The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
The capability of the LUNGS to distend under pressure as measured by pulmonary volume change per unit pressure change. While not a complete description of the pressure-volume properties of the lung, it is nevertheless useful in practice as a measure of the comparative stiffness of the lung. (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p562)
The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.
Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.
Congenital structural abnormalities of the respiratory system.
Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.
The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a normal, quiet expiration. It is the sum of the RESIDUAL VOLUME and the EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME. Common abbreviation is FRC.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
Thin-walled sacs or spaces which function as a part of the respiratory system in birds, fishes, insects, and mammals.
Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).
The force per unit area that the air exerts on any surface in contact with it. Primarily used for articles pertaining to air pressure within a closed environment.
The measurement of frequency or oscillation changes.
Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
A method of mechanical ventilation in which pressure is maintained to increase the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of expiration, thus reducing the shunting of blood through the lungs and improving gas exchange.
The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.
Respiratory tract diseases are a broad range of medical conditions that affect the nose, throat, windpipe, and lungs, impairing breathing and oxygen uptake, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pneumonia, bronchitis, influenza, tuberculosis, and sleep apnea.
Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.
A species of migratory Old World locusts, in the family ACRIDIDAE, that are important pests in Africa and Asia.
The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
Complete or severe weakness of the muscles of respiration. This condition may be associated with MOTOR NEURON DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVE DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; injury to the PHRENIC NERVE; and other disorders.
The upper part of the trunk between the NECK and the ABDOMEN. It contains the chief organs of the circulatory and respiratory systems. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A syndrome characterized by progressive life-threatening RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY in the absence of known LUNG DISEASES, usually following a systemic insult such as surgery or major TRAUMA.
The volume of air contained in the lungs at the end of a maximal inspiration. It is the equivalent to each of the following sums: VITAL CAPACITY plus RESIDUAL VOLUME; INSPIRATORY CAPACITY plus FUNCTIONAL RESIDUAL CAPACITY; TIDAL VOLUME plus INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus functional residual capacity; or tidal volume plus inspiratory reserve volume plus EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus residual volume.
Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.
Hemeproteins whose characteristic mode of action involves transfer of reducing equivalents which are associated with a reversible change in oxidation state of the prosthetic group. Formally, this redox change involves a single-electron, reversible equilibrium between the Fe(II) and Fe(III) states of the central iron atom (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539). The various cytochrome subclasses are organized by the type of HEME and by the wavelength range of their reduced alpha-absorption bands.
The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.
Respiratory Tract Neoplasms are defined as abnormal growths or tumors that develop within the respiratory system, including the nose, sinuses, throat (pharynx), voice box (larynx), windpipe (trachea), bronchi, and lungs, which can be benign or malignant, with the potential to cause significant morbidity and mortality.
Mechanical devices used to produce or assist pulmonary ventilation.
Absence of air in the entire or part of a lung, such as an incompletely inflated neonate lung or a collapsed adult lung. Pulmonary atelectasis can be caused by airway obstruction, lung compression, fibrotic contraction, or other factors.
The outer margins of the thorax containing SKIN, deep FASCIA; THORACIC VERTEBRAE; RIBS; STERNUM; and MUSCLES.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a maximal expiration. Common abbreviation is RV.
Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.
Failure to adequately provide oxygen to cells of the body and to remove excess carbon dioxide from them. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Measurement of the volume of gas in the lungs, including that which is trapped in poorly communicating air spaces. It is of particular use in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)
Hospitals controlled by the county government.
Agents causing the narrowing of the lumen of a bronchus or bronchiole.
The number of times an organism breathes with the lungs (RESPIRATION) per unit time, usually per minute.
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The extra volume of air that can be expired with maximum effort beyond the level reached at the end of a normal, quiet expiration. Common abbreviation is ERV.
General name for two extinct orders of reptiles from the Mesozoic era: Saurischia and Ornithischia.
Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.
Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.
Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
The act of BREATHING in.
Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
Damage to any compartment of the lung caused by physical, chemical, or biological agents which characteristically elicit inflammatory reaction. These inflammatory reactions can either be acute and dominated by NEUTROPHILS, or chronic and dominated by LYMPHOCYTES and MACROPHAGES.
A condition of the newborn marked by DYSPNEA with CYANOSIS, heralded by such prodromal signs as dilatation of the alae nasi, expiratory grunt, and retraction of the suprasternal notch or costal margins, mostly frequently occurring in premature infants, children of diabetic mothers, and infants delivered by cesarean section, and sometimes with no apparent predisposing cause.
Large, long-tailed reptiles, including caimans, of the order Loricata.
RESPIRATORY MUSCLE contraction during INHALATION. The work is accomplished in three phases: LUNG COMPLIANCE work, that required to expand the LUNGS against its elastic forces; tissue resistance work, that required to overcome the viscosity of the lung and chest wall structures; and AIRWAY RESISTANCE work, that required to overcome airway resistance during the movement of air into the lungs. Work of breathing does not refer to expiration, which is entirely a passive process caused by elastic recoil of the lung and chest cage. (Guyton, Textbook of Medical Physiology, 8th ed, p406)
Cytochromes (electron-transporting proteins) in which the heme prosthetic group is heme a, i.e., the iron chelate of cytoporphyrin IX. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
The maximum volume of air that can be inspired after reaching the end of a normal, quiet expiration. It is the sum of the TIDAL VOLUME and the INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME. Common abbreviation is IC.
Non-therapeutic positive end-expiratory pressure occurring frequently in patients with severe airway obstruction. It can appear with or without the administration of external positive end-expiratory pressure (POSITIVE-PRESSURE RESPIRATION). It presents an important load on the inspiratory muscles which are operating at a mechanical disadvantage due to hyperinflation. Auto-PEEP may cause profound hypotension that should be treated by intravascular volume expansion, increasing the time for expiration, and/or changing from assist mode to intermittent mandatory ventilation mode. (From Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 12th ed, p1127)
A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.
These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The act of BREATHING out.
Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.
A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes, but has been shown to be an especially potent inhibitor of heme enzymes and hemeproteins. It is used in many industrial processes.
HYPOVENTILATION syndrome in very obese persons with excessive ADIPOSE TISSUE around the ABDOMEN and DIAPHRAGM. It is characterized by diminished to absent ventilatory chemoresponsiveness; chronic HYPOXIA; HYPERCAPNIA; POLYCYTHEMIA; and long periods of sleep during day and night (HYPERSOMNOLENCE). It is a condition often related to OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA but can occur separately.
That part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT or the air within the respiratory tract that does not exchange OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE with pulmonary capillary blood.
Helium. A noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion. It was first detected in the sun and is now obtained from natural gas. Medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.
Ventilatory support system using frequencies from 60-900 cycles/min or more. Three types of systems have been distinguished on the basis of rates, volumes, and the system used. They are high frequency positive-pressure ventilation (HFPPV); HIGH-FREQUENCY JET VENTILATION; (HFJV); and high-frequency oscillation (HFO).
The HEART and the BLOOD VESSELS by which BLOOD is pumped and circulated through the body.
The motor nerve of the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve fibers originate in the cervical spinal column (mostly C4) and travel through the cervical plexus to the diaphragm.
Used in the form of the hydrochloride as a reagent in ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES.
The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.
The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.
The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.
The 8-hydroxy derivatives inhibit various enzymes and their halogenated derivatives, though neurotoxic, are used as topical anti-infective agents, among other uses.
Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.
A pathological accumulation of air in tissues or organs.
A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.
Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.
Recording of change in the size of a part as modified by the circulation in it.
Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
Chemicals that are used to cause the disturbance, disease, or death of humans during WARFARE.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
The posture of an individual lying face down.
Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.
The rate of airflow measured during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination.
Processes and properties of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.
A subcategory of CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE. The disease is characterized by hypersecretion of mucus accompanied by a chronic (more than 3 months in 2 consecutive years) productive cough. Infectious agents are a major cause of chronic bronchitis.
A pulmonary ventilation rate faster than is metabolically necessary for the exchange of gases. It is the result of an increased frequency of breathing, an increased tidal volume, or a combination of both. It causes an excess intake of oxygen and the blowing off of carbon dioxide.
Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.
Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.
A set of twelve curved bones which connect to the vertebral column posteriorly, and terminate anteriorly as costal cartilage. Together, they form a protective cage around the internal thoracic organs.
Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the respiratory tract or its organs. It includes RESPIRATORY FUNCTION TESTS.
The muscular membranous segment between the PHARYNX and the STOMACH in the UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An infant during the first month after birth.
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
An activity in which the organism plunges into water. It includes scuba and bell diving. Diving as natural behavior of animals goes here, as well as diving in decompression experiments with humans or animals.
Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Excessive accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lung, an indication of a serious underlying disease or disorder. Pulmonary edema prevents efficient PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE in the PULMONARY ALVEOLI, and can be life-threatening.
Substances and drugs that lower the SURFACE TENSION of the mucoid layer lining the PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).
The resistance to the flow of either alternating or direct electrical current.
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.
Drugs used for their effects on the respiratory system.
A condition of lung damage that is characterized by bilateral pulmonary infiltrates (PULMONARY EDEMA) rich in NEUTROPHILS, and in the absence of clinical HEART FAILURE. This can represent a spectrum of pulmonary lesions, endothelial and epithelial, due to numerous factors (physical, chemical, or biological).
Tendency of the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree to contract more intensely in response to a given stimulus than it does in the response seen in normal individuals. This condition is present in virtually all symptomatic patients with asthma. The most prominent manifestation of this smooth muscle contraction is a decrease in airway caliber that can be readily measured in the pulmonary function laboratory.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.
Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.
A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.
Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.
A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of SUCCINATE to fumarate. In most eukaryotic organisms this enzyme is a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex II.
The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.
Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
The posture of an individual lying face up.
The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.
Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
Cytochromes (electron-transporting proteins) with protoheme (HEME B) as the prosthetic group.
A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.
Difficult or labored breathing.
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Measurement of the maximum rate of airflow attained during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are PEFR and PFR.
The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
Relating to the size of solids.
Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunits. It is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water. The redox reaction is simultaneously coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.

Physical characterization of a low-charge glycoform of the MUC5B mucin comprising the gel-phase of an asthmatic respiratory mucous plug. (1/2373)

We have previously noted that sequential extraction of an asthmatic mucous exudate with 6 M guanidinium chloride yielded a fraction of the mucins that were most resistant to solubilization and of high Mr [Sheehan, Richardson, Fung, Howard and Thornton (1995) Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 13, 748-756]. Here we show that this mucin fraction is dominated (at least 96% of the total) by the low-charge glycoform of the MUC5B gene product. Seen in the electron microscope the mucins appeared mainly as compact 'island' structures composed of linear threads often emanating from globular 'nodes' rather than the discrete linear threads more typical of mucins that we have previously described. The effect of reducing agents was as expected for other gel-forming mucins, i.e. reduced subunits or monomers of Mr 3x10(6)) were produced within 15 min of treatment. Kinetic experiments on the cleavage of the intact mucins with the proteinase trypsin indicated two clear regimes of fragmentation. An initial rapid cleavage generated mucins ranging from Mr=4x10(6) to 30x10(6) that in the electron microscope appeared as polydisperse threads (500-3000 nm in length), similar to normal and other respiratory mucins that we have previously characterized. A subsequent slower fragmentation over many hours yielded a major fragment of Mr 3x10(6) and length 200-600 nm, very similar in size and Mr to the subunits obtained by reduction. The results suggest that the MUC5B mucin is assembled, first into polydisperse linear threads, which are then linked together via a protein-mediated process. This might involve part of the mucin polypeptide or an as yet unidentified protein(s). The high proteinase susceptibility of the linkage suggests that it might be a point of control for mucin size and thus mucus rheology.  (+info)

Capsaicin-sensitive C-fiber-mediated protective responses in ozone inhalation in rats. (2/2373)

To assess the role of lung sensory C fibers during and after inhalation of 1 part/million ozone for 8 h, we compared breathing pattern responses and epithelial injury-inflammation-repair in rats depleted of C fibers by systemic administration of capsaicin as neonates and in vehicle-treated control animals. Capsaicin-treated rats did not develop ozone-induced rapid, shallow breathing. Capsaicin-treated rats showed more severe necrosis in the nasal cavity and greater inflammation throughout the respiratory tract than did control rats exposed to ozone. Incorporation of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (a marker of DNA synthesis associated with proliferation) into terminal bronchiolar epithelial cells was not significantly affected by capsaicin treatment in rats exposed to ozone. However, when normalized to the degree of epithelial necrosis present in each rat studied, there was less 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine labeling in the terminal bronchioles of capsaicin-treated rats. These observations suggest that the ozone-induced release of neuropeptides does not measurably contribute to airway inflammation but may play a role in modulating basal and reparative airway epithelial cell proliferation.  (+info)

Mediators of anaphylaxis but not activated neutrophils augment cholinergic responses of equine small airways. (3/2373)

Neutrophilic inflammation in small airways (SA) and bronchospasm mediated via muscarinic receptors are features of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in horses (COPD). Histamine, serotonin, and leukotrienes (LTs) are reported to be involved in the exacerbation of COPD, and currently, histamine has been shown to increase tension response to electrical field simulation (EFS) in equine SA. We tested the effects of these mediators and the effects of activated neutrophils on the cholinergic responses in SA. Histamine, serotonin, and LTD4 had a synergistic effect on EFS responses and only an additive effect on the tension response to exogenous ACh or methacholine. Atropine and TTX entirely eliminated the EFS-induced tension response in the presence of all three inflammatory mediators, indicating that augmentation of the EFS response applies only to the endogenous cholinergic response. Neutrophils isolated from control and COPD-affected horses were activated by zymosan, producing 18.1 +/- 2.3 and 25.0 +/- 2.3 nmol superoxide. 10(6) cells-1. 30 min-1, respectively. However, in contrast to the profound effect of mediators, incubation of SA for over 1 h in a suspension of up to 30 x 10(6) zymosan-treated neutrophils/ml did not significantly affect EFS responses of SA isolated from either control or COPD-affected horses. We conclude that in equine SA 1) the endogenous cholinergic responses are subject to strong facilitation by inflammatory mediators; 2) activated neutrophils do not affect cholinergic responses in SA; and 3) in acute bouts of equine COPD, histamine, LTD4, and serotonin (mediators primarily associated with type I allergic reaction) rather than mediators derived from neutrophils most likely contribute to increased cholinergic airway tone.  (+info)

Conserved function of mSpry-2, a murine homolog of Drosophila sprouty, which negatively modulates respiratory organogenesis. (4/2373)

In Drosophila embryos, the loss of sprouty gene function enhances branching of the respiratory system. Three human sprouty homologues (h-Spry1-3) have been cloned recently, but their function is as yet unknown [1]. Here, we show that a murine sprouty gene (mSpry-2), the product of which shares 97% homology with the respective human protein, is expressed in the embryonic murine lung. We used an antisense oligonucleotide strategy to reduce expression of mSpry-2 by 96%, as measured by competitive reverse transcriptase PCR, in E11. 5 murine embryonic lungs cultured for 4 days [2]. Morphologically, the decrease in mSpry-2 expression resulted in a 72% increase in embryonic murine lung branching morphogenesis as well as a significant increase in expression of the lung epithelial marker genes SP-C, SP-B and SP-A. These results support a striking conservation of function between the Drosophila and mammalian sprouty gene families to negatively modulate respiratory organogenesis.  (+info)

Epidermal growth factor system regulates mucin production in airways. (5/2373)

Goblet-cell hyperplasia is a critical pathological feature in hypersecretory diseases of airways. However, the underlying mechanisms are unknown, and no effective therapy exists. Here we show that stimulation of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGF-R) by its ligands, EGF and transforming growth factor alpha (TGFalpha), causes MUC5AC expression in airway epithelial cells both in in vitro and in vivo. We found that a MUC5AC-inducing epithelial cell line, NCI-H292, expresses EGF-R constitutively; EGF-R gene expression was stimulated further by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha). EGF-R ligands increased the expression of MUC5AC at both gene and protein levels, and this effect was potentiated by TNFalpha. Selective EGF-R tyrosine kinase inhibitors blocked MUC5AC expression induced by EGF-R ligands. Pathogen-free rats expressed little EGF-R protein in airway epithelial cells; intratracheal instillation of TNFalpha induced EGF-R in airway epithelial cells, and subsequent instillation of EGF-R ligands increased the number of goblet cells, Alcian blue-periodic acid-Schiff staining (reflecting mucous glycoconjugates), and MUC5AC gene expression, whereas TNFalpha, EGF, or TGFalpha alone was without effect. In sensitized rats, three intratracheal instillations of ovalbumin resulted in EGF-R expression and goblet-cell production in airway epithelium. Pretreatment with EGF-R tyrosine kinase inhibitor, BIBX1522, prevented goblet-cell production both in rats stimulated by TNFalpha-EGF-R ligands and in an asthma model. These findings suggest potential roles for inhibitors of the EGF-R cascade in hypersecretory diseases of airways.  (+info)

Pulmonary expression of interleukin-13 causes inflammation, mucus hypersecretion, subepithelial fibrosis, physiologic abnormalities, and eotaxin production. (6/2373)

Interleukin (IL)-13 is a pleiotropic cytokine produced in large quantities by activated CD4(+) Th2 lymphocytes. To define further its potential in vivo effector functions, the Clara cell 10-kDa protein promoter was used to express IL-13 selectively in the lung, and the phenotype of the resulting transgenic mice was characterized. In contrast to transgene-negative littermates, the lungs of transgene-positive mice contained an inflammatory response around small and large airways and in the surrounding parenchyma. It was mononuclear in nature and contained significant numbers of eosinophils and enlarged and occasionally multinucleated macrophages. Airway epithelial cell hypertrophy, mucus cell metaplasia, the hyperproduction of neutral and acidic mucus, the deposition of Charcot-Leyden-like crystals, and subepithelial airway fibrosis were also prominently noted. Eotaxin protein and mRNA were also present in large quantities in the lungs of the transgene-positive, but not the transgene-negative, mice. IL-4, IL-5, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-5 were not similarly detected. Physiological evaluations revealed significant increases in baseline airways resistance and airways hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to methacholine in transgene-positive animals. Thus, the targeted pulmonary expression of IL-13 causes a mononuclear and eosinophilic inflammatory response, mucus cell metaplasia, the deposition of Charcot-Leyden-like crystals, airway fibrosis, eotaxin production, airways obstruction, and nonspecific AHR. IL-13 may play an important role in the pathogenesis of similar responses in asthma or other Th2-polarized tissue responses.  (+info)

Behaviour and aeration of the respiratory system in the domestic fowl embryo. (7/2373)

1. The monitoring of developmental stage and under-water dissection were used to examine the initial aeration of the respiratory system in domestic fowl embryos. 2. A virtually complete absence of free air within the chorioallantois was found before the beak had begun to make 'beak-clapping' movements, even when the membranes were already draped over its tip. 3. During the 'beak-clapping' stage, but before the membranes were pierced and before respiratory movements had begun, many embryos were found to contain free bubbles of air within the trachea and air sacs. 4. All embryos in which the respiratory system was aerated were found also to have froth in the crop or other parts of the digestive system. 5. Air was found in both the respiratory and digestive systems of all embryos examined after membrane penetration by the beak. 6. When air was injected into the chorioallantois before the stage of initial aeration it was recovered 5 min later from both the respiratory and digestive systems in under-water dissections. 7. It is suggested that lung ventilation takes place in the avian embryo in three distinct stages: the major air-ways become aerated, then respiratory movements begin and lastly the tertiary bronchi are slowly aerated. It is suggested also that movements involved in the imbibing of fluids play a part in aeration before the membranes are pierced.  (+info)

Suppression of airway inflammation by theophylline in adult bronchial asthma. (8/2373)

BACKGROUND: Chronic continuous airway inflammation caused by eosinophils has been noted to play critical roles in the pathophysiology of bronchial asthma, in addition to reversible obstruction and hypersensitivity of the respiratory tract. Therefore, suppression of chronic airway inflammation has become more important in asthma treatment. Although theophylline has been a conventionally used bronchodilator, it has been recently reported to have concurrent anti-inflammatory effects. OBJECTIVE: Accordingly, we studied the effects of a slow-release theophylline preparation, Theolong, on airway inflammation. METHODS: Administration of Theolong 400 mg/day to 24 patients with mild or moderate asthma and measuring eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), a marker of airway inflammation, and eosinophils in sputum and peripheral blood at 4 and 8 weeks. RESULTS: As a result, sputum ECP, serum ECP and sputum eosinophil count (%) were significantly lowered after 4 and 8 weeks. CONCLUSION: Thus, in the theophylline-administered group, slow-release theophylline, Theolong, was effective in treating asthma, with anti-inflammatory effects on inflammatory cells besides its bronchodilator action.  (+info)

The Respiratory System is a complex network of organs and tissues that work together to facilitate the process of breathing, which involves the intake of oxygen and the elimination of carbon dioxide. This system primarily includes the nose, throat (pharynx), voice box (larynx), windpipe (trachea), bronchi, bronchioles, lungs, and diaphragm.

The nostrils or mouth take in air that travels through the pharynx, larynx, and trachea into the lungs. Within the lungs, the trachea divides into two bronchi, one for each lung, which further divide into smaller tubes called bronchioles. At the end of these bronchioles are tiny air sacs known as alveoli where the exchange of gases occurs. Oxygen from the inhaled air diffuses through the walls of the alveoli into the bloodstream, while carbon dioxide, a waste product, moves from the blood to the alveoli and is exhaled out of the body.

The diaphragm, a large muscle that separates the chest from the abdomen, plays a crucial role in breathing by contracting and relaxing to change the volume of the chest cavity, thereby allowing air to flow in and out of the lungs. Overall, the Respiratory System is essential for maintaining life by providing the body's cells with the oxygen needed for metabolism and removing waste products like carbon dioxide.

Lung compliance is a measure of the ease with which the lungs expand and is defined as the change in lung volume for a given change in transpulmonary pressure. It is often expressed in units of liters per centimeter of water (L/cm H2O). A higher compliance indicates that the lungs are more easily distensible, while a lower compliance suggests that the lungs are stiffer and require more force to expand. Lung compliance can be affected by various conditions such as pulmonary fibrosis, pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Respiratory mechanics refers to the biomechanical properties and processes that involve the movement of air through the respiratory system during breathing. It encompasses the mechanical behavior of the lungs, chest wall, and the muscles of respiration, including the diaphragm and intercostal muscles.

Respiratory mechanics includes several key components:

1. **Compliance**: The ability of the lungs and chest wall to expand and recoil during breathing. High compliance means that the structures can easily expand and recoil, while low compliance indicates greater resistance to expansion and recoil.
2. **Resistance**: The opposition to airflow within the respiratory system, primarily due to the friction between the air and the airway walls. Airway resistance is influenced by factors such as airway diameter, length, and the viscosity of the air.
3. **Lung volumes and capacities**: These are the amounts of air present in the lungs during different phases of the breathing cycle. They include tidal volume (the amount of air inspired or expired during normal breathing), inspiratory reserve volume (additional air that can be inspired beyond the tidal volume), expiratory reserve volume (additional air that can be exhaled beyond the tidal volume), and residual volume (the air remaining in the lungs after a forced maximum exhalation).
4. **Work of breathing**: The energy required to overcome the resistance and elastic forces during breathing. This work is primarily performed by the respiratory muscles, which contract to generate negative intrathoracic pressure and expand the chest wall, allowing air to flow into the lungs.
5. **Pressure-volume relationships**: These describe how changes in lung volume are associated with changes in pressure within the respiratory system. Important pressure components include alveolar pressure (the pressure inside the alveoli), pleural pressure (the pressure between the lungs and the chest wall), and transpulmonary pressure (the difference between alveolar and pleural pressures).

Understanding respiratory mechanics is crucial for diagnosing and managing various respiratory disorders, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and restrictive lung diseases.

Respiratory physiological phenomena refer to the various mechanical, chemical, and biological processes and functions that occur in the respiratory system during breathing and gas exchange. These phenomena include:

1. Ventilation: The movement of air into and out of the lungs, which is achieved through the contraction and relaxation of the diaphragm and intercostal muscles.
2. Gas Exchange: The diffusion of oxygen (O2) from the alveoli into the bloodstream and carbon dioxide (CO2) from the bloodstream into the alveoli.
3. Respiratory Mechanics: The physical properties and forces that affect the movement of air in and out of the lungs, such as lung compliance, airway resistance, and chest wall elasticity.
4. Control of Breathing: The regulation of ventilation by the central nervous system through the integration of sensory information from chemoreceptors and mechanoreceptors in the respiratory system.
5. Acid-Base Balance: The maintenance of a stable pH level in the blood through the regulation of CO2 elimination and bicarbonate balance by the respiratory and renal systems.
6. Oxygen Transport: The binding of O2 to hemoglobin in the red blood cells and its delivery to the tissues for metabolic processes.
7. Defense Mechanisms: The various protective mechanisms that prevent the entry and colonization of pathogens and foreign particles into the respiratory system, such as mucociliary clearance, cough reflex, and immune responses.

Airway resistance is a measure of the opposition to airflow during breathing, which is caused by the friction between the air and the walls of the respiratory tract. It is an important parameter in respiratory physiology because it can affect the work of breathing and gas exchange.

Airway resistance is usually expressed in units of cm H2O/L/s or Pa·s/m, and it can be measured during spontaneous breathing or during forced expiratory maneuvers, such as those used in pulmonary function testing. Increased airway resistance can result from a variety of conditions, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bronchitis, and bronchiectasis. Decreased airway resistance can be seen in conditions such as emphysema or after a successful bronchodilator treatment.

Respiratory system abnormalities refer to any conditions or structures that do not function properly or are outside the normal range in the respiratory system. The respiratory system is responsible for taking in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide through the process of breathing. It includes the nose, throat (pharynx), voice box (larynx), windpipe (trachea), bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, and muscles and nerves that support breathing.

Respiratory system abnormalities can be congenital or acquired. Congenital abnormalities are present at birth and may include conditions such as cystic fibrosis, pulmonary hypoplasia, and congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Acquired abnormalities can develop at any time throughout a person's life due to various factors such as infections, injuries, environmental exposures, or aging. Examples of acquired respiratory system abnormalities include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, pneumonia, lung cancer, and sleep apnea.

Respiratory system abnormalities can cause a range of symptoms, including coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, chest pain, and fatigue. Treatment for respiratory system abnormalities depends on the specific condition and severity and may include medications, breathing treatments, surgery, or lifestyle changes.

Lung volume measurements are clinical tests that determine the amount of air inhaled, exhaled, and present in the lungs at different times during the breathing cycle. These measurements include:

1. Tidal Volume (TV): The amount of air inhaled or exhaled during normal breathing, usually around 500 mL in resting adults.
2. Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV): The additional air that can be inhaled after a normal inspiration, approximately 3,000 mL in adults.
3. Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV): The extra air that can be exhaled after a normal expiration, about 1,000-1,200 mL in adults.
4. Residual Volume (RV): The air remaining in the lungs after a maximal exhalation, approximately 1,100-1,500 mL in adults.
5. Total Lung Capacity (TLC): The total amount of air the lungs can hold at full inflation, calculated as TV + IRV + ERV + RV, around 6,000 mL in adults.
6. Functional Residual Capacity (FRC): The volume of air remaining in the lungs after a normal expiration, equal to ERV + RV, about 2,100-2,700 mL in adults.
7. Inspiratory Capacity (IC): The maximum amount of air that can be inhaled after a normal expiration, equal to TV + IRV, around 3,500 mL in adults.
8. Vital Capacity (VC): The total volume of air that can be exhaled after a maximal inspiration, calculated as IC + ERV, approximately 4,200-5,600 mL in adults.

These measurements help assess lung function and identify various respiratory disorders such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and restrictive lung diseases.

Functional Residual Capacity (FRC) is the volume of air that remains in the lungs after normal expiration during quiet breathing. It represents the sum of the residual volume (RV) and the expiratory reserve volume (ERV). The FRC is approximately 2.5-3.5 liters in a healthy adult. This volume of air serves to keep the alveoli open and maintain oxygenation during periods of quiet breathing, as well as providing a reservoir for additional ventilation during increased activity or exercise.

A lung is a pair of spongy, elastic organs in the chest that work together to enable breathing. They are responsible for taking in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide through the process of respiration. The left lung has two lobes, while the right lung has three lobes. The lungs are protected by the ribcage and are covered by a double-layered membrane called the pleura. The trachea divides into two bronchi, which further divide into smaller bronchioles, leading to millions of tiny air sacs called alveoli, where the exchange of gases occurs.

Tidal volume (Vt) is the amount of air that moves into or out of the lungs during normal, resting breathing. It is the difference between the volume of air in the lungs at the end of a normal expiration and the volume at the end of a normal inspiration. In other words, it's the volume of each breath you take when you are not making any effort to breathe more deeply.

The average tidal volume for an adult human is around 500 milliliters (ml) per breath, but this can vary depending on factors such as age, sex, size, and fitness level. During exercise or other activities that require increased oxygen intake, tidal volume may increase to meet the body's demands for more oxygen.

Tidal volume is an important concept in respiratory physiology and clinical medicine, as it can be used to assess lung function and diagnose respiratory disorders such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or asthma.

Medical Definition of Respiration:

Respiration, in physiology, is the process by which an organism takes in oxygen and gives out carbon dioxide. It's also known as breathing. This process is essential for most forms of life because it provides the necessary oxygen for cellular respiration, where the cells convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and releases waste products, primarily carbon dioxide.

In humans and other mammals, respiration is a two-stage process:

1. Breathing (or external respiration): This involves the exchange of gases with the environment. Air enters the lungs through the mouth or nose, then passes through the pharynx, larynx, trachea, and bronchi, finally reaching the alveoli where the actual gas exchange occurs. Oxygen from the inhaled air diffuses into the blood, while carbon dioxide, a waste product of metabolism, diffuses from the blood into the alveoli to be exhaled.

2. Cellular respiration (or internal respiration): This is the process by which cells convert glucose and other nutrients into ATP, water, and carbon dioxide in the presence of oxygen. The carbon dioxide produced during this process then diffuses out of the cells and into the bloodstream to be exhaled during breathing.

In summary, respiration is a vital physiological function that enables organisms to obtain the necessary oxygen for cellular metabolism while eliminating waste products like carbon dioxide.

Air sacs, also known as alveoli, are tiny air-filled sacs in the lungs where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide occurs during respiration. They are a part of the respiratory system in mammals and birds. In humans, the lungs contain about 300 million alveoli, which are clustered together in small groups called alveolar sacs. The walls of the air sacs are extremely thin, allowing for the easy diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the air in the sacs and the blood in the capillaries that surround them.

Artificial respiration is an emergency procedure that can be used to provide oxygen to a person who is not breathing or is breathing inadequately. It involves manually forcing air into the lungs, either by compressing the chest or using a device to deliver breaths. The goal of artificial respiration is to maintain adequate oxygenation of the body's tissues and organs until the person can breathe on their own or until advanced medical care arrives. Artificial respiration may be used in conjunction with cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in cases of cardiac arrest.

Air pressure, also known as atmospheric pressure, is the force exerted by the weight of air in the atmosphere on a surface. It is measured in units such as pounds per square inch (psi), hectopascals (hPa), or inches of mercury (inHg). The standard atmospheric pressure at sea level is defined as 101,325 Pa (14.7 psi/1013 hPa/29.92 inHg). Changes in air pressure can be used to predict weather patterns and are an important factor in the study of aerodynamics and respiratory physiology.

Oscillometry is a non-invasive method to measure various mechanical properties of the respiratory system, including lung volumes and airway resistance. It involves applying small pressure oscillations to the airways and measuring the resulting flow or volume changes. The technique can be used to assess lung function in patients with obstructive or restrictive lung diseases, as well as in healthy individuals. Oscillometry is often performed during tidal breathing, making it a comfortable method for both children and adults who may have difficulty performing traditional spirometry maneuvers.

Respiratory Function Tests (RFTs) are a group of medical tests that measure how well your lungs take in and exhale air, and how well they transfer oxygen and carbon dioxide into and out of your blood. They can help diagnose certain lung disorders, measure the severity of lung disease, and monitor response to treatment.

RFTs include several types of tests, such as:

1. Spirometry: This test measures how much air you can exhale and how quickly you can do it. It's often used to diagnose and monitor conditions like asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and other lung diseases.
2. Lung volume testing: This test measures the total amount of air in your lungs. It can help diagnose restrictive lung diseases, such as pulmonary fibrosis or sarcoidosis.
3. Diffusion capacity testing: This test measures how well oxygen moves from your lungs into your bloodstream. It's often used to diagnose and monitor conditions like pulmonary fibrosis, interstitial lung disease, and other lung diseases that affect the ability of the lungs to transfer oxygen to the blood.
4. Bronchoprovocation testing: This test involves inhaling a substance that can cause your airways to narrow, such as methacholine or histamine. It's often used to diagnose and monitor asthma.
5. Exercise stress testing: This test measures how well your lungs and heart work together during exercise. It's often used to diagnose lung or heart disease.

Overall, Respiratory Function Tests are an important tool for diagnosing and managing a wide range of lung conditions.

Positive-pressure respiration is a type of mechanical ventilation where positive pressure is applied to the airway and lungs, causing them to expand and inflate. This can be used to support or replace spontaneous breathing in patients who are unable to breathe effectively on their own due to conditions such as respiratory failure, neuromuscular disorders, or sedation for surgery.

During positive-pressure ventilation, a mechanical ventilator delivers breaths to the patient through an endotracheal tube or a tracheostomy tube. The ventilator is set to deliver a specific volume or pressure of air with each breath, and the patient's breathing is synchronized with the ventilator to ensure proper delivery of the breaths.

Positive-pressure ventilation can help improve oxygenation and remove carbon dioxide from the lungs, but it can also have potential complications such as barotrauma (injury to lung tissue due to excessive pressure), volutrauma (injury due to overdistention of the lungs), hemodynamic compromise (decreased blood pressure and cardiac output), and ventilator-associated pneumonia. Therefore, careful monitoring and adjustment of ventilator settings are essential to minimize these risks and provide safe and effective respiratory support.

Pulmonary ventilation, also known as pulmonary respiration or simply ventilation, is the process of moving air into and out of the lungs to facilitate gas exchange. It involves two main phases: inhalation (or inspiration) and exhalation (or expiration). During inhalation, the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles contract, causing the chest volume to increase and the pressure inside the chest to decrease, which then draws air into the lungs. Conversely, during exhalation, these muscles relax, causing the chest volume to decrease and the pressure inside the chest to increase, which pushes air out of the lungs. This process ensures that oxygen-rich air from the atmosphere enters the alveoli (air sacs in the lungs), where it can diffuse into the bloodstream, while carbon dioxide-rich air from the bloodstream in the capillaries surrounding the alveoli is expelled out of the body.

Respiratory tract diseases refer to a broad range of medical conditions that affect the respiratory system, which includes the nose, throat (pharynx), windpipe (trachea), bronchi, bronchioles, and lungs. These diseases can be categorized into upper and lower respiratory tract infections based on the location of the infection.

Upper respiratory tract infections affect the nose, sinuses, pharynx, and larynx, and include conditions such as the common cold, flu, sinusitis, and laryngitis. Symptoms often include nasal congestion, sore throat, cough, and fever.

Lower respiratory tract infections affect the trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and lungs, and can be more severe. They include conditions such as pneumonia, bronchitis, and tuberculosis. Symptoms may include cough, chest congestion, shortness of breath, and fever.

Respiratory tract diseases can also be caused by allergies, irritants, or genetic factors. Treatment varies depending on the specific condition and severity but may include medications, breathing treatments, or surgery in severe cases.

Spirometry is a common type of pulmonary function test (PFT) that measures how well your lungs work. This is done by measuring how much air you can exhale from your lungs after taking a deep breath, and how quickly you can exhale it. The results are compared to normal values for your age, height, sex, and ethnicity.

Spirometry is used to diagnose and monitor certain lung conditions, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and other respiratory diseases that cause narrowing of the airways. It can also be used to assess the effectiveness of treatment for these conditions. The test is non-invasive, safe, and easy to perform.

"Locusta migratoria" is the scientific name for the migratory locust, which is a species of short-horned grasshopper. While it is not a medical term, I can provide some general information about this insect.

Migratory locusts are known for their ability to form large swarms that can travel long distances, consuming vast amounts of vegetation and causing significant damage to crops and pastures. They are native to Africa, Asia, and Europe but have been introduced to other parts of the world as well. The migratory locust is a agricultural pest and can pose a serious threat to food security in areas where they occur in large numbers.

From a medical perspective, some species of grasshoppers, including the migratory locust, can carry various pathogens that may affect humans and animals if ingested or come into contact with mucous membranes. However, there are no specific medical concerns associated with "Locusta migratoria" itself.

Pulmonary gas exchange is the process by which oxygen (O2) from inhaled air is transferred to the blood, and carbon dioxide (CO2), a waste product of metabolism, is removed from the blood and exhaled. This process occurs in the lungs, primarily in the alveoli, where the thin walls of the alveoli and capillaries allow for the rapid diffusion of gases between them. The partial pressure gradient between the alveolar air and the blood in the pulmonary capillaries drives this diffusion process. Oxygen-rich blood is then transported to the body's tissues, while CO2-rich blood returns to the lungs to be exhaled.

Respiratory paralysis is a condition characterized by the inability to breathe effectively due to the failure or weakness of the muscles involved in respiration. This can include the diaphragm, intercostal muscles, and other accessory muscles.

In medical terms, it's often associated with conditions that affect the neuromuscular junction, such as botulism, myasthenia gravis, or spinal cord injuries. It can also occur as a complication of general anesthesia, sedative drugs, or certain types of poisoning.

Respiratory paralysis is a serious condition that requires immediate medical attention, as it can lead to lack of oxygen (hypoxia) and buildup of carbon dioxide (hypercapnia) in the body, which can be life-threatening if not treated promptly.

The thorax is the central part of the human body, located between the neck and the abdomen. In medical terms, it refers to the portion of the body that contains the heart, lungs, and associated structures within a protective cage made up of the sternum (breastbone), ribs, and thoracic vertebrae. The thorax is enclosed by muscles and protected by the ribcage, which helps to maintain its structural integrity and protect the vital organs contained within it.

The thorax plays a crucial role in respiration, as it allows for the expansion and contraction of the lungs during breathing. This movement is facilitated by the flexible nature of the ribcage, which expands and contracts with each breath, allowing air to enter and exit the lungs. Additionally, the thorax serves as a conduit for major blood vessels, such as the aorta and vena cava, which carry blood to and from the heart and the rest of the body.

Understanding the anatomy and function of the thorax is essential for medical professionals, as many conditions and diseases can affect this region of the body. These may include respiratory disorders such as pneumonia or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cardiovascular conditions like heart attacks or aortic aneurysms, and musculoskeletal issues involving the ribs, spine, or surrounding muscles.

Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult (RDSa or ARDS), also known as Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome, is a severe form of acute lung injury characterized by rapid onset of widespread inflammation in the lungs. This results in increased permeability of the alveolar-capillary membrane, pulmonary edema, and hypoxemia (low oxygen levels in the blood). The inflammation can be triggered by various direct or indirect insults to the lung, such as sepsis, pneumonia, trauma, or aspiration.

The hallmark of ARDS is the development of bilateral pulmonary infiltrates on chest X-ray, which can resemble pulmonary edema, but without evidence of increased left atrial pressure. The condition can progress rapidly and may require mechanical ventilation with positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) to maintain adequate oxygenation and prevent further lung injury.

The management of ARDS is primarily supportive, focusing on protecting the lungs from further injury, optimizing oxygenation, and providing adequate nutrition and treatment for any underlying conditions. The use of low tidal volumes and limiting plateau pressures during mechanical ventilation have been shown to improve outcomes in patients with ARDS.

Total Lung Capacity (TLC) is the maximum volume of air that can be contained within the lungs at the end of a maximal inspiration. It includes all of the following lung volumes: tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume, expiratory reserve volume, and residual volume. TLC can be measured directly using gas dilution techniques or indirectly by adding residual volume to vital capacity. Factors that affect TLC include age, sex, height, and lung health status.

Respiratory disorders are a group of conditions that affect the respiratory system, including the nose, throat (pharynx), windpipe (trachea), bronchi, lungs, and diaphragm. These disorders can make it difficult for a person to breathe normally and may cause symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest pain.

There are many different types of respiratory disorders, including:

1. Asthma: A chronic inflammatory disease that causes the airways to become narrow and swollen, leading to difficulty breathing.
2. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): A group of lung diseases, including emphysema and chronic bronchitis, that make it hard to breathe.
3. Pneumonia: An infection of the lungs that can cause coughing, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.
4. Lung cancer: A type of cancer that forms in the tissues of the lungs and can cause symptoms such as coughing, chest pain, and shortness of breath.
5. Tuberculosis (TB): A bacterial infection that mainly affects the lungs but can also affect other parts of the body.
6. Sleep apnea: A disorder that causes a person to stop breathing for short periods during sleep.
7. Interstitial lung disease: A group of disorders that cause scarring of the lung tissue, leading to difficulty breathing.
8. Pulmonary fibrosis: A type of interstitial lung disease that causes scarring of the lung tissue and makes it hard to breathe.
9. Pleural effusion: An abnormal accumulation of fluid in the space between the lungs and chest wall.
10. Lung transplantation: A surgical procedure to replace a diseased or failing lung with a healthy one from a donor.

Respiratory disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, exposure to environmental pollutants, smoking, and infections. Treatment for respiratory disorders may include medications, oxygen therapy, breathing exercises, and lifestyle changes. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to treat the disorder.

Cytochromes are a type of hemeprotein found in the mitochondria and other cellular membranes of organisms. They contain a heme group, which is a prosthetic group composed of an iron atom surrounded by a porphyrin ring. This structure allows cytochromes to participate in redox reactions, acting as electron carriers in various biological processes.

There are several types of cytochromes, classified based on the type of heme they contain and their absorption spectra. Some of the most well-known cytochromes include:

* Cytochrome c: a small, mobile protein found in the inner mitochondrial membrane that plays a crucial role in the electron transport chain during cellular respiration.
* Cytochrome P450: a large family of enzymes involved in the metabolism of drugs, toxins, and other xenobiotics. They are found in various tissues, including the liver, lungs, and skin.
* Cytochrome b: a component of several electron transport chains, including those found in mitochondria, bacteria, and chloroplasts.

Cytochromes play essential roles in energy production, detoxification, and other metabolic processes, making them vital for the survival and function of living organisms.

The trachea, also known as the windpipe, is a tube-like structure in the respiratory system that connects the larynx (voice box) to the bronchi (the two branches leading to each lung). It is composed of several incomplete rings of cartilage and smooth muscle, which provide support and flexibility. The trachea plays a crucial role in directing incoming air to the lungs during inspiration and outgoing air to the larynx during expiration.

Respiratory tract neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that occur in the respiratory system, which includes the nose, throat (pharynx), voice box (larynx), windpipe (trachea), bronchi, and lungs. These growths can be benign or malignant (cancerous). Malignant neoplasms are cancerous tumors that can invade nearby tissues, spread to other parts of the body, and interfere with normal respiratory function, leading to serious health consequences.

Respiratory tract neoplasms can have various causes, including genetic factors, exposure to environmental carcinogens such as tobacco smoke, asbestos, and radon, and certain viral infections. Symptoms of respiratory tract neoplasms may include coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, chest pain, hoarseness, or blood in the sputum. Diagnosis typically involves imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or PET scans, as well as biopsies to determine the type and extent of the tumor. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Mechanical Ventilators are medical devices that assist with breathing by providing mechanical ventilation to patients who are unable to breathe sufficiently on their own. These machines deliver breaths to the patient through an endotracheal tube or a tracheostomy tube, which is placed in the windpipe (trachea). Mechanical Ventilators can be set to deliver breaths at specific rates and volumes, and they can also be adjusted to provide varying levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) to help keep the alveoli open and improve oxygenation.

Mechanical ventilation is typically used in critical care settings such as intensive care units (ICUs), and it may be employed for a variety of reasons, including respiratory failure, sedation, neuromuscular disorders, or surgery. Prolonged use of mechanical ventilation can lead to complications such as ventilator-associated pneumonia, muscle weakness, and decreased cardiac function, so the goal is usually to wean patients off the ventilator as soon as possible.

Pulmonary atelectasis is a medical condition characterized by the collapse or closure of the alveoli (tiny air sacs) in the lungs, leading to reduced or absent gas exchange in the affected area. This results in decreased lung volume and can cause hypoxemia (low oxygen levels in the blood). Atelectasis can be caused by various factors such as obstruction of the airways, surfactant deficiency, pneumothorax, or compression from outside the lung. It can also occur after surgical procedures, particularly when the patient is lying in one position for a long time. Symptoms may include shortness of breath, cough, and chest discomfort, but sometimes it may not cause any symptoms, especially if only a small area of the lung is affected. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may include bronchodilators, chest physiotherapy, or even surgery in severe cases.

The thoracic wall refers to the anatomical structure that surrounds and protects the chest cavity or thorax, which contains the lungs, heart, and other vital organs. It is composed of several components:

1. Skeletal framework: This includes the 12 pairs of ribs, the sternum (breastbone) in the front, and the thoracic vertebrae in the back. The upper seven pairs of ribs are directly attached to the sternum in the front through costal cartilages. The lower five pairs of ribs are not directly connected to the sternum but are joined to the ribs above them.
2. Muscles: The thoracic wall contains several muscles, including the intercostal muscles (located between the ribs), the scalene muscles (at the side and back of the neck), and the serratus anterior muscle (on the sides of the chest). These muscles help in breathing by expanding and contracting the ribcage.
3. Soft tissues: The thoracic wall also contains various soft tissues, such as fascia, nerves, blood vessels, and fat. These structures support the functioning of the thoracic organs and contribute to the overall stability and protection of the chest cavity.

The primary function of the thoracic wall is to protect the vital organs within the chest cavity while allowing for adequate movement during respiration. Additionally, it provides a stable base for the attachment of various muscles involved in upper limb movement and posture.

Oxygen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that constitutes about 21% of the earth's atmosphere. It is a crucial element for human and most living organisms as it is vital for respiration. Inhaled oxygen enters the lungs and binds to hemoglobin in red blood cells, which carries it to tissues throughout the body where it is used to convert nutrients into energy and carbon dioxide, a waste product that is exhaled.

Medically, supplemental oxygen therapy may be provided to patients with conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pneumonia, heart failure, or other medical conditions that impair the body's ability to extract sufficient oxygen from the air. Oxygen can be administered through various devices, including nasal cannulas, face masks, and ventilators.

Oxygen consumption, also known as oxygen uptake, is the amount of oxygen that is consumed or utilized by the body during a specific period of time, usually measured in liters per minute (L/min). It is a common measurement used in exercise physiology and critical care medicine to assess an individual's aerobic metabolism and overall health status.

In clinical settings, oxygen consumption is often measured during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) to evaluate cardiovascular function, pulmonary function, and exercise capacity in patients with various medical conditions such as heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and other respiratory or cardiac disorders.

During exercise, oxygen is consumed by the muscles to generate energy through a process called oxidative phosphorylation. The amount of oxygen consumed during exercise can provide important information about an individual's fitness level, exercise capacity, and overall health status. Additionally, measuring oxygen consumption can help healthcare providers assess the effectiveness of treatments and rehabilitation programs in patients with various medical conditions.

Residual Volume (RV) is the amount of air that remains in the lungs after a forced exhale, also known as the "expiratory reserve volume." It is the lowest lung volume that can be reached during a forced exhalation and cannot be completely emptied due to the presence of alveoli that are too small or too far from the airways. This volume is important for maintaining the structural integrity of the lungs and preventing their collapse. Any additional air that enters the lungs after this point will increase the total lung capacity. The normal residual volume for an average adult human is typically around 1 to 1.5 liters.

Lung diseases refer to a broad category of disorders that affect the lungs and other structures within the respiratory system. These diseases can impair lung function, leading to symptoms such as coughing, shortness of breath, chest pain, and wheezing. They can be categorized into several types based on the underlying cause and nature of the disease process. Some common examples include:

1. Obstructive lung diseases: These are characterized by narrowing or blockage of the airways, making it difficult to breathe out. Examples include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, bronchiectasis, and cystic fibrosis.
2. Restrictive lung diseases: These involve stiffening or scarring of the lungs, which reduces their ability to expand and take in air. Examples include idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, sarcoidosis, and asbestosis.
3. Infectious lung diseases: These are caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites that infect the lungs. Examples include pneumonia, tuberculosis, and influenza.
4. Vascular lung diseases: These affect the blood vessels in the lungs, impairing oxygen exchange. Examples include pulmonary embolism, pulmonary hypertension, and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH).
5. Neoplastic lung diseases: These involve abnormal growth of cells within the lungs, leading to cancer. Examples include small cell lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, and mesothelioma.
6. Other lung diseases: These include interstitial lung diseases, pleural effusions, and rare disorders such as pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM).

It is important to note that this list is not exhaustive, and there are many other conditions that can affect the lungs. Proper diagnosis and treatment of lung diseases require consultation with a healthcare professional, such as a pulmonologist or respiratory therapist.

Respiratory insufficiency is a condition characterized by the inability of the respiratory system to maintain adequate gas exchange, resulting in an inadequate supply of oxygen and/or removal of carbon dioxide from the body. This can occur due to various causes, such as lung diseases (e.g., chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia), neuromuscular disorders (e.g., muscular dystrophy, spinal cord injury), or other medical conditions that affect breathing mechanics and/or gas exchange.

Respiratory insufficiency can manifest as hypoxemia (low oxygen levels in the blood) and/or hypercapnia (high carbon dioxide levels in the blood). Symptoms of respiratory insufficiency may include shortness of breath, rapid breathing, fatigue, confusion, and in severe cases, loss of consciousness or even death. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition and may include oxygen therapy, mechanical ventilation, medications, and/or other supportive measures.

Whole-body plethysmography is a non-invasive medical technique used to measure changes in the volume of air in the lungs and chest during breathing. It is often utilized in the diagnosis and assessment of various respiratory disorders such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and restrictive lung diseases.

During whole-body plethysmography, the patient enters a sealed, clear chamber, usually in a standing or sitting position. The patient is instructed to breathe normally while the machine measures changes in pressure within the chamber as the chest and abdomen move during respiration. These measurements are then used to calculate lung volume, airflow, and other respiratory parameters.

This technique provides valuable information about the functional status of the lungs and can help healthcare providers make informed decisions regarding diagnosis, treatment planning, and disease monitoring.

Methacholine chloride is a medication that is used as a diagnostic tool to help identify and assess the severity of asthma or other respiratory conditions that cause airway hyperresponsiveness. It is a synthetic derivative of acetylcholine, which is a neurotransmitter that causes smooth muscle contraction in the body.

When methacholine chloride is inhaled, it stimulates the muscarinic receptors in the airways, causing them to constrict or narrow. This response is measured and used to determine the degree of airway hyperresponsiveness, which can help diagnose asthma and assess its severity.

The methacholine challenge test involves inhaling progressively higher doses of methacholine chloride until a significant decrease in lung function is observed or until a maximum dose is reached. The test results are then used to guide treatment decisions and monitor the effectiveness of therapy. It's important to note that this test should be conducted under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as it carries some risks, including bronchoconstriction and respiratory distress.

A "County Hospital" is not a medical term per se, but rather a term used to describe a hospital that is owned, operated, and funded by a county government. These hospitals typically provide medical care and services to the residents of that particular county, regardless of their ability to pay. They may also serve as a safety net for uninsured or underinsured individuals who cannot afford medical care at private hospitals. The specific services and facilities offered by a county hospital can vary widely depending on the location and resources available.

Bronchoconstrictor agents are substances that cause narrowing or constriction of the bronchioles, the small airways in the lungs. This can lead to symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath. Bronchoconstrictor agents include certain medications (such as some beta-blockers and prostaglandin F2alpha), environmental pollutants (such as tobacco smoke and air pollution particles), and allergens (such as dust mites and pollen).

In contrast to bronchodilator agents, which are medications that widen the airways and improve breathing, bronchoconstrictor agents can make it more difficult for a person to breathe. People with respiratory conditions such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may be particularly sensitive to bronchoconstrictor agents and may experience severe symptoms when exposed to them.

Respiratory rate is the number of breaths a person takes per minute. It is typically measured by counting the number of times the chest rises and falls in one minute. Normal respiratory rate at rest for an adult ranges from 12 to 20 breaths per minute. An increased respiratory rate (tachypnea) or decreased respiratory rate (bradypnea) can be a sign of various medical conditions, such as lung disease, heart failure, or neurological disorders. It is an important vital sign that should be regularly monitored in clinical settings.

In medical terms, pressure is defined as the force applied per unit area on an object or body surface. It is often measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) in clinical settings. For example, blood pressure is the force exerted by circulating blood on the walls of the arteries and is recorded as two numbers: systolic pressure (when the heart beats and pushes blood out) and diastolic pressure (when the heart rests between beats).

Pressure can also refer to the pressure exerted on a wound or incision to help control bleeding, or the pressure inside the skull or spinal canal. High or low pressure in different body systems can indicate various medical conditions and require appropriate treatment.

Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV) is the maximum amount of air that can be exhaled forcefully after a normal tidal exhalation. It is the difference between the functional residual capacity (FRC) and the residual volume (RV). In other words, ERV is the extra volume of air that can be exhaled from the lungs after a normal breath out, when one tries to empty the lungs as much as possible. This volume is an important parameter in pulmonary function tests and helps assess lung health and disease. A decreased ERV may indicate restrictive lung diseases such as pulmonary fibrosis or neuromuscular disorders affecting respiratory muscles.

Dinosaurs are a group of reptiles that were the dominant terrestrial vertebrates for over 160 million years, from the late Triassic period until the end of the Cretaceous period. They first appeared approximately 230 million years ago and went extinct around 65 million years ago.

Dinosaurs are characterized by their upright stance, with legs positioned directly under their bodies, and a wide range of body sizes and shapes. Some dinosaurs were enormous, such as the long-necked sauropods that could reach lengths of over 100 feet, while others were small and agile.

Dinosaurs are classified into two main groups: the saurischians (lizard-hipped) and the ornithischians (bird-hipped). The saurischians include both the large carnivorous theropods, such as Tyrannosaurus rex, and the long-necked sauropods. The ornithischians were primarily herbivores and included a diverse array of species, such as the armored ankylosaurs and the horned ceratopsians.

Despite their extinction, dinosaurs have left a lasting impact on our planet and continue to be a source of fascination for people of all ages. The study of dinosaurs, known as paleontology, has shed light on many aspects of Earth's history and the evolution of life on our planet.

Airway obstruction is a medical condition that occurs when the normal flow of air into and out of the lungs is partially or completely blocked. This blockage can be caused by a variety of factors, including swelling of the tissues in the airway, the presence of foreign objects or substances, or abnormal growths such as tumors.

When the airway becomes obstructed, it can make it difficult for a person to breathe normally. They may experience symptoms such as shortness of breath, wheezing, coughing, and chest tightness. In severe cases, airway obstruction can lead to respiratory failure and other life-threatening complications.

There are several types of airway obstruction, including:

1. Upper airway obstruction: This occurs when the blockage is located in the upper part of the airway, such as the nose, throat, or voice box.
2. Lower airway obstruction: This occurs when the blockage is located in the lower part of the airway, such as the trachea or bronchi.
3. Partial airway obstruction: This occurs when the airway is partially blocked, allowing some air to flow in and out of the lungs.
4. Complete airway obstruction: This occurs when the airway is completely blocked, preventing any air from flowing into or out of the lungs.

Treatment for airway obstruction depends on the underlying cause of the condition. In some cases, removing the obstruction may be as simple as clearing the airway of foreign objects or mucus. In other cases, more invasive treatments such as surgery may be necessary.

In medicine, elasticity refers to the ability of a tissue or organ to return to its original shape after being stretched or deformed. This property is due to the presence of elastic fibers in the extracellular matrix of the tissue, which can stretch and recoil like rubber bands.

Elasticity is an important characteristic of many tissues, particularly those that are subjected to repeated stretching or compression, such as blood vessels, lungs, and skin. For example, the elasticity of the lungs allows them to expand and contract during breathing, while the elasticity of blood vessels helps maintain normal blood pressure by allowing them to expand and constrict in response to changes in blood flow.

In addition to its role in normal physiology, elasticity is also an important factor in the diagnosis and treatment of various medical conditions. For example, decreased elasticity in the lungs can be a sign of lung disease, while increased elasticity in the skin can be a sign of aging or certain genetic disorders. Medical professionals may use techniques such as pulmonary function tests or skin biopsies to assess elasticity and help diagnose these conditions.

Forced Expiratory Volume (FEV) is a medical term used to describe the volume of air that can be forcefully exhaled from the lungs in one second. It is often measured during pulmonary function testing to assess lung function and diagnose conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or asthma.

FEV is typically expressed as a percentage of the Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), which is the total volume of air that can be exhaled from the lungs after taking a deep breath in. The ratio of FEV to FVC is used to determine whether there is obstruction in the airways, with a lower ratio indicating more severe obstruction.

There are different types of FEV measurements, including FEV1 (the volume of air exhaled in one second), FEV25-75 (the average volume of air exhaled during the middle 50% of the FVC maneuver), and FEV0.5 (the volume of air exhaled in half a second). These measurements can provide additional information about lung function and help guide treatment decisions.

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a colorless, odorless gas that is naturally present in the Earth's atmosphere. It is a normal byproduct of cellular respiration in humans, animals, and plants, and is also produced through the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas.

In medical terms, carbon dioxide is often used as a respiratory stimulant and to maintain the pH balance of blood. It is also used during certain medical procedures, such as laparoscopic surgery, to insufflate (inflate) the abdominal cavity and create a working space for the surgeon.

Elevated levels of carbon dioxide in the body can lead to respiratory acidosis, a condition characterized by an increased concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood and a decrease in pH. This can occur in conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, or other lung diseases that impair breathing and gas exchange. Symptoms of respiratory acidosis may include shortness of breath, confusion, headache, and in severe cases, coma or death.

Inhalation is the act or process of breathing in where air or other gases are drawn into the lungs. It's also known as inspiration. This process involves several muscles, including the diaphragm and intercostal muscles between the ribs, working together to expand the chest cavity and decrease the pressure within the thorax, which then causes air to flow into the lungs.

In a medical context, inhalation can also refer to the administration of medications or therapeutic gases through the respiratory tract, typically using an inhaler or nebulizer. This route of administration allows for direct delivery of the medication to the lungs, where it can be quickly absorbed into the bloodstream and exert its effects.

Bronchoconstriction is a medical term that refers to the narrowing of the airways in the lungs (the bronchi and bronchioles) due to the contraction of the smooth muscles surrounding them. This constriction can cause difficulty breathing, wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath, which are common symptoms of asthma and other respiratory conditions.

Bronchoconstriction can be triggered by a variety of factors, including allergens, irritants, cold air, exercise, and emotional stress. In some cases, it may also be caused by certain medications, such as beta-blockers or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Treatment for bronchoconstriction typically involves the use of bronchodilators, which are medications that help to relax the smooth muscles around the airways and widen them, making it easier to breathe.

Inhalation exposure is a term used in occupational and environmental health to describe the situation where an individual breathes in substances present in the air, which could be gases, vapors, fumes, mist, or particulate matter. These substances can originate from various sources, such as industrial processes, chemical reactions, or natural phenomena.

The extent of inhalation exposure is determined by several factors, including:

1. Concentration of the substance in the air
2. Duration of exposure
3. Frequency of exposure
4. The individual's breathing rate
5. The efficiency of the individual's respiratory protection, if any

Inhalation exposure can lead to adverse health effects, depending on the toxicity and concentration of the inhaled substances. Short-term or acute health effects may include irritation of the eyes, nose, throat, or lungs, while long-term or chronic exposure can result in more severe health issues, such as respiratory diseases, neurological disorders, or cancer.

It is essential to monitor and control inhalation exposures in occupational settings to protect workers' health and ensure compliance with regulatory standards. Various methods are employed for exposure assessment, including personal air sampling, area monitoring, and biological monitoring. Based on the results of these assessments, appropriate control measures can be implemented to reduce or eliminate the risks associated with inhalation exposure.

Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the airways, leading to symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness. The airway obstruction in asthma is usually reversible, either spontaneously or with treatment.

The underlying cause of asthma involves a combination of genetic and environmental factors that result in hypersensitivity of the airways to certain triggers, such as allergens, irritants, viruses, exercise, and emotional stress. When these triggers are encountered, the airways constrict due to smooth muscle spasm, swell due to inflammation, and produce excess mucus, leading to the characteristic symptoms of asthma.

Asthma is typically managed with a combination of medications that include bronchodilators to relax the airway muscles, corticosteroids to reduce inflammation, and leukotriene modifiers or mast cell stabilizers to prevent allergic reactions. Avoiding triggers and monitoring symptoms are also important components of asthma management.

There are several types of asthma, including allergic asthma, non-allergic asthma, exercise-induced asthma, occupational asthma, and nocturnal asthma, each with its own set of triggers and treatment approaches. Proper diagnosis and management of asthma can help prevent exacerbations, improve quality of life, and reduce the risk of long-term complications.

Lung injury, also known as pulmonary injury, refers to damage or harm caused to the lung tissue, blood vessels, or air sacs (alveoli) in the lungs. This can result from various causes such as infection, trauma, exposure to harmful substances, or systemic diseases. Common types of lung injuries include acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), pneumonia, and chemical pneumonitis. Symptoms may include difficulty breathing, cough, chest pain, and decreased oxygen levels in the blood. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, oxygen therapy, or mechanical ventilation.

Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS), Newborn is a common lung disorder in premature infants. It occurs when the lungs lack a substance called surfactant, which helps keep the tiny air sacs in the lungs open. This results in difficulty breathing and oxygenation, causing symptoms such as rapid, shallow breathing, grunting noises, flaring of the nostrils, and retractions (the skin between the ribs pulls in with each breath). RDS is more common in infants born before 34 weeks of gestation and is treated with surfactant replacement therapy, oxygen support, and mechanical ventilation if necessary. In severe cases, it can lead to complications such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia or even death.

Alligators and crocodiles are large, semi-aquatic reptiles belonging to the order Crocodylia. They are characterized by a long, broad snout, powerful tail, and sharp teeth designed for grabbing and holding onto prey. Alligators and crocodiles are similar in appearance but can be distinguished by their snouts: alligators have a wider, U-shaped snout, while crocodiles have a more V-shaped snout.

Alligators (family Alligatoridae) are native to the United States and China, with two living species: the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) and the Chinese alligator (Alligator sinensis). They prefer freshwater habitats such as rivers, lakes, and marshes.

Crocodiles (family Crocodylidae) are found in tropical regions around the world, including Africa, Asia, Australia, and the Americas. There are 14 species of crocodiles, including the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus), the Saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus), and the American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus). Crocodiles can tolerate both freshwater and saltwater environments.

Both alligators and crocodiles are apex predators, feeding on a variety of animals such as fish, birds, and mammals. They are known for their powerful bite force and have been reported to take down large prey, including deer and cattle. Alligators and crocodiles play an important role in maintaining the balance of their ecosystems by controlling populations of other animals and helping to keep waterways clean.

While alligators and crocodiles are often feared due to their size and predatory nature, they are also threatened by habitat loss, pollution, and hunting. Several species are considered endangered or vulnerable, and conservation efforts are underway to protect them and their habitats.

Work of breathing (WOB) is a term used in respiratory physiology to describe the amount of energy expended by the respiratory muscles to overcome the elastic and resistive forces in the lungs and chest wall during breathing. It is usually measured in joules per liter (J/L) or in breaths per minute (BPM).

WOB can be increased in various lung diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and interstitial lung disease, due to increased airway resistance or decreased lung compliance. Increased WOB can lead to respiratory muscle fatigue, decreased exercise tolerance, and reduced quality of life.

WOB can be measured noninvasively using techniques such as esophageal pressure monitoring or transdiaphragmatic pressure measurement, or invasively through the use of indwelling catheters in the pleural space or within the airways. These measurements are often used in research settings to evaluate the effectiveness of various treatments for respiratory disorders.

Cytochrome a is a type of cytochrome found in the inner mitochondrial membrane of eukaryotic cells. It is a component of cytochrome c oxidase, the final enzyme in the electron transport chain responsible for reducing molecular oxygen to water during cellular respiration. Cytochrome a contains a heme group with a low redox potential, making it capable of accepting electrons from cytochrome c and transferring them to oxygen.

The "Cytochrome a Group" typically refers to a family of related cytochromes that share similar structural and functional properties, including the presence of a heme group with a low redox potential. This group includes cytochrome a, as well as other closely related cytochromes such as cytochrome aa3 and cytochrome o. These cytochromes play important roles in electron transfer and energy conservation during cellular respiration in various organisms.

Aerosols are defined in the medical field as suspensions of fine solid or liquid particles in a gas. In the context of public health and medicine, aerosols often refer to particles that can remain suspended in air for long periods of time and can be inhaled. They can contain various substances, such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, or chemicals, and can play a role in the transmission of respiratory infections or other health effects.

For example, when an infected person coughs or sneezes, they may produce respiratory droplets that can contain viruses like influenza or SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19). Some of these droplets can evaporate quickly and leave behind smaller particles called aerosols, which can remain suspended in the air for hours and potentially be inhaled by others. This is one way that respiratory viruses can spread between people in close proximity to each other.

Aerosols can also be generated through medical procedures such as bronchoscopy, suctioning, or nebulizer treatments, which can produce aerosols containing bacteria, viruses, or other particles that may pose an infection risk to healthcare workers or other patients. Therefore, appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) and airborne precautions are often necessary to reduce the risk of transmission in these settings.

Inspiratory Capacity (IC) is the maximum volume of air that can be breathed in after a normal expiration. It is the sum of the tidal volume (the amount of air displaced between normal inspiration and expiration during quiet breathing) and the inspiratory reserve volume (the additional amount of air that can be inspired over and above the tidal volume). IC is an important parameter used in pulmonary function testing to assess lung volumes and capacities in patients with respiratory disorders.

Intrinsic Positive-Pressure Respiration (IPPR) is a type of positive-pressure breathing that occurs naturally within the body, without the use of mechanical ventilation or other external devices. It is also known as "auto-PEEP" or "occult PEEP," where PEEP stands for Positive End-Expiratory Pressure.

In normal, spontaneous breathing, the pressure inside the alveoli (air sacs) in the lungs becomes slightly negative during inhalation and returns to atmospheric pressure during exhalation. However, certain lung conditions or patient efforts can lead to an increase in resistance to airflow during exhalation, causing positive pressure to persist within the alveoli at the end of expiration. This results in intrinsic PEEP or auto-PEEP.

IPPR can be caused by several factors, including:

1. Air trapping due to obstructive lung diseases like chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or asthma
2. High respiratory rates leading to incomplete exhalation before the next inspiration begins
3. Inadequate expiratory time, often seen in mechanically ventilated patients with high tidal volumes and/or low respiratory rates
4. Dynamic hyperinflation due to increased minute ventilation or high inspiratory flow rates
5. Bronchoconstriction or airway narrowing, which can occur during an asthma attack or in certain other lung conditions

IPPR has several clinical implications, such as reduced venous return and cardiac output, increased work of breathing, and potential for lung injury due to overdistension (volutrauma). Healthcare providers must consider IPPR when managing patients with respiratory distress, especially those on mechanical ventilation, to optimize their care and prevent complications.

Intubation, intratracheal is a medical procedure in which a flexible plastic or rubber tube called an endotracheal tube (ETT) is inserted through the mouth or nose, passing through the vocal cords and into the trachea (windpipe). This procedure is performed to establish and maintain a patent airway, allowing for the delivery of oxygen and the removal of carbon dioxide during mechanical ventilation in various clinical scenarios, such as:

1. Respiratory failure or arrest
2. Procedural sedation
3. Surgery under general anesthesia
4. Neuromuscular disorders
5. Ingestion of toxic substances
6. Head and neck trauma
7. Critical illness or injury affecting the airway

The process of intubation is typically performed by trained medical professionals, such as anesthesiologists, emergency medicine physicians, or critical care specialists, using direct laryngoscopy or video laryngoscopy to visualize the vocal cords and guide the ETT into the correct position. Once placed, the ETT is secured to prevent dislodgement, and the patient's respiratory status is continuously monitored to ensure proper ventilation and oxygenation.

Respiratory muscles are a group of muscles involved in the process of breathing. They include the diaphragm, intercostal muscles (located between the ribs), scalene muscles (located in the neck), and abdominal muscles. These muscles work together to allow the chest cavity to expand or contract, which draws air into or pushes it out of the lungs. The diaphragm is the primary muscle responsible for breathing, contracting to increase the volume of the chest cavity and draw air into the lungs during inhalation. The intercostal muscles help to further expand the ribcage, while the abdominal muscles assist in exhaling by compressing the abdomen and pushing up on the diaphragm.

Biological models, also known as physiological models or organismal models, are simplified representations of biological systems, processes, or mechanisms that are used to understand and explain the underlying principles and relationships. These models can be theoretical (conceptual or mathematical) or physical (such as anatomical models, cell cultures, or animal models). They are widely used in biomedical research to study various phenomena, including disease pathophysiology, drug action, and therapeutic interventions.

Examples of biological models include:

1. Mathematical models: These use mathematical equations and formulas to describe complex biological systems or processes, such as population dynamics, metabolic pathways, or gene regulation networks. They can help predict the behavior of these systems under different conditions and test hypotheses about their underlying mechanisms.
2. Cell cultures: These are collections of cells grown in a controlled environment, typically in a laboratory dish or flask. They can be used to study cellular processes, such as signal transduction, gene expression, or metabolism, and to test the effects of drugs or other treatments on these processes.
3. Animal models: These are living organisms, usually vertebrates like mice, rats, or non-human primates, that are used to study various aspects of human biology and disease. They can provide valuable insights into the pathophysiology of diseases, the mechanisms of drug action, and the safety and efficacy of new therapies.
4. Anatomical models: These are physical representations of biological structures or systems, such as plastic models of organs or tissues, that can be used for educational purposes or to plan surgical procedures. They can also serve as a basis for developing more sophisticated models, such as computer simulations or 3D-printed replicas.

Overall, biological models play a crucial role in advancing our understanding of biology and medicine, helping to identify new targets for therapeutic intervention, develop novel drugs and treatments, and improve human health.

Exhalation is the act of breathing out or exhaling, which is the reverse process of inhalation. During exhalation, the diaphragm relaxes and moves upwards, while the chest muscles also relax, causing the chest cavity to decrease in size. This decrease in size puts pressure on the lungs, causing them to deflate and expel air.

Exhalation is a passive process that occurs naturally after inhalation, but it can also be actively controlled during activities such as speaking, singing, or playing a wind instrument. In medical terms, exhalation may also be referred to as expiration.

Obstructive lung disease is a category of respiratory diseases characterized by airflow limitation that causes difficulty in completely emptying the alveoli (tiny air sacs) of the lungs during exhaling. This results in the trapping of stale air and prevents fresh air from entering the alveoli, leading to various symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, and decreased exercise tolerance.

The most common obstructive lung diseases include:

1. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): A progressive disease that includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema, often caused by smoking or exposure to harmful pollutants.
2. Asthma: A chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways characterized by variable airflow obstruction, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and an underlying inflammation. Symptoms can be triggered by various factors such as allergens, irritants, or physical activity.
3. Bronchiectasis: A condition in which the airways become abnormally widened, scarred, and thickened due to chronic inflammation or infection, leading to mucus buildup and impaired clearance.
4. Cystic Fibrosis: An inherited genetic disorder that affects the exocrine glands, resulting in thick and sticky mucus production in various organs, including the lungs. This can lead to chronic lung infections, inflammation, and airway obstruction.
5. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency: A genetic condition characterized by low levels of alpha-1 antitrypsin protein, which leads to uncontrolled protease enzyme activity that damages the lung tissue, causing emphysema-like symptoms.

Treatment for obstructive lung diseases typically involves bronchodilators (to relax and widen the airways), corticosteroids (to reduce inflammation), and lifestyle modifications such as smoking cessation and pulmonary rehabilitation programs. In severe cases, oxygen therapy or even lung transplantation may be considered.

Potassium Cyanide (C6H5KN) is defined as a white, water-soluble, crystalline salt that is highly toxic. It is used in fumigation, electroplating, and metal cleaning. When combined with acids, it releases the deadly gas hydrogen cyanide. It can cause immediate death by inhibiting cellular respiration. It is also known as Cyanide of Potassium or Potassium Salt of Hydrocyanic Acid.

Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome (OHS) is a medical condition characterized by the presence of obesity (generally defined as a body mass index of 30 or higher) and chronic hypoventilation, which means that the person is not breathing adequately, resulting in low levels of oxygen and high levels of carbon dioxide in the blood.

In OHS, the excess weight of the chest walls makes it difficult for the respiratory muscles to work effectively, leading to reduced lung volumes and impaired gas exchange. This results in chronic hypoxemia (low oxygen levels) and hypercapnia (high carbon dioxide levels) during wakefulness and sleep.

OHS is often associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a condition characterized by repeated episodes of upper airway obstruction during sleep, which can further exacerbate hypoventilation. However, not all patients with OHS have OSA, and vice versa.

The diagnosis of OHS is typically made based on the presence of obesity, chronic hypoventilation (as evidenced by elevated arterial carbon dioxide levels), and the absence of other causes of hypoventilation. Treatment usually involves the use of non-invasive ventilation to support breathing and improve gas exchange, as well as weight loss interventions to address the underlying obesity.

Respiratory dead space is the portion of each tidal volume (the amount of air that moves in and out of the lungs during normal breathing) that does not participate in gas exchange. It mainly consists of the anatomical dead space, which includes the conducting airways such as the trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles, where no alveoli are present for gas exchange to occur.

Additionally, alveolar dead space can also contribute to respiratory dead space when alveoli are perfused inadequately or not at all due to conditions like pulmonary embolism, lung consolidation, or impaired circulation. In these cases, even though air reaches the alveoli, insufficient blood flow prevents efficient gas exchange from taking place.

The sum of anatomical and alveolar dead space is referred to as physiological dead space. An increased respiratory dead space can lead to ventilation-perfusion mismatch and impaired oxygenation, making it a critical parameter in assessing respiratory function, particularly during mechanical ventilation in critically ill patients.

Helium is not a medical term, but it's a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2. It's a colorless, odorless, tasteless, non-toxic, inert, monatomic gas that heads the noble gases section of the periodic table. In medicine, helium is sometimes used in medical settings for its unique properties, such as being less dense than air, which can help improve the delivery of oxygen to patients with respiratory conditions. For example, heliox, a mixture of helium and oxygen, may be used to reduce the work of breathing in patients with conditions like chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or asthma. Additionally, helium is also used in cryogenic medical equipment and in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) machines to cool the superconducting magnets.

A diaphragm is a thin, dome-shaped muscle that separates the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity. It plays a vital role in the process of breathing as it contracts and flattens to draw air into the lungs (inhalation) and relaxes and returns to its domed shape to expel air out of the lungs (exhalation).

In addition, a diaphragm is also a type of barrier method of birth control. It is a flexible dome-shaped device made of silicone that fits over the cervix inside the vagina. When used correctly and consistently, it prevents sperm from entering the uterus and fertilizing an egg, thereby preventing pregnancy.

High-frequency ventilation (HFV) is a specialized mode of mechanical ventilation that delivers breaths at higher rates (usually 120-900 breaths per minute) and smaller tidal volumes (1-3 mL/kg) compared to conventional ventilation. This technique aims to reduce lung injury caused by overdistension and atelectasis, which can occur with traditional ventilator settings. It is often used in neonatal and pediatric intensive care units for the management of severe respiratory distress syndrome, meconium aspiration syndrome, and other conditions where conventional ventilation may be harmful.

There are two main types of high-frequency ventilation: high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) and high-frequency jet ventilation (HFJV). Both techniques use different methods to generate the high-frequency breaths but share similar principles in delivering small tidal volumes at rapid rates.

In summary, high-frequency ventilation is a medical intervention that utilizes specialized ventilators to deliver faster and smaller breaths, minimizing lung injury and improving oxygenation for critically ill patients with severe respiratory distress.

The cardiovascular system, also known as the circulatory system, is a biological system responsible for pumping and transporting blood throughout the body in animals and humans. It consists of the heart, blood vessels (comprising arteries, veins, and capillaries), and blood. The main function of this system is to transport oxygen, nutrients, hormones, and cellular waste products throughout the body to maintain homeostasis and support organ function.

The heart acts as a muscular pump that contracts and relaxes to circulate blood. It has four chambers: two atria on the top and two ventricles on the bottom. The right side of the heart receives deoxygenated blood from the body, pumps it through the lungs for oxygenation, and then sends it back to the left side of the heart. The left side of the heart then pumps the oxygenated blood through the aorta and into the systemic circulation, reaching all parts of the body via a network of arteries and capillaries. Deoxygenated blood is collected by veins and returned to the right atrium, completing the cycle.

The cardiovascular system plays a crucial role in regulating temperature, pH balance, and fluid balance throughout the body. It also contributes to the immune response and wound healing processes. Dysfunctions or diseases of the cardiovascular system can lead to severe health complications, such as hypertension, coronary artery disease, heart failure, stroke, and peripheral artery disease.

The phrenic nerve is a motor nerve that originates from the cervical spine (C3-C5) and descends through the neck to reach the diaphragm, which is the primary muscle used for breathing. The main function of the phrenic nerve is to innervate the diaphragm and control its contraction and relaxation, thereby enabling respiration.

Damage or injury to the phrenic nerve can result in paralysis of the diaphragm, leading to difficulty breathing and potentially causing respiratory failure. Certain medical conditions, such as neuromuscular disorders, spinal cord injuries, and tumors, can affect the phrenic nerve and impair its function.

Tetramethylphenylenediamine (TMPD) is not typically considered a medical term, but it is a chemical compound that is used in some scientific and research contexts. It's a type of aromatic amine, which is a class of organic compounds characterized by the presence of one or more amino groups (-NH2) attached to an aromatic hydrocarbon ring.

In biochemistry and molecular biology, TMPD is sometimes used as an electron carrier in experiments that involve redox reactions, such as those that occur during cellular respiration. It can also be used as a catalyst or reagent in various chemical reactions. However, it's important to note that TMPD is not a substance that is typically encountered in medical practice or patient care.

In medical terms, 'air' is defined as the mixture of gases that make up the Earth's atmosphere. It primarily consists of nitrogen (78%), oxygen (21%), and small amounts of other gases such as argon, carbon dioxide, and trace amounts of neon, helium, and methane.

Air is essential for human life, as it provides the oxygen that our bodies need to produce energy through respiration. We inhale air into our lungs, where oxygen is absorbed into the bloodstream and transported to cells throughout the body. At the same time, carbon dioxide, a waste product of cellular metabolism, is exhaled out of the body through the lungs and back into the atmosphere.

In addition to its role in respiration, air also plays a critical role in regulating the Earth's climate and weather patterns, as well as serving as a medium for sound waves and other forms of energy transfer.

Physiology is the scientific study of the normal functions and mechanisms of living organisms, including all of their biological systems, organs, cells, and biomolecules. It focuses on how various bodily functions are regulated, coordinated, and integrated to maintain a healthy state in an organism. This field encompasses a wide range of areas such as cellular physiology, neurophysiology, cardiovascular physiology, respiratory physiology, renal physiology, endocrine physiology, reproductive physiology, and exercise physiology, among others. Physiologists use a combination of experimental and theoretical approaches to understand the principles underlying normal biological function and to investigate how these functions are altered in various disease states.

Vital capacity (VC) is a term used in pulmonary function tests to describe the maximum volume of air that can be exhaled after taking a deep breath. It is the sum of inspiratory reserve volume, tidal volume, and expiratory reserve volume. In other words, it's the total amount of air you can forcibly exhale after inhaling as deeply as possible. Vital capacity is an important measurement in assessing lung function and can be reduced in conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and other respiratory disorders.

Hydroxyquinolines are a group of synthetic antimicrobial agents that contain a hydroxyl group (-OH) attached to a quinoline ring. They have been used in the treatment of various bacterial, fungal, and parasitic infections. Some common examples of hydroxyquinolines include chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, and quinacrine. These agents work by inhibiting the growth and multiplication of microorganisms, although their exact mechanisms of action may vary. Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, for example, are known to interfere with the replication of the malaria parasite within red blood cells, while quinacrine has been used to treat certain types of protozoal infections.

It is important to note that the use of hydroxyquinolines is associated with a number of potential side effects and risks, including gastrointestinal disturbances, visual disturbances, and cardiac toxicity. As such, they should only be used under the close supervision of a healthcare professional.

Cyanides are a group of chemical compounds that contain the cyano group, -CN, which consists of a carbon atom triple-bonded to a nitrogen atom. They are highly toxic and can cause rapid death due to the inhibition of cellular respiration. Cyanide ions (CN-) bind to the ferric iron in cytochrome c oxidase, a crucial enzyme in the electron transport chain, preventing the flow of electrons and the production of ATP, leading to cellular asphyxiation.

Common sources of cyanides include industrial chemicals such as hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and potassium cyanide (KCN), as well as natural sources like certain fruits, nuts, and plants. Exposure to high levels of cyanides can occur through inhalation, ingestion, or skin absorption, leading to symptoms such as headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, rapid heartbeat, seizures, coma, and ultimately death. Treatment for cyanide poisoning typically involves the use of antidotes that bind to cyanide ions and convert them into less toxic forms, such as thiosulfate and rhodanese.

Emphysema is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by abnormal, permanent enlargement of the airspaces called alveoli in the lungs, accompanied by destruction of their walls. This results in loss of elasticity and decreased gas exchange efficiency, causing shortness of breath and coughing. It is often caused by smoking or exposure to harmful pollutants. The damage to the lungs is irreversible, but quitting smoking and using medications can help alleviate symptoms and slow disease progression.

Albuterol is a medication that is used to treat bronchospasm, or narrowing of the airways in the lungs, in conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It is a short-acting beta-2 agonist, which means it works by relaxing the muscles around the airways, making it easier to breathe. Albuterol is available in several forms, including an inhaler, nebulizer solution, and syrup, and it is typically used as needed to relieve symptoms of bronchospasm. It may also be used before exercise to prevent bronchospasm caused by physical activity.

The medical definition of Albuterol is: "A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist used to treat bronchospasm in conditions such as asthma and COPD. It works by relaxing the muscles around the airways, making it easier to breathe."

Pulmonary alveoli, also known as air sacs, are tiny clusters of air-filled pouches located at the end of the bronchioles in the lungs. They play a crucial role in the process of gas exchange during respiration. The thin walls of the alveoli, called alveolar membranes, allow oxygen from inhaled air to pass into the bloodstream and carbon dioxide from the bloodstream to pass into the alveoli to be exhaled out of the body. This vital function enables the lungs to supply oxygen-rich blood to the rest of the body and remove waste products like carbon dioxide.

Plethysmography is a non-invasive medical technique used to measure changes in volume or blood flow within an organ or body part, typically in the lungs or extremities. There are several types of plethysmography, including:

1. **Whole Body Plethysmography (WBP):** This type of plethysmography is used to assess lung function and volumes by measuring changes in pressure within a sealed chamber that contains the patient's entire body except for their head. The patient breathes normally while wearing a nose clip, allowing technicians to analyze respiratory patterns, airflow, and lung volume changes.
2. **Segmental or Local Plethysmography:** This technique measures volume or blood flow changes in specific body parts, such as the limbs or digits. It can help diagnose and monitor conditions affecting peripheral circulation, like deep vein thrombosis, arterial occlusive disease, or Raynaud's phenomenon.
3. **Impedance Plethysmography (IPG):** This non-invasive method uses electrical impedance to estimate changes in blood volume within an organ or body part. By applying a small electrical current and measuring the opposition to flow (impedance), technicians can determine variations in blood volume, which can help diagnose conditions like deep vein thrombosis or heart failure.
4. **Optical Plethysmography:** This technique uses light to measure changes in blood volume, typically in the skin or mucous membranes. By shining a light on the area and analyzing the reflected or transmitted light, technicians can detect variations in blood volume related to cardiac output, respiration, or other physiological factors.

Overall, plethysmography is an essential tool for diagnosing and monitoring various medical conditions affecting circulation, respiratory function, and organ volumes.

Blood gas analysis is a medical test that measures the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood, as well as the pH level, which indicates the acidity or alkalinity of the blood. This test is often used to evaluate lung function, respiratory disorders, and acid-base balance in the body. It can also be used to monitor the effectiveness of treatments for conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and other respiratory illnesses. The analysis is typically performed on a sample of arterial blood, although venous blood may also be used in some cases.

Chemical warfare agents are defined as chemical substances that are intended or have the capability to cause death, injury, temporary incapacitation, or sensory irritation through their toxic properties when deployed in a military theater. These agents can be in gaseous, liquid, or solid form and are typically categorized based on their physiological effects. Common categories include nerve agents (e.g., sarin, VX), blister agents (e.g., mustard gas), choking agents (e.g., phosgene), blood agents (e.g., cyanide), and incapacitating agents (e.g., BZ). The use of chemical warfare agents is prohibited by international law under the Chemical Weapons Convention.

Air pollutants are substances or mixtures of substances present in the air that can have negative effects on human health, the environment, and climate. These pollutants can come from a variety of sources, including industrial processes, transportation, residential heating and cooking, agricultural activities, and natural events. Some common examples of air pollutants include particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, ozone, carbon monoxide, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

Air pollutants can cause a range of health effects, from respiratory irritation and coughing to more serious conditions such as bronchitis, asthma, and cancer. They can also contribute to climate change by reacting with other chemicals in the atmosphere to form harmful ground-level ozone and by directly absorbing or scattering sunlight, which can affect temperature and precipitation patterns.

Air quality standards and regulations have been established to limit the amount of air pollutants that can be released into the environment, and efforts are ongoing to reduce emissions and improve air quality worldwide.

The prone position is a body posture in which an individual lies on their stomach, with their face down and chest facing the floor or bed. This position is often used in medical settings for various purposes, such as during certain surgical procedures, respiratory support, or to alleviate pressure ulcers. It's also important to note that the prone position can have implications for patient safety, particularly in critically ill patients, and should be carefully monitored.

Bronchodilators are medications that relax and widen the airways (bronchioles) in the lungs, making it easier to breathe. They work by relaxing the smooth muscle around the airways, which allows them to dilate or open up. This results in improved airflow and reduced symptoms of bronchoconstriction, such as wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath.

Bronchodilators can be classified into two main types: short-acting and long-acting. Short-acting bronchodilators are used for quick relief of symptoms and last for 4 to 6 hours, while long-acting bronchodilators are used for maintenance therapy and provide symptom relief for 12 hours or more.

Examples of bronchodilator agents include:

* Short-acting beta-agonists (SABAs) such as albuterol, levalbuterol, and pirbuterol
* Long-acting beta-agonists (LABAs) such as salmeterol, formoterol, and indacaterol
* Anticholinergics such as ipratropium, tiotropium, and aclidinium
* Combination bronchodilators that contain both a LABA and an anticholinergic, such as umeclidinium/vilanterol and glycopyrrolate/formoterol.

Forced expiratory flow rates (FEFR) are measures of how quickly and efficiently air can be exhaled from the lungs during a forced breath maneuver. These measurements are often used in pulmonary function testing to help diagnose and monitor obstructive lung diseases such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

FEFR is typically measured during a forced expiratory maneuver, where the person takes a deep breath in and then exhales as forcefully and quickly as possible into a mouthpiece connected to a spirometer. The spirometer measures the volume and flow rate of the exhaled air over time.

There are several different FEFR measurements that can be reported, including:

* Forced Expiratory Flow (FEF) 25-75%: This is the average flow rate during the middle half of the forced expiratory maneuver.
* Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR): This is the maximum flow rate achieved during the first second of the forced expiratory maneuver.
* Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 Second (FEV1): This is the volume of air exhaled in the first second of the forced expiratory maneuver.

Abnormal FEFR values can indicate obstruction in the small airways of the lungs, which can make it difficult to breathe out fully and quickly. The specific pattern of abnormalities in FEFR measurements can help doctors differentiate between different types of obstructive lung diseases.

Cardiovascular physiological phenomena refer to the various functions and processes that occur within the cardiovascular system, which includes the heart and blood vessels. These phenomena are responsible for the transport of oxygen, nutrients, and other essential molecules to tissues throughout the body, as well as the removal of waste products and carbon dioxide.

Some examples of cardiovascular physiological phenomena include:

1. Heart rate and rhythm: The heart's ability to contract regularly and coordinate its contractions with the body's needs for oxygen and nutrients.
2. Blood pressure: The force exerted by blood on the walls of blood vessels, which is determined by the amount of blood pumped by the heart and the resistance of the blood vessels.
3. Cardiac output: The volume of blood that the heart pumps in one minute, calculated as the product of stroke volume (the amount of blood pumped per beat) and heart rate.
4. Blood flow: The movement of blood through the circulatory system, which is influenced by factors such as blood pressure, vessel diameter, and blood viscosity.
5. Vasoconstriction and vasodilation: The narrowing or widening of blood vessels in response to various stimuli, such as hormones, neurotransmitters, and changes in temperature or oxygen levels.
6. Autoregulation: The ability of blood vessels to maintain a constant blood flow to tissues despite changes in perfusion pressure.
7. Blood clotting: The process by which the body forms a clot to stop bleeding after an injury, which involves the activation of platelets and the coagulation cascade.
8. Endothelial function: The ability of the endothelium (the lining of blood vessels) to regulate vascular tone, inflammation, and thrombosis.
9. Myocardial contractility: The strength of heart muscle contractions, which is influenced by factors such as calcium levels, neurotransmitters, and hormones.
10. Electrophysiology: The study of the electrical properties of the heart, including the conduction system that allows for the coordinated contraction of heart muscle.

Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are infections that affect the respiratory system, which includes the nose, throat (pharynx), voice box (larynx), windpipe (trachea), bronchi, and lungs. These infections can be caused by viruses, bacteria, or, less commonly, fungi.

RTIs are classified into two categories based on their location: upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs). URTIs include infections of the nose, sinuses, throat, and larynx, such as the common cold, flu, laryngitis, and sinusitis. LRTIs involve the lower airways, including the bronchi and lungs, and can be more severe. Examples of LRTIs are pneumonia, bronchitis, and bronchiolitis.

Symptoms of RTIs depend on the location and cause of the infection but may include cough, congestion, runny nose, sore throat, difficulty breathing, wheezing, fever, fatigue, and chest pain. Treatment for RTIs varies depending on the severity and underlying cause of the infection. For viral infections, treatment typically involves supportive care to manage symptoms, while antibiotics may be prescribed for bacterial infections.

Chronic bronchitis is a long-term inflammation of the airways (bronchi) in the lungs. It is characterized by a persistent cough that produces excessive mucus or sputum. The cough and mucus production must be present for at least three months in two consecutive years to meet the diagnostic criteria for chronic bronchitis.

The inflammation of the airways can lead to narrowing, obstructing the flow of air into and out of the lungs, resulting in shortness of breath and wheezing. Chronic bronchitis is often associated with exposure to irritants such as tobacco smoke, dust, or chemical fumes over an extended period.

It is a significant component of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which also includes emphysema. While there is no cure for chronic bronchitis, treatments can help alleviate symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. These may include bronchodilators, corticosteroids, and pulmonary rehabilitation. Quitting smoking is crucial in managing this condition.

Hyperventilation is a medical condition characterized by an increased respiratory rate and depth, resulting in excessive elimination of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the body. This leads to hypocapnia (low CO2 levels in the blood), which can cause symptoms such as lightheadedness, dizziness, confusion, tingling sensations in the extremities, and muscle spasms. Hyperventilation may occur due to various underlying causes, including anxiety disorders, lung diseases, neurological conditions, or certain medications. It is essential to identify and address the underlying cause of hyperventilation for proper treatment.

Bronchial provocation tests are a group of medical tests used to assess the airway responsiveness of the lungs by challenging them with increasing doses of a specific stimulus, such as methacholine or histamine, which can cause bronchoconstriction (narrowing of the airways) in susceptible individuals. These tests are often performed to diagnose and monitor asthma and other respiratory conditions that may be associated with heightened airway responsiveness.

The most common type of bronchial provocation test is the methacholine challenge test, which involves inhaling increasing concentrations of methacholine aerosol via a nebulizer. The dose response is measured by monitoring lung function (usually through spirometry) before and after each exposure. A positive test is indicated when there is a significant decrease in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) or other measures of airflow, which suggests bronchial hyperresponsiveness.

Other types of bronchial provocation tests include histamine challenges, exercise challenges, and mannitol challenges. These tests have specific indications, contraindications, and protocols that should be followed to ensure accurate results and patient safety. Bronchial provocation tests are typically conducted in a controlled clinical setting under the supervision of trained healthcare professionals.

Occupational diseases are health conditions or illnesses that occur as a result of exposure to hazards in the workplace. These hazards can include physical, chemical, and biological agents, as well as ergonomic factors and work-related psychosocial stressors. Examples of occupational diseases include respiratory illnesses caused by inhaling dust or fumes, hearing loss due to excessive noise exposure, and musculoskeletal disorders caused by repetitive movements or poor ergonomics. The development of an occupational disease is typically related to the nature of the work being performed and the conditions in which it is carried out. It's important to note that these diseases can be prevented or minimized through proper risk assessment, implementation of control measures, and adherence to safety regulations.

In medical terms, ribs are the long, curved bones that make up the ribcage in the human body. They articulate with the thoracic vertebrae posteriorly and connect to the sternum anteriorly via costal cartilages. There are 12 pairs of ribs in total, and they play a crucial role in protecting the lungs and heart, allowing room for expansion and contraction during breathing. Ribs also provide attachment points for various muscles involved in respiration and posture.

Diagnostic techniques for the respiratory system are methods used to identify and diagnose various diseases and conditions affecting the lungs and breathing. Here are some commonly used diagnostic techniques:

1. Physical Examination: A healthcare provider will listen to your chest with a stethoscope to check for abnormal breath sounds, such as wheezing or crackles. They may also observe your respiratory rate and effort.
2. Chest X-ray: This imaging test can help identify abnormalities in the lungs, such as tumors, fluid accumulation, or collapsed lung sections.
3. Computed Tomography (CT) Scan: A CT scan uses X-rays to create detailed cross-sectional images of the lungs and surrounding structures. It can help detect nodules, cysts, or other abnormalities that may not be visible on a chest X-ray.
4. Pulmonary Function Tests (PFTs): These tests measure how well your lungs are working by assessing your ability to inhale and exhale air. Common PFTs include spirometry, lung volume measurement, and diffusing capacity testing.
5. Bronchoscopy: A thin, flexible tube with a camera and light is inserted through the nose or mouth into the airways to examine the lungs' interior and obtain tissue samples for biopsy.
6. Bronchoalveolar Lavage (BAL): During a bronchoscopy, fluid is introduced into a specific area of the lung and then suctioned out to collect cells and other materials for analysis.
7. Sleep Studies: These tests monitor your breathing patterns during sleep to diagnose conditions like sleep apnea or other sleep-related breathing disorders.
8. Sputum Analysis: A sample of coughed-up mucus is examined under a microscope to identify any abnormal cells, bacteria, or other organisms that may be causing respiratory issues.
9. Blood Tests: Blood tests can help diagnose various respiratory conditions by measuring oxygen and carbon dioxide levels, identifying specific antibodies or antigens, or detecting genetic markers associated with certain diseases.
10. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Scan: A PET scan uses a small amount of radioactive material to create detailed images of the body's internal structures and functions, helping identify areas of abnormal cell growth or metabolic activity in the lungs.

The esophagus is the muscular tube that connects the throat (pharynx) to the stomach. It is located in the midline of the neck and chest, passing through the diaphragm to enter the abdomen and join the stomach. The main function of the esophagus is to transport food and liquids from the mouth to the stomach for digestion.

The esophagus has a few distinct parts: the upper esophageal sphincter (a ring of muscle that separates the esophagus from the throat), the middle esophagus, and the lower esophageal sphincter (another ring of muscle that separates the esophagus from the stomach). The lower esophageal sphincter relaxes to allow food and liquids to enter the stomach and then contracts to prevent stomach contents from flowing back into the esophagus.

The walls of the esophagus are made up of several layers, including mucosa (a moist tissue that lines the inside of the tube), submucosa (a layer of connective tissue), muscle (both voluntary and involuntary types), and adventitia (an outer layer of connective tissue).

Common conditions affecting the esophagus include gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), Barrett's esophagus, esophageal cancer, esophageal strictures, and eosinophilic esophagitis.

General anesthesia is a state of controlled unconsciousness, induced by administering various medications, that eliminates awareness, movement, and pain sensation during medical procedures. It involves the use of a combination of intravenous and inhaled drugs to produce a reversible loss of consciousness, allowing patients to undergo surgical or diagnostic interventions safely and comfortably. The depth and duration of anesthesia are carefully monitored and adjusted throughout the procedure by an anesthesiologist or certified registered nurse anesthetist (CRNA) to ensure patient safety and optimize recovery. General anesthesia is typically used for more extensive surgical procedures, such as open-heart surgery, major orthopedic surgeries, and neurosurgery.

In medical terms, gases refer to the state of matter that has no fixed shape or volume and expands to fill any container it is placed in. Gases in the body can be normal, such as the oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen that are present in the lungs and blood, or abnormal, such as gas that accumulates in the digestive tract due to conditions like bloating or swallowing air.

Gases can also be used medically for therapeutic purposes, such as in the administration of anesthesia or in the treatment of certain respiratory conditions with oxygen therapy. Additionally, measuring the amount of gas in the body, such as through imaging studies like X-rays or CT scans, can help diagnose various medical conditions.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

"Inhalation administration" is a medical term that refers to the method of delivering medications or therapeutic agents directly into the lungs by inhaling them through the airways. This route of administration is commonly used for treating respiratory conditions such as asthma, COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), and cystic fibrosis.

Inhalation administration can be achieved using various devices, including metered-dose inhalers (MDIs), dry powder inhalers (DPIs), nebulizers, and soft-mist inhalers. Each device has its unique mechanism of delivering the medication into the lungs, but they all aim to provide a high concentration of the drug directly to the site of action while minimizing systemic exposure and side effects.

The advantages of inhalation administration include rapid onset of action, increased local drug concentration, reduced systemic side effects, and improved patient compliance due to the ease of use and non-invasive nature of the delivery method. However, proper technique and device usage are crucial for effective therapy, as incorrect usage may result in suboptimal drug deposition and therapeutic outcomes.

In medical terms, "dust" is not defined as a specific medical condition or disease. However, generally speaking, dust refers to small particles of solid matter that can be found in the air and can come from various sources, such as soil, pollen, hair, textiles, paper, or plastic.

Exposure to certain types of dust, such as those containing allergens, chemicals, or harmful pathogens, can cause a range of health problems, including respiratory issues like asthma, allergies, and lung diseases. Prolonged exposure to certain types of dust, such as silica or asbestos, can even lead to serious conditions like silicosis or mesothelioma.

Therefore, it is important for individuals who work in environments with high levels of dust to take appropriate precautions, such as wearing masks and respirators, to minimize their exposure and reduce the risk of health problems.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive lung disease characterized by the persistent obstruction of airflow in and out of the lungs. This obstruction is usually caused by two primary conditions: chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Chronic bronchitis involves inflammation and narrowing of the airways, leading to excessive mucus production and coughing. Emphysema is a condition where the alveoli (air sacs) in the lungs are damaged, resulting in decreased gas exchange and shortness of breath.

The main symptoms of COPD include progressive shortness of breath, chronic cough, chest tightness, wheezing, and excessive mucus production. The disease is often associated with exposure to harmful particles or gases, such as cigarette smoke, air pollution, or occupational dusts and chemicals. While there is no cure for COPD, treatments can help alleviate symptoms, improve quality of life, and slow the progression of the disease. These treatments may include bronchodilators, corticosteroids, combination inhalers, pulmonary rehabilitation, and, in severe cases, oxygen therapy or lung transplantation.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

The Electron Transport Chain (ETC) is a series of complexes in the inner mitochondrial membrane that are involved in the process of cellular respiration. It is the final pathway for electrons derived from the oxidation of nutrients such as glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids to be transferred to molecular oxygen. This transfer of electrons drives the generation of a proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane, which is then used by ATP synthase to produce ATP, the main energy currency of the cell.

The electron transport chain consists of four complexes (I-IV) and two mobile electron carriers (ubiquinone and cytochrome c). Electrons from NADH and FADH2 are transferred to Complex I and Complex II respectively, which then pass them along to ubiquinone. Ubiquinone then transfers the electrons to Complex III, which passes them on to cytochrome c. Finally, cytochrome c transfers the electrons to Complex IV, where they combine with oxygen and protons to form water.

The transfer of electrons through the ETC is accompanied by the pumping of protons from the mitochondrial matrix to the intermembrane space, creating a proton gradient. The flow of protons back across the inner membrane through ATP synthase drives the synthesis of ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate.

Overall, the electron transport chain is a crucial process for generating energy in the form of ATP in the cell, and it plays a key role in many metabolic pathways.

The term "diving" is generally not used in the context of medical definitions. However, when referring to diving in relation to a medical or physiological context, it usually refers to the act of submerging the body underwater, typically for activities such as swimming, snorkeling, or scuba diving.

In a medical or physiological sense, diving can have specific effects on the human body due to changes in pressure, temperature, and exposure to water. Some of these effects include:

* Changes in lung volume and gas exchange due to increased ambient pressure at depth.
* Decompression sickness (DCS) or nitrogen narcosis, which can occur when dissolved gases form bubbles in the body during ascent from a dive.
* Hypothermia, which can occur if the water is cold and the diver is not adequately insulated.
* Barotrauma, which can occur due to pressure differences between the middle ear or sinuses and the surrounding environment.
* Other medical conditions such as seizures or heart problems can also be exacerbated by diving.

It's important for divers to undergo proper training and certification, follow safe diving practices, and monitor their health before and after dives to minimize the risks associated with diving.

Occupational air pollutants refer to harmful substances present in the air in workplaces or occupational settings. These pollutants can include dusts, gases, fumes, vapors, or mists that are produced by industrial processes, chemical reactions, or other sources. Examples of occupational air pollutants include:

1. Respirable crystalline silica: A common mineral found in sand, stone, and concrete that can cause lung disease and cancer when inhaled in high concentrations.
2. Asbestos: A naturally occurring mineral fiber that was widely used in construction materials and industrial applications until the 1970s. Exposure to asbestos fibers can cause lung diseases such as asbestosis, lung cancer, and mesothelioma.
3. Welding fumes: Fumes generated during welding processes can contain harmful metals such as manganese, chromium, and nickel that can cause neurological damage and respiratory problems.
4. Isocyanates: Chemicals used in the production of foam insulation, spray-on coatings, and other industrial applications that can cause asthma and other respiratory symptoms.
5. Coal dust: Fine particles generated during coal mining, transportation, and handling that can cause lung disease and other health problems.
6. Diesel exhaust: Emissions from diesel engines that contain harmful particulates and gases that can cause respiratory and cardiovascular problems.

Occupational air pollutants are regulated by various government agencies, including the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) in the United States, to protect workers from exposure and minimize health risks.

Occupational exposure refers to the contact of an individual with potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents as a result of their job or occupation. This can include exposure to hazardous substances such as chemicals, heavy metals, or dusts; physical agents such as noise, radiation, or ergonomic stressors; and biological agents such as viruses, bacteria, or fungi.

Occupational exposure can occur through various routes, including inhalation, skin contact, ingestion, or injection. Prolonged or repeated exposure to these hazards can increase the risk of developing acute or chronic health conditions, such as respiratory diseases, skin disorders, neurological damage, or cancer.

Employers have a legal and ethical responsibility to minimize occupational exposures through the implementation of appropriate control measures, including engineering controls, administrative controls, personal protective equipment, and training programs. Regular monitoring and surveillance of workers' health can also help identify and prevent potential health hazards in the workplace.

Humidity, in a medical context, is not typically defined on its own but is related to environmental conditions that can affect health. Humidity refers to the amount of water vapor present in the air. It is often discussed in terms of absolute humidity (the mass of water per unit volume of air) or relative humidity (the ratio of the current absolute humidity to the maximum possible absolute humidity, expressed as a percentage). High humidity can contribute to feelings of discomfort, difficulty sleeping, and exacerbation of respiratory conditions such as asthma.

Oxidoreductases are a class of enzymes that catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions, which involve the transfer of electrons from one molecule (the reductant) to another (the oxidant). These enzymes play a crucial role in various biological processes, including energy production, metabolism, and detoxification.

The oxidoreductase-catalyzed reaction typically involves the donation of electrons from a reducing agent (donor) to an oxidizing agent (acceptor), often through the transfer of hydrogen atoms or hydride ions. The enzyme itself does not undergo any permanent chemical change during this process, but rather acts as a catalyst to lower the activation energy required for the reaction to occur.

Oxidoreductases are classified and named based on the type of electron donor or acceptor involved in the reaction. For example, oxidoreductases that act on the CH-OH group of donors are called dehydrogenases, while those that act on the aldehyde or ketone groups are called oxidases. Other examples include reductases, peroxidases, and catalases.

Understanding the function and regulation of oxidoreductases is important for understanding various physiological processes and developing therapeutic strategies for diseases associated with impaired redox homeostasis, such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and cardiovascular disease.

Pulmonary edema is a medical condition characterized by the accumulation of fluid in the alveoli (air sacs) and interstitial spaces (the area surrounding the alveoli) within the lungs. This buildup of fluid can lead to impaired gas exchange, resulting in shortness of breath, coughing, and difficulty breathing, especially when lying down. Pulmonary edema is often a complication of heart failure, but it can also be caused by other conditions such as pneumonia, trauma, or exposure to certain toxins.

In the early stages of pulmonary edema, patients may experience mild symptoms such as shortness of breath during physical activity. However, as the condition progresses, symptoms can become more severe and include:

* Severe shortness of breath, even at rest
* Wheezing or coughing up pink, frothy sputum
* Rapid breathing and heart rate
* Anxiety or restlessness
* Bluish discoloration of the skin (cyanosis) due to lack of oxygen

Pulmonary edema can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, chest X-ray, and other diagnostic tests such as echocardiography or CT scan. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the condition, as well as providing supportive care such as supplemental oxygen, diuretics to help remove excess fluid from the body, and medications to help reduce anxiety and improve breathing. In severe cases, mechanical ventilation may be necessary to support respiratory function.

Pulmonary surfactants are a complex mixture of lipids and proteins that are produced by the alveolar type II cells in the lungs. They play a crucial role in reducing the surface tension at the air-liquid interface within the alveoli, which helps to prevent collapse of the lungs during expiration. Surfactants also have important immunological functions, such as inhibiting the growth of certain bacteria and modulating the immune response. Deficiency or dysfunction of pulmonary surfactants can lead to respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in premature infants and other lung diseases.

Ozone (O3) is not a substance that is typically considered a component of health or medicine in the context of human body or physiology. It's actually a form of oxygen, but with three atoms instead of two, making it unstable and reactive. Ozone is naturally present in the Earth's atmosphere, where it forms a protective layer in the stratosphere that absorbs harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun.

However, ozone can have both beneficial and detrimental effects on human health depending on its location and concentration. At ground level or in indoor environments, ozone is considered an air pollutant that can irritate the respiratory system and aggravate asthma symptoms when inhaled at high concentrations. It's important to note that ozone should not be confused with oxygen (O2), which is essential for human life and breathing.

Electric impedance is a measure of opposition to the flow of alternating current (AC) in an electrical circuit or component, caused by both resistance (ohmic) and reactance (capacitive and inductive). It is expressed as a complex number, with the real part representing resistance and the imaginary part representing reactance. The unit of electric impedance is the ohm (Ω).

In the context of medical devices, electric impedance may be used to measure various physiological parameters, such as tissue conductivity or fluid composition. For example, bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) uses electrical impedance to estimate body composition, including fat mass and lean muscle mass. Similarly, electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a medical imaging technique that uses electric impedance to create images of internal organs and tissues.

Anoxia is a medical condition that refers to the absence or complete lack of oxygen supply in the body or a specific organ, tissue, or cell. This can lead to serious health consequences, including damage or death of cells and tissues, due to the vital role that oxygen plays in supporting cellular metabolism and energy production.

Anoxia can occur due to various reasons, such as respiratory failure, cardiac arrest, severe blood loss, carbon monoxide poisoning, or high altitude exposure. Prolonged anoxia can result in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, a serious condition that can cause brain damage and long-term neurological impairments.

Medical professionals use various diagnostic tests, such as blood gas analysis, pulse oximetry, and electroencephalography (EEG), to assess oxygen levels in the body and diagnose anoxia. Treatment for anoxia typically involves addressing the underlying cause, providing supplemental oxygen, and supporting vital functions, such as breathing and circulation, to prevent further damage.

"Bronchi" are a pair of airways in the respiratory system that branch off from the trachea (windpipe) and lead to the lungs. They are responsible for delivering oxygen-rich air to the lungs and removing carbon dioxide during exhalation. The right bronchus is slightly larger and more vertical than the left, and they further divide into smaller branches called bronchioles within the lungs. Any abnormalities or diseases affecting the bronchi can impact lung function and overall respiratory health.

Mucus is a viscous, slippery secretion produced by the mucous membranes that line various body cavities such as the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. It serves to lubricate and protect these surfaces from damage, infection, and foreign particles. Mucus contains water, proteins, salts, and other substances, including antibodies, enzymes, and glycoproteins called mucins that give it its characteristic gel-like consistency.

In the respiratory system, mucus traps inhaled particles such as dust, allergens, and pathogens, preventing them from reaching the lungs. The cilia, tiny hair-like structures lining the airways, move the mucus upward toward the throat, where it can be swallowed or expelled through coughing or sneezing. In the gastrointestinal tract, mucus helps protect the lining of the stomach and intestines from digestive enzymes and other harmful substances.

Excessive production of mucus can occur in various medical conditions such as allergies, respiratory infections, chronic lung diseases, and gastrointestinal disorders, leading to symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, nasal congestion, and diarrhea.

Respiratory system agents are substances that affect the respiratory system, which includes the nose, throat (pharynx), voice box (larynx), windpipe (trachea), bronchi, and lungs. These agents can be classified into different categories based on their effects:

1. Respiratory Stimulants: Agents that increase respiratory rate or depth by acting on the respiratory center in the brainstem.
2. Respiratory Depressants: Agents that decrease respiratory rate or depth, often as a side effect of their sedative or analgesic effects. Examples include opioids, benzodiazepines, and barbiturates.
3. Bronchodilators: Agents that widen the airways (bronchioles) in the lungs by relaxing the smooth muscle around them. They are used to treat asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and other respiratory conditions. Examples include albuterol, ipratropium, and theophylline.
4. Anti-inflammatory Agents: Agents that reduce inflammation in the airways, which can help relieve symptoms of asthma, COPD, and other respiratory conditions. Examples include corticosteroids, leukotriene modifiers, and mast cell stabilizers.
5. Antitussives: Agents that suppress coughing, often by numbing the throat or acting on the cough center in the brainstem. Examples include dextromethorphan and codeine.
6. Expectorants: Agents that help thin and loosen mucus in the airways, making it easier to cough up and clear. Examples include guaifenesin and iodinated glycerol.
7. Decongestants: Agents that narrow blood vessels in the nose and throat, which can help relieve nasal congestion and sinus pressure. Examples include pseudoephedrine and phenylephrine.
8. Antimicrobial Agents: Agents that kill or inhibit the growth of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi that can cause respiratory infections. Examples include antibiotics, antiviral drugs, and antifungal agents.

Acute Lung Injury (ALI) is a medical condition characterized by inflammation and damage to the lung tissue, which can lead to difficulty breathing and respiratory failure. It is often caused by direct or indirect injury to the lungs, such as pneumonia, sepsis, trauma, or inhalation of harmful substances.

The symptoms of ALI include shortness of breath, rapid breathing, cough, and low oxygen levels in the blood. The condition can progress rapidly and may require mechanical ventilation to support breathing. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the injury, providing supportive care, and managing symptoms.

In severe cases, ALI can lead to Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), a more serious and life-threatening condition that requires intensive care unit (ICU) treatment.

Bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) or bronchial hyperreactivity (BH) is a medical term that refers to the increased sensitivity and exaggerated response of the airways to various stimuli. In people with BHR, the airways narrow (constrict) more than usual in response to certain triggers such as allergens, cold air, exercise, or irritants like smoke or fumes. This narrowing can cause symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath.

BHR is often associated with asthma and other respiratory conditions, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and bronchiectasis. It is typically diagnosed through a series of tests that measure the degree of airway narrowing in response to various stimuli. These tests may include spirometry, methacholine challenge test, or histamine challenge test.

BHR can be managed with medications such as bronchodilators and anti-inflammatory drugs, which help to relax the muscles around the airways and reduce inflammation. It is also important to avoid triggers that can exacerbate symptoms and make BHR worse.

I am not aware of a medical definition for the term "birds." Birds are a group of warm-blooded vertebrates constituting the class Aves, characterized by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, and lightweight but strong skeletons. Some birds, such as pigeons and chickens, have been used in medical research, but the term "birds" itself does not have a specific medical definition.

Bronchitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the bronchi, which are the large airways that lead to the lungs. This inflammation can cause a variety of symptoms, including coughing, wheezing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath. Bronchitis can be either acute or chronic.

Acute bronchitis is usually caused by a viral infection, such as a cold or the flu, and typically lasts for a few days to a week. Symptoms may include a productive cough (coughing up mucus or phlegm), chest discomfort, and fatigue. Acute bronchitis often resolves on its own without specific medical treatment, although rest, hydration, and over-the-counter medications to manage symptoms may be helpful.

Chronic bronchitis, on the other hand, is a long-term condition that is characterized by a persistent cough with mucus production that lasts for at least three months out of the year for two consecutive years. Chronic bronchitis is typically caused by exposure to irritants such as cigarette smoke, air pollution, or occupational dusts and chemicals. It is often associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which includes both chronic bronchitis and emphysema.

Treatment for chronic bronchitis may include medications to help open the airways, such as bronchodilators and corticosteroids, as well as lifestyle changes such as smoking cessation and avoiding irritants. In severe cases, oxygen therapy or lung transplantation may be necessary.

Anatomic models are three-dimensional representations of body structures used for educational, training, or demonstration purposes. They can be made from various materials such as plastic, wax, or rubber and may depict the entire body or specific regions, organs, or systems. These models can be used to provide a visual aid for understanding anatomy, physiology, and pathology, and can be particularly useful in situations where actual human specimens are not available or practical to use. They may also be used for surgical planning and rehearsal, as well as in medical research and product development.

A cough is a reflex action that helps to clear the airways of irritants, foreign particles, or excess mucus or phlegm. It is characterized by a sudden, forceful expulsion of air from the lungs through the mouth and nose. A cough can be acute (short-term) or chronic (long-term), and it can be accompanied by other symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, or fever. Coughing can be caused by various factors, including respiratory infections, allergies, asthma, environmental pollutants, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and chronic lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and bronchitis. In some cases, a cough may be a symptom of a more serious underlying condition, such as heart failure or lung cancer.

Particulate Matter (PM) refers to the mixture of tiny particles and droplets in the air that are solid or liquid in nature. These particles vary in size, with some being visible to the naked eye while others can only be seen under a microscope. PM is classified based on its diameter:

* PM10 includes particles with a diameter of 10 micrometers or smaller. These particles are often found in dust, pollen, and smoke.
* PM2.5 includes particles with a diameter of 2.5 micrometers or smaller. These fine particles are produced from sources such as power plants, industrial processes, and vehicle emissions. They can also come from natural sources like wildfires.

Exposure to particulate matter has been linked to various health problems, including respiratory issues, cardiovascular disease, and premature death. The smaller the particle, the deeper it can penetrate into the lungs, making PM2.5 particularly harmful to human health.

Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) is an enzyme complex that plays a crucial role in the process of cellular respiration, specifically in the citric acid cycle (also known as the Krebs cycle) and the electron transport chain. It is located in the inner mitochondrial membrane of eukaryotic cells.

SDH catalyzes the oxidation of succinate to fumarate, converting it into a molecule of fadaquate in the process. During this reaction, two electrons are transferred from succinate to the FAD cofactor within the SDH enzyme complex, reducing it to FADH2. These electrons are then passed on to ubiquinone (CoQ), which is a mobile electron carrier in the electron transport chain, leading to the generation of ATP, the main energy currency of the cell.

SDH is also known as mitochondrial complex II because it is the second complex in the electron transport chain. Mutations in the genes encoding SDH subunits or associated proteins have been linked to various human diseases, including hereditary paragangliomas, pheochromocytomas, gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), and some forms of neurodegenerative disorders.

In the context of medicine, and specifically in physiology and respiratory therapy, partial pressure (P or p) is a measure of the pressure exerted by an individual gas in a mixture of gases. It's commonly used to describe the concentrations of gases in the body, such as oxygen (PO2), carbon dioxide (PCO2), and nitrogen (PN2).

The partial pressure of a specific gas is calculated as the fraction of that gas in the total mixture multiplied by the total pressure of the mixture. This concept is based on Dalton's law, which states that the total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the pressures exerted by each individual gas.

For example, in room air at sea level, the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) is approximately 160 mmHg (mm of mercury), which represents about 21% of the total barometric pressure (760 mmHg). This concept is crucial for understanding gas exchange in the lungs and how gases move across membranes, such as from alveoli to blood and vice versa.

A premature infant is a baby born before 37 weeks of gestation. They may face various health challenges because their organs are not fully developed. The earlier a baby is born, the higher the risk of complications. Prematurity can lead to short-term and long-term health issues, such as respiratory distress syndrome, jaundice, anemia, infections, hearing problems, vision problems, developmental delays, and cerebral palsy. Intensive medical care and support are often necessary for premature infants to ensure their survival and optimal growth and development.

Respiratory sounds are the noises produced by the airflow through the respiratory tract during breathing. These sounds can provide valuable information about the health and function of the lungs and airways. They are typically categorized into two main types: normal breath sounds and adventitious (or abnormal) breath sounds.

Normal breath sounds include:

1. Vesicular breath sounds: These are soft, low-pitched sounds heard over most of the lung fields during quiet breathing. They are produced by the movement of air through the alveoli and smaller bronchioles.
2. Bronchovesicular breath sounds: These are medium-pitched, hollow sounds heard over the mainstem bronchi and near the upper sternal border during both inspiration and expiration. They are a combination of vesicular and bronchial breath sounds.

Abnormal or adventitious breath sounds include:

1. Crackles (or rales): These are discontinuous, non-musical sounds that resemble the crackling of paper or bubbling in a fluid-filled container. They can be heard during inspiration and are caused by the sudden opening of collapsed airways or the movement of fluid within the airways.
2. Wheezes: These are continuous, musical sounds resembling a whistle. They are produced by the narrowing or obstruction of the airways, causing turbulent airflow.
3. Rhonchi: These are low-pitched, rumbling, continuous sounds that can be heard during both inspiration and expiration. They are caused by the vibration of secretions or fluids in the larger airways.
4. Stridor: This is a high-pitched, inspiratory sound that resembles a harsh crowing or barking noise. It is usually indicative of upper airway narrowing or obstruction.

The character, location, and duration of respiratory sounds can help healthcare professionals diagnose various respiratory conditions, such as pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and bronchitis.

Physiological adaptation refers to the changes or modifications that occur in an organism's biological functions or structures as a result of environmental pressures or changes. These adaptations enable the organism to survive and reproduce more successfully in its environment. They can be short-term, such as the constriction of blood vessels in response to cold temperatures, or long-term, such as the evolution of longer limbs in animals that live in open environments.

In the context of human physiology, examples of physiological adaptation include:

1. Acclimatization: The process by which the body adjusts to changes in environmental conditions, such as altitude or temperature. For example, when a person moves to a high-altitude location, their body may produce more red blood cells to compensate for the lower oxygen levels, leading to improved oxygen delivery to tissues.

2. Exercise adaptation: Regular physical activity can lead to various physiological adaptations, such as increased muscle strength and endurance, enhanced cardiovascular function, and improved insulin sensitivity.

3. Hormonal adaptation: The body can adjust hormone levels in response to changes in the environment or internal conditions. For instance, during prolonged fasting, the body releases stress hormones like cortisol and adrenaline to help maintain energy levels and prevent muscle wasting.

4. Sensory adaptation: Our senses can adapt to different stimuli over time. For example, when we enter a dark room after being in bright sunlight, it takes some time for our eyes to adjust to the new light level. This process is known as dark adaptation.

5. Aging-related adaptations: As we age, various physiological changes occur that help us adapt to the changing environment and maintain homeostasis. These include changes in body composition, immune function, and cognitive abilities.

Environmental exposure refers to the contact of an individual with any chemical, physical, or biological agent in the environment that can cause a harmful effect on health. These exposures can occur through various pathways such as inhalation, ingestion, or skin contact. Examples of environmental exposures include air pollution, water contamination, occupational chemicals, and allergens. The duration and level of exposure, as well as the susceptibility of the individual, can all contribute to the risk of developing an adverse health effect.

The supine position is a term used in medicine to describe a body posture where an individual is lying down on their back, with their face and torso facing upwards. This position is often adopted during various medical procedures, examinations, or when resting, as it allows for easy access to the front of the body. It is also the position automatically assumed by most people who are falling asleep.

It's important to note that in the supine position, the head can be flat on the surface or raised with the use of pillows or specialized medical equipment like a hospital bed. This can help to alleviate potential issues such as breathing difficulties or swelling in the face and head.

The medulla oblongata is a part of the brainstem that is located in the posterior portion of the brainstem and continues with the spinal cord. It plays a vital role in controlling several critical bodily functions, such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. The medulla oblongata also contains nerve pathways that transmit sensory information from the body to the brain and motor commands from the brain to the muscles. Additionally, it is responsible for reflexes such as vomiting, swallowing, coughing, and sneezing.

Succinates, in a medical context, most commonly refer to the salts or esters of succinic acid. Succinic acid is a dicarboxylic acid that is involved in the Krebs cycle, which is a key metabolic pathway in cells that generates energy through the oxidation of acetyl-CoA derived from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins.

Succinates can also be used as a buffer in medical solutions and as a pharmaceutical intermediate in the synthesis of various drugs. In some cases, succinate may be used as a nutritional supplement or as a component of parenteral nutrition formulations to provide energy and help maintain acid-base balance in patients who are unable to eat normally.

It's worth noting that there is also a condition called "succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency" which is a genetic disorder that affects the metabolism of the amino acid gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). This condition can lead to an accumulation of succinic semialdehyde and other metabolic byproducts, which can cause neurological symptoms such as developmental delay, hypotonia, and seizures.

Cytochrome b is a type of cytochrome, which is a class of proteins that contain heme as a cofactor and are involved in electron transfer. Cytochromes are classified based on the type of heme they contain and their absorption spectra.

The cytochrome b group includes several subfamilies of cytochromes, including cytochrome b5, cytochrome b2, and cytochrome bc1 (also known as complex III). These cytochromes are involved in various biological processes, such as fatty acid desaturation, steroid metabolism, and the electron transport chain.

The electron transport chain is a series of protein complexes in the inner mitochondrial membrane that generates most of the ATP (adenosine triphosphate) required for cellular energy production. Cytochrome bc1 is a key component of the electron transport chain, where it functions as a dimer and catalyzes the transfer of electrons from ubiquinol to cytochrome c while simultaneously pumping protons across the membrane. This creates an electrochemical gradient that drives ATP synthesis.

Deficiencies or mutations in cytochrome b genes can lead to various diseases, such as mitochondrial disorders and cancer.

Respiratory hypersensitivity, also known as respiratory allergies or hypersensitive pneumonitis, refers to an exaggerated immune response in the lungs to inhaled substances or allergens. This condition occurs when the body's immune system overreacts to harmless particles, leading to inflammation and damage in the airways and alveoli (air sacs) of the lungs.

There are two types of respiratory hypersensitivity: immediate and delayed. Immediate hypersensitivity, also known as type I hypersensitivity, is mediated by immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies and results in symptoms such as sneezing, runny nose, and asthma-like symptoms within minutes to hours of exposure to the allergen. Delayed hypersensitivity, also known as type III or type IV hypersensitivity, is mediated by other immune mechanisms and can take several hours to days to develop after exposure to the allergen.

Common causes of respiratory hypersensitivity include mold spores, animal dander, dust mites, pollen, and chemicals found in certain occupations. Symptoms may include coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and fatigue. Treatment typically involves avoiding the allergen, if possible, and using medications such as corticosteroids, bronchodilators, or antihistamines to manage symptoms. In severe cases, immunotherapy (allergy shots) may be recommended to help desensitize the immune system to the allergen.

Dyspnea is defined as difficulty or discomfort in breathing, often described as shortness of breath. It can range from mild to severe, and may occur during rest, exercise, or at any time. Dyspnea can be caused by various medical conditions, including heart and lung diseases, anemia, and neuromuscular disorders. It is important to seek medical attention if experiencing dyspnea, as it can be a sign of a serious underlying condition.

Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid is a type of clinical specimen obtained through a procedure called bronchoalveolar lavage. This procedure involves inserting a bronchoscope into the lungs and instilling a small amount of saline solution into a specific area of the lung, then gently aspirating the fluid back out. The fluid that is recovered is called bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.

BAL fluid contains cells and other substances that are present in the lower respiratory tract, including the alveoli (the tiny air sacs where gas exchange occurs). By analyzing BAL fluid, doctors can diagnose various lung conditions, such as pneumonia, interstitial lung disease, and lung cancer. They can also monitor the effectiveness of treatments for these conditions by comparing the composition of BAL fluid before and after treatment.

BAL fluid is typically analyzed for its cellular content, including the number and type of white blood cells present, as well as for the presence of bacteria, viruses, or other microorganisms. The fluid may also be tested for various proteins, enzymes, and other biomarkers that can provide additional information about lung health and disease.

Anaerobiosis is a state in which an organism or a portion of an organism is able to live and grow in the absence of molecular oxygen (O2). In biological contexts, "anaerobe" refers to any organism that does not require oxygen for growth, and "aerobe" refers to an organism that does require oxygen for growth.

There are two types of anaerobes: obligate anaerobes, which cannot tolerate the presence of oxygen and will die if exposed to it; and facultative anaerobes, which can grow with or without oxygen but prefer to grow in its absence. Some organisms are able to switch between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism depending on the availability of oxygen, a process known as "facultative anaerobiosis."

Anaerobic respiration is a type of metabolic process that occurs in the absence of molecular oxygen. In this process, organisms use alternative electron acceptors other than oxygen to generate energy through the transfer of electrons during cellular respiration. Examples of alternative electron acceptors include nitrate, sulfate, and carbon dioxide.

Anaerobic metabolism is less efficient than aerobic metabolism in terms of energy production, but it allows organisms to survive in environments where oxygen is not available or is toxic. Anaerobic bacteria are important decomposers in many ecosystems, breaking down organic matter and releasing nutrients back into the environment. In the human body, anaerobic bacteria can cause infections and other health problems if they proliferate in areas with low oxygen levels, such as the mouth, intestines, or deep tissue wounds.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical technique used to compare the means of two or more groups and determine whether there are any significant differences between them. It is a way to analyze the variance in a dataset to determine whether the variability between groups is greater than the variability within groups, which can indicate that the groups are significantly different from one another.

ANOVA is based on the concept of partitioning the total variance in a dataset into two components: variance due to differences between group means (also known as "between-group variance") and variance due to differences within each group (also known as "within-group variance"). By comparing these two sources of variance, ANOVA can help researchers determine whether any observed differences between groups are statistically significant, or whether they could have occurred by chance.

ANOVA is a widely used technique in many areas of research, including biology, psychology, engineering, and business. It is often used to compare the means of two or more experimental groups, such as a treatment group and a control group, to determine whether the treatment had a significant effect. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different populations or subgroups within a population, to identify any differences that may exist between them.

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air. It is toxic to hemoglobic animals when encountered in concentrations above about 35 ppm. This compound is a product of incomplete combustion of organic matter, and is a major component of automobile exhaust.

Carbon monoxide is poisonous because it binds to hemoglobin in red blood cells much more strongly than oxygen does, forming carboxyhemoglobin. This prevents the transport of oxygen throughout the body, which can lead to suffocation and death. Symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning include headache, dizziness, weakness, nausea, vomiting, confusion, and disorientation. Prolonged exposure can lead to unconsciousness and death.

Carbon monoxide detectors are commonly used in homes and other buildings to alert occupants to the presence of this dangerous gas. It is important to ensure that these devices are functioning properly and that they are placed in appropriate locations throughout the building. Additionally, it is essential to maintain appliances and heating systems to prevent the release of carbon monoxide into living spaces.

Biomechanics is the application of mechanical laws to living structures and systems, particularly in the field of medicine and healthcare. A biomechanical phenomenon refers to a observable event or occurrence that involves the interaction of biological tissues or systems with mechanical forces. These phenomena can be studied at various levels, from the molecular and cellular level to the tissue, organ, and whole-body level.

Examples of biomechanical phenomena include:

1. The way that bones and muscles work together to produce movement (known as joint kinematics).
2. The mechanical behavior of biological tissues such as bone, cartilage, tendons, and ligaments under various loads and stresses.
3. The response of cells and tissues to mechanical stimuli, such as the way that bone tissue adapts to changes in loading conditions (known as Wolff's law).
4. The biomechanics of injury and disease processes, such as the mechanisms of joint injury or the development of osteoarthritis.
5. The use of mechanical devices and interventions to treat medical conditions, such as orthopedic implants or assistive devices for mobility impairments.

Understanding biomechanical phenomena is essential for developing effective treatments and prevention strategies for a wide range of medical conditions, from musculoskeletal injuries to neurological disorders.

Smoking is not a medical condition, but it's a significant health risk behavior. Here is the definition from a public health perspective:

Smoking is the act of inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning tobacco that is commonly consumed through cigarettes, pipes, and cigars. The smoke contains over 7,000 chemicals, including nicotine, tar, carbon monoxide, and numerous toxic and carcinogenic substances. These toxins contribute to a wide range of diseases and health conditions, such as lung cancer, heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and various other cancers, as well as adverse reproductive outcomes and negative impacts on the developing fetus during pregnancy. Smoking is highly addictive due to the nicotine content, which makes quitting smoking a significant challenge for many individuals.

"Swine" is a common term used to refer to even-toed ungulates of the family Suidae, including domestic pigs and wild boars. However, in a medical context, "swine" often appears in the phrase "swine flu," which is a strain of influenza virus that typically infects pigs but can also cause illness in humans. The 2009 H1N1 pandemic was caused by a new strain of swine-origin influenza A virus, which was commonly referred to as "swine flu." It's important to note that this virus is not transmitted through eating cooked pork products; it spreads from person to person, mainly through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes.

Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) is a measurement of how quickly a person can exhale air from their lungs. It is often used as a quick test to assess breathing difficulties in people with respiratory conditions such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). PEFR is measured in liters per minute (L/min) and the highest value obtained during a forceful exhalation is recorded as the peak expiratory flow rate. Regular monitoring of PEFR can help to assess the severity of an asthma attack or the effectiveness of treatment.

Intraoperative monitoring (IOM) is the practice of using specialized techniques to monitor physiological functions or neural structures in real-time during surgical procedures. The primary goal of IOM is to provide continuous information about the patient's status and the effects of surgery on neurological function, allowing surgeons to make informed decisions and minimize potential risks.

IOM can involve various methods such as:

1. Electrophysiological monitoring: This includes techniques like somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP), motor evoked potentials (MEP), and electroencephalography (EEG) to assess the integrity of neural pathways and brain function during surgery.
2. Neuromonitoring: Direct electrical stimulation of nerves or spinal cord structures can help identify critical neuroanatomical structures, evaluate their functional status, and guide surgical interventions.
3. Hemodynamic monitoring: Measuring blood pressure, heart rate, cardiac output, and oxygen saturation helps assess the patient's overall physiological status during surgery.
4. Imaging modalities: Intraoperative imaging techniques like ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide real-time visualization of anatomical structures and surgical progress.

The specific IOM methods employed depend on the type of surgery, patient characteristics, and potential risks involved. Intraoperative monitoring is particularly crucial in procedures where there is a risk of neurological injury, such as spinal cord or brain surgeries, vascular interventions, or tumor resections near critical neural structures.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a type of microscopy in which an electron beam is transmitted through a ultra-thin specimen, interacting with it as it passes through. An image is formed from the interaction of the electrons with the specimen; the image is then magnified and visualized on a fluorescent screen or recorded on an electronic detector (or photographic film in older models).

TEM can provide high-resolution, high-magnification images that can reveal the internal structure of specimens including cells, viruses, and even molecules. It is widely used in biological and materials science research to investigate the ultrastructure of cells, tissues and materials. In medicine, TEM is used for diagnostic purposes in fields such as virology and bacteriology.

It's important to note that preparing a sample for TEM is a complex process, requiring specialized techniques to create thin (50-100 nm) specimens. These include cutting ultrathin sections of embedded samples using an ultramicrotome, staining with heavy metal salts, and positive staining or negative staining methods.

A cross-over study is a type of experimental design in which participants receive two or more interventions in a specific order. After a washout period, each participant receives the opposite intervention(s). The primary advantage of this design is that it controls for individual variability by allowing each participant to act as their own control.

In medical research, cross-over studies are often used to compare the efficacy or safety of two treatments. For example, a researcher might conduct a cross-over study to compare the effectiveness of two different medications for treating high blood pressure. Half of the participants would be randomly assigned to receive one medication first and then switch to the other medication after a washout period. The other half of the participants would receive the opposite order of treatments.

Cross-over studies can provide valuable insights into the relative merits of different interventions, but they also have some limitations. For example, they may not be suitable for studying conditions that are chronic or irreversible, as it may not be possible to completely reverse the effects of the first intervention before administering the second one. Additionally, carryover effects from the first intervention can confound the results if they persist into the second treatment period.

Overall, cross-over studies are a useful tool in medical research when used appropriately and with careful consideration of their limitations.

A chronic disease is a long-term medical condition that often progresses slowly over a period of years and requires ongoing management and care. These diseases are typically not fully curable, but symptoms can be managed to improve quality of life. Common chronic diseases include heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). They are often associated with advanced age, although they can also affect children and younger adults. Chronic diseases can have significant impacts on individuals' physical, emotional, and social well-being, as well as on healthcare systems and society at large.

I believe there might be a misunderstanding in your question. "Dogs" is not a medical term or condition. It is the common name for a domesticated carnivore of the family Canidae, specifically the genus Canis, which includes wolves, foxes, and other extant and extinct species of mammals. Dogs are often kept as pets and companions, and they have been bred in a wide variety of forms and sizes for different purposes, such as hunting, herding, guarding, assisting police and military forces, and providing companionship and emotional support.

If you meant to ask about a specific medical condition or term related to dogs, please provide more context so I can give you an accurate answer.

Aerobiosis is the process of living, growing, and functioning in the presence of oxygen. It refers to the metabolic processes that require oxygen to break down nutrients and produce energy in cells. This is in contrast to anaerobiosis, which is the ability to live and grow in the absence of oxygen.

In medical terms, aerobiosis is often used to describe the growth of microorganisms, such as bacteria and fungi, that require oxygen to survive and multiply. These organisms are called aerobic organisms, and they play an important role in many biological processes, including decomposition and waste breakdown.

However, some microorganisms are unable to grow in the presence of oxygen and are instead restricted to environments where oxygen is absent or limited. These organisms are called anaerobic organisms, and their growth and metabolism are referred to as anaerobiosis.

In the context of medical and health sciences, particle size generally refers to the diameter or dimension of particles, which can be in the form of solid particles, droplets, or aerosols. These particles may include airborne pollutants, pharmaceutical drugs, or medical devices such as nanoparticles used in drug delivery systems.

Particle size is an important factor to consider in various medical applications because it can affect the behavior and interactions of particles with biological systems. For example, smaller particle sizes can lead to greater absorption and distribution throughout the body, while larger particle sizes may be filtered out by the body's natural defense mechanisms. Therefore, understanding particle size and its implications is crucial for optimizing the safety and efficacy of medical treatments and interventions.

The "cause of death" is a medical determination of the disease, injury, or event that directly results in a person's death. This information is typically documented on a death certificate and may be used for public health surveillance, research, and legal purposes. The cause of death is usually determined by a physician based on their clinical judgment and any available medical evidence, such as laboratory test results, autopsy findings, or eyewitness accounts. In some cases, the cause of death may be uncertain or unknown, and the death may be classified as "natural," "accidental," "homicide," or "suicide" based on the available information.

Research, in the context of medicine, is a systematic and rigorous process of collecting, analyzing, and interpreting information in order to increase our understanding, develop new knowledge, or evaluate current practices and interventions. It can involve various methodologies such as observational studies, experiments, surveys, or literature reviews. The goal of medical research is to advance health care by identifying new treatments, improving diagnostic techniques, and developing prevention strategies. Medical research is typically conducted by teams of researchers including clinicians, scientists, and other healthcare professionals. It is subject to ethical guidelines and regulations to ensure that it is conducted responsibly and with the best interests of patients in mind.

Heart rate is the number of heartbeats per unit of time, often expressed as beats per minute (bpm). It can vary significantly depending on factors such as age, physical fitness, emotions, and overall health status. A resting heart rate between 60-100 bpm is generally considered normal for adults, but athletes and individuals with high levels of physical fitness may have a resting heart rate below 60 bpm due to their enhanced cardiovascular efficiency. Monitoring heart rate can provide valuable insights into an individual's health status, exercise intensity, and response to various treatments or interventions.

Aging is a complex, progressive and inevitable process of bodily changes over time, characterized by the accumulation of cellular damage and degenerative changes that eventually lead to increased vulnerability to disease and death. It involves various biological, genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors that contribute to the decline in physical and mental functions. The medical field studies aging through the discipline of gerontology, which aims to understand the underlying mechanisms of aging and develop interventions to promote healthy aging and extend the human healthspan.

A case-control study is an observational research design used to identify risk factors or causes of a disease or health outcome. In this type of study, individuals with the disease or condition (cases) are compared with similar individuals who do not have the disease or condition (controls). The exposure history or other characteristics of interest are then compared between the two groups to determine if there is an association between the exposure and the disease.

Case-control studies are often used when it is not feasible or ethical to conduct a randomized controlled trial, as they can provide valuable insights into potential causes of diseases or health outcomes in a relatively short period of time and at a lower cost than other study designs. However, because case-control studies rely on retrospective data collection, they are subject to biases such as recall bias and selection bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, it is important to carefully design and conduct case-control studies to minimize these potential sources of bias.

Electron Transport Complex IV is also known as Cytochrome c oxidase. It is the last complex in the electron transport chain, located in the inner mitochondrial membrane of eukaryotic cells and the plasma membrane of prokaryotic cells. This complex contains 13 subunits, two heme groups (a and a3), and three copper centers (A, B, and C).

In the electron transport chain, Complex IV receives electrons from cytochrome c and transfers them to molecular oxygen, reducing it to water. This process is accompanied by the pumping of protons across the membrane, contributing to the generation of a proton gradient that drives ATP synthesis via ATP synthase (Complex V). The overall reaction catalyzed by Complex IV can be summarized as follows:

4e- + 4H+ + O2 → 2H2O

Defects in Cytochrome c oxidase can lead to various diseases, including mitochondrial encephalomyopathies and neurodegenerative disorders.

Regression analysis is a statistical technique used in medicine, as well as in other fields, to examine the relationship between one or more independent variables (predictors) and a dependent variable (outcome). It allows for the estimation of the average change in the outcome variable associated with a one-unit change in an independent variable, while controlling for the effects of other independent variables. This technique is often used to identify risk factors for diseases or to evaluate the effectiveness of medical interventions. In medical research, regression analysis can be used to adjust for potential confounding variables and to quantify the relationship between exposures and health outcomes. It can also be used in predictive modeling to estimate the probability of a particular outcome based on multiple predictors.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Sodium Chloride is defined as the inorganic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions. It is commonly known as table salt or halite, and it is used extensively in food seasoning and preservation due to its ability to enhance flavor and inhibit bacterial growth. In medicine, sodium chloride is used as a balanced electrolyte solution for rehydration and as a topical wound irrigant and antiseptic. It is also an essential component of the human body's fluid balance and nerve impulse transmission.

I must clarify that the term "Guinea Pigs" is not typically used in medical definitions. However, in colloquial or informal language, it may refer to people who are used as the first to try out a new medical treatment or drug. This is known as being a "test subject" or "in a clinical trial."

In the field of scientific research, particularly in studies involving animals, guinea pigs are small rodents that are often used as experimental subjects due to their size, cost-effectiveness, and ease of handling. They are not actually pigs from Guinea, despite their name's origins being unclear. However, they do not exactly fit the description of being used in human medical experiments.

Pneumonia is an infection or inflammation of the alveoli (tiny air sacs) in one or both lungs. It's often caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi. Accumulated pus and fluid in these air sacs make it difficult to breathe, which can lead to coughing, chest pain, fever, and difficulty breathing. The severity of symptoms can vary from mild to life-threatening, depending on the underlying cause, the patient's overall health, and age. Pneumonia is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as chest X-rays or blood tests. Treatment usually involves antibiotics for bacterial pneumonia, antivirals for viral pneumonia, and supportive care like oxygen therapy, hydration, and rest.

Body weight is the measure of the force exerted on a scale or balance by an object's mass, most commonly expressed in units such as pounds (lb) or kilograms (kg). In the context of medical definitions, body weight typically refers to an individual's total weight, which includes their skeletal muscle, fat, organs, and bodily fluids.

Healthcare professionals often use body weight as a basic indicator of overall health status, as it can provide insights into various aspects of a person's health, such as nutritional status, metabolic function, and risk factors for certain diseases. For example, being significantly underweight or overweight can increase the risk of developing conditions like malnutrition, diabetes, heart disease, and certain types of cancer.

It is important to note that body weight alone may not provide a complete picture of an individual's health, as it does not account for factors such as muscle mass, bone density, or body composition. Therefore, healthcare professionals often use additional measures, such as body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and blood tests, to assess overall health status more comprehensively.

Biological evolution is the change in the genetic composition of populations of organisms over time, from one generation to the next. It is a process that results in descendants differing genetically from their ancestors. Biological evolution can be driven by several mechanisms, including natural selection, genetic drift, gene flow, and mutation. These processes can lead to changes in the frequency of alleles (variants of a gene) within populations, resulting in the development of new species and the extinction of others over long periods of time. Biological evolution provides a unifying explanation for the diversity of life on Earth and is supported by extensive evidence from many different fields of science, including genetics, paleontology, comparative anatomy, and biogeography.

Hemodynamics is the study of how blood flows through the cardiovascular system, including the heart and the vascular network. It examines various factors that affect blood flow, such as blood volume, viscosity, vessel length and diameter, and pressure differences between different parts of the circulatory system. Hemodynamics also considers the impact of various physiological and pathological conditions on these variables, and how they in turn influence the function of vital organs and systems in the body. It is a critical area of study in fields such as cardiology, anesthesiology, and critical care medicine.

"Wistar rats" are a strain of albino rats that are widely used in laboratory research. They were developed at the Wistar Institute in Philadelphia, USA, and were first introduced in 1906. Wistar rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not have a fixed set of genetic characteristics like inbred strains.

Wistar rats are commonly used as animal models in biomedical research because of their size, ease of handling, and relatively low cost. They are used in a wide range of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and behavioral studies. Wistar rats are also used in safety testing of drugs, medical devices, and other products.

Wistar rats are typically larger than many other rat strains, with males weighing between 500-700 grams and females weighing between 250-350 grams. They have a lifespan of approximately 2-3 years. Wistar rats are also known for their docile and friendly nature, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory setting.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Linear Models" is actually a term from the field of statistics and machine learning, rather than medicine. A linear model is a type of statistical model that is used to analyze the relationship between two or more variables. In a linear model, the relationship between the dependent variable (the outcome or result) and the independent variable(s) (the factors being studied) is assumed to be linear, meaning that it can be described by a straight line on a graph.

The equation for a simple linear model with one independent variable (x) and one dependent variable (y) looks like this:

y = β0 + β1*x + ε

In this equation, β0 is the y-intercept or the value of y when x equals zero, β1 is the slope or the change in y for each unit increase in x, and ε is the error term or the difference between the actual values of y and the predicted values of y based on the linear model.

Linear models are widely used in medical research to study the relationship between various factors (such as exposure to a risk factor or treatment) and health outcomes (such as disease incidence or mortality). They can also be used to adjust for confounding variables, which are factors that may influence both the independent variable and the dependent variable, and thus affect the observed relationship between them.

Reproducibility of results in a medical context refers to the ability to obtain consistent and comparable findings when a particular experiment or study is repeated, either by the same researcher or by different researchers, following the same experimental protocol. It is an essential principle in scientific research that helps to ensure the validity and reliability of research findings.

In medical research, reproducibility of results is crucial for establishing the effectiveness and safety of new treatments, interventions, or diagnostic tools. It involves conducting well-designed studies with adequate sample sizes, appropriate statistical analyses, and transparent reporting of methods and findings to allow other researchers to replicate the study and confirm or refute the results.

The lack of reproducibility in medical research has become a significant concern in recent years, as several high-profile studies have failed to produce consistent findings when replicated by other researchers. This has led to increased scrutiny of research practices and a call for greater transparency, rigor, and standardization in the conduct and reporting of medical research.

Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures used to describe the performance of a diagnostic test or screening tool in identifying true positive and true negative results.

* Sensitivity refers to the proportion of people who have a particular condition (true positives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true positive rate" or "recall." A highly sensitive test will identify most or all of the people with the condition, but may also produce more false positives.
* Specificity refers to the proportion of people who do not have a particular condition (true negatives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true negative rate." A highly specific test will identify most or all of the people without the condition, but may also produce more false negatives.

In medical testing, both sensitivity and specificity are important considerations when evaluating a diagnostic test. High sensitivity is desirable for screening tests that aim to identify as many cases of a condition as possible, while high specificity is desirable for confirmatory tests that aim to rule out the condition in people who do not have it.

It's worth noting that sensitivity and specificity are often influenced by factors such as the prevalence of the condition in the population being tested, the threshold used to define a positive result, and the reliability and validity of the test itself. Therefore, it's important to consider these factors when interpreting the results of a diagnostic test.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Lung neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the lung tissue. These tumors can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant lung neoplasms are further classified into two main types: small cell lung carcinoma and non-small cell lung carcinoma. Lung neoplasms can cause symptoms such as cough, chest pain, shortness of breath, and weight loss. They are often caused by smoking or exposure to secondhand smoke, but can also occur due to genetic factors, radiation exposure, and other environmental carcinogens. Early detection and treatment of lung neoplasms is crucial for improving outcomes and survival rates.

Oxidation-Reduction (redox) reactions are a type of chemical reaction involving a transfer of electrons between two species. The substance that loses electrons in the reaction is oxidized, and the substance that gains electrons is reduced. Oxidation and reduction always occur together in a redox reaction, hence the term "oxidation-reduction."

In biological systems, redox reactions play a crucial role in many cellular processes, including energy production, metabolism, and signaling. The transfer of electrons in these reactions is often facilitated by specialized molecules called electron carriers, such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+/NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD/FADH2).

The oxidation state of an element in a compound is a measure of the number of electrons that have been gained or lost relative to its neutral state. In redox reactions, the oxidation state of one or more elements changes as they gain or lose electrons. The substance that is oxidized has a higher oxidation state, while the substance that is reduced has a lower oxidation state.

Overall, oxidation-reduction reactions are fundamental to the functioning of living organisms and are involved in many important biological processes.

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

"Newborn animals" refers to the very young offspring of animals that have recently been born. In medical terminology, newborns are often referred to as "neonates," and they are classified as such from birth until about 28 days of age. During this time period, newborn animals are particularly vulnerable and require close monitoring and care to ensure their survival and healthy development.

The specific needs of newborn animals can vary widely depending on the species, but generally, they require warmth, nutrition, hydration, and protection from harm. In many cases, newborns are unable to regulate their own body temperature or feed themselves, so they rely heavily on their mothers for care and support.

In medical settings, newborn animals may be examined and treated by veterinarians to ensure that they are healthy and receiving the care they need. This can include providing medical interventions such as feeding tubes, antibiotics, or other treatments as needed to address any health issues that arise. Overall, the care and support of newborn animals is an important aspect of animal medicine and conservation efforts.

"Age factors" refer to the effects, changes, or differences that age can have on various aspects of health, disease, and medical care. These factors can encompass a wide range of issues, including:

1. Physiological changes: As people age, their bodies undergo numerous physical changes that can affect how they respond to medications, illnesses, and medical procedures. For example, older adults may be more sensitive to certain drugs or have weaker immune systems, making them more susceptible to infections.
2. Chronic conditions: Age is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and arthritis. As a result, age-related medical issues are common and can impact treatment decisions and outcomes.
3. Cognitive decline: Aging can also lead to cognitive changes, including memory loss and decreased decision-making abilities. These changes can affect a person's ability to understand and comply with medical instructions, leading to potential complications in their care.
4. Functional limitations: Older adults may experience physical limitations that impact their mobility, strength, and balance, increasing the risk of falls and other injuries. These limitations can also make it more challenging for them to perform daily activities, such as bathing, dressing, or cooking.
5. Social determinants: Age-related factors, such as social isolation, poverty, and lack of access to transportation, can impact a person's ability to obtain necessary medical care and affect their overall health outcomes.

Understanding age factors is critical for healthcare providers to deliver high-quality, patient-centered care that addresses the unique needs and challenges of older adults. By taking these factors into account, healthcare providers can develop personalized treatment plans that consider a person's age, physical condition, cognitive abilities, and social circumstances.

Epithelial cells are types of cells that cover the outer surfaces of the body, line the inner surfaces of organs and glands, and form the lining of blood vessels and body cavities. They provide a protective barrier against the external environment, regulate the movement of materials between the internal and external environments, and are involved in the sense of touch, temperature, and pain. Epithelial cells can be squamous (flat and thin), cuboidal (square-shaped and of equal height), or columnar (tall and narrow) in shape and are classified based on their location and function.

Reference values, also known as reference ranges or reference intervals, are the set of values that are considered normal or typical for a particular population or group of people. These values are often used in laboratory tests to help interpret test results and determine whether a patient's value falls within the expected range.

The process of establishing reference values typically involves measuring a particular biomarker or parameter in a large, healthy population and then calculating the mean and standard deviation of the measurements. Based on these statistics, a range is established that includes a certain percentage of the population (often 95%) and excludes extreme outliers.

It's important to note that reference values can vary depending on factors such as age, sex, race, and other demographic characteristics. Therefore, it's essential to use reference values that are specific to the relevant population when interpreting laboratory test results. Additionally, reference values may change over time due to advances in measurement technology or changes in the population being studied.

Risk assessment in the medical context refers to the process of identifying, evaluating, and prioritizing risks to patients, healthcare workers, or the community related to healthcare delivery. It involves determining the likelihood and potential impact of adverse events or hazards, such as infectious diseases, medication errors, or medical devices failures, and implementing measures to mitigate or manage those risks. The goal of risk assessment is to promote safe and high-quality care by identifying areas for improvement and taking action to minimize harm.

Neoplasms are abnormal growths of cells or tissues in the body that serve no physiological function. They can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms are typically slow growing and do not spread to other parts of the body, while malignant neoplasms are aggressive, invasive, and can metastasize to distant sites.

Neoplasms occur when there is a dysregulation in the normal process of cell division and differentiation, leading to uncontrolled growth and accumulation of cells. This can result from genetic mutations or other factors such as viral infections, environmental exposures, or hormonal imbalances.

Neoplasms can develop in any organ or tissue of the body and can cause various symptoms depending on their size, location, and type. Treatment options for neoplasms include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and targeted therapy, among others.

Nitric oxide (NO) is a molecule made up of one nitrogen atom and one oxygen atom. In the body, it is a crucial signaling molecule involved in various physiological processes such as vasodilation, immune response, neurotransmission, and inhibition of platelet aggregation. It is produced naturally by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS) from the amino acid L-arginine. Inhaled nitric oxide is used medically to treat pulmonary hypertension in newborns and adults, as it helps to relax and widen blood vessels, improving oxygenation and blood flow.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

"Sex factors" is a term used in medicine and epidemiology to refer to the differences in disease incidence, prevalence, or response to treatment that are observed between males and females. These differences can be attributed to biological differences such as genetics, hormones, and anatomy, as well as social and cultural factors related to gender.

For example, some conditions such as autoimmune diseases, depression, and osteoporosis are more common in women, while others such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer are more prevalent in men. Additionally, sex differences have been observed in the effectiveness and side effects of various medications and treatments.

It is important to consider sex factors in medical research and clinical practice to ensure that patients receive appropriate and effective care.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

An algorithm is not a medical term, but rather a concept from computer science and mathematics. In the context of medicine, algorithms are often used to describe step-by-step procedures for diagnosing or managing medical conditions. These procedures typically involve a series of rules or decision points that help healthcare professionals make informed decisions about patient care.

For example, an algorithm for diagnosing a particular type of heart disease might involve taking a patient's medical history, performing a physical exam, ordering certain diagnostic tests, and interpreting the results in a specific way. By following this algorithm, healthcare professionals can ensure that they are using a consistent and evidence-based approach to making a diagnosis.

Algorithms can also be used to guide treatment decisions. For instance, an algorithm for managing diabetes might involve setting target blood sugar levels, recommending certain medications or lifestyle changes based on the patient's individual needs, and monitoring the patient's response to treatment over time.

Overall, algorithms are valuable tools in medicine because they help standardize clinical decision-making and ensure that patients receive high-quality care based on the latest scientific evidence.

Blood pressure is the force exerted by circulating blood on the walls of the blood vessels. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) and is given as two figures:

1. Systolic pressure: This is the pressure when the heart pushes blood out into the arteries.
2. Diastolic pressure: This is the pressure when the heart rests between beats, allowing it to fill with blood.

Normal blood pressure for adults is typically around 120/80 mmHg, although this can vary slightly depending on age, sex, and other factors. High blood pressure (hypertension) is generally considered to be a reading of 130/80 mmHg or higher, while low blood pressure (hypotension) is usually defined as a reading below 90/60 mmHg. It's important to note that blood pressure can fluctuate throughout the day and may be affected by factors such as stress, physical activity, and medication use.

A Severity of Illness Index is a measurement tool used in healthcare to assess the severity of a patient's condition and the risk of mortality or other adverse outcomes. These indices typically take into account various physiological and clinical variables, such as vital signs, laboratory values, and co-morbidities, to generate a score that reflects the patient's overall illness severity.

Examples of Severity of Illness Indices include the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) system, the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS), and the Mortality Probability Model (MPM). These indices are often used in critical care settings to guide clinical decision-making, inform prognosis, and compare outcomes across different patient populations.

It is important to note that while these indices can provide valuable information about a patient's condition, they should not be used as the sole basis for clinical decision-making. Rather, they should be considered in conjunction with other factors, such as the patient's overall clinical presentation, treatment preferences, and goals of care.

Mitochondria are specialized structures located inside cells that convert the energy from food into ATP (adenosine triphosphate), which is the primary form of energy used by cells. They are often referred to as the "powerhouses" of the cell because they generate most of the cell's supply of chemical energy. Mitochondria are also involved in various other cellular processes, such as signaling, differentiation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death).

Mitochondria have their own DNA, known as mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which is inherited maternally. This means that mtDNA is passed down from the mother to her offspring through the egg cells. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to a variety of diseases and conditions, including neurodegenerative disorders, diabetes, and aging.

Sprague-Dawley rats are a strain of albino laboratory rats that are widely used in scientific research. They were first developed by researchers H.H. Sprague and R.C. Dawley in the early 20th century, and have since become one of the most commonly used rat strains in biomedical research due to their relatively large size, ease of handling, and consistent genetic background.

Sprague-Dawley rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not suffer from the same limitations as inbred strains, which can have reduced fertility and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. They are also characterized by their docile nature and low levels of aggression, making them easier to handle and study than some other rat strains.

These rats are used in a wide variety of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, and behavioral studies. Because they are genetically diverse, Sprague-Dawley rats can be used to model a range of human diseases and conditions, making them an important tool in the development of new drugs and therapies.

A cross-sectional study is a type of observational research design that examines the relationship between variables at one point in time. It provides a snapshot or a "cross-section" of the population at a particular moment, allowing researchers to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition and identify potential risk factors or associations.

In a cross-sectional study, data is collected from a sample of participants at a single time point, and the variables of interest are measured simultaneously. This design can be used to investigate the association between exposure and outcome, but it cannot establish causality because it does not follow changes over time.

Cross-sectional studies can be conducted using various data collection methods, such as surveys, interviews, or medical examinations. They are often used in epidemiology to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition in a population and to identify potential risk factors that may contribute to its development. However, because cross-sectional studies only provide a snapshot of the population at one point in time, they cannot account for changes over time or determine whether exposure preceded the outcome.

Therefore, while cross-sectional studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying potential associations between variables, further research using other study designs, such as cohort or case-control studies, is necessary to establish causality and confirm any findings.

Obesity is a complex disease characterized by an excess accumulation of body fat to the extent that it negatively impacts health. It's typically defined using Body Mass Index (BMI), a measure calculated from a person's weight and height. A BMI of 30 or higher is indicative of obesity. However, it's important to note that while BMI can be a useful tool for identifying obesity in populations, it does not directly measure body fat and may not accurately reflect health status in individuals. Other factors such as waist circumference, blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and blood sugar levels should also be considered when assessing health risks associated with weight.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

A computer simulation is a process that involves creating a model of a real-world system or phenomenon on a computer and then using that model to run experiments and make predictions about how the system will behave under different conditions. In the medical field, computer simulations are used for a variety of purposes, including:

1. Training and education: Computer simulations can be used to create realistic virtual environments where medical students and professionals can practice their skills and learn new procedures without risk to actual patients. For example, surgeons may use simulation software to practice complex surgical techniques before performing them on real patients.
2. Research and development: Computer simulations can help medical researchers study the behavior of biological systems at a level of detail that would be difficult or impossible to achieve through experimental methods alone. By creating detailed models of cells, tissues, organs, or even entire organisms, researchers can use simulation software to explore how these systems function and how they respond to different stimuli.
3. Drug discovery and development: Computer simulations are an essential tool in modern drug discovery and development. By modeling the behavior of drugs at a molecular level, researchers can predict how they will interact with their targets in the body and identify potential side effects or toxicities. This information can help guide the design of new drugs and reduce the need for expensive and time-consuming clinical trials.
4. Personalized medicine: Computer simulations can be used to create personalized models of individual patients based on their unique genetic, physiological, and environmental characteristics. These models can then be used to predict how a patient will respond to different treatments and identify the most effective therapy for their specific condition.

Overall, computer simulations are a powerful tool in modern medicine, enabling researchers and clinicians to study complex systems and make predictions about how they will behave under a wide range of conditions. By providing insights into the behavior of biological systems at a level of detail that would be difficult or impossible to achieve through experimental methods alone, computer simulations are helping to advance our understanding of human health and disease.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

Prevalence, in medical terms, refers to the total number of people in a given population who have a particular disease or condition at a specific point in time, or over a specified period. It is typically expressed as a percentage or a ratio of the number of cases to the size of the population. Prevalence differs from incidence, which measures the number of new cases that develop during a certain period.

Body Mass Index (BMI) is a measure used to assess whether a person has a healthy weight for their height. It's calculated by dividing a person's weight in kilograms by the square of their height in meters. Here is the medical definition:

Body Mass Index (BMI) = weight(kg) / [height(m)]^2

According to the World Health Organization, BMI categories are defined as follows:

* Less than 18.5: Underweight
* 18.5-24.9: Normal or healthy weight
* 25.0-29.9: Overweight
* 30.0 and above: Obese

It is important to note that while BMI can be a useful tool for identifying weight issues in populations, it does have limitations when applied to individuals. For example, it may not accurately reflect body fat distribution or muscle mass, which can affect health risks associated with excess weight. Therefore, BMI should be used as one of several factors when evaluating an individual's health status and risk for chronic diseases.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Rabbits" is a common name used to refer to the Lagomorpha species, particularly members of the family Leporidae. They are small mammals known for their long ears, strong legs, and quick reproduction.

However, if you're referring to "rabbits" in a medical context, there is a term called "rabbit syndrome," which is a rare movement disorder characterized by repetitive, involuntary movements of the fingers, resembling those of a rabbit chewing. It is also known as "finger-chewing chorea." This condition is usually associated with certain medications, particularly antipsychotics, and typically resolves when the medication is stopped or adjusted.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

A "knockout" mouse is a genetically engineered mouse in which one or more genes have been deleted or "knocked out" using molecular biology techniques. This allows researchers to study the function of specific genes and their role in various biological processes, as well as potential associations with human diseases. The mice are generated by introducing targeted DNA modifications into embryonic stem cells, which are then used to create a live animal. Knockout mice have been widely used in biomedical research to investigate gene function, disease mechanisms, and potential therapeutic targets.

C57BL/6 (C57 Black 6) is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The term "inbred" refers to a strain of animals where matings have been carried out between siblings or other closely related individuals for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci.

The C57BL/6 strain was established in 1920 by crossing a female mouse from the dilute brown (DBA) strain with a male mouse from the black strain. The resulting offspring were then interbred for many generations to create the inbred C57BL/6 strain.

C57BL/6 mice are known for their robust health, longevity, and ease of handling, making them a popular choice for researchers. They have been used in a wide range of biomedical research areas, including studies of cancer, immunology, neuroscience, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism.

One of the most notable features of the C57BL/6 strain is its sensitivity to certain genetic modifications, such as the introduction of mutations that lead to obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. This has made it a valuable tool for studying the genetic basis of complex diseases and traits.

Overall, the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is an important model organism in biomedical research, providing a valuable resource for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease.

... A high school level description of the respiratory system Introduction to Respiratory System Science aid: ... The respiratory system (also respiratory apparatus, ventilatory system) is a biological system consisting of specific organs ... Hence, this respiratory system is similar to that of vertebrate fish. The respiratory system of gastropods can include either ... "Ornithology (Bio 554/754):Bird Respiratory System". Eastern Kentucky University. Retrieved 2007-06-27. Respiratory system. ...
The respiratory system of gastropods varies greatly in form. These variations were once used as a basis for dividing the group ... The genus Lepeta uses the whole of the mantle cavity as a respiratory surface, while many sea butterflies respire through their ...
An insect's respiratory system is the system with which it introduces respiratory gases to its interior and performs gas ... The respiratory system of insects (and many other arthropods) is separate from the circulatory system. Insects have spiracles ... Air enters the respiratory systems of insects through a series of external openings called spiracles. These external openings, ... which act as muscular valves in some insects, lead to the internal respiratory system, a densely networked array of tubes ...
The respiratory system continues to expand, and the surfaces that will form the respiratory membrane develop further. At this ... Development of the respiratory system begins early in the fetus. It is a complex process that includes many structures, most of ... The respiratory system, however, is not fully developed until early childhood, when a full complement of mature alveoli is ... The development of the respiratory system begins at about week 4 of gestation. By week 28, enough alveoli have matured that a ...
The respiratory tract antimicrobial defense system is a layered defense mechanism which relies on components of both the innate ... Lactoferrin (LF) is a multifunctional protein which is an essential part of the respiratory tract antimicrobial defense system ... persistent bacterial infections which escape the innate immune system are eliminated by the adaptive immune system. ... and adaptive immune systems to protect the lungs and the rest of the respiratory tract against inhaled microorganisms. In the ...
The respiratory system of the horse is the biological system by which a horse circulates air for the purpose of gaseous ... The respiratory system begins with the nares, commonly known as the nostrils, which can expand greatly during intense exercise ... The genus Equus has a unique part of the respiratory system called the guttural pouch, which is thought to equalize air ... This helps to prevent the horse from inhaling food, but does not allow use of the mouth to breathe when in respiratory distress ...
This is a shortened version of the eighth chapter of the ICD-9: Diseases of the Respiratory System. It covers ICD codes 460 to ... acute 519 Other diseases of respiratory system 519.2 Mediastinitis (International Classification of Diseases). ... acute 464.4 Croup 465 Acute upper respiratory infections of multiple or unspecified sites 465.9 Upper respiratory infection, ... 478 Other diseases of upper respiratory tract 478.1 Abscess/ulcer of nose 480 Viral pneumonia 480.31 Pneumonia, SARS associated ...
The upper respiratory tract can refer to the parts of the respiratory system lying above the sternal angle (outside of the ... The respiratory tract is the subdivision of the respiratory system involved with the process of respiration in mammals. The ... Upper respiratory tract infections are probably the most common infections in the world. The respiratory system is very prone ... Most of the respiratory tract exists merely as a piping system for air to travel in the lungs, and alveoli are the only part of ...
The Respiratory System" (Chapter). Mescher AL: Junqueira's Basic Histology: Text & Atlas, 12e: "AccessMedicine , the ... Respiratory epithelium, or airway epithelium, is a type of ciliated columnar epithelium found lining most of the respiratory ... The respiratory epithelium lining the upper respiratory airways is classified as ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium ... The respiratory epithelium functions to moisten and protect the airways. It acts as a physical barrier to pathogens, as well as ...
... places elevated demands on the respiratory system. Over time, this results in respiratory changes as the system adapts to these ... Respiratory adaptation is the specific change that the respiratory system undergoes in response to the demands of physical ... "Respiratory System Adaptations to Exercise". PT Direct. Retrieved 2016-04-05. Alley, Thomas R. (2014-02-25 ... the pulmonary system is often a limiting factor to exercise under certain conditions. Respiratory adaptation begins almost ...
"Infections of the Respiratory System". Chapter 93: Infections of the Respiratory System. University of Texas Medical Branch at ... An upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) is an illness caused by an acute infection, which involves the upper respiratory ... The viruses do not cause damage to the cells of the upper respiratory tract, but rather cause changes in the tight junctions of ... Lower respiratory tract infection Vos, Theo; et al. (October 2016). "Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and ...
"Respiratory System". "Instructions for Authors". Respiratory Research. BioMed Central. Archived from the original on 12 ... "Journals Ranked by Impact: Respiratory System". 2012 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Science ed.). Thomson Reuters. ... Respiratory Research is an open access peer-reviewed medical journal published by BioMed Central. It covers all aspects of ... "Respiratory Research". NLM Catalog. National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved 16 April 2014. "BioMed Central , ...
Gallo de Moraes, Alice; Surani, Salim (2019-01-15). "Effects of diabetic ketoacidosis in the respiratory system". World Journal ... A respiratory examination, or lung examination, is performed as part of a physical examination, in response to respiratory ... After obtaining the patient's respiratory rate, the examiner looks for any signs of respiratory distress, which may include: ... The four steps of the respiratory exam are inspection, palpation, percussion, and auscultation of respiratory sounds, normally ...
Infections can affect any part of the respiratory system. They are traditionally divided into upper respiratory tract ... Treatment of respiratory system cancer depends on the type of cancer. Surgical removal of part of a lung (lobectomy, ... The majority of respiratory system cancers are attributable to smoking tobacco.[citation needed] The major histological types ... Malignant tumors of the respiratory system, particularly primary carcinomas of the lung, are a major health problem responsible ...
v t e (Respiratory therapy, Pulmonology, All stub articles, Respiratory system stubs). ... Respiratory Care Week is a week set to honor and recognize respiratory therapists. Respiratory Care Week is celebrated ... Respiratory Care Week is usually the last full week of October. United States President Ronald Reagan proclaimed the first week ... 748-817 United States President Ronald Reagan - Proclamation 5095 - National Respiratory Therapy Week, 1983, September 15, 1983 ...
"Predicting nosocomial lower respiratory tract infections by a risk index based system". Scientific Reports. 7 (1): 15933. ... Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Aspiration ... "Guidelines for the management of adult lower respiratory tract infections". The European Respiratory Journal. 26 (6): 1138-80. ... Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is a term often used as a synonym for pneumonia but can also be applied to other types ...
Decreased respiratory effort: Central nervous system impairment leads to decreased respiratory effort. The respiratory center ... Hypoglycemia and hypotension depress the central nervous system and compromise the respiratory system. Respiratory muscle ... Central nervous system disorders, such as stroke and tumors, may cause hypoventilation. Drugs may decrease respiratory effort ... The pressure is not a fixed number but it varies with resistance and capacitance of the respiratory system. The volume-cycled ...
Therefore, to accurately perform volumetric respiratory measurements, a dual band respiratory sensor system must be required. ... Respiratory rate is the number of breaths per minute. A non-specific measure of respiratory disorder. Tidal volume (Vt) is the ... Dual band respiratory inductance plethysmography can be used to describe various measures of complex respiratory patterns. The ... H. T. Ngo; C. V. Nguyen; T. M. H. Nguyen; Toi Van Vo (2013). "A Portable Respiratory Monitor Using Respiratory Inductive ...
It covers research on the structure and function of the respiratory system under physiologic and pathophysiologic conditions. ... "American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology". 2022 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Science ed.). ... The American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal and an official ...
"Respiratory system". Retrieved 16 April 2012. Shirani, J.; Zafari, A.M.; Roberts, W.C. (August 1995). "Morphologic features of ... After birth, the introduction of air into the lungs causes the pressure in the pulmonary circulatory system to drop. This ... Atlas image: ht_rt_atrium at the University of Michigan Health System - "Right atrium, internal structure, anterior view" ...
Paz JC, West MP (2009). "Chapter 2; Respiratory System". Acute care handbook for physical therapists (3rd ed.). St. Louis, Mo ... "Laennec's new system of diagnosis", The Quarterly Journal of Foreign Medicine and Surgery and of the Sciences Connected with ... Crackles are the clicking, rattling, or crackling noises that may be made by one or both lungs of a human with a respiratory ... In 2016, the European Respiratory Society reported on a study of various physicians listening to audiovisual recordings of ...
Respiratory system. The apple snail website. Accessed 18 November 2008. Los Marineros Marine Life. Caption Mollusca. Archived 3 ... Respiratory system. The apple snail website,, accessed 26 February 2009. Bales, SL and Venable, S. ... Invertebrate respiratory system, Articles containing video clips). ...
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This can be used as an indicator that the participants are nearing exhaustion and the limits of their cardio-respiratory system ... The respiratory exchange ratio (RER) is the ratio between the metabolic production of carbon dioxide (CO2) and the uptake of ... Measuring this ratio can be used for estimating the respiratory quotient (RQ), an indicator of which fuel (e.g. carbohydrate or ... Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine. 2: 1-9. doi:10.4137/CCRPM.S449. ISSN 1178-1157. PMC 2990231. PMID 21157516 - ...
Invertebrate respiratory system, Human head and neck, Thorax (human anatomy), Respiratory system). ... The Respiratory System". In Mescher AL (ed.). Junqueira's Basic Histology: Text & Atlas (12th ed.). McGraw Hill Professional. ... Insects have an open respiratory system made up of spiracles, tracheae, and tracheoles to transport metabolic gases to and from ... Insects have an open respiratory system made up of spiracles, tracheae, and tracheoles to transport metabolic gases to and from ...
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Page CP (2018). "Respiratory System: Mucolytics". In Datta ST, Xiu P (eds.). Pharmacology (Fifth ed.). Philadelphia, PA. p. 40 ... It is used as mucolytic and fluidifying for chronic and acute respiratory disorders. The drug is sold under the commercial ...
The Respiratory System. Systems of the body. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 2003. (Articles with short description, Short ... Article in German Tipton, History of Exercise Physiology, p222 Respiratory Physiology: The Essentials, John B. West, 2005, 7th ... description with empty Wikidata description, Respiratory physiology). ...
The respiratory epithelium also serves as a means of access for the lymphatic system, which protects the body from being ... Carlson, Bruce M. (2019). "The Respiratory System". The Human Body. Elsevier. pp. 303-319. doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-804254-0.00011 ... The respiratory epithelium that covers the erectile tissue (or lamina propria) of the conchae plays a major role in the body's ... Animals with respiratory turbinates can breathe faster without drying out their lungs, and consequently can have a faster ...
Koumbourlis AC (June 2006). "Scoliosis and the respiratory system". Paediatric Respiratory Reviews. 7 (2): 152-160. doi:10.1016 ... The now obsolete Harrington rod operated on a ratchet system, attached by hooks to the spine at the top and bottom of the ... This segmented instrumentation system allowed patients to become mobile soon after surgery. In the 1980s, Cotrel-Dubousset ... Respiratory deficiencies may also arise from thoracic deformities and cause abnormal breathing. This directly affects exercise ...
Air is breathed in through the nasal passageways, travels through the trachea and bronchi to the lungs.
... is a lab-based system that monitors certain patterns of specific viruses. ... The National Respiratory Enteric Virus Surveillance System (NREVSS) ... The National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System (NREVSS) is a laboratory-based system that monitors temporal and ... respiratory adenoviruses, human coronavirus, rotavirus, and norovirus. In this surveillance system, participating U.S. ...
Respiratory System. In the perioperative period, beta-agonists and bronchodilators should not be discontinued in patients with ... Judicious use of narcotics and diligent monitoring for respiratory depression is important in patients with respiratory ... Endocrine System. Diabetes. Patients with diabetes are at higher risk for perioperative complications. In a study of 1042 ... Gastrointestinal System. Many patients who come to the operating room are at risk for aspiration pneumonitis. Examples include ...
Respiratory System. In the perioperative period, beta-agonists and bronchodilators should not be discontinued in patients with ... Judicious use of narcotics and diligent monitoring for respiratory depression is important in patients with respiratory ... Endocrine System. Diabetes. Patients with diabetes are at higher risk for perioperative complications. In a study of 1042 ... Gastrointestinal System. Many patients who come to the operating room are at risk for aspiration pneumonitis. Examples include ...
Respiratory System A high school level description of the respiratory system Introduction to Respiratory System Science aid: ... The respiratory system (also respiratory apparatus, ventilatory system) is a biological system consisting of specific organs ... Hence, this respiratory system is similar to that of vertebrate fish. The respiratory system of gastropods can include either ... "Ornithology (Bio 554/754):Bird Respiratory System". Eastern Kentucky University. Retrieved 2007-06-27. Respiratory system. ...
How Does the Respiratory System Work?. Air enters the respiratory system through the nose or the mouth. If it goes in the ... What Are the Lungs and Respiratory System?. The lungs and respiratory system allow us to breathe. They:. *Bring oxygen into our ... The pharynx (say: FAR-inks) is part of the digestive system as well as the respiratory system because it carries both food and ... The lungs and respiratory system allow oxygen in the air to be taken into the body, while also letting the body get rid of ...
The Respiratory System. The nose, throat, and lungs are just a few parts of the body that make up the respiratory system. They ... What Are the Lungs and Respiratory System?. The lungs and respiratory system allow us to breathe. They bring oxygen into our ... The Respiratory System. We take thousands of breaths a day, thanks to the respiratory system. ... What Are the Parts of the Respiratory System?. The respiratory system includes the nose, mouth, throat, voice box, windpipe, ...
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Evaluation of breath biomarkers and serum haptoglobin concentration for diagnosis of bovine respiratory disease in heifers ... System. The link was not copied. Your current browser may not support copying via this button. ... and serum haptoglobin concentrations as diagnostic criteria for bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and determine whether a ... ...
These results show that the respiratory system reached or approached its physiologic limit in mild COPD at a lower peak work ... Does the respiratory system limit exercise in mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease? Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2013 Jun ... Conclusions: These results show that the respiratory system reached or approached its physiologic limit in mild COPD at a lower ... 1 Respiratory Investigation Unit, Department of Medicine, Queens University and Kingston General Hospital, Kingston, Ontario, ...
Assessment of respiratory volume is widely used in clinical application in order to assess the case of respiratory illness, and ... The system can be used at home and be self-applied by patients. The main features of this system are: low cost, low weight and ... Development of a Wearable Measuring System for Respiratory Plethysmography Mohammad I. Mokhlespour, Masoud Ramezanzadeh, and ... Assessment of respiratory volume is widely used in clinical application in order to assess the case of respiratory illness, and ...
Visit HowStuffWorks to learn more about how the respiratory system defends itself from this article. ..., 4 October 2023 ... This mucous layer acts as a protective barrier between the upper respiratory system and potentially airborne hazardous ... Eventually, the mucous layer, with its trapped unwanted particles, reaches the back of the mouth and the digestive system. The ...
... surveillance system for severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) using the WHOs case definition for SARI (10). The system ... Respiratory viruses in children younger than five years old with acute respiratory disease from 2001 to 2004 in Uberlândia, MG ... Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of severe respiratory disease in infants, young children and ... Global burden of acute lower respiratory infections due to respiratory syncytial virus in young children: a systematic review ...
COVID-19 affects the upper and lower respiratory systems (nose, sinuses, throat, airways and lungs) with cough, mucus and ... Coronavirus can affect the upper respiratory system (nose, sinuses and throat) with flu-like symptoms, the lower respiratory ... Lower Respiratory Infection. Common symptoms of COVID-19 respiratory infections in the airways and lungs may include severe ... Upper Respiratory Infection. Common symptoms of respiratory infections in the nose, sinuses and throat include nasal congestion ...
This Topic Article Package has been specially compiled and aligned on the topics of Tuberculosis and the Respiratory System. It ... This Topic Article Package has been specially compiled and aligned on the topics of Tuberculosis and the Respiratory System. It ... Topic Article Package: Tuberculosis and Respiratory System 2019. ...
The respiratory system is represented by the following structures, shown in Figure 1: ... Figure 1.A view of the entire respiratory system and the upper respiratory tract. ... The respiratory system is represented by the following structures, shown in Figure 1:. * The nose consists of the visible ... The respiratory membrane consists of the alveolar and capillary walls. Gas exchange occurs across this membrane. ...
However, under the same nicotine dosage, the harm of e-cigarette aerosol to the respiratory system is less than that of ... The study found that although both e-cigarettes and traditional cigarettes are harmful to the respiratory system, the harm of e ... Chinese Research Team Finds: E-cigarettes have less impact on respiratory system than traditional cigarettes. ... suggesting that there may be lesions in the respiratory system. In contrast, the lung coefficient of mice exposed to e- ...
reproductive system development + respiratory system development + The progression of the respiratory system over time from its ... respiratory system development (GO:0060541). Annotations: Rat: (315) Mouse: (317) Human: (319) Chinchilla: (290) Bonobo: (303) ...
Ensure youre breathing the purest air possible with 3M GVP PAPR system respirators. Order 3M respirators, parts & accessories ... Keep up with ever-evolving airborne hazards with 3M GVP PAPR system respirators, parts and accessories from Enviro Safety ... Either way, youll get the protection you need with GVP-series 3M PAPR system products. ...
Learn about the veterinary topic of Necrotic Rhinitis in Pigs. Find specific details on this topic and related topics from the Merck Vet Manual.
What is the smallest airspace of the respiratory tree?. a. Alveolar duct. b. Alveoli. c. Alveolar sac. d. Respiratory ... e. Respiratory bronchioles. 9.. What type of epithelium lines the vestibule?. a. Simple squamous epithelium. b. Simple columnar ... What cell types are found in the respiratory mucosa?. a. Ciliated cells. b. Goblet cells. c. Basal cells. d. Brush cells. e. ... Which cell is a respiratory macrophage?. a. Kupffer cells. b. Histiocyte. c. Dust cell. d. Langerhans cell. e. Microglia ...
Try these targeted herbal supplements to keep your respiratory system in balance.. Protection Plus Respiratory System contains ... and keep your respiratory system in balance. Of course, if you have already developed a respiratory issue, consult your doctor ... Clear Throat is a mild-tasting herbal syrup that helps clear impurities from the upper respiratory system; balances excess ... And to perform at their best your respiratory systems airways-comprised of your nose, mouth, throat, bronchial tubes, ...
... since they can spread from the respiratory tract to the central nervous system (CNS). Viruses infecting human CNS cells could ... Respiratory viruses can also exacerbate asthma and lead to various types of respiratory distress syndromes. Furthermore, as ... Opportunistic human respiratory pathogens could be associated with the triggering or the exacerbation of these disorders whose ... Herein, we present a global portrait of some of the most prevalent or emerging human respiratory viruses that have been ...
How the respiratory system allows us to get the "bad air out " and the "good air in" ... In the Cardiovascular & Respiratory Systems, prepare to discover the incredible design of the human heart, including:. *The ... as well as the respiratory system that focuses on the transportation of oxygen through the body. From the level of the cells to ... It pushes that blood through a system of blood vessels. Those vessels branch out to carry blood all over your body, making ...
GT-Digital Wastewater Surveillance Respiratory Pathogen Assay Kit for the Roche Digital LightCycler® System detects and ... GT Molecular Launches Multiplexed Assay Kit for Respiratory Pathogen Detection on the Roche Digital LightCycler® System. ... System. This digital PCR assay kit co-quantifies respiratory pathogens SARS-CoV-2, influenza A, influenza B, and RSV, as well ... releases/gt-molecular-launches-multiplexed-assay-kit-for-respiratory-pathogen-detection-on-the-roche-digital-lightcycler-system ...
GT-Digital Wastewater Surveillance Respiratory Pathogen Assay Kit for the Roche Digital LightCycler® System detects and ... GT Molecular Launches Multiplexed Assay Kit for Respiratory Pathogen Detection on the Roche Digital LightCycler® System. ... System. This digital PCR assay kit co-quantifies respiratory pathogens SARS-CoV-2, influenza A, influenza B, and RSV, as well ... releases/gt-molecular-launches-multiplexed-assay-kit-for-respiratory-pathogen-detection-on-the-roche-digital-lightcycler-system ...
View our diagnostic products for early/acute respiratory illness and explore Meridians respiratory system test. ... p>Meridian Bioscience manufactures, markets and distributes tests for respiratory problems. ... Respiratory Human Conditions. Our passion is to help providers make better diagnostic decisions with a focus on respiratory c ... Respiratory. Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pneumocystis Mycoplasma Pertussis Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Legionella Group A ...
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  • NREVSS has proven to be a relatively simple and practical surveillance system that will continue to be an important part of CDC's efforts to treat, prevent, and control respiratory and enteric viral diseases. (
  • In September 2022, the UK Department of Health and Social Care released the "Eighth Independent Report on Nicotine E-Cigarette Research," which stated that compared with traditional cigarettes, e-cigarettes significantly reduced exposure to harmful substances, and could significantly reduce biomarkers related to cancer, respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. (
  • Respiratory viruses infect the human upper respiratory tract, mostly causing mild diseases. (
  • PolyU and The University of Hong Kong (HKU) have established the Respiratory Virus Research Foundation ("the Foundation") in 2015 and have since then been working on various innovative technologies to tackle existing and emerging respiratory infectious diseases. (
  • In principle, chronic coughing, respiratory noises and shortness of breath must be investigated quickly and competently to distinguish serious diseases from irritations, common colds or infections. (
  • High technical competence and well-coordinated multidisciplinary collaboration further ensure that diseases of the lungs and respiratory tracts are treated optimally. (
  • Overview of Respiratory Diseases of Dogs and Cats A varying flora of indigenous commensal organisms (including Pasteurella multocida , Bordetella bronchiseptica , streptococci, staphylococci, pseudomonads, and coliform bacteria). (
  • Older adults should understand the impact of aging on their respiratory system and how to reduce their risk of any related diseases, illnesses, or conditions. (
  • The Top 8 Respiratory Illnesses and Diseases. (
  • d) are typically more severe than lower respiratory diseases. (
  • These NCDs include cardiovascular diseases (e.g. hypertension, heart attack and stroke), diabetes, chronic respiratory disease (e.g. chronic obstructed pulmonary disease or COPD,) and cancer. (
  • The National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System (NREVSS) is a laboratory-based system that monitors temporal and geographic circulation patterns (patterns occurring in time and place) of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human parainfluenza viruses (HPIV), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), respiratory adenoviruses, human coronavirus, rotavirus, and norovirus. (
  • NREVSS was created in the 1980s to monitor seasonal trends in influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). (
  • ABSTRACT Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in young infants, little was known on its circulation types and patterns in Morocco. (
  • GT-Digital Wastewater Surveillance Respiratory Pathogen Assay Kit for the Roche Digital LightCycler® System detects and quantifies influenza A/B, SARS-CoV-2, Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) A/B, including an internal process control and a fecal indicator. (
  • In one single test and within approximately one hour, the System can identify 30 to 40 pathogens including seasonal influenza viruses, such as influenza A subtypes H1, H2 and H3, avian influenza viruses H5, H7 and H9, human respiratory syncytial virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and 2019-nCoV. (
  • Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), the most common cause of severe lower respiratory tract disease among infants and young children, typically infects persons by age 2 years and can cause subsequent infections throughout life ( 1 ). (
  • Defense Mechanisms of the Respiratory System The average person who is moderately active during the daytime breathes about 20,000 liters (more than 5,000 gallons) of air every 24 hours. (
  • The earlier generations (approximately generations 0-16), consisting of the trachea and the bronchi, as well as the larger bronchioles which simply act as air conduits, bringing air to the respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts and alveoli (approximately generations 17-23), where gas exchange takes place. (
  • Inside the lungs, each primary bronchus divides repeatedly into branches of smaller diameters, forming secondary (lobar) bronchi, tertiary (segmental) bronchi, and numerous orders of bronchioles (1 mm or less in diameter), including terminal bronchioles (0.5 mm in diameter) and microscopic respiratory bronchioles. (
  • The main function of the horse's respiratory system is to bring oxygen from the air (inhalation) into the lungs where it is then passed through gradually smaller and smaller airways in the lung, until it reaches the end sacs, called alveoli, deep in the lungs. (
  • Your horse's respiratory system is very sensitive and even minor challenges, such as exposure to dusty bedding and hay, can affect his general health and performance. (
  • Effective lung function is essential for optimum performance, so careful management of a horse's respiratory system is needed. (
  • We conducted a prospective study using sentinel-based influenza surveillance to detect RSV by real time PCR in patients with acute respiratory infections, enrolled during two seasons (2014/15, 2015/16). (
  • The proportion of positive RSV infection was higher in patients hospitalized with acute respiratory infection compared to those with mild symptoms in out-patient clinics. (
  • RSV remains important viral etiological agent causing influenza-like illness and severe acute respiratory infections especially among infants in Morocco. (
  • The remaining 20 percent may develop more severe cases of coronavirus may develop pneumonia or severe acute respiratory syndrome. (
  • When COVID-19 is severe it can bring on pneumonia or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). (
  • Pneumonia that is caused by coronavirus may be more severe, affect many parts of the lungs, and cause shock, organ damage, abnormal blood clotting, acute respiratory distress syndrome and deteriorating health. (
  • Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is life threatening. (
  • PMID: 31953166 Reported illnesses range from minor or no respiratory symptoms to severe acute respiratory illness and death. (
  • Coronavirus can affect the upper respiratory system (nose, sinuses and throat) with flu-like symptoms, the lower respiratory system (airways and lungs) by causing cough with or without mucous and difficulty breathing. (
  • Common symptoms of respiratory infections in the nose, sinuses and throat include nasal congestion, runny nose, sore throat, sneezing, achy muscles and headache. (
  • Coronavirus upper respiratory infection symptoms also may include cough, diarrhea, fever, shortness of breath, loss of smell and /or taste and tiredness. (
  • Common symptoms of COVID-19 respiratory infections in the airways and lungs may include severe cough that produces mucous, shortness of breath, chest tightness and wheezing when you exhale. (
  • Overall, clinical symptoms appear milder than SARS Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infections as do the fatality rate and transmissibility. (
  • Viral infections are the most common cause of upper respiratory symptoms. (
  • The symptoms of allergies often last longer than a typical viral respiratory infection. (
  • This digital PCR assay kit co-quantifies respiratory pathogens SARS-CoV-2, influenza A, influenza B, and RSV, as well as an internal process control all within a single reaction well. (
  • They may affect the upper respiratory system (nose, mouth, sinuses, and throat) or the lower bronchial tubes and lungs. (
  • The respiratory membrane consists of the alveolar and capillary walls. (
  • Qualitative detection of SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in respiratory specimens by nucleic acid amplification with probe-based detection. (
  • The 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) is a coronavirus first identified as the cause of a respiratory illness outbreak in Wuhan, China. (
  • A system such as this creates dead space, a volume of air (about 150 ml in the adult human) that fills the airways after exhalation and is breathed back into the alveoli before environmental air reaches them. (
  • For the lower respiratory tract observe the basic structure of the lung, alveoli and ducts, and associated cardiovascular elements. (
  • Monocyte-derived immune system cell that removes debris and microorganisms from the alveoli and may have immune roles. (
  • What Are the Lungs and Respiratory System? (
  • The lungs and respiratory system allow us to breathe. (
  • How Do the Lungs and Respiratory System Work? (
  • The lungs and respiratory system allow oxygen in the air to be taken into the body, while also letting the body get rid of carbon dioxide in the air breathed out. (
  • Your horse's lungs and respiratory system process air, which is fundamental in providing oxygen for life and performance," states Gillian Higgins from Horses Inside Out. (
  • Tiny hairs called cilia (say: SIL-ee-uh) protect the nasal passageways and other parts of the respiratory tract, filtering out dust and other particles that enter the nose through the breathed air. (
  • Horses are obligate nasal breathers - they can only breathe through their nose, even when they are in respiratory distress. (
  • including absent respiratory sounds when auscultation is performed over the consolidated lung regions, increased bronchovesicular sounds in less-affected portions of lung, cough, fetid and/or mucopurulent nasal discharge, fever, dehydration, and anorexia. (
  • Objective -To evaluate exhaled N 2 O (eN 2 O), exhaled CO (eCO), and serum haptoglobin concentrations as diagnostic criteria for bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and determine whether a combination of biomarkers would be useful for predicting health outcomes of heifer calves. (
  • Bacterial Pneumonia in Cattle with Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex Mannheimia haemolytica serotype 1 is the bacterial pathogen most frequently isolated from the lungs of recently weaned feedlot cattle with bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and in dairy. (
  • The lower respiratory system includes the bronchial tubes and lungs. (
  • Pneumonia is a concern for older people because they have reduced lung capacity, require longer recover time and have age-weakened immune systems. (
  • However, in vulnerable populations, such as newborns, infants, the elderly and immune-compromised individuals, these opportunistic pathogens can also affect the lower respiratory tract, causing a more severe disease (e.g., pneumonia). (
  • Respiratory problems can be as minor as the common cold or as serious as pneumonia . (
  • In the lower respiratory system, the most common site is the lungs (pneumonia). (
  • Cilia, tiny muscular, hair-like projections on the cells that line the airway, are one of the respiratory system's defense mechanisms. (
  • Release 2.75: SYSTEM: There are 2 similar system's in LOINC: 1- Respiratory system 2- Respiratory specimen Due to an applied logic, the display in the System axis for 1 is Respiratory (adjective) without specification of sample, specimen, or other specific noun, while 2 is displayed fully as Respiratory specimen. (
  • Most adults and older children have several respiratory infections each year. (
  • In the upper respiratory system, the most common sites of bacterial infections are the sinuses and throat. (
  • In exhalation , the diaphragm moves upward and the chest wall muscles relax, causing the chest cavity to get smaller and push air out of respiratory system through the nose or mouth. (
  • A comprehensive illustration covering areas from the frontal sinus to the diaphragm, the Respiratory System Poster highlights structure and functio. (
  • The tract is divided into an upper and a lower respiratory tract. (
  • This mucous layer acts as a protective barrier between the upper respiratory system and potentially airborne hazardous particles. (
  • When you have an upper respiratory infection, you may feel uncomfortable, have a stuffy nose, and sound very congested. (
  • These types of problems are less common than ones in the upper respiratory system. (
  • Colds are minor upper respiratory illnesses. (
  • They may affect the upper or lower respiratory system. (
  • This can be initially divided into the 2 regions of the upper and lower respiratory tract. (
  • For the upper respiratory tract observe the epithelial specialisations, sensory regions and associated cartilages. (
  • La proportion d'infections positives au VRS était plus élevée chez les patients hospitalisés pour une infection respiratoire aiguë que chez les patients en consultation externe souffrant de légers symptômes. (
  • Mutants in the TprA/PhrA system are highly attenuated in their survival in nasopharynx and lungs after intranasal infection, and growth in blood after intravenous infection. (
  • According to the publication The Horse, the first infection begins in the respiratory tract, and the virus is picked up by the lymph nodes where it enters the bloodstream. (
  • More time in his stable and less turnout in the fresh air over the winter months can have a negative impact on your horse's breathing and cause a respiratory disease or infection. (
  • Respiratory plethysmography is used to determine the changes of chest volume to monitor the breathing. (
  • Respiratory muscles Breathing is usually automatic, controlled subconsciously by the respiratory center at the base of the brain. (
  • Arsen iod (30C) also supports respiratory health, a healthy open chest and easier breathing. (
  • Philips hospital respiratory care solutions can help you continually evaluate each patient's response to treatment so you can make fast, smooth transitions that accelerate their pathway to natural breathing. (
  • Risk factors for asthma include a family history of allergic disease, the presence of allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE), viral respiratory illnesses , exposure to aeroallergens , cigarette smoke, obesity , and lower socioeconomic status. (
  • Researchers at Michigan State found that young horses generally develop respiratory disease, while older horses usually develop the neurological form of the disease because of different immune responses. (
  • But some people develop respiratory or cardiovascular problems that can be life threatening. (
  • Assessment of respiratory volume is widely used in clinical application in order to assess the case of respiratory illness, and the progression of the respiratory syndrome. (
  • Human Coronaviruses and Other Respiratory Viruses: Underestimated Opportunistic Pathogens of the Central Nervous System? (
  • Prof. Terence Lau, Director of PolyU Innovation and Technology Development, and his research team develop the world's most comprehensive automated multiplex diagnostic system for detecting up to 40 infectious respiratory pathogens. (
  • The System adopts patent-pending microfluidic and biochemical technologies that achieve ultra-sensitive detection (down to 5 gene copies) and simultaneous differentiation of various pathogens with extremely high specificity. (
  • In Volume 2 of the Wonders of the Human Body series, Dr. Tommy Mitchell covers the intricate design of both the cardiovascular system, consisting of the blood, blood vessels, and heart, as well as the respiratory system that focuses on the transportation of oxygen through the body. (
  • Exchanging Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide The primary function of the respiratory system is to take in oxygen and eliminate carbon dioxide. (
  • The blood system then carries the oxygen all around the body and collects the waste carbon dioxide to take back to the lungs to be exhaled. (
  • Oxygen is needed by almost every living cell in the body to work properly and produce energy, so a correctly working respiratory system is vital for health, wellbeing and performance in all horses and ponies. (
  • Pathological section results of lung tissue showed that the lung coefficient of mice exposed to traditional cigarettes was significantly increased, and the shape of the trachea changed, suggesting that there may be lesions in the respiratory system. (
  • Asthma results from complex interactions among inflammatory cells, their mediators, airway epithelium and smooth muscle, and the nervous system. (
  • The nose, throat, and lungs are just a few parts of the body that make up the respiratory system. (
  • A wearable respiration measuring system has been introduced for detection of volume variations of chest. (
  • The heart, with all its associated vessels, is called the cardiovascular system. (
  • Objective Investigation of cardiac Tp-I and cardiac autoantibodies as a diagnostic markers for cardiovascular system impairments in children with recurrent respiratory system pathologies. (
  • However, your body's respirator system has several ways to protect you against most harmful airborne particles. (
  • Neutrophils One of the body's lines of defense (immune system) involves white blood cells (leukocytes) that travel through the bloodstream and into tissues, searching for and attacking microorganisms and. (
  • These air sacs communicate with the external environment via a system of airways, or hollow tubes, of which the largest is the trachea, which branches in the middle of the chest into the two main bronchi. (
  • The pharynx (say: FAR-inks) is part of the digestive system as well as the respiratory system because it carries both food and air. (
  • Eventually, the mucous layer, with its trapped unwanted particles, reaches the back of the mouth and the digestive system. (
  • It's during spring and autumn that respiratory immunity can trend lower, because your digestive strength fluctuates with the changing weather and may create more ama , the waste product of incomplete digestion. (
  • The horse's lungs are the 3rd largest organ in a horse's body (in case you are wondering, the skin is the largest and the digestive system is the 2nd largest! (
  • In this surveillance system, participating U.S. laboratories voluntarily report weekly to CDC the total number of weekly aggregate tests performed to detect these viruses, and the weekly aggregate positive tests. (
  • We anticipate that NREVSS will continue to play an important role in describing the temporal and geographic circulation patterns of respiratory and enteric viruses-including deviations in the typical annual circulation patterns and identifying viral outbreaks. (
  • Respiratory viruses can also exacerbate asthma and lead to various types of respiratory distress syndromes. (
  • In addition, the respiratory system performs other important roles in the body, including helping to regulate body temperature, and has various ways to protect the body from inhaled dust, bacteria, viruses, fungal spores and other particles. (
  • The branching airways of the lower tract are often described as the respiratory tree or tracheobronchial tree (Fig. 2). (
  • Feed from the floor to allow mucus to drain from the nostrils and keep the airways open to allow the respiratory tract to function as nature intended. (
  • Respiratory supplements aim to soothe and support your horse's airways in the fight against respiratory disease. (
  • These results show that the respiratory system reached or approached its physiologic limit in mild COPD at a lower peak work rate and ventilation than in healthy participants. (
  • Problems relating to the lower respiratory system are generally a result of viral, bacterial or allergic reactions, which can result in a drop in performance from your horse. (
  • This whitepaper describes assay and system compatibility with various workflows, wastewater inhibition, longitudinal studies for monitoring atypical seasonal behavior. (
  • Seasonal respiratory conditions are frustrating, and sometimes the cause is never identified. (
  • It is not known if abnormal dynamic respiratory mechanics actually limit exercise in patients with mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). (
  • Stabled horses are subjected to a constant respiratory challenge from fungal spores and dust in their immediate environment, and even horses living out can still be affected. (
  • Le VRS demeure un agent étiologique viral important au Maroc, responsable de syndromes de type grippal et d'infections respiratoires aiguës sévères, en particulier chez les nourrissons. (
  • The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (PolyU) today announced the development of the world's most comprehensive automated multiplex diagnostic system (the System) which includes a fully automated machine and a multiplex full-screening panel for the point-of-care genetic testing (POCT) of respiratory infectious disease including the 2019-nCoV. (
  • The researchers stated that the research results clearly show that exposure to traditional cigarettes and e-cigarettes with larger inhalation doses can be harmful to the respiratory system. (
  • Does the respiratory system limit exercise in mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease? (
  • FORT COLLINS, Colo. , Sept. 19, 2023 /PRNewswire/ -- GT Molecular, Inc., a company providing ultrasensitive PCR assays for wastewater-based epidemiology testing, pathogen detection, and cancer research is pleased to announce an agreement with Roche to provide a highly multiplexed respiratory panel for wastewater surveillance on the new Roche Digital LightCycler® System. (
  • Persons at increased risk for severe disease or death include premature infants, older adults, and persons of any age with compromised respiratory, cardiac, or immune systems ( 2,3 ). (
  • the decrease in pulmonary function in people with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) contributes to a significant morbidity due to the progressive weakness of the respiratory muscles. (
  • The progression of the respiratory system over time from its formation to its mature structure. (
  • As part of a healthcare team, an in-home caregiver can assist with activities that slow progression of the disease, or reduce the risk for those with respiratory issues. (