III Site-Specific: Enzyme systems composed of two subunits and requiring ATP and magnesium for endonucleolytic activity; they do not function as ATPases. They exist as complexes with modification methylases of similar specificity listed under EC 2.1.1.72 or EC 2.1.1.73. The systems recognize specific short DNA sequences and cleave a short distance, about 24 to 27 bases, away from the recognition sequence to give specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. Enzymes from different microorganisms with the same specificity are called isoschizomers. EC 3.1.21.5.Gene Frequency: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.RNA, Ribosomal: The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Placenta: A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Site-Specific DNA-Methyltransferase (Adenine-Specific): An enzyme responsible for producing a species-characteristic methylation pattern on adenine residues in a specific short base sequence in the host cell DNA. The enzyme catalyzes the methylation of DNA adenine in the presence of S-adenosyl-L-methionine to form DNA containing 6-methylaminopurine and S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine. EC 2.1.1.72.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.X Chromosome: The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.Coliphages: Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Sleep Deprivation: The state of being deprived of sleep under experimental conditions, due to life events, or from a wide variety of pathophysiologic causes such as medication effect, chronic illness, psychiatric illness, or sleep disorder.Single-Strand Specific DNA and RNA Endonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of single-stranded regions of DNA or RNA molecules while leaving the double-stranded regions intact. They are particularly useful in the laboratory for producing "blunt-ended" DNA molecules from DNA with single-stranded ends and for sensitive GENETIC TECHNIQUES such as NUCLEASE PROTECTION ASSAYS that involve the detection of single-stranded DNA and RNA.Maps as Topic: Representations, normally to scale and on a flat medium, of a selection of material or abstract features on the surface of the earth, the heavens, or celestial bodies.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Mice, Inbred C57BLChromosomes, Artificial, Yeast: Chromosomes in which fragments of exogenous DNA ranging in length up to several hundred kilobase pairs have been cloned into yeast through ligation to vector sequences. These artificial chromosomes are used extensively in molecular biology for the construction of comprehensive genomic libraries of higher organisms.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Genes, Recessive: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Expressed Sequence Tags: Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Methylation: Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Consanguinity: The magnitude of INBREEDING in humans.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Genetic Techniques: Chromosomal, biochemical, intracellular, and other methods used in the study of genetics.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Transformation, Bacterial: The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Heart Conduction System: An impulse-conducting system composed of modified cardiac muscle, having the power of spontaneous rhythmicity and conduction more highly developed than the rest of the heart.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Conjugation, Genetic: A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.Heterozygote: An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Cytosine: A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Inbreeding: The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.DNA-Cytosine Methylases: Methylases that are specific for CYTOSINE residues found on DNA.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Epistasis, Genetic: A form of gene interaction whereby the expression of one gene interferes with or masks the expression of a different gene or genes. Genes whose expression interferes with or masks the effects of other genes are said to be epistatic to the effected genes. Genes whose expression is affected (blocked or masked) are hypostatic to the interfering genes.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Genetic Loci: Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.

Optical mapping of Plasmodium falciparum chromosome 2. (1/17643)

Detailed restriction maps of microbial genomes are a valuable resource in genome sequencing studies but are toilsome to construct by contig construction of maps derived from cloned DNA. Analysis of genomic DNA enables large stretches of the genome to be mapped and circumvents library construction and associated cloning artifacts. We used pulsed-field gel electrophoresis purified Plasmodium falciparum chromosome 2 DNA as the starting material for optical mapping, a system for making ordered restriction maps from ensembles of individual DNA molecules. DNA molecules were bound to derivatized glass surfaces, cleaved with NheI or BamHI, and imaged by digital fluorescence microscopy. Large pieces of the chromosome containing ordered DNA restriction fragments were mapped. Maps were assembled from 50 molecules producing an average contig depth of 15 molecules and high-resolution restriction maps covering the entire chromosome. Chromosome 2 was found to be 976 kb by optical mapping with NheI, and 946 kb with BamHI, which compares closely to the published size of 947 kb from large-scale sequencing. The maps were used to further verify assemblies from the plasmid library used for sequencing. Maps generated in silico from the sequence data were compared to the optical mapping data, and good correspondence was found. Such high-resolution restriction maps may become an indispensable resource for large-scale genome sequencing projects.  (+info)

Cloning and characterisation of a novel ompB operon from Vibrio cholerae 569B. (2/17643)

The ompB operon of Vibrio cholerae 569B has been cloned and fully sequenced. The operon encodes two proteins, OmpR and EnvZ, which share sequence identity with the OmpR and EnvZ proteins of a variety of other bacteria. Although the order of the ompR and envZ genes of V. cholerae is similar to that of the ompB operon of E. coli, S. typhimurium and X. nematophilus, the Vibrio operon exhibits a number of novel features. The structural organisation and features of the V. cholerae ompB operon are described.  (+info)

Alternative splicing generates multiple mRNA forms of the acetylcholine receptor gamma-subunit in rat muscle. (3/17643)

The fetal type acetylcholine receptor, composed of the alphabeta gammadelta subunits, has shown a highly variable channel kinetics during postnatal development. We examine the hypothesis whether such a variability could result from multiple channel forms, differing in the N-terminus of the gamma-subunit. RT-PCR revealed, in addition to the full-length mRNA, three new forms lacking exon 4. One of them in addition lacks 19 nucleotides from exon 5, predicting a complete subunit, with a 43 residues shorter N-terminus. A third one lacking the complete exon 5 predicts a subunit without transmembrane segments. These forms, generated by alternative splicing, may account for the kinetic variability of the acetylcholine receptor channel.  (+info)

Cloning, expression, and enzymatic characterization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa topoisomerase IV. (4/17643)

The topoisomerase IV subunit A gene, parC homolog, has been cloned and sequenced from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, with cDNA encoding the N-terminal region of Escherichia coli parC used as a probe. The homolog and its upstream gene were presumed to be parC and parE through sequence homology with the parC and parE genes of other organisms. The deduced amino acid sequence of ParC and ParE showed 33 and 32% identity with that of the P. aeruginosa DNA gyrase subunits, GyrA and GyrB, respectively, and 69 and 75% identity with that of E. coli ParC and ParE, respectively. The putative ParC and ParE proteins were overexpressed and separately purified by use of a fusion system with a maltose-binding protein, and their enzymatic properties were examined. The reconstituted enzyme had ATP-dependent decatenation activity, which is the main catalytic activity of bacterial topoisomerase IV, and relaxing activities but had no supercoiling activity. So, the cloned genes were identified as P. aeruginosa topoisomerase IV genes. The inhibitory effects of quinolones on the activities of topoisomerase IV and DNA gyrase were compared. The 50% inhibitory concentrations of quinolones for the decatenation activity of topoisomerase IV were from five to eight times higher than those for the supercoiling activities of P. aeruginosa DNA gyrase. These results confirmed that topoisomerase IV is less sensitive to fluoroquinolones than is DNA gyrase and may be a secondary target of new quinolones in wild-type P. aeruginosa.  (+info)

Cloning and expression of the algL gene, encoding the Azotobacter chroococcum alginate lyase: purification and characterization of the enzyme. (5/17643)

The alginate lyase-encoding gene (algL) of Azotobacter chroococcum was localized to a 3.1-kb EcoRI DNA fragment that revealed an open reading frame of 1,116 bp. This open reading frame encodes a protein of 42.98 kDa, in agreement with the value previously reported by us for this protein. The deduced protein has a potential N-terminal signal peptide that is consistent with its proposed periplasmic location. The analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence indicated that the gene sequence has a high homology (90% identity) to the Azotobacter vinelandii gene sequence, which has very recently been deposited in the GenBank database, and that it has 64% identity to the Pseudomonas aeruginosa gene sequence but that it has rather low homology (15 to 22% identity) to the gene sequences encoding alginate lyase in other bacteria. The A. chroococcum AlgL protein was overproduced in Escherichia coli and purified to electrophoretic homogeneity in a two-step chromatography procedure on hydroxyapatite and phenyl-Sepharose. The kinetic and molecular parameters of the recombinant alginate lyase are similar to those found for the native enzyme.  (+info)

Ferritin mutants of Escherichia coli are iron deficient and growth impaired, and fur mutants are iron deficient. (6/17643)

Escherichia coli contains at least two iron storage proteins, a ferritin (FtnA) and a bacterioferritin (Bfr). To investigate their specific functions, the corresponding genes (ftnA and bfr) were inactivated by replacing the chromosomal ftnA and bfr genes with disrupted derivatives containing antibiotic resistance cassettes in place of internal segments of the corresponding coding regions. Single mutants (ftnA::spc and bfr::kan) and a double mutant (ftnA::spc bfr::kan) were generated and confirmed by Western and Southern blot analyses. The iron contents of the parental strain (W3110) and the bfr mutant increased by 1.5- to 2-fold during the transition from logarithmic to stationary phase in iron-rich media, whereas the iron contents of the ftnA and ftnA bfr mutants remained unchanged. The ftnA and ftnA bfr mutants were growth impaired in iron-deficient media, but this was apparent only after the mutant and parental strains had been precultured in iron-rich media. Surprisingly, ferric iron uptake regulation (fur) mutants also had very low iron contents (2.5-fold less iron than Fur+ strains) despite constitutive expression of the iron acquisition systems. The iron deficiencies of the ftnA and fur mutants were confirmed by Mossbauer spectroscopy, which further showed that the low iron contents of ftnA mutants are due to a lack of magnetically ordered ferric iron clusters likely to correspond to FtnA iron cores. In combination with the fur mutation, ftnA and bfr mutations produced an enhanced sensitivity to hydroperoxides, presumably due to an increase in production of "reactive ferrous iron." It is concluded that FtnA acts as an iron store accommodating up to 50% of the cellular iron during postexponential growth in iron-rich media and providing a source of iron that partially compensates for iron deficiency during iron-restricted growth. In addition to repressing the iron acquisition systems, Fur appears to regulate the demand for iron, probably by controlling the expression of iron-containing proteins. The role of Bfr remains unclear.  (+info)

Analysis of 4-phosphopantetheinylation of polyhydroxybutyrate synthase from Ralstonia eutropha: generation of beta-alanine auxotrophic Tn5 mutants and cloning of the panD gene region. (7/17643)

The postulated posttranslational modification of the polyhydroxybutyrate (PHA) synthase from Ralstonia eutropha by 4-phosphopantetheine was investigated. Four beta-alanine auxotrophic Tn5-induced mutants of R. eutropha HF39 were isolated, and two insertions were mapped in an open reading frame with strong similarity to the panD gene from Escherichia coli, encoding L-aspartate-1-decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.15), whereas two other insertions were mapped in an open reading frame (ORF) with strong similarity to the NAD(P)+ transhydrogenase (EC 1.6.1.1) alpha 1 subunit, encoded by the pntAA gene from Escherichia coli. The panD gene was cloned by complementation of the panD mutant of R. eutropha Q20. DNA sequencing of the panD gene region (3,312 bp) revealed an ORF of 365 bp, encoding a protein with 63 and 67% amino acid sequence similarity to PanD from E. coli and Bacillus subtilis, respectively. Subcloning of only this ORF into vectors pBBR1MCS-3 and pBluescript KS- led to complementation of the panD mutants of R. eutropha and E. coli SJ16, respectively. panD-encoded L-aspartate-1-decarboxylase was further confirmed by an enzymatic assay. Upstream of panD, an ORF with strong similarity to pntAA from E. coli, encoding NAD(P)+ transhydrogenase subunit alpha 1 was found; downstream of panD, two ORFs with strong similarity to pntAB and pntB, encoding subunits alpha 2 and beta of the NAD(P)+ transhydrogenase, respectively, were identified. Thus, a hitherto undetermined organization of pan and pnt genes was found in R. eutropha. Labeling experiments using one of the R. eutropha panD mutants and [2-14C]beta-alanine provided no evidence that R. eutropha PHA synthase is covalently modified by posttranslational attachment of 4-phosphopantetheine, nor did the E. coli panD mutant exhibit detectable labeling of functional PHA synthase from R. eutropha.  (+info)

A novel reduced flavin mononucleotide-dependent methanesulfonate sulfonatase encoded by the sulfur-regulated msu operon of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (8/17643)

When Pseudomonas aeruginosa is grown with organosulfur compounds as sulfur sources, it synthesizes a set of proteins whose synthesis is repressed in the presence of sulfate, cysteine, or thiocyanate (so-called sulfate starvation-induced proteins). The gene encoding one of these proteins, PA13, was isolated from a cosmid library of P. aeruginosa PAO1 and sequenced. It encoded a 381-amino-acid protein that was related to several reduced flavin mononucleotide (FMNH2)-dependent monooxygenases, and it was the second in an operon of three genes, which we have named msuEDC. The MsuD protein catalyzed the desulfonation of alkanesulfonates, requiring oxygen and FMNH2 for the reaction, and showed highest activity with methanesulfonate. MsuE was an NADH-dependent flavin mononucleotide (FMN) reductase, which provided reduced FMN for the MsuD enzyme. Expression of the msu operon was analyzed with a transcriptional msuD::xylE fusion and was found to be repressed in the presence of sulfate, sulfite, sulfide, or cysteine and derepressed during growth with methionine or alkanesulfonates. Growth with methanesulfonate required an intact cysB gene, and the msu operon is therefore part of the cys regulon, since sulfite utilization was found to be CysB independent in this species. Measurements of msuD::xylE expression in cysN and cysI genetic backgrounds showed that sulfate, sulfite, and sulfide or cysteine play independent roles in negatively regulating msu expression, and sulfonate utilization therefore appears to be tightly regulated.  (+info)

*Amplified fragment length polymorphism

... cellular DNA with one or more restriction enzymes and ligation of restriction half-site specific adaptors to all restriction ... and in linkage studies to generate maps for quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. There are many advantages to AFLP when ... followed by ligation of adaptors to the sticky ends of the restriction fragments. A subset of the restriction fragments is then ... the restriction site sequence and a few nucleotides inside the restriction site fragments (as described in detail below). The ...

*Restriction map

A restriction map is a map of known restriction sites within a sequence of DNA. Restriction mapping requires the use of ... such as mapping by transduction. One approach in constructing a restriction map of a DNA molecule is to sequence the whole ... Restriction mapping is a very useful technique when used for determining the orientation of an insert in a cloning vector, by ... In molecular biology, restriction maps are used as a reference to engineer plasmids or other relatively short pieces of DNA, ...

*Thomas Anantharaman

Anantharaman TS, Mishra B, Schwartz D (1997). "Genomics via optical mapping. II: Ordered restriction maps". J Comput Biol. 4 (2 ... Anantharaman T, Mishra B, Schwartz D (1999). "Genomics via optical mapping. III: Contiging genomic DNA". Proc Int Conf Intell ... into the field of biostatistics and the application of Bayesian methods to the analysis of single molecule Optical Mapping ...

*Group cohomology

This map is called the restriction map. If the index of H in G is finite, there is also a map in the opposite direction, called ... If the order of G is invertible in a G-module M (for example, if M is a Q-vector space), the transfer map can be used to show ... The condition for a map φ to be a 1-cocycle is that φ(gh) = φ(g)[gφ(h)] and φ ∼ φ ′ {\displaystyle \ \varphi \sim \varphi '} if ... Then crossed homomorphisms constitute all maps f : Z / 2 → Z {\displaystyle f:\mathbb {Z} /2\to \mathbb {Z} } satisfying f ( 1 ...

*PUC19

... description & restriction map Louro, Ricardo O.; Crichton, Robert R. (2013). Practical approaches to biological inorganic ... where various restriction sites for many restriction endonucleases are present. In addition to β-galactosidase, pUC19 also ... However, due to the presence of MCS and several restriction sites, a foreign piece of DNA of choice can be introduced into it ... The recognition sites for HindIII, SphI, PstI, SalI, XbaI, BamHI, SmaI, KpnI, SacI and EcoRI restriction enzymes have been ...

*System of imprimitivity

This restriction mapping sets up a fundamental correspondence: Theorem. Suppose G acts on X transitively with quasi-invariant ... In that case, each such measure is the image of (a totally finite version) of Haar measure on X by the map g ↦ g ⋅ x 0 . {\ ... We would like to show that there is actually a mapping on representations which corresponds to this relation. For finite groups ... We can write down explicit formulas for these representations by describing the restrictions to N and H. Case (1). The ...

*Plasmapper

Plasmid Restriction map Vector (molecular biology) CGView Dong, X; Stothard P; Forsythe IJ; Wishart DS. (July 2004). " ... It is a particularly useful online service for molecular biologists wishing to generate plasmid maps without having to purchase ... restriction sites, reporter genes, affinity tags, selectable marker genes, origins of replication and open reading frames. ... "PlasMapper: a web server for drawing and auto-annotating plasmid maps". Nucleic Acids Research. 32 (Web Server issue): W660-4. ...

*Apis mellifera intermissa

Jalel l'apiculteur flickr.com [Retrieved 2011-12-20] "Restriction Maps". colostate.edu. Retrieved 7 May 2015. L Garnery, J M ... cleavage maps obtained through the use of restriction enzyme showed the Spanish Honey bee contains mtDNA similar to intermissa ...

*Optical mapping

... high-resolution restriction maps from single, stained molecules of DNA, called "optical maps". By mapping the location of ... Initially, the optical mapping system has been used to construct whole-genome restriction maps of bacteria, parasites, and ... "Ordered Restriction Maps of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Chromosomes Constructed by Optical Mapping." Science 262.5130 (1993): 110- ... whereas the order needs to be reconstructed using restriction mapping. In addition, since maps are constructed directly from ...

*Gene map

Restriction mapping, Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), and Sequence tagged site (STS) mapping. Restriction mapping is a ... Two approaches to generating gene maps include physical mapping and genetic mapping. Physical mapping utilizes molecular ... The basis to restriction mapping involves digesting (or cutting) DNA with restriction enzymes. The digested DNA fragments are ... Generating a gene map is the critical first step towards identifying disease genes. Gene maps allow for variant alleles to be ...

*PFKL

Wang D, Fang H, Cantor CR, Smith CL (April 1992). "A contiguous Not I restriction map of band q22.3 of human chromosome 21". ... Moreover, the PFKL gene maps to the triplicated region of chromosome 21 responsible for DS, indicating that this gene, too, has ... The interactive pathway map can be edited at WikiPathways: "GlycolysisGluconeogenesis_WP534". Model organisms have been used in ... "Functional proteomics mapping of a human signaling pathway". Genome Research. 14 (7): 1324-32. doi:10.1101/gr.2334104. PMC ...

*Sobolev spaces for planar domains

The restriction map τ : C∞(T2) → C∞(T) = C∞(1 × T) extends to a continuous map Hk(T2) → Hk − ½(T) for k ≥ 1. In fact τ f ^ ( n ... Restriction theorem: The restriction map ρk is surjective with ker ρk = Hk 0(Ωc). This is an immediate consequence of the ... Since the adjoint map between the duals can by identified with this map, it follows that (I + ∆)k is a unitary map. The ... The map τ is onto since a continuous extension map E can be constructed from Hk − ½(T) to Hk(T2). In fact set E g ^ ( m , n ...

*Pygmy slow loris

... inferred from ribosomal DNA restriction maps". Zoological Research. 17 (1): 89-93. CNKI:SUN:DWXY.0.1996-01-015. (Subscription ... and mitochondrial DNA restriction enzyme analysis. The phylogenetic relationships within the genus Nycticebus have been studied ... an approach using mitochondrial DNA restriction enzyme analysis". International Journal of Primatology. 14 (1): 167-175. doi: ...

*Ample line bundle

Here ρ = ρ X , U {\displaystyle \rho =\rho _{X,U}} is the restriction map. In words, all sections of F are locally generated by ... For instance, given a plane curve C ↪ P 2 {\displaystyle C\hookrightarrow \mathbb {P} ^{2}} , the restriction of O P 2 ( 2 ) {\ ... by the map [ s : t ] ↦ [ s 2 : s t : t 2 ] {\displaystyle [s:t]\mapsto [s^{2}:st:t^{2}]} since Γ ( P 1 , O P 1 ( 2 ) ) = k ⋅ s ... has degree the dimension of X the rational mapping of the total system of divisors X → P Γ ( X , L ⊗ k ) {\displaystyle X\to \ ...

*Local cohomology

... where U is the open complement of Y and the middle map is the restriction of sections. The target of this restriction map is ... "A connectedness theorem for projective varieties with applications to intersections and singularities of mappings", Annals of ...

*Sheaf (mathematics)

The restriction map F({x, y}) → F({x}) is the projection of R × R × R onto its first coordinate, and the restriction map F({x, ... E is constructed so that the projection map π is a covering map. In algebraic geometry, the natural analog of a covering map is ... If s ∈ F(U), then its restriction resV,U(s) is often denoted s,V by analogy with restriction of functions. The restriction ... The restriction maps are either the identity on S, if both open sets contain x, or the unique map from S to the terminal object ...

*Route Twisk

Google Maps. Google. Retrieved August 6, 2013. Google (August 7, 2013). "Route Twisk Restrictions" (Map). Google Maps. Google. ... Route map: Google Template:Attached KML/Route Twisk KML is from Wikidata CentaLink map of Route Twisk (incorrectly labelled ... List of streets and roads in Hong Kong Google (August 6, 2013). "Route Twisk" (Map). ... Tsuen Kam Road; the correct English name is shown if the map is zoomed in). ...

*BCKDHA

1992). "Gene analysis of Mennonite maple syrup urine disease kindred using primer-specified restriction map modification". J. ...

*Corynebacterium

Costa, J. J.; Michel, J. L.; Rappuoli, R; Murphy, J. R. (1981). "Restriction map of corynebacteriophages beta c and beta vir ...

*Gel electrophoresis

Estimation of the size of DNA molecules following restriction enzyme digestion, e.g. in restriction mapping of cloned DNA. ... Length-independent separation of DNA restriction fragments in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Fischer SG, Lerman LS ... gel electrophoresis Drinking straw electrophoresis How to run a DNA or RNA gel Animation of gel analysis of DNA restriction ...

*Agarose gel electrophoresis

Estimation of the size of DNA molecules following digestion with restriction enzymes, e.g. in restriction mapping of cloned DNA ... doi:10.2478/v10011-009-0033-8. How to run a DNA or RNA gel Animation of gel analysis of DNA restriction fragments Video and ... of a circular DNA like plasmids cannot be accurately gauged using standard markers unless it has been linearized by restriction ...

*Sheaf of modules

... module and the restriction maps F(U) →F(V) are compatible with the restriction maps O(U) →O(V): the restriction of fs is the ... all restrictions maps F(U) → F(V) are surjective.) Since a flasque sheaf is acyclic in the category of abelian sheaves, this ... If F is an O-module, then the direct image sheaf f ∗ F {\displaystyle f_{*}F} is an O'-module through the natural map O' →f*O ( ... such a natural map is part of the data of a morphism of ringed spaces.) If G is an O'-module, then the module inverse image f ...

*Godement resolution

... meaning each restriction map is surjective. The Map Gode {\displaystyle \operatorname {Gode} } can be turned into a functor ... because a map between two sheaves induces maps between their stalks. Finally, there is a canonical map of sheaves F → Gode ⁡ ( ... clearly induces a restriction map Gode ⁡ ( F ) ( V ) → Gode ⁡ ( F ) ( U ) {\displaystyle \operatorname {Gode} (F)(V)\rightarrow ... Let p : X disc → X {\displaystyle p\colon X_{\text{disc}}\to X} be the continuous map induced by the identity. It induces ...

*Inverse image functor

The restriction maps, as well as the functoriality of the inverse image follows from the universal property of direct limits. ... using a continuous map f : X → Y {\displaystyle f\colon X\to Y} . We will call the result the inverse image or pullback sheaf f ...

*CDY1

Yen PH (1999). "A long-range restriction map of deletion interval 6 of the human Y chromosome: a region frequently deleted in ...

*Phage display

The size restriction seems to have less to do with structural impediment caused by the added section and more to do with the ... Users can use three dimensional structure of a protein and the peptides selected from phage display experiment to map ... Explanation of "Protein interaction mapping" from The Wellcome Trust Lunder M, Bratkovic T, Doljak B, Kreft S, Urleb U, ... characterize small molecules-protein interactions and map protein-protein interactions. ...

*Mass assignment vulnerability

In 2012 mass assignment on Ruby on Rails allowed bypassing of mapping restrictions and resulted in proof of concept injection ... In ASP.NET Core mapping restriction can be declared using the [BindNever] attribute. Data transfer object (DTO) "CWE-915: ... Many web application frameworks offer an active record and object-relational mapping features, where external data in ...
Rat kallikrein-binding protein is a novel serine-proteinase inhibitor that forms a covalent complex with tissue kallikrein. We have purified rat kallikrein-binding protein and cloned the cDNA and the gene encoding rat kallikrein-binding protein [Chao, Chai, Chen, Xiong, Chao, Woodley-Miller, Wang, Lu and Chao (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 16394-16401; Chai, Ma, Murray, Chao and Chao (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 16029-16036]. In the present study, we have expressed rat kallikrein-binding protein in Escherichia coli with a T7-polymerase/promoter expression system. A high level of expression was detected by an e.l.i.s.a. with an average of 24.2 mg of recombinant rat kallikrein-binding protein per 1 of culture. The recombinant protein appeared as a major protein in a crude extract of Escherichia coli on SDS/PAGE. It showed a molecular mass of 43 kDa and was recognized by polyclonal antibody to the native rat kallikrein-binding protein in Western-blot analysis. The recombinant rat kallikrein-binding ...
Cosmid.net - Mechelle Someones Knocking (Jul 15, 2014) 103 images totaling 74M Download set with the VG-Ripper MultiHosters.com K2S | RG | TF | UL
Cosmid.net - Sonny Twister Time With Sonny (Jul 25, 2014) 106 images totaling 63M Download set with the VG-Ripper MultiHosters.com K2S | RG | TF | UL
CiteWeb id: 19830000003. CiteWeb score: 27848. DOI: 10.1016/0003-2697(83)90418-9. A technique for conveniently radiolabeling DNA restriction endonuclease fragments to high specific activity is described. DNA fragments are purified from agarose gels directly by ethanol precipitation and are then denatured and labeled with the large fragment of DNA polymerase I, using random oligonucleotides as primers. Over 70% of the precursor triphosphate is routinely incorporated into complementary DNA, and specific activities of over 109 dpm/μg of DNA can be obtained using relatively small amounts of precursor. These "oligolabeled" DNA fragments serve as efficient probes in filter hybridization experiments.. Links: ...
Restriction mapping of HPV6BV cloned from Chinese women with 14 enzymes was established and compared with that of HPV6b from West Germany and different subtypes of HPV6 reported by foreign reseaehers to find the differences.
pBluescript II SK(+)???? ۸ 1000Ԫ pBluescript II SK(+)????????ͼ??(Vector map),????????(Sequence) ???? ???????? ??Ϊ ?? ???? ?С? 2961bp ???????ΪM13-F/R pBluescript II SK(+)??
What I am confused by though, is the 1/2 and 1/4 component of the answer given. Can anyone give me a breakdown of that please ...
Restriction landmark genomic scanning (RLGS) has been used to study aberrant CpG island methylation in cancer for more than ten years. This approach remains one of the most reliable ways to characterize CpG island hypermethylation in cancer and has been used both to characterize differences in aberrant methylation phenotypes and also to identify tumor suppressor genes. Not only have known tumor suppressor genes like Cdkn2a (p16), Itga4 (α 4-integrin) [1], and Igfbp7 [2] been identified as targets of aberrant methylation in cancer by RLGS, but also novel tumor suppressor genes such as TCF21 [3], SLC5A8 [4], ID4 [5], BMP3B [6], and SOCS1 [7] have been identified by RLGS.. RLGS is a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis method [8] that allows detection of DNA methylation if a methylation sensitive landmark enzyme such as NotI is used. Up to 2,000 end-labeled landmark sites are displayed in a single RLGS profile. The labeling of the sites is based on incorporation of radionucleotides into the NotI ...
Analysis of the inversion effect in pulsed field gel electrophoresis by a two-dimensional contour-clamped homogeneous electric field system ...
A restriction map is a map of known restriction sites within a sequence of DNA. Restriction mapping requires the use of restriction enzymes. In molecular biology, restriction maps are used as a reference to engineer plasmids or other relatively short pieces of DNA, and sometimes for longer genomic DNA. There are other ways of mapping features on DNA for longer length DNA molecules, such as mapping by transduction. One approach in constructing a restriction map of a DNA molecule is to sequence the whole molecule and to run the sequence through a computer program that will find the recognition sites that are present for every restriction enzyme known. Before sequencing was automated, it would have been prohibitively expensive to sequence an entire DNA strand. To find the relative positions of restriction sites on a plasmid, a technique involving single and double restriction digests is used. Based on the sizes of the resultant DNA fragments the positions of the sites can be inferred. Restriction ...
Plasmid pPSU1 from Dr. Song Tans lab contains the inserts 500 bp EcoRV fragment, 1000 bp EcoRV fragment, 1500 bp EcoRV fragment, 2000 bp EcoRV fragment, 500 bp PstI fragment, 700 bp PstI fragment, 800 bp PstI fragment, 900 bp PstI fragment, 1000 bp PstI fragment, and 2000 bp PstI fragment and is published in Sci Rep. 2017 May 26;7(1):2438. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-02693-1. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
Pitfalls of restriction enzyme analysis in identifying, characterizing, typing, and naming viral pathogens in the era of whole genome data, as illustrated by HAdV type ...
Saccharopolyspora erythraea ATCC ® 11635™ Designation: M5-12259 TypeStrain=True Application: Produces erythromycin Glycosylation of avermectin Hydroxylation of ivermectin aglycone
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an autosomal dominant disorder with a high penetrance characterized by tumors of the parathyroid glands, the endocrine pancreas, and the anterior pituitary. The MEN1 gene, a putative tumor suppressor gene, has been mapped to a 3- to 8-cM region in chromosome 11q13 but it remains elusive as yet. We have combined the efforts and resources from four laboratories to form the European Consortium on MEN1 with the aims of establishing the genetic and the physical maps of 11q13 and of further narrowing the MEN1 region. A 5-Mb integrated map of the region was established by fluorescence in situ hybridization on both metaphase chromosomes and DNA fibers, by hybridization to DNA from somatic cell hybrids containing various parts of human chromosome 11, by long-range restriction mapping, and by characterization of YACs and cosmids. Polymorphic markers were positioned and ordered by physical mapping and genetic linkage in 86 MEN1 families with 452 affected individuals.
Hi All, I am in trouble. I am developing an algorithm for restriction enzyme analysis but it is taking too long. The reason is because there are so many degenerate bases in the DNA sequence and thus it takes very long to analyze for all of them considering the possible combiantions they make. All the more the recognition sequence also have degenerate bases. Is there anybody out there to help me optimize the algorithm? Yes, there is. So thanking in advance to all those who respond. Ravi Gupta. Research Scholar DA University, M.P., India. -----------== Posted via Deja News, The Discussion Network ==---------- http://www.dejanews.com/ Search, Read, Discuss, or Start Your Own ...
This chapter summarizes the recent findings of bacterial genomics and comments on the themes and trends which are emerging. A variety of techniques and methods are available to construct physical maps, and those most commonly employed involve pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of macrorestriction fragments generated by digesting intact genomic DNA, immobilized in agarose plugs, with rare-cutting enzymes. Hybridization techniques are often used to construct a map and to deduce the positions of genetic markers. In recent years significant effort has been devoted to developing direct-mapping techniques for large DNA molecules that do not require gel electrophoresis. Among the more promising of these are two new methods known as DNA combing and optical mapping, both of which make use of fluorescence microscopy and image analysis to visualize single DNA molecules. Overall, bacterial genomes range in size from about 0.6 to 9.4 Mb. In a recent review, it was suggested that there may be a relationship
Genomic organization, chromosomal mapping, nucleotide sequence, and predicted amino acid sequence of the murine MCP-5 gene. (A) Partial restriction map and ge
The SageELF is an electrophoresis system that separates DNA or protein samples by size, and then fractionates the whole sample, or section of sample, into 12 fractions. The system is equipped with pulsed-field electrophoresis for resolving large DNA.. Fractionation ranges are estimated and adjusted in software, and fractions are collected in buffer. One sample is fractionated on a single precast agarose cassette, and one or two cassettes may be processed at one time.. Benefits of the SageELF System: ...
Thanks kashonal for asking..yes, the enzymes are ok. fortunately i was able to digest my plasmids now. However i wasnt able to figure out where my mistake was in my previous 2 tries ...
Molecular Cloning: Any techniques related to molecular cloning including restriction digestion, ligation, transformation, plasmid...
18 Ocak 2011 SALI Resmî Gazete Sayı : TEBLİĞ Bayındırlık ve İskan Bakanlığından: YAPI MALZEMELERİ YÖNETMELİĞİ (89/106/EEC) KAPSAMINDA UYGULANACAK TEKNİK ŞARTNAMELERİN YAYIMLANMASI HAKKINDA TEBLİĞ
View Notes - lab Write-up from ENGLISH 1011 at Berkeley. Jacob Zipperstein H. Bio Med January 28, 2009 Title: DNA Restriction Analysis (Lambda DNA) Purpose: The purpose of this lab is to analyze
A BioBrick is a sequence of DNA with a predefined structure and function. This "payload" is held in a circular plasmid, which is an isolated, circular piece of DNA that can replicate in bacteria. BioBricks™ are created with the intention of being easily joined and manipulated. In order for this to be possible, the BioBrick™ assembly standard requires the use of defined prefix and suffix sequences (flanking both sides of the BioBrick) that contain specific restriction endonuclease sites. These sites are called EcoRI, NotI and XbaI in the upstream, and SpeI, NotI, and PstI in the downstream. Naturally, the parts must also be engineered such that these sites are not present in the functional region of the sequence.[3] Cutting the BioBrick at specific restriction sites (using restriction enzymes) is what gives a BioBrick its interlocking ends. The end of one BioBrick can then be connected, or ligated, together with the end of another BioBrick, allowing you to effectively string together ...
A BioBrick is a sequence of DNA with a predefined structure and function. This "payload" is held in a circular plasmid, which is an isolated, circular piece of DNA that can replicate in bacteria. BioBricks™ are created with the intention of being easily joined and manipulated. In order for this to be possible, the BioBrick™ assembly standard requires the use of defined prefix and suffix sequences (flanking both sides of the BioBrick) that contain specific restriction endonuclease sites. These sites are called EcoRI, NotI and XbaI in the upstream, and SpeI, NotI, and PstI in the downstream. Naturally, the parts must also be engineered such that these sites are not present in the functional region of the sequence.[3] Cutting the BioBrick at specific restriction sites (using restriction enzymes) is what gives a BioBrick its interlocking ends. The end of one BioBrick can then be connected, or ligated, together with the end of another BioBrick, allowing you to effectively string together ...
A genomic library is a collection of bacteria which have been genetically engineered to hold the entire DNA of an organism. This...
thanks a lot I understood little bit , but in my case as told to me that the ordered nucleotide sequence will be incoroporated with the plasmid and then i have to to subclone it into E.coli TOF competent cell and then i have to plate it select for the colonies and then do the mini prep to get the plasmid and then I have to do the pcr... I really didnt understand How can I do the pcr with the plasmid (Although my gene of intreset in there). but my question is if i do by this process and I do the pcr Should I get the band on 1,4kb AND THEN I EXCISE IT AND CARRYOUT MY FURTHER PROCESS: IF i am right kindly tell me or wrong please guide me with your answer. I would be highly obliged to you, I am unableto understnd this concept ...
... , also known as Maniatis, has served as the foundation of technical expertise in labs worldwide for 30 years. No other manual has been so popular, or so influential.
Expression In Bacteria Of Beta-Galactosidase Fusion Proteins Carrying Antigenic Determinants Of The 2 X-Gene Products Of Bovine Leukemia- ...
Wardell, JN, Stocks, SM, Thomas, CR and Bushell, ME (2002) Decreasing the hyphal branching rate of Saccharopolyspora erythraea NRRL 2338 leads to increased resistance to breakage and increased antibiotic production ...
(KudoZ) English to Polish translation of complete open reading frame of a cDNA molecule: otwarta ramka odczytu (cząsteczki cDNA) [Medical].
Plasmid Construction. The pGL3-promoter and pGL3-basic plasmids were purchased from Promega. The pL6 plasmid was generated by ligation of the 1.3-kb KpnI and XhoI (-1326 to +1; the translation start site was designated as +1) DNA fragment of mouse MOR into the polylinker sites of a promoterless luciferase vector, pGL3-basic (Promega, Madison, WI). The sequence of the insertion was confirmed by sequencing. The DNA fragment flanking the poly (A) site was generated by PCR from mouse genomic DNA with a pair of primers (sense, 5′-AATAGGCCGGCCGCATTAGGAGCATTGCTGAG-3′; antisense, 5′-ACGCGTCGACCCTAACTCTGGGATGGCAAG-3′; the underlined nucleotides indicate the overhanging restriction enzyme sites for FseI and SalI, respectively). The pL6PA and pGL3pPA plasmids were constructed by subcloning this DNA fragment after digestion with FseI and SalI into pL6 and pGL3-promoter plasmid, respectively. The pL6 and pGL3-promoter plasmids also have been digested by FseI and SalI, to replace the original SV40 ...
Edvotek. Analysis of Eco RI Cleavage Patterns of Lambda DNAThis experiment introduces the use of restriction enzymes as a tool to digest DNA at specific nucleotide sequences. …
Nucleic acids from ATCC Genuine Cultures can save you the time and expense of isolating DNA yourself. ATCC offers genomic DNA from well-characterized and authenticated fungal and yeast strains.
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Study Flashcards On restriction enzymes/plasmids at Cram.com. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want!
Antler Point Restrictions (APR). APRs vary throughout the state based on the type of deer license and the hunting location. Use the map and chart on these two .... ...
Hoo boy, thats ugly. But it seems to work, and the tabs at the top are sorta nice - you can separate feeds by category. (Not sure Simpy plays nice with that - its supposed to, but…) Oh, and theres a minimum width otherwise you get side-scrolling, dont like that ...
1 ATGGATCAGA ACAACAGCCT GCCACCTTAC GCTCAGGGCT TGGCCTCCCC TCAGGGTGCC 61 ATGACTCCCG GAATCCCTAT CTTTAGTCCA ATGATGCCTT ATGGCACTGG ACTGACCCCA 121 CAGCCTATTC AGAACACCAA TAGTCTGTCT ATTTTGGAAG AGCAACAAAG GCAGCAGCAG 181 CAACAACAAC AGCAGCAGCA GCAGCAGCAG CAGCAGCAGC AGCAGCAGCA GCAGCAGCAG 241 CAGCAGCAGC AGCAGCAGCA GCAGCAGCAG CAGCAGCAGC AACAGGCAGT GGCAGCTGCA 301 GCCGTTCAGC AGTCAACGTC CCAGCAGGCA ACACAGGGAA CCTCAGGCCA GGCACCACAG 361 CTCTTCCACT CACAGACTCT CACAACTGCA CCCTTGCCGG GCACCACTCC ACTGTATCCC 421 TCCCCCATGA CTCCCATGAC CCCCATCACT CCTGCCACGC CAGCTTCGGA GAGTTCTGGG 481 ATTGTACCGC AGCTGCAAAA TATTGTATCC ACAGTGAATC TTGGTTGTAA ACTTGACCTA 541 AAGACCATTG CACTTCGTGC CCGAAACGCC GAATATAATC CCAAGCGGTT TGCTGCGGTA 601 ATCATGAGGA TAAGAGAGCC ACGAACCACG GCACTGATTT TCAGTTCTGG GAAAATGGTG 661 TGCACAGGAG CCAAGAGTGA AGAACAGTCC AGACTGGCAG CAAGAAAATA TGCTAGAGTT 721 GTACAGAAGT TGGGTTTTCC AGCTAAGTTC TTGGACTTCA AGATTCAGAA TATGGTGGGG 781 AGCTGTGATG TGAAGTTTCC TATAAGGTTA GAAGGCCTTG TGCTCACCCA CCAACAATTT 841 AGTAGTTATG AGCCAGAGTT ...
You can take anything you find here, provided I made it myself and have not included it under someone elses terms, and do anything you want with it. You can do things I dont like, you can make money and not give me any, you can attribute the work to me or not, and you can tell me what youre up to or not, as you choose. You dont have to ask first ...
1 ATGGCCGCGG CCAAGGCCGA GATGCAGCTG ATGTCCCCGC TGCAGATCTC TGACCCGTTC 61 GGATCCTTTC CTCACTCGCC CACCATGGAC AACTACCCTA AGCTGGAGGA GATGATGCTG 121 CTGAGCAACG GGGCTCCCCA GTTCCTCGGC GCCGCCGGGG CCCCAGAGGG CAGCGGCAGC 181 AACAGCAGCA GCAGCAGCAG CGGGGGCGGT GGAGGCGGCG GGGGCGGCAG CAACAGCAGC 241 AGCAGCAGCA GCACCTTCAA CCCTCAGGCG GACACGGGCG AGCAGCCCTA CGAGCACCTG 301 ACCGCAGAGT CTTTTCCTGA CATCTCTCTG AACAACGAGA AGGTGCTGGT GGAGACCAGT 361 TACCCCAGCC AAACCACTCG ACTGCCCCCC ATCACCTATA CTGGCCGCTT TTCCCTGGAG 421 CCTGCACCCA ACAGTGGCAA CACCTTGTGG CCCGAGCCCC TCTTCAGCTT GGTCAGTGGC 481 CTAGTGAGCA TGACCAACCC ACCGGCCTCC TCGTCCTCAG CACCATCTCC AGCGGCCTCC 541 TCCGCCTCCG CCTCCCAGAG CCCACCCCTG AGCTGCGCAG TGCCATCCAA CGACAGCAGT 601 CCCATTTACT CAGCGGCACC CACCTTCCCC ACGCCGAACA CTGACATTTT CCCTGAGCCA 661 CAAAGCCAGG CCTTCCCGGG CTCGGCAGGG ACAGCGCTCC AGTACCCGCC TCCTGCCTAC 721 CCTGCCGCCA AGGGTGGCTT CCAGGTTCCC ATGATCCCCG ACTACCTGTT TCCACAGCAG 781 CAGGGGGATC TGGGCCTGGG CACCCCAGAC CAGAAGCCCT TCCAGGGCCT GGAGAGCCGC 841 ACCCAGCAGC CTTCGCTAAC ...
Rescue of the ABI3 coding region into a Gateway Entry vector. (A) Schematic diagram showing the location of primers and restriction enzyme sites used for analys
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Gene Link \ Lambda gt10 reverse primer 24mer \ 26-3000-11 for more molecular products just contact us
A gene bank of a yeast wild type DNA in the high copy number vector YEp 13 was screened for recombinant plasmids which suppress the mitochondrial RNA splice defect exerted by mutant M1301, a −1 by deletion in the first intron of the mitochondrial COB gene (bIl). A total of 17 recombinant plasmids with similar suppressor activity were found. Restriction mapping and cross-hybridization of the inserts revealed that these 17 plasmids contain three different inserts, all lacking any extended sequence homology. Each of the inserts, when present in high copy number, has a similar suppressor activity: high in the presence of mutation M1301 in bll, a group II intron, and low but significant with the presence of few mutants in bI2 and bI3 of the COB gene, both of which are group I introns. ...
Shaun Tyler (styler at HWC.CA) wrote: : I=92m interested in sequencing a 40 kb plasmid (a native one not a clone) : for which I have a limited amount of material and no restriction map.=20 : Since what I have was hard to come by I=92m hesitant to waste it in : establishing a restriction map in order to subclone more manageable : fragments. Our sequencing capabilities are not a limiting factor so I : was thinking of using a shotgun approach with randomly sheared material : for a library and then closing the gaps by PCR and primer walking.=20 : Unfortunately I have been unable to find any protocols for preparing : mechanically sheared DNA. I know people occasionally use this method : for preparing genomic libraries but I=92m not sure how effective this : would be on something relatively small like a 40 kb plasmid. Any input : would be greatly appreciated. Paul Hengen (what would we do without him?) surveyed this in TIBS (1997) 22, 273-274. A nebulizing approach cited therein can be found close to ...
Molecular biology of nucleic acids and the techniques that form the basis of biotechnology. Topics include electrophoresis, restriction mapping, hybridization, plasmid analysis, and DNA cloning (recombinant DNA library construction, screening, and mapping ...
An important hurdle in analyzing interest rate targeting is that standard models usually lead to price level or inflation rate indeterminacy. This paper develops a simple framework in which such problems do not arise because the bonds whose interest rate is controlled provide liquidity services. This framework is used to examine interest rate targeting in a small open economy under predetermined exchange rates. A permanent increase in the interest rate has no real effects. In contrast, a temporary increase in the interest rate leads to higher consumption and to a current account deficit that worsens over time.
Molecular cloning is the process of inserting the gene-of-interest (GOI) into a plasmid vector and this vector is then inserted into a cell that expresses the protein encoded by the GOI. Once protein is expressed in the cell, the protein expression can be used for different studies (such as cell signaling, morphology or other aspects).
Molecular Cloning, also known as Maniatis, has served as the foundation of technical expertise in labs worldwide for 30 years. No other manual has been so popular, or so influential.

Adipose tissue energy metabolism: altered gene expression profile of mice subjected to long-term caloric restriction | RTIAdipose tissue energy metabolism: altered gene expression profile of mice subjected to long-term caloric restriction | RTI

... subjected to short-term caloric restriction for 23 days (SCR), or LCR for 9 months and compared with nonfasted control (CO) ... We investigated the influences of short-term and lifespan-prolonging long-term caloric restriction (LCR) on gene expression in ... We investigated the influences of short-term and lifespan-prolonging long-term caloric restriction (LCR) on gene expression in ... Adipose tissue energy metabolism: altered gene expression profile of mice subjected to long-term caloric restriction. ...
more infohttps://www.rti.org/publication/adipose-tissue-energy-metabolism-altered-gene-expression-profile-mice-subjected-long-0

Restriction mappingRestriction mapping

You have isolated DNA of a 500 bp EcoRI restriction fragment and you would like to determine its restriction map. The enzyme ... A 1000 bp EcoRI restriction fragment contains a gene you are interested in. As a first step, you construct a restriction map of ... a) Draw a restriction map of the fragment and show the distances, in base pairs, between the HindIII, EcoRI, and SmaI sites. ... Draw a restriction map of the fragment and show the distances, in base pairs, between the HindIII, SmaI, and EcoRI sites. Next ...
more infohttp://www.sci.sdsu.edu/~smaloy/MicrobialGenetics/problems/in-vitro/RE-mapping/

DNA Restriction Mapping ModelDNA Restriction Mapping Model

These fragments can then be pieced together to create a map of the… ... The DNA Restriction Mapping Model simulates the cutting of a DNA molecule at each occurrence of the sequence GTGCAC or GTTAAC, ... DNA Restriction Mapping Source Code. The source code zip archive contains an XML representation of the DNA Restriction Mapping ... DNA Restriction Mapping Model:. Is Based On Easy Java Simulations Modeling and Authoring Tool The Easy Java Simulations ...
more infohttp://www.compadre.org/portal/items/detail.cfm?ID=13347

Restriction mapping - The Student RoomRestriction mapping - The Student Room

If you want a bit more information on how restriction mapping can be used to compare two individuals, heres the link. Hope ... what actually is restriction mapping? I dont understand what the purpose of it is? (and what kilobases are....? ... what actually is restriction mapping? I dont understand what the purpose of it is? (and what kilobases are....? ... Restriction endonucleases, which are the enzymes that cut DNA, split DNA at recognition sites called restriction sites. They ...
more infohttps://www.thestudentroom.co.uk/showthread.php?t=3166525

Restriction Map of YKR070WRestriction Map of YKR070W

... Send questions or suggestions to SGD. BLAST search , Genome Restriction Map , Design Primers for ...
more infohttps://www.yeastgenome.org/cgi-bin/getSeq?seq=YKR070W&flankl=0&flankr=0&map=rmap

Restriction Map of SWP82/YFL049WRestriction Map of SWP82/YFL049W

... Send questions or suggestions to SGD. BLAST search , Genome Restriction Map , Design Primers ...
more infohttps://www.yeastgenome.org/cgi-bin/getSeq?seq=YFL049W&flankl=0&flankr=0&map=rmap

plasmid restriction map- free software - Molecular Biologyplasmid restriction map- free software - Molecular Biology

plasmid restriction map- free software - (Nov/10/2004 ). hi, I want to find a free software to generate plasmid map using ... restriction digesion of the plasmid . any body know where to find?. chandima ...
more infohttp://www.protocol-online.org/biology-forums/posts/4259.html

Restriction Mapping - Biology Forum | Biology-Online Dictionary, Blog & ForumRestriction Mapping - Biology Forum | Biology-Online Dictionary, Blog & Forum

Restriction Mapping. Discussion of all aspects of biological molecules, biochemical processes and laboratory procedures in the ... Agronomy, I believe you can easily find a restriction map of that plasmid on the web, so that you can answer your question ... Provided there is at least one restriction site for the said enzyme in your sequence. Of course ...
more infohttps://biology-online.org/biology-forum/viewtopic.php?f=1&t=9731

Restriction Mapping |  DNA Sequencing Software - Sequencher from Gene Codes CorporationRestriction Mapping | DNA Sequencing Software - Sequencher from Gene Codes Corporation

Restriction Mapping. You are here. Home » Products » Sequencher » Sequencher Features » Sanger Sequencing » Restriction Mapping ... Restriction Mapping. Sequencher provides a rich set of tools for generating linear restriction maps of your DNA sequence. ...
more infohttp://www.genecodes.com/sequencher-features/restriction-mapping

Restriction map - WikipediaRestriction map - Wikipedia

A restriction map is a map of known restriction sites within a sequence of DNA. Restriction mapping requires the use of ... such as mapping by transduction. One approach in constructing a restriction map of a DNA molecule is to sequence the whole ... Restriction mapping is a very useful technique when used for determining the orientation of an insert in a cloning vector, by ... In molecular biology, restriction maps are used as a reference to engineer plasmids or other relatively short pieces of DNA, ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Restriction_map

Plasmid Restriction Maps - Biology Forum | Biology-Online Dictionary, Blog & ForumPlasmid Restriction Maps - Biology Forum | Biology-Online Dictionary, Blog & Forum

I m having problem drawing a plasmid map with the following combination enzymes... BamH1: 900 1500 3000 Hindlll: 500 1600 3300 ... Plasmid Restriction Maps. Discussion of all aspects of biological molecules, biochemical processes and laboratory procedures in ... first you gave to draw the restriction fragments from the separate enzymes. Thens you can take a look on where the restriction ... now try to make out the only Hind result from this to narrow down the possible plasmid map possibilities... or from combined ...
more infohttps://biology-online.org/biology-forum/viewtopic.php?p=62926

DNA restriction mapping identifies the chromosome carrying the mutant Hb Presbyterian β-globin gene | SpringerLinkDNA restriction mapping identifies the chromosome carrying the mutant Hb Presbyterian β-globin gene | SpringerLink

Restriction endonuclease mapping of cellular DNA has been used to identify chromosomes that carry the mutant Hb Presbyterian β- ... DNA restriction mapping identifies the chromosome carrying the mutant Hb Presbyterian β-globin gene. *J. Horst. 1. , ... Restriction endonuclease mapping of cellular DNA has been used to identify chromosomes that carry the mutant Hb Presbyterian β- ... Horst, J., Oehme, R., Kleihauer, E. et al. DNA restriction mapping identifies the chromosome carrying the mutant Hb ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF00279406

Southern Hybridization and Restriction Map Analyses of the LdLIP3 locus in the human pathogen Leishmania donovani - Journal of...Southern Hybridization and Restriction Map Analyses of the LdLIP3 locus in the human pathogen Leishmania donovani - Journal of...

donovani gDNA was performed to generate a restriction map of the LdLIP3 gene loci and to determine its copy number in the ... The gDNA was digested with restriction endonucleases and subjected to agarose gel electrophoresis. Restriction fragments were ... Southern Hybridization and Restriction Map Analyses of the LdLIP3 locus in the human pathogen Leishmania donovani Nafisa ... donovani gDNA was performed to generate a restriction map of the LdLIP3 gene loci and to determine its copy number in the ...
more infohttps://www.jyi.org/2009-august/2017/10/23/restriction-map-analyses-of-the-ldlip3-locus-in-the-human-pathogen-leishmania-donovani

RelativeResourceManager5 - RESTRICTION MAPPING Let us start simply Example 1 The linear DNA fragment shown here has cleavage...RelativeResourceManager5 - RESTRICTION MAPPING Let us start simply Example 1 The linear DNA fragment shown here has cleavage...

RESTRICTION MAPPING Let us start simply: Example 1. The linear DNA fragment shown here has cleavage sites for Bam ... Name: _ Restriction Mapping Date: _ 1. Below is a restriction map for the plasmid pGE ... RelativeResourceManager5 - RESTRICTION MAPPING Let us start.... This preview shows document pages 1 - 9. Sign up to view the ... Restriction Mapping At some point in a cloning project it will be necessary to constr ...
more infohttps://www.coursehero.com/file/6438500/RelativeResourceManager5/

Restriction Enzyme MappingRestriction Enzyme Mapping

Restriction enzymes function like a primitive immune system. Bacteria use these enzymes to cut DNA from foreign sources, like ... Other Type II restriction enzymes generate blunt ends by cutting in the middle of the palindrome. For example, the enzyme SmaI ... Restriction enzymes function like a primitive immune system. Bacteria use these enzymes to cut DNA from foreign sources, like ... Molecular biologists use restriction endonucleases (the term endonuclease means that the enzyme cuts nucleic acids in the ...
more infohttps://www.cliffsnotes.com/study-guides/biology/biochemistry-ii/molecular-cloning-of-dna/restriction-enzyme-mapping

4/4] PCI: tegra: Remove artificial mapping restriction - Patchwork4/4] PCI: tegra: Remove artificial mapping restriction - Patchwork

4/4] PCI: tegra: Remove artificial mapping restriction diff mbox series Message ID. [email protected] ... Remove artificial mapping restriction Date: Thu, 14 Dec 2017 14:45:45 +0100 Message-Id: ,[email protected] ... This is unnecessary if the AFI_FPCI_BAR0 register is used to move the 4 KiB window into the FPCI address map. Doing this will ... 0/4] PCI: tegra: Configuration space mapping cleanups and fixes * [1/4] PCI: tegra: Clarify configuration space address ...
more infohttp://patchwork.ozlabs.org/patch/848551/

Restriction Mapping - Q for QuestionsRestriction Mapping - Q for Questions

Restriction cleavage and gel electrophoresis, Construction of a restriction map, RFLPs as markers for genetic maps ... Restriction Mapping. Restriction mapping is a physical mapping technique to determine the relative location of restriction ... But point mutations cannot be easily mapped on the restriction map. It is because the restriction sites often do not change due ... Once the restriction map is ready, we can compare it with the genetic map. Changes due to deletions, duplications, inversions ...
more infohttps://qforquestions.com/restriction-mapping/

2.5 Restriction Mapping | ISB Server Wahoo2.5 Restriction Mapping | ISB Server Wahoo

Goal for this lab: Purify the amplified DNA from first lab, digest it with restriction enzymes, and assess the results with gel ... 10x NEB restriction buffer. Students need at most 10µL of any 1 buffer. Check supplies ...
more infohttps://wahoo.cns.umass.edu/content/25-restriction-mapping

Biojava-l] Restriction mapping for the whole chromosome sequenceBiojava-l] Restriction mapping for the whole chromosome sequence

... Ilhami Visne ilhami.visne at gmail.com Sun Dec 11 16:57:01 ... Next message: [Biojava-l] Restriction mapping for the whole chromosome sequence * Messages sorted by: [ date ] [ thread ] [ ... Next message: [Biojava-l] Restriction mapping for the whole chromosome sequence * Messages sorted by: [ date ] [ thread ] [ ... hi, i want to do restricting mapping for the whole chromosome sequence, e.g. chr1, ~240MB. it goes for some enzyme, like MsiI, ...
more infohttps://mailman.open-bio.org/pipermail/biojava-l/2005-December/005224.html

Geocoding Component RestrictionGeocoding Component Restriction

function initMap() { var geocoder = new google.maps.Geocoder; var map = new google.maps.Map(document.getElementById(map), { ... new google.maps.Geocoder; var map = new google.maps.Map(document.getElementById(map), { zoom: 8, center: {lat: -33.865, lng: ... map,,/div,. /* Always set the map height explicitly to define the size of the div * element that contains the map. */ #map { ... map.setCenter(results[0].geometry.location); new google.maps.Marker({ map: map, position: results[0].geometry.location }); } ...
more infohttps://developers.google.com/maps/documentation/javascript/examples/geocoding-component-restriction

Ordered restriction maps of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosomes constructed by optical mapping | ScienceOrdered restriction maps of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosomes constructed by optical mapping | Science

Ordered restriction maps of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosomes constructed by optical mapping. By DC Schwartz, X Li, LI ... Ordered restriction maps of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosomes constructed by optical mapping. By DC Schwartz, X Li, LI ... Ordered restriction maps of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosomes constructed by optical mapping Message Subject. (Your Name) ... Ordered restriction maps were then created from genomic DNA without reliance on cloned or amplified sequences for hybridization ...
more infohttps://science.sciencemag.org/content/262/5130/110?ijkey=b61cb093e4d12c9f6226a38780e55a6a70906c62&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Patterns of Naturally Occurring Restriction Map Variation, Dop...Patterns of Naturally Occurring Restriction Map Variation, Dop...

Patterns of Naturally Occurring Restriction Map Variation, Dopa Decarboxylase Activity Variation and Linkage Disequilibrium in ... Significant associations are observed between level of DDC enzyme activity and restriction map variants. Surprisingly, one line ... Patterns of Naturally Occurring Restriction Map Variation, Dopa Decarboxylase Activity Variation and Linkage Disequilibrium in ... The distribution of restriction site variation shows no significant departure from that expected under an equilibrium neutral ...
more infohttps://www.mysciencework.com/publication/show/patterns-of-naturally-occurring-restriction-map-variation-dopa-decarboxylase-activity-variation-and-linkage-disequilibrium-in-the-ddc-gene-region-of-drosophila-melanogaster

Need to draw VECTOR MAPS? Find RESTRICTION SITES?Need to draw VECTOR MAPS? Find RESTRICTION SITES?

... Danny Reda reda at globalserve.net Mon Dec 21 02:34:33 EST 1998 *Previous ... graphical maps! Go from sequence to fully labeled, colorful map in ONE mouse click! * Paste maps into other Windows ... Map restriction sites using an included tool set of nearly 1000 enzymes (much more than you get with other programs). Select ... Edit maps in a WYSIWYG environment so that printed output matches whats on the screen. * Instantly parse sequence files on ...
more infohttp://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/toxicol/1998-December/002082.html

HS036 - Restriction Mapping of pcDNA Plasmids with TRIM Gene Inserts - Life and BiologyHS036 - Restriction Mapping of pcDNA Plasmids with TRIM Gene Inserts - Life and Biology

The TRIMs were cut with restriction enzymes HindIII and Xbal as well as HindIII and XhoI in order to try to correctly extract ... HS036 - Restriction Mapping of pcDNA Plasmids with TRIM Gene Inserts. 2Aug 2017. Add a comment ... The TRIMs were cut with restriction enzymes HindIII and Xbal as well as HindIII and XhoI in order to try to correctly extract ...
more infohttps://lifeandbiology.com/2017/08/02/hs036-restriction-mapping-of-pcdna-plasmids-with-trim-gene-inserts/

A cladistic analysis of phenotypic associations with haplotypes inferred from restriction endonuclease mapping. IV. Nested...A cladistic analysis of phenotypic associations with haplotypes inferred from restriction endonuclease mapping. IV. Nested...

A cladistic analysis of phenotypic associations with haplotypes inferred from restriction endonuclease mapping. IV. Nested ... A cladistic analysis of phenotypic associations with haplotypes inferred from restriction endonuclease mapping. IV. Nested ... A cladistic analysis of phenotypic associations with haplotypes inferred from restriction endonuclease mapping. IV. Nested ... A cladistic analysis of phenotypic associations with haplotypes inferred from restriction endonuclease mapping. IV. Nested ...
more infohttp://www.genetics.org/content/134/2/659
  • Large regions of genomic colinearity have been demonstrated among grass species by recombinational mapping, but the degree of chromosomal conservation at the sub-centimorgan level has not been extensively investigated. (pnas.org)
  • The thesis consists of three separate studies;In the first study, quantitative trait loci (QTL) for seed size, protein and oil content and for the content of the fatty acids palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate and linolenate were mapped. (iastate.edu)
  • resultant map Rapid Denaturation and Renaturation of a crude DNA preparation by alkaline lysis of the cells and subsequent neutralization In this technique the cells are lysed in alkaline conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • glycinea Kuan and Erwin were mapped with RFLP markers in the second study. (iastate.edu)
  • The mapping was conducted by first screening, with RFLP markers, a series of near isogenic lines (NILs). (iastate.edu)
  • Linkage was found between RFLP markers and Rps1, Rps2, Rps3, Rps4 and Rps5;A variant for the A[subscript]4 polypeptide of the glycinin storage protein was mapped and genetically analyzed in the third study. (iastate.edu)
  • Two recent studies have demonstrated microcolinearity between rice chromosomal DNA on yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) and fine scale recombinational maps in the Triticeae ( 9 , 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • The current code restricts the location of the 4 KiB configuration space mapping region. (ozlabs.org)
  • T. Murray, Computer Program DNA RESTRICTION MAPPING MODEL (2014), WWW Document, ( https://www.compadre.org/Repository/document/ServeFile.cfm?ID=13347&DocID=3919 ). (compadre.org)
  • The variant was identified in PI 468916, the G. soja parent of the population being used to form a public RFLP map. (iastate.edu)
  • The individuals in the population used to form the RFLP map were evaluated for the segregation of the A[subscript]4 polypeptide. (iastate.edu)
  • This segregation data was integrated with the RFLP segregation data set and was used to genetically map Gy4, the gene that encodes A[subscript]4. (iastate.edu)
  • For example the most common application of restriction mapping is presented: Determining the orientation of a cloned insert. (wikipedia.org)