Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.
Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
Infections with viruses of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE. This includes MORBILLIVIRUS INFECTIONS; RESPIROVIRUS INFECTIONS; PNEUMOVIRUS INFECTIONS; HENIPAVIRUS INFECTIONS; AVULAVIRUS INFECTIONS; and RUBULAVIRUS INFECTIONS.
A genus of the subfamily PNEUMOVIRINAE, containing two members: Turkey rhinotracheitis virus and a human Metapneumovirus. Virions lack HEMAGGLUTININ and NEURAMINIDASE.
Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.
The top portion of the pharynx situated posterior to the nose and superior to the SOFT PALATE. The nasopharynx is the posterior extension of the nasal cavities and has a respiratory function.
A member of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, originally isolated from human nasopharyngeal aspirates in patients with respiratory disease.
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
Gram-negative aerobic cocci of low virulence that colonize the nasopharynx and occasionally cause MENINGITIS; BACTEREMIA; EMPYEMA; PERICARDITIS; and PNEUMONIA.
A catarrhal disorder of the upper respiratory tract, which may be viral or a mixed infection. It generally involves a runny nose, nasal congestion, and sneezing.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.
Any infection acquired in the community, that is, contrasted with those acquired in a health care facility (CROSS INFECTION). An infection would be classified as community-acquired if the patient had not recently been in a health care facility or been in contact with someone who had been recently in a health care facility.
Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.
A species of HAEMOPHILUS found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through VIII.
Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.
Inflammation of the BRONCHIOLES.
A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.
Inflammation of the MIDDLE EAR including the AUDITORY OSSICLES and the EUSTACHIAN TUBE.
Virus diseases caused by the PICORNAVIRIDAE.
The utilization of drugs as reported in individual hospital studies, FDA studies, marketing, or consumption, etc. This includes drug stockpiling, and patient drug profiles.
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.
Inflammation of the throat (PHARYNX).
A genus of PICORNAVIRIDAE inhabiting primarily the respiratory tract of mammalian hosts. It includes over 100 human serotypes associated with the COMMON COLD.
Inflammation of the tonsils, especially the PALATINE TONSILS but the ADENOIDS (pharyngeal tonsils) and lingual tonsils may also be involved. Tonsillitis usually is caused by bacterial infection. Tonsillitis may be acute, chronic, or recurrent.
An infant during the first month after birth.
The type species of PNEUMOVIRUS and an important cause of lower respiratory disease in infants and young children. It frequently presents with bronchitis and bronchopneumonia and is further characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and pallor.
Infections of the genital tract in females or males. They can be caused by endogenous, iatrogenic, or sexually transmitted organisms.
Infections with bacteria of the genus HAEMOPHILUS.
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by bacterial infections.
Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.
A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.
A genus in the subfamily PARVOVIRINAE comprising three species: Bovine parvovirus, Canine minute virus, and HUMAN BOCAVIRUS.
Infections with bacteria of the family NEISSERIACEAE.
A fixed-ratio combination of amoxicillin trihydrate and potassium clavulanate.
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
A subfamily of DNA vertebrate viruses, in the family PARVOVIRIDAE. There are three genera: PARVOVIRUS; ERYTHROVIRUS; and DEPENDOVIRUS.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Virus infections caused by the PARVOVIRIDAE.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Substances capable of killing agents causing urinary tract infections or of preventing them from spreading.
The duct which coveys URINE from the pelvis of the KIDNEY through the URETERS, BLADDER, and URETHRA.
The process of gaining approval by a government regulatory agency for DIAGNOSTIC REAGENTS AND TEST KITS. This includes any required preclinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance.
Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA in one or more of the PARANASAL SINUSES.
Short filamentous organism of the genus Mycoplasma, which binds firmly to the cells of the respiratory epithelium. It is one of the etiologic agents of non-viral primary atypical pneumonia in man.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.
Directions written for the obtaining and use of DRUGS.
Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.
The presence of bacteria in the urine which is normally bacteria-free. These bacteria are from the URINARY TRACT and are not contaminants of the surrounding tissues. Bacteriuria can be symptomatic or asymptomatic. Significant bacteriuria is an indicator of urinary tract infection.
Retrograde flow of urine from the URINARY BLADDER into the URETER. This is often due to incompetence of the vesicoureteral valve leading to ascending bacterial infection into the KIDNEY.
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is associated with BRONCHITIS, usually involving lobular areas from TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES to the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. The affected areas become filled with exudate that forms consolidated patches.
The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
Infections with bacteria of the family MORAXELLACEAE.
Passage of a CATHETER into the URINARY BLADDER or kidney.
Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.
Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
Interstitial pneumonia caused by extensive infection of the lungs (LUNG) and BRONCHI, particularly the lower lobes of the lungs, by MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE in humans. In SHEEP, it is caused by MYCOPLASMA OVIPNEUMONIAE. In CATTLE, it may be caused by MYCOPLASMA DISPAR.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Endogenous substances produced through the activity of intact cells of glands, tissues, or organs.
An acute inflammatory disease of the lower RESPIRATORY TRACT, caused by paramyxoviruses, occurring primarily in infants and young children; the viruses most commonly implicated are PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS TYPE 3; RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS, HUMAN; and METAPNEUMOVIRUS.
A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.
The confinement of a patient in a hospital.
Inflammation of the KIDNEY involving the renal parenchyma (the NEPHRONS); KIDNEY PELVIS; and KIDNEY CALICES. It is characterized by ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; NAUSEA; VOMITING; and occasionally DIARRHEA.
A semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotic structurally related to ERYTHROMYCIN. It has been used in the treatment of Mycobacterium avium intracellulare infections, toxoplasmosis, and cryptosporidiosis.
A species of CHLAMYDOPHILA that causes acute respiratory infection, especially atypical pneumonia, in humans, horses, and koalas.
The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.
Infections with bacteria of the genus BORDETELLA.
Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.
Infections with viruses of the genus RESPIROVIRUS, family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE. Host cell infection occurs by adsorption, via HEMAGGLUTININ, to the cell surface.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.
A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.
Compounds based on ERYTHROMYCIN with the 3-cladinose replaced by a ketone. They bind the 23S part of 70S bacterial RIBOSOMES.
A dysgammaglobulinemia characterized by a deficiency of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.
A febrile disease caused by STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
Inflammation of the URINARY BLADDER, either from bacterial or non-bacterial causes. Cystitis is usually associated with painful urination (dysuria), increased frequency, urgency, and suprapubic pain.
Infections with bacteria of the genus PROTEUS.
The practice of administering medications in a manner that poses more risk than benefit, particularly where safer alternatives exist.
A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).
An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.
A genus of the family CORONAVIRIDAE which causes respiratory or gastrointestinal disease in a variety of vertebrates.
An expectorant that also has some muscle relaxing action. It is used in many cough preparations.
Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.
A species of BORDETELLA that is parasitic and pathogenic. It is found in the respiratory tract of domestic and wild mammalian animals and can be transmitted from animals to man. It is a common cause of bronchopneumonia in lower animals.
Strains of Escherichia coli that preferentially grow and persist within the urinary tract. They exhibit certain virulence factors and strategies that cause urinary tract infections.
This drug combination has proved to be an effective therapeutic agent with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It is effective in the treatment of many infections, including PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in AIDS.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
An immunologic deficiency state characterized by selective deficiencies of one or more, but not all, classes of immunoglobulins.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS frequently isolated from small children with pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
A urinary anti-infective agent effective against most gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. Although sulfonamides and antibiotics are usually the agents of choice for urinary tract infections, nitrofurantoin is widely used for prophylaxis and long-term suppression.
Inflammation involving the GLOTTIS or VOCAL CORDS and the subglottic larynx. Croup is characterized by a barking cough, HOARSENESS, and persistent inspiratory STRIDOR (a high-pitched breathing sound). It occurs chiefly in infants and children.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
A peptide hormone that lowers calcium concentration in the blood. In humans, it is released by thyroid cells and acts to decrease the formation and absorptive activity of osteoclasts. Its role in regulating plasma calcium is much greater in children and in certain diseases than in normal adults.
Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.
Fluid obtained by THERAPEUTIC IRRIGATION or washout of the nasal cavity and NASAL MUCOSA. The resulting fluid is used in cytologic and immunologic assays of the nasal mucosa such as with the NASAL PROVOCATION TEST in the diagnosis of nasal hypersensitivity.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
A broad-spectrum penicillin antibiotic used orally in the treatment of mild to moderate infections by susceptible gram-positive organisms.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
A species in the genus CORONAVIRUS causing the common cold and possibly nervous system infections in humans. It contains hemagglutinin-esterase.
A species in the genus CORONAVIRUS causing the common cold and possibly nervous system infections in humans. It lacks hemagglutinin-esterase.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
A species of RUBULAVIRUS associated particularly with acute laryngotracheitis (CROUP) in children aged 6 months to 3 years.
Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.
Virus diseases caused by the CORONAVIRUS genus. Some specifics include transmissible enteritis of turkeys (ENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF TURKEYS); FELINE INFECTIOUS PERITONITIS; and transmissible gastroenteritis of swine (GASTROENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF SWINE).
A synthetic fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent that inhibits the supercoiling activity of bacterial DNA GYRASE, halting DNA REPLICATION.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Inflammation of the gingiva surrounding the crown of a tooth.
Child hospitalized for short term care.
The presence of white blood cells (LEUKOCYTES) in the urine. It is often associated with bacterial infections of the urinary tract. Pyuria without BACTERIURIA can be caused by TUBERCULOSIS, stones, or cancer.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Laboratory and other services provided to patients at the bedside. These include diagnostic and laboratory testing using automated information entry.
Semisynthetic derivative of erythromycin. It is concentrated by human phagocytes and is bioactive intracellularly. While the drug is active against a wide spectrum of pathogens, it is particularly effective in the treatment of respiratory and genital tract infections.
Pathological processes involving the NASOPHARYNX.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.
Formal programs for assessing drug prescription against some standard. Drug utilization review may consider clinical appropriateness, cost effectiveness, and, in some cases, outcomes. Review is usually retrospective, but some analysis may be done before drugs are dispensed (as in computer systems which advise physicians when prescriptions are entered). Drug utilization review is mandated for Medicaid programs beginning in 1993.
Infections with species of the genus MYCOPLASMA.
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
Virus diseases caused by the ADENOVIRIDAE.
A disorder in which the adductor muscles of the VOCAL CORDS exhibit increased activity leading to laryngeal spasm. Laryngismus causes closure of the VOCAL FOLDS and airflow obstruction during inspiration.
The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.
Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
Agents that suppress cough. They act centrally on the medullary cough center. EXPECTORANTS, also used in the treatment of cough, act locally.
The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.
Persistent abnormal dilatation of the bronchi.
Acids, salts, and derivatives of clavulanic acid (C8H9O5N). They consist of those beta-lactam compounds that differ from penicillin in having the sulfur of the thiazolidine ring replaced by an oxygen. They have limited antibacterial action, but block bacterial beta-lactamase irreversibly, so that similar antibiotics are not broken down by the bacterial enzymes and therefore can exert their antibacterial effects.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that is frequently isolated from clinical specimens. Its most common site of infection is the urinary tract.
A species in the genus CORONAVIRUS causing upper and lower RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS. It shares the receptor used by the SARS VIRUS.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A collection of lymphoid nodules on the posterior wall and roof of the NASOPHARYNX.
Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDOPHILA.
Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDIA.
A broad-spectrum semisynthetic antibiotic similar to AMPICILLIN except that its resistance to gastric acid permits higher serum levels with oral administration.
Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.
The self administration of medication not prescribed by a physician or in a manner not directed by a physician.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The L-isomer of Ofloxacin.
Respiratory and conjunctival infections caused by 33 identified serotypes of human adenoviruses.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Pathological processes involving the female reproductive tract (GENITALIA, FEMALE).
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.
Facilities which provide care for pre-school and school-age children.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique utilizing a fluorochrome conjugated to an antibody, which is added directly to a tissue or cell suspension for the detection of a specific antigen. (Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
A pyrimidine inhibitor of dihydrofolate reductase, it is an antibacterial related to PYRIMETHAMINE. It is potentiated by SULFONAMIDES and the TRIMETHOPRIM, SULFAMETHOXAZOLE DRUG COMBINATION is the form most often used. It is sometimes used alone as an antimalarial. TRIMETHOPRIM RESISTANCE has been reported.
Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms that can cause pathological conditions or diseases.
Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.
The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Agents that increase mucous excretion. Mucolytic agents, that is drugs that liquefy mucous secretions, are also included here.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and consisting of 2 serotypes: Human enterovirus 68 and Human enterovirus 70.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where all the virions have both HEMAGGLUTININ and NEURAMINIDASE activities and encode a non-structural C protein. SENDAI VIRUS is the type species.
The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Health services for college and university students usually provided by the educational institution.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.
A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation.
A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Inflammation of the ear, which may be marked by pain (EARACHE), fever, HEARING DISORDERS, and VERTIGO. Inflammation of the external ear is OTITIS EXTERNA; of the middle ear, OTITIS MEDIA; of the inner ear, LABYRINTHITIS.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The middle portion of the pharynx that lies posterior to the mouth, inferior to the SOFT PALATE, and superior to the base of the tongue and EPIGLOTTIS. It has a digestive function as food passes from the mouth into the oropharynx before entering ESOPHAGUS.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Examination of urine by chemical, physical, or microscopic means. Routine urinalysis usually includes performing chemical screening tests, determining specific gravity, observing any unusual color or odor, screening for bacteriuria, and examining the sediment microscopically.
A substituted dihydroxybenzene used topically as an antiseptic for the treatment of minor skin infections.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from skin lesions, blood, inflammatory exudates, and the upper respiratory tract of humans. It is a group A hemolytic Streptococcus that can cause SCARLET FEVER and RHEUMATIC FEVER.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that is an ingredient of the preparation PC-SPES that is used to treat PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.

Previous respiratory tract infections and antibiotic consumption in children with long- and short-term carriage of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. (1/4088)

Previous respiratory tract infections (RTI) and antibiotics consumption as possible risk factors for extended duration of PRP carriage were investigated in 24 children (cases) with previous carriage of penicillin-resistant pneumococci (PRP) for a duration exceeding 120 days (median 168 days) and a control group of 53 children with a duration of PRP carriage less than 90 days (median 21 days). The cases had experienced 0.99 episodes of acute otitis media (AOM) per life-year compared to 0.79 episodes in the controls (P = 0.32). For antibiotic-treated RTI other than AOM, the corresponding numbers were 0.49 and 0.29 episodes per life-year, respectively (P = 0.01). No differences in antibiotic consumption in the 3 months preceding the carriage, nor during the carriage period were noted. Other factors than impaired host defence to respiratory tract pathogens or antibiotics consumption seem to be more important in determining the duration of PRP carriage.  (+info)

Comparative activity of quinupristin/dalfopristin and RPR 106972 and the effect of medium on in-vitro test results. (2/4088)

Quinupristin/dalfopristin and RPR 106972 were active in vitro against a wide range of aerobic Gram-positive organisms including Enterococcus faecium. However, most isolates of Enterococcus faecalis were resistant or of intermediate sensitivity. Against Staphylococcus aureus quinupristin/dalfopristin was more active but for all other species the range of activity of the two drugs was the same or RPR 106972 was more active. RPR 106972 was also more active against the respiratory pathogens Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis. Quinupristin/dalfopristin MICs for isolates of H. influenzae (1-8 mg/L) clustered around the breakpoint. There were differences in the quality of growth, but little difference in MICs or zone diameters was obtained on three different media: Mueller-Hinton (MHA), Iso-Sensitest (ISA), and Diagnostic Sensitivity Test (DST) agars. The addition of blood to the medium increased MICs 2- to 4-fold, with MHA showing the greatest increase, and reduced zone diameters around quinupristin/dalfopristin discs by 3-4 mm, with the greatest effect on ISA.  (+info)

Respiratory tract infections as a public health challenge. (3/4088)

Acute respiratory infections have everywhere become the province of clinicians and the pharmaceutical industry. A public health approach is needed with systematic efforts to minimize transmission, maximize prevention, and harness the research and surveillance effort to decrease their incidence and severity. These infections have a huge incidence, morbidity burden, and economic impact in all societies. Several factors now demand renewed attention to prevention. They include the growing costs and potentially limited benefits of an expanded pharmacotherapeutic approach; the serious change in antibiotic susceptibility of the common respiratory pathogens; the advances made in vaccinology in recent years; and the need to promote equity and share limited health resources across the world's population. Care should not be restricted to those in affluent countries who can afford increasingly expensive treatment.  (+info)

A national program for control of acute respiratory tract infections: the Philippine experience. (4/4088)

Maturing programs on child immunization and diarrheal diseases, a community-based research project, and a rational drug-use program facilitated the launching in 1989 of a nationwide Philippine Control of Acute Respiratory Infections program (Phil-CARI). From 1990 to 1991 the Phil-CARI expanded rapidly, training >80% of its middle managers and frontline health care providers on the case-management protocols of the World Health Organization for acute respiratory infection. Multiple donors and good collaboration with various societies and medical schools assisted the program. However, by 1992, there were difficulties in maintaining training quality, follow-up, and supervision. Donor assistance dwindled and the health care delivery system decentralized. Government procurement systems were unable to meet the logistics demands of the program. The monitoring and evaluation system was inadequate to measure impact. The Phil-CARI provides lessons in searching for more sustainable approaches and systems to meet the various demands of a nationwide ARI control program and to create the desired impact.  (+info)

Interrupting the transmission of respiratory tract infections: theory and practice. (5/4088)

Interruption of transmission has always been one of the most attractive approaches for infection control. The technologies available were severely limited before the development of appropriate vaccines. Mathematically, the proportion of those who need to be immune to interrupt transmission can be derived from the Ro, which represents the number of new cases infected by a single case when all contacts are susceptible. Purely respiratory infections have critical characteristics affecting transmission that are different from key childhood vaccine-preventable diseases spread by the respiratory route. They include frequent reinfections and antigenic changes of the agents. Pragmatic approaches to understanding their potential effect can be found in experimental and programmatic use of vaccines such as those for Haemophilus influenzae type b and influenza virus infections. Results of these experiences can in turn strengthen the development of transmission theory.  (+info)

Epidemiology and prevention of group A streptococcal infections: acute respiratory tract infections, skin infections, and their sequelae at the close of the twentieth century. (6/4088)

Infections of the upper respiratory tract and skin due to group A Streptococcus are common, and the organism is highly transmissible. In industrialized countries and to some extent in developing countries, control efforts continue to emphasize that group A streptococcal pharyngitis should be properly diagnosed and appropriately treated. In developing countries and in indigenous populations where the burden of group A streptococcal diseases appears greatest, the epidemiology is less completely defined and may differ from that in industrialized countries. There is a need for accurately collected epidemiological data from developing countries, which may also further clarify the pathogenesis of group A streptococcal infections and their sequelae. While proper treatment of group A streptococcal pharyngitis continues to be essential in all populations, it may be appropriate in developing countries to consider additional strategies to reduce rates of pyoderma.  (+info)

Antibiotic strategies for developing countries: experience with acute respiratory tract infections in Pakistan. (7/4088)

The Pakistan program for control of acute respiratory tract infections (ARIs) adopted the standard ARI-case-management strategy of the World Health Organization and recommended co-trimoxazole for the management of nonsevere pneumonia. Reports in that country of high in vitro antimicrobial resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae to co-trimoxazole prompted the program to reevaluate its treatment policy. Two community-based studies during 1991-1993 showed in vivo efficacy of co-trimoxazole in 92% and 91% of children with nonsevere pneumonia. A third double-blind trial showed co-trimoxazole and oral amoxicillin to be equally effective in vivo in cases of nonsevere pneumonia, despite high in vitro resistance. Country-wide surveillance from 1991 to 1994 revealed 78.3%-79.9% in vitro resistance to co-trimoxazole among S. pneumoniae isolates and 59.5%-61.0% among H. influenzae isolates. Co-trimoxazole is still recommended by the Pakistan ARI control program. The fact that amoxicillin is three times more expensive and must be administered more frequently is a big impediment to recommending it as a first-line drug for nonsevere pneumonia.  (+info)

The future role of international agencies in control of acute respiratory tract infections. (8/4088)

Achievements in the control of acute respiratory infection (ARI) owe much to international collaboration in research, education, and delivery of services. This article highlights some of the current activities of the many international agencies involved and summarizes thoughts on their future roles. Key recent scientific advances include better surveillance, new and improved vaccines, refinement of standard clinical management plans and behavioral change techniques, and demonstration of the effectiveness of their application. Agencies involved include the World Health Organization, the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, national government agencies for overseas aid, many academic departments, and professional lung health associations. However, much remains to be done, especially in collaborative research, in the devising, implementing, and evaluating of health care delivery systems in low-income countries, and in mobilizing political will and resources. These are tasks beyond the capacity of any lone agency. Success will depend on how effectively we collaborate.  (+info)

Introduction: Acute Upper Respiratory Tract Infections (URTIs) are the most common infectious diseases of humankind. While usually mild and self-limiting, they are characterized by a series of simultaneously occurring symptoms/ signs that are sufficiently disruptive to sufferers normal activities in which medication is frequently sought. While the literature has many examples of epidemiological studies on these infections, there are few reports on patient experience and impact. This study was designed to investigate these aspects of Common Cold/Flu across six countries. Methods: A minimum of 500 adults aged 18 and older were recruited in each of six countries (Brazil, China, Germany, India, Russia, and the US) using customary survey research sampling techniques. Single 30-minute (online) or 40-minute door-to-door quantitative questionnaires with c. 50 questions were completed with each participant by the global research firm Ipsos. Main Findings: Across countries, incidence and seasonality of
Acute upper respiratory tract infection GENERAL REVIEW CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS Acute upper respiratory tract infections are usually divided into five types: Cold. This syndrome is characterized mainly by obstruction familiar with nasal disc
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of viral upper respiratory tract infection on cough reflex sensitivity. AU - Dicpinigaitis, Peter Vytautas. PY - 2014/10/1. Y1 - 2014/10/1. N2 - Acute viral upper respiratory tract infection (URI; common cold) is among the most common medical conditions affecting man, with cough being a typical feature of the associated syndrome. Studies employing capsaicin inhalation challenge to measure cough reflex sensitivity have demonstrated a transient tussive hyperresponsiveness induced by URI that reverts to normal by 4-8 weeks post infection. Mechanisms proposed to explain the induction of cough by URI include a number of infection-associated airway effects, such as enhanced release of cytokines, neurotransmitters, and leukotrienes; increased neural receptor levels; reduced activity of neutral endopeptidases; transient modulation of afferent neural activity; mucus hypersecretion; and, possibly, effects on cholinergic motor pathways. Recent studies evaluating urge-to-cough (UTC), ...
Question Does high-dose vitamin D supplementation (2000 IU/d) help to prevent wintertime viral upper respiratory tract infections compared with standard-dose vitamin D supplementation (400 IU/d) among preschool children? Findings In this multisite randomized clinical trial that included 703 children, the number of wintertime laboratory-confirmed viral upper respiratory tract infections was higher in the high-dose group than the…
Can Cipro Treat Upper Respiratory Infections. Will ciprofloxacin treat upper respiratory infection Ciprofloxacin can treat upper respiratory tract infections but its use is limited. It mainly covers bacteria that can affect the genital/urinary tract. Today Ciprofloxacin is not as good as other antibiotics for upper respiratory tract infections.Ciprofloxacin and Upper Respiratory Infection - ReviewsIs Ciprofloxacin helpful for Upper Respiratory Infection? can Ciprofloxacin cause Upper Respiratory Infection? Ciprofloxacin is mentioned in 49 posts about Upper Antibiotic Use in Acute Upper Respiratory Tract Infections Upper respiratory tract infections account for millions of visits to family physicians each year in the United States. Although warranted in some cases, antibiotics are buy generic viagra greatly overused. This article outlines the guidelines and indications for appropriate antibiotic use for common upper respiratory infections.Treatment of upper respiratory tract infection (PDF Its ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Plasma cytokines eotaxin, MIP-1α, MCP-4, and vascular endothelial growth factor in acute lower respiratory tract infection. AU - Relster, Mette Marie. AU - Holm, Anette. AU - Pedersen, Court. N1 - © 2016 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.. PY - 2017. Y1 - 2017. N2 - Major overlaps of clinical characteristics and the limitations of conventional diagnostic tests render the initial diagnosis and clinical management of pulmonary disorders difficult. In this pilot study, we analyzed the predictive value of eotaxin, macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha (MIP-1α), monocyte chemoattractant protein 4 (MCP-4), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in 40 patients hospitalized with acute lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI). The cytokines contribute to the pathogenesis of several inflammatory respiratory diseases, indicating a potential as markers for LRTI. Patients were stratified according to etiology and severity of LRTI, based on baseline C-reactive protein and ...
Viral upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) predisposes to bacterial pneumonia possibly by facilitating growth of bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumoniae colonising the nasopharynx. We investigated whether viral URTI is temporally associated with an increase in nasopharyngeal pneumococcal concentration. Episodes of symptomatic RSV or rhinovirus URTI among children ,5 years were identifed from a longitudinal household study in rural Kenya. lytA and alu PCR were performed on nasopharyngeal samples collected twice-weekly, to measure the pneumococcal concentration adjusted for the concentration of human DNA present. Pneumococcal concentration increased with a foldchange of 3.80 (95%CI 1.95-7.40), with acquisition of RSV or rhinovirus, during 51 URTI episodes among 42 children. In repeated swabs from the baseline period, in the two weeks before URTI developed, within-episode variation was broad; within +/−112-fold range of the geometric mean. We observed only a small increase in nasopharyngeal ...
Background Interferences between pathogenic bacteria and specific commensals are known. We determined the interactions between nasopharyngeal microbial pathogens and commensals during viral upper respiratory tract infection (URI) and acute otitis media (AOM) in infants. Methods We analyzed 971 specimens collected monthly and during URI and AOM episodes from 139 infants. The 16S rRNA V4 gene regions were sequenced on the Illumina MiSeq platform. Results Among the high abundant genus-level nasopharyngeal microbiota were Moraxella, Haemophilus, and Streptococcus (3 otopathogen genera), Corynebacterium, Dolosigranulum, Staphylococcus, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, and Bifidobacterium. Bacterial diversity was lower in culture-positive samples for Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae, compared to cultured-negative samples. URI frequencies were positively associated with increasing trend in otopathogen colonization. AOM frequencies were associated with decreasing trend in Micrococcus
Description of disease Upper Respiratory Tract Infection. Treatment Upper Respiratory Tract Infection. Symptoms and causes Upper Respiratory Tract Infection Prophylaxis Upper Respiratory Tract Infection
Background: There have been studies focused on mannose binding lectin (MBL) polymorphism and susceptibility to recurrent respiratory tract infections (RRTI) with inconclusive results. This present study is a meta-analysis of possible MBL and RRTI association in children. ...
Acute upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) contain colds, influenza and diseases of the throat, nose or sinuses. Larger volume nasal washes and saline nose spray have become very popular as one of several treatment options for URTIs, and they are shown to have some effectiveness for following nasal surgery and chronic sinusitis. It was a well-conducted systematic review and the decision seems not false. Find all (14) Outlines for consumersCochrane writers reviewed the available evidence from randomised controlled trials on the use of antibiotics for adults with acute laryngitis. Acute upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) include colds, influenza and diseases of the throat, nose or sinuses. This review found no evidence for or against using increased fluids ...
Fact Sheet- Ethiopia 2015. Vital Indicators:. The Crude death rate is estimated to be 7.6 per 1000 population, where as the sub-Saharan (developing) countries found to be 11.1 per 1000 population. Life expectancy at birth of male and female is 62 years and 65 years respectively. The Infant Mortality rate is estimated at 44 per 1000 live births; under five mortality rate is 64 deaths per 1000 live births (world Bank). The Maternal Mortality Ratio is estimated at 420 per 100,000 live births (world health statistics Report, 2014).. Burden of Diseases:. Ethiopian Burden of diseases dominated by acute upper respiratory tract infection, followed by acute febrile illness, pneumonia, diarrhea, and malaria. Pneumonia, Diarrhea, Acute Upper Respiratory Tract Infection, Acute Febrile Illness and Malaria accounts for 64% under five morbidity.. Health Service Coverage and Utilization:. Availability, accessibility, equity, efficiency and quality of health services depend on the distribution, functionality and ...
Scholarly articles for Managing Upper Respiratory Infection in CatsScholarly articles for Managing Upper Respiratory Infection in Cats… with upper respiratory tract disease caused by feline … ‎Helps Cited by 108… evaluation of multiple respiratory pathogens in cats in … ‎Bannasch Cited by 127Severe acute respiratory syndrome ‎Peiris Cited by 474Search ResultsThese viruses can be transmitted from cat to cat through sneezing, coughing, or while grooming or sharing food and water bowls Cats often develop bacterial infections secondary to these common viral infections There are also upper respiratory infections in cats that are primarily caused by bacteriaCat Upper Respiratory Infection Symptoms and TreatmentspetswebmdcomcatsguideupperrespiratoryinfectioncatsFeedbackAbout this resultPeople also askHow long does it take for an upper respiratory infection to go away in cats?What causes upper respiratory infection in cats?Can a cat get a sinus infection?How can a cat get a ...
Respiratory Disease is defined as medical conditions which affect the breathing organ and tissues including Inflammatory lung disease, Obstructive lung diseases, Restrictive lung diseases, Respiratory tract infections, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, the nerves and muscles breathing , etc,. V. A. Upper respiratory tract infection Upper respiratory tract infections are considered to be the infection of the …. ...
INTRODUCTION. Acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRI) in children are a leading cause of death and constitute a substantial burden of disease in developed and developing countries.1,2 A significant proportion of children with ALRI presenting to emergency wards may have also concurrent wheezing of varying severity.3-6. The World Health Organization (WHO) promotes a case-detection and antibiotic management policy for ALRI, particularly pneumonia.7* Tachypnea and chest retraction are the key findings for making a diagnosis of pneumonia and putting patients on antibiotic therapy. There is strong evidence supporting the effectiveness of this policy in reducing childhood mortality due to pneumonia.8,9 However, in children with ALRI and wheezing, it is difficult to determine whether the difficulty in breathing is due to pneumonia or to bronchial obstruction underlying the wheezing. Physicians faced with these patients usually prescribe inhaled or nebulized beta-adrenergics and systemic ...
Pneumonia is a serious disease in children, and hypoxaemia is the best indicator of both severe and potentially fatal pneumonia.6 Prompt recognition of hypoxaemia and supplemental oxygen therapy improves the outcome in severe pneumonia.5 Our study has shown that certain signs and symptoms in children with acute lower respiratory tract infections can be used to predict hypoxaemia. A rapid respiratory rate has been evaluated for predicting hypoxaemia or pneumonia in previous studies. 6 8-10 17 A rapid respiratory rate, however, is likely to be affected by altitude and the presence of anaemia or fever, so its use as a predictor of hypoxaemia in a malaria endemic area needs to be considered with caution.20 Our study found that the presence of malaria parasitaemia, pallor, or fever had no effect on the relation between respiratory rate and hypoxaemia. Respiratory rate remained a useful predictor of hypoxaemia in a malaria endemic area, but the prevalence of parasitaemia in our predominantly urban ...
The upper respiratory tract infections are highly contagious in nature. The virus can spread form one person to another due to contact or even due to sneezing or coughing. The upper respiratory tract begins from the nose and consists of nasal passages, sinuses, pharynx and larynx. Know the causes and symptoms of upper respiratory tract infections.
BACKGROUND: Recurrent pyogenic infections are known to occur in patients with an impaired response to polysaccharide antigens. We investigated the occurrence of deficient responses to pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides in patients with recurrent respiratory tract and recurrent systemic infections.. METHODS: Forty-five patients, 1.7 to 17.1 years of age, were immunized with 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. Antibody levels to seven pneumococcal serotypes (3, 4, 6A, 9N, 14, 19F, 23F) were determined by ELISA before and after immunization. In addition, patients received a booster immunization with diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, and poliomyelitis virus vaccine.. RESULTS: Thirty-five patients had normal serum immunoglobulin levels. Five of these patients (14%) had low antipneumococcal preimmunization antibody levels and failed to respond to pneumococcal vaccination, whereas the response to booster immunization with protein antigens was appropriate. Three patients were younger than ...
Acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) are common and may lead to complications. Most children experience between three and six ARTIs annually. Although these infections are self-limiting, symptoms can be distressing. Many treatments are used to control symptoms and shorten illness duration. Most have minimal benefit and may lead to adverse effects. Oral homeopathic medicinal products could play a role in childhood ARTI management if evidence for effectiveness is established. To assess the effectiveness and safety of oral homeopathic medicinal products compared with placebo or conventional therapy to prevent and treat acute respiratory tract infections in children. We searched CENTRAL (2017, Issue 11) including the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Specialised Register, MEDLINE (1946 to 27 November 2017), Embase (2010 to 27 November 2017), CINAHL (1981 to 27 November 2017), AMED (1985 to December 2014), CAMbase (searched 29 March 2018), British Homeopathic Library (searched 26 June 2013 ...
Knowledge of the accuracy of chest radiograph findings in acute lower respiratory infection in children is important when making clinical decisions. I conducted a systematic review of agreement between and within observers in the detection of radiographic features of acute lower respiratory infections in children, and described the quality of the design and reporting of studies, whether included or excluded from the review. Included studies were those of observer variation in the interpretation of radiographic features of lower respiratory infection in children (neonatal nurseries excluded) in which radiographs were read independently and a clinical population was studied. I searched MEDLINE, HealthSTAR and HSRPROJ databases (1966 to 1999), handsearched the reference lists of identified papers and contacted authors of identified studies. I performed the data extraction alone. Ten studies of observer interpretation of radiographic features of lower respiratory infection in children were identified. Seven
Define lower respiratory infection. lower respiratory infection synonyms, lower respiratory infection pronunciation, lower respiratory infection translation, English dictionary definition of lower respiratory infection. Noun 1. lower respiratory infection - infection of the lower respiratory tract respiratory infection, respiratory tract infection - any infection of the...
The 90th percentile in the number of annual respiratory illness days was 98. Children above this limit (n = 109) had a median of 9.6 acute respiratory infections per year. Rhinovirus was detected in 58% of their infections. Of the children with recurrent infections, 60% were diagnosed with at least 3 episodes of acute otitis media, 73% received at least 3 antibiotic treatments and 21% were hospitalized for an acute respiratory infection. Tympanostomy was performed for 35% and adenoidectomy for 13% of the children. Asthma was diagnosed in 12% by 24 months of age. Older siblings increased the risk of recurrent respiratory infections. Early nasopharyngeal colonization with Streptococcus pneumoniae was common in children who later developed recurrent infections ...
GONZALES, Ralph et al. Antibiotic knowledge and self-care for acute respiratory tract infections in Mexico. Salud pública Méx [online]. 2012, vol.54, n.2, pp.152-157. ISSN 0036-3634.. OBJECTIVE: To examine knowledge of and self-treatment with antibiotics among medically-insured adults in Mexico. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional, interviewer-administered survey among 101 adult patients seeking care for acute respiratory tract infections in a family medicine clinic in Mexico. Knowledge scores were calculated as a composite of correct, incorrect and dont know responses. Factors associated with antibiotic knowledge and antibiotic self-treatment were explored with bivariate analyses. RESULTS: 47% of participants were taking antibiotics prior to the visit, 20% were self-treating. Antibiotic knowledge was highly variable. Many participants believed common non-antibiotic treatments for colds and coughs were antibiotics, such as ambroxol (45%), Desenfriol (45%) and paracetamol ...
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play an important role in respiratory inflammatory diseases, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It was hypothesized that MMP-8 and MMP-9 may function as biological markers to assess disease severity in viral lower respiratory tract infections in children. MMP-8 and MMP-9 mRNA expression levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and granulocytes obtained in both the acute and recovery phase from 153 children with mild, moderate, and severe viral lower respiratory tract infections were determined using real-time PCR. In addition, MMP-8 and MMP-9 concentrations in blood and nasopharyngeal specimens were determined during acute mild, moderate, and severe infection, and after recovery using ELISA. Furthermore, PBMCs and neutrophils obtained from healthy volunteers were stimulated with RSV, LPS (TLR4 agonist), and Pam3Cys (TLR2 agonist) in vitro. Disease severity of viral lower respiratory tract infections in children is associated ...
Definition of upper respiratory infection in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is upper respiratory infection? Meaning of upper respiratory infection as a legal term. What does upper respiratory infection mean in law?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Rotavirus in nasopharyngeal secretions of children with upper respiratory tract infections. AU - Fragoso, Michael. AU - Kumar, Ashir. AU - Murray, Dennis L.. PY - 1986/1. Y1 - 1986/1. N2 - Nasopharyngeal secretions from 30 infants and children presenting with respiratory tract infection, were tested for rotavirus antigen. Two of 30 children with signs and symptoms of seromucoid nasal secretions, cough, and low grade fever were positive for the antigen. Nasopharyngeal secretions may play a role in the spread of this infection.. AB - Nasopharyngeal secretions from 30 infants and children presenting with respiratory tract infection, were tested for rotavirus antigen. Two of 30 children with signs and symptoms of seromucoid nasal secretions, cough, and low grade fever were positive for the antigen. Nasopharyngeal secretions may play a role in the spread of this infection.. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0022655877&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - ...
A diagnosis/antibiotic prescribing study was performed in 5 counties in Sweden for 1 week in November 2000. As part of this study, the characteristics and clinical management of patients with upper respiratory tract infections (n = 2899) in primary care were analyzed. Almost half of the patients were aged < 15 y and one-fifth of the patients consulted out of hours. Of all patients seeking primary care for upper respiratory tract infections, 56.0% were prescribed an antibiotic. Almost all patients who were given the diagnoses streptococcal tonsillitis, acute otitis media or acute sinusitis were prescribed antibiotics, compared to 10% of patients with common cold or acute pharyngitis. The most frequently prescribed antibiotic was penicillin V (79.2%) and this was even more pronounced out of hours, when the diagnoses otitis media and streptococcal tonsillitis were more frequently used. In patients with common cold and acute pharyngitis, the percentage who received antibiotics increased with ...
Upper respiratory tract infection. Illustration of a human head with cutaway areas showing the processes involved in an upper respiratory tract infection (URTI). Examples include rhinitis (inflamed nasal membranes). The conditions shown here are inflammation of the paranasal sinuses (sinusitis), and a middle ear infection (otitis media). Mucus (yellow) is seen accumulating and flowing within the sinuses, and in the middle ear and the Eustachian tube (connecting the ear to the throat). The cochlea (pink) is shown in the ear. The frontal sinus is at top (in the forehead), the ethmoidal sinuses are between the eyes, and the maxillary sinuses are in the cheekbones. - Stock Image C029/0642
The epidemiological data suggest that endurance athletes are at increased risk for upper respiratory tract infections during periods of heavy training and the 1-2 week period following a marathon or similar event. At present there is no clear indication that chronic alterations in immune function explain this increased risk. Following acute bouts of prolonged heavy endurance exercise, several components of the immune system are suppressed for several hours. This has led to the concept of the open window theory described as the 1-9 hour period following prolonged endurance exercise when host defense is decreased and the risk of upper respiratory tract infection is increased.. ...
The initial event in the pathology of a new multiple sclerosis plaque is considered to be blood-brain barrier breakdown leading to perivenular oedema, B and T cell infiltration, and increased plasma cells and macrophages.21 22 The inflammatory process continues with the increased presence of phagocytic cells, such as foamy macrophages, around the areas of myelin breakdown, associated with increased astrocyte and oligodendrocyte precursors and depletion of the myelin producing mature oligodendrocytes.7 The putative roles for viruses include a direct cytopathic effect as seen in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy,23 and viral stimulation or modification of the host immune system. Virally induced immune mediated demyelination may occur through release of sequestered antigens such as myelin basic protein, increased expression of HLA molecules by cytokine induction, incorporation of a host component into a virus, disruption of the immune system leading to imbalance and autoimmunity, or ...
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Centers RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.. ...
Respiratory Disease is defined as medical conditions which affect the breathing organ and tissues including Inflammatory lung disease, Obstructive lung diseases, Restrictive lung diseases, Respiratory tract infections, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, the nerves and muscles breathing , etc,. V. A. Upper respiratory tract infection Upper respiratory tract infections are considered to be the infection of the …. ...
Chronic Mycoplasma pneumonia and Chlamydia pneumonia infections are associated with the onset and exacerbation of asthma. These microbial infections result in chronic lower airway inflammation, impaired mucociliary clearance, an increase in mucous production and eventually asthma. Furthermore, children who experience severe viral respiratory infections early in life have a high possibility of having asthma later in their childhood. These viral respiratory infections are mostly caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human rhinovirus (HRV). Although RSV infections increase the risk of asthma in early childhood, the association between asthma and RSV decreases with increasing age. HRV on the other hand is an important cause of bronchiolitis and is strongly associated with asthma development. In children and adults with established asthma, viral upper respiratory tract infections (URIs), especially HRVs infections, can produce acute exacerbations of asthma. Thus, Chlamydia pneumoniae, ...
OBJECTIVES: Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs), including pneumonia and acute exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), are am
According to the new study recently published in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), for children with acute respiratory tract infections, the broad-spectrum antibiotics are not associated with better clinical or patient-centered outcomes compared with narrow-spectrum antibiotics, and the narrower-targeting drugs are associated with higher rates of adverse events. Acute respiratory infections such as ear infections, sinus infections, and streptococcal pharyngitis (sore throat) account for most bacterial respiratory infections in children and are the primary drivers of pediatric antibiotic prescribing ...
Acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) are associated with significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in children under the age of 5 years. Almost 2 million children die from ARTIs each year, and most of them are from developing countries. The prevalence and correlation of pathogens in ARTIs are poorly understood, but are critical for improving case prevention, treatment, and management. In this study, we investigated the prevalence and correlation of infectious agents in children with ARTIs. A total of 39,756 children with one or more symptoms, including fever, cough, sore throat, tonsillitis, pharyngitis, herpangina, pneumonia, and bronchiolitis, were enrolled in the study. All patients were hospitalized in Wuhan Childrens Hospital between October 1, 2010 and September 30, 2012, and were evaluated for infectious agents. Pathogens, including Mycoplasma pneumoniae, influenza A virus, influenza B virus, adenoviruses, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus, Legionella
Pneumococcal vaccination coverage of adults at risk for pneumococcal disease is below recommended levels. There is no observational data on pneumococcal vaccination and the incidence of lower respiratory tract infections in a general adult population. The current study had the objective to explore the incidence of lower respiratory tract infections and the pneumococcal vaccine coverage in function of age, influenza vaccination status and risk status, in Flanders, Belgium. We used data from Intego, ageneral practice-based morbidity registration network in Flanders (Belgium). We gathered data on pneumococcal vaccinations, influenza vaccination (in 2014) and ICPC2-coded diagnoses of pneumonia and acute bronchitis (2015). First, we divided the population into three groups along the risk status for developing apneumococcal infection according to the recommendations for pneumococcal vaccination in adults by the Belgian High Council of Health. 28.6% from our total adult study population are considered ...
References 1. Simoes E.A.F., Cherian T., Chow J., Shahid-Salles S.A., Laxminarayan R., John J. Acute respiratory infections in children. Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries, World Bank, 2006. pp. 483-97. [ Links ] 2. Snellman L, Adams W, Anderson G, Godfrey A, Gravley A, Johnson K, et al. Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement. Health Care Guideline. Diagnosis and Treatment of Respiratory Illness in Children and Adults. Available from: https://www.icsi.org/_asset/1wp8×2/RespIllness.pdf. Updated January 2013. [ Links ] 3. Mexican Institute of Social Security. Clinical Practice Guidelines. Diagnosis and treatment of acute upper respiratory tract infections in patients from 3 months to 18 years of age. México D.F.: Mexican Institute of Social Security; 2009. [ Links ] 4. Mexican Institute of Social Security. Clinical Practice Guidelines. Diagnosis and treatment of acute pharyngitis.; México D.F.: Mexican Institute of Social Security 2009. [ Links ] 5. Nyquist A.C., Gonzales ...
April 26th, 2020. Authors: M. Kohns Vasconcelos; on behalf of the PED-MERMAIDS Study Group. Published in: 30th European Congress on Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID), April 2020. Background: Recently, major aetiology and outcome studies on paediatric acute respiratory tract infections (ARI) have been reported from LMICs. In contrast, studies using standardised protocols across Europe are lacking.. Materials/methods: The EU-funded Paediatric Multi-centre EuRopean study of MAjor Infectious Disease Syndromes (PED-MER- MAIDS) enrolled children under 5 years hospitalised for ARI and well controls across 11 EU countries. Information on symptoms, course of disease and clinical management was collected prospectively. Admission day nasopharyngeal swabs were analysed for influenza, parainfluenza, rhinovirus, coronavirus, metapneumovirus, bocavirus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parechovirus, enterovirus and adenovirus and Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp), Haemophilus influenzae, ...
The role of Chlamydia pneumoniae in the etiology of acute lower respiratory tract infections in infants and children is little understood. We studied the prevalence of C. pneumoniae infection in hospitalized infants and children with acute lower resp
As we head into the cough and cold season, I thought this post might be of interest. Especially since acute upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs or colds) are the most common reason people seek medical care in the U.S. Its said there are up to one billion colds reported in the U.S. each year. Now theres another option for trying to prevent them. Continue reading →. ...
There are several diagnostic tests for lower respiratory tract infection, in the identification and diagnosis of the diseases like bronchitis or pneumonia. But often these diseases get over treated or drugs are misused. Know the diagnosis, treatment, home remedies, prevention, risk factors and prognosis of lower respiratory tract infection.
We searched PubMed in May 2019 using the terms (Children OR Paediatrics) AND. (Ibuprofen OR NSAID OR Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs OR Anti-inflammatory). AND (Pneumonia OR Community acquired pneumonia OR Lower respiratory tract infection. OR LRTI OR Upper respiratory tract infection OR URTI) AND (Empyema OR Pleural effusion OR Pleural empyema OR Parapneumonic effusion). We identified 54 studies. Paper titles were scrutinised, and 10 papers were selected for abstract review. Non-paediatric studies, a case report and an article only available in French were discounted leaving six papers for full-text review. A seventh relevant paper was discovered on searching the references of included studies. Table 1 summarises the articles included in our literature review. The level of evidence was graded according to the Oxford levels of evidence.1 ...
Having an acute upper respiratory tract infection -- with or without treatment with an antibiotic -- may be associated with excessive anticoagulation in patients taking warfarin, a retrospective study
Antibiotic use for acute respiratory tract infections that are largely viral remains common. Macrolide use has increased since 2007, and 9% of patients received a second antibiotic within 30 days.
Acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) are a leading cause of antibiotic overuse worldwide. Rapid, accurate identification of a pathogen can reduce antibiot...
Upper respiratory infections are extremely common ailments among cats. Most often the presence of an upper respiratory infection is seen by ocular, nasal, throat and lung irritation and discharge. - Wag!
Objective: To compare the rates of acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRI) among children in north-west Queensland, according to age, sex and Indigenous status.. Design, setting and patients: Retrospective chart review of hospitalisations at Mt Isa Base Hospital, Queensland, from 1 January 2007 to 31 December 2011 among children , 15 years of age.. Main outcome measures: Rates of admission for bronchiolitis, pneumonia and bronchiectasis, calculated using population data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics.. Results: There were 356 admissions for ALRI, involving 276 children. Of the 162 children aged , 12 months old, 125 (77.2%) were Indigenous. Hospitalisations increased over the study period, and rates were significantly higher among Indigenous children compared with non-indigenous children (24.1 v 4.5 per 1000 population per year). There were 195 admissions of 164 children with pneumonia, 126 (76.8%) of whom were Indigenous. Annual rates for Indigenous children were higher than for ...
Upper respiratory infection - What is an upper respiratory infection? URI. Upper respiratory infection usually means a cold. Runny nose, congestion, fever, headache and cough all may be symptoms or any combination of them. Uri are viral infections and usually clear on their own with rest and liquids and tyelenol for fever and aches.
Am old enough to understand the difference between the Bay of Pigs - and roasting a pig at a epicurian feast. Been thru the hippy, yippie and yuppie years - always remaining who I am. Very much believe in Sing your own song - weave your own tapestry Am young enough to still know the thrill of new discoveries, the beauty of the evening, to celebrate the joy of another tommorow. Survived these many decades with a severe medical problems. Sorting out the maze of now having two lymphomas and all their nasty little companions, but I continue. Besides, being a simple iconoclastic eclectic, have been called many things. An incurable romanticist - with a strong touch of reality. Thinker, intellectual (God, how I hate that term) - been told I am a lion with the heart of the poet. Know how to wage war and conquer my foes - but would rather be known as one who brings hope and life. To bring hope into anothers life is the ultimate of joys. Life should be about bringing hope, peace, vision... a sense of ...
Acute respiratory tract infections are the most common reason for seeking medical attention. Recurrent respiratory infections and their complications in children are a significant burden for the family and society. The problem of effective and safe treatment and prevention of acute respiratory infections is therefore, one of the most pressing issues in clinical pediatrics. The possibility of use in the treatment of acute respiratory viral infections (ARI), of an immunostimulatory agent with antiviral effect inosine pranobex is very important. The data on the mechanism of the combined immunomodulating and antiviral effect of the drug, on the efficacy and tolerability when used in children, as well as the data on literature and the results of their studies suggest that taking inosine pranobex alleviates the symptoms of acute respiratory infection of viral etiology, prevents complications, and restores a weakened immune system, thus reducing the need for the appointment of other drugs and drug load ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Consumption of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 impacts upper respiratory tract infection and the function of NK and T cells in healthy adults. AU - Meng, Huicui. AU - Lee, Yujin. AU - Ba, Zhaoyong. AU - Peng, Jiayu. AU - Lin, Junli. AU - Boyer, Alexander S.. AU - Fleming, Jennifer A.. AU - Furumoto, Emily J.. AU - Roberts, Robert F.. AU - Kris-Etherton, Penny M.. AU - Rogers, Connie J.. PY - 2016/5/1. Y1 - 2016/5/1. N2 - Scope: Probiotics can modulate immunity and reduce upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) in humans; however few studies have examined both outcomes in the same trial. The goal of the current study was to investigate the effect of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12, on natural killer (NK) and T-cell function in conjunction with self-reported cold/flu outcomes in healthy adults. Methods and results: In a randomized, partially blinded, four-period crossover study, healthy adults (n = 30) were recruited, and received four treatments for 4 ...
Phytother Res. 2014 Mar;28(3):471-4. doi: 10.1002/ptr.5020. Epub 2013 Jun 7. Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt
INTRODUCTION: Acute cough has a significant impact on physical and psychosocial health and is associated with an impaired quality of life (QOL). The Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ) is a validated cough-related health status questionnaire designed for patients with chronic cough. The purpose of this study was to validate the LCQ for the assessment of health related QOL in patients with acute cough and determine the clinical minimal important difference (MID). METHODS: 10 subjects with cough due to acute upper respiratory tract infection underwent focused interviews to investigate the face validity of the LCQ. The LCQ was also evaluated by a multidisciplinary team. 30 subjects completed the revised LCQ-acute and a cough visual analogue score (VAS: 0-100 mm) within one week of onset of cough and again |2 weeks later and at resolution of cough. The concurrent validity, internal reliability, repeatability and responsiveness of the LCQ-acute were also assessed. Patients also completed a Global Rating of
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evaluation of Intravenous Ciprofloxacin in Patients With Nosocomial Lower Respiratory Tract Infections. T2 - Impact of Plasma Concentrations, Organism, Minimum Inhibitory Concentration, and Clinical Condition on Bacterial Eradication. AU - Peloquin, Charles A.. AU - Cumbo, Thomas J.. AU - Nix, David E.. AU - Sands, Mark F.. AU - Schentag, Jerome J.. PY - 1989/10. Y1 - 1989/10. N2 - Fifty patients with gram-negative lower respiratory tract infections were treated with intravenous ciprofloxacin to evaluate efficacy and safety. Relationships between individual pharmacokinetics and clinical and bacteriologic outcome were studied. Ciprofloxacin concentrations in plasma were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Respiratory secretion cultures were obtained daily to determine the eradication day of the infecting organism. Susceptibility (minimum inhibitory concentration) to ciprofloxacin and other antimicrobials was determined using standard microdilution techniques. The ...
Most pediatric adenovirus respiratory infections are mild and indistinguishable from other viral causes. However, in a few children, the disease can be severe and result in substantial morbidity. We describe the epidemiologic, clinical, radiologic features and outcome of adenovirus lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) in Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal children in Manitoba, Canada during the years 1991 and 2005. This was a retrospective study of 193 children who presented to the department of pediatrics at Winnipeg Childrens Hospital, Manitoba, Canada with LRTI and had a positive respiratory culture for adenovirus. Patients demographics, clinical and radiologic features and outcomes were collected. Adenovirus serotype distributions and temporal associations were described. Approximate incidence comparisons (detection rates) of adenovirus LRTI among Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal children were estimated with 95% confidence intervals. Adenovirus infections occurred throughout the year with clusters in
Most pediatric adenovirus respiratory infections are mild and indistinguishable from other viral causes. However, in a few children, the disease can be severe and result in substantial morbidity. We describe the epidemiologic, clinical, radiologic features and outcome of adenovirus lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) in Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal children in Manitoba, Canada during the years 1991 and 2005. This was a retrospective study of 193 children who presented to the department of pediatrics at Winnipeg Childrens Hospital, Manitoba, Canada with LRTI and had a positive respiratory culture for adenovirus. Patients demographics, clinical and radiologic features and outcomes were collected. Adenovirus serotype distributions and temporal associations were described. Approximate incidence comparisons (detection rates) of adenovirus LRTI among Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal children were estimated with 95% confidence intervals. Adenovirus infections occurred throughout the year with clusters in
Andrographis can be effective in treating Viral Upper Respiratory Infections (Colds and Influenza). Learn about Andrographis, see related evidence, and find other smart treatments for Viral Upper Respiratory Infections (Colds and Influenza) at FoundHealth.
A young woman with a clinical history characterized by recurrent respiratory infections, occurring since early infancy, was referred to our hospital. When the patient was a young girl, she underwent sweat chloride test, serum analysis of immunoglobulins, and evaluation of blood lymphocyte subsets; all these diagnostic tests were normal, as well as chest X ray aside from pneumonia episodes. Skin prick tests were positive for several different allergens, and a diagnosis of allergic rhinitis was made. At the age of 11 years, she started to complain of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms, and a gastroscopy detected a hiatal hernia with esophagitis. Despite pharmacologic treatments for allergic rhinitis and GERD, the patient continued to complain of chronic cough, associated with choking and recurrent respiratory infections treated with antibiotic therapy. For the first time in her life, we performed a spirometry that showed a flow-volume curve characterized by a plateau in the expiratory ...
To explore reasons for heterogeneity, we conducted subgroup analyses to investigate whether effects of vitamin D supplementation on risk of acute respiratory tract infection differed according to baseline vitamin D status, dosing frequency, dose size, age, body mass index, the presence or absence of comorbidity (asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), and influenza vaccination status. Race or ethnicity was not investigated as a potential effect modifier, as data for this variable were missing for 3680/10 933 (34%) participants and power for subgroup analyses was limited by small numbers in many racial or ethnic subgroups that could not be meaningfully combined. Table 2⇑ presents the results. Subgroup analysis revealed a strong protective effect of vitamin D supplementation among those with baseline circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels less than 25 nmol/L (adjusted odds ratio 0.58, 0.40 to 0.82, NNT=8, 5 to 21; 538 participants in 14 studies; within subgroup P=0.002; see Cates plot, ...
Psoriasis is categorized as localized or generalized, based on the severity of the disease and its overall impact on the patients quality of life and well-being. Previous article. In 1990, psoriasis was the reason for more than 1 million visits to physicians.1 In the past, the treatment of psoriasis was primarily managed by dermatologists; this disorder accounted for only 0. Guttate psoriasis is characterized by numerous small, oval (teardrop-shaped) lesions that develop after an acute upper respiratory tract infection. Generalized psoriasis may require oral medications, treatment with ultraviolet light or treatment at an outpatient or inpatient facility. Fissuring within plaques can occur when lesions are present over joint lines or on the palms and soles. Consider an individuals cardiovascular risk where the psoriasis is severe (affecting 10 of the bodys surface area; if there has been previous inpatient treatment or the patient has had UV light treatment or other systemic therapy) and ...
Detailed information on upper respiratory infections, upper respiratory infections symptoms, upper respiratory infections treatment
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of dietary lysine supplementation in cats with enzootic upper respiratory disease. AU - Maggs, David J. AU - Sykes, Jane E. AU - Clarke, Heather E.. AU - Yoo, Seung H.. AU - Kass, Philip H. AU - Lappin, Michael R.. AU - Rogers, Quinton. AU - Waldron, Mark K.. AU - Fascetti, Andrea J. PY - 2007/4. Y1 - 2007/4. N2 - To determine the effectiveness of dietary lysine supplementation in cats with enzootic upper respiratory disease (URD), 50 cats were fed a ration containing 11 or 51 g lysine/kg diet for 52 days. Food intake, body weight, clinical signs, plasma amino acid concentrations and presence of Chlamydophila felis or feline herpesvirus (FHV)-1 DNA within the conjunctival fornix were assessed. Food and lysine intake of both dietary groups decreased between days 17 and 22, coinciding with peak disease and viral presence. Mean disease score for cats fed the supplemented ration (0.94) was higher than for those fed the basal diet (0.21); however, this could be attributed to a ...
Results: Our cohort consisted of 895 individuals with non-CF bronchiectasis with a first MI or stroke and at least one respiratory tract infection. There was an increased rate of first time cardiovascular events in the 91 day period after a respiratory tract infection (Incidence Rate Ratio [IRR] 1.56; 95% CI 1.20 to 2.02). The rate of a first cardiovascular event was highest in the first three days following a respiratory tract infection (IRR 2.73, 95% CI 1.41 to 5.27 ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Incidence of acute otitis media and sinusitis complicating upper respiratory tract infection: The effect of age. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
View Notes - Influenza Virus from VTPB 221 at Texas A&M. Influenza Virus 22:18 Upper respiratory tract infection The Great Influenza Pandemic (1918) The Spanish Flu • 50 million people died within
OBJECTIVE To describe the characteristics and outcomes of mechanical ventilation in pediatric intensive care units during the season of acute lower respiratory infections. DESIGN Prospective cohort of infants and children receiving mechanical ventilation for at least 12 hrs. SETTING Sixty medical-surgical pediatric intensive care units. PATIENTS All consecutive patients admitted to participating pediatric intensive care units during a 28-day period. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Of 2,156 patients admitted to pediatric intensive care units, 1185 (55%) received mechanical ventilation for a median of 5 days (interquartile range 2-8). Median age was 7 months (interquartile range 2-25). Main indications for mechanical ventilation were acute respiratory failure in 78% of the patients, altered mental status in 15%, and acute on chronic pulmonary disease in 6%. Median length of stay in the pediatric intensive care units was 10 days (interquartile range 6-18). Overall mortality rate in pediatric
Laing, S., Walsh, N., Bilzon, J., Dorrington, M., Bland, D. and Dunklin, S., 2005. Upper respiratory tract infection and saliva immunoglobin-A during an arduous military training programme. In: International Congress on Soldiers Physical Performance, 2005-01-01.. ...
On The Gary Null Show today,. Here are the topics Gary discussed on his Health and Healing segment:. Fruit and vegetable intake in pregnant women reduces risk of upper respiratory tract infection.. Vegetarianism is on the rise but a lot of people are becoming flexitarian, also known as semi-vegetarian, which refers to someone who is vegetarian most of the time, but occasionally eats meat.. From Headache to Jaundice, Sky-Blue Chicory Cures Liver Ailments.. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Diabetic Foot Wounds.. Gary took a quick break and returned with:. Some of your religious beliefs might be stupid and are primitive.. Are people dumber than they used to be? Yes and TV is one reason. It is intellectually and socially dumbing down young children.. Former Chief Scientific Officer at the Department of Health, Dr. Peter Fletcher on the MMR Vaccine One of the greatest scandals in medical history ...
Aloe arborescens (Candelabra Aloe) has been used in the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections in Central and Eastern European countries for
Ive had all evils the tests imaginable, but the only help one has been Ocudox phosphate fertilizers as i have the upper respiratory tract infection is type. Though virtually all antibiotics can cause you black, hairy tongue, it likewise is more common with similarly effective product. However, there existed was no means statistically significant difference in diarrhea, watery paint and severe, which benefits may also shal be bloody between the preparation to be commercially used with care monotherapy, the high serotonergic combination or
Aloe arborescens (Candelabra Aloe) has been used in the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections in Central and Eastern European co
The relationship between the growth rate and the kill rate was used to evaluate and to compare the in vitro bactericidal activities of cefdinir, a new oral cephalosporin, and cefaclor against Streptococcus pneumoniae and beta-lactamase-producing strains of Haemophilus influenzae. These frequently encountered pathogens of community-acquired respiratory tract infections are usually susceptible to both drugs. The MIC ranges for cefdinir and cefaclor were, respectively, 0.03 to 0.06 and 0.25 to 0.5 micrograms/ml for S. pneumoniae and 0.25 and 4 to 8 micrograms/ml for H. influenzae. The colony counts (CFU per milliliter) measured after 6 h of exposure to a range of antibiotic concentrations in broth were plotted against the colony count of the control culture over the same period of time. Higher kill rates versus bacterial growth rates were noted for S. pneumoniae for both drugs (positive balance). Conversely, lower kill rates versus growth rates were noted for H. influenzae for both drugs (negative ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Global burden of influenza-associated lower respiratory tract infections and hospitalizations among adults. T2 - A systematic review and meta-analysis. AU - Global Respiratory Hospitalizations-Influenza Proportion Positive (GRIPP) Working Group. AU - Lafond, Kathryn E. AU - Porter, Rachael M. AU - Whaley, Melissa J. AU - Suizan, Zhou. AU - Ran, Zhang. AU - Aleem, Mohammad Abdul. AU - Thapa, Binay. AU - Sar, Borann. AU - Proschle, Viviana Sotomayor. AU - Peng, Zhibin. AU - Feng, Luzhao. AU - Coulibaly, Daouda. AU - Nkwembe, Edith. AU - Olmedo, Alfredo. AU - Ampofo, William. AU - Saha, Siddhartha. AU - Chadha, Mandeep. AU - Mangiri, Amalya. AU - Setiawaty, Vivi. AU - Ali, Sami Sheikh. AU - Chaves, Sandra S. AU - Otorbaeva, Dinagul. AU - Keosavanh, Onechanh. AU - Saleh, Majd. AU - Ho, Antonia. AU - Alexander, Burmaa. AU - Oumzil, Hicham. AU - Baral, Kedar Prasad. AU - Huang, Q Sue. AU - Adebayo, Adedeji A. AU - Al-Abaidani, Idris. AU - von Horoch, Marta. AU - Cohen, Cheryl. AU - ...
This thesis describes the impact of respiratory virus infections in patients with chronic chest disease and investigates the role of influenza vaccine and the possibility of preventing infection with intranasal interferon. The thesis begins by defining respiratory virus infection and presenting a brief historical introduction. This is followed by an account of the important respiratory viruses, the major causes of chronic chest disease and the relationship between respiratory virus infections and exacerbations of chest disease. The introduction concludes by describing the nature of interferons and reviews clinical trials of interferon therapy. The subjects, materials and methods are followed by the results of the clinical and laboratory studies. Respiratory virus infections were significantly more severe in adults with chronic chest disease than in previously healthy individuals. Unfortunately prophylaxis with intranasal interferon was not associated with any benefit. A preliminary study in ...
Most acute respiratory illnesses are caused by respiratory viruses and involve the upper airways, clinically manifesting as colds, pharyngitis, or tonsillitis. Upper respiratory tract illnesses (URTI) are usually self-limited and relatively mild but prompt many physician visits. The influenza like illness (ILI) and viral lower respiratory tract illness (LRTI) such as croup, bronchiolitis, and pneumonia are less frequent but associated with higher hospitalization rates and fatalities. Virus-triggered exacerbations of asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can likewise be severe and sometimes fatal.. Relative importance of major respiratory viruses in upper and lower respiratory tract infections. ...
Learn more about Resource Guide for Viral Upper Respiratory Infections (Colds and Influenza) at Memorial Hospital Main Page Risk Factors ...
Taiwan has one of the highest levels of antibiotic-resistant pneumococcus in the world. Pneumococcal isolates not susceptible to penicillin first appeared in Taiwan in 1986; in 1995 an increase in the prevalence of nonsusceptibility to penicillins, extended-spectrum cephalosporins, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and macrolides as well as multidrug resistance began to be recognized. With the persistence of antibiotic selective pressure, resistance in some antibiotics reached a high plateau (beta-lactam antibiotics) or continued to increase (macrolides), while novel resistance (fluoroquinolones) emerged in the last 3 years. Widespread distribution of some novel resistant 23F and 19F clones (and the international epidemic of 23F clones) contributes further to the rapid increase of resistance. Because Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major pathogen that causes community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections and meningitis in adults and children, antibiotic-resistance in this organism is a serious ...
4. Genomics to Combact Resistance against Antibiotics in Community-acquired Lower Respiratory Tract Infections in Europe [GRACE]. Network of Excellence, Contract nº LSHM-CT-2005-518226. Funding: European Commission. Principal Contractor: University Hospital Antwerp, Belgium. Participating Institutions: ITQB and 23 others. March 2006/April 2010.. 5. CONtrol of COmmunity-acquired MRSA: Rationale and Development of counteractions [CONCORD]. Project FP7-Health-F3-2008-222718. Funding: European Commission. Principal contractor: University Medical Centre Utrecht, The Netherlands. Participating institutions: ITQB and 8 others. January 2009/Junho 2012.. 6. Translational Research on Combating Antimicrobial Resistance [TROCAR]. Project FP7-Health-F3-2008-223031. Funding: European Commission. Principal contractor: Institut Dinvestigacions Biomèdiques August Pi I Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain. Participating institutions: ITQB and 15 others. January 2009/Junho 2012.. 7. A comprehensive ...
Coughing is the bodys way of removing foreign material or mucous from the lungs and throat. The two general classifications of cough are productive coughs (producing phlegm or mucous from the lungs) and nonproductive coughs (dry and not producing any mucous or phlegm). Coughs are also divided into acute (less than 3 weeks duration) and chronic (more than three weeks duration). Acute cough is most often caused by the common viral upper respiratory tract infection. Chronic cough may be caused by a variety of underlying diseases including asthma, cystic fibrosis, allergies, GERD and chronic post nasal drip.. ...
Case 1: John was 15 years old when he presented to the emergency department with a 2-day history of fever, coryza and reduced appetite. He had returned the previous day from a 3-week school rugby trip to Australia. He denied any risk-associated activities including sexual contact, tattooing, camping and water-sports. He had no comorbidities and received no medical/dental treatment during travel. Apart from travel to Sydney and Melbourne he had a brief transit in Singapore. Examination revealed coryza and a fever of 38.2 °C but was otherwise unremarkable. John and his mother were reassured that a viral upper respiratory tract infection was the most likely diagnosis secondary to his recent long-haul flight and were provided with advice when to return should he deteriorate. A nasopharyngeal aspirate confirmed a diagnosis of influenza.. Comment: Cosmopolitan infections are the leading cause of fever in returning child travellers including to tropical regions.8 ,15-18 They may be more common in ...
Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), the most common primary immunodeficiency seen in clinical practice, represents a heterogeneous group of syndromes characterised serologically by low antibody levels and clinically by recurrent respiratory tract infections, granulomatous inflammation and autoimmunity. The choice of IRT administration modalities includes subcutaneous (SC), facilitated subcutaneous (fSC) and intravenous (IV) routes. The different routes are thought to be equivalent in their therapeutic effects. However, there are clear pharmacokinetic differences between the delivery methods. It is unclear whether these differences have a clinically relevant impact on inflammation. This is an important issue as such differences might have an impact on administration modality. We will investigate the effects on systemic inflammation and immune activation of different modalities of Immunoglobulin Replacement Therapy in Common Variable Immune Deficiency.. This pilot study will examine ...
Obstructive sleep apnoea is a sleep disorder that affects more than 4% of the population and can lead to symptoms from daytime drowsiness to high blood pressure. People with sleep apnoea are often not breathing normally during sleep and may experience periods where the airway closes and they are unable to breathe. In severe sleep apnoea this can occur 50-60 times each hour. That is once each minute. The closure of the upper airway is thought to be due to a number of factors, one of which is that the neural drive to the airway muscles is insufficient in people with sleep apnoea. In our lab, we have made the first extensive recordings from the major muscle of the upper airway, genioglossus. We have shown that the neural drive to this muscle is very complex, more so than any limb muscle. At NeuRA, we have also pioneered new methods to image this muscle using fMRI and ultrasound. We are now planning to look at how changes in muscle architecture and mechanics relate to the neural drive to the muscle ...
After cervical spinal cord injury (SCI), the respiratory muscles are partly or completely paralysed. This has two major clinical consequences: a decreased ability to get air into the lungs and a decreased ability to cough and remove secretions. This results in a lifetime of recurrent respiratory tract infections (2/year/person) that often progress to pneumonia with frequent and extended hospital admissions. People with cervical SCI are 150 times more likely to die from respiratory complications than the general population, as many as 28% die within the first year after injury. For those that survive the first year, a cervical SCI has a lifetime cost of $9.5million, a large proportion of which is attributed to respiratory-related complications. A recent longitudinal study of people with cervical SCI showed that respiratory muscle weakness is associated with incidental pneumonia. Respiratory muscle weakness also causes dyspnoea (breathlessness) and sleep-disordered breathing, which is 4-10 times ...
Ali, N. S., Zuberi, R. W. (2003). Association of Iron Deficiency Anaemia in children of 1-2 years of age with low birth weight, recurrent Diarrhoea or recurrent Respiratory Tract Infection - a myth or fact?. Journal of Pakistan Medical Association, 53(4), 133-136 ...
Edema occurs in asthma and other inflammatory diseases when the rate of plasma leakage from blood vessels exceeds the drainage through lymphatic vessels and other routes. It is unclear to what extent lymphatic vessels grow to compensate for increased leakage during inflammation and what drives the lymphangiogenesis that does occur. We addressed these issues in mouse models of (a) chronic respiratory tract infection with Mycoplasma pulmonis and (b) adenoviral transduction of airway epithelium with VEGF family growth factors. Blood vessel remodeling and lymphangiogenesis were both robust in infected airways. Inhibition of VEGFR-3 signaling completely prevented the growth of lymphatic vessels but not blood vessels. Lack of lymphatic growth exaggerated mucosal edema and reduced the hypertrophy of draining lymph nodes. Airway dendritic cells, macrophages, neutrophils, and epithelial cells expressed the VEGFR-3 ligands VEGF-C or VEGF-D. Adenoviral delivery of either VEGF-C or VEGF-D evoked ...
TABLE-US-00010 CAS Reg. mp API Name No. Brand Name Illustrative Indications (° C.) Doxycycline hyclate 24390- DORYX acne cholera infectious diarrhea Chars without 14-5 VIBRAMYCIN dysentery eye infections lower melting at respiratory tract infections rickettsiae about 201 infections skin infections upper respiratory tract infections urinary tract infections sexually transmitted diseases Buspirone 33386- BUSPAR anxiety disorder 201.5-202.5 hydrochloride 08-2 Timolol 26839- TIMOPTIC glaucoma 201.5-203 75-8 BETIMOL Mexiletine 5370- MEXITIL abnormal heart rhythms 203-205 hydrochloride 01-4 Pilocarpine 54-71-7 PILOCAR glaucoma 204-205 hydrochloride ISOPTO CARPINE Oxazepam 604-75-1 SERAX anxiety disorders 205-206 Loracarbef 76470- LORABID ear infections sinus infections skin 205-215 (dec) 66-1 infections upper respiratory tract infections urinary tract infections Diltiazem 33286- CARDIZEM angina high blood pressure 207.5-212 hydrochloride 22-5 DILACOR TIAZAC Medroxyprogesterone 71-58-9 PROVERA ...
INTRODUCTION: Respiratory tract infections are severe and most common types of infection treated by medical practitioners all over the world. Nosocomial pneumonia is the second most common infection, causing high morbidity and mortality and about 80% of nosocomial infections caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae are due to multidrug-resistant strains.. The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains necessitates the exploration of alternative antibacterial therapies 1. Important causes of Gram-negative resistance includes extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) in Klebsiella pneumoniae, high level third-generation cephalosporin (Amp C) β-lactamase resistance among Enterobacter species observed in pneumonia.. Recent data suggest that because of ESBLs and high-level amp C β-lactamase resistances, use of third-generation cephalosporins may be ineffective in many patients with nosocomial infections 2. EDTA is a polyamino carboxylic acid, a colorless water-soluble metallo-chelator and is known to ...
These data demonstrate that, despite increasing interest in vaccination as a cause of febrile seizures in young children, respiratory viral infections are more commonly found in children with febrile seizures than a history of recent vaccination. Viruses were frequently detected in the nasopharynx of children with febrile seizures, but rectal sampling did not provide any additional information. Respiratory viruses such as influenza, rhinovirus and adenovirus were frequently detected. Enterovirus was also commonly detected, although no one strain was predominant. Viral coinfection was common and is indicative of the tendency of children aged 6 months to 5 years to acquire repeated viral respiratory tract infections and demonstrate prolonged viral shedding. Whether or not coinfection is important in the pathogenesis of fever in children with febrile seizures is not clear from these data. In contrast to other viruses found in this study, the majority of influenza and parainfluenza positive cases ...
AstraZeneca has inked a global license agreement with Synairgen, a U.K. company specializing in respiratory diseases, for SNG001, a novel, inhaled interferon beta (IFN-beta) in clinical development for treating respiratory tract viral infections in patients with severe asthma. SNG001 supports the immune system by correcting a deficiency which makes patients vulnerable to respiratory tract viral infections.. AstraZeneca will pay Synairgen a $7.25 million up-front fee and potential development, regulatory and commercial milestones of up to $225 million. In addition, AstraZeneca will pay tiered royalties ranging from single-digit up to mid-teens on commercial sales. AstraZeneca will be responsible for future development costs.. In early 2015, AstraZeneca will commence a phase IIa study in patients with severe asthma, building on available clinical data from an initial phase lla trial in a broad asthma population. SNG001 also provides the opportunity to expand the clinical program in other pulmonary ...
Acute lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is one of the most common conditions managed internationally and is costly to health services and patients. Despite good evidence that antibiotics are not effective for improving the symptoms of uncomplicated LRTI, they are widely prescribed, contributing to antimicrobial resistance. Many of the symptoms observed in LRTI are mediated by inflammatory processes also observed in exacerbations of asthma, for which there is strong evidence of corticosteroid effectiveness. The primary aim of the OSAC (Oral Steroids for Acute Cough) Trial is to determine whether oral prednisolone (40 mg daily for 5 days) can reduce the duration of moderately bad (or worse) cough and the severity of all its associated symptoms on days 2 to 4 post-randomisation (day 1 is trial entry) by at least 20% in adults ≥18 years with acute LRTI presenting to primary care ...
Down Syndrome (DS) is the most common chromosomal abnormality among live-born infants. Through full or partial trisomy of chromosome 21, DS is associated with cognitive impairment, congenital malformations (particularly cardiovascular), and dysmorphic features. In addition, immunological abnormalities are much more prevalent in individuals with DS. For example, DS is associated with increased susceptibility to infection, as revealed in 2009 during the influenza pandemic where the likelihood of death was 300 times greater for DS patients than the general population. DS patients have increased frequencies of autoimmune disorders and leukemias, yet curiously, have a decreased risk for allergic diseases, particularly asthma. Perhaps the most telling statistic for immunologic abnormality in DS patients is that respiratory tract infections are the most important cause of mortality in DS at all ages.Our studies have identified AIRE as a master control gene that is aberrantly decreased in persons with ...
Infants with genetic polymorphisms of mannose-binding lectin were more prone to be colonized with Streptococcus pneumoniae during rhinovirus infection. Furthermore, rhinovirus infection increased the rate of community acquisition and transmission of pneumococcus in families with children. The rate of rhinovirus infections was significantly lower during respiratory syncytial virus infection compared to control children suggesting inhibiting interaction between these viruses. In a cluster randomized trial, 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine prevented not only acute otitis media but to some extent also all respiratory tract infections that are mainly caused by viruses ...
Upper respiratory infections (URI) and their complications are a major healthcare burden for pediatric populations. Although the microbiology of the nasopharynx is an important determinant of the complications of URI, little is known of the nasopharyngeal (NP) microbiota of children, the factors that affect its composition, and its precise relationship with URI. Healthy children (n = 47) aged 49-84 months from a prospective cohort study based in Wisconsin, USA, were examined. Demographic and clinical data and NP swab samples were obtained from participants upon entry to the study. All NP samples were profiled for bacterial microbiota using a phylogenetic microarray, and these data were related to demographic characteristics and upper respiratory health outcomes. The composition of the NP bacterial community of children was significantly related prior to the history of acute sinusitis (R 2 = 0.070, P | 0.009). History of acute sinusitis was associated with significant depletion
Cough is a common reason for pediatric outpatient visits. Cough as a manifestation of respiratory disease can range from minor upper respiratory tract infections to serious conditions such as bronchiectasis. Acute cough in children is mostly caused by upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs). Chronic cough, defined as daily cough of at least 4 weeks in duration, (1) can be associated with an underlying serious disorder and, hence, requires systematic and thorough clinical evaluation. There is high-quality evidence that a systematic approach to the management of chronic cough in children using pediatric-specific cough algorithms improves clinical outcomes. (1) Treatment of cough should be based on the etiology. Because cough is a common presenting complaint, pediatricians must become familiar with the initial evaluation and management of children with cough to establish a diagnosis and determine appropriate therapy. ...
Cephalexin is a prescription drug used in the treatment of ear infections, upper respiratory infections, skin infections, and urinary tract infections. Local doctors can discuss symptoms associated with these diseases and give advice on cephalexin usage and side effects. Read on for local doctors who can prescribe cephalexin in Kapaa, HI.
Methods: Children 3 months to 6 years of age with and without an acute viral respiratory tract infection were recruited and a questionnaire was filled. Nasopharyngeal samples were examined for Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP), Haemophilus influenzae (HI), Moraxella catarrhalis (MC), Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and Streptococcus pyogenes (SPyo) by culture. Viruses were detected with polymerase chain reaction (PCR ...
The decision as to whether to cancel surgery for a child with a URI may be difficult. It is important to emphasize that our results pertain only to healthy children whose URI symptoms are limited to the upper respiratory tract. Children with fever (greater or equal to 38.3 degrees Celsius), wheezing, or malaise were not anesthetized during this study. The patients age, the urgency and nature of the procedure, the patients history and physical examination, the anesthesiologists experience, and parental attitudes must all be taken into account before proceeding with anesthesia and surgery. Recognizing that perioperative hemoglobin oxygen desaturation may occur more frequently and that there is a small increased risk of laryngospasm should help practitioners and families arrive at the best decision for each individual patient. During the study period, only 0.5% of patients who arrived at our hospital for a scheduled day surgical procedure had their operation canceled (all possible causes). Given ...
Torres, Alberto M, Peterson, Karen E, De Souza, Ana Cristina, Orav, E. John, Hughes, Michael. et al. (‎2000)‎. Association of diarrhoea and upper respiratory infections with weight and height gains in Bangladeshi children aged 5 to 11 years / Alberto M. Torres ... [‎et al.]‎. Bulletin of the World Health Organization : the International Journal of Public Health 2000 ; 78(‎11)‎ : 1316-1323 https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/57690 ...
... infection with adenovirus 7 acquired by inhalation is associated with severe lower respiratory tract disease, whereas oral ... Respiratory system/. acute viral nasopharyngitis/. viral pneumonia. DNA virus. *Epstein-Barr virus *EBV infection/Infectious ... Symptoms of respiratory illness caused by adenovirus infection range from the common cold syndrome to pneumonia, croup, and ... Adenovirus infections most commonly cause illness of the respiratory system; however, depending on the infecting serotype, they ...
... and respiratory tract infection.[158] It may also have intrauterine effects on fetal development, resulting in low birth weight ... These pollutants damage human health by evading the mucociliary clearance system and depositing in the upper respiratory tract ... "Clinical Microbiology and Infection. 15 (6): 518-523. doi:10.1111/j.1469-0691.2009.02848.x. PMID 19604276.. ... Respiratory diseases are a common after the disaster has occurred. This depends on the amount of water damage and mold that ...
Hao Q, Dong BR, Wu T (February 2015). "Probiotics for preventing acute upper respiratory tract infections". Cochrane Database ... Two reviews reported reduction of the incidence of respiratory-tract infections in adults.[99][100] ... Urinary tract[edit]. No good evidence indicates probiotics are of benefit in the management of infection or inflammation of the ... Shortliffe LMD (2013). Wein AJ (ed.). Chapter 116: Infection and Inflammation of the Pediatric Genitourinary Tract. Urology. 4 ...
There is tentative evidence for benefit of saline irrigation in acute upper respiratory tract infections such as the common ... "Saline nasal irrigation for acute upper respiratory tract infections". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 4: CD006821 ... "Saline nasal irrigation for acute upper respiratory tract infections". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (4): CD006821. doi:10.1002/ ... saline drops or saline as a mist is well tolerated for infants and children with upper respiratory tract symptoms leading to ...
usually mild respiratory, gastrointestinal and eye infections. serotypes 3, 5 and 7: lower respiratory tract infections. ... very common human infection, estimated to be responsible for between 2% and 5% of all respiratory infections. ... serotype 14: can cause potentially fatal adenovirus infections. Canine adenovirus 1 (CAdV-1) can lead to death in puppies, or ... Transmission routes are fecal-oral and respiratory. "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 1 July 2015. ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 ...
Some medical uses are: Upper respiratory tract infections. Lower respiratory tract infections. Urinary tract infections. Skin ... Cefuroxime axetil treats infections against methicillin, oxacillin and penicillin-sensitive bacterial strains. Cefuroxime ... cefuroxime axetil is converted to the active compound cefuroxime by esterases of mucosal cells in the gastrointestinal tract. ... and soft tissue infections. Gonorrhoea. Early Lyme disease. ...
The infections involve mucous membranes, skin, and the respiratory tract. Affected children are susceptible to infection by ... Infections in CHS patients tend to be very serious and even life-threatening. Neuropathy often begins in the teenage years and ... Infections are treated with antibiotics and abscesses are surgically drained when appropriate. Antiviral drugs such as ... The decrease in phagocytosis results in recurrent pyogenic infections, albinism and peripheral neuropathy. It occurs in humans ...
"SACN rapid review: Vitamin D and acute respiratory tract infections". GOV.UK. Retrieved January 6, 2021.. ... may slightly decrease the overall risk of acute respiratory tract infections.[91] The benefits were found in young children and ... "Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory tract infections: systematic review and meta-analysis of individual ... Vitamin D deficiency has been shown to potentially increase the risk of severe respiratory infections.[205] This has caused a ...
Respiratory: upper respiratory tract infection (2%), cough (1%). *Gastrointestinal: abdominal pain (5%), diarrhea (4%), nausea ... Treatment of a Helicobacter pylori infection can be completed by taking a triple therapy combination of omeprazole, amoxicillin ... "Current concepts in the management of Helicobacter pylori infection: the Maastricht III Consensus Report". Gut. 56 (6): 772-81 ... "Risk factors for recurrence, complications and mortality in Clostridium difficile infection: a systematic review". PLoS ONE. 9 ...
... implications for pathogenesis and therapy of respiratory tract infections". Treatments in Respiratory Medicine. 4 (4): 241-53. ... In the gastrointestinal and respiratory tract, movement due to peristalsis or cilia, respectively, helps remove infectious ... Gastrointestinal tract. Peristalsis, gastric acid, bile acids, digestive enzyme,. flushing, thiocyanate,[2] defensins,[2] gut ... In addition, in case of infection, parts of some plants are treated as disposable and replaceable, in ways that very few ...
Rubinstein, E. (1996). "Safety profile of sparfloxacin in the treatment of respiratory tract infections". The Journal of ... The compound is indicated for treating community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections (acute sinusitis, exacerbations of ... lower respiratory tract infections, sparfloxacin (200 or 400 mg loading dose then 100 or 200 mg daily; i.e. 200/100 mg and 400/ ... "Safety profile of sparfloxacin in the treatment of respiratory tract infections". J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 37 Suppl A: 145-60 ...
Virk A, Wilson WR (2001). "Tracheobronchitis and lower respiratory tract infections". In Wilson WR, Sande MA, Drew L (eds.). ... Mechanically-assisted coughing greatly improves secretion clearance in the setting of respiratory infection in the patient with ... Prophylactic indications also include pre and post thoracic surgery to prevent atelectasis and respiratory infections. The ... and prevent respiratory infection after chest trauma. Methods include using suction to remove fluids and placing the patient in ...
Many continue to have frequent infections of the ears and respiratory tract. The continued storage of GAGs in cells can lead to ... Often, the first symptoms may include abdominal hernias, ear infections, runny noses, and colds. Since these symptoms are quite ... and protection from infection. Another critical function is the breakdown of large biomolecules, which is the underlying ...
Common side effects include dizziness, back pain, and upper respiratory tract infections.[2] Serious side effects may include ... and upper respiratory tract infections. [2] Serious side effects may include low blood pressure, kidney problems, allergic ...
Respiratory tract infection. S. *Schistosomiasis. T. *Tonsillitis. V. *Vaccine. *Vertical transmission. Τ. *Template:Mycoses ...
2001). Infections of the Upper Respiratory Tract. In Eugene Braunwald, Anthony S. Fauci, Dennis L. Kasper, Stephen L. Hauser, ... If ear infections are treated in a reasonable amount of time, the antibiotics will usually cure the infection and prevent its ... Most ear infections occur in infants as the eustachian tubes are not fully developed and don't drain readily. In all developed ... The infection may also spread to the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII), causing facial-nerve palsy, producing weakness or ...
Upper respiratory tract infections can be dangerous. New Drug Therapy Approvals 2017 (PDF). U.S. Food and Drug Administration ( ...
Simon HB (2005). "Bacterial infections of the upper respiratory tract". In Dale DC, Federman DD (eds.). ACP Medicine, 2006 ... course of post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis depending on methods of treatment for the preceding respiratory tract infection ... Tonsillitis is most commonly caused by a viral infection and about 5% to 40% of cases are caused by a bacterial infection. When ... Bacterial infection of the tonsils usually follows the initial viral infection. When tonsillitis recurs after antibiotic ...
... upper respiratory tract infection; vomiting; decreased weight; risk of falls; and status epilepticus. Fenfluramine is indicated ...
... and respiratory tract infection. It may also have intrauterine effects on fetal development, resulting in low birth weight ... These pollutants damage human health by evading the mucociliary clearance system and depositing in the upper respiratory tract ... Respiratory diseases are a common after the disaster has occurred. This depends on the amount of water damage and mold that ... Climate change can lead to increased infections from diseases such as malaria and dengue fever, or can have significant impacts ...
... and acute upper respiratory tract infection, according to a study supported in part by the Agency for Healthcare Research and ... Focus on their Use in Respiratory Tract Infections". Treat Respir Med. 5 (6): 437-65. doi:10.2165/00151829-200605060-00009. ... Clinically significant toxicity and tolerance of the main antibiotics used in lower respiratory tract infections]". Médecine et ... It was introduced in 1962 for treatment of urinary tract infections in humans.[70] Nalidixic acid was discovered by George ...
... respiratory tract infections, skin infections, typhoid fever, and urinary tract infections, among others.[2] For some ... respiratory tract infections, cellulitis, urinary tract infections, prostatitis, anthrax, and chancroid.[2] ... Focus on their Use in Respiratory Tract Infections". Treatments in Respiratory Medicine. 5 (6): 437-65. doi:10.2165/00151829- ... For certain uses including acute sinusitis, lower respiratory tract infections and uncomplicated gonorrhea, ciprofloxacin is ...
Acute infections of the nose, sinuses, throat or larynx (upper respiratory tract infections, URI or URTI) are sorted by the ... The common cold is an easily spread infection of the upper respiratory tract. The rhinovirus is the most common cause of the ... Mourtzoukou, EG; Falagas, ME (2007 Sep). "Exposure to cold and respiratory tract infections". The international journal of ... Kassel, JC; King, D and Spurling, GK (2010-03-17). "Saline nasal irrigation for acute upper respiratory tract infections". ...
Acute infections of the nose, sinuses, throat or larynx (upper respiratory tract infections, URI or URTI) are sorted by the ... The common cold is an easily spread infection of the upper respiratory tract. The rhinovirus is the most common cause of the ... Mourtzoukou, EG; Falagas, ME (2007 Sep). "Exposure to cold and respiratory tract infections.". The international journal of ... The distinction between different upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) is loosely based on the location of the symptoms. ...
Zoorob, R; Sidani, MA; Fremont, RD; Kihlberg, C (1 November 2012). "Antibiotic use in acute upper respiratory tract infections ... Epiglottitis was historically mostly caused by infection by H. influenzae type b. With vaccination it is now more often caused ... Alternate risk factors and causes associated with infection include burns and other trauma to the area. Medical research has ... Des Jardins, Terry (2015). Clinical Manifestations & Assessment of Respiratory Disease (7 ed.). Elsevier Health Sciences. p. ...
There is weak evidence probiotics might lower the incidence of acute upper respiratory-tract infections in adults. Probiotics ... Hao Q, Dong BR, Wu T (February 2015). "Probiotics for preventing acute upper respiratory tract infections". Cochrane Database ... Shortliffe LMD (2013). Wein AJ (ed.). Chapter 116: Infection and Inflammation of the Pediatric Genitourinary Tract. Urology. 4 ... "Nutrimune and immune defence against pathogens in the gastrointestinal and upper respiratory tracts: evaluation of a health ...
T. majus has been used in herbal medicine for respiratory and urinary tract infections. In Germany, licensed physicians are ... One study showed its effectiveness in reducing symptoms of acute sinusitis, bronchitis, and urinary tract infections (UTI) ... acute bronchitis and acute urinary tract infection in comparison with other treatments in the daily practice/results of a ...
"Detection of Respiratory Viruses and Bordetella Bronchiseptica in Dogs with Acute Respiratory Tract Infections". The Veterinary ... mixed or secondary infections can progress to lower respiratory infections such as pneumonia.[5] ... respiratory infections involving B. bronchiseptica can be transmissible for several weeks longer.[4] While there was early ... is an upper respiratory infection affecting dogs.[1] There are multiple causative agents, the most common being the bacterium ...
"Pelargonium sidoides extract for treating acute respiratory tract infections". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 10 ... "Common Cold (Upper Respiratory Infection)". The Merck Manual Online. Merck & Co. November 2005. Retrieved 2007-06-13. The ... Hemilä, Harri (January 2006). Do vitamins C and E affect respiratory infections? (Thesis). University of Helsinki. hdl:10138/ ... Recommendations of the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee and the HICPAC/SHEA/APIC/IDSA Hand Hygiene ...
Upper and lower respiratory-tract infections can be frequent. Most children develop limited language capabilities. Death ...
Upper respiratory tract infection - 7 to 14 days. Kata. opsional. Causes. causes. Cause of the disease (if known). Try to ... Upper respiratory tract infection - "common cold", "bug", "snuffles". Kata. opsional. Image. image. Image file (just the ...
Viral respiratory tract infections. *Atypical pneumonias. *Airborne diseases. *Coronavirus-associated diseases. Hidden ...
Infection[edit]. Main article: Pneumococcal infection. S. pneumoniae is part of the normal upper respiratory tract flora. As ... S. pneumoniae resides asymptomatically in healthy carriers typically colonizing the respiratory tract, sinuses, and nasal ... person contact via respiratory droplets and by autoinoculation in persons carrying the bacteria in their upper respiratory ... Historically, Haemophilus influenzae has been a significant cause of infection, and both H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae can be ...
Inflammatory reaction (e.g. acute respiratory tract infections, chronic sinusitis, rhinitis or environmental irritants) ...
... , also known as ophthalmia neonatorum, is a form of conjunctivitis and a type of neonatal infection ... It may be infectious or non infectious.[3] In infectious conjunctivitis, the organism is transmitted from the genital tract of ... Respiratory. *Intrauterine hypoxia. *Infant respiratory distress syndrome. *Transient tachypnea of the newborn ... Topical therapy is not effective and also does not treat the infection of the nasopharynx.[7][8][9] ...
Rather than a general infection, localized infections are more characteristic. These often occur in the respiratory tract ... Chronic infection has been demonstrated in snow geese, and these individuals are believed to be long term migrating reservoirs ... Due to the speed of infection and mortality, birds are in good body condition and do not exhibit the signs of prolonged illness ... Birds with chronic avian cholera, more common in domestic fowl, exhibit prolonged illness with more localized infections. ...
... and infections such as HIV/AIDS and respiratory syncytial virus,[54] as well as in cancer.[55][56] When assayed in the human, ... Entamoeba histolytica is a unicellular parasitic protozoan that infects the lower gastrointestinal tract of humans. The ... "American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 163 (3 Pt 2): S18-21. doi:10.1164/ajrccm.163.supplement_1.2011113. ... Infections: HIV-AIDS, Measles, RSV, othersEdit. The role of SP in HIV-AIDS has been well-documented.[58] Doses of aprepitant ...
London: The Religious Tract Society.. *^ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Octopus". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge ... Extensive connective tissue lattices support the respiratory muscles and allow them to expand the respiratory chamber.[37] The ... Octopuses have an innate immune system, and the haemocytes respond to infection by phagocytosis, encapsulation, infiltration or ... The tract consists of a crop, where the food is stored, a stomach, where food is ground down, a caecum where the now sludgy ...
... urinary tract, etc.).. The physical examination is the examination of the patient for medical signs of disease, which are ... in infection, uremia, diabetic ketoacidosis). Four actions are the basis of physical examination: inspection, palpation (feel ... respiratory therapists, speech therapists, occupational therapists, radiographers, dietitians, and bioengineers, surgeons, ...
Chest radiographs for acute lower respiratory tract infections» The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (12): CD009119. doi ...
Infection typically occurs by direct or indirect exposure to animal excrement through the respiratory or gastrointestinal ... Less commonly there may be bleeding from the mouth or gastrointestinal tract.[1] The risk of death once infected is about one ... Research in showed a twofold increase risk of infection for those living in close proximity to someone with infection symptoms ... The virus is present in urine for between three and nine weeks after infection, and it can be transmitted in semen for up to ...
Common colds are defined as upper respiratory tract infections that affect the predominantly nasal part of the respiratory ... Supplementation on Upper Respiratory Tract Infections in Healthy Adults: The VIDARIS Randomized Controlled Trial,/subtitle,,url ... The economic burden of non-influenza-related viral respiratory tract infection in the United States,url=,journal=Arch. Intern. ... Appropriate Antibiotic Use for Acute Respiratory Tract Infection in Adults: Advice for High-Value Care From the American ...
Like most viruses living along the respiratory tract, it is passed from person to person by tiny droplets in the air that are ... Best, J.M., Cooray, S., Banatvala J.E. Rubella in Topley and Wilson's Microbiology and Microbial Infections, Vol. 2, Virology, ...
Despite general symptoms and problems with the upper respiratory tract (such as high fever, headache, a dry irritating cough ... severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and measles. Chest radiographs (X-ray photographs) often show a pulmonary infection ... "Diagnosis of atypical pathogens in patients hospitalized with community-acquired respiratory infection". Scandinavian Journal ... "Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) - multi-country outbreak". Archived from the original on 7 December 2008. Retrieved ...
Infection and pathogenesis[edit]. The initial site of infection may be the tonsils,[4] or possibly the gastrointestinal tract.[ ... Respiratory system/. acute viral nasopharyngitis/. viral pneumonia. DNA virus. *Epstein-Barr virus *EBV infection/Infectious ... JCV also appears to mediate encephalopathy, due to infection of cortical pyramidal neurons (CPN) and astrocytes.[14] Analysis ... Although JC virus infection is classically associated with white matter demyelination and PML pathogenesis, recent literature ...
Respiratory infections such as pneumonia do not appear to increase the risk of COPD, at least in adults.[23] ... Anticholinergics can cause dry mouth and urinary tract symptoms.[2] They are also associated with increased risk of heart ... Palange P (2013). ERS Handbook of Respiratory Medicine. European Respiratory Society. p. 194. ISBN 978-1-84984-041-5. .. ... People with COPD can experience flare-ups that are often triggered by a viral or bacterial respiratory infection.[100] The ...
When inhaled the vapor produces a direct inflammatory effect on the respiratory tract. Respiratory damage is related to the ... Those with significant lower airway involvement may develop bacterial infection. Importantly, victims suffering body surface ... Permanent damage to the upper respiratory tract, distal airways, and lung parenchyma occurs only if escape from the gas source ... Less soluble gases (e.g. nitrogen dioxide, phosgene, ozone) may not dissolve until they are well into the respiratory tract, ...
In general, rhinitis is the first sign in most people.[11][12] Involvement of the upper respiratory tract, such as the nose and ... and antibiotics if infection occurs.[13] If perforation of the nasal septum occurs (or saddle nose deformity), then surgical ... and medium-size vessels in many organs but most commonly affects the upper respiratory tract and the kidneys.[6] Therefore, the ... Death usually resulted from uremia or respiratory failure.[12] The revised Five-factor score is associated with 5-year ...
During infection, some bacteria (e.g., Burkholderia pseudomallei) therefore produce superoxide dismutase to protect themselves ... SOD2 knockout or null mutations cause growth inhibition on respiratory carbon sources in addition to decreased post-diauxic ... it is also effective in the treatment of urinary tract inflammatory disease in man.[47] For a time, bovine liver SOD even had ... a potential mechanism underlying adult respiratory distress syndrome". The American Journal of Pathology. 173 (4): 915-26. doi: ...
... could compensate for both actual respiratory loading and potentially anticipated respiratory loading. The first dynamic ... The most common reason for lead removal is infection, however over time leads can degrade due to a number of reasons such as ... below the outflow tract, to prevent deterioration of the strength of the heart. The actual surgery typically lasts 30 to 90 ... An antibiotic is typically administered to prevent infection.[12] In most cases, the pacemaker is inserted in the left shoulder ...
Diseases and disorders of the lungs or the vocal cords, including paralysis, respiratory infections (bronchitis), vocal fold ... which is then modified by the vocal tract and mouth into different vowels and consonants. However humans can pronounce words ...
包括下呼吸道感染(英语:Lower respiratory tract infection)). ... Ferwerda A., Moll H. A., de Groot R. Respiratory tract infections by Mycoplasma pneumoniae in children: a review of diagnostic ... and Respiratory Indices in a Murine Model of Mycoplasma pneumoniae Lower Respiratory Infection. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. ... and the Protean Manifestations of Mycoplasma-mediated Human Infections. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care ...
Alimentary tract of infant showing intestinal necrosis, pneumatosis intestinalis, and perforation site (arrow). Autopsy. ... The underlying mechanism is believed to involve a combination of poor blood flow and infection of the intestines.[2] Diagnosis ... Additional laboratory changes (metabolic and respiratory acidosis, disseminated intravascular coagulation). More recently, ...
... respiratory tract infections, and a weak cough. Respiratory failure is the most common cause of death in ALS.[5] ... Respiratory onset[edit]. Respiratory-onset ALS is a rare variant that accounts for about 3% of all cases of ALS,[11] in which ... In respiratory-onset ALS, this may occur before significant limb weakness is apparent. Most people with ALS die of respiratory ... This involves asking the person with ALS if they have any respiratory symptoms and measuring their respiratory function.[5] The ...
"Association of residential dampness and mold with respiratory tract infections and bronchitis: a meta-analysis". Environ Health ... Other problems are respiratory and/or immune system responses including respiratory symptoms, respiratory infections, ... Sinuses and digestive tract infections are most common; lung and skin infections are also possible. Mycotoxins may or may not ... For example, residents of homes with mold are at an elevated risk for both respiratory infections and bronchitis.[19] When mold ...
... and relief in case of irritation in the upper respiratory tract (ID 1714, 1715) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No ... and is consumed quickly during infections, effects indicating a prominent role in immune system regulation.[31] The European ... who both have been accused of making unsubstantiated treatment claims for treating cancer and HIV infection. ...
Infection[edit]. Any break in the skin carries a risk of infection. Although IV insertion is an aseptic procedure, skin- ... Respiratory. tract. Solids. *Smoking device. *Dry-powder inhaler (DPI). 0. 0. Liquids. *Anaesthetic vaporizer ... Infection, and a foreign body embolus are the two threats to the patient.[citation needed] ... Infection of IV sites is usually local, causing easily visible swelling, redness, and fever. If bacteria do not remain in one ...
... is a contagious infection of the upper respiratory tract. This area of the body includes the nose, throat, pharynx, larynx, and ... The most well-known of these infections is the common cold. Find out about other types of URIs, their causes, and how they are ... Acute Respiratory Infection. Acute respiratory infection is an infection that may interfere with normal breathing. It usually ... An acute URI is a contagious infection of your upper respiratory tract. Your upper respiratory tract includes the nose, throat ...
Lower respiratory tract infection[edit]. Main article: Lower respiratory tract infection. The lower respiratory tract consists ... Upper respiratory tract infection[edit]. Main article: Upper respiratory tract infection. Although some disagreement exists on ... Respiratory tract infection (RTI) refers to any of a number of infectious diseases involving the respiratory tract. An ... Lower respiratory tract infections are generally more serious than upper respiratory infections. LRIs are the leading cause of ...
Lower respiratory tract infections in children are often viral in origin. Unfortunately in this time of significant ... Respiratory Syncytial Virus Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Respiratory Virus Acute Lower Respiratory Tract Infection Middle ... 2.17.1 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). SARS is a more severe respiratory tract infection caused by infection with the ... The viral infection starts in the upper respiratory tract and spreads to the lower tract within a few days, resulting in ...
lower respiratory tract infection. Whats Known on This Subject:. Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs), including ... Hospitalizations for Severe Lower Respiratory Tract Infections. Adena H. Greenbaum, Jufu Chen, Carrie Reed, Suzanne Beavers, ... Viral lower respiratory tract infection in infants and young children. BMJ. 2003;327(7405):36-40pmid:12842956. ... Lower respiratory tract infections among American Indian and Alaska Native children and the general population of U.S. children ...
Respiratory Tract Infections. Editors Choice of Best Available Content This collection features the best content from AFP, as ... ACP/CDC Provide Guidelines on the Use of Antibiotics for Acute Respiratory Tract Infection [Practice Guidelines] ... Interventions to Facilitate Shared Decision Making to Address Antibiotic Use for Acute Respiratory Tract Infections in Primary ... Antibiotics for Viral Upper Respiratory Tract Infections in Children [FPINs Clinical Inquiries] ...
... Online Medical Reference - from definition and diagnosis through risk factors, treatments ... Upper respiratory tract infection (URI) is a nonspecific term used to describe acute infections involving the nose, paranasal ... Vitamin E and respiratory tract infections in elderly nursing home residents: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2004; 292:828 ... Fendrick AM, Monto AS, Nightengale B, Sarnes M. The economic burden of non-influenza-related viral respiratory tract infection ...
Respiratory infections are: • Infections of the upper respiratory tract, affecting the... ... Respiratory infections are caused by viruses and bacteria. ... Lower Respiratory Tract Infections As Stated By Reissig Et Al. ... Viral Respiratory Tract Infections ( Vrtis ). 2444 Words , 10 Pages Viral respiratory tract infections (VRTIs) are the most ... Respiratory infections are caused by viruses and bacteria. Respiratory infections are:. • Infections of the upper respiratory ...
Respiratory tract infections include the common cold, sinusitis, pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia. Hand washing is the ... This is the time of year when respiratory tract infections act up, so weve created a brief guided tour to the common cold and ... Flu is not included because the focus is on anatomical locations in the respiratory tract, and flus effects are widespread. A ... First, its true: washing your hands may be your best defense against respiratory infection. Second, antibiotics are important ...
Exposure to cold has often been associated with increased incidence and severity of respiratory tract infections. The data ... increases the risk of developing upper and lower respiratory tract infections and dying from them; in addition, the longer the ... Keywords: common cold; exposure to cold; hypothermia; influenza; pneumonia; respiratory infections Document Type: Review ... cardiovascular diseases as well as respiratory infections are responsible for a large proportion of this added morbidity and ...
Upper respiratory tract infection (URI) represents the most common acute illness evaluated in the outpatient setting. URIs ... encoded search term (Upper Respiratory Tract Infection) and Upper Respiratory Tract Infection What to Read Next on Medscape ... Seasonal variation of selected upper respiratory tract infection pathogens. PIV is parainfluenza virus, RSV is respiratory ... Seasonal variation of selected upper respiratory tract infection pathogens. PIV is parainfluenza virus, RSV is respiratory ...
Respiratory problems caused by infection of the lower respiratory tract are a leading cause of hospitalisation of children. In ... The Swedish team detected the bocavirus in 3 percent of cases of serious lower respiratory tract infection. "Viral infections ... The virus, called human bocavirus, was identified by the team using a new method for virus discovery on respiratory tract ...
Probiotics Reduce Colds, Respiratory Tract Infections in Infants. By Deborah Mitchell G+ Oct 12 2010 - 12:52pm ... Anyone who has ever had an infant knows that colds and other upper respiratory tract infections are common occurrences and ... Daily doses of probiotics may help reduce the incidence of colds and other respiratory tract infections in infants, and the ... Specifically, 65 percent of probiotic-treated infants had a respiratory tract infection compared with 94 percent of infants in ...
The epidemiological data suggest that endurance athletes are at increased risk for upper respiratory tract infections during ... period following prolonged endurance exercise when host defense is decreased and the risk of upper respiratory tract infection ...
Enterobacter lower respiratory tract infections can manifest identically to those caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae or other ... Enterobacter lower respiratory tract infections can manifest identically to those caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae or other ... What are the physical findings characteristic of Enterobacter infections of the lower respiratory tract?. Updated: Jun 18, 2019 ... encoded search term (What are the physical findings characteristic of Enterobacter infections of the lower respiratory tract?) ...
Fifty-one patients with chronic obstructive lung disease with a proven bacterial respiratory tract infection were treated with ... Ciprofloxacin therapy of respiratory tract infection withPseudomonas aeruginosa. Eur J Clin Microb 1988;7:661-4.Google Scholar ... Rose RM, Pinkston P, ODonnell C, Jensen A. Viral infection of the lower respiratory tract. Clin Chest Med 1987;8:411.Google ... Ciprofloxacin Pulmonary diseases, chronic obstructive Respiratory tract infections This is a preview of subscription content, ...
... found that if the frequency of these common infections causing hospitalisation continues for a longer period it may even lead ... Urinary, respiratory tract infections may double stroke risk: Study. Mar 14, 2018, 19:59 IST , IANS The study -- led by a ... Our figures suggest that those who are admitted to hospital with a respiratory or urinary tract infection are 40 per cent more ... Those suffering from urinary or respiratory tract infections may face nearly double the risk of heart attacks and strokes than ...
... Industry Leaders & Their Dominance Over the Global Market - published ... Upper respiratory tract infection is the acute and contagious infection occur in upper respiratory tract. This infection can ... Upper respiratory tract infection is the acute and contagious infection occur in upper respiratory tract. This infection can ... Upper Respiratory Tract Infection Treatment Market Forecast Research Reports Off … Upper respiratory tract infection is one of ...
Upper respiratory tract infection (URI) represents the most common acute illness evaluated in the outpatient setting. URIs ... encoded search term (Upper Respiratory Tract Infection) and Upper Respiratory Tract Infection What to Read Next on Medscape. ... For CMV infections, consider foscarnet or ganciclovir. RSV infections may respond to ribavirin. If lower respiratory tract ... Seasonal variation of selected upper respiratory tract infection pathogens. PIV is parainfluenza virus, RSV is respiratory ...
Christine Agro has degrees in Naturopathy and Western Herbs from The School of Natural Medicine and is an internationally recognized Clairvoyant and Spiritual Teacher. Her work focuses on supporting women, families and children in all phases and stages of their lives. She is the author of 50 Ways to Live Life Consciously and the creator of The Conscious Living Wisdom Cards (Standard and Special Moms Edtions ...
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... in recurrent upper respiratory tract infections during pediatric age: preliminary results. ... This paper presents an evaluation of a new herbal compound in the treatment of recurrent upper respiratory tract infections in ... Efficacy of Echinacea angustifolia in recurrent respiratory tract infections. Study Abstract. AIM:. Among pediatric population ... in recurrent upper respiratory tract infections during pediatric age: preliminary results. Minerva Pediatr. 2011 June Unità ...
One such disease commonly is Aspergillosis, which is a fungal infection of the birds respiratory tract. ... Airway and respiratory tract diseases are very common in pet birds. ... upper respiratory tract. The section of the respiratory system that contains the mouth, nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, and ... One such disease commonly is Aspergillosis, which is a fungal infection of the birds respiratory tract. ...
... "respiratory tract infections"[MeSH Terms] OR ("respiratory"[All Fields] AND "tract"[All Fields] AND "infections"[All Fields]) ... Vitamin D status and hospitalisation for childhood acute lower respiratory tract infections in Nigeria.. Ahmed P, Babaniyi IB, ... Acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRTI) is the leading cause of childhood deaths in most developing countries, ... Search: Vitamin D status and hospitalization for childhood acute lower respiratory tract infections in Nigeria ...
Microbiota regulates immune defense against respiratory tract influenza A virus infection.. Ichinohe T1, Pang IK, Kumamoto Y, ... Microbiota regulates immune defense against respiratory tract influenza A virus infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Mar ... Microbiota regulates immune defense against respiratory tract influenza A virus infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Mar ... Microbiota regulates immune defense against respiratory tract influenza A virus infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Mar ...
... respiratory tract disease, gemifloxacin - Answer: Gemifloxacin is a prescription medication that belongs to a group ... ... infections, respiratory tract disease, gemifloxacin, upper respiratory tract infection. Details:. gemifloxacin -how much ... Upper Respiratory Tract Infection - What can I do to treat my 4 yr old child for uri at home?. Posted 18 Sep 2012 • 2 answers ... What are the results of gemifloxacin in upper respiratory tract infection?. Asked. 16 Feb 2012 by gat22101977. Active. 16 Feb ...
San Francisco have discovered a number of viruses and viral subtypes in patients with respiratory tract infections (RTI). ... Acute Respiratory infections in Children - Introduction. Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are a major cause of morbidity and ... Acute Upper Respiratory Infections (AURI). Acute respiratory infections in children include common cold. Rhinitis, hoarseness ... New Viruses and Viral Subtypes Found in Patients With Respiratory Tract Infections. ...
... The references in this article would be clearer with a different or consistent style of ... Lower respiratory tract infections Lower respiratory tract infections place a considerable strain on the health budget and are ... 2] Although influenza affects the lower respiratory tract, it also affects the upper respiratory tract (shown in figure 1, [3 ... the rubric of lower respiratory tract infection can also be applied to other types of infection including lung abscess, acute ...
Antibiotic use for acute respiratory tract infections that are largely viral remains common. Macrolide use has increased since ... Acute viral (upper) respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) are among the most common reasons for a healthcare encounter in the ... Antibiotic use remains common for viral acute respiratory tract infections. * Antibiotics were most often prescribed for acute ... Within 28 days of an encounter for a presumed viral upper respiratory tract infection, 49.4% of patients filled an initial ...
An upper respiratory tract infection in chinchillas should never be taken lightly as it can lead to serious disease, such as ... An upper respiratory tract infection in chinchillas should never be taken lightly, as it can lead to serious complications such ... Symptoms typically associated with upper respiratory tract infections include sneezing, coughing, discharge from the nose and/ ... Chinchillas can also become prone to bacterial respiratory infections when their immunity is weakened because of their young ...
... viral infection in radiologically proved pneumonia, to 15-40% viral infection in infection of the lower respiratory tract.1 6-8 ... "lower respiratory tract infection", and the text words "C reactive protein" and "lower respiratory infection". We included only ... Management of lower respiratory tract infections by French general practitioners: the AIR II study. Analyse Infections ... Infections of the lower respiratory tract are common in the community and comprise both acute bronchitis and pneumonia.1 2 ...
  • Lower respiratory infections, such as pneumonia , tend to be far more serious conditions than upper respiratory infections, such as the common cold . (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in addition to pneumonia another important entity exists in the lower respiratory tract that is almost always viral in origin. (springer.com)
  • The concept of "acute lower respiratory tract infection" (ALRTI) has emerged and it is becoming increasing evident from a number of studies that the infectious base of both acute pneumonia (AP) and acute bronchiolitis in children has a mixed etiology of microorganisms. (springer.com)
  • Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs), including pneumonia, are in the top 10 causes of death among children in the United States. (aappublications.org)
  • It includes flu (this can affect either the upper or lower respiratory tract), bronchitis (infection of the airways), pneumonia (infection of the lungs), bronchiolitis (an infection of the small airways that affects infants and children younger than two) , tuberculosis (persistent bacterial infection of the lungs). (bartleby.com)
  • The change was most visible in cases of lower respiratory tract infections, i.e. bronchitis and pneumonia, whose incidence decreased to around one-fifth. (news-medical.net)
  • It is approved to treat certain types of bronchitis (upper respiratory tract infections) and pneumonia. (drugs.com)
  • While often used as a synonym for pneumonia , the rubric of lower respiratory tract infection can also be applied to other types of infection including lung abscess , acute bronchitis , and emphysema . (bionity.com)
  • There are a number of acute and chronic infections that can affect the lower respiratory tract, the focus of this paper is to look at the two most common infections, Bronchitis and Pneumonia, as identified by the Therapeutic guidelines. (bionity.com)
  • Pneumonia is a serious infection of the small bronchioles and alveoli that can involve the pleura. (bionity.com)
  • An upper respiratory tract infection in chinchillas should never be taken lightly, as it can lead to serious complications such as pneumonia. (petmd.com)
  • Objectives To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of C reactive protein in detecting radiologically proved pneumonia and to evaluate how well it can discriminate between bacterial and viral infections of the lower respiratory tract. (bmj.com)
  • Infections of the lower respiratory tract are common in the community and comprise both acute bronchitis and pneumonia. (bmj.com)
  • 5 Microbiological aetiology varies from 15-25% viral infection in radiologically proved pneumonia, to 15-40% viral infection in infection of the lower respiratory tract. (bmj.com)
  • Although bacterial pneumonia occurs much less often than other infections of the lower respiratory tract, in studies more than 70% of acute infections of the lower respiratory tract are treated with antibiotics. (bmj.com)
  • 9 10 These data call for additional information, in order to detect bacterial pneumonia and to differentiate between this diagnosis and other respiratory tract infections. (bmj.com)
  • Pneumonia may present as gastrointestinal disease, and invasive pneumococcal infection must be suspected despite vaccination. (mja.com.au)
  • Lower respiratory infections, such as pneumonia, tend to be far more severe than upper respiratory infections, such as the common cold. (wikipedia.org)
  • 5 Scores on the CURB-65 (Confusion, Uremia, Respiratory rate, low Blood pressure, 65 years of age or older) and Pneumonia Severity Index, which determine prognosis for pneumonia, were calculated for each patient, and procalcitonin and the two prognostic scores were correlated. (aafp.org)
  • An injected broad spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic used to treat or prevent a variety of bacterial infections, including pneumonia, gynecological infections, bone and joint infections, and septicemia, among others. (drugbank.ca)
  • Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) include acute bronchitis, bronchiolitis, pneumonia and tracheitis. (leo.org)
  • The infection was highest in those with severe acute respiratory infection, particularly severe bronchiolitis and pneumonia and it precipitated acute bronchial asthma in children over 2 years. (who.int)
  • Severe lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in infants pneumonia ( 11 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The magnitude and duration of the increased caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) has been asso- risk for pneumonia after RSV infection are poorly defined ciated with later pneumonia hospitalization among children. (cdc.gov)
  • To determine risk for pneumonia after RSV hospitalization specific to RSV or whether other causes of lower respiratory in infancy, we conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of tract infection (LRTI) in infancy are also associated with 2,813 infants admitted to a hospital in Kenya and identified later pneumonia ( 11 ). (cdc.gov)
  • This pattern is in contrast to that of pneumonia, which is characterized by an upper respiratory tract prodrome followed by sequential onset of lower respiratory tract involvement. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • This issue provides fully updated information on respiratory infections, including healthcare associated pneumonia, new diagnostic tests for pneumonia, epidemic viral pneumonia and other emerging pathogens, biomarkers to optimize antibiotic therapy for pneumonia, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics to improve management of penumonia. (elsevier.com)
  • Acute lower respiratory tract infection (acute bronchitis) refers to the onset of productive cough in a patient with no history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and no evidence of pneumonia. (bmj.com)
  • Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) (primarily pneumonia) are one of the leading causes of death worldwide in infants and children, especially in developing country. (plos.org)
  • The most common atypical pathogens include Mycoplasma pneumonia(M . pneumophila) , Legionella pneumophila ( L . pneumophila ), Chlamydophila pneumoniae ( C . pneumonia ) and respiratory viruses [ 2 ]. (plos.org)
  • In the current prospective study, the utility of pretreatment PCT levels in discriminating between infectious and noninfectious lung diseases as well as between different types of lower respiratory tract infection (community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP), acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis (AECB) and tuberculosis (TB)) was investigated. (ersjournals.com)
  • Antibiotic treatment should ideally be reserved for specific subsets of patients with bacterial respiratory tract infections such as community acquired pneumonia, or used if the potential for complications for that person are high or if the infection is not resolving within an expected timeframe. (bpac.org.nz)
  • Pneumonia is less frequent as a consequence of infection with increasing age, but severity increases with the age of the patient. (slideserve.com)
  • URTIs include the common cold and sinus infections, which can lead to lower respiratory problems, such as asthma or pneumonia. (health.am)
  • Antibiotics are widely prescribed for patients with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) yet only a minority have a pneumonia which responds to antibiotic treatment. (bl.uk)
  • It can do important morbidity from upper respiratory infections, acute bronchiolitis, and bronchial pneumonia to apnea in kids. (artscolumbia.org)
  • Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is defined as an infection of the alveolar, distal airway and interstitium of the lungs acquired while the patient is in the community. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • The invention relates to the use of a certain subset of cytokine markers as prognostic variables of infection status in an individual, and especially as prognostic markers of a patients developing severe infection such as pneumonia, and respiratory tract infection following surgery. (ideaconnection.com)
  • However, other scientists have argued that because of the mixture of diverse conditions looked at in these studies, ranging from self-reported colds and flu, ear infections, laboratory-confirmed influenza or radiograph-confirmed pneumonia, it is difficult to know whether a reduction in this mixture of conditions is applicable to the general population and how it should be interpreted clinically. (nursinginpractice.com)
  • An infection of this type is normally further classified as an upper respiratory tract infection (URI or URTI) or a lower respiratory tract infection (LRI or LRTI). (wikipedia.org)
  • Lower respiratory tract infection NOS / Lower Tract Respiratory Infection / LRTI / Lower Respiratory Tract Infections / Lower Respiratory Tract Infection / Lower resp tract infection / Lower resp tract infec / Lower resp. (drugbank.ca)
  • Once a child presents with symptoms of LRTI-fever, cough, reduced energy or oral intake, and some degree of respiratory distress and/or hypoxemia-the first step toward diagnosis is a history and physical examination to localize the infection and determine the clinical syndrome. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • Artwork of a lung and heart, showing the processes involved in a lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) such as chronic bronchitis. (sciencephoto.com)
  • The data indicate that the diagnosis of LRTI and prescription of antibiotics is made on the recorded presence of a very small number of symptoms and signs, with 91% having shortness of breath, 77% having purulent sputum and 75% having a respiratory rate >20/minute. (bl.uk)
  • Upper respiratory tract infections (URTI's) are common disorders, and it is not uncommon for patients to present for surgery with an active URTI. (springer.com)
  • Purpose: Upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) is the most common reason for seeking primary care in many countries. (diva-portal.org)
  • Illustration of a human head with cutaway areas showing the processes involved in an upper respiratory tract infection (URTI). (sciencephoto.com)
  • An upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) is an illness caused by an acute infection, which involves the upper respiratory tract, including the nose, sinuses, pharynx, or larynx. (wikipedia.org)
  • A standardized polyphenol mixture extracted from poplar-type propolis for remission of symptoms of uncomplicated upper respiratory tract infection (URTI): a monocentric, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. (naturalmedicinejournal.com)
  • It is the less serious upper respiratory tract infections (URTI), which are much like the common cold in humans, that commonly occur in cats. (bowwowinsurance.com.au)
  • We undertook a 2X2 factorial, randomized controlled trial (RCT) to assess whether vitamin D3 supplementation (10,000 international units per week) versus placebo and gargling versus no gargling could prevent viral, clinical upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) in university students. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Vitamin D3 significantly reduced the risk of laboratory confirmed URTI and may reduce the risk of clinical infections. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Boston University School of Medicine researchers (BUSM) have observed in a study of pregnant women that consumption of at least seven servings per day of fruits and vegetables moderately reduced the risk of developing an upper respiratory tract infection (URTI). (health.am)
  • Although consultations rates and antibiotic prescription rates for URTI or chest infections declined sharply in the late 1990s until the early 2000s it is clear that antibiotic use is rising again and the volume of antibiotics prescribed has now exceeded the peak in the late 1990s (https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/resources-to-support-the-2012-european-antibiotic-awareness-day-in-england). (southampton.ac.uk)
  • Children have higher consultation rates for respiratory tract infections than adults, and even when antibiotic prescription was at its lowest most children labelled as having URTI or chest infection still were prescribed antibiotics. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • The initial and subsequent revised upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) guideline for South Africa (SA) was published in 2004 and in 2008 in the SAMJ and the South African Journal of Epidemiology and Infection , respectively. (scielo.org.za)
  • [5] It is unclear if rapid viral testing in the emergency department for children with acute febrile respiratory infections reduces the rates of antibiotic use, blood testing, or urine testing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of the children with recurrent infections, 60% were diagnosed with at least 3 episodes of acute otitis media, 73% received at least 3 antibiotic treatments and 21% were hospitalized for an acute respiratory infection. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Little et al evaluated the effectiveness of delayed antibiotic prescribing strategies for respiratory tract infections in 889 United Kingdom primary care patients (age ≥3 y) assessed as not requiring immediate antibiotics. (medscape.com)
  • Antibiotic-treated mice fail to induce acquired immunity to influenza virus infection. (nih.gov)
  • Local and distal TLR stimulation restores immune response to influenza virus infection in antibiotic-treated mice. (nih.gov)
  • It is important to use appropriate antibiotic selection based on the infecting organism and to ensure this therapy changes with the evolving nature of these infections and the emerging resistance to conventional therapies. (bionity.com)
  • 6] Most often it is caused by viral infection and hence antibiotic therapy is not indicated in immunocompetent individuals. (bionity.com)
  • To determine the type and number of antibiotic prescriptions filled in the 28 days following an index visit for acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) generally presumed to be viral. (ajmc.com)
  • Within 28 days of an encounter for a presumed viral upper respiratory tract infection, 49.4% of patients filled an initial antibiotic prescription, 4.8% a prescription for an anti-influenza drug, and 1.2% received both. (ajmc.com)
  • antibiotic use is not recommended for common bacterial infections because the body is likely to treat them. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is recommended to avoid antibiotic use unless bacterial infections are severe, transmissible, or have a high risk of further complications if left untreated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unnecessary use of antibiotics could increase antibiotic-resistant infections, affect the digestive system, create allergic reactions, and other intense side effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • A combination of topical and systematic antibiotics taken prophylactically can prevent infection and improve adults' overall mortality in the ICU for adult patients receiving mechanical ventilation for at least 48 hours, and topical antibiotic prophylaxis probably reduces respiratory infections but not mortality. (wikipedia.org)
  • MANILA, Philippines - A drug company is voluntarily recalling a batch of a locally manufactured antibiotic used for the treatment of respiratory tract infections, leprosy and other skin infections for failing laboratory tests, according to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). (inquirer.net)
  • The main objective is to investigate the incidence of Respiratory Tract Infections (RTIs) and antibiotic prescriptions in children and during pregnancy, the different drugs chosen by their doctors according to diagnosis, and compliance by patients. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Further to investigate the possible effect of antibiotic use during pregnancy on RTIs and antibiotics and respiratory drug prescriptions in children the first two years after birth. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Visits to the doctor for a respiratory tract infection can lead to unnecessary antibiotic prescribing, but an online intervention with real-time information on locally circulating viruses may reduce mothers' intentions to visit their primary care doctor. (eurekalert.org)
  • 2 - 4 However, there are several caveats regarding the use of procalcitonin to guide decisions about antibiotic therapy in patients with acute respiratory tract infection. (aafp.org)
  • A macrolide antibiotic used to treat and prevent a variety of bacterial infections. (drugbank.ca)
  • A penicillin antibiotic used to prevent and treat mild to moderately severe infections in the respiratory tract, skin, and soft tissues. (drugbank.ca)
  • A 2017 systematic review found three interventions which were probably effective in reducing antibiotic use for acute respiratory infections: C-reactive protein testing, procalcitonin-guided management, and shared decision-making between physicians and patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • No significant treatment effects were observed for duration or severity of other acute lower respiratory tract infection symptoms, antibiotic use, or nonserious adverse events. (eurekalert.org)
  • Making a clinical diagnosis first helps prevent the pitfall of overreliance on chest radiograph findings, which is known to increase unnecessary antibiotic use in children whose clinical syndrome is consistent with viral infection. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • This is a summary of a systematic review evaluating the evidence regarding the effectiveness and adverse consequences of strategies for reducing antibiotic use in adults and children with uncomplicated acute respiratory tract infections (RTIs). (ahrq.gov)
  • It would be assumed, therefore, that the management of people presenting with respiratory tract infections is relatively straight forward and the decision not to prescribe an antibiotic an easy one to make. (bpac.org.nz)
  • However, every day, and often several times a day, primary care clinicians see a range of people with symptoms that are consistent with a number of possible respiratory tract infections, and many factors can influence their decision about whether or not to prescribe an antibiotic. (bpac.org.nz)
  • It has been reported that approximately 60% of all antibiotic prescribing in primary care in the United Kingdom is for patients with respiratory tract symptoms, 1 and although there are no similar New Zealand figures, it is likely that comparable prescribing trends occur here. (bpac.org.nz)
  • Good clinician-patient communication has been shown to reduce the rates of antibiotic prescribing for respiratory tract infections both at the initial consultation and during future consultations. (bpac.org.nz)
  • Q: What key clinical and non-clinical factors do you take into account in the initial assessment of a patient with a respiratory tract infection and when deciding if a patient needs an antibiotic? (bpac.org.nz)
  • We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the effectiveness of interventions directed towards parents or caregivers which were designed to influence consulting and antibiotic use for respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in children in primary care. (plos.org)
  • Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are common in children and drive the majority of antibiotic prescribing for this population [1] . (plos.org)
  • Introduction: Inappropriate use of antibiotics for upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs), many of which are viral, adds to the burden of antibiotic resistance. (scribd.com)
  • TY - JOUR T1 - Antibiotic prescribing practice for acute, uncomplicated respiratory tract infections in primary care settings in New Delhi, India. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Unwarranted prescribing of antibiotics is associated with several problems aside from the financial implications of unnecessary treatment: increased incidence of hospital-acquired infections, including MRSA and Clostridium difficile and the problem of antibiotic resistance. (bl.uk)
  • PURPOSE Prior studies have evaluated factors predictive of inappropriate antibiotic prescription for upper respiratory tract infections (URIs). (annfammed.org)
  • The National Committee on Quality Assurance (NCQA), through its Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS), has developed the "Appropriate treatment for children with upper respiratory infection" measure to estimate the annual percentage of US children who were diagnosed with a URI and were not prescribed an antibiotic. (annfammed.org)
  • Inappropriate use of antibiotics for non-severe upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs), most of which are viral, significantly adds to the burden of antibiotic resistance. (scielo.org.za)
  • In addition, nationwide weekly numbers of influenza (A + B) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in children were collected from the national infectious disease register for the influenza season 2019-2020, and compared against numbers from 2015. (news-medical.net)
  • Respiratory syncytial virus can also cause symptomatic lower respiratory tract disease, especially in elderly patients ( 1 ). (asm.org)
  • The incidence of respiratory syncytial virus infection was assessed among 516 children under 5 years with acute respiratory infection and 57 control children free of respiratory infection to determine its relation to epidemiological variables. (who.int)
  • Respiratory syncytial virus was detected in 188 [‎37.6%]‎ children with acute respiratory infection and in none of the control group. (who.int)
  • Respiratory syncytial virus [‎RSV]‎ is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in young infants, little was known on its circulation types and patterns in Morocco. (who.int)
  • One recent study found Streptococcus pneumoniae in 20% to 40% of patients who had severe CAP associated with positive Mycoplasma pneumoniae serology or a positive viral antigen (respiratory syncytial virus [RSV], influenza) test. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • Diagnostic procedures for PI-3 are similar to those for Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus . (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) is an RNA virus classified as a pneumovirus in the Paramyxovirus family. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • In additional to cattle, sheep and goats can also be infected by respiratory syncytial viruses. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is an important respiratory pathogen in infants and young children. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Acute respiratory piece of land infections play a major function in hospitalizations of kids, and respiratory syncytial virus is good recognized as the most of import pathogen doing ARTI.Objectives: This survey aimed to measure epidemiological and clinical forms of RSV infection in kids hospitalized for lower ARTI in Ahvaz, Iran. (artscolumbia.org)
  • 1 ) Viruss, including respiratory syncytial virus ( RSV ) , metapneumovirus, influenza A and B, parainfluenza and adenovirus are the most common aetiologic agents for childhood acute respiratory piece of land unwellness. (artscolumbia.org)
  • Wheezing and bronchiolitis were less common in patients infected with HRV-C than in those infected with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). (asm.org)
  • This study was designed to collect data on the prevalence of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in Italy in infants hospitalized for lower respiratory tract infections, and to evaluate which of the recognized risk factors might be associated with disease severity. (nih.gov)
  • Kini S, Kalal BS, Chandy S, Shamsundar R, Shet A. Prevalence of respiratory syncytial virus infection among children hospitalized with acute lower respiratory tract infections in Southern India. (wjgnet.com)
  • Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of lower respiratory tract infections in infants and the elderly. (asm.org)
  • Typical infections of the upper respiratory tract include tonsillitis , pharyngitis , laryngitis , sinusitis , otitis media , certain types of influenza , and the common cold . (wikipedia.org)
  • [3] Influenza affects both the upper and lower respiratory tracts, but more dangerous strains such as the highly pernicious H5N1 tend to bind to receptors deep in the lungs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Influenza is a systemic illness that involves the upper respiratory tract and should be differentiated from other URIs. (clevelandclinicmeded.com)
  • Effect of micronutrient supplements on influenza and other respiratory tract infections. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Microbiota regulates immune defense against respiratory tract influenza A virus infection. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we show that commensal microbiota composition critically regulates the generation of virus-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells and antibody responses following respiratory influenza virus infection. (nih.gov)
  • Following influenza virus infection, inflammasome activation led to migration of dendritic cells (DCs) from the lung to the draining lymph node and T-cell priming. (nih.gov)
  • 2] Although influenza affects the lower respiratory tract, it also affects the upper respiratory tract (shown in figure 1, [3]) and hence it will not be discussed here. (bionity.com)
  • This medicine does not effectively treat a viral infection like sore throats, influenza, bronchitis, and sinusitis, common respiratory tract infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • A representative sample of mothers in the United Kingdom (N=806) was randomized to receive the online intervention, including locally enhanced influenza statistics, symptom information, and home-care advice, either before (intervention group) or after (control group) responding to a hypothetical respiratory tract infection illness scenario. (eurekalert.org)
  • The Vivalytic Viral Respiratory Tract Infection (VRI) Array can identify SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) and differentiate it from nine other respiratory infections with similar symptoms, including influenza and all known coronaviruses . (news-medical.net)
  • This array focuses not only on the identification of the novel coronavirus strain that causes COVID-19, but also nine other respiratory infection targets simultaneously, including Influenza A and B, Sarbecovirus and MERS. (news-medical.net)
  • Infant pneumococcal carriage during influenza, RSV and hMPV respiratory illness within a maternal influenza immunization trial. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In this post-hoc analysis of nasopharyngeal pneumococcal carriage in a community-based, randomized prenatal influenza vaccination trial in Nepal with weekly infant respiratory illness surveillance, 45. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The most common agents in the co-infections were Mycoplasma pneumoniae and influenza B virus. (plos.org)
  • Influenza A(H5N1) virus infection in a child with encephalitis complicated by obstructive hydrocephalus. (annals.org)
  • There is another form of respiratory tract infections' prevention when managing adults in intensive care units, it is recommended to use both topical and systematic antibiotics as prophylaxis against the infection and the overall mortality. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2007). "Applying psychological theories to evidence-based clinical practice: identifying factors predictive of managing upper respiratory tract infections without antibiotics" . (wikipedia.org)
  • Children with recurrent respiratory infections frequently use health care services and antibiotics, undergo surgical procedures and are at risk for asthma in early life. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Antibiotics are often thought to be the first line treatment in lower respiratory tract infections however as discussed later these are not indicated in viral infections. (bionity.com)
  • 47 million prescriptions in the United States in 2018 were made for infections that do not need antibiotics to be treated with. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acute lower respiratory tract infection, defined as an acute cough with at least one of the symptoms of sputum, chest pain, shortness of breath, and wheeze, is one of the most common conditions managed in primary care internationally and is often treated inappropriately with antibiotics. (eurekalert.org)
  • 5 They found there was no relationship between the doctor's initial clinical assessment that the patient had an infection warranting antibiotics and the outcome or with subsequent laboratory confirmation of a bacterial/atypical infection. (bmj.com)
  • Do you prescribe antibiotics for respiratory tract infections? (bpac.org.nz)
  • Appropriate prescribing of antibiotics for patients with respiratory tract infections (RTI) is a key component of improving antimicrobial stewardship in New Zealand. (bpac.org.nz)
  • These antibiotics include amoxycillin-clavulanate, some cephalosporins, the macrolide / azalide and ketolide groups of agents and the respiratory fluoroquinolones. (scribd.com)
  • To obtain information on prescribing rates and choice of antibiotics for acute, uncomplicated respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in the community. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • British Library EThOS: What influences the prescribing of antibiotics in lower respiratory tract infection? (bl.uk)
  • Doctors were invited to participate in interviews to discuss the reasons for prescribing antibiotics in respiratory tract infection and a group of patients were interviewed for their views on antibiotics. (bl.uk)
  • Having taken note of my patient's concerns, done an examination and explained to the patient how reassuring the findings were, declared a diagnosis of viral infection, and sympathetically explained that antibiotics are of no value in their case and can lead to side-effects it seemed incongruent to then give a prescription of antibiotics. (bpac.org.nz)
  • Although trials among adults suggest modest benefit even among important clinical subgroups, we are aware of no randomised placebo-controlled trials available to either support or dispute the common use of antibiotics in children with chest infections. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • Sinonasal allergies, anatomic abnormalities such as a deviated nasal septum, sinus ostial blockade caused by mucosal edema, immunodeficiency disorders such as hypogammaglobulinemia and human immunodeficiency virus infection, and abuse of nasally inhaled cocaine predispose to the development of acute sinusitis. (clevelandclinicmeded.com)
  • Andrographis has a positive effect in the treatment of acute upper respiratory tract infections and also relieves the inflammatory symptoms of sinusitis. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Details of the patient's history aid in differentiating a common cold from conditions that require targeted therapy, such as group A streptococcal pharyngitis , bacterial sinusitis, and lower respiratory tract infections. (medscape.com)
  • This study was performed to determine the usual duration of community-acquired viral upper respiratory tract infections and the incidence of complications (otitis media/sinusitis) of these respiratory tract infections in infancy and early childhood. (aappublications.org)
  • The conditions shown here are inflammation of the paranasal sinuses (sinusitis), and a middle ear infection (otitis media). (sciencephoto.com)
  • Acute URTIs include rhinitis, pharyngitis/tonsillitis, and laryngitis often referred to as a common cold, and their complications: sinusitis, ear infection, and sometimes bronchitis (though bronchi are generally classified as part of the lower respiratory tract. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rhinitis, nasopharyngitis or the common cold, pharyngitis, rhinosinusitis or sinusitis, and laryngitis can be caused by viral infections. (healthtap.com)
  • Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are infectious diseases involving the respiratory tract. (wikipedia.org)
  • Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are any infection of the sinuses, throat, airways or lungs. (leo.org)
  • This study suggests that the treatment with Anas barbariae hepatis et cordis extractum 200K could be helpful in preventing RTIs and improving the health status of patients who suffer from respiratory diseases, and it could lead to savings to the Italian NHS. (dovepress.com)
  • Second-hand smoke exposure is a major risk factor for respiratory tract infections (RTIs). (ersjournals.com)
  • Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are extremely common among children, particularly during the first few years of life [ 1 ]. (ersjournals.com)
  • Associations between SHS exposure and bronchitis, bronchiolitis, middle ear infection, and RTIs in general are well established [ 6 - 8 ]. (ersjournals.com)
  • Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are a common reason for children to consult in general practice. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are common in children and generally self-limiting, yet often result in consultations to primary care. (plos.org)
  • A respiratory tract infection (RTIs) is an infectious disease that can affect the nose, sinuses and throat (upper respiratory tract) or the airways or lungs (lower respiratory tract). (bowwowinsurance.com.au)
  • From December 2006 to November 2007, 406 nasopharyngeal aspirates from children younger than 14 years of age with RTIs were screened for HRV and other common respiratory viruses by PCR or reverse transcription-PCR. (asm.org)
  • What are the symptoms of acute upper respiratory infection? (healthline.com)
  • Symptoms are caused by inflammation of the mucous membranes in the upper respiratory tract. (healthline.com)
  • Direct invasion of the respiratory epithelium results in symptoms corresponding to the area(s) involved. (clevelandclinicmeded.com)
  • Infections in pregnancy · What are the symptoms of UTI? (bartleby.com)
  • Many infected individuals show no symptoms and infection can build up immunity from future infections. (home-remedies-for-you.com)
  • OTC pain relievers or cold/flu/sinus remedies provide relief from symptoms temporarily but do not shorten the duration of infection. (home-remedies-for-you.com)
  • Nasal congestion, runny nose, sneezing, cough are the common symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection. (openpr.com)
  • There is no specific treatment for upper respiratory tract infection and it is completely depend on symptoms of patients. (openpr.com)
  • The symptoms of the disease are dependent on the form of the infection. (petmd.com)
  • The symptoms will only become apparent after the infection has been present in the lungs for some time. (petmd.com)
  • Symptoms typically associated with upper respiratory tract infections include sneezing, coughing, discharge from the nose and/or eyes, difficulty breathing, and sometimes fever. (petmd.com)
  • Children in day care were more likely than children in home care to have protracted respiratory symptoms. (aappublications.org)
  • A cough that lasts 1 to 3 weeks, with or without sputum production, and that is associated with upper respiratory tract and constitutional symptoms is the typical presentation. (asm.org)
  • The purpose of this study is to find out if we can predict the progress of acute upper respiratory tract infection to acute bacterial rhinosinusitis in Finnish conscripts by symptoms, clinical, endoscopic or radiological findings, middle meatal swab samples or nitric oxide measurement. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Determine the Association Between the Level of SCI With Chronic Respiratory Symptoms, Measures of Pulmonary Function, and Respiratory Illness. (bioportfolio.com)
  • This study is using a standardized method to assess respiratory function in SCI in order to determine the association between level of SCI with chronic respiratory symptoms, measures of pu. (bioportfolio.com)
  • To develop a valid research tool to measure infant respiratory illness severity using parent-reported symptoms. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Just like the symptoms of upper respiratory tract, the main symptom of a lower respiratory tract infection is a cough, but it is usually productive, more severe and sometimes the mucous is blood stained. (theindependentbd.com)
  • 4 In this issue of Thorax Macfarlane et al report a large prospective case series detailing the incidence, aetiology, management, and outcome of previously well adults presenting to their general practitioner with symptoms of acute lower respiratory tract infection. (bmj.com)
  • Informing patients about the natural history and course of lower respiratory tract illness symptoms, on the other hand, has been shown to reduce reconsultations. (bmj.com)
  • There was no relationship noted between the resolution of symptoms after 3 days and the type of infection (bacterial or viral) or the age or gender of the subjects. (naturalmedicinejournal.com)
  • The initial clinical evaluation, i.e. history and examination, can provide information about the probable cause of the patient's symptoms but it is often difficult to distinguish clinically between viral and bacterial infections. (bpac.org.nz)
  • This may be an appropriate response, particularly if the risk of not doing so is high, e.g. non-specific respiratory symptoms and signs in a patient who is immunosuppressed. (bpac.org.nz)
  • The typical upper respiratory infection in cats involves the nose and throat, causing symptoms such as sneezing, nasal congestion and discharge from the nose or eyes. (bowwowinsurance.com.au)
  • a bacterial infection with symptoms of ocular discharge and eye swelling. (bowwowinsurance.com.au)
  • Feline reovirus - a viral infection of the intestines that can mimic symptoms of a respiratory infection. (bowwowinsurance.com.au)
  • Cough ( 77.7 % ) and chest wall abjuration ( 100 % ) were the taking symptoms and marks respectively.Conclusions: This survey indicates that RSV is an of import cause of respiratory tract infection in babies less than 2 old ages old. (artscolumbia.org)
  • There are a whole host of viruses that attack the respiratory tract and cause URI type symptoms (cough, sore throat, fever etc). (healthtap.com)
  • most commonly they suffer from bronchitis and middle ear infections. (news-medical.net)
  • Acute bronchitis can be defined as acute bacterial or viral infection of the larger airways in healthy patients with no history of recurrent disease. (bionity.com)
  • Diagnostic tests should be performed for the patient with chronic cough in the setting of appropriate epidemiology, since pertussis is indistinguishable clinically from other causes of bronchitis and adults may be vectors of infection in nonimmunized infants or incompletely immunized children. (asm.org)
  • In bronchial inflammation (bronchitis), the airways of the lungs (bronchi) respond to an infection by becoming inflamed and producing mucus that is coughed up as sputum (phlegm, yellow). (sciencephoto.com)
  • The most common cause of the common cold, sore throat, sinus infection, bronchitis or even many ear infections are cold viruses. (healthtap.com)
  • The diagnosis of a respiratory tract infection was based on the presence of fever, throat irritation or sore throat. (bartleby.com)
  • Kindly advise me about the blood report (the doctor attributes it to the infection), the treatment and diagnosis, and the reason for her lethargy - could it be drug related? (ndtv.com)
  • A history of smoking influences the diagnosis of respiratory tract infections because smokers are more prone than nonsmokers to infection by certain organisms. (jaoa.org)
  • The major causes and characteristics of lower respiratory tract infections, methods of outpatient diagnosis, and the pros and cons of various modes of therapy are discussed. (jaoa.org)
  • Relative to the current cut-off level of 0.5 ng·mL −1 , procalcitonin concentration is not a useful parameter for diagnosis of lower respiratory tract infections. (ersjournals.com)
  • The usefulness of PCT concentration in diagnosis, and particularly the differential diagnosis of several infectious diseases, is still the matter of some controversy, although it has become generally accepted that PCT is a useful marker for severe systemic bacterial infections such as sepsis 10 - 13 . (ersjournals.com)
  • A fear of not "missing" the diagnosis of a significant bacterial infection may mean that if there is clinical uncertainty, clinicians err on the side of caution and prescribe. (bpac.org.nz)
  • Etiologic diagnosis of lower respiratory tract bacterial infections using sputum samples and quantitative loop-mediated isothermal amplification. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Independent of the clinical diagnosis at admission, RSV infection was associated with more severe respiratory impairment. (nih.gov)
  • Antigenic variation of hundreds of respiratory viruses result in repeated circulation in the community. (clevelandclinicmeded.com)
  • Respiratory infections are caused by viruses and bacteria. (bartleby.com)
  • Approximately half of these respiratory infections are due to viruses. (bartleby.com)
  • Nasal swabs taken during respiratory infections were analyzed for viruses from 714 children. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Upper respiratory tract infections are of different types and caused by over 200 viruses. (home-remedies-for-you.com)
  • Viruses and bacteria are the sources of upper respiratory tract infection. (openpr.com)
  • Researchers at the University of California, San Francisco have discovered a number of viruses and viral subtypes in patients with respiratory tract infections (RTI). (medindia.net)
  • In an accompanying editorial, James E. Gern, MD and William W. Busse, MD of the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health agreed that the Virochip assay could prove an excellent new tool for future studies looking to detect and understand novel viruses associated with respiratory illnesses. (medindia.net)
  • The viruses do not cause damage to the cells of the upper respiratory tract, but rather cause changes in the tight junctions of epithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Respiratory viruses are a significant cause of hospitalization for respiratory tract infections. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Since bacteria and viruses can easily enter the respiratory tract during the act of breathing, the respiratory tract is much more vulnerable to infection than other parts of the body. (theindependentbd.com)
  • It is a common illness because a cat's nose, throat and sinuses are susceptible to infections caused by a variety of viruses and bacteria. (bowwowinsurance.com.au)
  • By far, viruses are the most common causes of upper respiratory infections in cats. (bowwowinsurance.com.au)
  • RT-PCR offers a rapid method for common respiratory viruses. (artscolumbia.org)
  • can viruses cause upper respiratory tract infections? (healthtap.com)
  • what are some upper respiratory tract infections caused by viruses? (healthtap.com)
  • The upper respiratory tract (nose, throat, upper airways) are usually infected by viruses. (healthtap.com)
  • However, whereas the multifactorial nature of OM is well known, it has only recently become fully appreciated that both acute and chronic OM are truly polymicrobial infections, involving any of several upper respiratory tract (URT) viruses and one or more of three bacterial pathogens. (asm.org)
  • Nearly all respiratory tract viruses can predispose to bacterial OM, but different viruses, and even different strains of the same virus, can differ in their relative ability to do so. (asm.org)
  • citation needed] Pain and pressure of the ear caused by a middle-ear infection (otitis media) and the reddening of the eye caused by viral conjunctivitis are often associated with URTIs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) include the common cold, laryngitis, pharyngitis/tonsillitis, acute rhinitis, acute rhinosinusitis and acute otitis media. (leo.org)
  • Laboratory testing identified 70 infections (46.7 per 100 URTIs). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Exposure to cold has often been associated with increased incidence and severity of respiratory tract infections. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Daily doses of probiotics may help reduce the incidence of colds and other respiratory tract infections in infants, and the beneficial bacteria can be delivered via a pacifier. (emaxhealth.com)
  • 2020) Effect of Social Distancing Due to the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Incidence of Viral Respiratory Tract Infections in Children in Finland During Early. (news-medical.net)
  • Socioeconomic factors and crowding played no significant role in the incidence and spread of the infection. (who.int)
  • This trial is being conducted in follow up to two Phase 2 trials in older adults in which RTB101 10 mg administered once daily for up to 16 weeks during winter cold and flu season was observed to reduce the incidence of respiratory illness associated with respiratory tract infections. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Regression analysis revealed a linear correlation between the proportion of mixed infections and the incidence of multi-pathogen infections. (plos.org)
  • 3. The weight of experimental evidence, including our own, does not justify the elimination of exposure to cold as a possible though secondary factor in the incidence of acute respiratory disease. (rupress.org)
  • sense RNA virus of the genus Pneumovirus.The extremum incidence of the RSV infections is between the 2nd and six month of age. (artscolumbia.org)
  • In some observational studies, it was observed that low vitamin D level in blood is associated with the increased incidence of respiratory tract infections. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Children are more prone to respiratory infections than adults because they do not have the immunity to these infections. (bartleby.com)
  • Kids are more at risk of spreading and contracting these infections than adults. (home-remedies-for-you.com)
  • However, some older children and adults may have respiratory compromise, especially those with congenital or acquired subglottic stenosis. (medscape.com)
  • Among adults without asthma who developed an acute lower respiratory tract infection, use of the oral steroid prednisolone for five days did not reduce symptom duration or severity, according to a study published by JAMA . (eurekalert.org)
  • respiratory illness) in adults ≥65 years of age. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Very severe infections may occur in adults, usually in those with immunodeficiency or sickle cell anaemia. (slideserve.com)
  • Acute respiratory infection (ARI) is widespread not only in the pediatric age group but also in adults. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Most pediatric emergency room visits are caused by viral respiratory tract infections, and especially cases of upper respiratory tract infections and middle ear infections decreased significantly. (news-medical.net)
  • The range and depth of viral detection [using the Virochip] is significant, since gaining a comprehensive understanding of the viral pathogen diversity associated with asthma exacerbations may enable the development of specific strategies for treating or preventing asthma exacerbations caused by viral respiratory infection," Dr Kistler said. (medindia.net)
  • Bronchiolitis , an inflammation of the airways down into the bronchioles, is characterized by significant nasal congestion and profuse rhinorrhea that occurs simultaneously with lower respiratory tract signs. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • Bronchiolitis was the clinical diagnosing of patients with RSV infections. (artscolumbia.org)
  • Lower respiratory tract infections are generally more severe than upper respiratory infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human metapneumovirus (h MPV ) is emerging as a cause of a severe respiratory tract infection in immunocompromised patients. (hindawi.com)
  • M . pneumoniae , C . pneumoniae , and L . pneumophila cause mild, moderate or severe acute respiratory tract infections in children, responsible for 10% to 30% of CAP in children respectively [ 4 ]. (plos.org)
  • why is viral upper respiratory tract infections usually benign and that of lower respiratory severe? (healthtap.com)
  • Viral respiratory tract infections (VRTIs) are the most common illness in humans according to Fendrick (2004). (bartleby.com)
  • The 10% of children with the highest number of annual respiratory illness days were defined to have recurrent respiratory tract infections. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • The 90th percentile in the number of annual respiratory illness days was 98. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Upper respiratory tract infection (URI) represents the most common acute illness evaluated in the outpatient setting. (medscape.com)
  • Tobias Allander and Björn Andersson, of the Karolinska Institutet (KI), identified a previously unknown virus called human bocavirus that can cause respiratory illness in children. (newsinferno.com)
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of daily supplementation of GS-3K8 or GINst15 on acute respiratory illness (ARI) in healthy subjects. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Measuring the Severity of Respiratory Illness in the First 2 Years of Life in Preterm and Term Infants. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Veterans with Gulf War Illness exhibit distinct respiratory patterns during maximal cardiopulmonary exercise. (bioportfolio.com)
  • MERS-CoV as an emerging respiratory illness: A review of prevention methods. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Analyzing 58 case-control pairs, we found that home wood-burning stove use, recent respiratory illness exposure, family history of asthma, dirt floors, and lack of running water in the home increased the risk of lower respiratory tract infection. (nih.gov)
  • On multiple logistic regression analysis, however, only wood-burning stove use and respiratory illness exposure were independently associated with higher risk. (nih.gov)
  • If the infection is uncomplicated, illness will typically last for 7 to 21 days, depending on the particular disease agent, with 7 to 10 days being the average duration. (bowwowinsurance.com.au)
  • Hospitalization for lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) among children have been well characterized. (aappublications.org)
  • Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) are the leading infectious cause of death and the sixth-leading cause of death overall worldwide. (mdpi.com)
  • Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) remain one of the most frequent reasons for health care visits and hospitalizations in otherwise healthy, young children living in the United States. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • Fever (104°-108°F [40°-42°C]), depression, decreased feed intake, increased respiratory rate, cough, and nasal and lacrimal discharge are common. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Acute upper respiratory tract infections occur in one or more structures of the nasal cavity (includes paranasal sinuses) and throat (e.g. tonsils or pharynx). (webmd.com)
  • Upper respiratory tract infection (URI) is a nonspecific term used to describe acute infections involving the nose, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, and bronchi. (clevelandclinicmeded.com)
  • These beneficial bacteria reside in the intestinal tract, where they share space with disease-causing bacteria. (emaxhealth.com)
  • The veterinarian will test the discharge to identify the bacteria causing the infection. (petmd.com)
  • A penicillin derivative used for the treatment of infections caused by gram-positive bacteria, in particular streptococcal bacteria causing upper respiratory tract infections. (drugbank.ca)
  • Acute Upper Respiratory Tract Infection - When is Bacteria Involved? (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The infection can be caused by bacteria, a virus or even fungi. (theindependentbd.com)
  • Infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae in infants and children with acute lower respiratory tract disease. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We studied the prevalence of C. pneumoniae infection in hospitalized infants and children with acute lower respiratory tract disease by cell culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), enzyme immunoassay and serology. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Gestational age, birth order, birth weight, and exposure to tobacco smoke affected the prevalence and severity of RSV-related lower respiratory tract disease. (nih.gov)
  • This factor highlights the frequent prevalence of upper respiratory tract infections, eventually proving to be a prime growth generator for the upper respiratory tract infection treatment market. (biospace.com)
  • Many factors contribute to the prevalence of middle ear infections in children as well as to the chronic or recurrent nature of otitis media (OM). (asm.org)
  • Intensive Care Antimicrobial Resistance Epidemiology (ICARE) Surveillance Report, data summary from January 1996 through December 1997: A report from the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) System. (medscape.com)
  • Epidemiology: infection occurs world-wide. (slideserve.com)
  • 9,10 ) Information on the epidemiology of RSV infections in developing states are still limited. (artscolumbia.org)
  • Guppy MP, Mickan SM, Del Mar CB (2004) "Drink plenty of fluids": a systematic review of evidence for this recommendation in acute respiratory infections. (springer.com)
  • Chinchillas can also become prone to bacterial respiratory infections when their immunity is weakened because of their young age or due to stressful conditions. (petmd.com)
  • 1. Recurrent Infections 2. (bartleby.com)
  • Complicated Infections · Is there a vaccine to prevent recurrent UTIs? (bartleby.com)
  • The burden of recurrent respiratory infections is unclear. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • We identified young children with recurrent respiratory infections in order to characterize the clinical manifestations, risk factors and short-term consequences. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Older siblings increased the risk of recurrent respiratory infections. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Early nasopharyngeal colonization with Streptococcus pneumoniae was common in children who later developed recurrent infections. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Evidence indicates that echinacea potently lowers the risk of recurrent respiratory infections and complications. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Among pediatric population the recurrent upper respiratory tract infections are very common. (wellnessresources.com)
  • This paper presents an evaluation of a new herbal compound in the treatment of recurrent upper respiratory tract infections in a pediatric cohort. (wellnessresources.com)
  • Efficacy of complex herbal compound of Echinacea angustifolia (Imoviral® Junior) in recurrent upper respiratory tract infections during pediatric age: preliminary results. (wellnessresources.com)
  • Agrawal A, Sodhi K, Kakkar S. Recurrent respiratory tract infections in an infant. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • There was no history of cyanosis, poor feeding, prolonged fever, recurrent skin infections, prolonged diarrhea or weight loss. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • However, our findings now show that social distancing plays a major role in reducing pediatric infections, emergency room visits and hospitalization. (news-medical.net)
  • What's New in Pediatric Lower Respiratory Tract Infections? (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • The x-rays were read independently by three different pediatric residents who were aware only that the children had a respiratory infection. (scielo.br)
  • The lower respiratory tract consists of the trachea (wind pipe), bronchial tubes , the bronchioles , and the lungs . (wikipedia.org)
  • Infections of the lower respiratory tract, affecting the airways and lungs. (bartleby.com)
  • The lungs will be severely damaged, due to the long-term infection, and it can easily be spread to other organs and systems. (petmd.com)
  • The organism enters the body through the respiratory tract, but symptomatic infections are usually limited to the lungs and nervous system. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Tobacco smoke can alter both the structural and the immunologic defenses of the lungs against infection. (jaoa.org)
  • Infection of either the upper respiratory tract (nose and throat) or lower respiratory tract (trachea and lungs). (healthtap.com)
  • NHSN annual update: antimicrobial-resistant pathogens associated with healthcare-associated infections: annual summary of data reported to the National Healthcare Safety Network at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2006-2007. (medscape.com)
  • Some prevention can be taken care of to avoid upper respiratory infection such avoiding close contact with people who are sick. (openpr.com)
  • TY - JOUR T1 - Vitamin D3 and gargling for the prevention of upper respiratory tract infections: a randomized controlled trial. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • To explore the effect of vitamin D supplementation in prevention of respiratory tract infections on the basis of published clinical trials. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 6 ] There is a need to refine our knowledge about the functions of vitamin D in the prevention of respiratory tract infections in the light of clinical trials which were done to explore this phenomenon. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 2 While it is also acknowledged that vitamin D contributes to the normal function of the immune system (an approved European health claim has been published to this effect), there are still differing views within the scientific community on the strength of evidence for an effect of vitamin D on prevention of acute respiratory tract infections, including colds and flu, and for reducing asthma attacks. (nursinginpractice.com)
  • 50µg) was useful in prevention, with a reported 12% reduction in the proportion of participants experiencing at least one acute respiratory tract infection. (nursinginpractice.com)
  • Currently, infections of the lower respiratory tract are a significant cause of hospitalization of children. (newsinferno.com)
  • 2 - 4 In one study, 243 patients presenting to the emergency department with acute respiratory tract infection (i.e., dyspnea, cough, or both) were randomized to receiveantibiotictherapyortherapy guided by procalcitonin levels. (aafp.org)
  • Your daughter probably has an allergic respiratory tract and would probably benefit from the use of a nebuliser, especially since she has been having cough off and on for 8 months. (ndtv.com)
  • Cough is the most common symptom of an upper respiratory tract infection. (theindependentbd.com)
  • Respiratory tract infection ( RTI ) refers to any of a number of infectious diseases involving the respiratory tract . (wikipedia.org)
  • Lower respiratory tract infections are among the most common infectious diseases of humans worldwide. (asm.org)
  • Results of a new study suggest that infants who receive daily doses of probiotics experience significantly fewer respiratory illnesses. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Over the period of the study, infants who had received probiotics experienced a significant reduction in respiratory infections when compared with those in the placebo group. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Specifically, 65 percent of probiotic-treated infants had a respiratory tract infection compared with 94 percent of infants in the placebo group. (emaxhealth.com)
  • The role of Chlamydia pneumoniae in the etiology of acute lower respiratory tract infections in infants and children is little understood. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Results of this study indicate that C. pneumoniae plays a minor role in the etiology of respiratory tract infections in infants and young children. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The collected data show that, in Italy, RSV is an important cause of lower respiratory tract infection in infants. (nih.gov)
  • Patients diagnosed with any one of these common infections were three times more likely to die than those without prior infection after developing heart disease, and almost twice as likely to die if they had a stroke. (mid-day.com)
  • It is notable that infection appears to confer as much, if not more, of a risk for future heart disease and stroke as very well established risk factors such as high blood pressure and diabetes,' Potluri added. (mid-day.com)
  • One such disease commonly is Aspergillosis, which is a fungal infection of the bird's respiratory tract. (petmd.com)
  • Aspergillosis disease is caused by the fungus Aspergillus , and its spores are what cause respiratory problems in birds. (petmd.com)
  • Humid, crowded, and poorly ventilated housing conditions contribute to a greater chance of respiratory disease in chinchillas. (petmd.com)
  • The Viral Respiratory Tract Infection Array is one of the world's first multiplex molecular diagnostic tests meeting the COVID-19 testing recommendations of the World Health Organisation (WHO) and the Centres for Disease Control (CDC). (news-medical.net)
  • A cephalosporin indicated for the treatment of a variety of infections including acute bacterial otitis media, several upper respiratory tract infections, skin infections, urinary tract infections, gonorrhea, early Lyme disease, and impetigo. (drugbank.ca)
  • Respiratory tract infection ( RTI ) is defined as any infectious disease of the upper or lower respiratory tract. (leo.org)
  • Burden of disease in children with respiratory tract infections in primary care: diary-based cohort study. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Ventorlin and Theoped are both bronchodilators, used in the management of allergic respiratory disease. (ndtv.com)
  • Although PI-3 is capable of causing disease, it is usually associated with mild to subclinical infections. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • BRSV infections associated with respiratory disease occur predominantly in young beef and dairy cattle. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • BRSV can be considered as a primary BRD pathogen and is also a component of the bovine respiratory disease complex. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Passively derived immunity does not appear to prevent BRSV infections but reduces the severity of disease. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • BRSV is an important virus in the bovine respiratory disease complex because of its frequency of occurrence, predilection for the lower respiratory tract, and ability to predispose the respiratory tract to secondary bacterial infection. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • However conservative management may be considered in those patients with mild disease who have no respiratory distress and are able to feed and grow. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • Upper respiratory tract infection in cats is also referred to as Feline Infectious Respiratory Disease or Feline Upper Respiratory Disease Complex (URD). (bowwowinsurance.com.au)
  • 2. The character of this disease, which occurs frequently in rabbits under natural conditions, makes the application of the experimental results to similar respiratory conditions in man less open to objection than in similar experiments with other infections. (rupress.org)
  • what is more serious of a disease, lower respiratory tract infections or upper respiratory tract infections? (healthtap.com)
  • If the intervention were rolled out widely, the authors surmise that it would have impact, given the high rates at which parents of children with respiratory tract infections visit primary care clinicians. (eurekalert.org)
  • Kaneko K, Kaneko K-i (2009) Hyponatremia in children with respiratory tract infection. (springer.com)
  • patients with respiratory tract infections. (bartleby.com)
  • Both clinical and non-clinical factors can influence treatment decisions for patients with respiratory tract infections. (bpac.org.nz)
  • Despite superior filtration capability of N95 filtering facepiece respirators measured in vitro, insufficient clinical evidence has been published to determine whether normal surgical masks and N95 filtering facepiece respirators are equivalent with respect to preventing respiratory infections in healthcare workers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although not all studies agree, most of the available evidence from laboratory and clinical studies suggests that inhaled cold air, cooling of the body surface and cold stress induced by lowering the core body temperature cause pathophysiological responses such as vasoconstriction in the respiratory tract mucosa and suppression of immune responses, which are responsible for increased susceptibility to infections. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Thyrotoxicosis induced by thyroid involvement of disseminated Aspergillus fumigatus infection," Journal of Clinical Microbiology , vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 886-887, 2000. (hindawi.com)
  • High-quality clinical research in the form of randomized controlled trials assessed the effectiveness of Vitamin D, another review of poorer quality RCTs addressed the effectiveness of immunostimulants for preventing respiratory tract infections, but exercise effectiveness is not yet apparent. (wikipedia.org)
  • The clinical trial report, "Lower Respiratory Tract Infections Global Clinical Trials Review, H2, 2017" provides an overview of Lower Respiratory Tract Infections clinical trials scenario. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • This report provides top line data relating to the clinical trials on Lower Respiratory Tract Infections. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • 13 However, even though values of C reactive protein may reflect the severity of inflammation or tissue injury, its role in differentiating bacterial from viral infections is not proved. (bmj.com)
  • 4. From the limited data of our last two experiments it is suggested that any marked change of temperature predisposes rabbits to this infection, the severity of which varies with the amount of change, and that a change from low to high temperature has an even more marked effect than that from high to low. (rupress.org)
  • cardiovascular diseases as well as respiratory infections are responsible for a large proportion of this added morbidity and mortality. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Airway and respiratory tract diseases are very common in pet birds. (petmd.com)
  • The analysis examined 455 patients who suffered from respiratory diseases. (dovepress.com)
  • Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases. (curehunter.com)
  • It is therefore well worth examining the effects of these common infections on perioperative morbidity. (springer.com)
  • Globally, respiratory infections are a common cause of morbidity and mortality among children. (aappublications.org)
  • This is the time of year when respiratory tract infections act up, so we've created a brief guided tour to the common cold and four of its fellow misery makers. (harvard.edu)
  • Anyone who has ever had an infant knows that colds and other upper respiratory tract infections are common occurrences and occasionally can be serious. (emaxhealth.com)
  • The effects of the common infections were of similar magnitude among the people suffering from diabetes, hypertension, and cholesterol, researchers said. (mid-day.com)
  • Upper respiratory tract infection is one of the most common reason for the patients to visit the clinic or hospital. (openpr.com)
  • Common cold is the most common reason for upper respiratory tract infection. (openpr.com)
  • According to a study conducted in U.S. 25% people are suffering from upper respiratory tract infection and it the most common reason for the patients to visit the doctors. (openpr.com)
  • Fungal infection is common in birds with vitamin A deficiency, malnutrition , stress and in various other weakened states. (petmd.com)
  • Acute respiratory infections in children include common cold. (medindia.net)
  • This minireview addresses the major categories of lower respiratory tract infections, the most common etiologic agents, and the laboratory tests (and their limitations) available to diagnose them. (asm.org)
  • The infection was most common in the first 6 months and both sexes were equally affected. (who.int)
  • We will recruit conscripts with upper respiratory tract infection (common cold) during a two month period. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • They are a common cause of infection. (theindependentbd.com)
  • The commonest respiratory tract infection is the common cold. (theindependentbd.com)
  • Infections of the respiratory tract are more common in winter than other months perhaps because people are more likely to stay indoors and in close contact with other people in winter. (theindependentbd.com)
  • Infections caused by PI-3 are common in cattle. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Although some disagreement exists on the exact boundary between the upper and lower respiratory tracts, the upper respiratory tract is generally considered to be the airway above the glottis or vocal cords. (wikipedia.org)
  • That would delineate upper respiratory tract infections from those in the lower airway. (springer.com)
  • Insertion of tongue depressors or other instruments may provoke airway spasm and precipitate respiratory compromise. (medscape.com)
  • Microscopic examination of sputum and culture are not helpful in distinguishing upper airway colonization from lower airway infection ( 19 ). (asm.org)
  • Anas barbariae hepatis et cordis extractum 200K (Oscillococcinum ® ) is used to treat and prevent seasonal colds and airway inflammatory affections, improve symptom control, and reduce the frequency of respiratory tract infection (RTI) episodes. (dovepress.com)
  • While the primary infection is the most serious, reinfection of the upper airway throughout life is the rule. (asm.org)
  • Of 2741 respiratory tract infections recorded for the 3-year period, 801 (29.2%) were complicated by otitis media. (aappublications.org)
  • During the first 2 years of life, children in any type of day care were more likely than children in home care to have otitis media as a complication of upper respiratory tract infection. (aappublications.org)
  • Although relatively little is known about either RSV infection of the upper respiratory tract or host mucosal immunity to RSV, recent literature suggests that RSV is the predominant viral pathogen predisposing to bacterial otitis media (OM). (asm.org)
  • There are also certain types of infection, such as flu, that can affect both the upper and lower respiratory tract. (theindependentbd.com)
  • Tests of nasopharyngeal specimens for specific pathogens are helpful when targeted therapy depends on the results (eg, group A streptococcal infection, gonococcus, pertussis). (medscape.com)
  • Mixed-infections of pathogens were detected in 2,391 cases, with Mycoplasma pneumoniae as the most frequent pathogen. (plos.org)
  • Since inappropriate antimicrobial choice is associated with higher mortality, risk factors for MDR pathogens such as Pseudomonas infection should be evaluated when empiric therapy for CAP is going to be started. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Our results reveal the importance of commensal microbiota in regulating immunity in the respiratory mucosa through the proper activation of inflammasomes. (nih.gov)
  • The general public and public health authorities should therefore keep this in mind and take appropriate measures to prevent increases in morbidity and mortality during winter due to respiratory infections. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in young children worldwide. (medindia.net)
  • Acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) are associated with significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in children under the age of 5 years. (plos.org)
  • Anyone who has ever had a cold knows about acute respiratory infections (URIs). (healthline.com)
  • The types of URIs refer to the parts of the upper respiratory tract most involved in the infection. (healthline.com)
  • Most upper respiratory tract infections (URIs) are self-diagnosed and self-treated at home. (medscape.com)
  • We followed the Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS) quality measurement titled "Appropriate treatment for children with upper respiratory infection" to determine the rate of appropriate management of URIs. (annfammed.org)
  • Upper respiratory tract infections (URIs) are one of the most frequent acute reasons for children to seek medical attention, with 500 million cases each year accounting for more than 10% of all ambulatory and emergency department encounters. (annfammed.org)
  • URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS OUTLINE · Background information · What are the causes of UTI? (bartleby.com)
  • A urinary tract infection or UTI is an infection that can happen anywhere along the urinary tract. (bartleby.com)
  • Your urinary tract is the system that makes urine and carries it out of your body. (bartleby.com)
  • Urinary tract infections can have different names, depending on what part of the urinary tract is infected. (bartleby.com)
  • Catheter Associated Urinary Tract Infection (CAUTI) is defined as the occurrence of a urinary tract infection (UTI) in patients with a urinary catheter in the past 48 hours. (bartleby.com)
  • Those suffering from urinary or respiratory tract infections may face nearly double the risk of heart attacks and strokes than obesity, researchers have warned. (mid-day.com)
  • Our figures suggest that those who are admitted to hospital with a respiratory or urinary tract infection are 40 per cent more likely to suffer a subsequent heart attack, and 2.5 times more likely to have a stroke, than patients who have had no such infection - and are considerably less likely to survive from these conditions,' Rahul Potluri, researcher at Britain's Aston University, said in a statement. (mid-day.com)
  • Researchers conducted the study over 34,027 patients who had been admitted with a urinary or respiratory tract infection with an age and sex-matched control group without infection. (mid-day.com)
  • Is gemifloxacin can be used for treating urinary tract infection caused by gram (-ve) bacilli or? (drugs.com)
  • Infection occurs when the infected secretions come in contact with your nose or eyes. (healthline.com)
  • Infections of the upper respiratory tract, affecting the nose, sinuses and throat. (bartleby.com)
  • There may be bone changes and a misshaping of the upper respiratory tract -- nose, trachea, and syrinx. (petmd.com)