A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.
The type species of PNEUMOVIRUS and an important cause of lower respiratory disease in infants and young children. It frequently presents with bronchitis and bronchopneumonia and is further characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and pallor.
A species of PNEUMOVIRUS causing an important respiratory infection in cattle. Symptoms include fever, conjunctivitis, and respiratory distress.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES.
Infections with viruses of the genus RESPIROVIRUS, family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE. Host cell infection occurs by adsorption, via HEMAGGLUTININ, to the cell surface.
An acute inflammatory disease of the lower RESPIRATORY TRACT, caused by paramyxoviruses, occurring primarily in infants and young children; the viruses most commonly implicated are PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS TYPE 3; RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS, HUMAN; and METAPNEUMOVIRUS.
Glycoprotein from Sendai, para-influenza, Newcastle Disease, and other viruses that participates in binding the virus to cell-surface receptors. The HN protein possesses both hemagglutinin and neuraminidase activity.
Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.
A subfamily of the family MURIDAE comprised of 69 genera. New World mice and rats are included in this subfamily.
Inflammation of the BRONCHIOLES.
Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.
The top portion of the pharynx situated posterior to the nose and superior to the SOFT PALATE. The nasopharynx is the posterior extension of the nasal cavities and has a respiratory function.
A genus of the subfamily PNEUMOVIRINAE, containing two members: Turkey rhinotracheitis virus and a human Metapneumovirus. Virions lack HEMAGGLUTININ and NEURAMINIDASE.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Infections with viruses of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE. This includes MORBILLIVIRUS INFECTIONS; RESPIROVIRUS INFECTIONS; PNEUMOVIRUS INFECTIONS; HENIPAVIRUS INFECTIONS; AVULAVIRUS INFECTIONS; and RUBULAVIRUS INFECTIONS.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS frequently isolated from small children with pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A species of the genus PNEUMOVIRUS causing pneumonia in mice.
Fluid obtained by THERAPEUTIC IRRIGATION or washout of the nasal cavity and NASAL MUCOSA. The resulting fluid is used in cytologic and immunologic assays of the nasal mucosa such as with the NASAL PROVOCATION TEST in the diagnosis of nasal hypersensitivity.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where all the virions have both HEMAGGLUTININ and NEURAMINIDASE activities and encode a non-structural C protein. SENDAI VIRUS is the type species.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS, subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE, most often seen in conjunction with a secondary infection of MANNHEIMIA HAEMOLYTICA resulting in pneumonic pasteurellosis (PASTEURELLOSIS, PNEUMONIC).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
Infections with viruses of the genus PNEUMOVIRUS, family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE. This includes RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS INFECTIONS, an important cause of respiratory disease in humans.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PNEUMOVIRINAE) where the human and bovine virions have neither hemagglutinin nor neuraminidase activity. RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS, HUMAN is the type species.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
A family of spherical viruses, of the order MONONEGAVIRALES, somewhat larger than the orthomyxoviruses, and containing single-stranded RNA. Subfamilies include PARAMYXOVIRINAE and PNEUMOVIRINAE.
Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique utilizing a fluorochrome conjugated to an antibody, which is added directly to a tissue or cell suspension for the detection of a specific antigen. (Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
A condition characterized by infiltration of the lung with EOSINOPHILS due to inflammation or other disease processes. Major eosinophilic lung diseases are the eosinophilic pneumonias caused by infections, allergens, or toxic agents.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
A subfamily of MURIDAE found nearly world-wide and consisting of about 20 genera. Voles, lemmings, and muskrats are members.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with parainfluenza viruses in humans and animals.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A species of RUBULAVIRUS associated particularly with acute laryngotracheitis (CROUP) in children aged 6 months to 3 years.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.
The confinement of a patient in a hospital.
A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
Multinucleated masses produced by the fusion of many cells; often associated with viral infections. In AIDS, they are induced when the envelope glycoprotein of the HIV virus binds to the CD4 antigen of uninfected neighboring T4 cells. The resulting syncytium leads to cell death and thus may account for the cytopathic effect of the virus.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS B that cause HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. Antigenic variation is less extensive than in type A viruses (INFLUENZA A VIRUS) and consequently there is no basis for distinct subtypes or variants. Epidemics are less likely than with INFLUENZA A VIRUS and there have been no pandemics. Previously only found in humans, Influenza B virus has been isolated from seals which may constitute the animal reservoir from which humans are exposed.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
The type species of RESPIROVIRUS in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE. It is the murine version of HUMAN PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS 1, distinguished by host range.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Viral proteins found in either the NUCLEOCAPSID or the viral core (VIRAL CORE PROTEINS).
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
Virus diseases caused by the PICORNAVIRIDAE.
A genus of PICORNAVIRIDAE inhabiting primarily the respiratory tract of mammalian hosts. It includes over 100 human serotypes associated with the COMMON COLD.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is associated with BRONCHITIS, usually involving lobular areas from TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES to the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. The affected areas become filled with exudate that forms consolidated patches.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A nucleoside antimetabolite antiviral agent that blocks nucleic acid synthesis and is used against both RNA and DNA viruses.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
Immunoglobulin preparations used in intravenous infusion, containing primarily IMMUNOGLOBULIN G. They are used to treat a variety of diseases associated with decreased or abnormal immunoglobulin levels including pediatric AIDS; primary HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA; SCID; CYTOMEGALOVIRUS infections in transplant recipients, LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC; Kawasaki syndrome, infection in neonates, and IDIOPATHIC THROMBOCYTOPENIC PURPURA.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
Pathological processes involving the NASOPHARYNX.
Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Group of chemokines with the first two cysteines separated by three amino acids. CX3C chemokines are chemotactic for natural killer cells, monocytes, and activated T-cells.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
Animals or humans raised in the absence of a particular disease-causing virus or other microorganism. Less frequently plants are cultivated pathogen-free.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
A group of viruses in the genus PESTIVIRUS, causing diarrhea, fever, oral ulcerations, hemorrhagic syndrome, and various necrotic lesions among cattle and other domestic animals. The two species (genotypes), BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 , exhibit antigenic and pathological differences. The historical designation, BVDV, consisted of both (then unrecognized) genotypes.
The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Viruses that produce tumors.
One of the type I interferons produced by fibroblasts in response to stimulation by live or inactivated virus or by double-stranded RNA. It is a cytokine with antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunomodulating activity.
Tendency of the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree to contract more intensely in response to a given stimulus than it does in the response seen in normal individuals. This condition is present in virtually all symptomatic patients with asthma. The most prominent manifestation of this smooth muscle contraction is a decrease in airway caliber that can be readily measured in the pulmonary function laboratory.
Respiratory and conjunctival infections caused by 33 identified serotypes of human adenoviruses.
Diseases of domestic and mountain sheep of the genus Ovis.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
A cytokine synthesized by T-LYMPHOCYTES that produces proliferation, immunoglobulin isotype switching, and immunoglobulin production by immature B-LYMPHOCYTES. It appears to play a role in regulating inflammatory and immune responses.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A copper-containing dye used as a gelling agent for lubricants, for staining of bacteria and for the dyeing of histiocytes and fibroblasts in vivo.
Child hospitalized for short term care.
A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.
Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.
Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Infections with viruses of the genus RUBULAVIRUS, family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE.
A CC-type chemokine that is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS; MONOCYTES; and LYMPHOCYTES. It is a potent and selective eosinophil chemotaxin that is stored in and released from PLATELETS and activated T-LYMPHOCYTES. Chemokine CCL5 is specific for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR3 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS. The acronym RANTES refers to Regulated on Activation, Normal T Expressed and Secreted.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
Washing out of the lungs with saline or mucolytic agents for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It is very useful in the diagnosis of diffuse pulmonary infiltrates in immunosuppressed patients.
A species of VARICELLOVIRUS that causes INFECTIOUS BOVINE RHINOTRACHEITIS and other associated syndromes in CATTLE.
Vaccines using VIROSOMES as the antigen delivery system that stimulates the desired immune response.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.
Methods for using more than one primer set in a polymerase chain reaction to amplify more than one segment of the target DNA sequence in a single reaction.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A herpesvirus infection of CATTLE characterized by INFLAMMATION and NECROSIS of the mucous membranes of the upper RESPIRATORY TRACT.

Interferon gamma expressed by a recombinant respiratory syncytial virus attenuates virus replication in mice without compromising immunogenicity. (1/561)

Interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) has pleiotropic biological effects, including intrinsic antiviral activity as well as stimulation and regulation of immune responses. An infectious recombinant human respiratory syncytial virus (rRSV/mIFN-gamma) was constructed that encodes murine (m) IFN-gamma as a separate gene inserted into the G-F intergenic region. Cultured cells infected with rRSV/mIFN-gamma secreted 22 microg mIFN-gamma per 10(6) cells. The replication of rRSV/mIFN-gamma, but not that of a control chimeric rRSV containing the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) gene as an additional gene, was 63- and 20-fold lower than that of wild-type (wt) RSV in the upper and lower respiratory tract, respectively, of mice. Thus, the attenuation of rRSV/mIFN-gamma in vivo could be attributed to the activity of mIFN-gamma and not to the presence of the additional gene per se. The mice were completely resistant to subsequent challenge with wt RSV. Despite its growth restriction, infection of mice with rRSV/mIFN-gamma induced a level of RSV-specific antibodies that, on day 56, was comparable to or greater than that induced by infection with wt RSV. Mice infected with rRSV/mIFN-gamma developed a high level of IFN-gamma mRNA and an increased amount of interleukin 12 p40 mRNA in their lungs, whereas other cytokine mRNAs tested were unchanged compared with those induced by wt RSV. Because attenuation of RSV typically is accompanied by a reduction in immunogenicity, expression of IFN-gamma by an rRSV represents a method of attenuation in which immunogenicity can be maintained rather than be reduced.  (+info)

Two neutralizing human anti-RSV antibodies: cloning, expression, and characterization. (2/561)

BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is a major problem in the newborn and aging populations. Fully human monoclonal antibodies with the ability to neutralize RSV could have a major impact on the immunotherapy of the disease. The generation of human antibodies has been difficult because there exists no general way to activate B cells against an antigen of choice in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human spleen cells from individuals exposed to RSV were used to repopulate SCID mice. Hu-SCID mice were boosted with RSV fusion (F)-protein and subsequently developed B cell tumors. The tumors were removed and cultured and subcloned in vitro, using a feeder layer of CD154-expressing T cells. Two of these tumors produced the antibodies designated RF-1 and RF-2. VL genes were isolated by standard PCR techniques, however, it was necessary to use high-temperature reverse transcriptase to clone the VH genes. RESULTS: RF-1 and RF-2 VH genes were both found to be closely related members of the VH2 family. Vk genes originated from the VK III family. RF-1 and RF-2 recombinant antibodies expressed in CHO cells (cRF-1 and cRF-2) were found to have affinities for RSV F-protein of 0.1 nM and 0.07 nM, respectively, and both were able to neutralize several A and B subtypes of RSV. CONCLUSION: The technique of immortalizing human B lymphocytes, by passage in SCID mice and expression as recombinant antibodies in CHO cells, provides a method by which high-affinity human antibodies can be developed for immunotherapy of viral diseases.  (+info)

Molecular epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus in The Gambia. (3/561)

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in The Gambia occurs seasonally in association with the rainy season. This study examined the genetic variability of RSV isolates from four consecutive epidemics from 1993-6. Each epidemic was made up of a number of variants which were replaced in subsequent epidemics. Analysis of attachment (G) protein gene sequences showed that isolates were closely related to those observed in the rest of the world. However, many isolates from 1993 and 1994 were unlike other isolates observed in the developed world during this period and were more similar to isolates from 1984 in Europe. In addition, the most commonly observed genotype in the UK in the 1990s was not detected in The Gambia during this period.  (+info)

Respiratory syncytial virus infection: immune response, immunopathogenesis, and treatment. (4/561)

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the single most important cause of lower respiratory tract infection during infancy and early childhood. Once RSV infection is established, the host immune response includes the production of virus-neutralizing antibodies and T-cell-specific immunity. The humoral immune response normally results in the development of anti-RSV neutralizing-antibody titers, but these are often suboptimal during an infant's initial infection. Even when the production of RSV neutralizing antibody following RSV infection is robust, humoral immunity wanes over time. Reinfection during subsequent seasons is common. The cellular immune response to RSV infection is also important for the clearance of virus. This immune response, vital for host defense against RSV, is also implicated in the immunopathogenesis of severe lower respiratory tract RSV bronchiolitis. Many details of the immunology and immunopathologic mechanisms of RSV disease known at present have been learned from rodent models of RSV disease and are discussed in some detail. In addition, the roles of immunoglobulin E, histamine, and eosinophils in the immunopathogenesis of RSV disease are considered. Although the treatment of RSV bronchiolitis is primarily supportive, the role of ribavirin is briefly discussed. Novel approaches to the development of new antiviral drugs with promising anti-RSV activity in vitro are also described.  (+info)

Incomplete regulation of NF-kappaB by IkappaBalpha during respiratory syncytial virus infection in A549 cells. (5/561)

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection of airway epithelial cells results in persistent NF-kappaB activation and NF-kappaB-mediated interleukin-8 production. Previous studies in airway epithelial cells demonstrated that tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha)-induced NF-kappaB activation is transient due to regulation by IkappaBalpha. However, during RSV infection, IkappaBalpha has only a partial inhibitory effect on NF-kappaB activation. Studies presented here demonstrate that neither increased IkappaBalpha production which occurs as a result of RSV-induced NF-kappaB activation nor inhibition of proteasome-mediated IkappaBalpha degradation results in a reversal of RSV-induced NF-kappaB activation. Thus, while manipulation of IkappaBalpha results in reversal of TNF-alpha-induced NF-kappaB activation, manipulation of IkappaBalpha does not result in a reversal of RSV-induced NF-kappaB activation.  (+info)

CD8 T cells are essential in the development of respiratory syncytial virus-induced lung eosinophilia and airway hyperresponsiveness. (6/561)

Viral respiratory infections can cause bronchial hyperresponsiveness and exacerbate asthma. In mice, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection results in airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and eosinophil influx into the airways. The immune cell requirements for these responses to RSV infection are not well defined. To delineate the role of CD8 T cells in the development of RSV-induced AHR and lung eosinophilia, we tested the ability of mice depleted of CD8 T cells to develop these symptoms of RSV infection. BALB/c mice were depleted of CD8 T cells using anti-CD8 Ab treatment before intranasal administration of infectious RSV. Six days postinfection, airway responsiveness to inhaled methacholine was assessed by barometric body plethysmography, and numbers of lung eosinophils and levels of IFN-gamma, IL-4, and IL-5 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were monitored. RSV infection resulted in airway eosinophilia and AHR in control mice, but not in CD8-depleted animals. Further, whereas RSV-infected mice secreted increased amounts of IL-5 into the airways as compared with noninfected controls, no IL-5 was detectable in both bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and culture supernatants from CD8-depleted animals. Treatment of CD8-depleted mice with IL-5 fully restored both lung eosinophilia and AHR. We conclude that CD8 T cells are essential for the influx of eosinophils into the lung and the development of AHR in response to RSV infection.  (+info)

Absence of lung immunopathology following respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) challenge in mice immunized with a recombinant RSV G protein fragment. (7/561)

The relative immunopathogenic potential of a recombinant fusion protein incorporating residues 130-230 of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV-A) G protein (BBG2Na), formalin-inactivated RSV-A (FI-RSV), and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) was investigated in mice after immunization and RSV challenge. FI-RSV priming resulted in massive infiltration of B cells and activated CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes in mediastinal lymph nodes (MLN) and lungs, where eosinophilia and elevated IFN-gamma, IL-2, -4, -5, -10, and -13 mRNA transcripts were also detected. PBS-primed mice showed only elevated pulmonary IL-2 and IFN-gamma mRNAs, while an activated CD8(+) T cell peak was detected in MLN and lungs. Cell infiltration also occurred in MLN of BBG2Na-immunized mice. However, there was no evidence of T cell, B cell, or granulocyte infiltration or activation in lungs, while transient transcription of Th1-type cytokine genes was evident. The absence of pulmonary infiltration is unlikely due to insufficient viral antigen. Thus, this recombinant fusion RSV G fragment does not prime for adverse pulmonary immunopathologic responses.  (+info)

Identification of multiple protective epitopes (protectopes) in the central conserved domain of a prototype human respiratory syncytial virus G protein. (8/561)

A recombinant fusion protein (BBG2Na) comprising the central conserved domain of the respiratory syncytial virus subgroup A (RSV-A) (Long) G protein (residues 130 to 230) and an albumin binding domain of streptococcal protein G was shown previously to protect mouse upper (URT) and lower (LRT) respiratory tracts against intranasal RSV challenge (U. F. Power, H. Plotnicky-Gilquin, T. Huss, A. Robert, M. Trudel, S. Stahl, M. Uhlen, T. N. Nguyen, and H. Binz, Virology 230:155-166, 1997). Panels of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and synthetic peptides were generated to facilitate dissection of the structural elements of this domain implicated in protective efficacy. All MAbs recognized native RSV-A antigens, and five linear B-cell epitopes were identified; these mapped to residues 152 to 163, 165 to 172, 171 to 187 (two overlapping epitopes), and 196 to 204, thereby covering the highly conserved cysteine noose domain. Antibody passive-transfer and peptide immunization studies revealed that all epitopes were implicated in protection of the LRT, but not likely the URT, against RSV-A challenge. Pepscan analyses of anti-RSV-A and anti-BBG2Na murine polyclonal sera revealed lower-level epitope usage within the central conserved region in the former, suggesting diminished immunogenicity of the implicated epitopes in the context of the whole virus. However, Pepscan analyses of RSV-seropositive human sera revealed that all of the murine B-cell protective epitopes (protectopes) that mapped to the central conserved domain were recognized in man. Should these murine protectopes also be implicated in human LRT protection, their clustering around the highly conserved cysteine noose region will have important implications for the development of RSV vaccines.  (+info)

Respiratory syncytial virus G protein is a protein produced by respiratory syncytial virus. It has been proposed as a target for a vaccine. Harcourt J, Alvarez R, Jones LP, Henderson C, Anderson LJ, Tripp RA (February 2006). Respiratory syncytial virus G protein and G protein CX3C motif adversely affect CX3CR1+ T cell responses. J. Immunol. 176 (3): 1600-8. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.176.3.1600. PMID 16424189. Li XQ, Fu ZF, Alvarez R, Henderson C, Tripp RA (January 2006). Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infects neuronal cells and processes that innervate the lung by a process involving RSV G protein. J. Virol. 80 (1): 537-40. doi:10.1128/JVI.80.1.537-540.2006. PMC 1317531 . PMID 16352577. Zlateva KT, Lemey P, Moës E, Vandamme AM, Van Ranst M (July 2005). Genetic variability and molecular evolution of the human respiratory syncytial virus subgroup B attachment G protein. J. Virol. 79 (14): 9157-67. doi:10.1128/JVI.79.14.9157-9167.2005. PMC 1168771 . PMID 15994810. Li X, Sambhara S, Li CX, et ...
Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus and is part of the Orthopneumovirus genus within the Pneumoviridae family. HRSV is a causative agent of severe lower respiratory tract infection in infants and children (1). Nearly all children over the age of 2 years have been infected by HRSV (2). In Brazil, HRSV was detected in 41.8% of patients under 2 years of age with a lower respiratory tract infection (3).. Patients under 2 years of age were included in a prospective study of acute respiratory infection surveillance. Patients with signs, symptoms, and/or a history of lower respiratory tract infections at the time of their admission were included in this study. Specifically, patients with signs or symptoms of wheezing, whooping cough, pertussis-like syndrome, croup, cyanosis, alveolar pneumonia, apnea, bronchiolitis, and bronchospasms were considered. Nasopharyngeal aspirates from patients were first subjected to all PCR diagnostic assays for common ...
Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is the leading cause of infant hospitalization related to respiratory disease. Infection with hRSV produces abundant infiltration of immune cells into the airways, which combined with an exacerbated pro-inflammatory immune response can lead to significant damage to the lungs. Human RSV re-infection is extremely frequent, suggesting that this virus may have evolved molecular mechanisms that interfere with host adaptive immunity. Infection with hRSV can be reduced by administering a humanized neutralizing antibody against the virus fusion protein in high-risk infants. Although neutralizing antibodies against hRSV effectively block the infection of airway epithelial cells, here we show that both, bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs) and lung DCs undergo infection with IgG-coated virus (hRSV-IC), albeit abortive. Yet, this is enough to negatively modulate DC function. We observed that such a process is mediated by Fcγ receptors (FcγRs) expressed on the surface
The entire nucleotide sequence of the G gene of three human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) isolates (antigenic group B) has been determined. These three viruses (named BA viruses) were isolated in Buenos Aires in 1999 from specimens collected in different hospitals and at different dates. BA viruses have an exact duplication of 60 nucleotides in the G gene, starting after residue 791. This duplication is flanked by a repeat of four nucleotides (GUGU) and can fold into a relatively stable secondary structure. These features suggest a possible mechanism for the generation of a duplicated G segment. The predicted polypeptide is lengthened by 20 amino acids (residues 260-279) and this is reflected in the slower electrophoretic mobility of the G protein precursor of BA viruses compared with related viruses. The changes reported here expand the examples of drastic genetic alterations that can be introduced into the G protein sequence of HRSV while it replicates in its natural host.
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Recombinant respiratory syncytial virus bearing a deletion of either the NS2 or SH gene is attenuated in chimpanzees. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
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Zlateva, Kalina T. et al Subgroup Prevalence and Genotype Circulation Patterns of Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus in Belgium during Ten Successive Epidemic Seasons. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 45.9 (2007): 3022-3030. Web. 11 July. 2020. ...
Respiratory infections positive for human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) subtype A were characterised in children admitted to hospitals in Rome and Ancona (Italy) over the last three epidemic seasons. Different strains of the novel RSV-A genotype ON1, first identified in Ontario (Canada) in December 2010, were detected for the first time in Italy in the following 2011/12 epidemic season. They bear an insertion of 24 amino acids in the G glycoprotein as well as amino acid changes likely to change antigenicity. By early 2013, ON1 strains had spread so efficiently that they had nearly replaced other RSV-A strains. Notably, the RSV peak in the 2012/13 epidemic season occurred earlier and, compared with the previous two seasons, influenza-like illnesses diagnoses were more frequent in younger children; bronchiolitis cases had a less severe clinical course. Nonetheless, the ON1-associated intensive care unit admission rate was similar, if not greater, than that attributable to other RSV-A strains.
Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract disease in infants and young children and an important respiratory pathogen in the elderly and immunocompromised. While population-wide ...
Deadly to newborn babies, the Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus (HSV) is a major cause of lower respiratory tract infection. Dynamic structural changes in the Fusion F Glycoprotein reveal and hide binding sites, making targets of new therapies difficult to identify. Explore RSV Fusion F Glycoprotein-3RRR and learn more about its Postfusion 3D structure. (more…). Read more. ...
(2000) Asenjo, Villanueva. FEBS Letters. Purified human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) P phosphoprotein from transfected HEp-2 cells is able to oligomerize forming tetramers. The bulk of constitutive P protein phosphorylation (99.8%) (serine residues 116, 117, 119, 232 and 237) can be removed...
Contributed by guest blogger: Alix Zongrone 12. Pneumonia virus of mice, or PVM, is the leading cause of pneumonia in laboratory mice; however, lack of evidence of PVM in wild rodents has left scientists in the dark with regards to the history and natural host of the virus. Because PVM is mostly found in captive settings (i.e. laboratories, pet shops, etc.) and PVM-neutralizing behavior has been observed in human cells, it has been suggested that human contact may play a pivotal role in the viruss spread. Several studies have sought to investigate the prevalence of PVM in humans and its role in human respiratory infection; however, since PVM is closely related to human respiratory syncytial virus, or RSV, it is difficult to make sound conclusions based on this evidence alone.. Due to the evidence of PVM in humans, researchers inoculated two different non-human primate species with PVM to investigate replication activity of PVM in these mammals. They found that, over the course of twelve days, ...
Like the Hydrogen atom in the center exist proton or fusing shape of ovum, same as plants have pollen germinating embryo that makes translation fusion, ovum gets fertilized, a sperm cell fusing with an ovum. Similarities fusion can be found in all form of fish, animals; plants, birds, even humans use same method of fusion principle as living things. In other pages I explained how protons are dense kernel clusters same like the fruit of pomegranate, surrounded by electrons that have addition another energy force substance that is essential to electrons, once a while some helix leave the group circulation pattern get loose by hit knock out from the group electron great number of helixes, separated filament going the atom and join to one or more kernel sphere and form a nucleus or assemble into particles inside atoms, later elements start to grow up into new characters and personalities starting to be helium and on, in the first form hydrogen atom produced sound note in low octave frequency C and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Antiviral effect of cimicifugin from Cimicifuga foetida against human respiratory syncytial virus. AU - Wang, Kuo Chih. AU - Chang, Jung San. AU - Lin, Liang Tzung. AU - Chiang, Lien Chai. AU - Lin, Chun Ching. PY - 2012. Y1 - 2012. N2 - Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes serious infection of the lower respiratory tract in children and an effective antiviral therapy against the viral pathogen remains unavailable. We previously demonstrated that the oriental medicinal plant, Cimicifuga foetida L. (C. foetida), possessed inhibitory activity against RSV. Since cimicifugin is a major constituent of C. foetida, we sought to examine in this study its anti-RSV effect on both the human upper (HEp-2) and lower (A549) respiratory tract cell lines. Results revealed that cimicifugin dose-dependently inhibited RSV-induced plaque formation in both HEp-2 and A549 cells (p ,0.0001), with a superior effect in the latter cell type (p ,0.0001). The antiviral activity of cimicifugin was ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The secreted g protein of human respiratory syncytial virus antagonizes antibody-mediated restriction of replication involving macrophages and complement. AU - Bukreyev, Alexander. AU - Yang, Lijuan. AU - Collins, Peter L.. PY - 2012/10/1. Y1 - 2012/10/1. N2 - The respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) G and F glycoproteins are the neutralization antigens, and G also is expressed in a soluble form (sG). Previously, sG was demonstrated to reduce the efficiency of RSV antibody-mediated neutralization by serving as an antigen decoy and to inhibit the antibody-mediated antiviral effects of Fc receptor-bearing leukocytes. The present study demonstrated that effective antibody-mediated restriction in vivo, and the evasion of this restriction by sG, involves pulmonary macrophages and complement, but not neutrophils.. AB - The respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) G and F glycoproteins are the neutralization antigens, and G also is expressed in a soluble form (sG). Previously, sG was demonstrated ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Assessing the burden of respiratory syncytial virus disease in Australia. AU - Moore, Hannah C.. AU - Blyth, Christopher C.. PY - 2019/6. Y1 - 2019/6. KW - Health services research. KW - Hospitals. KW - Immunisation, reporting. KW - Indigenous health. KW - Respiratory tract infections. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85066120786&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.5694/mja2.50173. DO - 10.5694/mja2.50173. M3 - Editorial. C2 - 31111497. AN - SCOPUS:85066120786. VL - 210. SP - 444. EP - 445. JO - Medical Journal Australia. JF - Medical Journal Australia. SN - 0025-729X. IS - 10. ER - ...
Summary Intergenic and flanking gene regions for the 1C-1B, 1B-N, N-P, M-1A, G-F and F-22K gene junctions of respiratory syncytial virus strain 18537, representing antigenic subgroup B, were determined by dideoxynucleotide sequencing of polycistronic cDNAs and mRNAs. Comparison with their counterparts from the subgroup A strain A2 showed that the intergenic sequences were not conserved within or between the strains. Flanking non-coding gene sequences also were generally not conserved except for the highly conserved gene-start and gene-end transcription signals. The sequence of the overlap between the 22K and L genes was conserved almost exactly between the two subgroups.
1KWE: Structure-antigenicity relationship studies of the central conserved region of human respiratory syncytial virus protein G.
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Dahui You, David T Siefker, Bishwas Shrestha, Jordy Saravia, Stephania A Cormier].
The usual incubation period is 2 to 4 days, followed by the onset of rhinitis; severity of illness progresses to a peak within 1 to 3 days.
Human respiratory syncytial virus is a medium-sized (120-200 nm) enveloped virus that contains a linear negative-sense RNA genome (must be converted to a positive RNA prior to translation). The former contains virally encoded F, G, and SH lipoproteins. The F and G lipoproteins are the only two that target the cell membrane, and are highly conserved among RSV isolates. HRSV is divided into two antigenic subgroups, A and B, on the basis of the reactivity of the virus with monoclonal antibodies against the attachment (G) and fusion (F)[6] glycoproteins. Subtype B is characterized as the asymptomatic strains of the virus that the majority of the population experiences. The more severe clinical illnesses involve subtype A strains, which tend to predominate in most outbreaks. Four of the viral genes code for intracellular proteins that are involved in genome transcription, replication, and particle budding, namely N (nucleoprotein), P (phosphoprotein), M (matrix protein), and L (large protein, ...
Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is the leading cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in young children worldwide. The recurrent hRSV outbreaks and reinfections are the cause of a significant public health burden and associate with an inefficient antiviral immunity, even after disease resolution. Although several mouse- and human cell-based studies have shown that hRSV infection prevents naïve T-cell activation by antigen-presenting cells, the mechanism underlying such inhibition remains unknown. Here, we show that the hRSV nucleoprotein (N) could be at least partially responsible for inhibiting T-cell activation during infection by this virus. Early after infection, the N protein was expressed on the surface of epithelial and dendritic cells, after interacting with trans-Golgi and lysosomal compartments. Further, experiments on supported lipid bilayers loaded with peptide-MHC (pMHC) complexes showed that surface-anchored N protein prevented immunological synapse assembly by naive CD4(+) T cells
The influence of age and maternal antibodies on the antibody responses to human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) glycoproteins in very young children has been a matter of controversy. Both, immaturity of the immune system at very early age and suppression of the host immune response by high level of maternal antibodies have been claimed to limit the host antibody response to virus infection and to jeopardize the use of hRSV vaccines under development in that age group. Hence, the antibody responses to the two major hRSV glycoproteins (F and G) were evaluated in children younger than 2 years, hospitalized with laboratory confirmed hRSV bronchiolitis ...
The influence of age and maternal antibodies on the antibody responses to human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) glycoproteins in very young children has been a matter of controversy. Both, immaturity of the immune system at very early age and suppression of the host immune response by high level of maternal antibodies have been claimed to limit the host antibody response to virus infection and to jeopardize the use of hRSV vaccines under development in that age group. Hence, the antibody responses to the two major hRSV glycoproteins (F and G) were evaluated in children younger than 2 years, hospitalized with laboratory confirmed hRSV bronchiolitis ...
M Rajeevan, senior scientist at the National Atmospheric Research Laboratory in Tirupati, concurs. He adds that the current atmospheric conditions in the peninsular region are conducive for this sort of weather variation. The sky is clear and the air is dry. In these conditions, lower surface air can cool to a great extent, he says. Rajeevan accepts that this sort of temperature dip is unusual for the peninsular region. However, this is a natural variation, and doesnt qualify as an extreme weather event. Rajeevan adds that a weather circulation pattern called Arctic Oscillation, an atmospheric circulation pattern in which the atmospheric pressure over the Polar Regions varies in opposition with that over middle latitudes, has caused severe cold conditions throughout the world, and it is possible its impact is just spilling over to southern India too. Met officials are unsure how long the cold-wave like conditions will persist across the region ...
Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes a large burden of disease worldwide1. There is no effective vaccine or therapy, and the use of passive immunoprophylaxis with RSV-specific antibodies is limited to high-risk patients2, 3, 4, 5. The cellular receptor (or receptors) required for viral entry and replication has yet to be described; its identification will improve understanding of the pathogenesis of infection and provide a target for the development of novel antiviral interventions. Here we show that RSV interacts with host-cell nucleolin via the viral fusion envelope glycoprotein and binds specifically to nucleolin at the apical cell surface in vitro. We observed decreased RSV infection in vitro in neutralization experiments using nucleolin-specific antibodies before viral inoculation, in competition experiments in which virus was incubated with soluble nucleolin before inoculation of cells, and upon RNA interference (RNAi) to silence cellular nucleolin expression. Transfection of ...
The panel simultaneously tests for SARS-CoV-2 and influenza viruses A and B, while a second analysis detects for human respiratory syncytial virus and human metapneumovirus.
The new system, he noted, allows scientists to see the ring structure of the nuclear pore complex for the first time, and the tubular structure of the human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV). With this simple, but powerful weapon, biologists can tackle many interesting phenomena that were invisible in the past because of poor resolution, Xi added.. While changing the optical system was relatively simple, growing cells on the custom-made mirrors required adapting existing biological techniques, said Phil Santangelo, another co-author and a professor at Georgia Tech and Emory University. Techniques for growing the cells on the mirrors were largely developed by Eric Alonas, a Georgia Tech graduate student, and Hao Xie, a student in the Ph.D. program of Peking University and Georgia Tech.. Most people are not growing cells on mirrors, so it required some work to get the cell culture conditions correct, Santangelo said. We had to make sure the mirror coating didnt affect cell growth, and ...
Expression-ready RSV RSV Fusion cDNA ORF clone (VG40037-CY) with enhanced promotor in expression vector (pCMV3-C-HA) is confirmed by full-length sequence and validated in expression capability for gene expression studies or other applications. Quote for bulk production.
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Define respiratory syncytial virus immune globulin intravenous. respiratory syncytial virus immune globulin intravenous synonyms, respiratory syncytial virus immune globulin intravenous pronunciation, respiratory syncytial virus immune globulin intravenous translation, English dictionary definition of respiratory syncytial virus immune globulin intravenous. n. 1. Any of a class of proteins that are widespread in blood plasma, milk, muscle, and plant seeds and that are insoluble in pure water but soluble in...
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading viral pathogen associated with acute lower respiratory tract infection and hospitalization in children , 5 years of age worldwide. While there are known clinical risk factors for severe RSV infection, the majority of those hospitalized are previously healthy infants. There is consequently an unmet need to identify biomarkers that predict host response, disease severity, and sequelae. The primary objective is to identify biomarkers of severe RSV acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI) in infants. Secondary objectives include establishing biomarkers associated with respiratory sequelae following RSV infection and characterizing the viral load, RSV whole-genome sequencing, host immune response, and transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolomic and epigenetic signatures associated with RSV disease severity. Six hundred thirty infants will be recruited across 3 European countries: the Netherlands, Spain, and the United Kingdom. Participants will be recruited ...
Polypeptides, nucleotides, and compositions useful for preparing diagnostic reagents for and vaccines against human Respiratory Syncytial Virus are disclosed. The polypeptides include short polypeptides which are related to a neutralizing and fusion epitope of the Respiratory Syncytial Virus fusion protein or a neutralizing epitope of the G protein.
article{1942045, abstract = {Despite the medical importance of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections, there is no vaccine or therapeutic agent available. Prophylactic administration of palivizumab, a humanized monoclonal RSV fusion (F) protein-specific antibody, can protect high-risk children. Previously, we have demonstrated that RSV can be neutralized by picomolar concentrations of a camelid immunoglobulin single-variable domain that binds the RSV protein F (F-VHHb nanobodies). Here, we investigated the mechanism by which these nanobodies neutralize RSV and tested their antiviral activity in vivo. We demonstrate that bivalent RSV F-specific nanobodies neutralize RSV infection by inhibiting fusion without affecting viral attachment. The ability of RSV F-specific nanobodies to protect against RSV infection was investigated in vivo. Intranasal administration of bivalent RSV F-specific nanobodies protected BALB/c mice from RSV infection, and associated pulmonary inflammation. Moreover, ...
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-Respiratory Syncytial Virus fusion protein Antibody (10B6) [DyLight 488]. Validated: ELISA, Flow. Tested Reactivity: Virus. 100% Guaranteed.
Respiratory syncytial virus is one of the most important causes of respiratory tract infection in infants and the elderly worldwide. Transmitted by direct and indirect contact, respiratory syncytial virus spreads as readily in the hospital as it does in the community, making healthcare-associated infection common. Respiratory syncytial virus is a major preventable healthcare-associated infection with frequent outbreaks that can lead to high mortality rates in healthcare facilities. Proper infection prevention measures, including hand hygiene, standard and contact precautions, cohorting, and rapid diagnostic techniques, are critical in controlling the spread of respiratory syncytial virus in healthcare facilities and establishing a culture of patient and employee safety. Timely implementation of standard infection control measures will minimize its medical and economic impact.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Suppressive effect of locally produced interleukin-10 on respiratory syncytial virus infection. AU - Ruan, Yan. AU - Okamoto, Yoshitaka. AU - Matsuzaki, Zensei. AU - Endo, Shuichiro. AU - Matsuoka, Tomokazu. AU - Kohno, Tadashi. AU - Chazono, Hideaki. AU - Eiko, Ito. AU - Tsubota, Kazuo. AU - Saito, Ichiro. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - Interleukin (IL)-10 is known to be a multifunctional cytokine. This study was designed to evaluate the role of IL-10 during respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection using a C57BL/6 transgenic (TG) mouse model in which the expression of murine IL-10 cDNA was regulated by a human salivary amylase promoter (IL-10 TG mice). These mice expressed a large amount of IL-10 in the nasal mucosa and in salivary glands. Viral replication in the respiratory tract after intranasal infection with RSV was suppressed significantly in IL-10 TG mice compared to non-transgenic controls. This suppression was IL-10 specific, because it was prevented by treating mice ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Respiratory Syncytial Virus-Induced Activation and Migration of Respiratory Dendritic Cells and Subsequent Antigen Presentation in the Lung-Draining Lymph Node. AU - Lukens, Michaël. AU - Kruijsen, Debby. AU - Coenjaerts, Frank E. J.. AU - Kimpen, Jan L. L.. AU - van Bleek, Grada M.. PY - 2009/7/15. Y1 - 2009/7/15. N2 - In the respiratory tract, different dendritic cell (DC) populations guard a tight balance between tolerance and immunity to infectious or harmless materials to which the airways are continuously exposed. For infectious and noninfectious antigens administered via different routes, different subsets of DC might contribute during the induction of T-cell tolerance and immunity. We studied the impact of primary respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection on respiratory DC composition in C57BL/6 mice. We also tracked the migration of respiratory DC to the lymph nodes and studied antigen presentation by lung-derived and lymph node-resident DC to CD4(+) and CD8(+) T ...
Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the main viral cause of respiratory tract infection in infants as well as some elderly and high-risk adults with chronic pulmonary disease and the severely immunocompromised. So far, no specific anti-RSV therapeutics or effective anti-RSV vaccines have been reported. Only one humanized monoclonal antibody, Palivizumab, has been approved for use in high-risk infants to prevent RSV infection. Ribavirin is the only drug licensed for therapy of RSV infection, but its clinical use is limited by its nonspecific anti-RSV activity, toxic effect, and relatively high cost. Therefore, development of novel effective anti-RSV therapeutics is urgently needed. The RSV envelope glycoprotein F plays an important role in RSV fusion with, and entry into, the host cell and, consequently, serves as an attractive target for developing RSV entry inhibitors. This article reviews advances made in studies of the structure and function of the F protein and the development of RSV entry
The lung is a critical prophylaxis target for clinically important infectious agents, including human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza. Here, we develop a modular, synthetic mRNA-based approach to express neutralizing antibodies directly in the lung via aerosol, to prevent RSV infections. First, we express palivizumab, which reduces RSV F copies by 90.8%. Second, we express engineered, membrane-anchored palivizumab, which prevents detectable infection in transfected cells, reducing in vitro titer and in vivo RSV F copies by 99.7% and 89.6%, respectively. Finally, we express an anchored or secreted high-affinity, anti-RSV F, camelid antibody (RSV aVHH and sVHH). We demonstrate that RSV aVHH, but not RSV sVHH, significantly inhibits RSV 7 days post transfection, and we show that RSV aVHH is present in the lung for at least 28 days. Overall, our data suggests that expressing membrane-anchored broadly neutralizing antibodies in the lungs could potentially be a promising pulmonary prophylaxis
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes infections that range from common cold to severe lower respiratory tract infection requiring high-level medical care. Prediction of the course of disease in individual patients remains challenging at the first visit to the pediatric wards and RSV infections may rapidly progress to severe disease. In this study we investigate whether there exists a genomic signature that can accurately predict the course of RSV. We used early blood microarray transcriptome profiles from 39 hospitalized infants that were followed until recovery and of which the level of disease severity was determined retrospectively. Applying support vector machine learning on age by sex standardized transcriptomic data, an 84 gene signature was identified that discriminated hospitalized infants with eventually less severe RSV infection from infants that suffered from most severe RSV disease. This signature yielded an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.966 ...
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is ubiquitous with almost all infants having been infected by 2 years of age and lifelong repeated infections common. It is the second largest cause of mortality, after malaria, in infants outside the neonatal period and causes up to 200,000 deaths per year worldwide. RSV results in clinical syndromes that include upper respiratory tract infections, otitis media, bronchiolitis (up to 80% of cases) and lower respiratory tract disease including pneumonia and exacerbations of asthma or viral-induced wheeze. For the purposes of this review we will focus on RSV bronchiolitis in infants in whom the greatest disease burden lies. For infants requiring hospital admission, the identification of the causative respiratory virus is used to direct cohorting or isolation and infection control procedures to minimize nosocomial transmission. Nosocomial RSV infections are associated with poorer clinical outcomes, including increased mortality, the need for mechanical
Title: Prevention of Respiratory Syncytial Virus: A Review. VOLUME: 5 ISSUE: 1. Author(s):Emilio Palumbo. Affiliation:Department of Pediatric, Via DellArcangelo Michele 4, 71100, Foggia, Italy.. Keywords:Prevention, palivuzumab, motavizumab, VRS. Abstract: Antibodies mediate humoral immune responses and play key roles in the defense of viral infection by the recognition, neutralization, and elimination of viruses from the circulation. For the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, the pooled human plasma has been harvested and successfully developed as a prophylactic polyclonal RSV hyperimmune globulin, RespiGam (RSV-IGIV; MedImmune, Gaithersburg, MD). The success of RSV-IGIV validated the immunoprophylaxis approach for RSV prevention and led to the development of Synagis (palivizumab; MedImmune, Gaithersburg, MD), a humanized monoclonal antibody (mAb) that binds to the RSV F protein. Palivizumab is a potent anti-RSV mAb that is about 50-fold more potent than RSV-IGIV, and ...
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A nosocomial outbreak of respiratory syncytial virus infections involved 8 of 17 infants in an Intensive Care Nursery and one additional infant in the adjoining Newborn Nursery. Immunofluorescent staining of nasopharyngeal specimens was positive in six of seven virologically confirmed cases (86%). One additional case with negative viral cultures was also identified by this technique. Viral isolation in tissue cultures required an average of 4.9 days, whereas results of immunofluorescent studies were available in two to four hours. Rapid identification of infected infants by immunofluorescence permitted prompt institution of infection control measures.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Respiratory syncytial virus infection and the risk of serious bacterial infections. AU - Kuppermann, Nathan. AU - Purcell, Kevin. AU - Fergie, Jaime. PY - 2002/10/1. Y1 - 2002/10/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0036821316&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0036821316&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 12361456. AN - SCOPUS:0036821316. VL - 156. SP - 1055. EP - 1057. JO - JAMA Pediatrics. JF - JAMA Pediatrics. SN - 2168-6203. IS - 10. ER - ...
Several broad categories of patients are most vulnerable to RSV infection. These include:. premature infants and all infants less than 1 year of age, children 2 years old with cardiac disease or chronic lung disease (for example, asthma, cystic fibrosis, etc.), those of any age with a compromised immune system, and those 65 years of age or older. Is respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) contagious? Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is contagious. In the United States, its the most common cause of inflammation of the small airways in the lungs (bronchiolitis) and of pneumonia in children under 1 year of age. It also is significant cause of respiratory illnesses in older adults. Nearly all children in the U.S. will have been infected by RSV by 2 years of age. RSV usually causes a mild respiratory infection, but it can occasionally cause more serious infections that require hospitalization from breathing compromise with bronchiolitis or pneumonia. RSV was discovered in 1956 (isolated from a chimpanzee ...
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of hospitalization especially in young children with respiratory tract infections (RTI). Patterns of circulating RSV genotypes can provide a better understanding of the molecular epidemiology of RSV infection. We retrospectively analyzed the genetic diversity of RSV infection in hospitalized children with acute RTI admitted to University Hospital Heidelberg/Germany between October 2012 and April 2013. Nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPA) were routinely obtained in 240 children younger than 2 years of age who presented with clinical symptoms of upper or lower RTI. We analyzed NPAs via PCR and sequence analysis of the second variable region of the RSV G gene coding for the attachment glycoprotein. We obtained medical records reviewing routine clinical data. RSV was detected in 134/240 children. In RSV-positive patients the most common diagnosis was bronchitis/bronchiolitis (75.4%). The mean duration of hospitalization was longer in RSV-positive compared to
BACKGROUND: The importance of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in adults is not well known, because laboratory testing for RSV infection is not routine. Both RSV infection and influenza are seasonally related, and it is difficult to disentangle one from the other and to disentangle infection from the season and the cold. METHODS: Emergency hospitalizations for respiratory disease from April 1994 to March 2001 were analyzed in relation to surveillance data on RSV infection and influenza, using Poisson regression models adapted for time series and adjusted for season, outdoor temperature, and other covariates. Age-specific admission rates attributable to the viruses were also estimated. RESULTS: Most of the crude relationships of emergency admissions of patients with RSV infection were confounded by season and, to a lesser extent, by cold temperatures. After adjustment for all covariates, including influenza, a 10th-90th percentile increase in RSV counts (defined as the daily number of ...
The worldwide respiratory syncytial virus diagnostics market is poised to grow at a CAGR exceeding 10% over the forecast period (2016 to 2024). RSV Diagnostics Market stood at USD 625 million in 2015. High prevalence of neonatal infections & viral diseases and the need for early RSV detection mechanisms for infants are key drivers of this industry. Respiratory syncytial virus harms the respiratory tract, the immune system, the heart, and lungs; thus leading to serious illnesses. It mainly affects infants in the age group of 0 to 11 months.. However, there are instances of people above the age of 60 years being afflicted by this virus. This is essentially because of weak immunity. Some patients may even need hospitalization. Clinical symptoms of the RSV infection can seldom be distinguished from the symptoms of other respiratory disorders. Hence, there is a pressing need to develop precise & accurate diagnostic solutions for such a disease.. Browse Details of Report @ ...
The worldwide respiratory syncytial virus diagnostics market is poised to grow at a CAGR exceeding 10% over the forecast period (2016 to 2024). RSV Diagnostics Market stood at USD 625 million in 2015. High prevalence of neonatal infections & viral diseases and the need for early RSV detection mechanisms for infants are key drivers of this industry. Respiratory syncytial virus harms the respiratory tract, the immune system, the heart, and lungs; thus leading to serious illnesses. It mainly affects infants in the age group of 0 to 11 months.. However, there are instances of people above the age of 60 years being afflicted by this virus. This is essentially because of weak immunity. Some patients may even need hospitalization. Clinical symptoms of the RSV infection can seldom be distinguished from the symptoms of other respiratory disorders. Hence, there is a pressing need to develop precise & accurate diagnostic solutions for such a disease.. Browse Details of Report @ ...
The worldwide respiratory syncytial virus diagnostics market is poised to grow at a CAGR exceeding 10% over the forecast period (2016 to 2024). RSV Diagnostics Market stood at USD 625 million in 2015. High prevalence of neonatal infections & viral diseases and the need for early RSV detection mechanisms for infants are key drivers of this industry. Respiratory syncytial virus harms the respiratory tract, the immune system, the heart, and lungs; thus leading to serious illnesses. It mainly affects infants in the age group of 0 to 11 months.. However, there are instances of people above the age of 60 years being afflicted by this virus. This is essentially because of weak immunity. Some patients may even need hospitalization. Clinical symptoms of the RSV infection can seldom be distinguished from the symptoms of other respiratory disorders. Hence, there is a pressing need to develop precise & accurate diagnostic solutions for such a disease.. Browse Details of Report @ ...
The worldwide respiratory syncytial virus diagnostics market is poised to grow at a CAGR exceeding 10% over the forecast period (2016 to 2024). RSV Diagnostics Market stood at USD 625 million in 2015. High prevalence of neonatal infections & viral diseases and the need for early RSV detection mechanisms for infants are key drivers of this industry. Respiratory syncytial virus harms the respiratory tract, the immune system, the heart, and lungs; thus leading to serious illnesses. It mainly affects infants in the age group of 0 to 11 months.. However, there are instances of people above the age of 60 years being afflicted by this virus. This is essentially because of weak immunity. Some patients may even need hospitalization. Clinical symptoms of the RSV infection can seldom be distinguished from the symptoms of other respiratory disorders. Hence, there is a pressing need to develop precise & accurate diagnostic solutions for such a disease.. Browse Details of Report @ ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The enhancement or prevention of airway hyperresponsiveness during reinfection with respiratory syncytial virus is critically dependent on the age at first infection and IL-13 production. AU - Dakhama, Azzeddine. AU - Park, Jung Won. AU - Taube, Christian. AU - Joetham, Anthony. AU - Balhorn, Annette. AU - Miyahara, Nobuaki. AU - Takeda, Katsuyuki. AU - Gelfand, Erwin W.. PY - 2005/8/1. Y1 - 2005/8/1. N2 - Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in early life is suspected to play a role in the development of postbronchiolitis wheezing and asthma. Reinfection is common at all ages, but factors that determine the development of altered airway function after reinfection are not well understood. This study was conducted in a mouse model to define the role of age in determining the consequences on airway function after reinfection. Mice were infected shortly after birth or at weaning and were reinfected 5 wk later, followed by assessment of airway function, airway inflammation, ...
Rapid diagnosis of Respiratory Syncytial virus (RSV) infection is difficult in elderly persons due to the low quantities of virus shed. Therefore, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to detect viral RNA in respiratory secretions. A single-tube nested RT-PCR that used primers from a conserved F gene sequence was developed using a hanging droplet to physically separate outer and inner primer pairs during the first round of the PCR reaction. This was accomplished by placing the inner primers in a 5 microL droplet on the underside on the reaction tube cap and mixing after the first round of PCR. As few as 0.05 pfu of virus could be detected and gave positive results with RSV strains that represented the major groups and subgroups of RSV grown in tissue culture. The nested PCR was approximately 100-fold more sensitive than standard single primer PCR reactions and equivalent to standard two-tube nested PCR. Viral RNA was detected in nasopharyngeal samples from 12 of 15 culture
Clinical trial for Respiratory syncytial virus , A Study to Evaluate the Safety Reactogenicity and Immunogenicity of Adenovirus Serotype 26 Based Respiratory Syncytial Virus Pre-fusion (Ad26.RSV.Pre-F) Vaccine in RSV-Seronegative Toddlers 12 to 24 Months of Age
This study was designed to collect data on the prevalence of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in Italy in infants hospitalized for lower respiratory tract infections, and to evaluate which of the recognized risk factors might be associated with disease severity. Thirty-two centers through …
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important viral respiratory pathogen in children. Infection due to RSV represents a large public health burden; in Canada, it accounts for 5,800 hospitalizations annually. The peak incidence of RSV disease occurs between 2-6 months of age with half of all infants infected in the first year of life. Palivizumab has been approved for the prevention of serious lower respiratory tract disease caused by RSV in pediatric patients at high-risk of RSV disease. These children include those born premature, those with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), and those with hemodynamically significant congenital heart disease (CHD).. With the recent approval of palivizumab in Canada, access to this medication has increased. However, there are limited data on utilization, compliance, and health outcomes, particularly the frequency and severity of RSV infections. The primary objective of this study is to provide insight into the current management (utilization, ...
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the number one cause of infant hospitalizations in the United States. RSV infection is very common, with all children infected with this virus at least once by two years of age.
Author Summary Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of pediatric lower respiratory tract disease. RSV has two IFN-I antagonist proteins, NS1 and NS2. In this study, we infected primary human dendritic cells with recombinant RSV from which the NS1 and/or the NS2 genes were deleted, and evaluated effects on the proliferation of autologous T lymphocytes during co-culture in vitro. We found that NS1, but not NS2, has a suppressive effect on two cell populations, namely CD103+ CD8+ T cells and Th17 cells, which are known to protect against viral respiratory infections, and a stimulatory effect on Th2 cells, which are involved in enhanced disease caused by RSV. We also provide evidence that these effects are not due to suppressed IFN-I production or signaling in dendritic cells or T cells, and that they likely result from reduced maturation of dendritic cells caused by the NS1 protein.
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection remains an important medical problem for infants and the elderly. Infection requires the fusion of the vira membrane...
The respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) fusion glycoprotein (F) can interact with the small intracellular GTPase RhoA, and peptides derived from RhoA inhibit RSV replication. These observations initially suggested that RhoA-derived peptides might inhibit RSV replication by disrupting an in vivo interaction between RSV F and RhoA. However, recent data indicate that the antiviral activity of RhoA-derived peptides is not due to competitive inhibition of an hypothesized F-RhoA interaction, but is rather a function of the peptides intrinsic biophysical properties. We summarize here what is known about the mechanism of RSV inhibition by these peptides and give our opinion regarding the potential implications of this work with regards to RSV biology, and to the development of antiviral agents targeting RSV and other enveloped viruses.. ...
INTRODUCTION Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of hospitalization for bronchiolitis and pneumonia (infections of the lower respiratory
Respiratory syncytial virus is the most common cause of bronchiolitis; nearly every child has been infected by 2 years of age. Seasonal outbreaks occur worldwide during winter months. Characterised by cough, wheeze, respiratory distress, and hypoxia. Most episodes are mild and self-limiting. Trea...
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), a member of the paramyxovirus family, is the leading cause of infant hospitalization from infectious diseases in the United S...
GHENT, Belgium, 11 January 2017 - Ablynx [Euronext Brussels: ABLX; OTC: ABYLY] today announced that it has dosed the first patient in the Phase IIb RESPIRE dose-ranging efficacy study of ALX-0171, its novel inhaled drug candidate to treat RSV infections. Topline results from this Phase IIb study of inhaled ALX-0171 are expected in the second half of 2018.. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of lower respiratory tract infections and the leading viral cause of severe lower respiratory tract disease in infants and young children worldwide. It is the primary cause of infant hospitalisation and virus associated deaths in infants, with estimated global annual infection and hospitalisation rates of 34 million and 3-4 million respectively[2]. Current treatment of RSV infections is primarily focused on symptomatic relief, hence the need for an effective and specific anti-RSV therapeutic. This Phase IIb study is a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, international, ...
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common respiratory pathogen that can cause severe pneumonia. In vivo studies of RSV can be difficult due to variation in viral infection and disease severity in some animal models. Factors that may contribute to the variation are decreases in viral titer due to preparation and storage and method of virus administration. Nebulization is one method of RSV administration that provides even distribution of virus to all lung lobes; however, the exact quantity of the virus killed by nebulization is not defined. To test the hypothesis that sucrose enhances RSV stability and infectivity, a series of in vitro experiments were conducted with RSV strain Memphis 37 stored at varying concentrations (0%, 3%, 5%, 8%, 10%, 15%, and 20%) of sucrose as a possible cryo- and nebulization protectant. The optimal in vitro concentration was then assessed in vivo in a lamb model. Prior to titering the virus on HEp-2 cells, the various virus solutions were subjected to one freeze-thaw
Background The Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) A genotype ON1, which was first detected in Ontario (Canada) in 2010/11, appeared in Germany in 2011/12. Preliminary observations suggested a higher clinical severity in children infected with this new genotype. We investigated spread and disease severity of RSV-A ON1 in pediatric in- and outpatient settings. Methods During 2010/11 to 2016/17, clinical characteristics and respiratory samples from children with acute respiratory tract infections (RTI) were obtained from ongoing surveillance studies in 33 pediatric practices (PP), one pediatric hospital ward (PW) and 23 pediatric intensive care units (PICU) in Germany. RSV was detected in the respiratory samples by PCR; genotypes were identified by sequencing. Within each setting, clinical severity markers were compared between RSV-A ON1 and RSV-A non-ON1 genotypes. Results A total of 603 children with RSV-RTI were included (132 children in PP, 288 in PW, and 183 in PICU). Of these children, 341
Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is a contagious viral disease that is the most common cause of bronchiolitis (inflammation of the small airways in the lung) and pneumonia in children under one year of age in the United States. Almost all children will have had an RSV infection by their second birthday. Of the infants and children exposed to RSV for the first time, 25 to 40 percent of them have signs or symptoms of bronchiolitis or pneumonia. However, only 0.5 to 2 percent will actually require hospitalization. Most children that do require hospitalization are under six months of age.. Premature infants, children under two years of age who have congenital heart or chronic lung disease, or children with a weakened immune system are at highest risk for developing severe disease. People of any age can develop an infection from RSV. However, when infections occur later in life, it is less severe. Adults at high risk for developing severe RSV disease include the elderly, adults with chronic heart or ...
Live Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Vaccine Candidate Containing Stabilized Temperature-Sensitivity Mutations Is Highly Attenuated in RSV-Seronegative Infants and Children.
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most frequent cause of bronchiolitis in infants and children worldwide. Many animal models are used to study RSV, but most studies investigate disease in adult animals which does not address the unique physiology and immunology that makes infants more susceptible. The perinatal (preterm and term) lamb is a useful model of infant RSV disease as lambs have similar pulmonary structure including airway branching, Clara and type II cells, submucosal glands and Duox/lactoperoxidase (LPO) oxidative system, and prenatal alveologenesis. Lambs can be born preterm (90% gestation) and survive for experimentation although both preterm and term lambs are susceptible to ovine, bovine and human strains of RSV and develop clinical symptoms including fever, tachypnea, and malaise as well as mild to moderate gross and histologic lesions including bronchiolitis with epithelial injury, neutrophil infiltration and syncytial cell formation. RSV disease in preterm lambs is more severe
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common virus that can have varying effects ranging from mild cold-like symptoms to mortality depending on the age and immune status of the individual. We combined mathematical modeling using ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with measurement of RSV infection kinetics in primary well differentiated human airway epithelial (HAE) cultures in vitro and in immunocompetent and immunosuppressed cotton rats to glean mechanistic details that underlie RSV infection kinetics in the lung. Quantitative analysis of viral titer kinetics in our mathematical model showed that the elimination of infected cells by the adaptive immune response generates unique RSV titer kinetic features including a faster time scale of viral titer clearance than viral production, and a monotonic decrease in the peak RSV titer with decreasing inoculum dose. Parameter estimation in the ODE model using a non-linear mixed effects approach revealed a very low rate (average single cell lifetime ...
The respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a human pathogen that causes a lower respiratory infection in infants and healthy adults. The first incidence of RSV was recorded in the 1960s. The greatest success against viruses has always been by increasing immunity through vaccination like in smallpox, measles, influenza, polio. Though RSV spread its roots almost six decades ago, the creation of a vaccine against RSV is still an ongoing challenge. The structural proteins of RSV, mainly F and G, play an essential role in pathogenicity. Structural instability of the F protein is responsible for making the vaccine discovery an uncertain outcome. This review focuses on the details of the vaccine strategies that have been explored so far. It includes an emphasis on the initial formalin-inactivated vaccine, structure-based vaccine, monoclonal antibodies like Palivizumab with a concise portrayal of nanoparticle, chimeric vaccines, and maternal derived immunization. The structure-based vaccine is one of the most
Nasal swabs offer a sensitive sampling method for the detection of respiratory viruses in children. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an exception and it is detected more often in nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPA) than in nasal swabs when it is searched for using immunoassays or viral culture.1 2 Therefore, more laborious and painful NPA have been the first-choice specimen for high-yield recovery of RSV by conventional methods. We wanted to examine whether the use of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) increases the usefulness of nasal swabs by comparing the performance of nasal swab-RT-PCR with NPA-immunoassays in the detection of RSV infections in children.. We studied 112 children ...
(2004) Arnold et al. Virology. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is worldwide the single most important respiratory pathogen in infancy and early childhood. The G glycoprotein of RSV, named attachment protein, is produced by RSV-infected lung epithelial cells in both a membrane-anchored (mG prote...
Respiratory Syncytial Virus Clinical Information: RSV infection can cause a variety of respiratory illnesses. Infants with a lower respiratory tract infection typically have a runny nose and a decrease in appetite before any other symptoms appear...
Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Fusion Protein antibody [681] for ELISA, ICC/IF. Anti-Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Fusion Protein mAb (GTX39259) is tested in Respiratory Syncytial Virus samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Human RSV IgA ELISA kit is intended for determining in-vitro quantitative levels of human IgA antibodies against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in serum or
Respiratory syncytial virus is highly contagious. It spreads through droplets containing the virus when someone coughs or sneezes. It also can live on surfaces (like counters or doorknobs) and on hands and clothing. So people can get it if they touch something thats contaminated.. RSV can spread quickly through schools and childcare centers. Babies often get it when older kids carry the virus home from school and pass it to them. Almost all kids have had RSV at least once by the time theyre 2 years old.. RSV infections often happen in epidemics that last from late fall through early spring. Respiratory illness caused by RSV - such as bronchiolitis or pneumonia - usually lasts about a week, but some cases may last several weeks.. ...
... human respiratory syncytial virus •Bos primigenius: bovine respiratory syncytial virus •Rodentia: murine pneumonia virus Mild ... Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is the most known orthopneumovirus because of its direct correlation and importance in ... ISBN 978-0-88167-552-8. Collins, Peter L. (1991). "The Molecular Biology of Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) of the ... In humans, the orthopneumovirus that specifically impacts infants and small children is known as human respiratory syncytial ...
"RSV (Respiratory syncytial virus) Awareness & Prevention - Speaker Biographies". PreemieCare.org. Retrieved 31 March 2017. " ... Twin Research and Human Genetics. 9 (4): 609-614. doi:10.1375/183242706778025017. PMID 16899172. Matroo, Carol (9 November 2006 ...
HS has also been shown to serve as cellular receptor for a number of viruses, including the respiratory syncytial virus. A ... Mutations at the EXT1-3 gene loci in humans lead to an inability of cells to produce HS and to the development of the disease ... "Glycosaminoglycan sulfation requirements for respiratory syncytial virus infection". Journal of Virology. 74 (22): 10508-13. ... Gao W, Kim H, Feng M, Phung Y, Xavier CP, Rubin JS, Ho M (August 2014). "Inactivation of Wnt signaling by a human antibody that ...
2009 Human Metapneumovirus and Respiratory Syncytial Virus Disease in Children, Yemen - Sept. 2006 Respiratory Syncytial Virus ... Najla Al-Sonboli et al., "Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Human Metapneumovirus in Children with Acute Respiratory Infections ... Najla Al-Sonboli et al., "Human Metapneumovirus and Respiratory Syncytial Virus Disease in Children, Yemen - Volume 12, Number ... Tripp, Ralph A. (2010-03-15), "Pneumovirus and Metapneumovirus: Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Human Metapneumovirus", Topley ...
"Structural characterization of the human respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein core". Proceedings of the National Academy ...
"Identification of nucleolin as a cellular receptor for human respiratory syncytial virus". Nature Medicine. 17 (9): 1132-5. doi ... Nucleolin at the cell surface is the receptor for the Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) fusion protein. Interference with the ... Shakeri A, Mastrangelo P, Griffin JK, Moraes TJ, Hegele RG (Nov 2014). "Respiratory syncytial virus receptor expression in the ... Bilawchuk LM, Griffiths CD, Jensen LD, Elawar F, Marchant DJ (Aug 2017). "The Susceptibilities of Respiratory Syncytial Virus ...
He was nearly killed by human respiratory syncytial virus at three months old. He was adopted by his stepfather, Wayne, at 13 ...
June 2010). "Interleukin-9 polymorphism in infants with respiratory syncytial virus infection: an opposite effect in boys and ... The human gene is located on chromosome 12 (12q15), between the genes encoding IL-22 and IFNγ, and composed of five exons ... April 2009). "Genetic susceptibility to respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis in preterm children is associated with airway ... September 2007). "Genetic susceptibility to respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis is predominantly associated with innate ...
Respiratory tract infections are associated with member viruses such as human respiratory syncytial virus. There are five ... Viruses in this family are often associated with respiratory infections, and are transmitted through respiratory secretions. N ... proteins allow identification of amino acids essential for the function of the respiratory syncytial virus N protein". Journal ... "Overexpression of the M2-2 Protein of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Inhibits Viral Replication". Journal of Virology. 79 (22): ...
"4-Methoxycinnamaldehyde inhibited human respiratory syncytial virus in a human larynx carcinoma cell line". Phytomedicine. 16 ( ...
"Resistance to Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Infection Induced by Immunization of Cotton Rats with a Recombinant ... Building on discoveries that Prince made as a doctoral student, VSI pioneered the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus ( ... Gregory A. Prince; Amy Mathews; Spencer J. Curtis; David D. Porter (2000). "Treatment of Respiratory Syncytial Virus ... Marina S. Boukhvalova; Gregory A. Prince; Jorge C. G. Blanco (2007). "Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infects and Abortively ...
"A Cross-Study Biomarker Signature of Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells Infected with Respiratory Syncytial Virus". Advances in ... FAM208b has been observed to be downregulated in bronchial epithelial cells infected by respiratory syncytial virus and has ... Protein FAM208B (family with sequence similarity 208 member b) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FAM208B gene. The ... While the exact role of the protein is yet to be established, the significant presence of the protein within humans and ...
She was diagnosed with human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), a condition she no longer has. After earning his master's ... She attributed the growing resentment towards Asian Americans to the use of the slang term Chinese virus, which she stated was ... Chow, Cary (March 30, 2020). "Why it is NOT the 'Chinese virus'". The Undefeated. Retrieved April 10, 2020. CS1 maint: ... the Chinese virus'". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 10, 2020. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Natalie Chou shows ...
... and infections such as HIV/AIDS and respiratory syncytial virus, as well as in cancer. When assayed in the human, the observed ... "Neural mechanisms of respiratory syncytial virus-induced inflammation and prevention of respiratory syncytial virus sequelae". ... Respiratory syncytial and related viruses appear to upregulate SP receptors, and rat studies suggest that NK1RAs may be useful ... One research team found a correlation in male fruit flies and discussed it as a possibility in other species, even humans. ...
Cases of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in India mainly occur in North India in the winter. This virus causes lower ... Mehta, B; Jindal, H; Bhatt, B; Kumar, V; Singh Choudhary, S (2014). "Vaccination for safe travel to India". Human Vaccines & ... Broor, S; Parveen, S; Maheshwari, M (2018). "Respiratory syncytial virus infections in India: Epidemiology and need for vaccine ... Verma, R; Khanna, P; Chawla, S (2015). "Recommended vaccines for international travelers to India". Human Vaccines & ...
"Ribavirin for respiratory syncytial virus infection of the lower respiratory tract in infants and young children". The Cochrane ... of humans potentiates mutagenesis in hepatitis C virus. Ribavirin's amide group can make the native nucleoside drug resemble ... The aerosol form has been used in the past to treat respiratory syncytial virus-related diseases in children, although the ... ERROR: the cited paper refers only to an RNA virus and so does not support this section's assertion. A reference to a DNA virus ...
These viral respiratory infections are mostly caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human rhinovirus (HRV). Although ... Rhinoviruses are known to be the most important common cold viruses. They are ssRNA positive-strand viruses with no DNA stage, ... At 37 °C virus replication rate falls to 10% to 50% of optimum. This may be the major reason why rhinoviruses can replicate ... In contrast, VP4 is located inside the virus and its function is to anchor the RNA core to the viral capsid. While sharing ...
Viral causes include human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human metapneumovirus, adenovirus, human parainfluenza viruses, ... human respiratory syncytial virus, human metapneumovirus and adenovirus. Less common viruses which may cause serious illness ... CAP-causing viruses may also be transferred from mother to child; herpes simplex virus, the most common, is life-threatening, ... Typically, a virus enters the lungs through the inhalation of water droplets and invades the cells lining the airways and the ...
Herpes simplex virus, HSV • Immunodeficient virus, HIV • Respiratory Syncytial virus, RSV • Echovirus 11 • Influenza virus ... Hypothiocyanite occurs naturally in the antimicrobial immune system of the human respiratory tract in a redox reaction ... Mikola H, Waris M, Tenovuo J. Inhibition of herpes simplex virus type 1, respiratory syncytial virus and echovirus type 11 by ... It has been researched extensively for its capabilities as an alternative antibiotic as it is harmless to human body cells ...
In addition, CV-N is active against rhinoviruses, human parainfluenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, and enteric viruses. ... including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The virucidal activity of CV-N is mediated through specific high-affinity ... The virucidal activity of CV-N against influenza virus is directed towards viral haemagglutinin. CV-N has a complex fold ... this compound is also active against herpes viruses.[citation needed] "Development of cyanovirin has been exceedingly slow- ...
In addition, CV-N is active against rhinoviruses, human parainfluenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, and enteric viruses. ... including human immunodeficiency virus (AIDS). The virucidal activity of CV-N is mediated through specific high-affinity ... The virucidal activity of CV-N against influenza virus is directed towards viral haemagglutinin. CV-N has a complex fold ... is an 11-kDa protein from the cyanobacterium Nostoc ellipsosporum that displays virucidal activity against several viruses, ...
... human respiratory syncytial virus (orthopneumovirus), enteroviruses other than rhinoviruses, human parainfluenza viruses, and ... The respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), on the other hand, is contracted by direct contact and airborne droplets. It then ... Other commonly implicated viruses include human coronaviruses (≈ 15%), influenza viruses (10-15%), adenoviruses (5%), ... Human parainfluenza virus typically results in inflammation of the nose, throat, and bronchi. In young children when it affects ...
... discoverer of human respiratory syncytial virus. Chanock completed undergraduate studies at Princeton University in 1978, and ... Human Mutation. 36 (7): 684-688. doi:10.1002/humu.22799. ISSN 1059-7794. PMC 4750473. PMID 25907361.. ... has received numerous awards for his work in the discovery and characterization of cancer susceptibility regions in the human ...
"Respiratory syncytial virus infection alters surfactant protein A expression in human pulmonary epithelial cells by reducing ... implications for the chain composition of natural human SP-A". American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology. 4 (1 ... "Expression and localization of lung surfactant protein A in human tissues". American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular ... Lin Z, deMello D, Phelps DS, Koltun WA, Page M, Floros J (2002). "Both human SP-A1 and Sp-A2 genes are expressed in small and ...
2010). "Interleukin-9 polymorphism in infants with respiratory syncytial virus infection: an opposite effect in boys and girls ... 2007). "hORFeome v3.1: a resource of human open reading frames representing over 10,000 human genes". Genomics. 89 (3): 307-15 ... 2009). "Genetic susceptibility to respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis in preterm children is associated with airway ... 2007). "Genetic susceptibility to respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis is predominantly associated with innate immune ...
"Respiratory syncytial virus infection alters surfactant protein A expression in human pulmonary epithelial cells by reducing ... "Developmental expression of SP-A and SP-A mRNA in the proximal and distal respiratory epithelium in the human fetus and newborn ... implications for the chain composition of natural human SP-A". American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology. 4 (1 ... "Expression and localization of lung surfactant protein A in human tissues". American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular ...
... (ALS-8176) is an antiviral drug which was developed as a treatment for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human ... a first-in-class RSV polymerase inhibitor for treatment of human respiratory syncytial virus infection". Journal of Medicinal ... "Respiratory syncytial virus-A dynamics and the effects of lumicitabine, a nucleoside viral replication inhibitor, in ... Brendish NJ, Clark TW (December 2017). "Antiviral treatment of severe non-influenza respiratory virus infection". Current ...
... influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV), adenovirus and measles virus. The other ... estimate that >45,000 miRNA target sites within human mRNA 3'UTRs are conserved above background levels, and >60% of human ... the first applications to reach clinical trials were in the treatment of macular degeneration and respiratory syncytial virus. ... Other functions for RNAi in mammalian viruses also exist, such as miRNAs expressed by the herpes virus that may act as ...
Some of the diseases tested on the cotton rat are respiratory syncytial virus, and pulmonary tuberculosis, and HIV type-1. In ... finding an animal with similar antibody response to the virus as humans can prove difficult. A study conducted in 1998 found ... "Effectiveness of topically administered neutralizing antibodies in experimental immunotherapy of respiratory syncytial virus ... The tawny-bellied cotton rat is used as a model organism to develop and test human pathogen treatments. It is affected by many ...
... and infections such as HIV/AIDS and respiratory syncytial virus,[54] as well as in cancer.[55][56] When assayed in the human, ... "Neural mechanisms of respiratory syncytial virus-induced inflammation and prevention of respiratory syncytial virus sequelae". ... Respiratory syncytial and related viruses appear to upregulate SP receptors, and rat studies suggest that NK1RAs may be useful ... "American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 163 (3 Pt 2): S18-21. doi:10.1164/ajrccm.163.supplement_1.2011113. ...
... anthrax and respiratory syncytial virus.[41] Korean scientists are looking at using the tomato to express a vaccine against ... In 1994, the Flavr Savr became the first commercially grown genetically engineered food to be granted a license for human ... "Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) S protein production in plants: development of recombinant vaccine". Proceedings of ... "Transgenic tomatoes expressing human beta-amyloid for use as a vaccine against Alzheimer's disease". Biotechnology letters. 30 ...
Other cases may be caused by human parainfluenza viruses, human respiratory syncytial virus, adenoviruses, Enteroviruses, and ... In contrast, the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is contacted by both direct contact and airborne droplets. It then ... Viruses[change , change source]. Coronaviruses are a group of viruses known for causing the common cold. They have a halo, or ... Human parainfluenza virus typically results in inflammation of the nose, throat, and airways.[29] In young children, when it ...
Hall CB (June 2001). "Respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza virus". N. Engl. J. Med. 344 (25): 1917-28. doi:10.1056/ ... These viruses are only distantly related to the human parainfluenza viruses, which are RNA viruses belonging to the ... "Human and avian influenza viruses target different cells in the lower respiratory tract of humans and other mammals". The ... The virus has the potential to infect humans, although no such cases have been observed yet.[7] This virus has not been found ...
A respiratory syncytial virus vaccine (RSV vaccine) is a vaccine which prevents infection by respiratory syncytial virus. No ... Mejias, Asuncion; Rodriguez-Fernandez, Rosa; Peeples, Mark E.; Ramilo, Octavio (October 2019). "Respiratory Syncytial Virus ... "Respiratory syncytial virus vaccines". Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 11 (3): 430-9. doi:10.1128/CMR.11.3.430. PMC 88889. PMID ... "The respiratory syncytial virus vaccine landscape: lessons from the graveyard and promising candidates" (PDF). The Lancet ...
B97.4) Respiratory syncytial virus as the cause of diseases classified to other chapters ... B20-B24) Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease[संपादित करें]. *(B20.) Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) disease Resulting ... B24.) Unspecified Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Disease. (B25-B34) Other viral diseases[संपादित करें]. *(B25.) ... B21.) Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) disease Resulting in malignant neoplasms *(B21.0) HIV disease resulting in Kaposi's ...
... and decreased survival in experimental models of respiratory syncytial virus disease, Lyme disease, Toxoplasma gondii disease, ... Aberrant expression of LOX5 is seen in various types of human cancer tumors in vivo as well as in various types of human cancer ... "Human PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.. .mw-parser-output ... Human geneticsEdit. ALOX5 contributes to the formation of PUFA metabolites that may promote (e.g. the leukotrienes, 5-oxo-ETE) ...
Inhibition of herpes simplex virus type 1, respiratory syncytial virus and echovirus type 11 by peroxidase-generated ... Lactoperoxidase and human airway host defense. . In: Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol.. . 29, Nr. 2, August 2003, S. 206-12. doi: ... Hypothiocyanite ion: detection of the antimicrobial agent in human saliva. . In: J Dent Res. . 59, Nr. 9, September 1980, S. ... Molecular cloning of cDNAs encoding bovine and human lactoperoxidase. . In: DNA Cell Biol.. . 9, Nr. 7, September 1990, S. 499- ...
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV),[32] human rhinovirus 14[33] and HCV[34] ... Kumar B, Asha K, Khanna M, Ronsard L, Meseko CA, Sanicas M (April 2018). "The emerging influenza virus threat: status and new ... Roy S, Gupta N, Subramanian N, Mondal T, Banerjea AC, Das S (July 2008). "Sequence-specific cleavage of hepatitis C virus RNA ... Kumar B, Rajput R, Pati DR, Khanna M (September 2015). "Potent Intracellular Knock-Down of Influenza A Virus M2 Gene Transcript ...
... influenza virus,[147][148][149][150] respiratory syncytial virus (RSV),[150] SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV),[150] adenovirus[150] ... "Human Molecular Genetics. 20 (R1): R21-7. doi:10.1093/hmg/ddr137. PMC 3095054. PMID 21459775.. ... Respiratory syncytial virus infections II Completed Alnylam Pharmaceuticals NCT00658086 PRO-040201 ApoB LNP ... the first applications to reach clinical trials were in the treatment of macular degeneration and respiratory syncytial virus.[ ...
A few species, the Caribbean fire sponge Tedania ignis, cause a severe rash in humans who handle them.[21] Turtles and some ... Leys, S. P. (2003). "The significance of syncytial tissues for the position of the Hexactinellida in the Metazoa". Integrative ... Sponges do not have distinct circulatory, respiratory, digestive, and excretory systems - instead the water flow system ... due to the presence in sponges themselves or their microbial symbionts of chemicals that may be used to control viruses, ...
Green M, Loewenstein PM (December 1988). "Autonomous functional domains of chemically synthesized human immunodeficiency virus ... Respiratory syncytial virus G protein. Hepatitis C. VSPs:. *viral envelope *E1. *E2 ... "Cellular uptake of the tat protein from human immunodeficiency virus". Cell. 55 (6): 1189-93. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(88)90263-2 ... "Structural and functional characterization of human immunodeficiency virus Tat protein". Journal of Virology. 63 (1): 1-8. doi: ...
Respiratory syncytial virus vaccine for humans[17]. *Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) vaccine[18] ... "A Novel Inactivated Intranasal Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccine Promotes Viral Clearance without Th2 Associated Vaccine- ... Human vaccines[edit]. Viral diseases[edit]. Virus. Diseases or conditions. Vaccine(s). Brands ... Hepatitis E virus. Hepatitis E. Hepatitis E vaccine. Hecolin Human papillomavirus. Cervical cancer, Genital warts, anogenital ...
The progression of the human immunodeficiency virus infection into AIDS is due primarily to the depletion of CD4+ T-helper ... "Involvement of apoptosis in syncytial cell death induced by canine distemper virus". Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and ... Pathological inactivation of apoptosis in cancer cells is correlated with frequent respiratory metabolic shifts toward ... "Apoptosis induced by Oropouche virus infection in HeLa cells is dependent on virus protein expression". Virus Research. 149 (1 ...
LeVine AM, Gwozdz J, Stark J (1998). "Surfactant protein-A enhances respiratory syncytial virus clearance in vivo". J Clin ... Hartshorn KL, Sastry K, White MR, (1993). "Human Mannose-binding Protein Functions as an Opsonin for Influenza A Viruses". J. ... Již dříve bylo prokázáno, že SP-D umožňuje eliminovat anti-influenza A virus (velmi podobný mechanismus jako při eliminaci ... Malhotra R, Thiel S, Reid KBM, Sim RB (1990). "Human Leukocyte Clq Receptor Binds Other Soluble Proteins with Collagen Domains ...
Associated viral infections include respiratory syncytial virus,[10] canine distemper virus,[11][12] and the measles virus.[13] ... Tamparo, Carol; Lewis, Marcia (2011). Diseases of the Human Body. Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis Company. p. 221. ISBN ... "Immunohistological demonstration of respiratory syncytial virus antigens in Paget disease of bone". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. ... However, no infectious virus has yet been isolated as a causative agent, and other evidence suggests an intrinsic ...
... human respiratory syncytial virus, murine leukemia viruses and Mayaro virus. The most studied mechanism of antiviral activity ... on a wide range of human and animal viruses based on DNA and RNA genomes, including the herpes simplex virus 1 and 2, ... lactoferrin shows potent activity against both human immunodeficiency virus and human cytomegalovirus replication in vitro". J ... Human colostrum ("first milk") has the highest concentration, followed by human milk, then cow milk (150 mg/L). Lactoferrin is ...
"Drosophila as a genetic model for studying pathogenic human viruses". Virology. 423 (1): 1-5. doi:10.1016/j.virol.2011.11.016. ... The limits of respiratory function: external and internal constraints on insect gas exchange. 106 (Pt 3): 189-198. doi:10.1016/ ... After fertilization of the oocyte, the early embryo (or syncytial embryo) undergoes rapid DNA replication and 13 nuclear ... Similarity to humans[edit]. A March 2000 study by National Human Genome Research Institute comparing the fruit fly and human ...
... influenza A virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenza virus, and human metapneumovirus (hMPV). The Center for ... Further studies confirmed that the virus is not an emerging virus, but rather one that continually circulates the human ... The virus is able to survive for up to seven days in respiratory secretions and remains infective at room temperature Once the ... The virus is found primarily in young children, the elderly, and immunocompromised patients with acute respiratory illness. It ...
... bovine virus diarrhoea (BVD Type 1 and BVD Type 2), parainfluenza Type 3 (PI3), and bovine respiratory syncytial (BRSV) viruses ... Novartis to expand its human vaccines presence in China Archived 13 November 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ... In January 2009, the United States Department of Health and Human Services awarded Novartis a $486 million contract for ... "US Department of Health and Human Services awards Novartis USD 486 million contract to build manufacturing facility for ...
Associated viral infections include respiratory syncytial virus, canine distemper virus, and the measles virus. However, recent ... Conducted by the agency's Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP), the review encompassed available data from the ... Mills BG, Singer FR, Weiner LP, Holst PA (February 1981). "Immunohistological demonstration of respiratory syncytial virus ... However, no infectious virus has yet been isolated as a causative agent, and other evidence suggests an intrinsic ...
"Respiratory Syncytial Virus-Induced RANTES Production from Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells Is Dependent on Nuclear Factor-κB ... A549 cells are adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cells, and constitute a cell line that was first developed in ... "A549 (Human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line) Whole Cell Lysate (ab7910)". Retrieved 3 January 2012.. ... "A549 Cell Line: Human alveolar adenocarcinoma cell line -General Information". Retrieved 3 January 2012.. .mw-parser-output ...
The progression of the human immunodeficiency virus infection into AIDS is due primarily to the depletion of CD4+ T-helper ... "Involvement of apoptosis in syncytial cell death induced by canine distemper virus". Comp. Immunol. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 27 ... Pathological inactivation of apoptosis in cancer cells is correlated with frequent respiratory metabolic shifts toward ... April 2010). "Apoptosis induced by Oropouche virus infection in HeLa cells is dependent on virus protein expression". Virus Res ...
"Respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza virus". N. Engl. J. Med. 344 (25): 1917-28. doi:10.1056/NEJM200106213442507. PMID ... "Human and avian influenza viruses target different cells in the lower respiratory tract of humans and other mammals". Am. J. ... Virus influenza C. Virus-virus tersebut memiliki kekerabatan yang jauh dengan virus parainfluenza manusia, yang merupakan virus ... Jenis-jenis virusSunting. Dalam klasifikasi virus, virus influenza termasuk virus RNA yang merupakan tiga dari lima genera ...
Respiratory syncytial virus infection Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) Rhinosporidiosis Rhinosporidium seeberi Rhinovirus ... Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection One of the Human papillomaviruses Human parainfluenza virus infection Human parainfluenza ... Respiratory system/. acute viral nasopharyngitis/. viral pneumonia. DNA virus. *Epstein-Barr virus *EBV infection/Infectious ... DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ...
Diseases of the bronchioles include asthma, bronchiolitis obliterans, respiratory syncytial virus infections, and influenza. ... Saladin, K (2011). Human anatomy (3rd ed.). McGraw-Hill. pp. 640-641. ISBN 9780071222075. .. .mw-parser-output cite.citation{ ... Respiratory bronchioles[edit]. The respiratory bronchioles are the narrowest airways of the lungs, 0.5 mm across.[2] The ... Club cells, a stem cell of the respiratory system, produce enzymes that detoxify substances dissolved in the respiratory fluid ...
Epstein-Barr virus. *Hepatitis C. *Herpes simplex. *HIV. *Respiratory syncytial virus. *Zika ... They lay it down as a principle, that the immediate cause of the smallpox exists in the mortal part of every human and animal ... Two forms of the disease of smallpox were recognised, now known to be due to two strains of the Variola virus. Those ... The smaller, localised infection is adequate to stimulate the immune system to produce specific immunity to the virus, while ...
... respiratory syncytial virus and herpes simplex virus-1, as well as gastrointestinal and lower respiratory tract infections and ... Rockville, Maryland: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.. *^ a b c d "Oral Health During Pregnancy and Childhood: ... In countries where HIV/AIDS rates are high, such as South Africa and Kenya, the virus is a leading cause of maternal mortality ... Although HIV/AIDS can be transmitted to offspring at different times, the most common time that mothers pass on the virus is ...
... and decreased survival in experimental models of respiratory syncytial virus disease, Lyme disease, Toxoplasma gondii disease, ... Aberrant expression of LOX5 is seen in various types of human cancer tumors in vivo as well as in various types of human cancer ... Human genetics[edit]. ALOX5 contributes to the formation of PUFA metabolites that may promote (e.g. the leukotrienes, 5-oxo-ETE ... Human ALOX5 is a soluble, monomeric protein consisting of 673 amino acids with a molecular weight of ~78 kDa. Structurally, ...
... the Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth and several collaborators developed a new antiviral strategy to fight human ... Scientists isolate new antibodies to fight human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Published Tuesday 14 February 2017 ... "Scientists isolate new antibodies to fight human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 14 ... 2017, February 14). "Scientists isolate new antibodies to fight human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)." Medical News Today. ...
... ranging from protocols for virus growth, isolation, quantification and generation of recombinant RSV virus to procedures for ... Development of Human Monoclonal Antibodies Against Respiratory Syncytial Virus Using a High Efficiency Human Hybridoma ... Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus. Book Subtitle. Methods and Protocols. Editors. * Ralph A. Tripp ... Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus. Methods and Protocols. Editors: Tripp, Ralph A., Jorquera, Patricia A. (Eds.) ...
Human metapneumovirus and severity of respiratory syncytial virus disease.. Lazar I1, Weibel C, Dziura J, Ferguson D, Landry ML ... We screened 23 children with severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) disease and 23 children with mild RSV disease for human ... Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/physiopathology*. *Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/pathogenicity*. *Severity of ... Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/complications. * ... Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections - MedlinePlus Health ...
Human respiratory syncytial virus Description and significance. Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus was first isolated in 1956 ... Human respiratory Syncytial Virus lacks an approved vaccine or an antiviral therapy. Studies with RSV are limited due to the ... Efficacy of Recombinant Human Deoxyribonuclease I in the Hospital Management of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Bronchiolitis. ... Human Metapneumovirus and severity of respiratory Syncytial virus disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 10: 1318-1320. ...
p53-responsive TLR8 SNP enhances human innate immune response to respiratory syncytial virus. ... p53-responsive TLR8 SNP enhances human innate immune response to respiratory syncytial virus. ... including respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). We previously reported that TLR8 expression was increased directly by the tumor ... Using human primary lymphocytes, p53 induction by chemotherapeutic agents such as ionizing radiation caused SNP-dependent ...
Articles on viral structure, function, and genetics will be considered, as well as articles focusing on virus-host interactions ... and clinical studies on viruses and viral diseases. ... The ΔF virus utilizes the baculovirus GP64 protein for viral ... Requirements for Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Glycoproteins in Assembly and Egress from Infected Cells. Melissa Batonick ... All cell types tested were infected with the ΔSH virus. HEp2 cells were only minimally infected by the ΔF virus, while A549 ...
Articles on viral structure, function, and genetics will be considered, as well as articles focusing on virus-host interactions ... and clinical studies on viruses and viral diseases. ... Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is an enveloped RNA ... Requirements for Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Glycoproteins in Assembly and Egress from Infected Cells. Melissa Batonick ... These engineered viruses allowed us to study the roles of the glycoproteins in assembly and budding in the context of ...
Gene context of Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human. *The NS1 protein of human respiratory syncytial virus is a potent inhibitor ... Biological context of Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human. *The M2 mRNA of human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) contains two ... Chemical compound and disease context of Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human. *Biological context of Respiratory Syncytial Virus ... High impact information on Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human. *Expression of the ORF-2 protein of the human respiratory ...
Respiratory syncytial virus immune globulin, human (RSV) (By injection). Introduction. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Immune ... Globulin, Human (RES-pi-ra-tor-ee sin-SISH-al VYE-rus i-MUNE GLOB-ue-lin, HUE-man). Prevents serious lung infections caused by ... Respiratory syncytial virus immune globulin, human (RSV) (By injection). ...
... for Abcams Human Anti-Respiratory syncytial virus IgG ELISA Kit (RSV). Our in-house scientific support team are here to help ... Question (66120) , Human Anti-Respiratory syncytial virus IgG ELISA Kit (RSV) (ab108765). Go to datasheet (ab108765) ... Thank you for contacting us and your interest in the Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) IgG Human ELISA Kit (ab108765). I am ... Phone call requesting information on the epitope recognised by the Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) IgG Human ELISA Kit ( ...
... J Pediatr (Rio J). 2011;87(3 ... OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence and seasonality of human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) in children aged 0 to 6 years ... Circulation patterns of genetically distinct group A and B strains of human respiratory syncytial virus in a community. J Gen ... Circulation patterns of group A and B human respiratory syncytial virus genotypes in 5 communities in North America. J Infect ...
Recombinant human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) from cDNA and construction of subgroup A and B chimeric RSV.. Jin H1, ... Infectious human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was produced from a cDNA clone that contains 15,222 nucleotides of RSV ... greatly increased the amount of infectious virus recovered from cDNA. A recombinant RSVA2 virus that expresses an additional ... Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/genetics*. *Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/physiology. *Sequence Analysis, DNA ...
Browse our Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) phosphoprotein product catalog backed by our Guarantee+. ... Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) phosphoprotein products available through Novus Biologicals. ... Home » Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) phosphoprotein Products. Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) phosphoprotein ...
Human respiratory syncytial virusHuman respiratory syncytial virus B ... sp,P20896,GLYC_HRSV1 Major surface glycoprotein G OS=Human respiratory syncytial virus B (strain 18537) OX=11251 GN=G PE=1 SV=1 ... Human respiratory syncytial virus B (strain 18537). ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_ ... help/virus_host target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Virus hosti. Homo sapiens (Human) [TaxID: 9606]. ...
Chimeric Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus with Glycoprotein Gene Substitutions from Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus (HRSV ... Human respiratory syncytial virus in children with lower respiratory tract infections or influenza-like illness and its co- ... The significance of human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) in children from Ghana with acute lower respiratory tract ... Circulation of Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Strains among Hospitalized Children with Acute Lower Respiratory Infection in ...
This review will summarize available data that provide parallels between bovine RSV infection in neonatal calves and human RSV ... Furthermore, bovine RSV plays a significant role in bovine respiratory disease complex, the most prevalent cause of morbidity ... and syncytial cell formation are observed. Further, our studies have shown an upregulation of pro-inflammatory mediators in RSV ... is the most common viral cause of childhood acute lower respiratory tract infections. It is estimated that RSV infections ...
Ray CG, Minnich LL, Holberg CJ, Shehab ZM, Wright AL, Barton LL, Respiratory syncytial virus associated lower respiratory ... Epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus infection in Washington, D.C. 1: importance of the virus in different respiratory ... Human Metapneumovirus in Severe Respiratory Syncytial Virus Bronchiolitis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2003;9(3):372-375. doi ... Severe respiratory syncytial virus pneumonia associated with primary Epstein-Barr virus infection. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2002;33: ...
Al-Sonboli N, Hart CA, Al-Aeryani A, Banajeh SM, Al-Aghbari N, Dove W, Respiratory syncytial virus and human metapneumovirus in ... Human Metapneumovirus and Respiratory Syncytial Virus Disease in Children, Yemen. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(9):1437 ... Human Metapneumovirus and Respiratory Syncytial Virus Disease in Children, Yemen On This Page ... Human Metapneumovirus and Respiratory Syncytial Virus Disease in Children, Yemen. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(9):1437-1439. https ...
... is the leading cause of pediatric viral respiratory tract infections. Neither vaccine nor effective antiviral therapy is ... We found that maleic anhydride (ML)-modified human serum albumin (HSA), designated ML-HSA, exhibited potent antiviral activity ... Keywords: human serum albumin (HSA); pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP); respiratory syncytial virus (RSV); entry inhibitor; ... Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of pediatric viral respiratory tract infections. Neither vaccine nor ...
Structure-antigenicity relationship studies of the central conserved region of human respiratory syncytial virus protein G. ... SOLUTION STRUCTURE OF THE CENTRAL CONSERVED REGION OF HUMAN RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS ATTACHMENT GLYCOPROTEIN G. ...
... is one of the leading causes of lower respiratory tract infection in infants. Immunoprophylaxis with the anti-RSV monoclonal ... Gomi R, Sharma A, Wu W, Worgall S. Neonatal Genetic Delivery of Anti-Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Antibody by Non-Human ... Neonatal Genetic Delivery of Anti-Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Antibody by Non-Human Primate-Based Adenoviral Vector to ... "Neonatal Genetic Delivery of Anti-Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Antibody by Non-Human Primate-Based Adenoviral Vector to ...
Evaluation of 10 years of parainfluenza virus, human metapneumovirus, and respiratory syncytial virus infections in lung ... Evaluation of 10 years of parainfluenza virus, human metapneumovirus, and respiratory syncytial virus infections in lung ... Respiratory tract infection with Pneumoviruses (PV) and Paramyxoviruses (PMV) are increasingly associated with chronic lung ...
Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of respiratory tract infections in children globally, with nearly ... Sequencing and analysis of globally obtained human respiratory syncytial virus A and B genomes.. ... Sequencing and analysis of globally obtained human respiratory syncytial virus A and B genomes.. ... Sequencing and analysis of globally obtained human respiratory syncytial virus A and B genomes.. ...
Most of these infections are caused by influenza viruses A and B as well as the human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV), which ... Rapid simultaneous diagnosis of infections with respiratory syncytial viruses A and B, influenza viruses A and B, and human ... Direct detection of respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus, and adenovirus in clinical respiratory specimens by a ... Multiplex Real-Time PCR Assay for Detection of Influenza and Human Respiratory Syncytial Viruses. Guy Boivin, Stéphanie Côté, ...
Serologic diagnosis of human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) infections has been shown to ... viral nucleoprotein microbead immunoassay for simultaneous detection of seroresponses to human respiratory syncytial virus and ... testing for acute hRSV and hMPV infections and offers a platform for expanded multiplexing of other respiratory virus assays. ... Enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) using cultured virus lysate antigens are often used to diagnose infection by demonstration of a ≥4- ...
The use of RT-PCR allows the detection of a broader spectrum of viruses causing respiratory diseases, as well as better ... This virus has been demonstrated as the aetiological agent in 13 out of 81 samples (16%) from children of the same age group. ... Since the beginning of January 2008, RT-PCR for the detection of the recently identified human metapneumovirus (HMPV) has also ... performed in the National Laboratory of Influenza and Acute Respiratory Diseases, Bulgaria. A total number of 278 ...
... in the Nasopharyngeal Microbiome During Acute Respiratory Tract Infection With Human Rhinovirus and Respiratory Syncytial Virus ... or respiratory syncytial virus (RSV; n = 83). The nasopharyngeal microbiome was assessed by sequencing the V4 region of the 16S ... Respiratory viruses alter the nasopharyngeal microbiome and may be associated with a distinct microbial signature. To test this ... Respiratory viruses were identified by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. We found significant ...
... is the main etiological agent responsible for acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRI) in young children and the elderly ... The human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is the main etiological agent responsible for acute lower respiratory tract ... The human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is the main etiological agent responsible for acute lower respiratory tract ... Current Insights into Host Immune Responses to Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) and Challenges Towards Efficient ...
Human metapneumovirus (HMPV), and Rhinoviruses (RV) are frequent causes of respiratory tract infections in young children. We ... Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV), Human metapneumovirus (HMPV), and Rhinoviruses (RV) are frequent causes of respiratory tract ... Comparison of human metapneumovirus, respiratory syncytial virus and Rhinovirus respiratory tract infections in young children ... Therefore, virus specific testing should be included regularly for routine diagnosis of children with respiratory tract ...
Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infects the lungs and breathing passages. Human respiratory syncytial virus... ... Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) has a size of around 120 to 200 nm and is an enveloped virus with a linear minus-sense ... Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes complications such as bronchiolitis, asthma, chronic respiratory tract ... A syncytial virus is a multi-nucleated virus which results from multiple cell fusions. ...
  • Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is an enveloped RNA virus that assembles and buds from the plasma membrane of infected cells. (hindawi.com)
  • We investigated whether the glycoproteins of HRSV were involved in the late stages of viral replication by utilizing recombinant viruses where each individual glycoprotein gene was deleted and replaced with a reporter gene to maintain wild-type levels of gene expression. (hindawi.com)
  • To evaluate the prevalence and seasonality of human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) in children aged 0 to 6 years, hospitalized with acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) in São José do Rio Preto, SP, Brazil, and the association between age, diagnosis, and HRSV. (scielo.br)
  • 7,8 The main pathogen of these diseases in children is the human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV), which has a worldwide distribution. (scielo.br)
  • A multiplex real-time PCR assay was developed with a LightCycler instrument for detection of influenza viruses A and B and the human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV). (asm.org)
  • In an evaluation of nasopharyngeal samples collected from hospitalized children (ages, 0 to 3 years) with acute respiratory tract infections during the winter of 2001 to 2002, a viral pathogen was detected by the multiplex PCR test in 139 (66.8%) of 208 cases, including 45 (21.6%) influenza A virus infections, no (0%) influenza B virus infections, 106 (51%) HRSV infections, and 12 (5.8%) coinfections. (asm.org)
  • Most of these infections are caused by influenza viruses A and B as well as the human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV), which are associated with the most severe complications, i.e., bronchiolitis, pneumonitis, and occasionally death ( 3 , 9 , 19 , 23 , 24 ). (asm.org)
  • Rapid immunoenzymatic assays have been developed by many companies for detection of influenza virus A and B antigens and HRSV antigens. (asm.org)
  • In order to overcome these limitations, we developed a real-time multiplex PCR assay for influenza viruses and HRSV that uses the melting-curve-analysis feature of the LightCycler instrument to rapidly distinguish viral products. (asm.org)
  • Serologic diagnosis of human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) infections has been shown to complement virus detection methods in epidemiologic studies. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In this study, hRSV and hMPV nucleocapsid (recN) proteins were expressed in a baculovirus system and their performance compared with virus culture lysate antigen in EIAs using paired serum specimens collected from symptomatic children. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The recN assay permits simultaneous testing for acute hRSV and hMPV infections and offers a platform for expanded multiplexing of other respiratory virus assays. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is the main etiological agent responsible for acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRI) in young children and the elderly worldwide. (frontiersin.org)
  • Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a major cause of lower respiratory tract disease in children and the elderly for which there is still no effective vaccine. (sciencemag.org)
  • Because the extent to which protection demonstrated in rodent models will translate to humans is unclear, we have exploited the calf model of bovine RSV (BRSV) infection, which mimics HRSV disease in children more closely than do experimental models of unnatural laboratory hosts, to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the PanAd3-RSV vaccine. (sciencemag.org)
  • We show that PanAd3-RSV alone and in combination with a modified vaccinia Ankara expressing the same HRSV antigens (MVA-RSV) induced neutralizing antibodies and cellular immunity in young seronegative calves and protected against upper and lower respiratory tract infection and pulmonary disease induced by heterologous BRSV challenge. (sciencemag.org)
  • Data on the variation in the medical resource utilization rate of Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus (HRSV) infected children by gestational age have recently been made available. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is the most important cause of acute respiratory disease in infants. (asm.org)
  • To investigate the circulation patterns and mechanisms by which HRSV-B viruses evolve, we analyzed the G protein genetic variability of subgroup B sequences isolated over a 45-year period, including 196 Belgian strains obtained over 22 epidemic seasons (1982 to 2004). (asm.org)
  • Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is the most common causative agent of serious respiratory tract infections in infants and young children ( 6 , 16 , 20 , 25 ). (asm.org)
  • HRSV is an enveloped virus with a nonsegmented negative-sense RNA genome of approximately 15,200 nucleotides and belongs to the genus Pneumovirus ( 6 ). (asm.org)
  • The predominance of HRSV-A over HRSV-B viruses has been attributed to the higher variability among the HRSV-A strains ( 5 , 46 , 49 , 61 ). (asm.org)
  • Differences in the extent of intragenetic diversity in the G protein between the two HRSV subgroups may reflect differences in the evolutionary patterns of these viruses. (asm.org)
  • Human Respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) are the two major etiological viral agents of lower respiratory tract diseases, affecting mainly infants, young children and the elderly. (inserm.fr)
  • Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) and, to a lesser extent, human metapneumovirus (HMPV) and human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3), can re-infect symptomatically throughout life without significant antigenic change, suggestive of incomplete or short-lived immunity. (prolekare.cz)
  • We stimulated human monocyte-derived DC (MDDC) with virus and found that, in contrast to HPIV3 and IAV, HMPV and HRSV did not efficiently decrease CCR1, 2, and 5 expression, and did not efficiently increase CCR7 expression. (prolekare.cz)
  • Using GFP-expressing recombinant virus, we showed that the subpopulation of MDDC that was robustly infected with HRSV was particularly inefficient in chemokine receptor modulation. (prolekare.cz)
  • We propose that inefficient migration of HRSV- and HMPV-stimulated DC to lymphatic tissue contributes to reduced adaptive responses to these viruses. (prolekare.cz)
  • The paramyxoviruses human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV), human metapneumovirus (HMPV) and human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) are common respiratory pathogens. (prolekare.cz)
  • The small hydrophobic (SH) protein is a short channel-forming polypeptide encoded by the human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV). (ntu.edu.sg)
  • The entire nucleotide sequence of the G gene of three human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) isolates (antigenic group B) has been determined. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The ability of variants of the human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) phosphoprotein (P protein) to support RNA transcription and replication has been studied by using HRSV-based subgenomic replicons. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Our model in calves shows age-dependent clinical symptoms similar to the ones observed in humans after hRSV infection. (wur.nl)
  • Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) transmission dynamics are inherently cyclical, and the observed genetic diversity (between groups A and B) also appears to have a repeating pattern. (ox.ac.uk)
  • BACKGROUND The highly contagious nature of human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) and the gravity of its infection in newborns and vulnerable adults pose a serious public health problem. (bvsalud.org)
  • Due to their high conservation, assays based on the full-length N and F proteins may not distinguish HRSV from human metapneumovirus and other Mononegavirales viruses , and the full-length G protein would most likely produce false negative results due to its high divergence. (bvsalud.org)
  • Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is the leading viral cause of serious pediatric respiratory disease, and lifelong reinfections are common. (cdc.gov)
  • HRSV, human respiratory syncytial virus. (cdc.gov)
  • Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is the most common cause of lower respiratory tract infection in babies and small children and it is one of the viruses that causes fever in children. (vallhebron.com)
  • Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is also the most common cause of hospital admission in babies under one. (vallhebron.com)
  • Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), also called human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) and human orthopneumovirus, is a very common, contagious virus that causes infections of the respiratory tract. (wikipedia.org)
  • Novel confocal imaging experiments were also carried out on a known hRSV fusion inhibitor (JNJ-4749914) in order to gain more insight in the compound's mode of action by visualising virus entry inhibition in epithelial cells. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus and is part of the Orthopneumovirus genus within the Pneumoviridae family. (asm.org)
  • HRSV is a causative agent of severe lower respiratory tract infection in infants and children ( 1 ). (asm.org)
  • In Brazil, HRSV was detected in 41.8% of patients under 2 years of age with a lower respiratory tract infection ( 3 ). (asm.org)
  • Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus (HRSV) is a leading cause of bronchopneumonia in infants and the elderly. (missouristate.edu)
  • In reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR) and DNA hybridizations using primers and an oligonucleotide probe to the fusion (F) protein mRNA of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), all the BRSV isolates and a goat isolate could be distinguished from prototype isolates of human respiratory syncytial viruses (HRSV) and ovine (sheep and bighorn sheep) respiratory syncytial viruses (RSV). (elsevier.com)
  • There is a paucity of complete genome sequence information for human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV). (asm.org)
  • Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a main cause of lower respiratory tract infections, such as bronchiolitis and pneumonia, in neonates, children, and elderly people ( 1 ). (asm.org)
  • In this study, we determined one complete genome sequence of HRSV-A (HRSV-A/IC688/12), isolated in July 2012 from an infant less than 1 year old, and two complete genomes of HRSV-B (HRSV-B/GW0047/14 and HRSV-B/IC0027/14), isolated in January 2014 from a 45-year-old and a 1-year-old acute respiratory illness patient, respectively. (asm.org)
  • Antigenic variation of human respiratory syncytial (RS) virus strains was analysed using a collection of nine, six, six, nine and one monoclonal antibodies respectively directed against the large glycoprotein (G), fusion protein (F), matrix protein (M), nucleoprotein (NP) and phosphoprotein (P) components of the Long strain of RS virus. (nih.gov)
  • Sublingual administration of a helper-dependent adenoviral vector expressing the codon-optimized soluble fusion glycoprotein of human respiratory syncytial virus elicits protective immunity in mice. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We constructed a helper-dependent adenoviral (HDAd) vector expressing a condon-optimized soluble fusion glycoprotein (sFsyn) of respiratory syncytial virus (HDAd-sFsyn) and explored the potential of s.l. immunization with HDAd-sFsyn to stimulate immune responses in the respiratory mucosa. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Neutralization of human respiratory syncytial virus infectivity by antibodies and low-molecular-weight compounds targeted against the fusion glycoprotein. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Human respiratory syncytial virus glycoprotein G expressed from a recombinant vaccinia virus vector protects mice against live-virus challenge. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Recombinant vaccinia virus vectors were constructed which expressed the major surface glycoprotein G of human respiratory syncytial (RS) virus. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Generation and epitope mapping of a sub-group cross-reactive anti-respiratory syncytial virus G glycoprotein monoclonal antibody which is protective in vivo. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Evolutionary pattern of human respiratory syncytial virus (subgroup A): cocirculating lineages and correlation of genetic and antigenic changes in the G glycoprotein. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Demonstration that glycoprotein G is the attachment protein of respiratory syncytial virus. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Earlier this year, the VRC team obtained atomic-level details of an RSV protein--called the fusion (F) glycoprotein--bound to a broadly neutralizing human RSV antibody. (eurekalert.org)
  • The protein-antibody complex gave scientists their first look at the F glycoprotein as it appears before it fuses with a human cell. (eurekalert.org)
  • Enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) using cultured virus lysate antigens are often used to diagnose infection by demonstration of a ≥4-fold rises in antibody titer between acute and convalescent serum pairs. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Treatment of CX3C virus-infected cells with the F(ab′) 2 form of an anti-G monoclonal antibody (MAb) that blocks binding to CX3CR1 gave results similar to those with the CX4C virus. (asm.org)
  • One antibody was directed against an antigenic site on the virus fusion protein, VP70. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • This site was shared by 21 virus isolates tested and its recognition by the antibody was sensitive to the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • One antibody reacted with all of the virus isolates screened while the second reacted with only 21 out of the 41 virus isolates. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Analysis of linear epitopes recognized by the primary human antibody response to a variable region of the attachment (G) protein of respiratory syncytial virus. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Additionally, prophylaxis remains limited to antivirals and, in the case of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), the broadly neutralizing antibody palivizumab is the only FDA approved treatment for high-risk populations. (nature.com)
  • There are currently no images for Respiratory Syncytial Virus fusion protein Antibody (NB100-63020G). (novusbio.com)
  • Prior infection and passive transfer of neutralizing antibody prevent replication of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus in the respiratory tract of mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • The approach hinges on the use of single-domain antibodies, also known as Nanobodies®, which target and neutralize a vital protein in the virus, rendering it unable to enter lung cells. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Subtype A viruses reacted with all the antibodies, whereas subtype B viruses showed different epitope characteristics in four structural components. (nih.gov)
  • Development and properties of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies for fusion protein of respiratory syncytial virus. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Twenty hybridomas producing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the structural proteins of strain 58-17, a subgroup B strain of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) were obtained by fusion of X63 myeloma cells with spleen cells from BALB/c mice immunized with virus=infected HEp-2 cells. (eurekamag.com)
  • Three hybridoma antibodies, prepared against the RSN-2 strain of human respiratory syncytial (RS) virus, have been used to identify antigenic variation between 41 isolates of RS virus collected from widely separated geographical regions over a period of 29 years. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The remaining two antibodies used react against the virus phosphoprotein, VPP32. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Antigenic characterization of respiratory syncytial virus strains with monoclonal antibodies. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Two major antigenic groups, groups A and B, of RS virus were originally delineated by their reactivities with monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) ( 3 , 19 ). (asm.org)
  • The Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) IgG ELISA Kit is intended for the measurement of IgG antibodies to Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) in a sample. (mpbio.com)
  • An experimental vaccine to protect against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), a leading cause of illness and hospitalization among very young children, elicited high levels of RSV-specific antibodies when tested in animals, according to a report in the journal Science . (eurekalert.org)
  • Serum and nasal wash antibodies associated with resistance to experimental challenge with influenza A wild-type virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among the various etiologic agents causing ALRI, viruses are responsible for bronchiolitis and pneumonia, especially in children under 1 year. (scielo.br)
  • Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to detect segments of the M (matrix), N (nucleoprotein), and F (fusion) genes of human metapneumovirus in bronchoalveolar fluid from 30 infants with severe respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. (cdc.gov)
  • Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes complications such as bronchiolitis, asthma, chronic respiratory tract infections and acute otitis media in patients. (prsync.com)
  • Owing to the viral infection outbreaks in winter and spring in North America, the diagnosis by a physical examination, chest x-rays to check for bronchiolitis, skin monitoring, blood tests for white cell counts and other laboratory tests for checking the respiratory secretions and treatment of the viral infection through medications is expected to drive market growth in the region through the forecast period and contribute significantly to the global market. (prsync.com)
  • To investigate the prevalence of 14 viruses in infants with bronchiolitis and to study demographic and clinical differences in those with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human bocavirus (hBoV) and rhinovirus (RV) infection. (bmj.com)
  • Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of severe bronchiolitis and pneumonia in infants and causes repeat infections throughout life ( 1 - 4 ). (asm.org)
  • Bronchiolitis is an infection that causes the small respiratory passages in the lungs (bronchioles) to become inflamed and mucus to build up in them. (vallhebron.com)
  • Using medical record numbers linked with International Classification of Diseases, 9th ed, diagnostic codes for RSV infection, bronchiolitis, or respiratory distress, 67 NICU graduates were identified as having been readmitted from November to April (RSV season). (aappublications.org)
  • Infection rates are typically higher during the cold winter months, causing bronchiolitis in infants, common colds in adults, and more serious respiratory illnesses such as pneumonia in the elderly and immunocompromised. (wikipedia.org)
  • Approximately 15-50% of children will go on to develop more serious lower respiratory tracts infections, such as bronchiolitis, viral pneumonia, or croup. (wikipedia.org)
  • Play media Bronchiolitis is a common lower respiratory tract infection characterized by inflammation and obstruction of the small airways in the lungs. (wikipedia.org)
  • While several viruses can cause bronchiolitis, RSV is responsible for about 70% of cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), the main cause of infant bronchiolitis, remains a major unmet vaccine need despite more than 40 years of vaccine research. (pnas.org)
  • The concept of "acute lower respiratory tract infection" (ALRTI) has emerged and it is becoming increasing evident from a number of studies that the infectious base of both acute pneumonia (AP) and acute bronchiolitis in children has a mixed etiology of microorganisms. (springer.com)
  • Researchers from VIB, UGent, the Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth and several collaborators developed a new antiviral strategy to fight human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), a leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections in children. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • RSV was determined to be the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections particularly in young infants. (kenyon.edu)
  • Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common viral cause of childhood acute lower respiratory tract infections. (mdpi.com)
  • Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of pediatric viral respiratory tract infections. (mdpi.com)
  • Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of respiratory tract infections in children globally, with nearly all children experiencing at least one infection by the age of two. (jcvi.org)
  • Acute respiratory tract infections (ARTI) are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in all age groups but especially in young children, elderly subjects, and immunocompromised patients. (asm.org)
  • Comparison of human metapneumovirus, respiratory syncytial virus and Rhinovirus respiratory tract infections in young children admitted to hospital. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a syncytial virus which causes respiratory tract infections, particularly the lower respiratory tract infections in infants and children. (prsync.com)
  • In young children with acute lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs), RSV is the most commonly identified pathogen, causing significant morbidity and mortality ( 3 , 4 ). (asm.org)
  • Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes acute lower respiratory tract infections, and is a major cause of hospital admissions and death in young children. (ovid.com)
  • Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most significant cause of acute respiratory tract infections in infants and young children throughout the world. (openaccessbooks.com)
  • Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes respiratory tract infections. (medicalxpress.com)
  • 15 - 18 These populations also have high rates of mortality and morbidity from acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRIs). (aappublications.org)
  • RSV infection can present with a wide variety of signs and symptoms that range from mild upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) to severe and potentially life-threatening lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) requiring hospitalization and mechanical ventilation. (wikipedia.org)
  • While RSV can cause respiratory tract infections in people of all ages and is among the most common childhood infections, its presentation often varies between age groups and immune status. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients with signs, symptoms, and/or a history of lower respiratory tract infections at the time of their admission were included in this study. (asm.org)
  • Lower respiratory tract infections in children are often viral in origin. (springer.com)
  • That would delineate upper respiratory tract infections from those in the lower airway. (springer.com)
  • With the goal of developing a new therapy to fight this disease, Prof. Xavier Saelens (VIB-UGent) and his team developed Nanobodies® that target the protein that the virus needs to enter lung cells. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Prof. Jason McLellan (Geisel School of Medicine, Dartmouth College): "Due to the small size of the Nanobodies®, these molecules can bind to a recessed cavity on the surface of the viral fusion protein and prevent this molecular machine from allowing the virus to enter lung cells. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Another RSV protein is the matrix protein M, located in the inner layer of the lipid bilayer, and is found to play a role in the formation of virus-like particles. (kenyon.edu)
  • The F protein then interacts with the protein RhoA and mediates the attachment of the virus. (kenyon.edu)
  • Using human primary lymphocytes, p53 induction by chemotherapeutic agents such as ionizing radiation caused SNP-dependent synergistic increases in IL-6 following incubation with an ssRNA ligand, as well as TLR8 RNA and protein expression along with p53 binding at the TLR-p53 SNP site. (jci.org)
  • Blinded TLR8 gene ( B ) and protein ( C ) expression and ( D ) p53 occupancy profiles in human lymphocytes after 24 hours of treatment with p53 activators nutlin (10 μM), DXR (1 μM), and IR (4 Gy). (jci.org)
  • The ΔF virus utilizes the baculovirus GP64 protein for viral entry. (hindawi.com)
  • A recombinant RSVA2 virus that expresses an additional structural G protein derived from a subgroup B RSV was also obtained. (nih.gov)
  • The purpose of this study is to assess a trend for the prophylactic efficacy of a single dose of 1*10^11 virus particles (vp) of adenovirus serotype 26 respiratory syncytial virus pre-fusion F protein (Ad26.RSV.preF) administered intramuscularly to adults aged 18-50 years in the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) challenge model in terms of reduction of nasal wash viral load compared to placebo. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Our data suggest that the RSV G protein CX3C motif impairs innate and adaptive human immune responses and may be important to vaccine and antiviral drug development. (asm.org)
  • Subsequently, several live attenuated RSV vaccines, a bovine parainfluenza virus vector vaccine, and protein subunit vaccines have been developed and tested in humans, but none has yet been sufficiently safe or effective to move to licensure ( 9 ). (asm.org)
  • Here, we report a human proof-of-concept study for RV521, a small-molecule antiviral inhibitor of the RSV-F protein. (asm.org)
  • We have used a membrane-based yeast two-hybrid system (MbY2H) and a library from human lung cDNA to detect proteins that bind SH protein. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • Newcastle disease virus-like particles containing respiratory syncytial virus G protein induced protection in BALB/c mice, with no evidence of immunopathology. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The predicted polypeptide is lengthened by 20 amino acids (residues 260-279) and this is reflected in the slower electrophoretic mobility of the G protein precursor of BA viruses compared with related viruses. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Membrane orientation and oligomerization of the small hydrophobic protein of human respiratory syncytial virus. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Phosphorylation of Ser232 directly regulates the transcriptional activity of the P protein of human respiratory syncytial virus: phosphorylation of Ser237 may play an accessory role. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Cytoplasmic inclusions of respiratory syncytial virus-infected cells: formation of inclusion bodies in transfected cells that coexpress the nucleoprotein, the phosphoprotein, and the 22K protein. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Characterization of the 10 proteins of human respiratory syncytial virus: identification of a fourth envelope-associated protein. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The G-protein amino acids of the group A viruses differed by up to 31% from the G-protein amino acids of a prototype (A2) group A virus. (asm.org)
  • Genetic diversity of the protein-G genes occurs within and between the two groups of RS virus ( 16 , 22 ). (asm.org)
  • In addition to antigenic characterization with MAbs, these methods include restriction endonuclease analysis of small hydrophobic and nucleocapsid RS virus protein genes ( 8 ), restriction endonuclease analysis of G-protein gene cDNA ( 5 , 24 ), RNase protection analysis ( 11 , 21 ), and nucleotide sequence analysis of the G-protein gene ( 5 , 23 ). (asm.org)
  • The viruses were characterized as to group, and variability within the groups was assessed by restriction fragment analysis of amplified cDNAs and limited nucleotide sequencing of a variable region of the G-protein gene. (asm.org)
  • Recognises the Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Fusion protein, also known as F-protein. (novusbio.com)
  • The F-protein is a membrane-associated protein found in the membrane of infected respiratory epithelial cells. (novusbio.com)
  • Interaction of the human respiratory Syncytial virus matrix protein wi" by Casey Ward, Maciej Maselko et al. (missouristate.edu)
  • The polypeptides include short polypeptides which are related to a neutralizing and fusion epitope of the Respiratory Syncytial Virus fusion protein. (google.co.uk)
  • Respiratory syncytial virus G protein is a protein produced by respiratory syncytial virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The distribution of each antigenic group among 28 RS virus isolates from the Grampian Region, north-east Scotland, collected between 1982 and 1984 was determined. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Among the recent group B isolates, variability was less than that seen for the group A viruses. (asm.org)
  • Clinical isolates of group A RS virus collected in Uruguay and Spain have been analyzed. (asm.org)
  • Several methods have been used to categorize RS virus clinical isolates as to group and to assess variability within the groups. (asm.org)
  • Here, we present the complete genome sequences of five human respiratory syncytial virus isolates collected from hospitalized infants suffering from acute respiratory disease. (asm.org)
  • These results confirm previous immunological comparisons suggesting that some ovine RSV isolates should be considered as distinct respiratory syncytial viruses. (elsevier.com)
  • Currently, there are several RSV vaccine candidates which were designed in accordance with the latest advances made in characterizing the biology of this virus. (frontiersin.org)
  • Currently, Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection lacks an approved vaccine therapy owing to limited number of studies in vitro and inability to culture the virus and maintain it in a stable state. (prsync.com)
  • translate one vaccine strategy first into calves, which are natural hosts of bovine RSV (BRSV), and then into humans in a phase 1 clinical trial. (sciencemag.org)
  • These data support further trials to test vaccine efficacy in human patients. (sciencemag.org)
  • Administration of DPX-RSV(A), a Respiratory Syncytial Virus vaccine containing Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) SHe antigen and DepoVaxTM adjuvant to healthy adults ≥50-64 years of age. (bioportfolio.com)
  • A recombinant varicella vaccine harboring a respiratory syncytial virus gene induces humoral immunity. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Host proteome correlates of vaccine-mediated enhanced disease in a mouse model of respiratory syncytial virus infection. (semanticscholar.org)
  • At last, treatment modalities including the search for a vaccine that is still not in sight are discussed and conclude this book, thus, drawing a bow that reaches from experimental models of RSV related lung disease over clinical aspects of disease to the latest news of therapeutic and prophylactic approaches to human RSV infection. (openaccessbooks.com)
  • Respiratory syncytial virus is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infection in infants and currently lacks an effective vaccine or treatment beyond symptom relief. (louisville.edu)
  • Early-stage human clinical trials of the candidate vaccine are planned. (eurekalert.org)
  • Murphy's research has focused on vaccine development for various viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evaluation of a live, cold-passaged, temperature-sensitive, respiratory syncytial virus vaccine candidate in infancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Production of infectious human respiratory syncytial virus from cloned cDNA confirms an essential role for the transcription elongation factor from the 5' proximal open reading frame of the M2 mRNA in gene expression and provides a capability for vaccine development. (wikipedia.org)
  • ranging from protocols for virus growth, isolation, quantification and generation of recombinant RSV virus to procedures for the efficient characterization of the host immune response to RSV infection. (springer.com)
  • The Toll-like receptor 8 (TLR8) has an important role in innate immune responses to RNA viral infections, including respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). (jci.org)
  • The Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection can infect people of any ages but the severity is low in adults while infants and children with weakened immune systems show high severity of the infection. (prsync.com)
  • This is likely to have an important impact on immune development as well as future virus-host interactions, thereby warranting further investigation. (nih.gov)
  • Sublingual (s.l.) immunization has been described as a convenient and safe way to induce mucosal immune responses in the respiratory and genital tracts. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of severe lower respiratory infection in infants and young children and causes disease in the elderly and persons with compromised cardiac, pulmonary, or immune systems. (asm.org)
  • Antigenic variation between and within the subgroups may contribute to reinfections with these viruses by evading the host immune responses. (asm.org)
  • Although the infection of both viruses trigger an antiviral immune response that mediate viral clearance and disease resolution in immunocompetent individuals, the promotion of long-term immunity appears to be deficient and reinfection are common throughout life. (inserm.fr)
  • The modulation of immune response exerted by both viruses include different strategies such as, impairment of immunological synapse mediated by viral proteins or soluble factors, and the induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines by epithelial cells, among others. (inserm.fr)
  • In addition, we described the role each virulence factor involved in immune modulation caused by these viruses. (inserm.fr)
  • Persons at increased risk for severe disease or death include premature infants, older adults, and persons of any age with compromised respiratory, cardiac, or immune systems ( 2,3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Prophylactic administration of respiratory syncytial virus immune globulin to high-risk infants and young children. (cdc.gov)
  • If the individual responds to a viral infection with a battery of Th1-type cytokines, including IL-12 and IFN, a cellular immune response is promoted, and the virus is quickly disposed of ( 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • But the virus may lead to serious breathing problems , especially in young babies, the elderly, and people with weakened immune systems. (medlineplus.gov)
  • respiratory syncytial virus immune globulin intravenous (human) for high-risk patients was licensed for use in January 1996 (9). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In the current study they show, that HMGB1 forms a link between the infected respiratory epithelium and the response by immune cells. (resc-eu.org)
  • Respiratory syncytial virus immune globulin has been assigned to pregnancy category C by the FDA. (drugs.com)
  • Respiratory syncytial virus immune globulin is only recommended for use during pregnancy when benefit outweighs risk. (drugs.com)
  • There are no data on the excretion of respiratory syncytial virus immune globulin into human milk. (drugs.com)
  • Recombinant human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) from cDNA and construction of subgroup A and B chimeric RSV. (nih.gov)
  • A duplex recombinant viral nucleoprotein microbead immunoassay for simultaneous detection of seroresponses to human respiratory syncytial virus and metapneumovirus infections. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety, infectivity and replication, and immunogenicity of a recombinant respiratory syncytial virus (rRSV A/Maryland/001/11) challenge virus administered intranasally to healthy adults. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The basic features of RSV F are shared with the fusion glycoproteins of other members of the Paramyxoviridae, such as parainfluenza virus 3 (PIV3), PIV5, and Newcastle disease virus (NDV). (pnas.org)
  • In particular, his group is known for working on developing vaccines against respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus, influenza virus, dengue virus, and West Nile virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its name comes from the fact that F proteins on the surface of the virus cause the cell membranes on nearby cells to merge, forming syncytia. (medicalxpress.com)
  • We also evaluated their similarity with homologous proteins from other viruses . (bvsalud.org)
  • Human metapneumovirus and severity of respiratory syncytial virus disease. (nih.gov)
  • We screened 23 children with severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) disease and 23 children with mild RSV disease for human metapneumovirus (HMPV). (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, bovine RSV plays a significant role in bovine respiratory disease complex, the most prevalent cause of morbidity and mortality among feedlot cattle. (mdpi.com)
  • Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes a severe lower respiratory tract disease that affects both children and the elderly. (sciencemag.org)
  • A prime-boost strategy protected against upper and lower respiratory tract infection and pulmonary disease induced by heterologous BRSV challenge in calves, and demonstrated safety and immunogenicity in humans. (sciencemag.org)
  • Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) remains the most common cause of severe lower respiratory tract disease amongst infants, and continues to cause annual epidemics of respiratory disease every winter worldwide. (nih.gov)
  • Demonstrating active RSV in CBMs suggests in utero transmission of infective virus to the fetus without causing overt disease. (nih.gov)
  • Human bocavirus infections and co-infections with respiratory syncytial virus and Rotavirus in children with acute respiratory or gastrointestinal disease. (bioportfolio.com)
  • children with acute respiratory or gastrointestinal disease. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Demographic characteristics and clinical severity of the disease may depend on the number of viruses or on the specific virus detected. (bmj.com)
  • However, very little is known of the role of RSV CX3C-CX3CR1 interactions in human disease. (asm.org)
  • RV521 effectively reduced RSV viral load and disease severity in humans and was well tolerated. (asm.org)
  • Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common cause of respiratory infections across all age groups but has the most severe impact in young children and vulnerable adult populations, including the elderly, the immunocompromised, and those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( 1 - 3 ). (asm.org)
  • The prevalence of respiratory symptoms appears to diminish over the first years of life, but recent studies observed either reactive airway disease or lung function abnormality even until adolescence. (openaccessbooks.com)
  • Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), the most common cause of severe lower respiratory tract disease among infants and young children, typically infects persons by age 2 years and can cause subsequent infections throughout life ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), a common cause of winter outbreaks of acute respiratory disease, causes an estimated 90,000 hospitalizations and 4500 deaths each year from lower respiratory tract disease in both infants and young children in the United States (1). (cdc.gov)
  • Editorial Note: During the RSV season, health-care providers should consider RSV as a cause of acute respiratory disease in both children and adults. (cdc.gov)
  • In adults, RSV usually causes upper respiratory tract manifestations but may cause lower respiratory tract disease -- especially in the elderly and in immunocompromised persons. (cdc.gov)
  • RSV is the most common virus responsible for acute and severe lower airway disease in infants and young children worldwide. (viratree.com)
  • An animal model for a human disease can never exactly reproduce the complex disease traits in humans. (wur.nl)
  • Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of lower respiratory tract disease and hospitalization among young children throughout the world. (aappublications.org)
  • Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of acute lower respiratory infection among children worldwide and the leading cause of infant hospitalization for respiratory disease in developed countries ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • Children were excluded if born before 36 weeks of gestation or if they had a history of mechanical ventilation, congenital disease, or respiratory tract symptoms. (bmj.com)
  • subtype B included four virus strains isolated in successive years from 1979 to 1982. (nih.gov)
  • Seropositivity to the influenza virus strains was not associated with increased interferon titers. (asm.org)
  • The World Health Organization estimates that one third of the 12.2 million annual deaths in children below 5 years are the result of acute infections of the respiratory tract, with RSV, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae as the predominant pathogens Severity of RSV outbreaks varies from year to year, perhaps in part because of a variation in circulating strains. (openaccessbooks.com)
  • In this study, we evaluated the response of human epithelial cells to sequential infections with human respiratory syncytial virus strains A2 and B to determine if a primary infection with one strain will impact the ability of cells to be infected with the second as a function of virus strain and time elapsed between the two exposures. (mdpi.com)
  • However, comparisons to prototype strains revealed that the group B RS viruses may vary more extensively than was observed over the 3 years studied in the present investigation. (asm.org)
  • Multiple lineages or strains of RS virus cocirculate ( 2 , 6 ). (asm.org)
  • Other examples include SARS virus, Ebola virus, and some harmful strains of E. coli. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Detection of the human metapneumovirus genome was performed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain amplification (RT-PCR) of the matrix (M), fusion (F), and nucleoprotein (N) genes. (cdc.gov)
  • Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) has a size of around 120 to 200 nm and is an enveloped virus with a linear minus-sense RNA genome. (prsync.com)
  • A model for the generation of multiple A to G transitions in the human respiratory syncytial virus genome: predicted RNA secondary structures as substrates for adenosine deaminases that act on RNA. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • These are the first five complete genome sequences of human respiratory syncytial virus to originate from Brazil. (asm.org)
  • LL-37, when pre-incubated with virus prior to RSV infection (prophylactic), significantly reduced the level of viral genome detected in infected Calu-3 cells, and decreased chemokine expression associated with RSV infection in vitro. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Vaccines have shown promise in rodents and nonhuman primates, but it remains unclear if these models reflect human RSV infection. (sciencemag.org)
  • Polypeptides, nucleotides, and compositions useful for preparing diagnostic reagents for and vaccines against human Respiratory Syncytial Virus are disclosed. (google.co.uk)
  • After resolution of discrepant test results by use of additional PCR assays targeting other viral genes, the sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of the multiplex PCR assay for influenza A virus were 100 and 97.7% compared to 43.6 and 98.5% for the antigenic test. (asm.org)
  • In contrast, re-infection by influenza A virus (IAV) largely depends on antigenic change, suggestive of more complete immunity. (prolekare.cz)
  • On the basis of the variable epitope, two antigenic types of human RS virus were identified. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The viruses ( n = 174) were characterized as to major antigenic group (group A or B) by a PCR-based assay. (asm.org)
  • Epidemiologic studies conducted in the United States with MAbs to define the antigenic groups showed that there are three types of RS virus epidemics: those in which group A or group B viruses were dominant and those in which both groups circulate concurrently ( 2 , 13 , 14 ). (asm.org)
  • The finding of two subtypes may explain previously observed strain variations in neutralization tests, and gives a new perspective on the immunobiology of RS virus. (nih.gov)
  • Influence of respiratory syncytial virus strain differences on pathogenesis and immunity. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infects the lungs and breathing passages. (prsync.com)
  • The virus infects essentially all children by 2 to 3 years of age, 6 with at least half of all children becoming infected during their first exposure and the remaining during their second exposure. (aappublications.org)
  • Thus, the new virus was termed human metapneumovirus (hMPV). (cdc.gov)
  • Infection with human metapneumovirus (HMPV) has clinical symptoms similar to those for RSV ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Proportion of children with severe infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human metapneumovirus (HMPV), by age, Yemen. (cdc.gov)
  • Children with severe RSV hypoxia were more likely to have relatives with ARI, and this factor plus a history of recurrent respiratory infections were risk factors for HMPV hypoxia. (cdc.gov)
  • Since the beginning of January 2008, RT-PCR for the detection of the recently identified human metapneumovirus (HMPV) has also been introduced in Bulgaria. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Prevalence of influenza A virus (Flu-A), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) was assessed in children with acute respiratory infections (ARIs). (bioportfolio.com)
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) in Colombia from 2000 - 2011, including seasonal trends. (paho.org)
  • We describe the epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of 111 children attending clinics and hospitals in Aracaju, northeast Brazil, with acute respiratory infections attributable to human metapneumovirus (HMPV), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), or both in May and June 2002. (cdc.gov)
  • Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) was first identified in the Netherlands in 2001 ( 1 ) and was implicated as a potential etiologic agent for respiratory infections. (cdc.gov)
  • Number of children with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), and RSV/HMPV co-infection by study week (week 10 incomplete). (cdc.gov)
  • Interferon production by human mononuclear leukocytes: differences between respiratory syncytial virus and influenza viruses. (asm.org)
  • The ability of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) to induce interferon production by human mononuclear leukocytes was compared with that of influenza viruses. (asm.org)
  • In contrast, influenza viruses were effective inducers of interferon production. (asm.org)
  • Interferon produced after exposure to RSV or to the influenza viruses was resistant to low pH treatment. (asm.org)
  • Similar influenza viruses can move from horses to humans," Gray says. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Knowing that influenza virus can jump between horses and camels will reshape how we understand the ecology of novel influenza viruses which may affect man," he adds. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • We describe here the results of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) detection by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) during two consecutive seasons, from December 2006 to February 2007 and from October 2007 to March 2008, performed in the National Laboratory of Influenza and Acute Respiratory Diseases, Bulgaria. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • The use of RT-PCR allows the detection of a broader spectrum of viruses causing respiratory diseases, as well as better discrimination of the aetiological agents in clinically similar cases. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Respiratory and Enteric Viruses Br, Div of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, CDC. (cdc.gov)
  • In addition, our animal models can be used for translational clinical and preclinical studies into human diseases. (wur.nl)
  • About 70% of all known infectious diseases and "new" emerging infectious diseases in humans are zoonotic. (wur.nl)
  • The success of drug development for human diseases heavily depends on the suitability of the animal models applied. (wur.nl)
  • This new discovery further demonstrates the potential role of camels in the ecology of zoonotic diseases, which are passed from animals to humans. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • This also illustrates the importance of improved surveillance for zoonotic diseases in camels to better understand the potential risk to humans, he says. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • In 1983, he was promoted to head the respiratory viruses section of the Laboratory of Infectious Diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, comparable microscopic lesions consisting of bronchiolar neutrophilic infiltrates, epithelial cell necrosis, and syncytial cell formation are observed. (mdpi.com)
  • In this study, we use an in vitro model of human RSV infection comprised of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) separated by a permeable membrane from human airway epithelial cells (A549) infected with RSV with either an intact CX3C motif (CX3C) or a mutated motif (CX4C). (asm.org)
  • Following inoculation of the eyes or nose, the virus will infect the epithelial cells of the upper and lower airway, causing inflammation, cell damage, and airway obstruction. (wikipedia.org)
  • These engineered viruses allowed us to study the roles of the glycoproteins in assembly and budding in the context of infectious virus. (hindawi.com)
  • Acute lower respiratory infections (ALRIs) are characterized by acute inflammatory processes, either infectious or not, affecting alveoli, bronchioles, bronchi, and interstitial space. (scielo.br)
  • However, a single nucleotide substitution in the RSV leader region (C to G at position 4 in the antigenomic sense), greatly increased the amount of infectious virus recovered from cDNA. (nih.gov)
  • The lung is a critical prophylaxis target for clinically important infectious agents, including human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza. (nature.com)
  • Infectious in humans. (viratree.com)
  • Our (bovine) Respiratory Syncytial Virus model in calves is very representative for (human) Respiratory Syncytial Virus infections in babies. (wur.nl)
  • In June 2001, Osterhaus and colleagues reported the discovery of a "new" human respiratory virus ( Pneumovirinae subfamily, Paramyxoviridae family) ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • BA viruses have an exact duplication of 60 nucleotides in the G gene, starting after residue 791. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The product of the respiratory syncytial virus M2 gene ORF1 enhances readthrough of intergenic junctions during viral transcription. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • 12. Immunogenic Complex according to claim 11, whereby the regulatory sequences comprise the human immunoglobulin gene control region. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • A single amino acid in the PB2 gene of influenza A virus is a determinant of host range. (wikipedia.org)
  • Replication-competent or attenuated, nonpropagating vesicular stomatitis viruses expressing respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) antigens protect mice against RSV challenge. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This research study involves studying the genes that may affect how ill you become during respiratory infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). (bioportfolio.com)
  • It is the major cause of lower respiratory tract infection and hospital visits during infancy and childhood. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Respiratory syncytial (RS) virus is the most common viral cause of lower respiratory tract infection in infants and young children. (asm.org)
  • Our results suggest that respiratory tract viral infections are associated with different nasopharyngeal microbial profiles. (jcvi.org)
  • Recent evidence suggests that respiratory viral infections are one of the most common causes of asthma exacerbations. (jimmunol.org)
  • PC786 is a new medicine being developed for treatment of respiratory syncytial virus. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Use of ribavirin in the treatment of respiratory syncytial virus. (cdc.gov)
  • Group A RS viruses were dominant the first 2 years, followed by a year with group B dominance (ratios of group A to group B viruses for epidemic periods, 56/4 for 1993-1994, 42/3 for 1994-1995, and 19/50 for 1995-1996). (asm.org)
  • In this study, we analyzed RS viruses from the Children's Hospital of Alabama from three consecutive epidemic periods (1993 to 1996). (asm.org)
  • This indicates that the majority of palivizumab injected IM is not delivered to the appropriate organ compartment to neutralize the virus, potentially explaining the limited reduction in hospitalization rates observed in treated infants 10 . (nature.com)
  • No data exist on respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-specific hospitalization rates among high-risk Native Americans other than Alaska Natives, for whom the incidence of RSV hospitalization was estimated at 150 per 1000 among infants younger than 1 year. (aappublications.org)
  • The purpose of the study is to assess viral kinetics and clinical symptoms kinetics in pediatric patients hospitalized with Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) confirmed lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI). (bioportfolio.com)
  • The objective of this study was to determine the frequency and seasonal distributions of HBoV detections among Iranian children presenting with acute respiratory or gastrointestinal symptoms and to compare infections among children with concomitant respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and rotavirus (RV) infections. (bioportfolio.com)
  • HBoV is commonly detected among Iranian children presenting with acute respiratory or gastrointestinal symptoms and is often present as co-infections with RSV and RV, respectively. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Avoid close contact with people with symptoms of respiratory illness or fever with other sick babies. (vallhebron.com)
  • Most childhood RSV infections are fairly self-limited with typical upper respiratory tract signs and symptoms, such as nasal congestion, runny nose, cough, and low-grade fever. (wikipedia.org)
  • If present, symptoms are generally isolated to the upper respiratory tract: runny nose, sore throat, fever, and malaise. (wikipedia.org)
  • A negative result means there is no RSV infection and the symptoms are likely caused by another type of virus. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Main outcome measure Frequency of bacteria and virus carriage in airway aspirates during wheezy episodes and at planned visits without respiratory symptoms. (bmj.com)
  • RSV infection produces a variety of signs and symptoms involving different areas of the respiratory tract, from the nose to the lungs. (abcam.com)
  • HealthDay)-A common respiratory virus that circulates in winter can pose a serious threat to children, an expert warns. (medicalxpress.com)
  • RSV is a negative-sense, single-stranded RNA virus of the family Paramyxoviridae , which includes common respiratory viruses such as those causing measles and mumps. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Chapter 7, Coronaviruses: New studies have confirmed the important role of these viruses in common respiratory illnesses of children and adults. (springer.com)
  • LL-37, a small cationic host defense peptide involved in anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial responses, reduces replication of or infection by multiple viruses, including influenza virus, in vitro, and protects against lethal challenge with influenza virus in vivo. (beds.ac.uk)
  • LL-37 has potent in vitro and in vivo anti-viral activity against influenza virus. (beds.ac.uk)
  • 2,3 Data from the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) on the prevalence and incidence of acute respiratory infections in Latin America show that they are responsible for 40 to 60% of all pediatric outpatient medical visits. (scielo.br)
  • Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a serious pediatric pathogen of the lower respiratory tract. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections in Children 0-24 Months of Age in the Community. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most important pathogens that cause acute respiratory infections in children and immunocompromised adults. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Viral etiology of acute respiratory infections in children in Southern Iran. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Airway damage and hyperreactivity induced during respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection can have a prolonged effect in infants and young children. (jimmunol.org)
  • Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus was first isolated in 1956 from a laboratory chimpanzee with a respiratory illness and was later discovered to be of human origin (1). (kenyon.edu)
  • We report factors associated with severe acute respiratory illness in Yemeni children (266 infected with respiratory syncytial virus and 66 with human metapneumovirus). (cdc.gov)
  • Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is most frequently implicated in childhood illness ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • American ginseng is safe, well tolerated, and potentially effective for preventing acute respiratory illness due to influenza and respiractory syncytial virus infections. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • 20 , 21 Premature infants are also at increased risk for rehospitalization after nursery discharge, and respiratory illness is the most common reason for their readmission. (aappublications.org)
  • 40% of premature infants will require rehospitalization during the first year of life because of illness associated with acute viral respiratory tract infection. (aappublications.org)
  • About 50% of corona virus infections result in clinical illness. (springer.com)
  • The respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is responsible for a common childhood illness. (eurekalert.org)
  • Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of respiratory illness in young children. (abcam.com)
  • Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of severe lower respiratory tract illness in young children worldwide. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The three HRSVs were isolated from acute respiratory illness patients using the HEp-2 cell line, and plaque isolation was performed twice. (asm.org)
  • Vitamin A supplementation may have therapeutic activity in the treatment of measles and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • INTRODUCTION: Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an enveloped, nonsegmented, negative-sense, single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Pneumovirus genus of the subfamily Pneumovirinae, the family Paramyxoviridae. (viratree.com)
  • The researchers showed that these Nanobodies® neutralized the virus in laboratory assays as well as in animals. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • More recently, PCR assays have been developed for many respiratory viruses, allowing detection of small amounts of viral nucleic acid in clinical samples. (asm.org)
  • In the so-called "multiplex" format, PCR assays have been designed to amplify more than one respiratory viral target in the same PCR test ( 4 , 6 , 8 , 15 , 21 ). (asm.org)
  • 7,8 Primarily, the infection with this virus affects children younger than 2 years, with the peak incidence from 2 to 6 months. (scielo.br)
  • Subsequently, human metapneumovirus has been detected in children in Australia ( 5 ) and Canada ( 6 ). (cdc.gov)
  • In conclusion, our multiplex real-time PCR assay combines both rapidity and sensitivity for detecting the most important respiratory viral pathogens in children. (asm.org)
  • However, the performance of these tests is dependent on many variables, and their sensitivity has generally been lower than that of viral culture, especially for adults, because their upper respiratory tract secretions have lower viral loads than those of children ( 2 , 5 , 12 , 25 ). (asm.org)
  • This virus has been demonstrated as the aetiological agent in 13 out of 81 samples (16%) from children of the same age group. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is experienced as a mild cold in healthy individuals while it can cause serious complications in infants and children younger than one year. (prsync.com)
  • Infants and children become weak after recovery and continue to spread the virus for the next one to three weeks. (prsync.com)
  • According to the statistics of U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, it is estimated that more than half the total children population globally get infected with Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) within the first two years of birth. (prsync.com)
  • Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of hospitalization in young children, but there are little data on RSV infections in early childhood in the community. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In the United States, 60% of infants are infected during their first RSV season, and nearly all children will have been infected with the virus by 2-3 years of age. (medicalxpress.com)
  • From 1997 to 2000, all children who were admitted for acute lower respiratory tract infection between October 1 and March 31 had a nasopharyngeal aspirate obtained and tested for RSV by commercial enzyme immunoassay kits. (aappublications.org)
  • During 3 RSV seasons (1997-2000), 51.3% of 1837 admissions for acute lower respiratory tract infection among children younger than 2 years were attributed to RSV infection. (aappublications.org)
  • Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) 3 is known to cause asthma exacerbations, and in many young children less than 2 years of age, RSV infections can significantly alter airway function, leading to long-term airway hyperreactivity. (jimmunol.org)
  • i.e., not all children respond in a detrimental way, and most appear to clear the virus appropriately. (jimmunol.org)
  • 4 decades, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) has been recognized as the most important cause of serious lower respiratory tract infection in children. (aappublications.org)
  • Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes serious infection of the lower respiratory tract in children and an effective antiviral therapy against the viral pathogen remains unavailable. (elsevier.com)
  • Results 984 samples (361 children) were analysed for bacteria, 844 (299 children) for viruses, and 696 (277 children) for both viruses and bacteria. (bmj.com)
  • Conclusion Acute wheezy episodes in young children were significantly associated with bacterial infections similar to but independent of the association with virus infections. (bmj.com)
  • In this study we determined if common pathogenic bacteria were associated with acute wheezy episodes in children and whether any association was independent of virus infection. (bmj.com)
  • The children were prospectively examined for common airway pathogenic bacteria and viruses from age 4 weeks to 3 years during wheezy episodes and outside of such episodes as a part of the Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood. (bmj.com)
  • Children with diagnoses of acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) were recruited consecutively after informed parental consent. (cdc.gov)
  • Differences in the Nasopharyngeal Microbiome During Acute Respiratory Tract Infection With Human Rhinovirus and Respiratory Syncytial Virus in Infancy. (jcvi.org)