DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Deoxyribonucleases, Type II Site-Specific: Enzyme systems containing a single subunit and requiring only magnesium for endonucleolytic activity. The corresponding modification methylases are separate enzymes. The systems recognize specific short DNA sequences and cleave either within, or at a short specific distance from, the recognition sequence to give specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. Enzymes from different microorganisms with the same specificity are called isoschizomers. EC 3.1.21.4.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cosmids: Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Caloric Restriction: Reduction in caloric intake without reduction in adequate nutrition. In experimental animals, caloric restriction has been shown to extend lifespan and enhance other physiological variables.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Deoxyribonuclease EcoRI: One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence G/AATTC at the slash. EcoRI is from E coliRY13. Several isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.DNA, Recombinant: Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.Deoxyribonuclease HindIII: One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence A/AGCTT at the slash. HindIII is from Haemophilus influenzae R(d). Numerous isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.Deoxyribonuclease BamHI: One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence G/GATCC at the slash. BamHI is from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens N. Numerous isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Minicomputers: Small computers that lack the speed, memory capacity, and instructional capability of the full-size computer but usually retain its programmable flexibility. They are larger, faster, and more flexible, powerful, and expensive than microcomputers.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.ComputersElectrophoresis, Agar Gel: Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Bacteriophages: Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Bacteriophage lambda: A temperate inducible phage and type species of the genus lambda-like viruses, in the family SIPHOVIRIDAE. Its natural host is E. coli K12. Its VIRION contains linear double-stranded DNA with single-stranded 12-base 5' sticky ends. The DNA circularizes on infection.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.DNA Probes: Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Microcomputers: Small computers using LSI (large-scale integration) microprocessor chips as the CPU (central processing unit) and semiconductor memories for compact, inexpensive storage of program instructions and data. They are smaller and less expensive than minicomputers and are usually built into a dedicated system where they are optimized for a particular application. "Microprocessor" may refer to just the CPU or the entire microcomputer.Chromosome Inversion: An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Nucleotide Mapping: Two-dimensional separation and analysis of nucleotides.Bacteriocin Plasmids: Plasmids encoding bacterial exotoxins (BACTERIOCINS).DNA, Circular: Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Genomic Library: A form of GENE LIBRARY containing the complete DNA sequences present in the genome of a given organism. It contrasts with a cDNA library which contains only sequences utilized in protein coding (lacking introns).Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Conjugation, Genetic: A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Lysogeny: The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field: Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Nucleic Acid Heteroduplexes: Double-stranded nucleic acid molecules (DNA-DNA or DNA-RNA) which contain regions of nucleotide mismatches (non-complementary). In vivo, these heteroduplexes can result from mutation or genetic recombination; in vitro, they are formed by nucleic acid hybridization. Electron microscopic analysis of the resulting heteroduplexes facilitates the mapping of regions of base sequence homology of nucleic acids.Genes, Regulator: Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.X Chromosome: The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Chromosome Deletion: Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.R Factors: A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.Maps as Topic: Representations, normally to scale and on a flat medium, of a selection of material or abstract features on the surface of the earth, the heavens, or celestial bodies.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Food Deprivation: The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Fetal Growth Retardation: The failure of a FETUS to attain its expected FETAL GROWTH at any GESTATIONAL AGE.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Chromosomes, Fungal: Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Hybrid Cells: Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.RNA, Ribosomal: The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Streptomyces: A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Poly A: A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Gene Amplification: A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.MAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.DNA Restriction-Modification Enzymes: Systems consisting of two enzymes, a modification methylase and a restriction endonuclease. They are closely related in their specificity and protect the DNA of a given bacterial species. The methylase adds methyl groups to adenine or cytosine residues in the same target sequence that constitutes the restriction enzyme binding site. The methylation renders the target site resistant to restriction, thereby protecting DNA against cleavage.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Longevity: The normal length of time of an organism's life.DNA Fingerprinting: A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.Deoxyribonucleases, Type I Site-Specific: Enzyme systems containing three different subunits and requiring ATP, S-adenosylmethionine, and magnesium for endonucleolytic activity to give random double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. They function also as DNA-dependent ATPases and modification methylases, catalyzing the reactions of EC 2.1.1.72 and EC 2.1.1.73 with similar site-specificity. The systems recognize specific short DNA sequences and cleave at sites remote from the recognition sequence. Enzymes from different microorganisms with the same specificity are called isoschizomers. EC 3.1.21.3.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Deoxyribonuclease HpaII: One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequences C/CGG and GGC/C at the slash. HpaII is from Haemophilus parainfluenzae. Several isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.Diet, Protein-Restricted: A diet that contains limited amounts of protein. It is prescribed in some cases to slow the progression of renal failure. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Diet, Reducing: A diet designed to cause an individual to lose weight.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Diet, Sodium-Restricted: A diet which contains very little sodium chloride. It is prescribed by some for hypertension and for edematous states. (Dorland, 27th ed)Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Placental Insufficiency: Failure of the PLACENTA to deliver an adequate supply of nutrients and OXYGEN to the FETUS.Physical Chromosome Mapping: Mapping of the linear order of genes on a chromosome with units indicating their distances by using methods other than genetic recombination. These methods include nucleotide sequencing, overlapping deletions in polytene chromosomes, and electron micrography of heteroduplex DNA. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 5th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.DNA Cleavage: A reaction that severs one of the covalent sugar-phosphate linkages between NUCLEOTIDES that compose the sugar phosphate backbone of DNA. It is catalyzed enzymatically, chemically or by radiation. Cleavage may be exonucleolytic - removing the end nucleotide, or endonucleolytic - splitting the strand in two.Deoxyribonucleases, Type III Site-Specific: Enzyme systems composed of two subunits and requiring ATP and magnesium for endonucleolytic activity; they do not function as ATPases. They exist as complexes with modification methylases of similar specificity listed under EC 2.1.1.72 or EC 2.1.1.73. The systems recognize specific short DNA sequences and cleave a short distance, about 24 to 27 bases, away from the recognition sequence to give specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. Enzymes from different microorganisms with the same specificity are called isoschizomers. EC 3.1.21.5.Site-Specific DNA-Methyltransferase (Adenine-Specific): An enzyme responsible for producing a species-characteristic methylation pattern on adenine residues in a specific short base sequence in the host cell DNA. The enzyme catalyzes the methylation of DNA adenine in the presence of S-adenosyl-L-methionine to form DNA containing 6-methylaminopurine and S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine. EC 2.1.1.72.Placenta: A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Sleep Deprivation: The state of being deprived of sleep under experimental conditions, due to life events, or from a wide variety of pathophysiologic causes such as medication effect, chronic illness, psychiatric illness, or sleep disorder.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.Contig Mapping: Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Coliphages: Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.Sequence Tagged Sites: Short tracts of DNA sequence that are used as landmarks in GENOME mapping. In most instances, 200 to 500 base pairs of sequence define a Sequence Tagged Site (STS) that is operationally unique in the human genome (i.e., can be specifically detected by the polymerase chain reaction in the presence of all other genomic sequences). The overwhelming advantage of STSs over mapping landmarks defined in other ways is that the means of testing for the presence of a particular STS can be completely described as information in a database.Microtubule-Associated Proteins: High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Endonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the internal bonds and thereby the formation of polynucleotides or oligonucleotides from ribo- or deoxyribonucleotide chains. EC 3.1.-.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.MAP Kinase Kinase 1: An abundant 43-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase subtype with specificity for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 1 and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 3.MAP Kinase Kinase Kinases: Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAPKKKs) are serine-threonine protein kinases that initiate protein kinase signaling cascades. They phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKs) which in turn phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs).Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Methylation: Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Transformation, Bacterial: The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.DNA-Cytosine Methylases: Methylases that are specific for CYTOSINE residues found on DNA.Mice, Inbred C57BLMice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases: A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)Gene Frequency: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Radiation Hybrid Mapping: A method for ordering genetic loci along CHROMOSOMES. The method involves fusing irradiated donor cells with host cells from another species. Following cell fusion, fragments of DNA from the irradiated cells become integrated into the chromosomes of the host cells. Molecular probing of DNA obtained from the fused cells is used to determine if two or more genetic loci are located within the same fragment of donor cell DNA.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of FETUSES.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Cytosine: A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Sirtuins: A homologous family of regulatory enzymes that are structurally related to the protein silent mating type information regulator 2 (Sir2) found in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Sirtuins contain a central catalytic core region which binds NAD. Several of the sirtuins utilize NAD to deacetylate proteins such as HISTONES and are categorized as GROUP III HISTONE DEACETYLASES. Several other sirtuin members utilize NAD to transfer ADP-RIBOSE to proteins and are categorized as MONO ADP-RIBOSE TRANSFERASES, while a third group of sirtuins appears to have both deacetylase and ADP ribose transferase activities.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Leukemia Virus, Murine: Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS, containing many well-defined strains, producing leukemia in mice. Disease is commonly induced by injecting filtrates of propagable tumors into newborn mice.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.DNA, Ribosomal Spacer: The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Cyclophilin A: A 17-KDa cytoplasmic PEPTIDYLPROLYL ISOMERASE involved in immunoregulation. It is a member of the cyclophilin family of proteins that binds to CYCLOSPORINE.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.DNA Methylation: Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.Fetal Weight: The weight of the FETUS in utero. It is usually estimated by various formulas based on measurements made during PRENATAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Weight Loss: Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
Anantharaman TS, Mishra B, Schwartz D (1997). "Genomics via optical mapping. II: Ordered restriction maps". J Comput Biol. 4 (2 ... Anantharaman T, Mishra B, Schwartz D (1999). "Genomics via optical mapping. III: Contiging genomic DNA". Proc Int Conf Intell ... into the field of biostatistics and the application of Bayesian methods to the analysis of single molecule Optical Mapping ...
This map is called the restriction map. If the index of H in G is finite, there is also a map in the opposite direction, called ... If the order of G is invertible in a G-module M (for example, if M is a Q-vector space), the transfer map can be used to show ... The condition for a map φ to be a 1-cocycle is that φ(gh) = φ(g)[gφ(h)] and φ ∼ φ ′ {\displaystyle \ \varphi \sim \varphi '} if ... Then crossed homomorphisms constitute all maps f : Z / 2 → Z {\displaystyle f:\mathbb {Z} /2\to \mathbb {Z} } satisfying f ( 1 ...
... description & restriction map Louro, Ricardo O.; Crichton, Robert R. (2013). Practical approaches to biological inorganic ... where various restriction sites for many restriction endonucleases are present. In addition to β-galactosidase, pUC19 also ... However, due to the presence of MCS and several restriction sites, a foreign piece of DNA of choice can be introduced into it ... The recognition sites for HindIII, SphI, PstI, SalI, XbaI, BamHI, SmaI, KpnI, SacI and EcoRI restriction enzymes have been ...
Google Maps. Google. Retrieved August 6, 2013. Google (August 7, 2013). "Route Twisk Restrictions" (Map). Google Maps. Google. ... Route map: Google Template:Attached KML/Route Twisk KML is from Wikidata CentaLink map of Route Twisk (incorrectly labelled ... List of streets and roads in Hong Kong Google (August 6, 2013). "Route Twisk" (Map). ... Tsuen Kam Road; the correct English name is shown if the map is zoomed in). ...
Plasmid Restriction map Vector (molecular biology) CGView Dong, X; Stothard P; Forsythe IJ; Wishart DS. (July 2004). " ... It is a particularly useful online service for molecular biologists wishing to generate plasmid maps without having to purchase ... restriction sites, reporter genes, affinity tags, selectable marker genes, origins of replication and open reading frames. ... "PlasMapper: a web server for drawing and auto-annotating plasmid maps". Nucleic Acids Research. 32 (Web Server issue): W660-4. ...
Labidi, A.; David, H.L.; Roulland-Dussoix, D. (1985). "Restriction endonuclease mapping and cloning of Mycobacterium fortuitum ... Boyer, H.; Scibienski, E.; Slocum, H.; Roulland-Dussoix, D. (1971). "The in vitro restriction of the replicative form of W.T. ... doi:10.1016/0005-2787(69)90618-2. Boyer, H.W; Roulland-Dussoix, D. (1969). "A complementation analysis of the restriction and ... doi:10.1016/0042-6822(71)90072-9. Roulland-Dussoix, D.; Boyer, H.W. (1969). "The Escherichia coli restriction endonuclease B". ...
This restriction mapping sets up a fundamental correspondence: Theorem. Suppose G acts on X transitively with quasi-invariant ... In that case, each such measure is the image of (a totally finite version) of Haar measure on X by the map g ↦ g ⋅ x 0 . {\ ... We would like to show that there is actually a mapping on representations which corresponds to this relation. For finite groups ... We can write down explicit formulas for these representations by describing the restrictions to N and H. Case (1). The ...
He continued work on the phylogeny of Clarkia, using restriction site mapping of chloroplast DNA and then in 1996 Ford and ... Systma, K. J.; Smith, J. F.; Gottlieb, L. D. (1990). "Phylogenetics in Clarkia (Onagraceae): restriction site mapping of ... It wasn't until 1986 that he applied a newer molecular technique: chloroplast DNA variation using Restriction fragment length ...
Jalel l'apiculteur flickr.com [Retrieved 2011-12-20] "Restriction Maps". colostate.edu. Retrieved 7 May 2015. L Garnery, J M ... cleavage maps obtained through the use of restriction enzyme showed the Spanish Honey bee contains mtDNA similar to intermissa ...
The size of restriction fragments determines the resolution of interaction mapping. Restriction enzymes (REs) that make cuts on ... N. C. Durand et al., "Juicebox Provides a Visualization System for Hi-C Contact Maps with Unlimited Zoom," Cell Syst., vol. 3, ... For more precise interaction mapping, a 4bp recognizing RE may also be used. The next step is, random ligation. This takes ... As such, for a given ligated fragment, the two sequences obtained should represent two different restriction fragments that ...
Botstein, D.; White, R.; Skolnick, M.; Davis, R. (1980). "Construction of a genetic linkage map in man using restriction ... Davis proposed a method for constructing a genetic linkage map using restriction fragment length polymorphisms that was used in ... The Daily Princetonian - Mapping the path of genetics Botstein, David (1967). The Synthesis and Maturation of Phage-P22 DNA ( ... Variations of this method were used in the mapping efforts that predated and enabled the sequencing phase of the Human Genome ...
In 2012 mass assignment on Ruby on Rails allowed bypassing of mapping restrictions and resulted in proof of concept injection ... In ASP.NET Core mapping restriction can be declared using the [BindNever] attribute. Data transfer object (DTO) "CWE-915: ... Many web application frameworks offer an active record and object-relational mapping features, where external data in ...
Wang D, Fang H, Cantor CR, Smith CL (April 1992). "A contiguous Not I restriction map of band q22.3 of human chromosome 21". ... Moreover, the PFKL gene maps to the triplicated region of chromosome 21 responsible for DS, indicating that this gene, too, has ... The interactive pathway map can be edited at WikiPathways: "GlycolysisGluconeogenesis_WP534". Model organisms have been used in ... "Functional proteomics mapping of a human signaling pathway". Genome Research. 14 (7): 1324-32. doi:10.1101/gr.2334104. PMC ...
Any other symmetry, mapping a physical state into another, should keep this restriction. The wavefunction must be square- ... The whole group may be recovered, under normal circumstances, from the generators, via the exponential map. In the case of the ... An operator can be written in matrix form to map one basis vector to another. Since the operators are linear, the matrix is a ... which map physical states among themselves. where R ( n ^ , θ ) {\displaystyle R({\hat {\boldsymbol {n}}},\theta )} is the ...
Botstein, D.; White, R.; Skolnick, M.; Davis, R. (1980). "Construction of a genetic linkage map in man using restriction ... and Ray White developed the method for constructing a genetic linkage map using restriction fragment length polymorphisms that ... Davis developed the R-loop technique of electron microscopy for mapping coding RNAs which led to the discovery of RNA splicing ... With Janet Mertz, Davis was the first to demonstrate the use of restriction endonucleases for joining DNA fragments. Davis ...
The restriction map τ : C∞(T2) → C∞(T) = C∞(1 × T) extends to a continuous map Hk(T2) → Hk − ½(T) for k ≥ 1. In fact τ f ^ ( n ... Restriction theorem: The restriction map ρk is surjective with ker ρk = Hk 0(Ωc). This is an immediate consequence of the ... Since the adjoint map between the duals can by identified with this map, it follows that (I + ∆)k is a unitary map. The ... The map τ is onto since a continuous extension map E can be constructed from Hk − ½(T) to Hk(T2). In fact set E g ^ ( m , n ...
... inferred from ribosomal DNA restriction maps". Zoological Research. 17 (1): 89-93. CNKI:SUN:DWXY.0.1996-01-015. (Subscription ... and mitochondrial DNA restriction enzyme analysis. The phylogenetic relationships within the genus Nycticebus have been studied ... an approach using mitochondrial DNA restriction enzyme analysis". International Journal of Primatology. 14 (1): 167-175. doi: ...
Google (2012-07-04). "Sign showing truck restriction of bridge and bypass route (taken in July 2009)" (Map). Google Maps. ... Map). Google Maps. Google. Retrieved January 6, 2011. "Route 50 straight line diagram" (PDF). New Jersey Department of ... Route map: Google Template:Attached KML/County Route 557 (New Jersey) KML is from Wikidata New Jersey 5xx Routes (Dan Moraseski ... bypasses a now-rebuilt bridge over the Beesley's Point Secondary on CR 557 in Estell Manor that had a weight restriction. Major ...
Here ρ = ρ X , U {\displaystyle \rho =\rho _{X,U}} is the restriction map. In words, all sections of F are locally generated by ... For instance, given a plane curve C ↪ P 2 {\displaystyle C\hookrightarrow \mathbb {P} ^{2}} , the restriction of O P 2 ( 2 ) {\ ... by the map [ s : t ] ↦ [ s 2 : s t : t 2 ] {\displaystyle [s:t]\mapsto [s^{2}:st:t^{2}]} since Γ ( P 1 , O P 1 ( 2 ) ) = k ⋅ s ... has degree the dimension of X the rational mapping of the total system of divisors X → P Γ ( X , L ⊗ k ) {\displaystyle X\to \ ...
... where U is the open complement of Y and the middle map is the restriction of sections. The target of this restriction map is ...
The mapping approaches have certain restrictions on the kind of filters; However, It brings many important advantages, such as ... So we usually use appropriate mapping techniques to achieve perfect reconstruction.. A polyphase mapping method is proposed to ... Mapping based design in popularly used to design nonseparable multidimensional filter banks with good frequency responses. ... There are different mapping technique that can be used to get above result. If we do not want perfect reconstruction filter ...
The mapping approaches have certain restrictions on the kind of filters; However, It brings many important advantages, such as ... Mapping based design in popularly used to design nonseparable multidimensional filter banks with good frequency responses. ... There are different mapping technique that can be used to get above result. If we do not want perfect reconstruction filter ...
The restriction map F({x, y}) → F({x}) is the projection of R × R × R onto its first coordinate, and the restriction map F({x, ... E is constructed so that the projection map π is a covering map. In algebraic geometry, the natural analog of a covering map is ... If s ∈ F(U), then its restriction resV,U(s) is often denoted s,V by analogy with restriction of functions. The restriction ... The restriction maps are either the identity on S, if both open sets contain x, or the unique map from S to the terminal object ...
Pesticide Action Network map of Lindane bans and restrictions "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007- ...
1992). "Gene analysis of Mennonite maple syrup urine disease kindred using primer-specified restriction map modification". J. ...
... the CDC recommends that restrictions on public activity, including travel restrictions, are not required for the following ... Reports emerged that maps of the area were inaccurate, not so much hampering medical providers as epidemiologists and officials ... the CDC defined four risk levels used to determine the level of 21-day monitoring for symptoms and restrictions on public ... "Most Maps of the New Ebola Outbreak Are Wrong: Villages, and sometimes whole regions of the Congo, are misplaced-but the ...
... subjected to short-term caloric restriction for 23 days (SCR), or LCR for 9 months and compared with nonfasted control (CO) ... We investigated the influences of short-term and lifespan-prolonging long-term caloric restriction (LCR) on gene expression in ... We investigated the influences of short-term and lifespan-prolonging long-term caloric restriction (LCR) on gene expression in ... Adipose tissue energy metabolism: altered gene expression profile of mice subjected to long-term caloric restriction. ...
Start Dreaming: Check out our brand-new Travel Restriction Map. You can now use MyDiveGuide and the Center Locator to plan your ... SSI has created a Travel Restriction Map to give you an overview of where you can and cannot travel to SSI Training Centers, in ... COVID 19 has created travel restrictions worldwide. Since travel is such an integral part of our sport, the diving industry has ... World Travel Restrictions (United Nations World Food Programme - Emergency Division in collaboration with Management Services ...
A restriction map is a map of known restriction sites within a sequence of DNA. Restriction mapping requires the use of ... such as mapping by transduction. One approach in constructing a restriction map of a DNA molecule is to sequence the whole ... Restriction mapping is a very useful technique when used for determining the orientation of an insert in a cloning vector, by ... In molecular biology, restriction maps are used as a reference to engineer plasmids or other relatively short pieces of DNA, ...
... Send questions or suggestions to SGD. BLAST search , Genome Restriction Map , Design Primers for ...
These fragments can then be pieced together to create a map of the… ... The DNA Restriction Mapping Model simulates the cutting of a DNA molecule at each occurrence of the sequence GTGCAC or GTTAAC, ... DNA Restriction Mapping Source Code. The source code zip archive contains an XML representation of the DNA Restriction Mapping ... DNA Restriction Mapping Model:. Is Based On Easy Java Simulations Modeling and Authoring Tool The Easy Java Simulations ...
You have isolated DNA of a 500 bp EcoRI restriction fragment and you would like to determine its restriction map. The enzyme ... A 1000 bp EcoRI restriction fragment contains a gene you are interested in. As a first step, you construct a restriction map of ... a) Draw a restriction map of the fragment and show the distances, in base pairs, between the HindIII, EcoRI, and SmaI sites. ... Draw a restriction map of the fragment and show the distances, in base pairs, between the HindIII, SmaI, and EcoRI sites. Next ...
... Send questions or suggestions to SGD. BLAST search , Genome Restriction Map , Design Primers ...
function initMap() { var geocoder = new google.maps.Geocoder; var map = new google.maps.Map(document.getElementById(map), { ... new google.maps.Geocoder; var map = new google.maps.Map(document.getElementById(map), { zoom: 8, center: {lat: -33.865, lng: ... map,,/div,. /* Always set the map height explicitly to define the size of the div * element that contains the map. */ #map { ... map.setCenter(results[0].geometry.location); new google.maps.Marker({ map: map, position: results[0].geometry.location }); } ...
... Danny Reda reda at globalserve.net Mon Dec 21 02:34:33 EST 1998 *Previous ... graphical maps! Go from sequence to fully labeled, colorful map in ONE mouse click! * Paste maps into other Windows ... Map restriction sites using an included tool set of nearly 1000 enzymes (much more than you get with other programs). Select ... Edit maps in a WYSIWYG environment so that printed output matches whats on the screen. * Instantly parse sequence files on ...
... (Circular) (Six-base) MAPSORT of: pF1KM.seq Check: 3141 from: 1 to: 3452 With 182 enzymes: SgfI ...
... (Circular) (Six-base) MAPSORT of: pfn21a_k1.seq Check: 6820 from: 1 to: 5064 pFN21A_K1 With 182 ...
Restriction enzymes function like a primitive immune system. Bacteria use these enzymes to cut DNA from foreign sources, like ... Other Type II restriction enzymes generate blunt ends by cutting in the middle of the palindrome. For example, the enzyme SmaI ... Restriction enzymes function like a primitive immune system. Bacteria use these enzymes to cut DNA from foreign sources, like ... Molecular biologists use restriction endonucleases (the term endonuclease means that the enzyme cuts nucleic acids in the ...
Google is adding features on its Maps service to alert users about COVID-19-related travel restrictions to help them plan their ... Reuters) - Google is adding features on its Maps service to alert users about COVID-19-related travel restrictions to help them ... Google has invested billions of dollars from its search ads business to digitally map the world, drawing 1 billion users on ... The new features would also include details on COVID-19 checkpoints and restrictions on crossing national borders, starting ...
... Identifier: 0741-b28-fb-v28.b.37 Greenville street map where over-night parking is going to be ... Greenville (N.C.)--Maps. Finding Aid. Daily Reflector Negative Collection. Other Items. in this box in this collection ... North Carolina Maps Collection. Subject(s). Automobile parking--Law and legislation--North Carolina--Greenville. ... Greenville street map where over-night parking is going to be restricted. Date from negative sleeve. ...
plasmid restriction map- free software - (Nov/10/2004 ). hi, I want to find a free software to generate plasmid map using ... restriction digesion of the plasmid . any body know where to find?. chandima ...
p,Please visit DNA Sequences and Maps for complete sequence and restriction maps of all our vectors.,/p, ,p,,a target=_blank ... FAQ: Where can I find sequence and restriction maps of NEBs expression vectors?. Please visit DNA Sequences and Maps for ... complete sequence and restriction maps of all our vectors.. NEBcutter®, a computer program for restriction enzyme site mapping ... Home FAQs Where can I find sequence and restriction maps of NEBs expression vectors? ...
Click on each port or country in the map below for more details. Map will be updated on a daily basis, thrice per day. Last ... With your safety as our priority, we have created an overview of port restrictions worldwide. ... ports are imposing various restrictions on vessels and crew. ... Coronavirus - Global Port Restrictions Map Due to the current ... Coronavirus - Global Port Restrictions Map. Due to the current Coronavirus outbreak, ports are imposing various restrictions on ...
Template talk:DE:Map Features:restrictions. From OpenStreetMap Wiki. (Redirected from Template talk:De:Map Features: ... Retrieved from "http://wiki.openstreetmap.org/w/index.php?title=Template_talk:DE:Map_Features:restrictions&oldid=1061453" ...
Google Maps to alert users about COVID-19-related travel restrictions Reuters June 09, 2020 11:27 IST Updated: June 09, 2020 12 ... Google is adding features on its Maps service to alert users about COVID-19-related travel restrictions to help them plan their ... www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/technology/google-maps-to-alert-users-about-covid-19-related-travel-restrictions/article31784846.ece ... Google has invested billions of dollars from its search ads business to digitally map the world, drawing 1 billion users on ...
Restriction Mapping. You are here. Home » Products » Sequencher » Sequencher Features » Sanger Sequencing » Restriction Mapping ... Restriction Mapping. Sequencher provides a rich set of tools for generating linear restriction maps of your DNA sequence. ...
HaeII and HaeIII that was determined by the analysis of restriction enzyme cleavage patterns of ColEl, two independent ColEl:: ... This paper reports a cleavage site map of Tn5 for restriction enzymes BamHI, Bg/I, Bg/II, Hind II, HindIII, HpaI, Sa/I, Aval, ... A restriction enzyme cleavage map of Tn5 and location of a region encoding neomycin resistance Mol Gen Genet. 1979;177(1):65-72 ... This paper reports a cleavage site map of Tn5 for restriction enzymes BamHI, Bg/I, Bg/II, Hind II, HindIII, HpaI, Sa/I, Aval, ...
Restriction Mapping. Discussion of all aspects of biological molecules, biochemical processes and laboratory procedures in the ... Agronomy, I believe you can easily find a restriction map of that plasmid on the web, so that you can answer your question ... Provided there is at least one restriction site for the said enzyme in your sequence. Of course ...
Genome Assembly and Analysis with Optical Restriction Maps. Optical Mapping Data as a Guide for Genome Assembly. Genome ... Optical mapping is a genomic technology, pioneered by David Schwartz, which can map the location of restriction sites along a ... Optical mapping data can help remove many of the incorrect options, thus allowing us to more quickly and accurately identify ... Thus, optical mapping provides a long-range sparse representation of a genome, complementing the high resolution but localized ...
... perform restriction analysis and mapping. The plasmid drawing software also simulates cloning experiments such as gateway ... An exceptional tool for drawing publication and vector catalog quality plasmid maps, carrying out restriction analysis and ... Export plasmid maps in EPS format for Adobe Illustrator 10, SVG for Microsoft Power Point 2002 or as ready-to-host web pages. ... Use it to draw circular and linear vector maps in a variety of colors, patterns, fonts and line types. Display enzyme names in ...
The map relies on IATA s Timatic database which is updated more than 200 times per day to provide accurate travel restrictions ... IATA has launched a free online interactive world map to provide travelers with the latest COVID19 entry regulations by country ... The map relies on IATA s Timatic database which is updated more than 200 times per day to provide accurate travel restrictions ... Increase in Freighter Movements IATA Launches Interactive Map with Latest COVID19 Travel Restrictions White Glove Service at ...
  • We investigated the influences of short-term and lifespan-prolonging long-term caloric restriction (LCR) on gene expression in white adipose tissue (WAT). (rti.org)
  • Over 11,000 genes were examined using high-density oligonucleotide microarrays in four groups of 10- to 11-month-old male C57Bl6 mice that were either fasted for 18 h before death (F), subjected to short-term caloric restriction for 23 days (SCR), or LCR for 9 months and compared with nonfasted control (CO) mice. (rti.org)
  • Using this information, we can find the overlapping regions in A and B digests and find out the sites of cleavage by A and B. This will then allow us to prepare the restriction map as we can see in Figure.2. (qforquestions.com)
  • Restriction enzymes are commonly classified into four types, which differ in their structure and whether they cut their DNA substrate at their recognition site, or if the recognition and cleavage sites are separate from one another. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 1960s, it was shown in work done in the laboratories of Werner Arber and Matthew Meselson that the restriction is caused by an enzymatic cleavage of the phage DNA, and the enzyme involved was therefore termed a restriction enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • Large regions of genomic colinearity have been demonstrated among grass species by recombinational mapping, but the degree of chromosomal conservation at the sub-centimorgan level has not been extensively investigated. (pnas.org)
  • Genomic DNA samples of HA370 and HA372, the parents of the F2 population used to build the map, were screened for AFLPs using 42 primer combinations and RFLPs using 136 cDNA probes (RFLP analyses were performed on DNA digested with EcoRI, HindIII, EcoRV, or DraI). (usda.gov)
  • To this point, association and quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping approaches in this species have relied on relatively small numbers of genetic markers. (g3journal.org)
  • Once the restriction map is ready, we can compare it with the genetic map. (qforquestions.com)
  • Changes due to deletions, duplications, inversions and interchanges on the genetic map can be easily located on restriction map. (qforquestions.com)
  • It is useful in generating genetic linkage maps in human beings maize, tomato etc. (qforquestions.com)
  • Molecular analysis of male plant reproduction:- Genetic mapping, fluorescent protein localisation, transcriptomics, ChIP analysis, direct analysis of regulatory targets and Yeast two hybrid interactions. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • These results suggest the following: (1) models that incorporate balancing selection are more consistent with observations than deleterious mutation-selection equilibrium models, (2) mapped quantitative trait loci of large effect may not represent a single variable site at a genetic locus, and (3) linkage disequilibrium can be used as a tool for understanding the molecular basis of quantitative variation. (genetics.org)
  • The new features would also include details on COVID-19 checkpoints and restrictions on crossing national borders, starting with Canada, Mexico and the United States. (reuters.com)
  • With the COVID-19 outbreak, ports are imposing various restrictions on vessels and crew. (oceanplus.gr)
  • Regardless of whether you're actually flying with United (or any other airline) any time soon, the map is an easy-to-use updated resource on COVID travel information. (orbviral.com)
  • Commenting on the new restrictions in Wolverhampton, Ian Brookfield, the leader of the city council, said: "All the evidence shows that close contact within the home or between households is a major cause of the spread of Covid-19. (yahoo.com)
  • The International Air Transport Association (IATA) introduced a free online interactive world map to provide travellers with the latest COVID-19 entry regulations by country. (air101.co.uk)
  • IATA's COVID-19 interactive world map, also available for mobile, can be viewed here . (air101.co.uk)
  • The technique of individual and double digests can be supplemented with other techniques for actual construction of maps. (qforquestions.com)
  • The purpose of this thesis was to map traits of interest to soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr. (iastate.edu)
  • In a recent survey commissioned by IATA regarding concerns people had about air travel post-crisis, more than 80% of travelers said they are as concerned about potential quarantine restrictions as they are about actually catching the virus during travel. (asiatraveltips.com)
  • Our approach enabled rapid (8 hours) mutagenesis and automated cloning of 50 position-specific alanine mutants for mapping of a scFv antibody paratope. (dtu.dk)