Functional processes and properties characteristic of the BLOOD; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and RESPIRATORY SYSTEM.
Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
Physiological processes and properties of the DENTITION.
Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM and DENTITION as a whole or of any of its parts.
Physiology of the human and animal body, male or female, in the processes and characteristics of REPRODUCTION and the URINARY TRACT.
Properties, and processes of the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM and the NERVOUS SYSTEM or their parts.
The properties and relationships and biological processes that characterize the nature and function of the SKIN and its appendages.
Nutritional physiology related to EXERCISE or ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE.
Physiological processes, factors, properties and characteristics pertaining to REPRODUCTION.
The functions and properties of living organisms, including both the physical and chemical factors and processes, supporting life in single- or multi-cell organisms from their origin through the progression of life.
Nutritional physiology of adults aged 65 years of age and older.
Properties, functions, and processes of the URINARY TRACT as a whole or of any of its parts.
Processes and properties of the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM.

Osmotic regulation of airway reactivity by epithelium. (1/736)

Inhalation of nonisotonic solutions can elicit pulmonary obstruction in asthmatic airways. We evaluated the hypothesis that the respiratory epithelium is involved in responses of the airways to nonisotonic solutions using the guinea pig isolated, perfused trachea preparation to restrict applied agents to the mucosal (intraluminal) or serosal (extraluminal) surface of the airway. In methacholine-contracted tracheae, intraluminally applied NaCl or KCl equipotently caused relaxation that was unaffected by the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin, but was attenuated by removal of the epithelium and Na+ and Cl- channel blockers. Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter and nitric oxide synthase blockers caused a slight inhibition of relaxation, whereas Na+,K+-pump inhibition produced a small potentiation. Intraluminal hyperosmolar KCl and NaCl inhibited contractions in response to intra- or extraluminally applied methacholine, as well as neurogenic cholinergic contractions elicited with electric field stimulation (+/- indomethacin). Extraluminally applied NaCl and KCl elicited epithelium-dependent relaxation (which for KCl was followed by contraction). In contrast to the effects of hyperosmolarity, intraluminal hypo-osmolarity caused papaverine-inhibitable contractions (+/- epithelium). These findings suggest that the epithelium is an osmotic sensor which, through the release of epithelium-derived relaxing factor, can regulate airway diameter by modulating smooth muscle responsiveness and excitatory neurotransmission.  (+info)

Rhythmicity in single fiber postganglionic activity supplying the rat tail. (2/736)

Rhythmicity in single fiber postganglionic activity supplying the rat tail. The temporal pattern of ongoing sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity may play an important role for neurovascular transmission. Here we analyzed the activity of postganglionic fibers projecting into the ventral collector nerve of anesthetized and artificially ventilated vagotomized Wistar rats with respect to the presence of rhythmic firing under normocapnic conditions. Most of the fibers studied were likely vasoconstrictor and involved in thermoregulation. Accumulated histograms of sympathetic activity were produced synchronized with the electrocardiogram to detect cardiac rhythmicity, with phrenic nerve activity to detect modulation with the central respiratory cycle, and with tracheal pressure to uncover a reflex modulation associated with artificial ventilation. Sympathetic activity, phrenic activity, and tracheal pressure also were examined by spectral analysis and autocorrelation to detect rhythmicities distinct from respiration. Twenty-seven filaments containing two to seven fibers with spontaneous activity and 51 single fibers were analyzed. Ongoing activity was 1.12 +/- 0.65 imp/s (mean +/- SD, n = 51); conduction velocity was 0.62 +/- 0.06 m/s (n = 30). Cardiac rhythmicity in sympathetic activity was weak (46.2 +/- 16.4%). The dominant rhythm in the activity of 19/27 few-fiber preparations and 37/51 single fibers corresponded to the central respiratory cycle. The pattern consisted of an inhibition during inspiration and an activation in expiration. In 10/19 few-fiber preparations and 21/37 single fibers of this group, there was also a concomitant, less prominent rhythm related to artificial ventilation. By contrast, 8/27 few-fiber preparations and 11/51 single fibers exhibited a dominant pump-related modulation, whereas phrenic-related rhythmicity was subordinate. The dominant rhythm in the activity of two single fibers was related to neither central respiration nor artificial ventilation. We conclude that the ongoing activity of most postganglionic neurons supplying the rat tail is modulated by the central respiratory rhythm generator, suggesting that changes in respiratory drive may alter perfusion of the tail and therefore heat dissipation. Reflex modulation in parallel with artificial ventilation, independent of vagal afferents and possibly due to ventilatory changes of baroreceptor activity, is also an important source of rhythmicity in these neurons.  (+info)

The effects of preperitoneal carbon dioxide insufflation on cardiopulmonary function in pigs. (3/736)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although considerable experimental and clinical knowledge exists on the physiology of pneumoperitoneum, insufflation of the preperitoneal space has not been extensively studied. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the physiology associated with preperitoneal carbon dioxide (CO2) insufflation in a porcine model. METHODS: Eleven pigs weighing 35 to 45 kg were anesthetized and placed on mechanical ventilation. A pulmonary artery catheter and an arterial line were inserted. Balloon dissection of the preperitoneal space and insufflation to 10 mm Hg for 1.5 hours, followed by an increase to 15 mm Hg for an additional 1.5 hours, was performed. Hemodynamic and arterial blood gas values were determined every 15 minutes throughout the stabilization and three-hour insufflation period. Hemodynamic parameters and blood gas values were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance with respect to insufflation time and pressure. RESULTS: Analysis of hemodynamics (CO, CVP, PAD, PAS, PCWP) did not demonstrate statistical significance with respect to time. However, there was a statistical difference in CO (p=.01), CVP (p<.01), and PCWP (p=.034) when comparing a pressure of 15 mm Hg to a pressure of 10 or 0 mm Hg. The other parameters did not demonstrate significant differences among the three pressure groups. Arterial PCO2 and pH were highly significant with respect to time (p<.01 and P<.01, respectively) and among the pressure groups (p<.01 and P<.01, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Insufflation of the preperitoneal space with CO2 gas does not cause significant alterations in hemodynamics and blood gas changes at a pressure of 10 mm Hg. However, when a pressure of 15 mm Hg is used to insufflate this space, there is evidence of decreased pH and cardiac output, with elevated CVP and CO2 retention. This correlates with greater pneumodissection of the gas within the layers of the abdominal wall when elevated pressures are used.  (+info)

Maximum static respiratory pressures in healthy elderly men and women: issues of reproducibility and interpretation. (4/736)

BACKGROUND: Respiratory muscle strength is assessed using the static pressure generated at the mouth during a maximal inspiratory or expiratory effort [PImax and PEmax, respectively (MSRPs)]. Interpretation of MSRPs relies upon comparison with 'normal' values, but MSRPs show very weak associations with predictors such as physical characteristics. The influence of habitual physical activity upon MSRPs remains undefined. OBJECTIVES: We examined measurement reproducibility, as well as the influence of physical characteristics and habitual physical activity upon MSRPs in healthy elderly people. METHODS: MSRPs were assessed in 41 healthy subjects using a portable mouth pressure meter on two occasions, 1 week apart. Physical activity was assessed in 10 subjects by diary record. Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients were used to assess the association of MSRPs with other measured variables. RESULTS: There was good measurement reproducibility of MSRPs, with coefficients of reproducibility of 10.2 and 12.8% for PImax and PEmax, respectively. MSRPs showed statistically significant negative correlations with age, but correlations with physical characteristics were poor. In contrast, MSRPs were highly correlated with physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that MSRPs can be measured reproducibly and that they decline with advancing age. Physical characteristics are not good predictors of MSRPs; this may be due to a strong confounding influence of physical activity making interpretation of measurements problematic. We suggest that the poor predictive power of physical characteristics indicate that reference to 'normal' values be made with caution and that it may be more appropriate to consider functional interpretations of MSRPs based upon factors such as lung and chest wall elastance.  (+info)

Central control of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems and their interactions in vertebrates. (5/736)

This review explores the fundamental neuranatomical and functional bases for integration of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems in vertebrates and traces their evolution through the vertebrate groups, from primarily water-breathing fish and larval amphibians to facultative air-breathers such as lungfish and some adult amphibians and finally obligate air-breathers among the reptiles, birds, and mammals. A comparative account of respiratory rhythm generation leads to consideration of the changing roles in cardiorespiratory integration for central and peripheral chemoreceptors and mechanoreceptors and their central projections. We review evidence of a developing role in the control of cardiorespiratory interactions for the partial relocation from the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus into the nucleus ambiguus of vagal preganglionic neurons, and in particular those innervating the heart, and for the existence of a functional topography of specific groups of sympathetic preganglionic neurons in the spinal cord. Finally, we consider the mechanisms generating temporal modulation of heart rate, vasomotor tone, and control of the airways in mammals; cardiorespiratory synchrony in fish; and integration of the cardiorespiratory system during intermittent breathing in amphibians, reptiles, and diving birds. Concluding comments suggest areas for further productive research.  (+info)

Pseudomonas aeruginosa binds to neoglycoconjugates bearing mucin carbohydrate determinants and predominantly to sialyl-Lewis x conjugates. (6/736)

Pseudomonas aeruginosa plays an important role in the colonization of the airways of patients suffering from cystic fibrosis. It binds to the carbohydrate part of respiratory and salivary mucins and its binding to cystic fibrosis mucins is even higher, suggesting that qualitative or/and quantitative modifications of the carbohydrate chains may be involved in this process. In order to find out the best carbohydrate receptors for P.aeruginosa, a flow cytometry technique using a panel of polyacrylamide based glycoconjugates labeled with fluorescein was developed. The neoglycoconjugates contained neutral, sialylated or sulfated chains analogous to carbohydrate determinants found at the periphery of respiratory mucins (Le(a), Le(y), Le(x), sialyl- and 3'-sulfo-Le(x), and blood group A determinants). We used also neoglycoconjugates containing Gal(alpha1-2)Galbeta and sialyl- N -acetyllactosamine determinants. The interaction of these glycoconjugates with the nonpiliated strain of P.aeruginosa, 1244-NP, was saturable except for the glycoconjugates containing blood group A or sialyl- N -acetyllactosamine epitopes. The measure of Kd indicated that strain 1244-NP had a higher affinity for the glycoconjugate bearing the sialyl-Le(x)determinant than for all the other glycoconjugates studied. The role of sialic acid was confirmed by competition assay using mainly sialylated mucin glycopeptides. In order to find out if this behavior was the same for pathological strains as for the 1244-NP mutant, four mucoid strains of P.aeruginosa isolated from cystic fibrosis patients were analyzed with the Le(x)neoglycoconjugate, its sialylated and its sulfated derivatives. Individual variations in the binding of these strains to the three glycoconjugates were observed. However, three strains out of four had a higher affinity for the sialyl-Le(x)than for the 3'-sulfo-Le(x)derivative.  (+info)

Pulmonary stretch receptor discharges and vagal regulation of respiration differ between two mouse strains. (7/736)

1. Experiments were performed on adult pentobarbitone-anaesthetized mice of the OF1 and the C3H/HeJ (C3H) strains, to analyse the regulation of respiration by pulmonary stretch receptors (PSRs). 2. Although the mean respiratory period, inspiratory and expiratory durations, and tidal volume did not differ significantly between the two strains, the inspiratory onset was drastically inhibited in OF1 mice but only slightly inhibited in C3H mice in response to tracheal occlusion performed at the very end of inspiration. 3. Low current electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve induced inspiratory onset inhibition in both strains, suggesting that the weak inspiratory onset inhibition elicited by tracheal occlusion in C3H mice did not originate from a low sensitivity of the respiratory centres to PSRs. 4. During normal respiration, PSR firing rate increased with tidal volume, but reached significantly higher values in OF1 than C3H mice. During tracheal occlusion, PSR firing rate was significantly higher at the end of inspiration and during the first third of the occlusion period in OF1 than C3H mice. 5. The airway pressure resistance was significantly higher in OF1 than C3H mice. After abolishing the tracheo-bronchial muscle tone with atropine in OF1 mice, tracheal occlusions induced weak inspiratory onset inhibitions resembling the C3H mouse responses. 6. The possibility that differences in tracheo-bronchial tone between OF1 and C3H mice may lead to a greater PSR discharge and thus to a powerful inhibition on the OF1 medullary respiratory centres during tracheal occlusion is discussed.  (+info)

Effects of single administration of a phosphodiesterase III inhibitor during cardiopulmonary bypass: comparison of milrinone and amrinone. (8/736)

The effects of phosphodiesterase III (PDE III) inhibitors administered after aortic declamping during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) for open heart surgery were investigated. Ten patients (group M) were administered milrinone (50 microg/kg) after aortic declamping during CPB, 10 patients were administered amrinone (1 mg/kg) at the same time during their surgery (group A), and 10 patients served as controls with no drug administered (group C). Soon after bolus infusion of the PDE III inhibitor, perfusion pressure dropped significantly in groups M and A. However, after release of CPB and at the end of surgery, there was no difference in aortic pressure between the 3 groups. There were also no differences between the groups in heart rate, pulmonary artery pressure, and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure. After weaning from CPB, the cardiac index was high and systemic vascular resistance index was low in groups M and A. There were no significant differences in the need for additional catecholamines and time for rewarming between groups. No adverse reactions were observed. A single administration of a PDE III inhibitor during CPB was useful for post-CPB management of patients undergoing open heart surgery. Amrinone reduced perfusion pressures more than milrinone, but cardiac indices and aortic pressures after weaning from CPB showed no differences between group M and group A patients.  (+info)

Circulatory and respiratory physiological phenomena refer to the functions, processes, and mechanisms that occur in the cardiovascular and respiratory systems to maintain homeostasis and support life.

The circulatory system, which includes the heart, blood vessels, and blood, is responsible for transporting oxygen, nutrients, hormones, and waste products throughout the body. The respiratory system, which consists of the nose, throat, trachea, bronchi, lungs, and diaphragm, enables the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the body and the environment.

Physiological phenomena in the circulatory system include heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac output, stroke volume, blood flow, and vascular resistance. These phenomena are regulated by various factors such as the autonomic nervous system, hormones, and metabolic demands.

Physiological phenomena in the respiratory system include ventilation, gas exchange, lung compliance, airway resistance, and respiratory muscle function. These phenomena are influenced by factors such as lung volume, airway diameter, surface area, and diffusion capacity.

Understanding circulatory and respiratory physiological phenomena is essential for diagnosing and managing various medical conditions, including cardiovascular diseases, respiratory disorders, and metabolic disorders. It also provides a foundation for developing interventions to improve health outcomes and prevent disease.

Respiratory physiological phenomena refer to the various mechanical, chemical, and biological processes and functions that occur in the respiratory system during breathing and gas exchange. These phenomena include:

1. Ventilation: The movement of air into and out of the lungs, which is achieved through the contraction and relaxation of the diaphragm and intercostal muscles.
2. Gas Exchange: The diffusion of oxygen (O2) from the alveoli into the bloodstream and carbon dioxide (CO2) from the bloodstream into the alveoli.
3. Respiratory Mechanics: The physical properties and forces that affect the movement of air in and out of the lungs, such as lung compliance, airway resistance, and chest wall elasticity.
4. Control of Breathing: The regulation of ventilation by the central nervous system through the integration of sensory information from chemoreceptors and mechanoreceptors in the respiratory system.
5. Acid-Base Balance: The maintenance of a stable pH level in the blood through the regulation of CO2 elimination and bicarbonate balance by the respiratory and renal systems.
6. Oxygen Transport: The binding of O2 to hemoglobin in the red blood cells and its delivery to the tissues for metabolic processes.
7. Defense Mechanisms: The various protective mechanisms that prevent the entry and colonization of pathogens and foreign particles into the respiratory system, such as mucociliary clearance, cough reflex, and immune responses.

Dental physiological phenomena refer to the various natural and normal functions, processes, and responses that occur in the oral cavity, particularly in the teeth and their supporting structures. These phenomena are essential for maintaining good oral health and overall well-being. Some of the key dental physiological phenomena include:

1. Tooth formation (odontogenesis): The process by which teeth develop from embryonic cells into fully formed adult teeth, including the growth and mineralization of tooth enamel, dentin, and cementum.
2. Eruption: The natural movement of a tooth from its developmental position within the jawbone to its final functional position in the oral cavity, allowing it to come into contact with the opposing tooth for biting and chewing.
3. Tooth mobility: The normal slight movement or displacement of teeth within their sockets due to the action of masticatory forces and the elasticity of the periodontal ligament that connects the tooth root to the alveolar bone.
4. Salivary flow: The continuous production and secretion of saliva by the major and minor salivary glands, which helps maintain a moist oral environment, neutralize acids, and aid in food digestion, speech, and swallowing.
5. pH balance: The regulation of acidity and alkalinity within the oral cavity, primarily through the buffering capacity of saliva and the action of dental plaque bacteria that metabolize sugars and produce acids as a byproduct.
6. Tooth sensitivity: The normal response of teeth to various stimuli such as temperature changes, touch, or pressure, which is mediated by the activation of nerve fibers within the dentin layer of the tooth.
7. Oral mucosal immune response: The natural defense mechanisms of the oral mucosa, including the production of antimicrobial proteins and peptides, the recruitment of immune cells, and the formation of a physical barrier against pathogens.
8. Tooth wear and attrition: The normal gradual loss of tooth structure due to natural processes such as chewing, grinding, and erosion by acidic substances, which can be influenced by factors such as diet, occlusion, and bruxism.
9. Tooth development and eruption: The growth and emergence of teeth from the dental follicle through the alveolar bone and gingival tissues, which is regulated by a complex interplay of genetic, hormonal, and environmental factors.

The digestive system is a series of organs and glands that work together to break down food into nutrients, which the body can absorb and use for energy, growth, and cell repair. The process begins in the mouth, where food is chewed and mixed with saliva, which contains enzymes that begin breaking down carbohydrates.

The oral physiological phenomena refer to the functions and processes that occur in the mouth during eating and digestion. These include:

1. Ingestion: The process of taking food into the mouth.
2. Mechanical digestion: The physical breakdown of food into smaller pieces by chewing, which increases the surface area for enzymes to act on.
3. Chemical digestion: The chemical breakdown of food molecules into simpler substances that can be absorbed and utilized by the body. In the mouth, this is initiated by salivary amylase, an enzyme found in saliva that breaks down starches into simple sugars.
4. Taste perception: The ability to detect different flavors through specialized taste buds located on the tongue and other areas of the oral cavity.
5. Olfaction: The sense of smell, which contributes to the overall flavor experience by interacting with taste perception in the brain.
6. Salivation: The production of saliva, which helps moisten food, making it easier to swallow, and contains enzymes that begin the digestion process.
7. Protective mechanisms: The mouth has several defense mechanisms to protect against harmful bacteria and other pathogens, such as the flow of saliva, which helps wash away food particles, and the presence of antibacterial compounds in saliva.

Reproductive physiological phenomena refer to the functions and processes related to human reproduction, which include:

1. Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis: The regulation of reproductive hormones through a feedback mechanism between the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and gonads (ovaries in females and testes in males).
2. Oogenesis/Spermatogenesis: The process of producing mature ova (eggs) or spermatozoa (sperm) capable of fertilization.
3. Menstrual Cycle: A series of events that occur in the female reproductive system over approximately 28 days, including follicular development, ovulation, and endometrial changes.
4. Pregnancy and Parturition: The process of carrying a developing fetus to term and giving birth.
5. Lactation: The production and secretion of milk by the mammary glands for nourishment of the newborn.

Urinary physiological phenomena refer to the functions and processes related to the urinary system, which include:

1. Renal Filtration: The process of filtering blood in the kidneys to form urine.
2. Tubular Reabsorption and Secretion: The active transport of solutes and water between the tubular lumen and peritubular capillaries, resulting in the formation of urine with a different composition than plasma.
3. Urine Concentration and Dilution: The ability to regulate the concentration of urine by adjusting the amount of water reabsorbed or excreted.
4. Micturition: The process of storing and intermittently releasing urine from the bladder through a coordinated contraction of the detrusor muscle and relaxation of the urethral sphincter.

Musculoskeletal physiological phenomena refer to the mechanical, physical, and biochemical processes and functions that occur within the musculoskeletal system. This system includes the bones, muscles, tendons, ligaments, cartilages, and other tissues that provide support, shape, and movement to the body. Examples of musculoskeletal physiological phenomena include muscle contraction and relaxation, bone growth and remodeling, joint range of motion, and the maintenance and repair of connective tissues.

Neural physiological phenomena, on the other hand, refer to the electrical and chemical processes and functions that occur within the nervous system. This system includes the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and ganglia that are responsible for processing information, controlling body movements, and maintaining homeostasis. Examples of neural physiological phenomena include action potential generation and propagation, neurotransmitter release and reception, sensory perception, and cognitive processes such as learning and memory.

Musculoskeletal and neural physiological phenomena are closely interrelated, as the nervous system controls the musculoskeletal system through motor neurons that innervate muscles, and sensory neurons that provide feedback to the brain about body position, movement, and pain. Understanding these physiological phenomena is essential for diagnosing and treating various medical conditions that affect the musculoskeletal and nervous systems.

The integumentary system is the largest organ system in the human body, responsible for providing a protective barrier against the external environment. The physiological phenomena associated with the integumentary system encompass a range of functions and processes that occur within the skin, hair, nails, and sweat glands. These phenomena include:

1. Barrier Function: The skin forms a physical barrier that protects the body from external threats such as pathogens, chemicals, and radiation. It also helps prevent water loss and regulates electrolyte balance.
2. Temperature Regulation: The integumentary system plays a crucial role in maintaining core body temperature through vasodilation and vasoconstriction of blood vessels in the skin, as well as through sweat production by eccrine glands.
3. Sensory Perception: The skin contains various sensory receptors that detect touch, pressure, pain, heat, and cold. These receptors transmit information to the central nervous system for processing and response.
4. Vitamin D Synthesis: The skin is capable of synthesizing vitamin D when exposed to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation from sunlight. This process involves the conversion of 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin into previtamin D3, which then undergoes further transformation into vitamin D3.
5. Excretion: Sweat glands within the integumentary system help eliminate waste products and excess heat through the production and secretion of sweat. The two types of sweat glands are eccrine glands, which produce a watery, odorless sweat, and apocrine glands, which produce a milky, odorous sweat primarily in response to emotional stimuli.
6. Immunological Function: The skin serves as an essential component of the immune system by providing a physical barrier against pathogens and housing various immune cells such as Langerhans cells, dendritic cells, and T-cells. These cells help recognize and respond to potential threats, contributing to the body's overall defense mechanisms.
7. Wound Healing: The integumentary system has the remarkable ability to repair itself following injury through a complex process involving inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. This process involves the coordinated efforts of various cell types, including keratinocytes, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and immune cells, as well as the production and deposition of extracellular matrix components such as collagen and elastin.
8. Growth and Development: The integumentary system plays a crucial role in growth and development by producing hormones such as vitamin D and melatonin, which contribute to various physiological processes throughout the body. Additionally, the skin serves as an essential sensory organ, providing information about temperature, touch, pain, and pressure through specialized nerve endings called mechanoreceptors.
9. Social Communication: The integumentary system can convey important social signals through changes in coloration, texture, and odor. For example, blushing or sweating may indicate embarrassment or anxiety, while certain skin conditions such as psoriasis or eczema may signal underlying health issues. Additionally, the release of pheromones through sweat glands can influence social behavior and attraction.
10. Aesthetic Appeal: The integumentary system contributes significantly to an individual's appearance and self-esteem. Healthy skin, hair, and nails are often associated with youthfulness, attractiveness, and vitality, while skin conditions such as acne, wrinkles, or discoloration can negatively impact one's self-image and confidence. As a result, maintaining the health and appearance of the integumentary system is an essential aspect of overall well-being and quality of life.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Sports Nutritional Physiological Phenomena" is not a widely recognized or established medical term. It seems to be a broad concept that combines elements from sports nutrition, physiology, and potentially some biochemical phenomena.

1. Sports Nutrition: This involves the study of how diet can impact physical performance during sporting activities. It includes understanding the role of macronutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and fats) and micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) in athletic performance and recovery.

2. Physiological Phenomena: This refers to the functions and activities of living organisms and their parts, including all physical and chemical processes. In the context of sports, this could include how the body responds to exercise, such as increased heart rate, respiratory rate, and metabolism.

If you're looking for a definition that encompasses these areas, it might be something like: "The study of how nutritional intake and physiological responses interact during sporting activities, including the impact on performance, recovery, and overall health." However, this is not a standard medical definition. If you could provide more context or clarify what specific aspects you're interested in, I might be able to give a more precise answer.

Reproductive physiological phenomena refer to the various functional processes and changes that occur in the reproductive system, enabling the production, development, and reproduction of offspring in living organisms. These phenomena encompass a wide range of events, including:

1. Hormonal regulation: The release and circulation of hormones that control and coordinate reproductive functions, such as follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, and inhibin.
2. Ovarian and testicular function: The development and maturation of ova (eggs) in females and sperm in males, including folliculogenesis, ovulation, spermatogenesis, and the maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics.
3. Menstrual cycle: The series of events that occur in the female reproductive system over a 28-day period, consisting of the follicular phase, ovulation, and luteal phase, resulting in the shedding of the uterine lining if fertilization does not occur.
4. Fertilization: The process by which a sperm penetrates and fuses with an egg to form a zygote, initiating embryonic development.
5. Implantation: The attachment and embedding of the developing blastocyst (early-stage embryo) into the uterine lining, leading to pregnancy.
6. Pregnancy: The physiological state of carrying a developing offspring within the female reproductive system, characterized by hormonal changes, growth and development of the fetus, and preparation for childbirth.
7. Lactation: The production and secretion of milk from the mammary glands to provide nutrition for newborn offspring.
8. Menopause: The permanent cessation of menstrual cycles and reproductive function in females, typically occurring in the fourth or fifth decade of life, characterized by a decline in hormone production and various physical and emotional symptoms.

These reproductive physiological phenomena are complex and highly regulated processes that ensure the continuation of species and the maintenance of genetic diversity.

Physiological phenomena refer to the functional and mechanical activities that occur within a living organism or in any of its parts. These phenomena are associated with the normal functioning of the body and its organs, including biological processes such as digestion, respiration, circulation, excretion, metabolism, and nerve impulse transmission. They can be studied at different levels, from molecular and cellular to organ system and whole-body levels, and are essential for maintaining homeostasis and promoting the survival and health of the organism.

I cannot provide a medical definition for the term "Elder Nutritional Physiological Phenomena" as it is not a widely recognized or established term in the field of medicine or nutrition. It seems to be a very specific and narrow term that may refer to certain age-related changes in nutritional status and physiological functions among older adults. However, I would recommend consulting with a healthcare professional or geriatric specialist for a more accurate and detailed explanation based on the context and specific phenomena being referred to.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Urinary Tract Physiological Phenomena" is not a widely recognized or established medical term. However, I can provide information about the physiology of the urinary tract, which may be what you are looking for.

The urinary tract is a system responsible for producing, storing, and eliminating urine from the body. It includes two kidneys, two ureters, the bladder, and the urethra. The physiological phenomena associated with the urinary tract include:

1. Glomerular filtration: In the kidneys, blood is filtered through structures called glomeruli, which remove waste products and excess fluids from the bloodstream to form urine.
2. Tubular reabsorption: As urine moves through the tubules of the nephron in the kidney, essential substances like water, glucose, amino acids, and electrolytes are actively reabsorbed back into the bloodstream.
3. Hormonal regulation: The urinary system plays a role in maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance through hormonal mechanisms, such as the release of erythropoietin (regulates red blood cell production), renin (activates the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system to regulate blood pressure and fluid balance), and calcitriol (the active form of vitamin D that helps regulate calcium homeostasis).
4. Urine storage: The bladder serves as a reservoir for urine, expanding as it fills and contracting during urination.
5. Micturition (urination): Once the bladder reaches a certain volume or pressure, nerve signals are sent to the brain, leading to the conscious decision to urinate. The sphincters of the urethra relax, allowing urine to flow out of the body through the urethral opening.

If you could provide more context about what specific information you're looking for, I would be happy to help further!

Musculoskeletal physiological phenomena refer to the various functions, processes, and responses that occur in the musculoskeletal system. This system includes the muscles, bones, joints, cartilages, tendons, ligaments, and other connective tissues that work together to support the body's structure, enable movement, and protect vital organs.

Musculoskeletal physiological phenomena can be categorized into several areas:

1. Muscle contraction and relaxation: This involves the conversion of chemical energy into mechanical energy through the sliding of actin and myosin filaments in muscle fibers, leading to muscle shortening or lengthening.
2. Bone homeostasis: This includes the maintenance of bone mass, density, and strength through a balance between bone formation by osteoblasts and bone resorption by osteoclasts.
3. Joint movement and stability: The movement of joints is enabled by the interaction between muscles, tendons, ligaments, and articular cartilage, while stability is maintained through the passive tension provided by ligaments and the active contraction of muscles.
4. Connective tissue repair and regeneration: This involves the response of tissues such as tendons, ligaments, and muscles to injury or damage, including inflammation, cell proliferation, and matrix remodeling.
5. Neuromuscular control: The coordination of muscle activity through the integration of sensory information from proprioceptors (e.g., muscle spindles, Golgi tendon organs) and motor commands from the central nervous system.
6. Skeletal development and growth: This includes the processes of bone formation, mineralization, and modeling during fetal development and childhood, as well as the maintenance of bone mass and strength throughout adulthood.
7. Aging and degeneration: The progressive decline in musculoskeletal function and structure with age, including sarcopenia (loss of muscle mass), osteoporosis (brittle bones), and joint degeneration (osteoarthritis).

Understanding these physiological phenomena is essential for the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of musculoskeletal disorders and injuries.

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It largely focuses on the nature of anger, especially from a physiological point of view. Nevertheless, Demarco also sees it ... the phenomena of respiration; and the primary use of respiration. The work, which is made up of some 100 pages, and written in ... the nature and peculiarities of respiratory air; the function of breathing; the instruments of expiration, their powers, ... It was entitled Dissertatio Physiologica de Respiratione, ejusque Uso Primario (Physiological Aspects of Respiration and its ...
... cell phenomena, and immunity G05 - genetic processes G06 - biochemical phenomena, metabolism, and nutrition G07 - physiological ... respiratory tract diseases C09 - otorhinolaryngologic diseases C10 - nervous system diseases C11 - eye diseases C12 - urologic ... chemical and pharmacologic phenomena G13 - genetic phenomena G14 - genetic structures H - Physical Sciences H01 - natural ... respiratory system (46 articles) A05 - urogenital system (87 articles) A06 - endocrine system A07 - cardiovascular system A08 ...
... or by physiological abnormalities in congestive heart failure, and is also seen in newborns with immature respiratory systems ... These phenomena can occur during wakefulness or during sleep, where they are called the central sleep apnea syndrome (CSAS). It ... In normal respiratory control, negative feedback allows a steady level of alveolar gas concentrations to be maintained, and ... Manisty CH, Willson K, Wensel R, Whinnett ZI, Davies JE, Oldfield WL, Mayet J, Francis DP (2006). "Development of respiratory ...
The physiological effects of acute carbon dioxide exposure are grouped together under the term hypercapnia, a subset of ... The respiratory centers try to maintain an arterial CO2 pressure of 40 mmHg. With intentional hyperventilation, the CO2 content ... He used this phenomenon to illustrate that carbon dioxide is produced by animal respiration and microbial fermentation. In 1772 ... Also, with ongoing respiratory acidosis, adaptation or compensatory mechanisms will be unable to reverse such condition. There ...
... change their position approximately every 11.6 min-a phenomenon described by Keane as "minimum physiological mobility ... Pneumonia and other related respiratory illnesses. Disorders of the renal and gastrointestinal systems. Disruption in the ... such as bedsores and respiratory problems. The National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel's (NPUAP) Support Surface Standards ...
Respiratory sinus arrhythmia is frequently used as a noninvasive method for investigating vagal tone, in physiological, ... Hayano J, Yasuma F, Okada A, Mukai S, Fujinami T (August 1996). "Respiratory sinus arrhythmia. A phenomenon improving pulmonary ... Hayano J, Yasuma F, Okada A, Mukai S, Fujinami T (August 1996). "Respiratory sinus arrhythmia. A phenomenon improving pulmonary ... Porges SW (1986), "Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia: Physiological Basis, Quantitative Methods, and Clinical Implications", ...
... is an original phenomenon. From such, all relations between further phenomena can be derived and the latter thus understood ( ... and respiratory system), which momentarily rekindles the momentarily paralysed life, in such a way that they become the ... physiological basis of thinking, willing and feeling; through these soul-activities, human individuality can continue its own ... "A phenomenon, an experiment can prove nothing; it is the link of a great chain which is only valid in the context. He who would ...
Schmidt-Nielsen, B. (1984). "August and Marie Krogh and respiratory physiology". Journal of Applied Physiology: Respiratory, ... American Physiological Society) "© the American Physiological Society - Bodil M. Schmidt-Nielsen". Archived from the original ... Fournier, R. L. Basic Transport Phenomena in Biomedical Engineering. Taylor & Francis, London, 1999. Choi et al. Microfluidic ... The Respiratory Exchange of Animals and Man (1916) Osmotic Regulation in Aquatic Animals (1939) The Comparative Physiology of ...
Active transport Transport phenomena "5.2 Passive Transport - Biology 2e , OpenStax". Retrieved 2020-12-06. "5.2A ... Wagner, Peter D. (2015-01-01). "The physiological basis of pulmonary gas exchange: implications for clinical interpretation of ... arterial blood gases". European Respiratory Journal. 45 (1): 227-243. doi:10.1183/09031936.00039214. ISSN 0903-1936. PMID ... "12.7 Molecular Transport Phenomena: Diffusion, Osmosis, and Related Processes - College Physics for AP® Courses , OpenStax". ...
Micro-PIV has been used to study flows in microfluidic devices, such as lab-on-a-chip systems, and to investigate phenomena ... In biofluids research, PIV has been applied to study blood flow in arteries and veins, respiratory flow, and the motion of ... providing important information for understanding physiological processes and disease mechanisms. PIV has also been used in ... In biofluids research, PIV has been applied to study blood flow in arteries and veins, respiratory flow, and the motion of ...
On the mound of Macrotermes michaelseni as an organ of respiratory gas exchange. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 74(6): ... the phenomenon of biological design. With this argument, Turner counters both Intelligent Design and strong Darwinism, showing ... Physiological Zoology 67: 1426-1447. Turner, J. S. 1994. Thermal impedance of a contact-incubated bird's egg. Journal of ... Wedekind, C. Can the physiological agents of homeostasis create the appearance of design in nature? Review of J. Scott Turner ...
During late 1772 Lavoisier turned his attention to the phenomenon of combustion, the topic on which he was to make his most ... Lavoisier stated, "la respiration est donc une combustion," that is, respiratory gas exchange is a combustion, like that of a ... but Lavoisier's pioneering work in this field inspired similar research on physiological processes for generations. Lavoisier's ... thus accounting for the puzzling phenomenon of animal heat. Lavoisier continued these respiration experiments in 1789-1790 in ...
Seasonal variation in human birth rate has been found to be a nearly universal phenomenon. Also, birth seasonality has been ... respiratory condition and reproductive conditions with birth month. In addition, they uncovered an association between ... found to be correlated with certain physiological and psychological traits of humans and animals[citation needed]. Evidence for ...
Wan, WH; BT Ang; E Wang (Jan 7, 2008). "The cushing response: A case for a review of its role as a physiological reflex". J ... Other researchers have found that increases in respiratory rate follow ICP decreases, while others say it is a response to ICP ... Cushing reflex (also referred to as the vasopressor response, the Cushing effect, the Cushing reaction, the Cushing phenomenon ... It has been determined that rate of respiration is affected by the Cushing reflex, though the respiratory changes induced are ...
... continues his work in evolutionary developmental genetics and directs his research towards the physiological ... in these phenomena. As was then fully accepted in the scientific community, he proposes that cascades of regulation of homeotic ... of action on the transcriptional activation of the Ndufs1 and Ndufs3 subunits of complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory ...
... or acute respiratory distress syndrome (respiratory failure from lung inflammation). Drowning is more likely to happen when ... The physiological effects caused by the diving reflex conflict with the body's cold shock response, which includes a gasp and ... Misinformation about this supposed phenomenon is spread cyclically, mostly at the beginning of summer, over social media. As a ... Secondary drowning: physiological response to foreign matter in the lungs due to drowning causing extrusion of liquid into the ...
The Physiological Basis of Decompression. 38th Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society Workshop. UHMS Publication Number 75 ( ... While not strictly speaking a phenomenon of decompression, it is a complication that can occur during decompression, and that ... Variations in perfusion distribution do not necessarily affect respiratory inert gas exchange, though some gas may be locally ... Decompression is a stressor, and decompression stress is the effect on the organism of the physical and physiological factors ...
Such physiological and cognitive functions are generally not believed to give rise to mental phenomena or qualia, however, as ... Pulmonary stretch receptors are found in the lungs and control the respiratory rate. Peripheral chemoreceptors in the brain ... Nociception (physiological pain) signals nerve-damage or damage to tissue. The three types of pain receptors are cutaneous ( ... The mind considered by itself is seen as the principal gateway to a different spectrum of phenomena that differ from the ...
This phenomenon is often appealing to first-time users. Lean is often used in combination with alcohol and/or other drugs. When ... The physiological effects of lean on the user are to produce mild "euphoric side effects", which are accompanied by "motor- ... It ain't that easy." Respiratory depression is a potentially serious or fatal adverse drug reaction associated with the use of ... Using alcohol and other drugs alongside lean increases the chance of respiratory depression. It seems that the concoction does ...
... this phenomenon is also referred to as physiological arousal. Psychophysiological economics researchers directly measure the ... Respiratory feedback: breathing patterns Surface electromyography: muscle tension patterns (muscle tone) Sweat production ... As such, some levels of physiological stress may benefit the decision making processes, but there may be a threshold as to how ... As a new field of study, psychophysiological economics tends to be focused on evaluating and assessing physiological aspects of ...
Narcosis is a phenomenon that occurs when a combination of organic toxicants, each at low concentrations, have a toxic effect ... This action in some species of fish (e.g. eels) is used to push water over the gills to meet respiratory demands. For coho ... Additional combinations of effects may result from contaminants and pathogens or contaminants and physiological effects. As ... Use of respiratory-cardiovascular responses of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) in identifying acute toxicity syndromes in fish ...
This phenomenon is demonstrated during the cell cycle. In the cell cycle, Paraspeckles are present during interphase and during ... The main insight into their physiological function is their location. Prominent Paraspeckles are only found in a subpopulation ... records that quantities of NEAT1 and thus Paraspeckles are increased in digestive system tumours and respiratory cancers. ...
Habituation is a behavioral phenomenon while neural adaptation is a physiological phenomenon, although the two are not entirely ... Some rhythmic movements, such as respiratory movements, are essential for survival. Because these movements must be used over ... This phenomenon also applies to the sense of touch. An unfamiliar piece of clothing that was just put on will be noticed ... The same phenomenon can be observed with other types of smell, such as perfume, flowers, etc. The human brain can distinguish ...
Physiological signals are mainly recorded using special non-invasive surface electrodes (for EDA, EMG, ECG, and EEG), a blood ... With regard to the differences in design, methodology, evaluation sample, and conceptualization of the phenomenon of pain, it ... volume pulse sensor (BVP), a respiratory belt (respiration), and a thermal sensor (body temperature). Endocrinological and ... Psycho-)physiological information such as muscle tone and heart rate can be collected via biopotential sensors (electrodes). ...
This phenomenon is known as aposematism. Some caterpillars, especially members of Papilionidae, contain an osmeterium, a Y- ... as well as in certain specific morphological or physiological traits within a species. Environmental polymorphism, in which ... along the sides of the abdomen and thorax supplying the trachea with oxygen as it goes through the lepidopteran's respiratory ... This often includes the phenomenon of mimicry when mimetic morphs fly alongside nonmimetic morphs in a population of a ...
This phenomenon has been called "sleep inertia." After sleep deprivation there is usually a sharp rebound of SWS, suggesting ... During non-REM sleep, the tonic drive to most respiratory muscles of the upper airway is inhibited. This has two consequences: ... Parasomnias are sleep behaviors that affect the function, quality, or timing of sleep, caused by a physiological activation in ... This phenomenon is understood as memories and learned skills being metabolized during NREM sleep; the decrease in SWA is ...
Respiratory pattern changes have also been noted in the hypnagogic state, in addition to a lowered rate of frontalis muscle ... Indeed, it is not always possible in practice to assign a particular episode of any given phenomenon to one or the other, given ... Physiological studies have tended to concentrate on hypnagogia in the strict sense of spontaneous sleep onset experiences. Such ... Mental phenomena that may occur during this "threshold consciousness" phase include hypnagogic hallucinations, lucid dreaming, ...
To study this phenomenon, IBMP has been conducting research in this area for many years, which has allowed construction of a ... The experiment yielded important data on the physiological, social, and psychological effects of long-term, close-quarters ... Crew experiments included monthly operational research, consisting of recording electrocardiogram, respiratory samples and ... MARS-500 was intended to study the psychological, physiological, and technological challenges inherent to long-duration space ...
Respiratory impairment resulting from being in or underneath a liquid "Exercise in the Cold: Part II - A physiological trip ... Death which occurs in such scenarios is complex to investigate and there are several possible causes and phenomena that can ... The physiological response to a sudden immersion in cold water may be divided in three or four discrete stages, with different ... Diving reflex - The physiological responses to immersion of air-breathing vertebrates Hypothermia - Human body core temperature ...
Variation in the beat-to-beat interval is a physiological phenomenon. The SA node receives several different inputs and the ... There are two primary fluctuations: Respiratory arrhythmia (or respiratory sinus arrhythmia). This heart rate variation is ... Heart rate variability (HRV) is the physiological phenomenon of variation in the time interval between heartbeats. It is ... Less is known about the physiological inputs of the low frequency (LF) activity (0.04 to 0.15 Hz). Though previously thought to ...
... or non-malignant respiratory disease. For respiratory system cancer, there was an observed 6% excess that was statistically ... Topic # 1. Physiological Fate of Asbestos and Vitreous Fibers less than 5 Microns in Length. Discuss/review current knowledge ... The only draw backs to and in vitro approach is that these techniques do no take lung clearance phenomena into consideration ... mortality related to selected respiratory disease, or respiratory cancer. The vast majority of airborne fibers were reported to ...
Exposure-assessment; Exposure-levels; Chemical-properties; Physiological-disorders; Physiological-factors; Physiological- ... Assessment of upper respiratory tract and ocular irritative effects of volatile chemicals in humans. ... reviews practical means employed for assessing such phenomena, including psychophysical (e.g., threshold and suprathreshold ... This article (a) describes the basic anatomy and physiology of the human upper respiratory tract and ocular mucosae, (b) ...
PHENOMENA AND PROCESSES. Circulatory and Respiratory Physiological Phenomena [G09] Circulatory and Respiratory Physiological ...
G09 - Circulatory and Respiratory Physiological Phenomena. Atrial Remodeling. Remodelamento Atrial. Remodelación Atrial. ... G06 - Microbiological Phenomena. Microbiota. Microbiota. Microbiota. G07 - Physiological Phenomena. Diapause, Insect. Diapausa ... G15 - Plant Physiological Phenomena. Etiolation. Estiolamento. Etiolado. Organogenesis, Plant. Organogênese Vegetal. ... G04 - Cell Physiological Phenomena. Mean Platelet Volume. Volume Plaquetário Médio. Volúmen Plaquetario Medio. ...
Respiratory Therapy, Heart Diseases, Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena, Fisioterapia Respiratória, Fisioterapia ( ... Physiological, Anatomy, Public Health, Lung, Respiration, Respiratory Muscles, Respiration, Artificial, Pulmonary Ventilation, ... Physiological, "Traumatologia Desportiva: Novas Perspectivas no Uso da Terapia Regenerativa", Fisioterapia (Especialidade), ... Physiological, Anatomy, Orthopedic Procedures, Manipulation, Orthopedic, Multiple Trauma, Traumatology, Trauma Centers, ...
... is a physiological phenomenon that reflects the mutual interaction between the cardiac and respiratory control systems. It is ... The current study utilized a recently validated method to calculate respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) dynamically at a high ... The in silico model is derived by compartmentalizing the various physiological components involved in the closed-loop ... and respiratory signals (RESP) were recorded in all the participants. Subsequently, we obtained the maternal beat-to-beat (RR) ...
Aging is a physiological process that involves all living things and is connected to the loss of skills, the way of life in the ... Aging is a biological and psychological phenomenon that affects the family and social level. It is a process in which there is ... Cardiovascular, metabolic, respiratory, digestive, neurological, psychological and musculoskeletal changes are perceived over ... The oral cavity is a major tool for social interaction, through speech, and the physiological comfort, through feeding. The ...
Various changes throughout the manual place subtle emphasis on medico-physiological theory. DSMs III and IV were said to be " ... and respiratory diseases.. • The proposed reclassification of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) from Disorders ... we are concerned that these reconceptualizations of mental disorder as primarily medical phenomena may have scientific, ... Though such a redefinition may appear to lend these symptoms a solid medico-physiological foundation, we believe that the lack ...
In a first attempt to understand the phenomenon, we apply elements of the coherence-theory of the bio photons on the low- ... 01 Chervinskaya A V. MORA-Therapy for respiratory and allergic diseases. Vorträge anlässlich des Symposiums der Internationalen ... field with following new formation of them by the self-regulation forces of this field and with consequences at a physiological ...
Respiratory gas tensions and pH in healing wounds. Am J Surg. 1967 Aug. 114(2):302-7. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ... This can be useful with embolic phenomena such as decompression sickness (DCS) or arterial gas emboli (AGE). As the pressure is ... Surgical and physiological observations in an experimental pressure chamber. Br J Surg. 1961. 49:222-227. ... The delay phenomenon. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1974 Nov. 54(5):585-98. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ...
This is a common phenomenon that can be frustrating, especially for athletes. While many people think its because of the ... Clenbuterol is a powerful bronchodilator thats been used for years to treat respiratory problems. It also helps people lose ... The reasons behind weight gain after Clenbuterol use are complicated and multifaceted, involving several physiological ... Clenbuterol is a sympathomimetic amine that is commonly used as a bronchodilator to treat asthma and other respiratory ...
As hyponatraemia is partly physiological, it may be difficult to distinguish pathological hyponatraemia from the physiological ... The mechanism that causes the reset-osmostat phenomenon is unknown, but from experimental work, it is clear that presence of ... However, her history and physical examination had not been suggestive of a respiratory tract infection. Excessive water-intake ... The various (patho)physiological mechanisms involved in hyponatraemia found in these cases are discussed. Possible iatrogenic ...
Physiological adaptations to serpentinization in the Samail Ophiolite, Oman Journal Article * Production of formaldehyde and ... Effects of a transition from non-noxia to anoxia on yeast cytochrome c oxidase and the mitochondrial respiratory chain - ... Biochemical Phenomena - Anaerobiosis PubMed MeSh Term *Overview. Overview. subject area of * A stability assessment tool for ...
Respiratory Physiological Phenomena, Simmons Mark A, Sodium Channel Blockers/pharmacology, Sprague-Dawley, Triazoles/* ... There is a significant unmet need for treatments of patients with acute lung injury (ALI) and/or acute respiratory distress ...
The long term strategy for treatment of these phenomena will vary with their cause and the therapeutic goal. When necessary, ... Also, neonatal flaccidity and respiratory problems have been reported in children born of mothers who have been receiving ... which is soluble in methanol or ethanol but which has no appreciable solubility in water at physiological pH. ... While the severity and incidence of withdrawal phenomena appear to be related to dose and duration of treatment, withdrawal ...
Hemodynamic Phenomena. Fenômenos Hemodinâmicos. Fenómenos Hemodinámicos. Respiratory Physiologic Phenomena. Fenômenos ... G07 - Physiological Processes. Lymphangiogenesis. Linfagiogênese. Linfangiogénesis. Musculoskeletal Development. ... G09 - Circulatory and Respiratory Physiology. Blood Physiologic Phenomena. Fenômenos Fisiológicos Sanguíneos. Fenómenos ... G04 - Biological Phenomena, Cell Phenomena, and Immunity. Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly. Montagem e Desmontagem da ...
However the physiological need for these phenomena must end up being elucidated for selecting EGFR-directed drugs with reduced ... Although taking place at low regularity intensifying respiratory dysfunction including severe interstitial pneumonia (IP) may ...
Ventilation-Perfusion Ratio Variations : Physiological & Pathological. *Transport of Oxygen : P50 Value, Shift to right, Bohr ... respiratory Pontine Centers : Apneustic centre, Pneumotaxic center. *Hyperventilation : Effects. *Hypoventilation : Hypoxia, ... Aldosterone escape phenomenon. *Glucocortcoids(Cortisol, Corticosterone, and Cortisone). *Cushings Syndrome. *Addisons ... Autophagy : This is a natural physiological mechanism in which the body destroys cells. ...
Newborns with low Apgar scores at 5 min, low birthweight, hypoxia, difficulty breathing, convulsions, and respiratory distress ... This phenomenon is widespread globally, as evidenced by studies reporting high prevalence rates in various countries, such as ... physiological, behavioral, and socio-economic factors (14). We observed a significant positive correlation between newborn body ... respiratory issues, convulsions, hypoglycemia, breastfeeding difficulties, and congenital anomalies. Junior medical officers ...
Disease of Respiratory System (460-519) 460.X Cold 461.X Acute Sinusitis 462.X Acute Pharyngitis 463.X Acute Tonsillitis 464.X ... Focal phenomena, e.g., one extremity cyanotic should be recorded under Other findings.) b. Irregular pulse: Record any ... irregularities of pulse except physiological variations. c. Cardiac murmur: Record all murmurs. Grade, location, radiation, and ... In addition, data were collected on anemia, diabetes, respiratory condition, hearing and speech, liver and gallbladder ...
  • The course includes the following organs and organ systems: the heart, the circulatory system and the blood, the kidneys and the urinary tract, the respiratory system, the digestive tract and accessory organs, endocrine organs and the reproductive organs. (
  • Anatomico-clinical data on suprasegmental control of the vegetative nervous system are dealt with here, by briefly reviewing information relevant to the following territories: the frontal lobe and limbic centres, which are located in the forebrain, the hypothalamus, the respiratory, cardiovascular, and micturition centres of the brain stem. (
  • It can be associated with different physiological states (fasting, physical activity, aging, etc.) and pathological processes (diseases of cardiovascular, central nervous and endocrine, respiratory system, etc. (
  • More generally, the phenotype associated with Chuvash polycythaemia demonstrates that VHL plays a major role in the underlying calibration and homeostasis of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems, most likely through its central role in the regulation of HIF. (
  • ABSTRACT Associations of oral diseases with noncommunicable diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, chronic respiratory diseases, osteoporosis and chronic renal failure are widely reported in the literature from developed countries. (
  • B. Examination by physician A physician performed and recorded the results of a medical examination giving special attention to specified findings related to nutrition, to hearing, to the thyroid gland,and to the cardiovascular, respiratory, neurological and musculoskeletal systems. (
  • All these diseases and physiological processes are accompanied by formation of stress in the organism. (
  • Certain themes contain microscopy exercises, laboratory sessions or model exercises to illustrate e.g. morphology or increase the understanding of integrative physiological processes. (
  • During the course, the students will also carry out a literature project that aims to deepen understanding of physiological processes and to develop expertise from previous courses with respect to reading, understanding, summarising, presenting and discussing research articles and issues. (
  • Investigations into the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) functional MRI signal have used respiratory challenges with the aim of probing cerebrovascular physiology. (
  • In order to explain physiological functions, the required anatomy and histology is studied in parallel with physiology. (
  • Individuals with Chuvash polycythaemia were found to have striking abnormalities in respiratory and pulmonary vascular regulation. (
  • Optimum support by high-flow nasal cannula in acute hypoxemic respiratory failure: effects of increasing flow rates. (
  • Serious' effects are those that evoke failure in a biological system and can lead to morbidity or mortality (e.g., acute respiratory distress or death). (
  • The acute and chronic effects of cigarette smoking on selected physiological responses were determined in seven well-trained non-smokers and seven well-trained habitual smokers. (
  • Assessment of upper respiratory tract and ocular irrita tive effects of volatile chemicals in humans. (
  • A. What is the expected physiological depositional pattern for less-than-5-micron fibers in the lung? (
  • Dr. Einav and his team apply their methods to the physiological flow in the heart, arteries, veins, and microcirculation, as well as air flow in respiratory airways and urine flow in the kidney and urethra. (
  • The DEF system can provide flexible, convenient, and physiologically well-controlled respiratory challenges in the MRI environment for mapping dynamic responses of the cerebrovasculature. (
  • The neurovisceral integration is a model of HRV that views the central autonomic network as the decision maker of cognitive, behavioral and physiological regulation as they pertain to a continuum of emotion. (
  • HRV has provided a window to the physiological components associated with emotional regulation. (
  • Heart disease, stroke, cancer, and NCD, but the relationship has not been diabetes and chronic respiratory disease are clearly established as a causal one. (
  • The vagus nerve activity reflects the physiological modulation of the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system. (
  • Stress is followed by stimulation of sympathetic adrenal system which causes increase of epinephrine secretion and formation of tissue hypoxia phenomena. (
  • The focus of work in his Stony Brook Biomedical Engineering laboratory is investigation of basic physiological flow phenomena in context with cellular and tissue engineering. (
  • standards of measurement, physiological interpretation, and clinical use. (
  • While attempting to explain the phenomena that occur in a human organism, neuroplasticity of the brain should be given special consideration. (
  • Aging is a physiological process that involves all living things and is connected to the loss of skills, the way of life in the past, genetics, and emotional and psychological changes. (
  • We conclude that despite considerable genetic variances, all three contemporary swine-origin A(H3N2) viruses displayed a capacity for robust replication in the ferret respiratory tract and were also capable of limited airborne transmission. (
  • Furthermore, the students are introduced to physiological phenomena through basic physiological examination methods. (
  • While WA/1 virus exhibited a moderately increased proportion compared to that in the inoculum following co-infection in human respiratory cells, Delta variant possessed a substantial in vivo fitness advantage as this virus becoming predominant in both inoculated and contact animals. (
  • Heart rate variability (HRV) is the physiological phenomenon of variation in the time interval between heartbeats. (
  • The goal of the lab is to simulate biological systems by way of mathematical models and computer systems to help life scientists better understand physiological functions. (
  • This study investigated which physiological parameters change when endotracheal and upper airway suctioning is performed immediately before, immediately after and five minutes after this procedure is performed in newborns hospitalized in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). (
  • The current study utilized a recently validated method to calculate respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) dynamically at a high resolution of 5 Hz (updated every 200 ms) in a home-based infant study. (
  • Accurate assessment of upper respiratory tract and ocular irrita tion is critical for identifying and remedying problems related to overexposure to volatile chemicals, as well as for establishing parameters of irrita tion useful for regulatory purposes. (
  • Discuss/review current knowledge about the physiological fate of small fibers when they enter the body. (
  • The aim of this work is to discuss the mechanism of phantom pains and to illustrate particular phenomena that are often observed in patients after the amputation of a limb. (