Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.
Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
A genus of the subfamily PNEUMOVIRINAE, containing two members: Turkey rhinotracheitis virus and a human Metapneumovirus. Virions lack HEMAGGLUTININ and NEURAMINIDASE.
Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.
The top portion of the pharynx situated posterior to the nose and superior to the SOFT PALATE. The nasopharynx is the posterior extension of the nasal cavities and has a respiratory function.
A member of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, originally isolated from human nasopharyngeal aspirates in patients with respiratory disease.
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
Gram-negative aerobic cocci of low virulence that colonize the nasopharynx and occasionally cause MENINGITIS; BACTEREMIA; EMPYEMA; PERICARDITIS; and PNEUMONIA.
A catarrhal disorder of the upper respiratory tract, which may be viral or a mixed infection. It generally involves a runny nose, nasal congestion, and sneezing.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.
Any infection acquired in the community, that is, contrasted with those acquired in a health care facility (CROSS INFECTION). An infection would be classified as community-acquired if the patient had not recently been in a health care facility or been in contact with someone who had been recently in a health care facility.
Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.
A species of HAEMOPHILUS found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through VIII.
Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.
Inflammation of the BRONCHIOLES.
A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.
Inflammation of the MIDDLE EAR including the AUDITORY OSSICLES and the EUSTACHIAN TUBE.
Virus diseases caused by the PICORNAVIRIDAE.
The utilization of drugs as reported in individual hospital studies, FDA studies, marketing, or consumption, etc. This includes drug stockpiling, and patient drug profiles.
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.
Inflammation of the throat (PHARYNX).
A genus of PICORNAVIRIDAE inhabiting primarily the respiratory tract of mammalian hosts. It includes over 100 human serotypes associated with the COMMON COLD.
Inflammation of the tonsils, especially the PALATINE TONSILS but the ADENOIDS (pharyngeal tonsils) and lingual tonsils may also be involved. Tonsillitis usually is caused by bacterial infection. Tonsillitis may be acute, chronic, or recurrent.
An infant during the first month after birth.
The type species of PNEUMOVIRUS and an important cause of lower respiratory disease in infants and young children. It frequently presents with bronchitis and bronchopneumonia and is further characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and pallor.
Infections of the genital tract in females or males. They can be caused by endogenous, iatrogenic, or sexually transmitted organisms.
Infections with bacteria of the genus HAEMOPHILUS.
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by bacterial infections.
Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.
A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.
A genus in the subfamily PARVOVIRINAE comprising three species: Bovine parvovirus, Canine minute virus, and HUMAN BOCAVIRUS.
Infections with bacteria of the family NEISSERIACEAE.
A fixed-ratio combination of amoxicillin trihydrate and potassium clavulanate.
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
A subfamily of DNA vertebrate viruses, in the family PARVOVIRIDAE. There are three genera: PARVOVIRUS; ERYTHROVIRUS; and DEPENDOVIRUS.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Virus infections caused by the PARVOVIRIDAE.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Substances capable of killing agents causing urinary tract infections or of preventing them from spreading.
The duct which coveys URINE from the pelvis of the KIDNEY through the URETERS, BLADDER, and URETHRA.
The process of gaining approval by a government regulatory agency for DIAGNOSTIC REAGENTS AND TEST KITS. This includes any required preclinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance.
Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA in one or more of the PARANASAL SINUSES.
Short filamentous organism of the genus Mycoplasma, which binds firmly to the cells of the respiratory epithelium. It is one of the etiologic agents of non-viral primary atypical pneumonia in man.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.
Directions written for the obtaining and use of DRUGS.
Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.
The presence of bacteria in the urine which is normally bacteria-free. These bacteria are from the URINARY TRACT and are not contaminants of the surrounding tissues. Bacteriuria can be symptomatic or asymptomatic. Significant bacteriuria is an indicator of urinary tract infection.
Retrograde flow of urine from the URINARY BLADDER into the URETER. This is often due to incompetence of the vesicoureteral valve leading to ascending bacterial infection into the KIDNEY.
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is associated with BRONCHITIS, usually involving lobular areas from TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES to the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. The affected areas become filled with exudate that forms consolidated patches.
The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
Infections with bacteria of the family MORAXELLACEAE.
Passage of a CATHETER into the URINARY BLADDER or kidney.
Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.
Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
Interstitial pneumonia caused by extensive infection of the lungs (LUNG) and BRONCHI, particularly the lower lobes of the lungs, by MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE in humans. In SHEEP, it is caused by MYCOPLASMA OVIPNEUMONIAE. In CATTLE, it may be caused by MYCOPLASMA DISPAR.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Endogenous substances produced through the activity of intact cells of glands, tissues, or organs.
An acute inflammatory disease of the lower RESPIRATORY TRACT, caused by paramyxoviruses, occurring primarily in infants and young children; the viruses most commonly implicated are PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS TYPE 3; RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS, HUMAN; and METAPNEUMOVIRUS.
A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.
The confinement of a patient in a hospital.
Inflammation of the KIDNEY involving the renal parenchyma (the NEPHRONS); KIDNEY PELVIS; and KIDNEY CALICES. It is characterized by ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; NAUSEA; VOMITING; and occasionally DIARRHEA.
A semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotic structurally related to ERYTHROMYCIN. It has been used in the treatment of Mycobacterium avium intracellulare infections, toxoplasmosis, and cryptosporidiosis.
A species of CHLAMYDOPHILA that causes acute respiratory infection, especially atypical pneumonia, in humans, horses, and koalas.
The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.
Infections with bacteria of the genus BORDETELLA.
Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.
Infections with viruses of the genus RESPIROVIRUS, family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE. Host cell infection occurs by adsorption, via HEMAGGLUTININ, to the cell surface.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.
A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.
Compounds based on ERYTHROMYCIN with the 3-cladinose replaced by a ketone. They bind the 23S part of 70S bacterial RIBOSOMES.
A dysgammaglobulinemia characterized by a deficiency of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.
A febrile disease caused by STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
Inflammation of the URINARY BLADDER, either from bacterial or non-bacterial causes. Cystitis is usually associated with painful urination (dysuria), increased frequency, urgency, and suprapubic pain.
Infections with bacteria of the genus PROTEUS.
The practice of administering medications in a manner that poses more risk than benefit, particularly where safer alternatives exist.
A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).
An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.
A genus of the family CORONAVIRIDAE which causes respiratory or gastrointestinal disease in a variety of vertebrates.
An expectorant that also has some muscle relaxing action. It is used in many cough preparations.
Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.
A species of BORDETELLA that is parasitic and pathogenic. It is found in the respiratory tract of domestic and wild mammalian animals and can be transmitted from animals to man. It is a common cause of bronchopneumonia in lower animals.
Strains of Escherichia coli that preferentially grow and persist within the urinary tract. They exhibit certain virulence factors and strategies that cause urinary tract infections.
This drug combination has proved to be an effective therapeutic agent with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It is effective in the treatment of many infections, including PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in AIDS.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
An immunologic deficiency state characterized by selective deficiencies of one or more, but not all, classes of immunoglobulins.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS frequently isolated from small children with pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
A urinary anti-infective agent effective against most gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. Although sulfonamides and antibiotics are usually the agents of choice for urinary tract infections, nitrofurantoin is widely used for prophylaxis and long-term suppression.
Inflammation involving the GLOTTIS or VOCAL CORDS and the subglottic larynx. Croup is characterized by a barking cough, HOARSENESS, and persistent inspiratory STRIDOR (a high-pitched breathing sound). It occurs chiefly in infants and children.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
A peptide hormone that lowers calcium concentration in the blood. In humans, it is released by thyroid cells and acts to decrease the formation and absorptive activity of osteoclasts. Its role in regulating plasma calcium is much greater in children and in certain diseases than in normal adults.
Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.
Fluid obtained by THERAPEUTIC IRRIGATION or washout of the nasal cavity and NASAL MUCOSA. The resulting fluid is used in cytologic and immunologic assays of the nasal mucosa such as with the NASAL PROVOCATION TEST in the diagnosis of nasal hypersensitivity.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
A broad-spectrum penicillin antibiotic used orally in the treatment of mild to moderate infections by susceptible gram-positive organisms.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
A species in the genus CORONAVIRUS causing the common cold and possibly nervous system infections in humans. It contains hemagglutinin-esterase.
A species in the genus CORONAVIRUS causing the common cold and possibly nervous system infections in humans. It lacks hemagglutinin-esterase.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
A species of RUBULAVIRUS associated particularly with acute laryngotracheitis (CROUP) in children aged 6 months to 3 years.
Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.
Virus diseases caused by the CORONAVIRUS genus. Some specifics include transmissible enteritis of turkeys (ENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF TURKEYS); FELINE INFECTIOUS PERITONITIS; and transmissible gastroenteritis of swine (GASTROENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF SWINE).
A synthetic fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent that inhibits the supercoiling activity of bacterial DNA GYRASE, halting DNA REPLICATION.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Inflammation of the gingiva surrounding the crown of a tooth.
Child hospitalized for short term care.
The presence of white blood cells (LEUKOCYTES) in the urine. It is often associated with bacterial infections of the urinary tract. Pyuria without BACTERIURIA can be caused by TUBERCULOSIS, stones, or cancer.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Laboratory and other services provided to patients at the bedside. These include diagnostic and laboratory testing using automated information entry.
Semisynthetic derivative of erythromycin. It is concentrated by human phagocytes and is bioactive intracellularly. While the drug is active against a wide spectrum of pathogens, it is particularly effective in the treatment of respiratory and genital tract infections.
Pathological processes involving the NASOPHARYNX.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.
Formal programs for assessing drug prescription against some standard. Drug utilization review may consider clinical appropriateness, cost effectiveness, and, in some cases, outcomes. Review is usually retrospective, but some analysis may be done before drugs are dispensed (as in computer systems which advise physicians when prescriptions are entered). Drug utilization review is mandated for Medicaid programs beginning in 1993.
Infections with species of the genus MYCOPLASMA.
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
Virus diseases caused by the ADENOVIRIDAE.
A disorder in which the adductor muscles of the VOCAL CORDS exhibit increased activity leading to laryngeal spasm. Laryngismus causes closure of the VOCAL FOLDS and airflow obstruction during inspiration.
The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.
Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
Agents that suppress cough. They act centrally on the medullary cough center. EXPECTORANTS, also used in the treatment of cough, act locally.
The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.
Persistent abnormal dilatation of the bronchi.
Acids, salts, and derivatives of clavulanic acid (C8H9O5N). They consist of those beta-lactam compounds that differ from penicillin in having the sulfur of the thiazolidine ring replaced by an oxygen. They have limited antibacterial action, but block bacterial beta-lactamase irreversibly, so that similar antibiotics are not broken down by the bacterial enzymes and therefore can exert their antibacterial effects.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that is frequently isolated from clinical specimens. Its most common site of infection is the urinary tract.
A species in the genus CORONAVIRUS causing upper and lower RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS. It shares the receptor used by the SARS VIRUS.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A collection of lymphoid nodules on the posterior wall and roof of the NASOPHARYNX.
Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDOPHILA.
Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDIA.
A broad-spectrum semisynthetic antibiotic similar to AMPICILLIN except that its resistance to gastric acid permits higher serum levels with oral administration.
Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.
The self administration of medication not prescribed by a physician or in a manner not directed by a physician.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The L-isomer of Ofloxacin.
Respiratory and conjunctival infections caused by 33 identified serotypes of human adenoviruses.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Pathological processes involving the female reproductive tract (GENITALIA, FEMALE).
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.
Facilities which provide care for pre-school and school-age children.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique utilizing a fluorochrome conjugated to an antibody, which is added directly to a tissue or cell suspension for the detection of a specific antigen. (Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
A pyrimidine inhibitor of dihydrofolate reductase, it is an antibacterial related to PYRIMETHAMINE. It is potentiated by SULFONAMIDES and the TRIMETHOPRIM, SULFAMETHOXAZOLE DRUG COMBINATION is the form most often used. It is sometimes used alone as an antimalarial. TRIMETHOPRIM RESISTANCE has been reported.
Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms that can cause pathological conditions or diseases.
Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.
The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Agents that increase mucous excretion. Mucolytic agents, that is drugs that liquefy mucous secretions, are also included here.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and consisting of 2 serotypes: Human enterovirus 68 and Human enterovirus 70.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where all the virions have both HEMAGGLUTININ and NEURAMINIDASE activities and encode a non-structural C protein. SENDAI VIRUS is the type species.
The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Health services for college and university students usually provided by the educational institution.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.
A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation.
A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Inflammation of the ear, which may be marked by pain (EARACHE), fever, HEARING DISORDERS, and VERTIGO. Inflammation of the external ear is OTITIS EXTERNA; of the middle ear, OTITIS MEDIA; of the inner ear, LABYRINTHITIS.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The middle portion of the pharynx that lies posterior to the mouth, inferior to the SOFT PALATE, and superior to the base of the tongue and EPIGLOTTIS. It has a digestive function as food passes from the mouth into the oropharynx before entering ESOPHAGUS.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Examination of urine by chemical, physical, or microscopic means. Routine urinalysis usually includes performing chemical screening tests, determining specific gravity, observing any unusual color or odor, screening for bacteriuria, and examining the sediment microscopically.
A substituted dihydroxybenzene used topically as an antiseptic for the treatment of minor skin infections.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from skin lesions, blood, inflammatory exudates, and the upper respiratory tract of humans. It is a group A hemolytic Streptococcus that can cause SCARLET FEVER and RHEUMATIC FEVER.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that is an ingredient of the preparation PC-SPES that is used to treat PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.

Previous respiratory tract infections and antibiotic consumption in children with long- and short-term carriage of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. (1/4088)

Previous respiratory tract infections (RTI) and antibiotics consumption as possible risk factors for extended duration of PRP carriage were investigated in 24 children (cases) with previous carriage of penicillin-resistant pneumococci (PRP) for a duration exceeding 120 days (median 168 days) and a control group of 53 children with a duration of PRP carriage less than 90 days (median 21 days). The cases had experienced 0.99 episodes of acute otitis media (AOM) per life-year compared to 0.79 episodes in the controls (P = 0.32). For antibiotic-treated RTI other than AOM, the corresponding numbers were 0.49 and 0.29 episodes per life-year, respectively (P = 0.01). No differences in antibiotic consumption in the 3 months preceding the carriage, nor during the carriage period were noted. Other factors than impaired host defence to respiratory tract pathogens or antibiotics consumption seem to be more important in determining the duration of PRP carriage.  (+info)

Comparative activity of quinupristin/dalfopristin and RPR 106972 and the effect of medium on in-vitro test results. (2/4088)

Quinupristin/dalfopristin and RPR 106972 were active in vitro against a wide range of aerobic Gram-positive organisms including Enterococcus faecium. However, most isolates of Enterococcus faecalis were resistant or of intermediate sensitivity. Against Staphylococcus aureus quinupristin/dalfopristin was more active but for all other species the range of activity of the two drugs was the same or RPR 106972 was more active. RPR 106972 was also more active against the respiratory pathogens Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis. Quinupristin/dalfopristin MICs for isolates of H. influenzae (1-8 mg/L) clustered around the breakpoint. There were differences in the quality of growth, but little difference in MICs or zone diameters was obtained on three different media: Mueller-Hinton (MHA), Iso-Sensitest (ISA), and Diagnostic Sensitivity Test (DST) agars. The addition of blood to the medium increased MICs 2- to 4-fold, with MHA showing the greatest increase, and reduced zone diameters around quinupristin/dalfopristin discs by 3-4 mm, with the greatest effect on ISA.  (+info)

Respiratory tract infections as a public health challenge. (3/4088)

Acute respiratory infections have everywhere become the province of clinicians and the pharmaceutical industry. A public health approach is needed with systematic efforts to minimize transmission, maximize prevention, and harness the research and surveillance effort to decrease their incidence and severity. These infections have a huge incidence, morbidity burden, and economic impact in all societies. Several factors now demand renewed attention to prevention. They include the growing costs and potentially limited benefits of an expanded pharmacotherapeutic approach; the serious change in antibiotic susceptibility of the common respiratory pathogens; the advances made in vaccinology in recent years; and the need to promote equity and share limited health resources across the world's population. Care should not be restricted to those in affluent countries who can afford increasingly expensive treatment.  (+info)

A national program for control of acute respiratory tract infections: the Philippine experience. (4/4088)

Maturing programs on child immunization and diarrheal diseases, a community-based research project, and a rational drug-use program facilitated the launching in 1989 of a nationwide Philippine Control of Acute Respiratory Infections program (Phil-CARI). From 1990 to 1991 the Phil-CARI expanded rapidly, training >80% of its middle managers and frontline health care providers on the case-management protocols of the World Health Organization for acute respiratory infection. Multiple donors and good collaboration with various societies and medical schools assisted the program. However, by 1992, there were difficulties in maintaining training quality, follow-up, and supervision. Donor assistance dwindled and the health care delivery system decentralized. Government procurement systems were unable to meet the logistics demands of the program. The monitoring and evaluation system was inadequate to measure impact. The Phil-CARI provides lessons in searching for more sustainable approaches and systems to meet the various demands of a nationwide ARI control program and to create the desired impact.  (+info)

Interrupting the transmission of respiratory tract infections: theory and practice. (5/4088)

Interruption of transmission has always been one of the most attractive approaches for infection control. The technologies available were severely limited before the development of appropriate vaccines. Mathematically, the proportion of those who need to be immune to interrupt transmission can be derived from the Ro, which represents the number of new cases infected by a single case when all contacts are susceptible. Purely respiratory infections have critical characteristics affecting transmission that are different from key childhood vaccine-preventable diseases spread by the respiratory route. They include frequent reinfections and antigenic changes of the agents. Pragmatic approaches to understanding their potential effect can be found in experimental and programmatic use of vaccines such as those for Haemophilus influenzae type b and influenza virus infections. Results of these experiences can in turn strengthen the development of transmission theory.  (+info)

Epidemiology and prevention of group A streptococcal infections: acute respiratory tract infections, skin infections, and their sequelae at the close of the twentieth century. (6/4088)

Infections of the upper respiratory tract and skin due to group A Streptococcus are common, and the organism is highly transmissible. In industrialized countries and to some extent in developing countries, control efforts continue to emphasize that group A streptococcal pharyngitis should be properly diagnosed and appropriately treated. In developing countries and in indigenous populations where the burden of group A streptococcal diseases appears greatest, the epidemiology is less completely defined and may differ from that in industrialized countries. There is a need for accurately collected epidemiological data from developing countries, which may also further clarify the pathogenesis of group A streptococcal infections and their sequelae. While proper treatment of group A streptococcal pharyngitis continues to be essential in all populations, it may be appropriate in developing countries to consider additional strategies to reduce rates of pyoderma.  (+info)

Antibiotic strategies for developing countries: experience with acute respiratory tract infections in Pakistan. (7/4088)

The Pakistan program for control of acute respiratory tract infections (ARIs) adopted the standard ARI-case-management strategy of the World Health Organization and recommended co-trimoxazole for the management of nonsevere pneumonia. Reports in that country of high in vitro antimicrobial resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae to co-trimoxazole prompted the program to reevaluate its treatment policy. Two community-based studies during 1991-1993 showed in vivo efficacy of co-trimoxazole in 92% and 91% of children with nonsevere pneumonia. A third double-blind trial showed co-trimoxazole and oral amoxicillin to be equally effective in vivo in cases of nonsevere pneumonia, despite high in vitro resistance. Country-wide surveillance from 1991 to 1994 revealed 78.3%-79.9% in vitro resistance to co-trimoxazole among S. pneumoniae isolates and 59.5%-61.0% among H. influenzae isolates. Co-trimoxazole is still recommended by the Pakistan ARI control program. The fact that amoxicillin is three times more expensive and must be administered more frequently is a big impediment to recommending it as a first-line drug for nonsevere pneumonia.  (+info)

The future role of international agencies in control of acute respiratory tract infections. (8/4088)

Achievements in the control of acute respiratory infection (ARI) owe much to international collaboration in research, education, and delivery of services. This article highlights some of the current activities of the many international agencies involved and summarizes thoughts on their future roles. Key recent scientific advances include better surveillance, new and improved vaccines, refinement of standard clinical management plans and behavioral change techniques, and demonstration of the effectiveness of their application. Agencies involved include the World Health Organization, the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, national government agencies for overseas aid, many academic departments, and professional lung health associations. However, much remains to be done, especially in collaborative research, in the devising, implementing, and evaluating of health care delivery systems in low-income countries, and in mobilizing political will and resources. These are tasks beyond the capacity of any lone agency. Success will depend on how effectively we collaborate.  (+info)

Introduction: Acute Upper Respiratory Tract Infections (URTIs) are the most common infectious diseases of humankind. While usually mild and self-limiting, they are characterized by a series of simultaneously occurring symptoms/ signs that are sufficiently disruptive to sufferers normal activities in which medication is frequently sought. While the literature has many examples of epidemiological studies on these infections, there are few reports on patient experience and impact. This study was designed to investigate these aspects of Common Cold/Flu across six countries. Methods: A minimum of 500 adults aged 18 and older were recruited in each of six countries (Brazil, China, Germany, India, Russia, and the US) using customary survey research sampling techniques. Single 30-minute (online) or 40-minute door-to-door quantitative questionnaires with c. 50 questions were completed with each participant by the global research firm Ipsos. Main Findings: Across countries, incidence and seasonality of
Acute upper respiratory tract infection GENERAL REVIEW CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS Acute upper respiratory tract infections are usually divided into five types: Cold. This syndrome is characterized mainly by obstruction familiar with nasal disc
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of viral upper respiratory tract infection on cough reflex sensitivity. AU - Dicpinigaitis, Peter Vytautas. PY - 2014/10/1. Y1 - 2014/10/1. N2 - Acute viral upper respiratory tract infection (URI; common cold) is among the most common medical conditions affecting man, with cough being a typical feature of the associated syndrome. Studies employing capsaicin inhalation challenge to measure cough reflex sensitivity have demonstrated a transient tussive hyperresponsiveness induced by URI that reverts to normal by 4-8 weeks post infection. Mechanisms proposed to explain the induction of cough by URI include a number of infection-associated airway effects, such as enhanced release of cytokines, neurotransmitters, and leukotrienes; increased neural receptor levels; reduced activity of neutral endopeptidases; transient modulation of afferent neural activity; mucus hypersecretion; and, possibly, effects on cholinergic motor pathways. Recent studies evaluating urge-to-cough (UTC), ...
Question Does high-dose vitamin D supplementation (2000 IU/d) help to prevent wintertime viral upper respiratory tract infections compared with standard-dose vitamin D supplementation (400 IU/d) among preschool children? Findings In this multisite randomized clinical trial that included 703 children, the number of wintertime laboratory-confirmed viral upper respiratory tract infections was higher in the high-dose group than the…
Can Cipro Treat Upper Respiratory Infections. Will ciprofloxacin treat upper respiratory infection Ciprofloxacin can treat upper respiratory tract infections but its use is limited. It mainly covers bacteria that can affect the genital/urinary tract. Today Ciprofloxacin is not as good as other antibiotics for upper respiratory tract infections.Ciprofloxacin and Upper Respiratory Infection - ReviewsIs Ciprofloxacin helpful for Upper Respiratory Infection? can Ciprofloxacin cause Upper Respiratory Infection? Ciprofloxacin is mentioned in 49 posts about Upper Antibiotic Use in Acute Upper Respiratory Tract Infections Upper respiratory tract infections account for millions of visits to family physicians each year in the United States. Although warranted in some cases, antibiotics are buy generic viagra greatly overused. This article outlines the guidelines and indications for appropriate antibiotic use for common upper respiratory infections.Treatment of upper respiratory tract infection (PDF Its ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Plasma cytokines eotaxin, MIP-1α, MCP-4, and vascular endothelial growth factor in acute lower respiratory tract infection. AU - Relster, Mette Marie. AU - Holm, Anette. AU - Pedersen, Court. N1 - © 2016 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.. PY - 2017. Y1 - 2017. N2 - Major overlaps of clinical characteristics and the limitations of conventional diagnostic tests render the initial diagnosis and clinical management of pulmonary disorders difficult. In this pilot study, we analyzed the predictive value of eotaxin, macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha (MIP-1α), monocyte chemoattractant protein 4 (MCP-4), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in 40 patients hospitalized with acute lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI). The cytokines contribute to the pathogenesis of several inflammatory respiratory diseases, indicating a potential as markers for LRTI. Patients were stratified according to etiology and severity of LRTI, based on baseline C-reactive protein and ...
Viral upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) predisposes to bacterial pneumonia possibly by facilitating growth of bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumoniae colonising the nasopharynx. We investigated whether viral URTI is temporally associated with an increase in nasopharyngeal pneumococcal concentration. Episodes of symptomatic RSV or rhinovirus URTI among children ,5 years were identifed from a longitudinal household study in rural Kenya. lytA and alu PCR were performed on nasopharyngeal samples collected twice-weekly, to measure the pneumococcal concentration adjusted for the concentration of human DNA present. Pneumococcal concentration increased with a foldchange of 3.80 (95%CI 1.95-7.40), with acquisition of RSV or rhinovirus, during 51 URTI episodes among 42 children. In repeated swabs from the baseline period, in the two weeks before URTI developed, within-episode variation was broad; within +/−112-fold range of the geometric mean. We observed only a small increase in nasopharyngeal ...
Background Interferences between pathogenic bacteria and specific commensals are known. We determined the interactions between nasopharyngeal microbial pathogens and commensals during viral upper respiratory tract infection (URI) and acute otitis media (AOM) in infants. Methods We analyzed 971 specimens collected monthly and during URI and AOM episodes from 139 infants. The 16S rRNA V4 gene regions were sequenced on the Illumina MiSeq platform. Results Among the high abundant genus-level nasopharyngeal microbiota were Moraxella, Haemophilus, and Streptococcus (3 otopathogen genera), Corynebacterium, Dolosigranulum, Staphylococcus, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, and Bifidobacterium. Bacterial diversity was lower in culture-positive samples for Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae, compared to cultured-negative samples. URI frequencies were positively associated with increasing trend in otopathogen colonization. AOM frequencies were associated with decreasing trend in Micrococcus
Description of disease Upper Respiratory Tract Infection. Treatment Upper Respiratory Tract Infection. Symptoms and causes Upper Respiratory Tract Infection Prophylaxis Upper Respiratory Tract Infection
Background: There have been studies focused on mannose binding lectin (MBL) polymorphism and susceptibility to recurrent respiratory tract infections (RRTI) with inconclusive results. This present study is a meta-analysis of possible MBL and RRTI association in children. ...
Acute upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) contain colds, influenza and diseases of the throat, nose or sinuses. Larger volume nasal washes and saline nose spray have become very popular as one of several treatment options for URTIs, and they are shown to have some effectiveness for following nasal surgery and chronic sinusitis. It was a well-conducted systematic review and the decision seems not false. Find all (14) Outlines for consumersCochrane writers reviewed the available evidence from randomised controlled trials on the use of antibiotics for adults with acute laryngitis. Acute upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) include colds, influenza and diseases of the throat, nose or sinuses. This review found no evidence for or against using increased fluids ...
Fact Sheet- Ethiopia 2015. Vital Indicators:. The Crude death rate is estimated to be 7.6 per 1000 population, where as the sub-Saharan (developing) countries found to be 11.1 per 1000 population. Life expectancy at birth of male and female is 62 years and 65 years respectively. The Infant Mortality rate is estimated at 44 per 1000 live births; under five mortality rate is 64 deaths per 1000 live births (world Bank). The Maternal Mortality Ratio is estimated at 420 per 100,000 live births (world health statistics Report, 2014).. Burden of Diseases:. Ethiopian Burden of diseases dominated by acute upper respiratory tract infection, followed by acute febrile illness, pneumonia, diarrhea, and malaria. Pneumonia, Diarrhea, Acute Upper Respiratory Tract Infection, Acute Febrile Illness and Malaria accounts for 64% under five morbidity.. Health Service Coverage and Utilization:. Availability, accessibility, equity, efficiency and quality of health services depend on the distribution, functionality and ...
Scholarly articles for Managing Upper Respiratory Infection in CatsScholarly articles for Managing Upper Respiratory Infection in Cats… with upper respiratory tract disease caused by feline … ‎Helps Cited by 108… evaluation of multiple respiratory pathogens in cats in … ‎Bannasch Cited by 127Severe acute respiratory syndrome ‎Peiris Cited by 474Search ResultsThese viruses can be transmitted from cat to cat through sneezing, coughing, or while grooming or sharing food and water bowls Cats often develop bacterial infections secondary to these common viral infections There are also upper respiratory infections in cats that are primarily caused by bacteriaCat Upper Respiratory Infection Symptoms and TreatmentspetswebmdcomcatsguideupperrespiratoryinfectioncatsFeedbackAbout this resultPeople also askHow long does it take for an upper respiratory infection to go away in cats?What causes upper respiratory infection in cats?Can a cat get a sinus infection?How can a cat get a ...
Respiratory Disease is defined as medical conditions which affect the breathing organ and tissues including Inflammatory lung disease, Obstructive lung diseases, Restrictive lung diseases, Respiratory tract infections, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, the nerves and muscles breathing , etc,. V. A. Upper respiratory tract infection Upper respiratory tract infections are considered to be the infection of the …. ...
INTRODUCTION. Acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRI) in children are a leading cause of death and constitute a substantial burden of disease in developed and developing countries.1,2 A significant proportion of children with ALRI presenting to emergency wards may have also concurrent wheezing of varying severity.3-6. The World Health Organization (WHO) promotes a case-detection and antibiotic management policy for ALRI, particularly pneumonia.7* Tachypnea and chest retraction are the key findings for making a diagnosis of pneumonia and putting patients on antibiotic therapy. There is strong evidence supporting the effectiveness of this policy in reducing childhood mortality due to pneumonia.8,9 However, in children with ALRI and wheezing, it is difficult to determine whether the difficulty in breathing is due to pneumonia or to bronchial obstruction underlying the wheezing. Physicians faced with these patients usually prescribe inhaled or nebulized beta-adrenergics and systemic ...
Pneumonia is a serious disease in children, and hypoxaemia is the best indicator of both severe and potentially fatal pneumonia.6 Prompt recognition of hypoxaemia and supplemental oxygen therapy improves the outcome in severe pneumonia.5 Our study has shown that certain signs and symptoms in children with acute lower respiratory tract infections can be used to predict hypoxaemia. A rapid respiratory rate has been evaluated for predicting hypoxaemia or pneumonia in previous studies. 6 8-10 17 A rapid respiratory rate, however, is likely to be affected by altitude and the presence of anaemia or fever, so its use as a predictor of hypoxaemia in a malaria endemic area needs to be considered with caution.20 Our study found that the presence of malaria parasitaemia, pallor, or fever had no effect on the relation between respiratory rate and hypoxaemia. Respiratory rate remained a useful predictor of hypoxaemia in a malaria endemic area, but the prevalence of parasitaemia in our predominantly urban ...
The upper respiratory tract infections are highly contagious in nature. The virus can spread form one person to another due to contact or even due to sneezing or coughing. The upper respiratory tract begins from the nose and consists of nasal passages, sinuses, pharynx and larynx. Know the causes and symptoms of upper respiratory tract infections.
BACKGROUND: Recurrent pyogenic infections are known to occur in patients with an impaired response to polysaccharide antigens. We investigated the occurrence of deficient responses to pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides in patients with recurrent respiratory tract and recurrent systemic infections.. METHODS: Forty-five patients, 1.7 to 17.1 years of age, were immunized with 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. Antibody levels to seven pneumococcal serotypes (3, 4, 6A, 9N, 14, 19F, 23F) were determined by ELISA before and after immunization. In addition, patients received a booster immunization with diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, and poliomyelitis virus vaccine.. RESULTS: Thirty-five patients had normal serum immunoglobulin levels. Five of these patients (14%) had low antipneumococcal preimmunization antibody levels and failed to respond to pneumococcal vaccination, whereas the response to booster immunization with protein antigens was appropriate. Three patients were younger than ...
Acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) are common and may lead to complications. Most children experience between three and six ARTIs annually. Although these infections are self-limiting, symptoms can be distressing. Many treatments are used to control symptoms and shorten illness duration. Most have minimal benefit and may lead to adverse effects. Oral homeopathic medicinal products could play a role in childhood ARTI management if evidence for effectiveness is established. To assess the effectiveness and safety of oral homeopathic medicinal products compared with placebo or conventional therapy to prevent and treat acute respiratory tract infections in children. We searched CENTRAL (2017, Issue 11) including the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Specialised Register, MEDLINE (1946 to 27 November 2017), Embase (2010 to 27 November 2017), CINAHL (1981 to 27 November 2017), AMED (1985 to December 2014), CAMbase (searched 29 March 2018), British Homeopathic Library (searched 26 June 2013 ...
Knowledge of the accuracy of chest radiograph findings in acute lower respiratory infection in children is important when making clinical decisions. I conducted a systematic review of agreement between and within observers in the detection of radiographic features of acute lower respiratory infections in children, and described the quality of the design and reporting of studies, whether included or excluded from the review. Included studies were those of observer variation in the interpretation of radiographic features of lower respiratory infection in children (neonatal nurseries excluded) in which radiographs were read independently and a clinical population was studied. I searched MEDLINE, HealthSTAR and HSRPROJ databases (1966 to 1999), handsearched the reference lists of identified papers and contacted authors of identified studies. I performed the data extraction alone. Ten studies of observer interpretation of radiographic features of lower respiratory infection in children were identified. Seven
Define lower respiratory infection. lower respiratory infection synonyms, lower respiratory infection pronunciation, lower respiratory infection translation, English dictionary definition of lower respiratory infection. Noun 1. lower respiratory infection - infection of the lower respiratory tract respiratory infection, respiratory tract infection - any infection of the...
The 90th percentile in the number of annual respiratory illness days was 98. Children above this limit (n = 109) had a median of 9.6 acute respiratory infections per year. Rhinovirus was detected in 58% of their infections. Of the children with recurrent infections, 60% were diagnosed with at least 3 episodes of acute otitis media, 73% received at least 3 antibiotic treatments and 21% were hospitalized for an acute respiratory infection. Tympanostomy was performed for 35% and adenoidectomy for 13% of the children. Asthma was diagnosed in 12% by 24 months of age. Older siblings increased the risk of recurrent respiratory infections. Early nasopharyngeal colonization with Streptococcus pneumoniae was common in children who later developed recurrent infections ...
GONZALES, Ralph et al. Antibiotic knowledge and self-care for acute respiratory tract infections in Mexico. Salud pública Méx [online]. 2012, vol.54, n.2, pp.152-157. ISSN 0036-3634.. OBJECTIVE: To examine knowledge of and self-treatment with antibiotics among medically-insured adults in Mexico. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional, interviewer-administered survey among 101 adult patients seeking care for acute respiratory tract infections in a family medicine clinic in Mexico. Knowledge scores were calculated as a composite of correct, incorrect and dont know responses. Factors associated with antibiotic knowledge and antibiotic self-treatment were explored with bivariate analyses. RESULTS: 47% of participants were taking antibiotics prior to the visit, 20% were self-treating. Antibiotic knowledge was highly variable. Many participants believed common non-antibiotic treatments for colds and coughs were antibiotics, such as ambroxol (45%), Desenfriol (45%) and paracetamol ...
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play an important role in respiratory inflammatory diseases, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It was hypothesized that MMP-8 and MMP-9 may function as biological markers to assess disease severity in viral lower respiratory tract infections in children. MMP-8 and MMP-9 mRNA expression levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and granulocytes obtained in both the acute and recovery phase from 153 children with mild, moderate, and severe viral lower respiratory tract infections were determined using real-time PCR. In addition, MMP-8 and MMP-9 concentrations in blood and nasopharyngeal specimens were determined during acute mild, moderate, and severe infection, and after recovery using ELISA. Furthermore, PBMCs and neutrophils obtained from healthy volunteers were stimulated with RSV, LPS (TLR4 agonist), and Pam3Cys (TLR2 agonist) in vitro. Disease severity of viral lower respiratory tract infections in children is associated ...
Definition of upper respiratory infection in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is upper respiratory infection? Meaning of upper respiratory infection as a legal term. What does upper respiratory infection mean in law?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Rotavirus in nasopharyngeal secretions of children with upper respiratory tract infections. AU - Fragoso, Michael. AU - Kumar, Ashir. AU - Murray, Dennis L.. PY - 1986/1. Y1 - 1986/1. N2 - Nasopharyngeal secretions from 30 infants and children presenting with respiratory tract infection, were tested for rotavirus antigen. Two of 30 children with signs and symptoms of seromucoid nasal secretions, cough, and low grade fever were positive for the antigen. Nasopharyngeal secretions may play a role in the spread of this infection.. AB - Nasopharyngeal secretions from 30 infants and children presenting with respiratory tract infection, were tested for rotavirus antigen. Two of 30 children with signs and symptoms of seromucoid nasal secretions, cough, and low grade fever were positive for the antigen. Nasopharyngeal secretions may play a role in the spread of this infection.. UR - UR - ...
A diagnosis/antibiotic prescribing study was performed in 5 counties in Sweden for 1 week in November 2000. As part of this study, the characteristics and clinical management of patients with upper respiratory tract infections (n = 2899) in primary care were analyzed. Almost half of the patients were aged < 15 y and one-fifth of the patients consulted out of hours. Of all patients seeking primary care for upper respiratory tract infections, 56.0% were prescribed an antibiotic. Almost all patients who were given the diagnoses streptococcal tonsillitis, acute otitis media or acute sinusitis were prescribed antibiotics, compared to 10% of patients with common cold or acute pharyngitis. The most frequently prescribed antibiotic was penicillin V (79.2%) and this was even more pronounced out of hours, when the diagnoses otitis media and streptococcal tonsillitis were more frequently used. In patients with common cold and acute pharyngitis, the percentage who received antibiotics increased with ...
Upper respiratory tract infection. Illustration of a human head with cutaway areas showing the processes involved in an upper respiratory tract infection (URTI). Examples include rhinitis (inflamed nasal membranes). The conditions shown here are inflammation of the paranasal sinuses (sinusitis), and a middle ear infection (otitis media). Mucus (yellow) is seen accumulating and flowing within the sinuses, and in the middle ear and the Eustachian tube (connecting the ear to the throat). The cochlea (pink) is shown in the ear. The frontal sinus is at top (in the forehead), the ethmoidal sinuses are between the eyes, and the maxillary sinuses are in the cheekbones. - Stock Image C029/0642
The epidemiological data suggest that endurance athletes are at increased risk for upper respiratory tract infections during periods of heavy training and the 1-2 week period following a marathon or similar event. At present there is no clear indication that chronic alterations in immune function explain this increased risk. Following acute bouts of prolonged heavy endurance exercise, several components of the immune system are suppressed for several hours. This has led to the concept of the open window theory described as the 1-9 hour period following prolonged endurance exercise when host defense is decreased and the risk of upper respiratory tract infection is increased.. ...
The initial event in the pathology of a new multiple sclerosis plaque is considered to be blood-brain barrier breakdown leading to perivenular oedema, B and T cell infiltration, and increased plasma cells and macrophages.21 22 The inflammatory process continues with the increased presence of phagocytic cells, such as foamy macrophages, around the areas of myelin breakdown, associated with increased astrocyte and oligodendrocyte precursors and depletion of the myelin producing mature oligodendrocytes.7 The putative roles for viruses include a direct cytopathic effect as seen in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy,23 and viral stimulation or modification of the host immune system. Virally induced immune mediated demyelination may occur through release of sequestered antigens such as myelin basic protein, increased expression of HLA molecules by cytokine induction, incorporation of a host component into a virus, disruption of the immune system leading to imbalance and autoimmunity, or ...
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Centers RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.. ...
Respiratory Disease is defined as medical conditions which affect the breathing organ and tissues including Inflammatory lung disease, Obstructive lung diseases, Restrictive lung diseases, Respiratory tract infections, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, the nerves and muscles breathing , etc,. V. A. Upper respiratory tract infection Upper respiratory tract infections are considered to be the infection of the …. ...
Chronic Mycoplasma pneumonia and Chlamydia pneumonia infections are associated with the onset and exacerbation of asthma. These microbial infections result in chronic lower airway inflammation, impaired mucociliary clearance, an increase in mucous production and eventually asthma. Furthermore, children who experience severe viral respiratory infections early in life have a high possibility of having asthma later in their childhood. These viral respiratory infections are mostly caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human rhinovirus (HRV). Although RSV infections increase the risk of asthma in early childhood, the association between asthma and RSV decreases with increasing age. HRV on the other hand is an important cause of bronchiolitis and is strongly associated with asthma development. In children and adults with established asthma, viral upper respiratory tract infections (URIs), especially HRVs infections, can produce acute exacerbations of asthma. Thus, Chlamydia pneumoniae, ...
OBJECTIVES: Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs), including pneumonia and acute exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), are am
According to the new study recently published in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), for children with acute respiratory tract infections, the broad-spectrum antibiotics are not associated with better clinical or patient-centered outcomes compared with narrow-spectrum antibiotics, and the narrower-targeting drugs are associated with higher rates of adverse events. Acute respiratory infections such as ear infections, sinus infections, and streptococcal pharyngitis (sore throat) account for most bacterial respiratory infections in children and are the primary drivers of pediatric antibiotic prescribing ...
Acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) are associated with significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in children under the age of 5 years. Almost 2 million children die from ARTIs each year, and most of them are from developing countries. The prevalence and correlation of pathogens in ARTIs are poorly understood, but are critical for improving case prevention, treatment, and management. In this study, we investigated the prevalence and correlation of infectious agents in children with ARTIs. A total of 39,756 children with one or more symptoms, including fever, cough, sore throat, tonsillitis, pharyngitis, herpangina, pneumonia, and bronchiolitis, were enrolled in the study. All patients were hospitalized in Wuhan Childrens Hospital between October 1, 2010 and September 30, 2012, and were evaluated for infectious agents. Pathogens, including Mycoplasma pneumoniae, influenza A virus, influenza B virus, adenoviruses, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus, Legionella
Pneumococcal vaccination coverage of adults at risk for pneumococcal disease is below recommended levels. There is no observational data on pneumococcal vaccination and the incidence of lower respiratory tract infections in a general adult population. The current study had the objective to explore the incidence of lower respiratory tract infections and the pneumococcal vaccine coverage in function of age, influenza vaccination status and risk status, in Flanders, Belgium. We used data from Intego, ageneral practice-based morbidity registration network in Flanders (Belgium). We gathered data on pneumococcal vaccinations, influenza vaccination (in 2014) and ICPC2-coded diagnoses of pneumonia and acute bronchitis (2015). First, we divided the population into three groups along the risk status for developing apneumococcal infection according to the recommendations for pneumococcal vaccination in adults by the Belgian High Council of Health. 28.6% from our total adult study population are considered ...
References 1. Simoes E.A.F., Cherian T., Chow J., Shahid-Salles S.A., Laxminarayan R., John J. Acute respiratory infections in children. Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries, World Bank, 2006. pp. 483-97. [ Links ] 2. Snellman L, Adams W, Anderson G, Godfrey A, Gravley A, Johnson K, et al. Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement. Health Care Guideline. Diagnosis and Treatment of Respiratory Illness in Children and Adults. Available from:×2/RespIllness.pdf. Updated January 2013. [ Links ] 3. Mexican Institute of Social Security. Clinical Practice Guidelines. Diagnosis and treatment of acute upper respiratory tract infections in patients from 3 months to 18 years of age. México D.F.: Mexican Institute of Social Security; 2009. [ Links ] 4. Mexican Institute of Social Security. Clinical Practice Guidelines. Diagnosis and treatment of acute pharyngitis.; México D.F.: Mexican Institute of Social Security 2009. [ Links ] 5. Nyquist A.C., Gonzales ...
April 26th, 2020. Authors: M. Kohns Vasconcelos; on behalf of the PED-MERMAIDS Study Group. Published in: 30th European Congress on Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID), April 2020. Background: Recently, major aetiology and outcome studies on paediatric acute respiratory tract infections (ARI) have been reported from LMICs. In contrast, studies using standardised protocols across Europe are lacking.. Materials/methods: The EU-funded Paediatric Multi-centre EuRopean study of MAjor Infectious Disease Syndromes (PED-MER- MAIDS) enrolled children under 5 years hospitalised for ARI and well controls across 11 EU countries. Information on symptoms, course of disease and clinical management was collected prospectively. Admission day nasopharyngeal swabs were analysed for influenza, parainfluenza, rhinovirus, coronavirus, metapneumovirus, bocavirus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parechovirus, enterovirus and adenovirus and Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp), Haemophilus influenzae, ...
The role of Chlamydia pneumoniae in the etiology of acute lower respiratory tract infections in infants and children is little understood. We studied the prevalence of C. pneumoniae infection in hospitalized infants and children with acute lower resp
As we head into the cough and cold season, I thought this post might be of interest. Especially since acute upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs or colds) are the most common reason people seek medical care in the U.S. Its said there are up to one billion colds reported in the U.S. each year. Now theres another option for trying to prevent them. Continue reading →. ...
There are several diagnostic tests for lower respiratory tract infection, in the identification and diagnosis of the diseases like bronchitis or pneumonia. But often these diseases get over treated or drugs are misused. Know the diagnosis, treatment, home remedies, prevention, risk factors and prognosis of lower respiratory tract infection.
We searched PubMed in May 2019 using the terms (Children OR Paediatrics) AND. (Ibuprofen OR NSAID OR Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs OR Anti-inflammatory). AND (Pneumonia OR Community acquired pneumonia OR Lower respiratory tract infection. OR LRTI OR Upper respiratory tract infection OR URTI) AND (Empyema OR Pleural effusion OR Pleural empyema OR Parapneumonic effusion). We identified 54 studies. Paper titles were scrutinised, and 10 papers were selected for abstract review. Non-paediatric studies, a case report and an article only available in French were discounted leaving six papers for full-text review. A seventh relevant paper was discovered on searching the references of included studies. Table 1 summarises the articles included in our literature review. The level of evidence was graded according to the Oxford levels of evidence.1 ...
Having an acute upper respiratory tract infection -- with or without treatment with an antibiotic -- may be associated with excessive anticoagulation in patients taking warfarin, a retrospective study
Antibiotic use for acute respiratory tract infections that are largely viral remains common. Macrolide use has increased since 2007, and 9% of patients received a second antibiotic within 30 days.
Acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) are a leading cause of antibiotic overuse worldwide. Rapid, accurate identification of a pathogen can reduce antibiot...
Upper respiratory infections are extremely common ailments among cats. Most often the presence of an upper respiratory infection is seen by ocular, nasal, throat and lung irritation and discharge. - Wag!
Objective: To compare the rates of acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRI) among children in north-west Queensland, according to age, sex and Indigenous status.. Design, setting and patients: Retrospective chart review of hospitalisations at Mt Isa Base Hospital, Queensland, from 1 January 2007 to 31 December 2011 among children , 15 years of age.. Main outcome measures: Rates of admission for bronchiolitis, pneumonia and bronchiectasis, calculated using population data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics.. Results: There were 356 admissions for ALRI, involving 276 children. Of the 162 children aged , 12 months old, 125 (77.2%) were Indigenous. Hospitalisations increased over the study period, and rates were significantly higher among Indigenous children compared with non-indigenous children (24.1 v 4.5 per 1000 population per year). There were 195 admissions of 164 children with pneumonia, 126 (76.8%) of whom were Indigenous. Annual rates for Indigenous children were higher than for ...
Upper respiratory infection - What is an upper respiratory infection? URI. Upper respiratory infection usually means a cold. Runny nose, congestion, fever, headache and cough all may be symptoms or any combination of them. Uri are viral infections and usually clear on their own with rest and liquids and tyelenol for fever and aches.
Am old enough to understand the difference between the Bay of Pigs - and roasting a pig at a epicurian feast. Been thru the hippy, yippie and yuppie years - always remaining who I am. Very much believe in Sing your own song - weave your own tapestry Am young enough to still know the thrill of new discoveries, the beauty of the evening, to celebrate the joy of another tommorow. Survived these many decades with a severe medical problems. Sorting out the maze of now having two lymphomas and all their nasty little companions, but I continue. Besides, being a simple iconoclastic eclectic, have been called many things. An incurable romanticist - with a strong touch of reality. Thinker, intellectual (God, how I hate that term) - been told I am a lion with the heart of the poet. Know how to wage war and conquer my foes - but would rather be known as one who brings hope and life. To bring hope into anothers life is the ultimate of joys. Life should be about bringing hope, peace, vision... a sense of ...
Acute respiratory tract infections are the most common reason for seeking medical attention. Recurrent respiratory infections and their complications in children are a significant burden for the family and society. The problem of effective and safe treatment and prevention of acute respiratory infections is therefore, one of the most pressing issues in clinical pediatrics. The possibility of use in the treatment of acute respiratory viral infections (ARI), of an immunostimulatory agent with antiviral effect inosine pranobex is very important. The data on the mechanism of the combined immunomodulating and antiviral effect of the drug, on the efficacy and tolerability when used in children, as well as the data on literature and the results of their studies suggest that taking inosine pranobex alleviates the symptoms of acute respiratory infection of viral etiology, prevents complications, and restores a weakened immune system, thus reducing the need for the appointment of other drugs and drug load ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Consumption of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 impacts upper respiratory tract infection and the function of NK and T cells in healthy adults. AU - Meng, Huicui. AU - Lee, Yujin. AU - Ba, Zhaoyong. AU - Peng, Jiayu. AU - Lin, Junli. AU - Boyer, Alexander S.. AU - Fleming, Jennifer A.. AU - Furumoto, Emily J.. AU - Roberts, Robert F.. AU - Kris-Etherton, Penny M.. AU - Rogers, Connie J.. PY - 2016/5/1. Y1 - 2016/5/1. N2 - Scope: Probiotics can modulate immunity and reduce upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) in humans; however few studies have examined both outcomes in the same trial. The goal of the current study was to investigate the effect of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12, on natural killer (NK) and T-cell function in conjunction with self-reported cold/flu outcomes in healthy adults. Methods and results: In a randomized, partially blinded, four-period crossover study, healthy adults (n = 30) were recruited, and received four treatments for 4 ...
Phytother Res. 2014 Mar;28(3):471-4. doi: 10.1002/ptr.5020. Epub 2013 Jun 7. Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt
INTRODUCTION: Acute cough has a significant impact on physical and psychosocial health and is associated with an impaired quality of life (QOL). The Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ) is a validated cough-related health status questionnaire designed for patients with chronic cough. The purpose of this study was to validate the LCQ for the assessment of health related QOL in patients with acute cough and determine the clinical minimal important difference (MID). METHODS: 10 subjects with cough due to acute upper respiratory tract infection underwent focused interviews to investigate the face validity of the LCQ. The LCQ was also evaluated by a multidisciplinary team. 30 subjects completed the revised LCQ-acute and a cough visual analogue score (VAS: 0-100 mm) within one week of onset of cough and again |2 weeks later and at resolution of cough. The concurrent validity, internal reliability, repeatability and responsiveness of the LCQ-acute were also assessed. Patients also completed a Global Rating of
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evaluation of Intravenous Ciprofloxacin in Patients With Nosocomial Lower Respiratory Tract Infections. T2 - Impact of Plasma Concentrations, Organism, Minimum Inhibitory Concentration, and Clinical Condition on Bacterial Eradication. AU - Peloquin, Charles A.. AU - Cumbo, Thomas J.. AU - Nix, David E.. AU - Sands, Mark F.. AU - Schentag, Jerome J.. PY - 1989/10. Y1 - 1989/10. N2 - Fifty patients with gram-negative lower respiratory tract infections were treated with intravenous ciprofloxacin to evaluate efficacy and safety. Relationships between individual pharmacokinetics and clinical and bacteriologic outcome were studied. Ciprofloxacin concentrations in plasma were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Respiratory secretion cultures were obtained daily to determine the eradication day of the infecting organism. Susceptibility (minimum inhibitory concentration) to ciprofloxacin and other antimicrobials was determined using standard microdilution techniques. The ...
Most pediatric adenovirus respiratory infections are mild and indistinguishable from other viral causes. However, in a few children, the disease can be severe and result in substantial morbidity. We describe the epidemiologic, clinical, radiologic features and outcome of adenovirus lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) in Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal children in Manitoba, Canada during the years 1991 and 2005. This was a retrospective study of 193 children who presented to the department of pediatrics at Winnipeg Childrens Hospital, Manitoba, Canada with LRTI and had a positive respiratory culture for adenovirus. Patients demographics, clinical and radiologic features and outcomes were collected. Adenovirus serotype distributions and temporal associations were described. Approximate incidence comparisons (detection rates) of adenovirus LRTI among Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal children were estimated with 95% confidence intervals. Adenovirus infections occurred throughout the year with clusters in
Most pediatric adenovirus respiratory infections are mild and indistinguishable from other viral causes. However, in a few children, the disease can be severe and result in substantial morbidity. We describe the epidemiologic, clinical, radiologic features and outcome of adenovirus lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) in Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal children in Manitoba, Canada during the years 1991 and 2005. This was a retrospective study of 193 children who presented to the department of pediatrics at Winnipeg Childrens Hospital, Manitoba, Canada with LRTI and had a positive respiratory culture for adenovirus. Patients demographics, clinical and radiologic features and outcomes were collected. Adenovirus serotype distributions and temporal associations were described. Approximate incidence comparisons (detection rates) of adenovirus LRTI among Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal children were estimated with 95% confidence intervals. Adenovirus infections occurred throughout the year with clusters in
Andrographis can be effective in treating Viral Upper Respiratory Infections (Colds and Influenza). Learn about Andrographis, see related evidence, and find other smart treatments for Viral Upper Respiratory Infections (Colds and Influenza) at FoundHealth.
A young woman with a clinical history characterized by recurrent respiratory infections, occurring since early infancy, was referred to our hospital. When the patient was a young girl, she underwent sweat chloride test, serum analysis of immunoglobulins, and evaluation of blood lymphocyte subsets; all these diagnostic tests were normal, as well as chest X ray aside from pneumonia episodes. Skin prick tests were positive for several different allergens, and a diagnosis of allergic rhinitis was made. At the age of 11 years, she started to complain of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms, and a gastroscopy detected a hiatal hernia with esophagitis. Despite pharmacologic treatments for allergic rhinitis and GERD, the patient continued to complain of chronic cough, associated with choking and recurrent respiratory infections treated with antibiotic therapy. For the first time in her life, we performed a spirometry that showed a flow-volume curve characterized by a plateau in the expiratory ...
To explore reasons for heterogeneity, we conducted subgroup analyses to investigate whether effects of vitamin D supplementation on risk of acute respiratory tract infection differed according to baseline vitamin D status, dosing frequency, dose size, age, body mass index, the presence or absence of comorbidity (asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), and influenza vaccination status. Race or ethnicity was not investigated as a potential effect modifier, as data for this variable were missing for 3680/10 933 (34%) participants and power for subgroup analyses was limited by small numbers in many racial or ethnic subgroups that could not be meaningfully combined. Table 2⇑ presents the results. Subgroup analysis revealed a strong protective effect of vitamin D supplementation among those with baseline circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels less than 25 nmol/L (adjusted odds ratio 0.58, 0.40 to 0.82, NNT=8, 5 to 21; 538 participants in 14 studies; within subgroup P=0.002; see Cates plot, ...
Psoriasis is categorized as localized or generalized, based on the severity of the disease and its overall impact on the patients quality of life and well-being. Previous article. In 1990, psoriasis was the reason for more than 1 million visits to physicians.1 In the past, the treatment of psoriasis was primarily managed by dermatologists; this disorder accounted for only 0. Guttate psoriasis is characterized by numerous small, oval (teardrop-shaped) lesions that develop after an acute upper respiratory tract infection. Generalized psoriasis may require oral medications, treatment with ultraviolet light or treatment at an outpatient or inpatient facility. Fissuring within plaques can occur when lesions are present over joint lines or on the palms and soles. Consider an individuals cardiovascular risk where the psoriasis is severe (affecting 10 of the bodys surface area; if there has been previous inpatient treatment or the patient has had UV light treatment or other systemic therapy) and ...
Detailed information on upper respiratory infections, upper respiratory infections symptoms, upper respiratory infections treatment
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of dietary lysine supplementation in cats with enzootic upper respiratory disease. AU - Maggs, David J. AU - Sykes, Jane E. AU - Clarke, Heather E.. AU - Yoo, Seung H.. AU - Kass, Philip H. AU - Lappin, Michael R.. AU - Rogers, Quinton. AU - Waldron, Mark K.. AU - Fascetti, Andrea J. PY - 2007/4. Y1 - 2007/4. N2 - To determine the effectiveness of dietary lysine supplementation in cats with enzootic upper respiratory disease (URD), 50 cats were fed a ration containing 11 or 51 g lysine/kg diet for 52 days. Food intake, body weight, clinical signs, plasma amino acid concentrations and presence of Chlamydophila felis or feline herpesvirus (FHV)-1 DNA within the conjunctival fornix were assessed. Food and lysine intake of both dietary groups decreased between days 17 and 22, coinciding with peak disease and viral presence. Mean disease score for cats fed the supplemented ration (0.94) was higher than for those fed the basal diet (0.21); however, this could be attributed to a ...
Results: Our cohort consisted of 895 individuals with non-CF bronchiectasis with a first MI or stroke and at least one respiratory tract infection. There was an increased rate of first time cardiovascular events in the 91 day period after a respiratory tract infection (Incidence Rate Ratio [IRR] 1.56; 95% CI 1.20 to 2.02). The rate of a first cardiovascular event was highest in the first three days following a respiratory tract infection (IRR 2.73, 95% CI 1.41 to 5.27 ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Incidence of acute otitis media and sinusitis complicating upper respiratory tract infection: The effect of age. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
View Notes - Influenza Virus from VTPB 221 at Texas A&M. Influenza Virus 22:18 Upper respiratory tract infection The Great Influenza Pandemic (1918) The Spanish Flu • 50 million people died within
OBJECTIVE To describe the characteristics and outcomes of mechanical ventilation in pediatric intensive care units during the season of acute lower respiratory infections. DESIGN Prospective cohort of infants and children receiving mechanical ventilation for at least 12 hrs. SETTING Sixty medical-surgical pediatric intensive care units. PATIENTS All consecutive patients admitted to participating pediatric intensive care units during a 28-day period. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Of 2,156 patients admitted to pediatric intensive care units, 1185 (55%) received mechanical ventilation for a median of 5 days (interquartile range 2-8). Median age was 7 months (interquartile range 2-25). Main indications for mechanical ventilation were acute respiratory failure in 78% of the patients, altered mental status in 15%, and acute on chronic pulmonary disease in 6%. Median length of stay in the pediatric intensive care units was 10 days (interquartile range 6-18). Overall mortality rate in pediatric
Laing, S., Walsh, N., Bilzon, J., Dorrington, M., Bland, D. and Dunklin, S., 2005. Upper respiratory tract infection and saliva immunoglobin-A during an arduous military training programme. In: International Congress on Soldiers Physical Performance, 2005-01-01.. ...
On The Gary Null Show today,. Here are the topics Gary discussed on his Health and Healing segment:. Fruit and vegetable intake in pregnant women reduces risk of upper respiratory tract infection.. Vegetarianism is on the rise but a lot of people are becoming flexitarian, also known as semi-vegetarian, which refers to someone who is vegetarian most of the time, but occasionally eats meat.. From Headache to Jaundice, Sky-Blue Chicory Cures Liver Ailments.. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Diabetic Foot Wounds.. Gary took a quick break and returned with:. Some of your religious beliefs might be stupid and are primitive.. Are people dumber than they used to be? Yes and TV is one reason. It is intellectually and socially dumbing down young children.. Former Chief Scientific Officer at the Department of Health, Dr. Peter Fletcher on the MMR Vaccine One of the greatest scandals in medical history ...
Aloe arborescens (Candelabra Aloe) has been used in the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections in Central and Eastern European countries for
Ive had all evils the tests imaginable, but the only help one has been Ocudox phosphate fertilizers as i have the upper respiratory tract infection is type. Though virtually all antibiotics can cause you black, hairy tongue, it likewise is more common with similarly effective product. However, there existed was no means statistically significant difference in diarrhea, watery paint and severe, which benefits may also shal be bloody between the preparation to be commercially used with care monotherapy, the high serotonergic combination or
Aloe arborescens (Candelabra Aloe) has been used in the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections in Central and Eastern European co
The relationship between the growth rate and the kill rate was used to evaluate and to compare the in vitro bactericidal activities of cefdinir, a new oral cephalosporin, and cefaclor against Streptococcus pneumoniae and beta-lactamase-producing strains of Haemophilus influenzae. These frequently encountered pathogens of community-acquired respiratory tract infections are usually susceptible to both drugs. The MIC ranges for cefdinir and cefaclor were, respectively, 0.03 to 0.06 and 0.25 to 0.5 micrograms/ml for S. pneumoniae and 0.25 and 4 to 8 micrograms/ml for H. influenzae. The colony counts (CFU per milliliter) measured after 6 h of exposure to a range of antibiotic concentrations in broth were plotted against the colony count of the control culture over the same period of time. Higher kill rates versus bacterial growth rates were noted for S. pneumoniae for both drugs (positive balance). Conversely, lower kill rates versus growth rates were noted for H. influenzae for both drugs (negative ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Global burden of influenza-associated lower respiratory tract infections and hospitalizations among adults. T2 - A systematic review and meta-analysis. AU - Global Respiratory Hospitalizations-Influenza Proportion Positive (GRIPP) Working Group. AU - Lafond, Kathryn E. AU - Porter, Rachael M. AU - Whaley, Melissa J. AU - Suizan, Zhou. AU - Ran, Zhang. AU - Aleem, Mohammad Abdul. AU - Thapa, Binay. AU - Sar, Borann. AU - Proschle, Viviana Sotomayor. AU - Peng, Zhibin. AU - Feng, Luzhao. AU - Coulibaly, Daouda. AU - Nkwembe, Edith. AU - Olmedo, Alfredo. AU - Ampofo, William. AU - Saha, Siddhartha. AU - Chadha, Mandeep. AU - Mangiri, Amalya. AU - Setiawaty, Vivi. AU - Ali, Sami Sheikh. AU - Chaves, Sandra S. AU - Otorbaeva, Dinagul. AU - Keosavanh, Onechanh. AU - Saleh, Majd. AU - Ho, Antonia. AU - Alexander, Burmaa. AU - Oumzil, Hicham. AU - Baral, Kedar Prasad. AU - Huang, Q Sue. AU - Adebayo, Adedeji A. AU - Al-Abaidani, Idris. AU - von Horoch, Marta. AU - Cohen, Cheryl. AU - ...
This thesis describes the impact of respiratory virus infections in patients with chronic chest disease and investigates the role of influenza vaccine and the possibility of preventing infection with intranasal interferon. The thesis begins by defining respiratory virus infection and presenting a brief historical introduction. This is followed by an account of the important respiratory viruses, the major causes of chronic chest disease and the relationship between respiratory virus infections and exacerbations of chest disease. The introduction concludes by describing the nature of interferons and reviews clinical trials of interferon therapy. The subjects, materials and methods are followed by the results of the clinical and laboratory studies. Respiratory virus infections were significantly more severe in adults with chronic chest disease than in previously healthy individuals. Unfortunately prophylaxis with intranasal interferon was not associated with any benefit. A preliminary study in ...
Most acute respiratory illnesses are caused by respiratory viruses and involve the upper airways, clinically manifesting as colds, pharyngitis, or tonsillitis. Upper respiratory tract illnesses (URTI) are usually self-limited and relatively mild but prompt many physician visits. The influenza like illness (ILI) and viral lower respiratory tract illness (LRTI) such as croup, bronchiolitis, and pneumonia are less frequent but associated with higher hospitalization rates and fatalities. Virus-triggered exacerbations of asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can likewise be severe and sometimes fatal.. Relative importance of major respiratory viruses in upper and lower respiratory tract infections. ...
Learn more about Resource Guide for Viral Upper Respiratory Infections (Colds and Influenza) at Memorial Hospital Main Page Risk Factors ...
Taiwan has one of the highest levels of antibiotic-resistant pneumococcus in the world. Pneumococcal isolates not susceptible to penicillin first appeared in Taiwan in 1986; in 1995 an increase in the prevalence of nonsusceptibility to penicillins, extended-spectrum cephalosporins, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and macrolides as well as multidrug resistance began to be recognized. With the persistence of antibiotic selective pressure, resistance in some antibiotics reached a high plateau (beta-lactam antibiotics) or continued to increase (macrolides), while novel resistance (fluoroquinolones) emerged in the last 3 years. Widespread distribution of some novel resistant 23F and 19F clones (and the international epidemic of 23F clones) contributes further to the rapid increase of resistance. Because Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major pathogen that causes community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections and meningitis in adults and children, antibiotic-resistance in this organism is a serious ...
4. Genomics to Combact Resistance against Antibiotics in Community-acquired Lower Respiratory Tract Infections in Europe [GRACE]. Network of Excellence, Contract nº LSHM-CT-2005-518226. Funding: European Commission. Principal Contractor: University Hospital Antwerp, Belgium. Participating Institutions: ITQB and 23 others. March 2006/April 2010.. 5. CONtrol of COmmunity-acquired MRSA: Rationale and Development of counteractions [CONCORD]. Project FP7-Health-F3-2008-222718. Funding: European Commission. Principal contractor: University Medical Centre Utrecht, The Netherlands. Participating institutions: ITQB and 8 others. January 2009/Junho 2012.. 6. Translational Research on Combating Antimicrobial Resistance [TROCAR]. Project FP7-Health-F3-2008-223031. Funding: European Commission. Principal contractor: Institut Dinvestigacions Biomèdiques August Pi I Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain. Participating institutions: ITQB and 15 others. January 2009/Junho 2012.. 7. A comprehensive ...
Coughing is the bodys way of removing foreign material or mucous from the lungs and throat. The two general classifications of cough are productive coughs (producing phlegm or mucous from the lungs) and nonproductive coughs (dry and not producing any mucous or phlegm). Coughs are also divided into acute (less than 3 weeks duration) and chronic (more than three weeks duration). Acute cough is most often caused by the common viral upper respiratory tract infection. Chronic cough may be caused by a variety of underlying diseases including asthma, cystic fibrosis, allergies, GERD and chronic post nasal drip.. ...
Case 1: John was 15 years old when he presented to the emergency department with a 2-day history of fever, coryza and reduced appetite. He had returned the previous day from a 3-week school rugby trip to Australia. He denied any risk-associated activities including sexual contact, tattooing, camping and water-sports. He had no comorbidities and received no medical/dental treatment during travel. Apart from travel to Sydney and Melbourne he had a brief transit in Singapore. Examination revealed coryza and a fever of 38.2 °C but was otherwise unremarkable. John and his mother were reassured that a viral upper respiratory tract infection was the most likely diagnosis secondary to his recent long-haul flight and were provided with advice when to return should he deteriorate. A nasopharyngeal aspirate confirmed a diagnosis of influenza.. Comment: Cosmopolitan infections are the leading cause of fever in returning child travellers including to tropical regions.8 ,15-18 They may be more common in ...
Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), the most common primary immunodeficiency seen in clinical practice, represents a heterogeneous group of syndromes characterised serologically by low antibody levels and clinically by recurrent respiratory tract infections, granulomatous inflammation and autoimmunity. The choice of IRT administration modalities includes subcutaneous (SC), facilitated subcutaneous (fSC) and intravenous (IV) routes. The different routes are thought to be equivalent in their therapeutic effects. However, there are clear pharmacokinetic differences between the delivery methods. It is unclear whether these differences have a clinically relevant impact on inflammation. This is an important issue as such differences might have an impact on administration modality. We will investigate the effects on systemic inflammation and immune activation of different modalities of Immunoglobulin Replacement Therapy in Common Variable Immune Deficiency.. This pilot study will examine ...
Obstructive sleep apnoea is a sleep disorder that affects more than 4% of the population and can lead to symptoms from daytime drowsiness to high blood pressure. People with sleep apnoea are often not breathing normally during sleep and may experience periods where the airway closes and they are unable to breathe. In severe sleep apnoea this can occur 50-60 times each hour. That is once each minute. The closure of the upper airway is thought to be due to a number of factors, one of which is that the neural drive to the airway muscles is insufficient in people with sleep apnoea. In our lab, we have made the first extensive recordings from the major muscle of the upper airway, genioglossus. We have shown that the neural drive to this muscle is very complex, more so than any limb muscle. At NeuRA, we have also pioneered new methods to image this muscle using fMRI and ultrasound. We are now planning to look at how changes in muscle architecture and mechanics relate to the neural drive to the muscle ...
After cervical spinal cord injury (SCI), the respiratory muscles are partly or completely paralysed. This has two major clinical consequences: a decreased ability to get air into the lungs and a decreased ability to cough and remove secretions. This results in a lifetime of recurrent respiratory tract infections (2/year/person) that often progress to pneumonia with frequent and extended hospital admissions. People with cervical SCI are 150 times more likely to die from respiratory complications than the general population, as many as 28% die within the first year after injury. For those that survive the first year, a cervical SCI has a lifetime cost of $9.5million, a large proportion of which is attributed to respiratory-related complications. A recent longitudinal study of people with cervical SCI showed that respiratory muscle weakness is associated with incidental pneumonia. Respiratory muscle weakness also causes dyspnoea (breathlessness) and sleep-disordered breathing, which is 4-10 times ...
Ali, N. S., Zuberi, R. W. (2003). Association of Iron Deficiency Anaemia in children of 1-2 years of age with low birth weight, recurrent Diarrhoea or recurrent Respiratory Tract Infection - a myth or fact?. Journal of Pakistan Medical Association, 53(4), 133-136 ...
Edema occurs in asthma and other inflammatory diseases when the rate of plasma leakage from blood vessels exceeds the drainage through lymphatic vessels and other routes. It is unclear to what extent lymphatic vessels grow to compensate for increased leakage during inflammation and what drives the lymphangiogenesis that does occur. We addressed these issues in mouse models of (a) chronic respiratory tract infection with Mycoplasma pulmonis and (b) adenoviral transduction of airway epithelium with VEGF family growth factors. Blood vessel remodeling and lymphangiogenesis were both robust in infected airways. Inhibition of VEGFR-3 signaling completely prevented the growth of lymphatic vessels but not blood vessels. Lack of lymphatic growth exaggerated mucosal edema and reduced the hypertrophy of draining lymph nodes. Airway dendritic cells, macrophages, neutrophils, and epithelial cells expressed the VEGFR-3 ligands VEGF-C or VEGF-D. Adenoviral delivery of either VEGF-C or VEGF-D evoked ...
TABLE-US-00010 CAS Reg. mp API Name No. Brand Name Illustrative Indications (° C.) Doxycycline hyclate 24390- DORYX acne cholera infectious diarrhea Chars without 14-5 VIBRAMYCIN dysentery eye infections lower melting at respiratory tract infections rickettsiae about 201 infections skin infections upper respiratory tract infections urinary tract infections sexually transmitted diseases Buspirone 33386- BUSPAR anxiety disorder 201.5-202.5 hydrochloride 08-2 Timolol 26839- TIMOPTIC glaucoma 201.5-203 75-8 BETIMOL Mexiletine 5370- MEXITIL abnormal heart rhythms 203-205 hydrochloride 01-4 Pilocarpine 54-71-7 PILOCAR glaucoma 204-205 hydrochloride ISOPTO CARPINE Oxazepam 604-75-1 SERAX anxiety disorders 205-206 Loracarbef 76470- LORABID ear infections sinus infections skin 205-215 (dec) 66-1 infections upper respiratory tract infections urinary tract infections Diltiazem 33286- CARDIZEM angina high blood pressure 207.5-212 hydrochloride 22-5 DILACOR TIAZAC Medroxyprogesterone 71-58-9 PROVERA ...
INTRODUCTION: Respiratory tract infections are severe and most common types of infection treated by medical practitioners all over the world. Nosocomial pneumonia is the second most common infection, causing high morbidity and mortality and about 80% of nosocomial infections caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae are due to multidrug-resistant strains.. The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains necessitates the exploration of alternative antibacterial therapies 1. Important causes of Gram-negative resistance includes extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) in Klebsiella pneumoniae, high level third-generation cephalosporin (Amp C) β-lactamase resistance among Enterobacter species observed in pneumonia.. Recent data suggest that because of ESBLs and high-level amp C β-lactamase resistances, use of third-generation cephalosporins may be ineffective in many patients with nosocomial infections 2. EDTA is a polyamino carboxylic acid, a colorless water-soluble metallo-chelator and is known to ...
These data demonstrate that, despite increasing interest in vaccination as a cause of febrile seizures in young children, respiratory viral infections are more commonly found in children with febrile seizures than a history of recent vaccination. Viruses were frequently detected in the nasopharynx of children with febrile seizures, but rectal sampling did not provide any additional information. Respiratory viruses such as influenza, rhinovirus and adenovirus were frequently detected. Enterovirus was also commonly detected, although no one strain was predominant. Viral coinfection was common and is indicative of the tendency of children aged 6 months to 5 years to acquire repeated viral respiratory tract infections and demonstrate prolonged viral shedding. Whether or not coinfection is important in the pathogenesis of fever in children with febrile seizures is not clear from these data. In contrast to other viruses found in this study, the majority of influenza and parainfluenza positive cases ...
AstraZeneca has inked a global license agreement with Synairgen, a U.K. company specializing in respiratory diseases, for SNG001, a novel, inhaled interferon beta (IFN-beta) in clinical development for treating respiratory tract viral infections in patients with severe asthma. SNG001 supports the immune system by correcting a deficiency which makes patients vulnerable to respiratory tract viral infections.. AstraZeneca will pay Synairgen a $7.25 million up-front fee and potential development, regulatory and commercial milestones of up to $225 million. In addition, AstraZeneca will pay tiered royalties ranging from single-digit up to mid-teens on commercial sales. AstraZeneca will be responsible for future development costs.. In early 2015, AstraZeneca will commence a phase IIa study in patients with severe asthma, building on available clinical data from an initial phase lla trial in a broad asthma population. SNG001 also provides the opportunity to expand the clinical program in other pulmonary ...
Acute lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is one of the most common conditions managed internationally and is costly to health services and patients. Despite good evidence that antibiotics are not effective for improving the symptoms of uncomplicated LRTI, they are widely prescribed, contributing to antimicrobial resistance. Many of the symptoms observed in LRTI are mediated by inflammatory processes also observed in exacerbations of asthma, for which there is strong evidence of corticosteroid effectiveness. The primary aim of the OSAC (Oral Steroids for Acute Cough) Trial is to determine whether oral prednisolone (40 mg daily for 5 days) can reduce the duration of moderately bad (or worse) cough and the severity of all its associated symptoms on days 2 to 4 post-randomisation (day 1 is trial entry) by at least 20% in adults ≥18 years with acute LRTI presenting to primary care ...
Down Syndrome (DS) is the most common chromosomal abnormality among live-born infants. Through full or partial trisomy of chromosome 21, DS is associated with cognitive impairment, congenital malformations (particularly cardiovascular), and dysmorphic features. In addition, immunological abnormalities are much more prevalent in individuals with DS. For example, DS is associated with increased susceptibility to infection, as revealed in 2009 during the influenza pandemic where the likelihood of death was 300 times greater for DS patients than the general population. DS patients have increased frequencies of autoimmune disorders and leukemias, yet curiously, have a decreased risk for allergic diseases, particularly asthma. Perhaps the most telling statistic for immunologic abnormality in DS patients is that respiratory tract infections are the most important cause of mortality in DS at all ages.Our studies have identified AIRE as a master control gene that is aberrantly decreased in persons with ...
Infants with genetic polymorphisms of mannose-binding lectin were more prone to be colonized with Streptococcus pneumoniae during rhinovirus infection. Furthermore, rhinovirus infection increased the rate of community acquisition and transmission of pneumococcus in families with children. The rate of rhinovirus infections was significantly lower during respiratory syncytial virus infection compared to control children suggesting inhibiting interaction between these viruses. In a cluster randomized trial, 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine prevented not only acute otitis media but to some extent also all respiratory tract infections that are mainly caused by viruses ...
Upper respiratory infections (URI) and their complications are a major healthcare burden for pediatric populations. Although the microbiology of the nasopharynx is an important determinant of the complications of URI, little is known of the nasopharyngeal (NP) microbiota of children, the factors that affect its composition, and its precise relationship with URI. Healthy children (n = 47) aged 49-84 months from a prospective cohort study based in Wisconsin, USA, were examined. Demographic and clinical data and NP swab samples were obtained from participants upon entry to the study. All NP samples were profiled for bacterial microbiota using a phylogenetic microarray, and these data were related to demographic characteristics and upper respiratory health outcomes. The composition of the NP bacterial community of children was significantly related prior to the history of acute sinusitis (R 2 = 0.070, P | 0.009). History of acute sinusitis was associated with significant depletion
Cough is a common reason for pediatric outpatient visits. Cough as a manifestation of respiratory disease can range from minor upper respiratory tract infections to serious conditions such as bronchiectasis. Acute cough in children is mostly caused by upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs). Chronic cough, defined as daily cough of at least 4 weeks in duration, (1) can be associated with an underlying serious disorder and, hence, requires systematic and thorough clinical evaluation. There is high-quality evidence that a systematic approach to the management of chronic cough in children using pediatric-specific cough algorithms improves clinical outcomes. (1) Treatment of cough should be based on the etiology. Because cough is a common presenting complaint, pediatricians must become familiar with the initial evaluation and management of children with cough to establish a diagnosis and determine appropriate therapy. ...
Cephalexin is a prescription drug used in the treatment of ear infections, upper respiratory infections, skin infections, and urinary tract infections. Local doctors can discuss symptoms associated with these diseases and give advice on cephalexin usage and side effects. Read on for local doctors who can prescribe cephalexin in Kapaa, HI.
Methods: Children 3 months to 6 years of age with and without an acute viral respiratory tract infection were recruited and a questionnaire was filled. Nasopharyngeal samples were examined for Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP), Haemophilus influenzae (HI), Moraxella catarrhalis (MC), Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and Streptococcus pyogenes (SPyo) by culture. Viruses were detected with polymerase chain reaction (PCR ...
The decision as to whether to cancel surgery for a child with a URI may be difficult. It is important to emphasize that our results pertain only to healthy children whose URI symptoms are limited to the upper respiratory tract. Children with fever (greater or equal to 38.3 degrees Celsius), wheezing, or malaise were not anesthetized during this study. The patients age, the urgency and nature of the procedure, the patients history and physical examination, the anesthesiologists experience, and parental attitudes must all be taken into account before proceeding with anesthesia and surgery. Recognizing that perioperative hemoglobin oxygen desaturation may occur more frequently and that there is a small increased risk of laryngospasm should help practitioners and families arrive at the best decision for each individual patient. During the study period, only 0.5% of patients who arrived at our hospital for a scheduled day surgical procedure had their operation canceled (all possible causes). Given ...
Torres, Alberto M, Peterson, Karen E, De Souza, Ana Cristina, Orav, E. John, Hughes, Michael. et al. (‎2000)‎. Association of diarrhoea and upper respiratory infections with weight and height gains in Bangladeshi children aged 5 to 11 years / Alberto M. Torres ... [‎et al.]‎. Bulletin of the World Health Organization : the International Journal of Public Health 2000 ; 78(‎11)‎ : 1316-1323 ...
An inverse association between exposure to the sun and upper respiratory tract infections was first proposed in 1926 by Smiley ... Another study found no effect of vitamin D supplementation on the incidence or severity of upper respiratory tract infections. ... Associations have been shown between vitamin D levels and several respiratory tract infections suggesting that vitamin D ... August 2012). "Randomized Trial of Vitamin D Supplementation and Risk of Acute Respiratory Tract Infection in Mongolia". ...
Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are infectious diseases involving the respiratory tract. An infection of this type usually ... is further classified as an upper respiratory tract infection (URI or URTI) or a lower respiratory tract infection (LRI or LRTI ... Lower respiratory tract infections are generally more severe than upper respiratory infections. LRIs are the leading cause of ... This part of the tract includes the nose, sinuses, pharynx, and larynx. Typical infections of the upper respiratory tract ...
An upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) is an illness caused by an acute infection, which involves the upper respiratory ... Guibas GV, Papadopoulos NG (2017). "Viral Upper Respiratory Tract Infections". In Green RJ (ed.). Viral Infections in Children ... Pokorski M (2015). Pulmonary infection. Cham: Springer. ISBN 978-3-319-17458-7. Upper Respiratory Tract Infection from ... "Infections of the Respiratory System". Chapter 93: Infections of the Respiratory System. National Center for Biotechnology ...
"Guidelines for the management of adult lower respiratory tract infections--full version". Clinical Microbiology and Infection. ... "Guidelines for the management of adult lower respiratory tract infections". The European Respiratory Journal. 26 (6): 1138-80. ... Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is a term often used as a synonym for pneumonia but can also be applied to other types ... A routine chest X-ray is not always necessary for people who have symptoms of a lower respiratory tract infection. Influenza ...
Some medical uses are: Upper respiratory tract infections. Lower respiratory tract infections. Urinary tract infections. Skin ... Cefuroxime axetil treats infections against methicillin, oxacillin and penicillin-sensitive bacterial strains. Cefuroxime ... cefuroxime axetil is converted to the active compound cefuroxime by esterases of mucosal cells in the gastrointestinal tract. ... and soft tissue infections. Gonorrhoea. Early Lyme disease. ...
Management of Respiratory Tract Infections. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 1999. ISBN 9780683306330. PDR Guide to Biological ... The Johns Hopkins University Press published in 1991 The Guide to Living with HIV Infection by Dr. Bartlett and Ann Finkbeiner ... Friedland, Gerald H. (1992). "The Guide to Living with HIV Infection: Developed at the Johns Hopkins AIDS Clinic". JAMA: The ... Matthis, E. J. (1991). "Review of The Guide to Living with HIV Infection". Home Healthcare Now. 9 (6): 59. doi:10.1097/00004045 ...
Virk A, Wilson WR (2001). "Tracheobronchitis and lower respiratory tract infections". In Wilson WR, Sande MA, Drew L (eds.). ... Mechanically-assisted coughing greatly improves secretion clearance in the setting of respiratory infection in the patient with ... Prophylactic indications also include pre and post thoracic surgery to prevent atelectasis and respiratory infections. The ... and prevent respiratory infection after chest trauma. Methods include using suction to remove fluids and placing the patient in ...
2001). Infections of the Upper Respiratory Tract. In Eugene Braunwald, Anthony S. Fauci, Dennis L. Kasper, Stephen L. Hauser, ... If ear infections are treated in a reasonable amount of time, the antibiotics will usually cure the infection and prevent its ... Most ear infections occur in infants as the eustachian tubes are not fully developed and don't drain readily.[citation needed] ... The infection may also spread to the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII), causing facial-nerve palsy, producing weakness or ...
... s are defined as upper respiratory tract infections that affect the predominantly nasal part of the respiratory ... Breast feeding decreases the risk of acute otitis media and lower respiratory tract infections among other diseases, and it is ... The distinction between viral upper respiratory tract infections is loosely based on the location of symptoms, with the common ... Harris AM, Hicks LA, Qaseem A (March 2016). "Appropriate Antibiotic Use for Acute Respiratory Tract Infection in Adults: Advice ...
Upper respiratory tract infections can be dangerous. New Drug Therapy Approvals 2017 (PDF). U.S. Food and Drug Administration ( ...
Simon HB (2005). "Bacterial infections of the upper respiratory tract". In Dale DC, Federman DD (eds.). ACP Medicine, 2006 ... course of post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis depending on methods of treatment for the preceding respiratory tract infection ... Tonsillitis is most commonly caused by a viral infection and about 5% to 40% of cases are caused by a bacterial infection. When ... Bacterial infection of the tonsils usually follows the initial viral infection. When tonsillitis recurs after antibiotic ...
... upper respiratory tract infection; vomiting; decreased weight; risk of falls; and status epilepticus. The U.S. Food and Drug ... upper respiratory tract infection, vomiting, appetite loss, weight loss, falls, and status epilepticus. Fenfluramine acts as a ...
... and respiratory tract infection. It may also have intrauterine effects on fetal development, resulting in low birth weight ... These pollutants damage human health by evading the mucociliary clearance system and depositing in the upper respiratory tract ... Ozone pollution has many well-known health effects: Ozone can cause adverse effects to the respiratory system such as shortness ... These pathogens can cause gastroenteritis, cholera, wound infections, and sepsis. It has been observed that in the period of ...
... is a contagious viral disease, caused by Adenoviruses, commonly resulting in a respiratory tract infection ... Adenovirus infection accounts for up to 10% of respiratory infections in children. Most cases are mild and by the age of 10- ... Adenovirus". In Kimpen, Jan L. L.; Ramilo, Octavio (eds.). The Microbe-Host Interface in Respiratory Tract Infections. Norfolk ... infection with adenovirus 7 acquired by inhalation is associated with severe lower respiratory tract disease, whereas oral ...
Zoorob, R; Sidani, MA; Fremont, RD; Kihlberg, C (1 November 2012). "Antibiotic use in acute upper respiratory tract infections ... Acute upper respiratory infections, Wikipedia medicine articles ready to translate, Wikipedia emergency medicine articles ready ... destroyed by macrophages and also contains surface proteins that allow it to stick to the lining of the upper respiratory tract ... Alternate risk factors and causes associated with infection include burns and other trauma to the area. Medical research has ...
There are weak evidence probiotics might lower the incidence of acute upper respiratory tract infections in adults.[needs ... Hao Q, Dong BR, Wu T (February 2015). "Probiotics for preventing acute upper respiratory tract infections". Cochrane Database ... Shortliffefirst=LMD (2013). Wein, AJ (ed.). Chapter 116: Infection and Inflammation of the Pediatric Genitourinary Tract. ... "Nutrimune and immune defence against pathogens in the gastrointestinal and upper respiratory tracts: evaluation of a health ...
2021). Chaudhury, A.; Parija, S. C. (2020). "Lophomonas blattarum: A new flagellate causing respiratory tract infections". ... in the upper and lower respiratory tract of patients from a hospital in Lambayeque, Peru: Clinical case studies". Respiratory ... blattarum to be an infectious agent in the lower respiratory tract and to suggest that development of improved diagnostic ... Li, Ran; Gao, Zhan-Cheng (2016). Ji, Yuan-Yuan (ed.). "Lophomonas blattarum Infection or Just the Movement of Ciliated ...
"Pelargonium sidoides extract for treating acute respiratory tract infections". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 10 ... "Common Cold (Upper Respiratory Infection)". The Merck Manual Online. Merck & Co. November 2005. Retrieved 2007-06-13. The ... Recommendations of the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee and the HICPAC/SHEA/APIC/IDSA Hand Hygiene ... Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America/Association for Professionals in Infection Control/Infectious Diseases Society ...
Upper and lower respiratory-tract infections can be frequent. Most children develop limited language capabilities. Death ...
Early childhood infections, especially viral upper respiratory tract infections. Children who suffer from frequent respiratory ... and absent at the time of infection. In many cases, significant asthma may not even occur until the respiratory infection is in ... However, persons of any age can have asthma triggered by colds and other respiratory infections even though their normal ... Asthma is a common pulmonary condition defined by chronic inflammation of respiratory tubes, tightening of respiratory smooth ...
"Pelargonium sidoides extract for treating acute respiratory tract infections". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (10): ...
Upper and lower respiratory tract infections can be frequent.[citation needed] Developmental delay may become apparent by age 1 ...
Bonsignori F, Chiappini E, De Martino M (2010). "The infections of the upper respiratory tract in children". Int J Immunopathol ... Harris, AM; Hicks, LA; Qaseem, A (19 January 2016). "Appropriate Antibiotic Use for Acute Respiratory Tract Infection in Adults ... "Adenotonsillectomy for upper respiratory infections: evidence based?". Archives of Disease in Childhood. 90 (1): 19-25. doi: ... Acute upper respiratory infections, Human throat, Wikipedia medicine articles ready to translate (full), Wikipedia emergency ...
Snell, N. J. C. (March 2001). "New treatments for viral respiratory tract infections-opportunities and problems". Journal of ... Common colds account for a third of all acute respiratory infections[where?][when?] and the economic costs are substantial in ... accelerating the evaluation of respiratory antivirals, vaccines and novel diagnostics". Respiratory Research. 19 (1): 123. doi: ... Research made by the Common Cold Unit improved our understanding of respiratory viruses, their lifecycle and possible vaccines ...
HMPV is associated with 5% to 40% of respiratory tract infections in hospitalized and outpatient children. The virus is ... Human metapneumovirus may cause mild upper respiratory tract infection (the common cold). However, premature infants, ... It is the second most common cause after Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) of lower respiratory infection in young children.[ ... "Prevalence of viral respiratory tract infections in children with asthma". Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 119 (2 ...
... inhibits the bacteria responsible for upper respiratory tract infections. Its spectrum of activity includes ...
"Safety of trovafloxacin in treatment of lower respiratory tract infections". Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 17 (6): 454- ... common consequences of meningitis that have not been seen in patients treated with trovafloxacin for other infection types. An ...
"The amplification of somatic symptoms in upper respiratory tract infections". General Hospital Psychiatry. 24 (3): 172-5. doi: ...
Some patients have a history of recurrent respiratory tract infections. It is unclear if increased risk for malignancy is part ...
"Studies on viral infections of the respiratory tract in cattle". {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) (CS1 ... "Studies on viral infections of the respiratory tract in cattle". The last of the "Buccaneers" Mahalingam, Sivalingam (1968). " ...
Joints, eyes, audiovestibular system, cardiovascular system, and respiratory tract can also be involved. The components of the ... The outer ear is prone to infections, so antibiotics are usually prescribed. Pressure can be applied by bandaging which helps ...
... transfer of neutralizing antibody prevent replication of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus in the respiratory tract ... Subbarao K, McAuliffe J... Murphy B (2004). Prior infection and passive ... In 1983, he was promoted to head the respiratory viruses section of the Laboratory of Infectious Diseases. In 2001, he became ... Brian Murphy received the inaugural Robert M. Chanock award for lifetime achievements in RSV research at the Respiratory ...
Frequently seen clinical features includes dyspnea, respiratory distress, recurrent pulmonary infections, and limited exercise ... the primary structure developed in the earliest stage of embryonic development that gives rise to the entire respiratory tract ... Removing the malformed part of the lung helps reduce symptoms and chances of lung infection. In the past, patients underwent ... The treatment is dependent on the severity of respiratory impairment and the underlying etiology of the disorder. In most cases ...
... are any bacterial infections of the reproductive tract following childbirth or miscarriage. Signs and symptoms usually include ... usually evident as respiratory disease, general sepsis, or meningitis. Untreated sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are ... The infection usually occurs after the first 24 hours and within the first ten days following delivery. Infection remains a ... is most often the cause of these occasionally fatal infections. The baby contracts the infection from the mother during labour ...
Deaths from respiratory tract infection, Dutch-language singers, English-language singers from France, Eurovision Song Contest ... She died in 1996 in Paris, France, aged 55, from a pulmonary infection, after a decline in health. 1959: "Baccara 9" n° 17 (VA ...
Unknown primary tumors and rarely, urinary or respiratory tract malignancies can cause umbilical metastases. How exactly the ... Other conditions that can cause a palpable periumbilical mass include umbilical hernia, infection, and endometriosis. Medical ... and men are even more likely to have an underlying cancer of the gastrointestinal tract. Gynecological cancers account for ...
... of deaths due to these diseases is dwarfed by the enormous number of patients affected by PRDs such as respiratory infections, ... After penetrating the skin and eventually traveling to the intestines or the urinary tract, the parasite lays eggs and infects ... HIV infection and TB are also closely tied. Being infected with HIV increases the rate of activation of latent TB infections, ... Chronic worm infections can further burden the immune system. At the same time, chronic worm infections can cause immune ...
Omicron affects the upper respiratory tract more than previous variants making it more transmissible and also causing cold-like ... "COVID-19: Infection rates rise across most of UK - but 'possible signs' of slowing in England". Sky News. Retrieved 4 August ... "Coronavirus infections continue to fall in UK". 25 July 2021. Retrieved 25 July 2021 - via "Sajid Javid ... "Covid-19: Infections in children rise and trial success for coronavirus pill". BBC News. BBC. 1 October 2021. Retrieved 3 ...
... infections, diarrhea, abdominal pain, respiratory tract infection, viral infection, and fatigue. Paroxysmal nocturnal ... Pegcetacoplan may also predispose individuals to serious infections, especially infections caused by encapsulated bacteria. ... These infections include but are not limited to Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Haemophilus influenzae. ... Meningococcal (a type of bacteria) infections can occur in people taking pegcetacoplan and can become life-threatening or fatal ...
"Cloning of a human parvovirus by molecular screening of respiratory tract samples". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... Some may cross the placenta and cause congenital infection of the fetus. Canine minute virus, first isolated in 1967 and ... Diseases associated with this genus include, in humans, acute respiratory illness, and in cattle, diarrhea and mild respiratory ... Transmission routes are oral and respiratory. These viruses generally infect the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts. ...
Changes in intestinal tract absorbability and permeability due, in part, to viral, protozoal, or bacteria pathogens may also ... Kupka R, Fawzi W (March 2002). "Zinc nutrition and HIV infection". Nutrition Reviews. 60 (3): 69-79. doi:10.1301/ ... Impaired immune function in people with zinc deficiency can lead to the development of respiratory, gastrointestinal, or other ... Zinc deficiency affects the skin and gastrointestinal tract; brain and central nervous system, immune, skeletal, and ...
... respiratory chain deficiency Complex 2 mitochondrial respiratory chain deficiency Complex 3 mitochondrial respiratory chain ... pneumoconiosis Coarctation of aorta dominant Coarse face hypotonia constipation Coats disease Cocaine antenatal infection ... glycoprotein syndrome Carbon baby syndrome Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency Carcinoid syndrome Carcinoma of the vocal tract ... deficiency Complex 4 mitochondrial respiratory chain deficiency Complex 5 mitochondrial respiratory chain deficiency Complex ...
He faced many life-threatening medical problems including the possibility of respiratory failure, urinary tract infection, ... Yet those asymptomatic individuals can transmit the viral infection.: 109 [self-published source] Goldman explored the ...
COVID‑19 is most known for affecting the upper respiratory tract (sinuses, nose, and throat) and the lower respiratory tract ( ... Respiratory: Many factors can make pregnant women more vulnerable to hard respiratory infections. One of them is the total ... Exhaled respiratory particles can build-up within enclosed spaces with inadequate ventilation. The risk of COVID‑19 infection ... Most commonly, the peak viral load in upper respiratory tract samples occurs close to the time of symptom onset and declines ...
Diseases like neonatal disorder, lower respiratory tract infection, and diarrhoeal diseases have shown a gradual decrease in ... Lower respiratory infections (5.1% of total deaths), and Intracerebral hemorrhage (3.8% of total deaths), were the top five ... Lower respiratory infection (5.15%), Diarrhoeal disease (3.42%), Road injury (3.56%), Stroke (3.49%), Diabetes (2.35%). The ... A large section of the population, particularly those living in rural poverty, are at risk of infection and mortality by ...
Infection can be due to a variety of bacteria. Risk factors include decreased level of consciousness, problems with swallowing ... The two lung changes after acid aspiration are: a) direct toxic damage to the respiratory epithelium resulting in interstitial ... an acid environment is needed to kill the organisms that colonize the gastrointestinal tract; agents, such as proton pump ... Aspiration pneumonia is a type of lung infection that is due to a relatively large amount of material from the stomach or mouth ...
Even so, the nematodes caused histologic lesions in the respiratory tract. Ingestion of pelagic mollusks has been hypothesized ... Charles A. Manire; Michael J. Kinsel; Eric T. Anderson; Tonya M. Clauss; Lynne Byrd (2008). "Lungworm infection in three ...
... s are found in the intestine, and stomach, and as pulmonary brush cells in the respiratory tract, from nose to alveoli ... During an intense infection, tuft cells can make their own specification and the hyperplasia of tuft cells is a key response to ... Also during worm infection, the amount of tuft cells dramatically rises. Hyperplasia of tuft cells and goblet cells is a ... It has been discovered that the tuft cells in the intestines of mice are activated by parasitic infections. This leads to a ...
Jama 2012 304 (13), 1447-1454 Procalcitonin-guided use of antibiotics for lower respiratory tract infection D.T. Huang, D.M. ... Furthermore, he studied procalcitonin-guided use of antibiotics in context of lower respiratory tract infection. In 1997, The ... "Procalcitonin-Guided Use of Antibiotics for Lower Respiratory Tract Infection". The New England Journal of Medicine. 379 (3): ... He has received funding to study suicide prevention, respiratory diseases, CPR, sepsis, and MRSA infections. In a February 2021 ...
... in viral respiratory tract infections. As a consequence of widespread and injudicious use of antibacterials, there has been an ... "Antimicrobial surfaces to prevent healthcare-associated infections: a systematic review". Journal of Hospital Infection. 92 (1 ... In medicine, they are used as a treatment for infections such as athlete's foot, ringworm and thrush and work by exploiting ... This can lead to outbreaks and infections like MRSA, treatments for which cost the healthcare industry $20 billion a year. ...
15 pm due to coins and foreign matter found in her respiratory tract. "Aurora" is named after the famous northern light Aurora ... Nanuq was Qila's father and was on breeding loan to SeaWorld since July 1997 when he died of a jaw infection. Tuaq was born to ... Nala was also born to Aurora and Imaq in 2009 but died a year after due to foreign objects found inside her respiratory tract. ... On November 24, 2017 Chester died of a bacterial infection. He was approximately 3 and a half years old. Until 2016, the ...
The reduced fertility (obstructive azoospermia) is due to functional obstruction of sperm transport down the genital tract at ... Young's syndrome, also known as azoospermia sinopulmonary infections, sinusitis-infertility syndrome and Barry-Perkins-Young ... Respiratory disease stubs). ... "Helminth infection, fecundity, and age of first pregnancy in ... Obstructive azoospermia and chronic sinopulmonary infections". N. Engl. J. Med. 310 (1): 3-9. doi:10.1056/NEJM198401053100102. ...
Focus on infection control issues for novel coronaviruses (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-CoV and Middle East Respiratory ... Less commonly there may be bleeding from the mouth or gastrointestinal tract. The risk of death once infected is about one ... Infection typically occurs by direct or indirect exposure to animal excrement through the respiratory or gastrointestinal ... Research showed a twofold increase risk of infection for those living in close proximity to someone with infection symptoms ...
Kendig EL, Wilmott RW, Chernick V (2012). Kendig and Chernick's Disorders of the Respiratory Tract in Children. Elsevier Health ... It is also used to prevent fungal infection in people as they undergo BMT. It is also the recommended treatment for the CNS ... Common adverse effects, occurring in between 1 and 10% of people, include sinus infections, low numbers of white and red blood ... Voriconazole is used to treat invasive aspergillosis and candidiasis and fungal infections caused by Scedosporium and Fusarium ...
Most common side effects for these drugs may include dry mouth, headache, urinary tract infection, and bronchitis. Other: Other ... Due to this delayed therapeutic response, it is essential that patients who are prescribed corticosteroids for respiratory ... Bronchoconstriction is common in people with respiratory problems, such as asthma, COPD, and cystic fibrosis. Medical ... American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 187 (9): 1016-1027. doi:10.1164/rccm.201303-0437st. PMID 23634861. ...
The lack of this organ severely compromises their immune system, with infections of the respiratory tract and eyes increasing ...
... of patients Viral upper respiratory tract infection in 23.8% of patients Headache in 20.2% of patients Injection site erythema ... Common side effects include pain associated with injection site reactions, injection site bruising, upper respiratory infection ...
... diseases vaccine preventable diseases such as tuberculosis nutritional deficiencies upper respiratory tract infections ... This has led to increased health problems like respiratory diseases and cancers, among others. The change in the size of the ... In Turkmenistan alone, 50% of all reported illnesses in children are related to respiratory system difficulties. The effects of ... Possible Impacts on Human Exposure and Respiratory Health in the Aral Sea Basin. The Geographical Journal. 169(2), 143. (CS1 ...
This involves inhaling purified human A1AT into the lungs and trapping the A1AT into the lower respiratory tract. However, ... This suggests a role for α1PI not only in locomotion of lymphocytes through tissue, but as a consequence of infection, a ... Inactivation of A1AT by enzymes other than elastase due to inflammation/infection causes the migration of T cells to halt ... which results in respiratory complications, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, in adults. Normally, A1AT leaves its ...
The condition consists of atresia affecting the pulmonary valve and a hypoplastic right ventricular outflow tract. The ... especially respiratory ones) associated with surgeries that treat this defect. Women with PAVSD are at a slightly higher risk ... Failure to thrive Recurrent chest infections Endocarditis Epilepsy Stroke Arrhythmia Heart failure Premature death Children ... were linked to a higher risk of having children with septal defects and/or obstruction of the left ventricular outflow tract. ...
... 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U. V ...
Might the use of inhaled corticosteroids increase the risk for developing upper respiratory tract infections among COPD ... Abbreviations: ICSs Inhaled corticosteroids, URTI Upper respiratory tract infection, FEV1 Forced expiratory volume in 1 s, T ... Association Between Inhaled Corticosteroids and Upper Respiratory Tract Infection in Patients With Chronic Obstructive ... the association between ICSs and risk of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) remains unclear, though URTI is the most ...
Upper respiratory tract infection (URI) represents the most common acute illness evaluated in the outpatient setting. URIs ... encoded search term (Upper Respiratory Tract Infection) and Upper Respiratory Tract Infection What to Read Next on Medscape ... For CMV infections, consider foscarnet or ganciclovir. RSV infections may respond to ribavirin. If lower respiratory tract ... Seasonal variation of selected upper respiratory tract infection pathogens. PIV is parainfluenza virus, RSV is respiratory ...
Acute respiratory infections  World Health Organization. Programme of Acute Respiratory Infections (‎World Health ... Tuberculosis and Respiratory Infections Unit; World Health Organization. Programme of Acute Respiratory Infections (‎World ... Acute respiratory infections (‎ARI case management charts  World Health Organization. Programme of Acute Respiratory ... Acute respiratory infections (‎Resolution)‎  Regional Committee for the Western Pacific, 034 (‎WHO Regional Office for the ...
An outbreak of seven cases of Pseudomonas aeruginosa respiratory tract infection and nine instances of respiratory tract ... Pseudomonas aeruginosa Respiratory Tract Infections Associated with Contaminated Ultrasound Gel Used for Transesophageal ... This report describes an outbreak of Pseudomonas aeruginosa respiratory tract colonization and infection related to the use of ... Number of cultures positive and total number of surgical procedures among patients with respiratory tract cultures growing ...
The pandemic has increased attention on upper respiratory tract infections (URIs). Do you know key presentation aspects and ... Upper respiratory tract infection (URI) represents the most common acute illness evaluated in the outpatient setting. URIs ... Fast Five Quiz: Upper Respiratory Tract Infections * Fast Five Quiz: Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) ...
... Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Sep 7;(9):CD006895. doi: ... However, no evidence of the benefits of probiotics for acute upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) and related potential ... Some studies show that probiotic strains can prevent respiratory infections. ... which includes the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Groups Specialised Register, MEDLINE (Ovid) (1950 to May week 1, 2011 ...
Quality of management for acute respiratory tract infections and diarrhoeal diseases in rural Yemen ... Most of the deaths avoided would be related to diarrhoeal infections, acute respiratory infections (ARIs) and malnutrition [1 ... complaining of diarrhoea or respiratory tract infection) were enrolled in the study (we considered 30 the lowest reasonable ... Quality of management for acute respiratory tract infections and diarrhoeal diseases in rural Yemen ...
Percentage of Emergency Department Visits for Acute Viral Upper Respiratory Tract Infection That Had an Antimicrobial Ordered ... From 2008-2011 to 2012-2015, the percentage of visits for acute viral upper respiratory tract infection that had an ... QuickStats: Percentage of Emergency Department Visits for Acute Viral Upper Respiratory Tract Infection That Had an ...
... trials have shown that probiotics can be used as preventive and therapeutic agents in upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs ... which have the ability to counteract infections at different locations of the body. Clinical ... Beneficial effects of probiotics in upper respiratory tract infections and their mechanical actions to antagonize pathogens J ... Their mechanical properties in the respiratory tract as well as at other locations are also cited. Species with interesting in ...
... and an increase in upper respiratory tract infection symptoms, with no change in IL-2, IL-6, and TNF-α. Correlations ... Results revealed that immune variables were correlated with symptoms of upper respiratory tract infections and training-load ... and neutrophils with upper respiratory tract infection symptoms were observed.Conclusion: In conclusion, these correlations can ... symptoms of upper respiratory tract infections, and training-load indicators in volleyball athletes Rodrigo Dias1, Anelena ...
... Respiratory Tract Infections in Children Linked to ... Currently, infections of the lower respiratory tract are a significant cause of hospitalization of children. In about 20% of ... The Swedish team found bocavirus contributed to at least 3% of serious lower respiratory tract infections. ... The researchers discovered the virus in respiratory tract samples from children at Karolinska University Hospital in Stockholm ...
... "upper respiratory tract infections and respiratory symptoms" and "other respiratory tract infections." We found no significant ... and other respiratory tract infections (R71, 77, 82, and 83). Other included acute respiratory tract infections diagnoses were ... upper respiratory tract infections and respiratory symptoms (R01-05, 07-29, 74, and 80), ear infections (H01, 71, 72, and 74), ... The Dutch authors claimed that they may have had a selection bias, as all patients with respiratory tract infections may not ...
Infections. Communicable Diseases. Respiratory Tract Infections. Disease Attributes. Pathologic Processes. Respiratory Tract ... Respiratory Tract Infections Other: Placebo Drug: BEZ235 Drug: BEZ235 plus everolimus (RAD001) Phase 2 ... in combination with RAD001 as compared to placebo in elderly subjects who are at increased risk of respiratory tract infection ... Study to Determine if BEZ235 Alone or in Combination With RAD001 Decreases the Incidence of Respiratory Tract Infections in the ...
Respiratory Tract Infections, Antibiotics, Individuals and Families. CRP, Respiratory Tract Infections, Antibiotics, ... C-reactive protein testing leads to a reduction in antibiotic use in patients with respiratory tract infections Lars Bjerrum ... CRP, Respiratory Tract Infections, Antibiotics, Individuals and Families Henry Bloom, MD,CCFP, ABFP ... In our own study(2) of 111 episodes of respiratory tract infection, involving 43 families, we used cultures to show what every ...
... upper respiratory tract infection (25.9%), general viral infection (10.5%), nonspecific respiratory infection (3.4%), cough ( ... Antibiotic prescribing for adults with acute cough/lower respiratory tract infection: congruence with guidelines. J. Wood, C.C. ... Antibiotic prescribing and outcomes of lower respiratory tract infection in UK primary care. Chest 2009; 135: 1163-1172. ... Guidelines for the management of adult lower respiratory tract infections. Eur Respir J 2005; 26: 1138-1180. ...
Delayed antibiotic prescribing for respiratory tract infections: protocol of an individual patient data meta-analysis ... Delayed antibiotic prescribing for respiratory tract infections: protocol of an individual patient data meta-analysis ...
T2 Early-life respiratory tract infection and adult susceptibility to chronic mucus hypersecretion - a prospective 64 year ... T2 Early-life respiratory tract infection and adult susceptibility to chronic mucus hypersecretion - a prospective 64 year ... T2 Early-life respiratory tract infection and adult susceptibility to chronic mucus hypersecretion - a prospective 64 year ...
Respiratory Tract Infection Treatment Global Market Insights 2022, Analysis and Forecast to 2027, by Manufacturers, Regions, ... Chapter 15 Global Respiratory Tract Infection Treatment Market Forecast (2022-2027). 15.1 Respiratory Tract Infection Treatment ... 8.1 Export of Respiratory Tract Infection Treatment by Region. 8.2 Import of Respiratory Tract Infection Treatment by Region. ... 9.1 Respiratory Tract Infection Treatment Market Size. 9.2 Respiratory Tract Infection Treatment Demand by End Use. 9.3 ...
Title : WUPyV in Children with Acute Respiratory Tract Infections, China Personal Author(s) : Li, Xiaoyan;Chen, Jinying;Kong, ... of 79 children with respiratory infections (both infected with respiratory syncyt... ... We investigated the presence of 4 human polyomaviruses (PyVs) (WU, KI, Merkel cell, and Malawi) in respiratory specimens from a ...
Improving the quality of care for children with respiratory tract infections in primary care (TARGET). *Hay, Alastair D ( ... Research Grant is to improve the quality of care given to children presenting to primary care with respiratory tract infections ... intervention to reduce antibiotic prescribing for children presenting to primary care with acute respiratory tract infection ... of parent and clinician views and perceptions that influence prescribing decisions in relation to acute childhood infections in ...
Effects of an Immunomodulating Supplement on Upper Respiratory Tract Infection Symptoms in Wildland Fighters. Montana Center ... antioxidant supplement on symptoms of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) in WLFF. ...
Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of meropenem in elderly chinese with lower respiratory tract infections: population ... Evaluation of clinical dosage of gatifloxacin for respiratory tract infections in elderly patients based on pharmacokinetics/ ... Relevance of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in the selection of antibiotics for respiratory tract infections. Journal of ... Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of levofloxacin in patients with respiratory tract infections using Bayesian forecasting ...
Zinc, respiratory tract infections and COVID-19 - July 2020. Zinc and respiratory tract infections: Perspectives for COVID-19 ( ... Zinc, respiratory tract infections and COVID-19 - July 2020 5308 visitors, last modified 07 Aug, 2020, Copy URL. ... Zinc, respiratory tract infections and COVID-19 - July 2020 * Fight COVID-19 with Vitamin D, Vitamin C, Zinc, Selenium, ... Zinc, respiratory tract infections and COVID-19 - July 2020 * Review of common cold (42 billion dollars) prevention and ...
How to Care for Your Child with Viral Upper Respiratory Tract Infection (Viral URTI) This leaflet will provide you with ... An upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) is an illness caused by an acute infection, which involves the upper respiratory ... Viral Upper Respiratory Tract Infection (Viral URTI). This leaflet will provide you with information about Viral URTI (Cold) ... How to Care for Your Child with Viral Upper Respiratory Tract Infection (Viral URTI) ...
... with viral respiratory tract infections (VRTIs), 51% required additional respiratory ... ... The effects of viral respiratory tract infections on neonatal care. byMohammad Mertabanand1 others ... Rapid respiratory pathogen testing does not significantly alter antibiotic prescription rates among children with acute ... 1. When treating children with an acute respiratory illness in the emergency department, no significant difference in ...
... Â Reviewers at the Alfa Institute of Biomedical Sciences in Athens, Greece ... reviewers identified 14 well-designed studies of probiotics for the prevention of upper or lower respiratory tract infections ( ... This entry was posted on Sunday, February 1st, 2009 at 6:53 PM and is filed under Common Cold, Infection, Pre, Pro, Synbiotics ...
... are due to viral infections, they cause the majority of antibiotic (Abx) prescriptions in primary care. This systematic review ... From: Reduction of antibiotic prescriptions for acute respiratory tract infections in primary care: a systematic review ...
  • Of the 16 patients identified during the outbreak, two had pneumonia, five had tracheobronchitis, and nine had respiratory tract colonization only. (
  • Prescriptions per 1000 listed patients increased from 80.3 to 84.6 in the intervention arm and from 80.9 to 89.0 in the control arm, but this reflects a greater incidence of infections (particularly pneumonia) that needed treating in the intervention arm. (
  • Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) (pneumonia predominantly) is one of the leading causes of death in infants and children, especially in developing countries. (
  • Acute lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) (e.g. pneumonia) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality and management focuses on early treatment. (
  • Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs), is an array of diseases of pneumonia and atypical pneumonia, which collectively manifest a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among infectious diseases worldwide. (
  • Lower respiratory tract infection while often used as a synonym for pneumonia, can also be applied to other types of infection including lung abscess and acute bronchitis. (
  • The possible complications of pneumonia depend on the cause of the infection. (
  • Bacterial pneumonia can lead to bacteremia, or sepsis, in which bacteria from the initial site of infection spreads into the blood. (
  • Finally, like bronchiolitis, pneumonia can also lead to respiratory failure. (
  • Examples of lower respiratory tract infections include pneumonia (lung infection), bronchitis (airways infection in the bronchis), and tuberculosis (an infectious bacteria lung disease), among many. (
  • Illness in humans caused by avian influenza A virus infections has ranged from mild to severe (e.g. pneumonia). (
  • Annual bronchiolitis hospitalizations associated with RSV infection among infants may be greater than previous estimates for RSV bronchiolitis and pneumonia hospitalizations combined. (
  • The clinical presentations caused by Enterobacter lower respiratory tract infections include asymptomatic colonization, tracheobronchitis, pneumonia, lung abscess , and empyema . (
  • EV68 was isolated from 4 children with pneumonia and bronchiolitis in the United States in 1962 (prototype Fermon strain) (2,3) and is associated with respiratory tract infections (RTIs) (3-5). (
  • Respiratory tract infections: acute and chronic bronchitis, pneumonia, sinusitis and pharyngitis. (
  • Little et al evaluated the effectiveness of delayed antibiotic prescribing strategies for respiratory tract infections in 889 United Kingdom primary care patients (age ≥3 y) assessed as not requiring immediate antibiotics. (
  • Objective To assess the effects of a multifaceted educational intervention in Norwegian general practice aiming to reduce antibiotic prescription rates for acute respiratory tract infections and to reduce the use of broad spectrum antibiotics. (
  • Results In an adjusted, multilevel model, the effect of the intervention on the 39 intervention groups (183 general practitioners) was a reduction (odds ratio 0.72, 95% confidence interval 0.61 to 0.84) in prescribing of antibiotics for acute respiratory tract infections compared with the controls (40 continuing medical education groups with 199 general practitioners). (
  • In the United States, Steinman et al found that broad spectrum antibiotics were prescribed in more than half of all cases of acute respiratory tract infections in adults and that prescribing of such agents varied widely among groups of patients and physicians, even after control for diagnoses and comorbidities. (
  • If an LRTI is bacterial, antibiotics may be prescribed , depending on how serious the infection is and your overall health. (
  • European guidelines for treating acute cough/lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) aim to reduce nonevidence-based variation in prescribing, and better target and increase the use of first-line antibiotics. (
  • In collaboration with the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID), the European Respiratory Society (ERS) published guidelines on when and which antibiotics should be prescribed in patients presenting with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in primary care [ 1 ]. (
  • We set out to describe the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about the use of antibiotics for respiratory tract infections in adults in Poland, and explore differences according to where people live in an urban-rural continuum. (
  • This suggests that interventions to improve prescribing for childhood respiratory tract infection in primary care will need to focus on tools that help rapidly determine which children will or will not benefit from antibiotics. (
  • Data from English primary care settings suggest that overprescribing of antibiotics is particularly pronounced for respiratory tract conditions. (
  • Antibiotics for lower respiratory tract infection in children presenting in primary care in England (ARTIC PC): a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. (
  • General practitioner management of upper respiratory tract infections: when are antibiotics prescribed? (
  • Antibiotics are not recommended for most RTIs because they are only effective if the infection is caused by bacteria. (
  • Objectives: This study aimed to assess whether the presence of bacteria or viruses in the upper airway of children presenting with uncomplicated lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) predicts the benefit of antibiotics. (
  • Antibiotics aren't used unless your child has a bacterial infection. (
  • 0.001) of high intentions to prescribe antibiotics for upper respiratory tract infections and a less positive attitude toward concerns about antibiotic resistance (ignorance) which was also associated with intentions to prescribe antibiotics. (
  • Your cat may get sick more often because of his weakened immune system, but these infections can often be treated with antibiotics. (
  • Resistant organisms (they include bacteria, fungi, viruses and some parasites) are able to withstand attack by antimicrobial medicines, such as antibiotics, antifungals, antivirals, and antimalarials, so that standard treatments become ineffective and infections persist increasing risk of spread to others. (
  • about the effect of CRP-testing in reducing antibiotic prescribing in patients with sinusitis and lower respiratory tract infections (RTI)(1) However, we find some issues that merit to be discussed more in depth. (
  • Andrographis has a positive effect in the treatment of acute upper respiratory tract infections and also relieves the inflammatory symptoms of sinusitis. (
  • Acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) such as bronchitis, sinusitis, and rhinitis account for almost 10% of ambulatory care visits in the United States.1 Despite having similar symptoms, upper and lower respiratory tract infections are caused by a wide range of microbes, including RNA and DNA viruses, bacteria, and fungi. (
  • and c) upper respiratory tract infections, including otitis media and sinusitis. (
  • Examples of upper respiratory tract infections include sinusitis (also known as a sinus infection) and laryngitis (inflammation of the larynx), among many. (
  • Sinusitis and other ENT infections.Tuberculosis. (
  • We explored congruence of both antibiotic prescribing and antibiotic choice with European Respiratory Society (ERS)/European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) guidelines for managing LRTI. (
  • This case-control-study investigated prevalence and relevance of specific organisms in Ghanaian children admitted to hospital with symptoms of lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI). (
  • Background: Evaluations of the guidelines for the management of Lower Respiratory Tract Infections (LRTI) Subâ  Saharan Africa, particularly in Tanzania is scant. (
  • We aimed to assess the association between inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) and the risk of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). (
  • [ 9 ] However, the association between ICSs and risk of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) remains unclear, though URTI is the most common respiratory infection and also an important cause of exacerbation of COPD. (
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a yeast based (beta glucan) antioxidant supplement on symptoms of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) in WLFF. (
  • The true incidence of the condition in community may be much higher as usually parents do not consult their doctors when their children develop an upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) [ 4 ]. (
  • Methods: We used generalized additive time series models to estimate the association between the proportion of respiratory tests positive for influenza infection in Singapore reported to the World Health Organization every week, and the population rate of polyclinic attendances in Singapore for physician-diagnosed URTI, which includes influenza-like illness (ILI), for six years from 2012 through 2017. (
  • However, a substantial number of polyclinic attendances due to febrile infections such as dengue fever and chickenpox appear to be recorded as URTI in the polyclinic database. (
  • One of the most common causes of visit to physician is upper respiratory tract infections (URTI). (
  • In my last 8 years of practice, many children with frequent Upper Respiratory Tract Infection (URTI) have come to me and Homoeopathy has never disappointed them. (
  • The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of BEZ235 alone and in combination with RAD001 to support further development to reduce the incidence of respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in elderly subjects. (
  • The reviewers identified 14 well-designed studies of probiotics for the prevention of upper or lower respiratory tract infections (RTIs). (
  • Our clinical observations suggest that children with gastrointestinal heat retention syndrome (GHRS) may have a greater risk of catching respiratory tract infections (RTIs). (
  • Background and aim Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are common in the community. (
  • Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are any infection of the sinuses, throat, airways or lungs. (
  • Children tend to get more upper RTIs than adults because they have not yet built up immunity (resistance) to the many viruses that can cause these infections. (
  • Shulman, ST 1998, ' Changing nature of bacteria causing pediatric upper and lower respiratory tract infections: Focus on β-lactamase-producing bacteria ', Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice , vol. 7, no. (
  • Acute viral upper respiratory tract infection defined as a visit with only one listed diagnosis and this diagnosis had an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) code for acute nasopharyngitis (ICD-9-CM 460), acute laryngitis and tracheitis (ICD-9-CM 464.xx), acute respiratory infections of multiple or unspecified sites (ICD-9-CM 465.xx), or cough (ICD-9-CM 786.2). (
  • Organoids generated from dozens of tissues and organs available commercially, or accessible through published protocols include patient-derived models of liver , heart, pancreas, brain, GI tract, kidney, and recently, of human airways suitable for drug and vaccine development and for studying infectious human respiratory diseases. (
  • 1 Respiratory and Enteric Viruses Branch, Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA. (
  • 001), while hospitalization rates for lower respiratory tract diseases excluding bronchiolitis did not vary significantly (P for trend = .20). (
  • As with other respiratory pathogens, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease , diabetes mellitus, alcohol abuse, malignancy, and neurologic diseases are risk factors for the acquisition of lower respiratory tract infections. (
  • SGS has a wealth of expertise in early phase clinical trials, first in human (FIH) studies, human challenge testing and complex PK/PD studies with a focus on infectious diseases, vaccines, and respiratory therapeutics. (
  • Species with interesting in vitro properties towards pharyngeal cells or against common respiratory pathogens have also been included. (
  • To identify respiratory pathogens in all saliva samples and RTI-S stool samples reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) was applied. (
  • Pathogens associated with hospitalization due to acute lower respiratory tract infections in children in rural Ghana: a case-control study. (
  • This study highlights the need for heightened surveillance and development of effective vaccines for respiratory pathogens other than SARS-CoV-2 in the future . (
  • Immunoassays are limited to a small number of respiratory pathogens and lack sensitivity. (
  • AIM Laboratories uses the TheromoFisher OpenArray-TaqMan-based platform to detect respiratory pathogens, including viruses, bacteria and fugal species (See the complete panel). (
  • This is a sensitive, syndromic panel-based, real-time PCR solution for the detection of respiratory pathogens. (
  • Provides simultaneous detection - probable respiratory pathogens as well as antibiotic resistance genes using a single sample, saving time and cost for treatment. (
  • Bronchiolitis is most often caused by the respiratory syncytial virus. (
  • Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes more lower respiratory tract infections, often manifested as bronchiolitis, among young children than any other pathogen. (
  • Recently, several lines of research have documented that it is effective to target the infection process rather than killing bacteria. (
  • The test identifies viruses and bacteria that cause upper respiratory tract symptoms. (
  • The culture may be used to help determine which antibiotic is appropriate to treat an infection due to bacteria. (
  • The presence of any disease-causing virus, bacteria, or fungus means these organisms may be causing your infection. (
  • Severe pneumococcal infections result from dissemination of bacteria to the bloodstream and the central nervous system. (
  • A blood test may help see if the infection is caused by a virus or bacteria. (
  • Enterobacter species can infect surgical wounds in any body site, and these infections are clinically indistinguishable from infections caused by other bacteria. (
  • Remeclar is indicated for the treatment of infections caused by strains of susceptible bacteria. (
  • All consultations took place in 2013 and related to children aged under 12 years with acute cough and respiratory tract infection. (
  • If you have an infection such as a cold, tiny droplets of fluid containing the cold virus are launched into the air whenever you sneeze or cough. (
  • Patients presenting with influenza-like illness /upper respiratory tract infection +/- lower RTI were recruited between January-July 2015. (
  • We aimed to estimate the association between influenza infection activity and polyclinic attendance rates for upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) in the Singapore population. (
  • Gul D, Cohen C, Tempia S, Newall AT, Muscatello DJ (2018) Influenza‐associated mortality in South Africa, 2009‐2013: the importance of choices related to influenza infection proxies. (
  • Effect of micronutrient supplements on influenza and other respiratory tract infections. (
  • A novel influenza A virus is one that has caused human infection, but is different from current seasonal human influenza A viruses that circulate among people. (
  • Human infection with a novel influenza A virus is a nationally notifiable condition reportable to CDC. (
  • Avian influenza A viruses do not normally infect humans, but sporadic human infections have occurred. (
  • Highly pathogenic Asian avian influenza A(H5N1) and low pathogenic Asian A(H7N9) viruses account for the majority of human infections with avian influenza A viruses. (
  • Human infections with avian influenza A viruses have most often occurred after exposure to infected poultry or their secretions or excretions, such as through direct or close contact, including visiting a live poultry market. (
  • Among H5 avian influenza A viruses, Asian highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A (H5N1) viruses have caused the most human infections. (
  • It should not be administered in the common cold, influenza or other infections caused by viruses. (
  • This is a randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled, multicenter, parallel-group, dose finding 24-week study to assess the safety, tolerability and efficacy of up to 3 doses of BEZ235 alone and in combination with RAD001 as compared to placebo in elderly subjects who are at increased risk of respiratory tract infection related-morbidity and mortality. (
  • Many lower respiratory infections (LRTIs) are self-limited and resolve without the need for additional treatment. (
  • Meropenem is a broad-spectrum antibacterial that is usually used in the treatment of serious lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs). (
  • The Swedish team found bocavirus contributed to at least 3% of serious lower respiratory tract infections. (
  • Most infections are caused by viruses, and in other instances, the cause is bacterial. (
  • Asian H5N1 viruses are currently circulating among poultry in Asia and the Middle East and human infections with these viruses have been reported in 17 countries since 2003. (
  • HPAI H5 viruses detected in birds and poultry in the United States are different and have not caused human infections. (
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) tracks the number of reported, confirmed, human infections with HPAI H5N1 viruses. (
  • Sporadic human infections with HPAI H5N6 viruses also have been reported in China, resulting in severe illness and high mortality. (
  • The first human infections with H7N9 viruses were reported by WHO on April 1, 2013 external icon and sporadic human infections continue to be reported in China. (
  • These HPAI H7N9 Asian viruses continue to be associated with human infections in China. (
  • Since the implementation of a large-scale H5-H7 poultry vaccination program in September 2017, few human infections with Asian H7N9 viruses have been reported. (
  • Sporadic human infections with some low pathogenicity H9N2 viruses also have been reported in China, Hong Kong, Bangladesh, and Egypt. (
  • He says some people might find it hard to believe that a virus could be responsible for obesity and says there are multiple causes of obesity, ranging from simple overeating to genetics, to metabolism and also perhaps viruses and infections. (
  • Recurrent respiratory tract infections (RRTIs) have a negative impact on both children's health and family wellbeing. (
  • Association between serum vitamin A levels and recurrent respiratory tract infections in children. (
  • However, some older children and adults may have respiratory compromise, especially those with congenital or acquired subglottic stenosis. (
  • Multiplex PCR point of care testing versus routine, laboratory-based testing in the treatment of adults with respiratory tract infections: a quasi-randomised study assessing impact on length of stay and antimicrobial use. (
  • RSV infections are also a serious health concern in the elderly and in adults with cardiopulmonary disease. (
  • An acute purulent infection of the meninges and subarachnoid space caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, most prevalent in children and adults over the age of 60. (
  • Valstead 450mg Tablet is also used to prevent Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections in patients who have received an organ transplant from a person who was infected with CMV and as prophylaxis for CMV in adults and children. (
  • Is the flu an Upper or Lower Respiratory Tract Infection? (
  • BACKGROUND: Laboratory-based respiratory pathogen (RP) results are often available too late to influence clinical decisions such as hospitalisation or antibiotic treatment due to time delay in transport of specimens and testing schedules. (
  • An upper respiratory tract infection is any infection that involves the nasal cavity , paranasal sinuses , pharynx , or larynx , and it's most often caused by an invading pathogen like a virus. (
  • The emergence of resistant pneumococcus as a pathogen in childhood upper respiratory tract infections. (
  • Extensive coverage including SARS-CoV-2 targets - the largest number respiratory pathogen targets of any respiratory test on the market. (
  • From 2008-2011 to 2012-2015, the percentage of visits for acute viral upper respiratory tract infection that had an antimicrobial ordered or prescribed decreased from 37.1% to 25.5% among emergency departments (EDs) located in nonmetropolitan statistical areas, but this decline was not seen among EDs in metropolitan statistical areas. (
  • Upper respiratory tract infection (URI) represents the most common acute illness evaluated in the outpatient setting. (
  • Tobias Allander and Björn Andersson, of the Karolinska Institutet (KI), identified a previously unknown virus called human bocavirus that can cause respiratory illness in children. (
  • Many Asian H7N9 virus infected patients have had severe respiratory illness. (
  • H9N2 virus infection of humans generally causes mild upper respiratory tract illness. (
  • RSV is recognised as a significant cause of respiratory illness in all age groups. (
  • AR can not only prolong illness, impose additional medical expenditure and increase mortality, but also deter some common medical procedures, for example caesarean sections, due to increased risk of infections [2]. (
  • Bronchitis, or infection of the bronchi, often resolves on its own with no complications. (
  • Bronchitis is an infection of the larger airways. (
  • Acute lower respiratory infection : a review of experience in four countries / Lori DiPrete. (
  • Acute lower respiratory infections are a global public health problem, causing significant morbidity and mortality, in addition to a high economic toll. (
  • Acute lower respiratory tract infections are a worldwide public health problem. (
  • As one of the world's polluted regions, we assessed the association between ambient PM 2.5 levels and acute lower and upper respiratory infection in India. (
  • Every 10 µg/m 3 increase in levels of PM 2.5 associated with acute upper respiratory infection (OR 1.02, 95%CI: 1.02-1.03) and acute lower respiratory infection (OR 1.05, 95%CI: 1.03-1.06). (
  • Identification of severe acute lower respiratory tract infections in children. (
  • Fast Five Quiz: Upper Respiratory Tract Infections - Medscape - Jan 22, 2021. (
  • This report describes the global market size of Respiratory Tract Infection Treatment from 2017 to 2021 and its CAGR from 2017 to 2021, and also forecasts its market size to the end of 2027 and its CAGR from 2022 to 2027. (
  • The researchers discovered the virus in respiratory tract samples from children at Karolinska University Hospital in Stockholm utilizing a new method for virus discovery. (
  • Currently, infections of the lower respiratory tract are a significant cause of hospitalization of children. (
  • The overall aim of this NIHR funded Programme for Applied Research Grant is to improve the quality of care given to children presenting to primary care with respiratory tract infections. (
  • Recurrent respiratory tract infection (RRTI) is a common disease with a higher morbidity both in winter and spring, especially for children [ 5 ]. (
  • This study aimed to fill this gap by exploring associations between parent-clinician communication and antibiotic prescribing for children with respiratory tract infection in primary care in England. (
  • Nandimath MK, Ahuja S. Drug prescribing pattern in upper respiratory tract infection in children aged 1-14 years. (
  • Respiratory infections are one of the most common causes of death among children under the age of five years. (
  • Acute respiratory tract infections (RTI) in children are a common reason for antibiotic prescribing. (
  • Indoor charcoal smoke and acute respiratory infections in young children in the Dominican Republic. (
  • The authors investigated the effect of charcoal smoke exposure on risks of acute upper and lower respiratory infection (AURI and ALRI) among children under age 18 months in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic (1991-1992). (
  • in young children, the primary sites of infection are frequently not identified. (
  • Broers, CJM 2016, ' Host immune response in children with Down syndrome related to respiratory tract infection ', Doctor of Philosophy, VU University. (
  • Abudureyimu, K, Suryadhi, MAH , Yorifuji, T & Tsuda, T 2022, ' Exposure to fine particulate matter and acute upper- and lower-respiratory tract infections (AURI and ALRI) in children under five years of age in India ', Archives of Environmental and Occupational Health . (
  • Most H9N2 virus infections in people have occurred in children after poultry exposures. (
  • The increase in emm 4 infections was also found predominantly in 4- to 5-year-old children, the group found to be most at risk for scarlet fever. (
  • Averaging bronchiolitis hospitalizations during 1994-1996 and assuming that RSV was the etiologic agent in 50% to 80% of November through April hospitalizations, an estimated 51, 240 to 81, 985 annual bronchiolitis hospitalizations among children younger than 1 year were related to RSV infection. (
  • Enterovirus 68 strains were detected in 14 specimens from children with respiratory tract infections and 1 specimen from a child with febrile convulsions during 2010 in Osaka, Japan. (
  • Obesity is a risk factor for both susceptibility to infections including postoperative infections and other nosocomial infections and the occurrence of a more severe disease course. (
  • The study has reported multidrug-resistant gonorrhoea infection in heterosexual men in Thailand with reduced susceptibility to ceftriaxone. (
  • Results revealed that immune variables were correlated with symptoms of upper respiratory tract infections and training-load indicators, indicating a possible marker of immune status. (
  • The authors analyzed clinical notification data for North-West London during 2009 through 2014 and determined emm genotypes of Streptococcus pyogenes causing upper respiratory tract, or URT, infections. (
  • As with infections caused by organisms such as Streptococcus pneumoniae , many Enterobacter infections in elderly debilitated patients do not cause a systemic inflammatory reaction. (
  • Infección purulenta aguda de las meninges y del espacio subaracnoideo producida por Streptococcus pneumoniae, de mayor prevalencia en niños y adultos mayores de 60 años. (
  • The ongoing global pandemic of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has impacted hundreds of millions of people's lives. (
  • This can lead to severe breathing problems, which can eventually result in respiratory failure or even death. (
  • These medications act by suppressing the immune system, leaving the patient exposed to severe infection and at risk of cancer. (
  • Severe hepatitis, hepatic failure, and disseminated enteroviral infections have been reported in neonates, hematolymphoid malignancies, and hematopoietic transplant recipients. (
  • [ 22 ] Cases varied in severity from fulminant bacteremic infections to less-severe wound infections. (
  • The dose may be increased to 500mg twice daily for up to 14 days in severe infections. (
  • Renal impairment: 250mg once daily or 250mg twice daily in more severe infections. (
  • She has frequent attacks of diarrhoea and a respiratory tract infection. (
  • Evaluation of intranasal recombinant human interferon alfa-2b in the treatment of acute respiratory viral infections with mild clinical classification. (
  • Laryngitis Viral Infection results from inflammation of the larynx, especially in the vocal cords. (
  • Respiratory health effects of passive smoking : lung cancer and other disorders, the report of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (
  • Respiratory health effects of passive smoking : lung cancer and other disorders. (
  • Top homeopathic medicines for respiratory tract infections, lung. (
  • Examples include lung irritants and exercise, as well as viral infections and acid reflux. (
  • Pharyngeal swabs were taken and tested by PCR for 19 respiratory isolates. (
  • Surges in scarlet fever are believed to require a population susceptible to pharyngeal infection with specific strain types and specific superantigens. (
  • RÉSUMÉ Afin d'évaluer la performance des agents de santé sur le plan du diagnostic et du traitement des infections respiratoires aiguës (IRA) et de la diarrhée aiguë chez les enfants de moins de 5 ans dans 11 dispensaires ruraux au Yémen, nous avons réalisé une étude transversale de 219 cas d'IRA et 93 cas de diarrhée aiguë. (
  • Some studies show that probiotic strains can prevent respiratory infections. (
  • During 1980-1996, rates of hospitalization of infants with bronchiolitis increased substantially, as did the proportion of total and lower respiratory tract hospitalizations associated with bronchiolitis. (
  • Captain Miller, can you tell us about some of the potential complications of these lower respiratory infections? (
  • Viral infections in the upper respiratory tract predispose the patient to secondary bacterial infection, particularly by staphylococci, streptococci, and H. influenzae. (
  • If a bacterial infection spreads to the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, called the meninges, the result is meningitis. (
  • Respiratory failure happens when not enough oxygen passes from the lungs into the blood. (
  • Infection in the lungs can cause the airways to fill with fluid and pus, which makes it difficult for the alveoli to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide with the blood. (
  • Lower respiratory tract infections occur in the lower respiratory system's anatomical structures and organs, including the larynx below the vocal folds, trachea or windpipe, lungs, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, and diaphragm. (
  • Bronchiolitis is an infection of the lungs. (
  • It then spreads down into the windpipe (trachea) and lungs (lower respiratory tract). (
  • This medication is an antibiotic, prescribed for certain types of bacterial infections, including infections of the lungs, skin, blood, female reproductive organs and internal organs. (
  • com/medicalpubs/diseasemanagement/infectious-disease/upper- respiratory- tract- infection/ Accessed on 1 August 2012. (
  • The focus of this report is the prevention of invasive pneumococcal disease (i.e., bacteremia, meningitis, or infection of other normally sterile sites) through the use of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. (
  • This vaccine protects against invasive bacteremic disease, although existing data suggest that it is less effective in protecting against other types of pneumococcal infections. (
  • Dr Rossaphorn Kittiyaowamarn, Chief of Bangrak Sexually Transmitted Infections Center, Department of Disease Control, Ministry of Public Health, Government of Thailand, is rightly concerned. (
  • Due to the risk of meningococcal infections/sepsis associated with the use of Ultomiris, patients should be vaccinated for meningococcal disease according to current ACIP guidelines to reduce the risk of serious infection. (
  • In chronic or refractory cases, a longer course of therapy may be required e.g. chronic skin disease 10 - 20 days, chronic cystitis 10 - 28 days, respiratory disease 8 - 10 days. (
  • Dagan R, Klugman KP, Craig WA, Baquero F. Evidence to support the rationale that bacterial eradication in respiratory tract infection is an important aim of antimicrobial therapy. (
  • However, no evidence of the benefits of probiotics for acute upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) and related potential adverse effects has been published. (
  • Clinical trials have shown that probiotics can be used as preventive and therapeutic agents in upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) and otitis. (
  • Because all isolates were from the respiratory tract, the initial focus included a review of postoperative nursing and respiratory-care practices, respiratory therapy equipment management, and anesthesia practice and equipment management. (
  • Respiratory tract infection (RTI) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide especially in low- and middle-income countries. (
  • This infection is often considered to be of little value from a stand point of mortality but this infection is responsible for limited activity and absence from work and school in the general population of nation mainly in a developing country like India, when compared it with other infections. (
  • In the US, they continue to be a major source of morbidity and mortality over any other infection. (
  • Despite advances in the field of medicine, there has been little change in mortality due to respiratory tract infection over the past five decades [1] , [2] . (
  • During the past five annual epidemics of Asian H7N9 virus infections in people, the mortality rate in hospitalized patients has averaged about 40 percent. (
  • Our upper respiratory system contains the following structures: nose/nostrils, nasal cavity, mouth, throat or pharynx, and larynx above the vocal folds. (
  • The simplest way to remember where the lower respiratory system begins is the larynx. (
  • Lower Respiratory System = Larynx. (
  • Anything generally below the larynx is the lower respiratory tract, and anything above the larynx, specifically the vocal folds, is the upper respiratory tract. (
  • Just as it sounds, upper respiratory tract infections occur in the upper respiratory system: nose/nostrils, nasal cavity, mouth, throat or pharynx, and larynx above the vocal folds. (
  • 4 Around 60% of these prescriptions are issued for common acute respiratory tract infections, for which the Norwegian national guidelines recommend penicillin V as the antibiotic of choice when treatment is necessary. (
  • This entry was posted on Sunday, February 1st, 2009 at 6:53 PM and is filed under Common Cold , Infection , Pre, Pro, Synbiotics . (
  • The most widespread respiratory tract infection is the common cold . (
  • According to researchers in the U.S. a common virus (adenovirus-36), that causes throat and eye infections may play a part in obesity. (
  • The study found that the infection was three times more common in obese people and may explain the "healthy obese", who are substantially overweight but have healthy blood pressure and cholesterol levels. (
  • Skin rashes are more common with echoviral infections than with other enteroviral infections. (
  • It is highly infectious and the most common cause of lower respiratory tract infections in paediatric populations worldwide, resulting in a high number of hospitalisations. (
  • Treating even common infections is becoming a problem. (
  • Gonorrhoea is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infections in Thailand, affecting both men and women, particularly between 15 and 24 years old. (
  • Surveillance for nosocomial infection at BHS is driven by results of clinical microbiology cultures. (
  • Positive cultures are reviewed using a combination of microbiology reports and paper or electronic medical records to determine infections and colonizations. (
  • Carroll K, Reimer L. Microbiology and laboratory diagnosis of upper respiratory tract infections. (
  • In most cases, Enterobacter skin and soft tissue infections are hospital-acquired and include cellulitis , fasciitis, myositis , abscesses, and wound infections . (