These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.
The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.
Therapeutic exercises aimed to deepen inspiration or expiration or even to alter the rate and rhythm of respiration.
RESPIRATORY MUSCLE contraction during INHALATION. The work is accomplished in three phases: LUNG COMPLIANCE work, that required to expand the LUNGS against its elastic forces; tissue resistance work, that required to overcome the viscosity of the lung and chest wall structures; and AIRWAY RESISTANCE work, that required to overcome airway resistance during the movement of air into the lungs. Work of breathing does not refer to expiration, which is entirely a passive process caused by elastic recoil of the lung and chest cage. (Guyton, Textbook of Medical Physiology, 8th ed, p406)
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
Respiratory muscles that arise from the lower border of one rib and insert into the upper border of the adjoining rib, and contract during inspiration or respiration. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A vague complaint of debility, fatigue, or exhaustion attributable to weakness of various muscles. The weakness can be characterized as subacute or chronic, often progressive, and is a manifestation of many muscle and neuromuscular diseases. (From Wyngaarden et al., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p2251)
Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be breathed in and blown out over a sustained interval such as 15 or 20 seconds. Common abbreviations are MVV and MBC.
A state arrived at through prolonged and strong contraction of a muscle. Studies in athletes during prolonged submaximal exercise have shown that muscle fatigue increases in almost direct proportion to the rate of muscle glycogen depletion. Muscle fatigue in short-term maximal exercise is associated with oxygen lack and an increased level of blood and muscle lactic acid, and an accompanying increase in hydrogen-ion concentration in the exercised muscle.
Muscles forming the ABDOMINAL WALL including RECTUS ABDOMINIS, external and internal oblique muscles, transversus abdominis, and quadratus abdominis. (from Stedman, 25th ed)
The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.
The act of BREATHING in.
The amount of force generated by MUSCLE CONTRACTION. Muscle strength can be measured during isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic contraction, either manually or using a device such as a MUSCLE STRENGTH DYNAMOMETER.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
A general term encompassing lower MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and certain MUSCULAR DISEASES. Manifestations include MUSCLE WEAKNESS; FASCICULATION; muscle ATROPHY; SPASM; MYOKYMIA; MUSCLE HYPERTONIA, myalgias, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA.
Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The maximum volume of air that can be inspired after reaching the end of a normal, quiet expiration. It is the sum of the TIDAL VOLUME and the INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME. Common abbreviation is IC.
Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.
Complete or severe weakness of the muscles of respiration. This condition may be associated with MOTOR NEURON DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVE DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; injury to the PHRENIC NERVE; and other disorders.
The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.
Difficult or labored breathing.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.
Failure to adequately provide oxygen to cells of the body and to remove excess carbon dioxide from them. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.
Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.
The time span between the beginning of physical activity by an individual and the termination because of exhaustion.
Techniques for effecting the transition of the respiratory-failure patient from mechanical ventilation to spontaneous ventilation, while meeting the criteria that tidal volume be above a given threshold (greater than 5 ml/kg), respiratory frequency be below a given count (less than 30 breaths/min), and oxygen partial pressure be above a given threshold (PaO2 greater than 50mm Hg). Weaning studies focus on finding methods to monitor and predict the outcome of mechanical ventilator weaning as well as finding ventilatory support techniques which will facilitate successful weaning. Present methods include intermittent mandatory ventilation, intermittent positive pressure ventilation, and mandatory minute volume ventilation.
Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.
The exercise capacity of an individual as measured by endurance (maximal exercise duration and/or maximal attained work load) during an EXERCISE TEST.
A clinical manifestation of abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.
The upper part of the trunk between the NECK and the ABDOMEN. It contains the chief organs of the circulatory and respiratory systems. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.
The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).
The airflow rate measured during the first liter expired after the first 200 ml have been exhausted during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are MEFR, FEF 200-1200, and FEF 0.2-1.2.
The motor nerve of the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve fibers originate in the cervical spinal column (mostly C4) and travel through the cervical plexus to the diaphragm.
The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.
Acquired, familial, and congenital disorders of SKELETAL MUSCLE and SMOOTH MUSCLE.
A set of twelve curved bones which connect to the vertebral column posteriorly, and terminate anteriorly as costal cartilage. Together, they form a protective cage around the internal thoracic organs.
Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).
The force per unit area that the air exerts on any surface in contact with it. Primarily used for articles pertaining to air pressure within a closed environment.
The outer margins of the thorax containing SKIN, deep FASCIA; THORACIC VERTEBRAE; RIBS; STERNUM; and MUSCLES.
Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type II MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have high ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment. Several fast types have been identified.
The resection or removal of the innervation of a muscle or muscle tissue.
The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a maximal expiration. Common abbreviation is RV.
Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
A reduction in the amount of air entering the pulmonary alveoli.
Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type I MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have low ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment.
The volume of air contained in the lungs at the end of a maximal inspiration. It is the equivalent to each of the following sums: VITAL CAPACITY plus RESIDUAL VOLUME; INSPIRATORY CAPACITY plus FUNCTIONAL RESIDUAL CAPACITY; TIDAL VOLUME plus INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus functional residual capacity; or tidal volume plus inspiratory reserve volume plus EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus residual volume.
Derangement in size and number of muscle fibers occurring with aging, reduction in blood supply, or following immobilization, prolonged weightlessness, malnutrition, and particularly in denervation.
A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.
The quadriceps femoris. A collective name of the four-headed skeletal muscle of the thigh, comprised of the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis.
Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.
Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.
Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.
Also called xiphoid process, it is the smallest and most inferior triangular protrusion of the STERNUM or breastbone that extends into the center of the ribcage.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.
Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.
Care of patients with deficiencies and abnormalities associated with the cardiopulmonary system. It includes the therapeutic use of medical gases and their administrative apparatus, environmental control systems, humidification, aerosols, ventilatory support, bronchopulmonary drainage and exercise, respiratory rehabilitation, assistance with cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and maintenance of natural, artificial, and mechanical airways.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.
Severe or complete loss of motor function in all four limbs which may result from BRAIN DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; or rarely MUSCULAR DISEASES. The locked-in syndrome is characterized by quadriplegia in combination with cranial muscle paralysis. Consciousness is spared and the only retained voluntary motor activity may be limited eye movements. This condition is usually caused by a lesion in the upper BRAIN STEM which injures the descending cortico-spinal and cortico-bulbar tracts.
Systematic physical exercise. This includes calisthenics, a system of light gymnastics for promoting strength and grace of carriage.
One of two types of muscle in the body, characterized by the array of bands observed under microscope. Striated muscles can be divided into two subtypes: the CARDIAC MUSCLE and the SKELETAL MUSCLE.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
The act of BREATHING out.
Recording changes in electrical impedance between electrodes placed on opposite sides of a part of the body, as a measure of volume changes in the path of the current. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A long flat muscle that extends along the whole length of both sides of the abdomen. It flexes the vertebral column, particularly the lumbar portion; it also tenses the anterior abdominal wall and assists in compressing the abdominal contents. It is frequently the site of hematomas. In reconstructive surgery it is often used for the creation of myocutaneous flaps. (From Gray's Anatomy, 30th American ed, p491)
Skeletal muscle structures that function as the MECHANORECEPTORS responsible for the stretch or myotactic reflex (REFLEX, STRETCH). They are composed of a bundle of encapsulated SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, i.e., the intrafusal fibers (nuclear bag 1 fibers, nuclear bag 2 fibers, and nuclear chain fibers) innervated by SENSORY NEURONS.
That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.
Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.
A type of pain that is perceived in an area away from the site where the pain arises, such as facial pain caused by lesion of the VAGUS NERVE, or throat problem generating referred pain in the ear.
Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
A pulmonary ventilation rate faster than is metabolically necessary for the exchange of gases. It is the result of an increased frequency of breathing, an increased tidal volume, or a combination of both. It causes an excess intake of oxygen and the blowing off of carbon dioxide.
An organophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide and an acaricide.
An X-linked recessive muscle disease caused by an inability to synthesize DYSTROPHIN, which is involved with maintaining the integrity of the sarcolemma. Muscle fibers undergo a process that features degeneration and regeneration. Clinical manifestations include proximal weakness in the first few years of life, pseudohypertrophy, cardiomyopathy (see MYOCARDIAL DISEASES), and an increased incidence of impaired mentation. Becker muscular dystrophy is a closely related condition featuring a later onset of disease (usually adolescence) and a slowly progressive course. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1415)
Conical muscular projections from the walls of the cardiac ventricles, attached to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves by the chordae tendineae.
Applies to movements of the forearm in turning the palm forward or upward. When referring to the foot, a combination of adduction and inversion movements of the foot.
The use of a bicycle for transportation or recreation. It does not include the use of a bicycle in studying the body's response to physical exertion (BICYCLE ERGOMETRY TEST see EXERCISE TEST).
The act of blowing a powder, vapor, or gas into any body cavity for experimental, diagnostic, or therapeutic purposes.
A heterogeneous group of inherited MYOPATHIES, characterized by wasting and weakness of the SKELETAL MUSCLE. They are categorized by the sites of MUSCLE WEAKNESS; AGE OF ONSET; and INHERITANCE PATTERNS.
The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a normal, quiet expiration. It is the sum of the RESIDUAL VOLUME and the EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME. Common abbreviation is FRC.
The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Mature contractile cells, commonly known as myocytes, that form one of three kinds of muscle. The three types of muscle cells are skeletal (MUSCLE FIBERS, SKELETAL), cardiac (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC), and smooth (MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE). They are derived from embryonic (precursor) muscle cells called MYOBLASTS.
A syndrome characterized by new neuromuscular symptoms that occur at least 15 years after clinical stability has been attained in patients with a prior history of symptomatic poliomyelitis. Clinical features include new muscular weakness and atrophy of the limbs, bulbar innervated musculature, and muscles of respiration, combined with excessive fatigue, joint pain, and reduced stamina. The process is marked by slow progression and periods of stabilization. (From Ann NY Acad Sci 1995 May 25;753:68-80)
A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.
A condition caused by inhalation of MECONIUM into the LUNG of FETUS or NEWBORN, usually due to vigorous respiratory movements during difficult PARTURITION or respiratory system abnormalities. Meconium aspirate may block small airways leading to difficulties in PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE and ASPIRATION PNEUMONIA.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws.
The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Muscles arising in the zygomatic arch that close the jaw. Their nerve supply is masseteric from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
To utter an inarticulate, characteristic sound in order to communicate or express a feeling, or desire for attention.
The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
A strain of mice arising from a spontaneous MUTATION (mdx) in inbred C57BL mice. This mutation is X chromosome-linked and produces viable homozygous animals that lack the muscle protein DYSTROPHIN, have high serum levels of muscle ENZYMES, and possess histological lesions similar to human MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY. The histological features, linkage, and map position of mdx make these mice a worthy animal model of DUCHENNE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY.
The position or attitude of the body.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The capability of the LUNGS to distend under pressure as measured by pulmonary volume change per unit pressure change. While not a complete description of the pressure-volume properties of the lung, it is nevertheless useful in practice as a measure of the comparative stiffness of the lung. (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p562)
A method of mechanical ventilation in which pressure is maintained to increase the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of expiration, thus reducing the shunting of blood through the lungs and improving gas exchange.
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).
Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.
Elongated, spindle-shaped, quiescent myoblasts lying in close contact with adult skeletal muscle. They are thought to play a role in muscle repair and regeneration.
The process of producing vocal sounds by means of VOCAL CORDS vibrating in an expiratory blast of air.
Mechanical devices used to produce or assist pulmonary ventilation.
Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).
The pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles that make up the upper and fore part of the chest in front of the AXILLA.
The amount of a gas taken up, by the pulmonary capillary blood from the alveolar gas, per minute per unit of average pressure of the gradient of the gas across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
The muscular membranous segment between the PHARYNX and the STOMACH in the UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
The sounds produced by humans by the passage of air through the LARYNX and over the VOCAL CORDS, and then modified by the resonance organs, the NASOPHARYNX, and the MOUTH.
The period following a surgical operation.
That branch of medicine dealing with the studies and effects of flight through the atmosphere or in space upon the human body and with the prevention or cure of physiological or psychological malfunctions arising from these effects. (from NASA Thesaurus)
The 12th cranial nerve. The hypoglossal nerve originates in the hypoglossal nucleus of the medulla and supplies motor innervation to all of the muscles of the tongue except the palatoglossus (which is supplied by the vagus). This nerve also contains proprioceptive afferents from the tongue muscles.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.
The ventral rami of the thoracic nerves from segments T1 through T11. The intercostal nerves supply motor and sensory innervation to the thorax and abdomen. The skin and muscles supplied by a given pair are called, respectively, a dermatome and a myotome.
A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
A powerful flexor of the thigh at the hip joint (psoas major) and a weak flexor of the trunk and lumbar spinal column (psoas minor). Psoas is derived from the Greek "psoa", the plural meaning "muscles of the loin". It is a common site of infection manifesting as abscess (PSOAS ABSCESS). The psoas muscles and their fibers are also used frequently in experiments in muscle physiology.
Application of positive pressure to the inspiratory phase of spontaneous respiration.
HYPOVENTILATION syndrome in very obese persons with excessive ADIPOSE TISSUE around the ABDOMEN and DIAPHRAGM. It is characterized by diminished to absent ventilatory chemoresponsiveness; chronic HYPOXIA; HYPERCAPNIA; POLYCYTHEMIA; and long periods of sleep during day and night (HYPERSOMNOLENCE). It is a condition often related to OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA but can occur separately.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
A type of strength-building exercise program that requires the body muscle to exert a force against some form of resistance, such as weight, stretch bands, water, or immovable objects. Resistance exercise is a combination of static and dynamic contractions involving shortening and lengthening of skeletal muscles.
Force exerted when gripping or grasping.
Surgical procedures involving the STOMACH and sometimes the lower ESOPHAGUS to correct anatomical defects, or to treat MORBID OBESITY by reducing the size of the stomach. There are several subtypes of bariatric gastroplasty, such as vertical banded gastroplasty, silicone ring vertical gastroplasty, and horizontal banded gastroplasty.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .
A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.
A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws; its posterior portion retracts the mandible.
Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)
Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.
A degenerative disorder affecting upper MOTOR NEURONS in the brain and lower motor neurons in the brain stem and SPINAL CORD. Disease onset is usually after the age of 50 and the process is usually fatal within 3 to 6 years. Clinical manifestations include progressive weakness, atrophy, FASCICULATION, hyperreflexia, DYSARTHRIA, dysphagia, and eventual paralysis of respiratory function. Pathologic features include the replacement of motor neurons with fibrous ASTROCYTES and atrophy of anterior SPINAL NERVE ROOTS and corticospinal tracts. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1089-94)
Measurement of the volume of gas in the lungs, including that which is trapped in poorly communicating air spaces. It is of particular use in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)

Autosomal dominant myopathy with proximal weakness and early respiratory muscle involvement maps to chromosome 2q. (1/966)

Two Swedish families with autosomal dominant myopathy, who also had proximal weakness, early respiratory failure, and characteristic cytoplasmic bodies in the affected muscle biopsies, were screened for linkage by means of the human genome screening set (Cooperative Human Linkage Center Human Screening Set/Weber version 6). Most chromosome regions were completely excluded by linkage analysis (LOD score <-2). Linkage to the chromosomal region 2q24-q31 was established. A maximum combined two-point LOD score of 4.87 at a recombination fraction of 0 was obtained with marker D2S1245. Haplotype analysis indicated that the gene responsible for the disease is likely to be located in the 17-cM region between markers D2S2384 and D2S364. The affected individuals from these two families share an identical haplotype, which suggests a common origin.  (+info)

Subcellular adaptation of the human diaphragm in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (2/966)

Pulmonary hyperinflation impairs the function of the diaphragm in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, it has been recently demonstrated that the muscle can counterbalance this deleterious effect, remodelling its structure (i.e. changing the proportion of different types of fibres). The aim of this study was to investigate whether the functional impairment present in COPD patients can be associated with structural subcellular changes of the diaphragm. Twenty individuals (60+/-9 yrs, 11 COPD patients and 9 subjects with normal spirometry) undergoing thoracotomy were included. Nutritional status and respiratory function were evaluated prior to surgery. Then, small samples of the costal diaphragm were obtained and processed for electron microscopy analysis. COPD patients showed a mean forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) of 60+/-9% predicted, a higher concentration of mitochondria (n(mit)) in their diaphragm than controls (0.62+/-0.16 versus 0.46+/-0.16 mitochondrial transections (mt) x microm(-2), p<0.05). On the other hand, subjects with air trapping (residual volume (RV)/total lung capacity (TLC) >37%) disclosed not only a higher n(mit) (0.63+/-0.17 versus 0.43+/-0.07 mt x microm(-2), p<0.05) but shorter sarcomeres (L(sar)) than subjects without this functional abnormality (2.08+/-0.16 to 2.27+/-0.15 microm, p<0.05). Glycogen stores were similar in COPD and controls. The severity of airways obstruction (i.e. FEV1) was associated with n(mit) (r=-0.555, p=0.01), while the amount of air trapping (i.e. RV/TLC) was found to correlate with both n(mit) (r=0.631, p=0.005) and L(sar) (r=-0.526, p<0.05). Finally, maximal inspiratory pressure (PI,max) inversely correlated with n(mit) (r=-0.547, p=0.01). In conclusion, impairment in lung function occurring in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is associated with subcellular changes in their diaphragm, namely a shortening in the length of sarcomeres and an increase in the concentration of mitochondria. These changes form a part of muscle remodelling, probably contributing to a better functional muscle behaviour.  (+info)

Long-term recovery of diaphragm strength in neuralgic amyotrophy. (3/966)

Diaphragm paralysis is a recognized complication of neuralgic amyotrophy that causes severe dyspnoea. Although recovery of strength in the arm muscles, when affected, is common, there are little data on recovery of diaphragm function. This study, therefore, re-assessed diaphragm strength in cases of bilateral diaphragm paralysis due to neuralgic amyotrophy that had previously been diagnosed at the authors institutions. Fourteen patients were recalled between 2 and 11 yrs after the original diagnosis. Respiratory muscle and diaphragm strength were measured by volitional manoeuvres as maximal inspiratory pressure and sniff transdiaphragmatic pressure. Cervical magnetic phrenic nerve stimulation was used to give a nonvolitional measure of diaphragm strength: twitch transdiaphragmatic pressure. Only two patients remained severely breathless. Ten of the 14 patients had evidence of some recovery of diaphragm strength, in seven cases to within 50% of the lower limit of normal. The rate of recovery was variable: one patient had some recovery after 2 yrs, and the rest took 3 yrs or more. In conclusion, in most patients with diaphragm paralysis due to neuralgic amyotrophy, some recovery of the diaphragm strength occurs, but the rate of recovery may be slow.  (+info)

Respiratory muscle involvement in multiple sclerosis. (4/966)

Respiratory complications are common in the terminal stages of multiple sclerosis and contribute to mortality in these patients. When respiratory motor pathways are involved, respiratory muscle weakness frequently occurs. Although it is well established that weakness of the respiratory muscles produces a restrictive ventilatory defect, the degree of muscle weakness and pulmonary function are poorly related. Respiratory muscle weakness was observed in patients with normal or near normal pulmonary function. Expiratory muscle weakness is more prominent than inspiratory muscle weakness and may impair performance of coughing. Subsequently, in addition to bulbar dysfunction, respiratory muscle weakness may contribute to ineffective coughing, pneumonia, and sometimes even acute ventilatory failure may ensue. Respiratory muscle weakness may also occur early in the course of the disease. Recent studies suggest that the respiratory muscles can be trained for both strength and endurance in multiple sclerosis patients. Whether respiratory muscle training delays the development of respiratory dysfunction and subsequently improves exercise capacity and cough efficacy, prevents pulmonary complications or prolongs survival in the long-term remains to be determined.  (+info)

Breathing responses to small inspiratory threshold loads in humans. (5/966)

To investiage the effect of inspiratory threshold load (ITL) on breathing, all previous work studied loads that were much greater than would be encountered under pathophysiological conditions. We hypothesized that mild ITL from 2.5 to 20 cmH2O is sufficient to modify control and sensation of breathing. The study was performed in healthy subjects. The results demonstrated that with mild ITL 1) inspiratory difficulty sensation could be perceived at an ITL of 2.5 cmH2O; 2) tidal volume increased without change in breathing frequency, resulting in hyperpnea; and 3) although additional time was required for inspiratory pressure to attain the threshold before inspiratory flow was initiated, the total inspiratory muscle contraction time remained constant. This resulted in shortening of the available time for inspiratory flow, so that the tidal volume was maintained or increased by significant increase in mean inspiratory flow. On the basis of computer simulation, we conclude that the mild ITL is sufficient to increase breathing sensation and alter breathing control, presumably aiming at maintaining a certain level of ventilation but minimizing the energy consumption of the inspiratory muscles.  (+info)

Influence of central antitussive drugs on the cough motor pattern. (6/966)

The present study was conducted to determine the effects of administration of centrally active antitussive drugs on the cough motor pattern. Electromyograms of diaphragm and rectus abdominis muscles were recorded in anesthetized, spontaneously breathing cats. Cough was produced by mechanical stimulation of the intrathoracic trachea. Centrally acting drugs administered included codeine, morphine, dextromethorphan, baclofen, CP-99,994, and SR-48,968. Intravertebral artery administration of all drugs reduced cough number (number of coughs per stimulus trial) and rectus abdominis burst amplitude in a dose-dependent manner. Codeine, dextromethorphan, CP-99,994, SR-48,968, and baclofen had no effect on cough cycle timing (CTtot) or diaphragm amplitude during cough, even at doses that inhibited cough number by 80-90%. Morphine lengthened CTtot and inhibited diaphragm amplitude during cough, but these effects were not dose dependent. Only CP-99,994 altered the eupneic respiratory pattern. Central antitussive drugs primarily suppress cough by inhibition of expiratory motor drive and cough number. CTtot and inspiratory motor drive are relatively insensitive to the effects of these drugs. CTtot can be controlled independently from cough number.  (+info)

Early occurrence of respiratory muscle deoxygenation assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy during leg exercise in patients with chronic heart failure. (7/966)

The mechanisms of respiratory muscle deoxygenation during incremental leg exercise with expired gas analysis were investigated in 29 patients with chronic heart failure and 21 normal subjects. The deoxygenation and blood volume of the respiratory muscle and exercising leg muscle were assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). To evaluate the influence of the leg exercise on the blood volume of the respiratory muscle, 10 normal subjects also underwent a hyperventilation test with NIRS. The respiratory muscle deoxygenation point (RDP), at which oxygenated hemoglobin starts to decrease, was observed in both groups during exercise. The oxygen consumption (VO2) and the minute ventilation at the RDP in the patients was lower (p<0.01). At the same VO2, the respiratory rate was higher in patients (p<0.01). During exercise, the blood volume of the leg muscle increased, while that of the respiratory muscle decreased. During a hyperventilation test, the minute ventilation was higher than that of the RDP during exercise, the blood volume of the respiratory muscle did not decrease, and the RDP was not detectable. In conclusion, a limited ability to increase perfusion of respiratory muscles during exercise combined with the greater work of breathing results in early respiratory muscle deoxygenation in patients with chronic heart failure.  (+info)

Contribution of lung function to exercise capacity in patients with chronic heart failure. (8/966)

BACKGROUND: The importance of exercise capacity as an indicator of prognosis in patients with heart disease is well recognized. However, factors contributing to exercise limitation in such patients have not been fully characterized and in particular, the role of lung function in determining exercise capacity has not been extensively investigated. OBJECTIVE: To examine the extent to which pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength indices predict exercise performance in patients with moderate to severe heart failure. METHODS: Fifty stable heart failure patients underwent a maximal symptom-limited cardiopulmonary exercise test on a treadmill to determine maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max), pulmonary function tests and maximum inspiratory (PImax) and expiratory (PEmax) pressure measurement. RESULTS: In univariate analysis, VO2max correlated with forced vital capacity (r = 0.35, p = 0.01), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (r = 0.45, p = 0.001), FEV1/FVC ratio (r = 0.37, p = 0.009), maximal midexpiratory flow rate (FEF25-75, r = 0. 47, p < 0.001), and PImax (r = 0.46, p = 0.001), but not with total lung capacity, diffusion capacity or PEmax. In stepwise linear regression analysis, FEF25-75 and PImax were shown to be independently related to VO2max, with a combined r and r2 value of 0. 56 and 0.32, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Lung function indices overall accounted for only approximately 30% of the variance in maximum exercise capacity observed in heart failure patients. The mechanism(s) by which these variables could set exercise limitation in heart failure awaits further investigation.  (+info)

Respiratory muscles are a group of muscles involved in the process of breathing. They include the diaphragm, intercostal muscles (located between the ribs), scalene muscles (located in the neck), and abdominal muscles. These muscles work together to allow the chest cavity to expand or contract, which draws air into or pushes it out of the lungs. The diaphragm is the primary muscle responsible for breathing, contracting to increase the volume of the chest cavity and draw air into the lungs during inhalation. The intercostal muscles help to further expand the ribcage, while the abdominal muscles assist in exhaling by compressing the abdomen and pushing up on the diaphragm.

A diaphragm is a thin, dome-shaped muscle that separates the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity. It plays a vital role in the process of breathing as it contracts and flattens to draw air into the lungs (inhalation) and relaxes and returns to its domed shape to expel air out of the lungs (exhalation).

In addition, a diaphragm is also a type of barrier method of birth control. It is a flexible dome-shaped device made of silicone that fits over the cervix inside the vagina. When used correctly and consistently, it prevents sperm from entering the uterus and fertilizing an egg, thereby preventing pregnancy.

Breathing exercises are a series of deliberate breathing techniques that aim to improve respiratory function, reduce stress and anxiety, and promote relaxation. These exercises can involve various methods such as deep, slow, or rhythmic breathing, often combined with other practices like pursed-lips breathing, diaphragmatic breathing, or alternate nostril breathing. By focusing on the breath and controlling its pace and depth, individuals can experience numerous health benefits, including improved lung capacity, reduced heart rate, increased oxygenation of the blood, and a greater sense of calm and well-being. Breathing exercises are often used as a complementary therapy in various medical and holistic practices, such as yoga, meditation, and stress management programs.

Work of breathing (WOB) is a term used in respiratory physiology to describe the amount of energy expended by the respiratory muscles to overcome the elastic and resistive forces in the lungs and chest wall during breathing. It is usually measured in joules per liter (J/L) or in breaths per minute (BPM).

WOB can be increased in various lung diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and interstitial lung disease, due to increased airway resistance or decreased lung compliance. Increased WOB can lead to respiratory muscle fatigue, decreased exercise tolerance, and reduced quality of life.

WOB can be measured noninvasively using techniques such as esophageal pressure monitoring or transdiaphragmatic pressure measurement, or invasively through the use of indwelling catheters in the pleural space or within the airways. These measurements are often used in research settings to evaluate the effectiveness of various treatments for respiratory disorders.

A muscle is a soft tissue in our body that contracts to produce force and motion. It is composed mainly of specialized cells called muscle fibers, which are bound together by connective tissue. There are three types of muscles: skeletal (voluntary), smooth (involuntary), and cardiac. Skeletal muscles attach to bones and help in movement, while smooth muscles are found within the walls of organs and blood vessels, helping with functions like digestion and circulation. Cardiac muscle is the specific type that makes up the heart, allowing it to pump blood throughout the body.

The intercostal muscles are a group of muscles located between the ribs (intercostal spaces) in the thoracic region of the body. They play a crucial role in the process of breathing by assisting in the expansion and contraction of the chest wall during inspiration and expiration.

There are two sets of intercostal muscles: the external intercostals and the internal intercostals. The external intercostals run from the lower edge of one rib to the upper edge of the next lower rib, forming a layer that extends from the tubercles of the ribs down to the costochondral junctions (where the rib meets the cartilage). These muscles help elevate the ribcage during inspiration.

The internal intercostals are deeper and run in the opposite direction, originating at the lower edge of a rib and inserting into the upper edge of the next higher rib. They assist in lowering the ribcage during expiration.

Additionally, there is a third layer called the innermost intercostal muscles, which are even deeper than the internal intercostals and have similar functions. The intercostal membranes connect the ends of the ribs and complete the muscle layers between the ribs. Together, these muscles help maintain the structural integrity of the chest wall and contribute to respiratory function.

Muscle weakness is a condition in which muscles cannot develop the expected level of physical force or power. This results in reduced muscle function and can be caused by various factors, including nerve damage, muscle diseases, or hormonal imbalances. Muscle weakness may manifest as difficulty lifting objects, maintaining posture, or performing daily activities. It is essential to consult a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment of muscle weakness.

Maximal Voluntary Ventilation (MVV) is a measure of the maximum amount of air that can be voluntarily breathed in and out of the lungs in one minute. It is often used as a clinical assessment to evaluate respiratory function and lung capacity. The test involves breathing as deeply and quickly as possible for a period of time, usually 12-15 breaths, and the total volume of air exhaled during that time is measured. This value is then extrapolated to one minute to determine the MVV. It is typically expressed in liters per minute (L/min).

MVV provides information about a person's overall respiratory muscle strength and endurance, as well as their ability to ventilate their lungs effectively. Reduced MVV values may indicate restrictive or obstructive lung diseases, such as COPD or pulmonary fibrosis, or neuromuscular disorders that affect the respiratory muscles. However, MVV should be interpreted in conjunction with other clinical data and tests to make a definitive diagnosis.

Muscle fatigue is a condition characterized by a reduction in the ability of a muscle to generate force or power, typically after prolonged or strenuous exercise. It is often accompanied by sensations of tiredness, weakness, and discomfort in the affected muscle(s). The underlying mechanisms of muscle fatigue are complex and involve both peripheral factors (such as changes in muscle metabolism, ion handling, and neuromuscular transmission) and central factors (such as changes in the nervous system's ability to activate muscles). Muscle fatigue can also occur as a result of various medical conditions or medications that impair muscle function.

The abdominal muscles, also known as the abdominals or abs, are a group of muscles in the anterior (front) wall of the abdominopelvic cavity. They play a crucial role in maintaining posture, supporting the trunk, and facilitating movement of the torso. The main abdominal muscles include:

1. Rectus Abdominis: These are the pair of long, flat muscles that run vertically along the middle of the anterior abdominal wall. They are often referred to as the "six-pack" muscles due to their visible, segmented appearance in well-trained individuals. The primary function of the rectus abdominis is to flex the spine, allowing for actions such as sitting up from a lying down position or performing a crunch exercise.

2. External Obliques: These are the largest and most superficial of the oblique muscles, located on the lateral (side) aspects of the abdominal wall. They run diagonally downward and forward from the lower ribs to the iliac crest (the upper part of the pelvis) and the pubic tubercle (a bony prominence at the front of the pelvis). The external obliques help rotate and flex the trunk, as well as assist in side-bending and exhalation.

3. Internal Obliques: These muscles lie deep to the external obliques and run diagonally downward and backward from the lower ribs to the iliac crest, pubic tubercle, and linea alba (the strong band of connective tissue that runs vertically along the midline of the abdomen). The internal obliques help rotate and flex the trunk, as well as assist in forced exhalation and increasing intra-abdominal pressure during actions such as coughing or lifting heavy objects.

4. Transversus Abdominis: This is the deepest of the abdominal muscles, located inner to both the internal obliques and the rectus sheath (a strong, fibrous covering that surrounds the rectus abdominis). The transversus abdominis runs horizontally around the abdomen, attaching to the lower six ribs, the thoracolumbar fascia (a broad sheet of connective tissue spanning from the lower back to the pelvis), and the pubic crest (the front part of the pelvic bone). The transversus abdominis helps maintain core stability by compressing the abdominal contents and increasing intra-abdominal pressure.

Together, these muscles form the muscular "corset" of the abdomen, providing support, stability, and flexibility to the trunk. They also play a crucial role in respiration, posture, and various movements such as bending, twisting, and lifting.

Respiratory mechanics refers to the biomechanical properties and processes that involve the movement of air through the respiratory system during breathing. It encompasses the mechanical behavior of the lungs, chest wall, and the muscles of respiration, including the diaphragm and intercostal muscles.

Respiratory mechanics includes several key components:

1. **Compliance**: The ability of the lungs and chest wall to expand and recoil during breathing. High compliance means that the structures can easily expand and recoil, while low compliance indicates greater resistance to expansion and recoil.
2. **Resistance**: The opposition to airflow within the respiratory system, primarily due to the friction between the air and the airway walls. Airway resistance is influenced by factors such as airway diameter, length, and the viscosity of the air.
3. **Lung volumes and capacities**: These are the amounts of air present in the lungs during different phases of the breathing cycle. They include tidal volume (the amount of air inspired or expired during normal breathing), inspiratory reserve volume (additional air that can be inspired beyond the tidal volume), expiratory reserve volume (additional air that can be exhaled beyond the tidal volume), and residual volume (the air remaining in the lungs after a forced maximum exhalation).
4. **Work of breathing**: The energy required to overcome the resistance and elastic forces during breathing. This work is primarily performed by the respiratory muscles, which contract to generate negative intrathoracic pressure and expand the chest wall, allowing air to flow into the lungs.
5. **Pressure-volume relationships**: These describe how changes in lung volume are associated with changes in pressure within the respiratory system. Important pressure components include alveolar pressure (the pressure inside the alveoli), pleural pressure (the pressure between the lungs and the chest wall), and transpulmonary pressure (the difference between alveolar and pleural pressures).

Understanding respiratory mechanics is crucial for diagnosing and managing various respiratory disorders, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and restrictive lung diseases.

Inhalation is the act or process of breathing in where air or other gases are drawn into the lungs. It's also known as inspiration. This process involves several muscles, including the diaphragm and intercostal muscles between the ribs, working together to expand the chest cavity and decrease the pressure within the thorax, which then causes air to flow into the lungs.

In a medical context, inhalation can also refer to the administration of medications or therapeutic gases through the respiratory tract, typically using an inhaler or nebulizer. This route of administration allows for direct delivery of the medication to the lungs, where it can be quickly absorbed into the bloodstream and exert its effects.

Muscle strength, in a medical context, refers to the amount of force a muscle or group of muscles can produce during contraction. It is the maximum amount of force that a muscle can generate through its full range of motion and is often measured in units of force such as pounds or newtons. Muscle strength is an important component of physical function and mobility, and it can be assessed through various tests, including manual muscle testing, dynamometry, and isokinetic testing. Factors that can affect muscle strength include age, sex, body composition, injury, disease, and physical activity level.

Skeletal muscle, also known as striated or voluntary muscle, is a type of muscle that is attached to bones by tendons or aponeuroses and functions to produce movements and support the posture of the body. It is composed of long, multinucleated fibers that are arranged in parallel bundles and are characterized by alternating light and dark bands, giving them a striped appearance under a microscope. Skeletal muscle is under voluntary control, meaning that it is consciously activated through signals from the nervous system. It is responsible for activities such as walking, running, jumping, and lifting objects.

Neuromuscular diseases are a group of disorders that involve the peripheral nervous system, which includes the nerves and muscles outside of the brain and spinal cord. These conditions can affect both children and adults, and they can be inherited or acquired. Neuromuscular diseases can cause a wide range of symptoms, including muscle weakness, numbness, tingling, pain, cramping, and twitching. Some common examples of neuromuscular diseases include muscular dystrophy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), peripheral neuropathy, and myasthenia gravis. The specific symptoms and severity of these conditions can vary widely depending on the underlying cause and the specific muscles and nerves that are affected. Treatment for neuromuscular diseases may include medications, physical therapy, assistive devices, or surgery, depending on the individual case.

Respiratory Function Tests (RFTs) are a group of medical tests that measure how well your lungs take in and exhale air, and how well they transfer oxygen and carbon dioxide into and out of your blood. They can help diagnose certain lung disorders, measure the severity of lung disease, and monitor response to treatment.

RFTs include several types of tests, such as:

1. Spirometry: This test measures how much air you can exhale and how quickly you can do it. It's often used to diagnose and monitor conditions like asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and other lung diseases.
2. Lung volume testing: This test measures the total amount of air in your lungs. It can help diagnose restrictive lung diseases, such as pulmonary fibrosis or sarcoidosis.
3. Diffusion capacity testing: This test measures how well oxygen moves from your lungs into your bloodstream. It's often used to diagnose and monitor conditions like pulmonary fibrosis, interstitial lung disease, and other lung diseases that affect the ability of the lungs to transfer oxygen to the blood.
4. Bronchoprovocation testing: This test involves inhaling a substance that can cause your airways to narrow, such as methacholine or histamine. It's often used to diagnose and monitor asthma.
5. Exercise stress testing: This test measures how well your lungs and heart work together during exercise. It's often used to diagnose lung or heart disease.

Overall, Respiratory Function Tests are an important tool for diagnosing and managing a wide range of lung conditions.

Medical Definition of Respiration:

Respiration, in physiology, is the process by which an organism takes in oxygen and gives out carbon dioxide. It's also known as breathing. This process is essential for most forms of life because it provides the necessary oxygen for cellular respiration, where the cells convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and releases waste products, primarily carbon dioxide.

In humans and other mammals, respiration is a two-stage process:

1. Breathing (or external respiration): This involves the exchange of gases with the environment. Air enters the lungs through the mouth or nose, then passes through the pharynx, larynx, trachea, and bronchi, finally reaching the alveoli where the actual gas exchange occurs. Oxygen from the inhaled air diffuses into the blood, while carbon dioxide, a waste product of metabolism, diffuses from the blood into the alveoli to be exhaled.

2. Cellular respiration (or internal respiration): This is the process by which cells convert glucose and other nutrients into ATP, water, and carbon dioxide in the presence of oxygen. The carbon dioxide produced during this process then diffuses out of the cells and into the bloodstream to be exhaled during breathing.

In summary, respiration is a vital physiological function that enables organisms to obtain the necessary oxygen for cellular metabolism while eliminating waste products like carbon dioxide.

Muscle proteins are a type of protein that are found in muscle tissue and are responsible for providing structure, strength, and functionality to muscles. The two major types of muscle proteins are:

1. Contractile proteins: These include actin and myosin, which are responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscles. They work together to cause muscle movement by sliding along each other and shortening the muscle fibers.
2. Structural proteins: These include titin, nebulin, and desmin, which provide structural support and stability to muscle fibers. Titin is the largest protein in the human body and acts as a molecular spring that helps maintain the integrity of the sarcomere (the basic unit of muscle contraction). Nebulin helps regulate the length of the sarcomere, while desmin forms a network of filaments that connects adjacent muscle fibers together.

Overall, muscle proteins play a critical role in maintaining muscle health and function, and their dysregulation can lead to various muscle-related disorders such as muscular dystrophy, myopathies, and sarcopenia.

Muscle contraction is the physiological process in which muscle fibers shorten and generate force, leading to movement or stability of a body part. This process involves the sliding filament theory where thick and thin filaments within the sarcomeres (the functional units of muscles) slide past each other, facilitated by the interaction between myosin heads and actin filaments. The energy required for this action is provided by the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Muscle contractions can be voluntary or involuntary, and they play a crucial role in various bodily functions such as locomotion, circulation, respiration, and posture maintenance.

Smooth muscle, also known as involuntary muscle, is a type of muscle that is controlled by the autonomic nervous system and functions without conscious effort. These muscles are found in the walls of hollow organs such as the stomach, intestines, bladder, and blood vessels, as well as in the eyes, skin, and other areas of the body.

Smooth muscle fibers are shorter and narrower than skeletal muscle fibers and do not have striations or sarcomeres, which give skeletal muscle its striped appearance. Smooth muscle is controlled by the autonomic nervous system through the release of neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine and norepinephrine, which bind to receptors on the smooth muscle cells and cause them to contract or relax.

Smooth muscle plays an important role in many physiological processes, including digestion, circulation, respiration, and elimination. It can also contribute to various medical conditions, such as hypertension, gastrointestinal disorders, and genitourinary dysfunction, when it becomes overactive or underactive.

Inspiratory Capacity (IC) is the maximum volume of air that can be breathed in after a normal expiration. It is the sum of the tidal volume (the amount of air displaced between normal inspiration and expiration during quiet breathing) and the inspiratory reserve volume (the additional amount of air that can be inspired over and above the tidal volume). IC is an important parameter used in pulmonary function testing to assess lung volumes and capacities in patients with respiratory disorders.

Skeletal muscle fibers, also known as striated muscle fibers, are the type of muscle cells that make up skeletal muscles, which are responsible for voluntary movements of the body. These muscle fibers are long, cylindrical, and multinucleated, meaning they contain multiple nuclei. They are surrounded by a connective tissue layer called the endomysium, and many fibers are bundled together into fascicles, which are then surrounded by another layer of connective tissue called the perimysium.

Skeletal muscle fibers are composed of myofibrils, which are long, thread-like structures that run the length of the fiber. Myofibrils contain repeating units called sarcomeres, which are responsible for the striated appearance of skeletal muscle fibers. Sarcomeres are composed of thick and thin filaments, which slide past each other during muscle contraction to shorten the sarcomere and generate force.

Skeletal muscle fibers can be further classified into two main types based on their contractile properties: slow-twitch (type I) and fast-twitch (type II). Slow-twitch fibers have a high endurance capacity and are used for sustained, low-intensity activities such as maintaining posture. Fast-twitch fibers, on the other hand, have a higher contractile speed and force generation capacity but fatigue more quickly and are used for powerful, explosive movements.

Respiratory paralysis is a condition characterized by the inability to breathe effectively due to the failure or weakness of the muscles involved in respiration. This can include the diaphragm, intercostal muscles, and other accessory muscles.

In medical terms, it's often associated with conditions that affect the neuromuscular junction, such as botulism, myasthenia gravis, or spinal cord injuries. It can also occur as a complication of general anesthesia, sedative drugs, or certain types of poisoning.

Respiratory paralysis is a serious condition that requires immediate medical attention, as it can lead to lack of oxygen (hypoxia) and buildup of carbon dioxide (hypercapnia) in the body, which can be life-threatening if not treated promptly.

Vital capacity (VC) is a term used in pulmonary function tests to describe the maximum volume of air that can be exhaled after taking a deep breath. It is the sum of inspiratory reserve volume, tidal volume, and expiratory reserve volume. In other words, it's the total amount of air you can forcibly exhale after inhaling as deeply as possible. Vital capacity is an important measurement in assessing lung function and can be reduced in conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and other respiratory disorders.

Dyspnea is defined as difficulty or discomfort in breathing, often described as shortness of breath. It can range from mild to severe, and may occur during rest, exercise, or at any time. Dyspnea can be caused by various medical conditions, including heart and lung diseases, anemia, and neuromuscular disorders. It is important to seek medical attention if experiencing dyspnea, as it can be a sign of a serious underlying condition.

A smooth muscle within the vascular system refers to the involuntary, innervated muscle that is found in the walls of blood vessels. These muscles are responsible for controlling the diameter of the blood vessels, which in turn regulates blood flow and blood pressure. They are called "smooth" muscles because their individual muscle cells do not have the striations, or cross-striped patterns, that are observed in skeletal and cardiac muscle cells. Smooth muscle in the vascular system is controlled by the autonomic nervous system and by hormones, and can contract or relax slowly over a period of time.

Lung volume measurements are clinical tests that determine the amount of air inhaled, exhaled, and present in the lungs at different times during the breathing cycle. These measurements include:

1. Tidal Volume (TV): The amount of air inhaled or exhaled during normal breathing, usually around 500 mL in resting adults.
2. Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV): The additional air that can be inhaled after a normal inspiration, approximately 3,000 mL in adults.
3. Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV): The extra air that can be exhaled after a normal expiration, about 1,000-1,200 mL in adults.
4. Residual Volume (RV): The air remaining in the lungs after a maximal exhalation, approximately 1,100-1,500 mL in adults.
5. Total Lung Capacity (TLC): The total amount of air the lungs can hold at full inflation, calculated as TV + IRV + ERV + RV, around 6,000 mL in adults.
6. Functional Residual Capacity (FRC): The volume of air remaining in the lungs after a normal expiration, equal to ERV + RV, about 2,100-2,700 mL in adults.
7. Inspiratory Capacity (IC): The maximum amount of air that can be inhaled after a normal expiration, equal to TV + IRV, around 3,500 mL in adults.
8. Vital Capacity (VC): The total volume of air that can be exhaled after a maximal inspiration, calculated as IC + ERV, approximately 4,200-5,600 mL in adults.

These measurements help assess lung function and identify various respiratory disorders such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and restrictive lung diseases.

Respiratory insufficiency is a condition characterized by the inability of the respiratory system to maintain adequate gas exchange, resulting in an inadequate supply of oxygen and/or removal of carbon dioxide from the body. This can occur due to various causes, such as lung diseases (e.g., chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia), neuromuscular disorders (e.g., muscular dystrophy, spinal cord injury), or other medical conditions that affect breathing mechanics and/or gas exchange.

Respiratory insufficiency can manifest as hypoxemia (low oxygen levels in the blood) and/or hypercapnia (high carbon dioxide levels in the blood). Symptoms of respiratory insufficiency may include shortness of breath, rapid breathing, fatigue, confusion, and in severe cases, loss of consciousness or even death. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition and may include oxygen therapy, mechanical ventilation, medications, and/or other supportive measures.

In medical terms, pressure is defined as the force applied per unit area on an object or body surface. It is often measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) in clinical settings. For example, blood pressure is the force exerted by circulating blood on the walls of the arteries and is recorded as two numbers: systolic pressure (when the heart beats and pushes blood out) and diastolic pressure (when the heart rests between beats).

Pressure can also refer to the pressure exerted on a wound or incision to help control bleeding, or the pressure inside the skull or spinal canal. High or low pressure in different body systems can indicate various medical conditions and require appropriate treatment.

Electromyography (EMG) is a medical diagnostic procedure that measures the electrical activity of skeletal muscles during contraction and at rest. It involves inserting a thin needle electrode into the muscle to record the electrical signals generated by the muscle fibers. These signals are then displayed on an oscilloscope and may be heard through a speaker.

EMG can help diagnose various neuromuscular disorders, such as muscle weakness, numbness, or pain, and can distinguish between muscle and nerve disorders. It is often used in conjunction with other diagnostic tests, such as nerve conduction studies, to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the nervous system.

EMG is typically performed by a neurologist or a physiatrist, and the procedure may cause some discomfort or pain, although this is usually minimal. The results of an EMG can help guide treatment decisions and monitor the progression of neuromuscular conditions over time.

Pulmonary ventilation, also known as pulmonary respiration or simply ventilation, is the process of moving air into and out of the lungs to facilitate gas exchange. It involves two main phases: inhalation (or inspiration) and exhalation (or expiration). During inhalation, the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles contract, causing the chest volume to increase and the pressure inside the chest to decrease, which then draws air into the lungs. Conversely, during exhalation, these muscles relax, causing the chest volume to decrease and the pressure inside the chest to increase, which pushes air out of the lungs. This process ensures that oxygen-rich air from the atmosphere enters the alveoli (air sacs in the lungs), where it can diffuse into the bloodstream, while carbon dioxide-rich air from the bloodstream in the capillaries surrounding the alveoli is expelled out of the body.

Muscle development, also known as muscle hypertrophy, refers to the increase in size and mass of the muscles through a process called myofiber growth. This is primarily achieved through resistance or strength training exercises that cause micro-tears in the muscle fibers, leading to an inflammatory response and the release of hormones that promote muscle growth. As the muscles repair themselves, they become larger and stronger than before. Proper nutrition, including adequate protein intake, and rest are also essential components of muscle development.

It is important to note that while muscle development can lead to an increase in strength and muscular endurance, it does not necessarily result in improved athletic performance or overall fitness. A well-rounded exercise program that includes cardiovascular activity, flexibility training, and resistance exercises is recommended for optimal health and fitness outcomes.

Physical endurance is the ability of an individual to withstand and resist physical fatigue over prolonged periods of strenuous activity, exercise, or exertion. It involves the efficient functioning of various body systems, including the cardiovascular system (heart, blood vessels, and blood), respiratory system (lungs and airways), and musculoskeletal system (muscles, bones, tendons, ligaments, and cartilage).

Physical endurance is often measured in terms of aerobic capacity or stamina, which refers to the body's ability to supply oxygen to muscles during sustained physical activity. It can be improved through regular exercise, such as running, swimming, cycling, or weightlifting, that challenges the body's major muscle groups and raises the heart rate for extended periods.

Factors that influence physical endurance include genetics, age, sex, fitness level, nutrition, hydration, sleep quality, stress management, and overall health status. It is essential to maintain good physical endurance to perform daily activities efficiently, reduce the risk of chronic diseases, and enhance overall well-being.

Ventilator weaning is the process of gradually reducing the amount of support provided by a mechanical ventilator to a patient, with the ultimate goal of completely withdrawing the mechanical assistance and allowing the patient to breathe independently. This process is typically initiated when the patient's underlying medical condition has improved to the point where they are able to sustain their own respiratory efforts.

The weaning process may involve reducing the frequency and duration of ventilator breaths, decreasing the amount of oxygen supplied by the ventilator, or adjusting the settings of the ventilator to encourage the patient to take more frequent and deeper breaths on their own. The rate at which weaning is attempted will depend on the individual patient's condition and overall progress.

Close monitoring of the patient's respiratory status, oxygenation, and work of breathing is essential during the weaning process to ensure that the patient is able to tolerate the decreased level of support and to identify any potential complications that may arise. Effective communication between the healthcare team and the patient is also important to provide education, set expectations, and address any concerns or questions that may arise during the weaning process.

Obstructive lung disease is a category of respiratory diseases characterized by airflow limitation that causes difficulty in completely emptying the alveoli (tiny air sacs) of the lungs during exhaling. This results in the trapping of stale air and prevents fresh air from entering the alveoli, leading to various symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, and decreased exercise tolerance.

The most common obstructive lung diseases include:

1. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): A progressive disease that includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema, often caused by smoking or exposure to harmful pollutants.
2. Asthma: A chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways characterized by variable airflow obstruction, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and an underlying inflammation. Symptoms can be triggered by various factors such as allergens, irritants, or physical activity.
3. Bronchiectasis: A condition in which the airways become abnormally widened, scarred, and thickened due to chronic inflammation or infection, leading to mucus buildup and impaired clearance.
4. Cystic Fibrosis: An inherited genetic disorder that affects the exocrine glands, resulting in thick and sticky mucus production in various organs, including the lungs. This can lead to chronic lung infections, inflammation, and airway obstruction.
5. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency: A genetic condition characterized by low levels of alpha-1 antitrypsin protein, which leads to uncontrolled protease enzyme activity that damages the lung tissue, causing emphysema-like symptoms.

Treatment for obstructive lung diseases typically involves bronchodilators (to relax and widen the airways), corticosteroids (to reduce inflammation), and lifestyle modifications such as smoking cessation and pulmonary rehabilitation programs. In severe cases, oxygen therapy or even lung transplantation may be considered.

Exercise tolerance is a term used to describe the ability of an individual to perform physical activity or exercise without experiencing symptoms such as shortness of breath, chest pain, or undue fatigue. It is often used as a measure of cardiovascular fitness and can be assessed through various tests, such as a stress test or a six-minute walk test. Exercise intolerance may indicate the presence of underlying medical conditions, such as heart disease, lung disease, or deconditioning.

Hypercapnia is a state of increased carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in the blood, typically defined as an arterial CO2 tension (PaCO2) above 45 mmHg. It is often associated with conditions that impair gas exchange or eliminate CO2 from the body, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), severe asthma, respiratory failure, or certain neuromuscular disorders. Hypercapnia can cause symptoms such as headache, confusion, shortness of breath, and in severe cases, it can lead to life-threatening complications such as respiratory acidosis, coma, and even death if not promptly treated.

The thorax is the central part of the human body, located between the neck and the abdomen. In medical terms, it refers to the portion of the body that contains the heart, lungs, and associated structures within a protective cage made up of the sternum (breastbone), ribs, and thoracic vertebrae. The thorax is enclosed by muscles and protected by the ribcage, which helps to maintain its structural integrity and protect the vital organs contained within it.

The thorax plays a crucial role in respiration, as it allows for the expansion and contraction of the lungs during breathing. This movement is facilitated by the flexible nature of the ribcage, which expands and contracts with each breath, allowing air to enter and exit the lungs. Additionally, the thorax serves as a conduit for major blood vessels, such as the aorta and vena cava, which carry blood to and from the heart and the rest of the body.

Understanding the anatomy and function of the thorax is essential for medical professionals, as many conditions and diseases can affect this region of the body. These may include respiratory disorders such as pneumonia or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cardiovascular conditions like heart attacks or aortic aneurysms, and musculoskeletal issues involving the ribs, spine, or surrounding muscles.

Spirometry is a common type of pulmonary function test (PFT) that measures how well your lungs work. This is done by measuring how much air you can exhale from your lungs after taking a deep breath, and how quickly you can exhale it. The results are compared to normal values for your age, height, sex, and ethnicity.

Spirometry is used to diagnose and monitor certain lung conditions, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and other respiratory diseases that cause narrowing of the airways. It can also be used to assess the effectiveness of treatment for these conditions. The test is non-invasive, safe, and easy to perform.

Neck muscles, also known as cervical muscles, are a group of muscles that provide movement, support, and stability to the neck region. They are responsible for various functions such as flexion, extension, rotation, and lateral bending of the head and neck. The main neck muscles include:

1. Sternocleidomastoid: This muscle is located on either side of the neck and is responsible for rotating and flexing the head. It also helps in tilting the head to the same side.

2. Trapezius: This large, flat muscle covers the back of the neck, shoulders, and upper back. It is involved in movements like shrugging the shoulders, rotating and extending the head, and stabilizing the scapula (shoulder blade).

3. Scalenes: These three pairs of muscles are located on the side of the neck and assist in flexing, rotating, and laterally bending the neck. They also help with breathing by elevating the first two ribs during inspiration.

4. Suboccipitals: These four small muscles are located at the base of the skull and are responsible for fine movements of the head, such as tilting and rotating.

5. Longus Colli and Longus Capitis: These muscles are deep neck flexors that help with flexing the head and neck forward.

6. Splenius Capitis and Splenius Cervicis: These muscles are located at the back of the neck and assist in extending, rotating, and laterally bending the head and neck.

7. Levator Scapulae: This muscle is located at the side and back of the neck, connecting the cervical vertebrae to the scapula. It helps with rotation, extension, and elevation of the head and scapula.

Maximal Expiratory Flow Rate (MEFR) is a measure of how quickly a person can exhale air from their lungs. It is often used in pulmonary function testing to assess the degree of airflow obstruction in conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or asthma.

The MEFR is typically measured by having the person take a deep breath and then exhale as forcefully and quickly as possible into a device that measures the volume and flow of air. The MEFR is calculated as the maximum flow rate achieved during the exhalation maneuver, usually expressed in liters per second (L/s) or seconds (L/sec).

MEFR can be measured at different lung volumes, such as at functional residual capacity (FRC) or at total lung capacity (TLC), to provide additional information about the severity and location of airflow obstruction. However, MEFR is not as commonly used in clinical practice as other measures of pulmonary function, such as forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) or forced vital capacity (FVC).

The phrenic nerve is a motor nerve that originates from the cervical spine (C3-C5) and descends through the neck to reach the diaphragm, which is the primary muscle used for breathing. The main function of the phrenic nerve is to innervate the diaphragm and control its contraction and relaxation, thereby enabling respiration.

Damage or injury to the phrenic nerve can result in paralysis of the diaphragm, leading to difficulty breathing and potentially causing respiratory failure. Certain medical conditions, such as neuromuscular disorders, spinal cord injuries, and tumors, can affect the phrenic nerve and impair its function.

Tidal volume (Vt) is the amount of air that moves into or out of the lungs during normal, resting breathing. It is the difference between the volume of air in the lungs at the end of a normal expiration and the volume at the end of a normal inspiration. In other words, it's the volume of each breath you take when you are not making any effort to breathe more deeply.

The average tidal volume for an adult human is around 500 milliliters (ml) per breath, but this can vary depending on factors such as age, sex, size, and fitness level. During exercise or other activities that require increased oxygen intake, tidal volume may increase to meet the body's demands for more oxygen.

Tidal volume is an important concept in respiratory physiology and clinical medicine, as it can be used to assess lung function and diagnose respiratory disorders such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or asthma.

Muscular diseases, also known as myopathies, refer to a group of conditions that affect the functionality and health of muscle tissue. These diseases can be inherited or acquired and may result from inflammation, infection, injury, or degenerative processes. They can cause symptoms such as weakness, stiffness, cramping, spasms, wasting, and loss of muscle function.

Examples of muscular diseases include:

1. Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD): A genetic disorder that results in progressive muscle weakness and degeneration due to a lack of dystrophin protein.
2. Myasthenia Gravis: An autoimmune disease that causes muscle weakness and fatigue, typically affecting the eyes and face, throat, and limbs.
3. Inclusion Body Myositis (IBM): A progressive muscle disorder characterized by muscle inflammation and wasting, typically affecting older adults.
4. Polymyositis: An inflammatory myopathy that causes muscle weakness and inflammation throughout the body.
5. Metabolic Myopathies: A group of inherited disorders that affect muscle metabolism, leading to exercise intolerance, muscle weakness, and other symptoms.
6. Muscular Dystonias: Involuntary muscle contractions and spasms that can cause abnormal postures or movements.

It is important to note that muscular diseases can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, mobility, and overall health. Proper diagnosis and treatment are crucial for managing symptoms and improving outcomes.

In medical terms, ribs are the long, curved bones that make up the ribcage in the human body. They articulate with the thoracic vertebrae posteriorly and connect to the sternum anteriorly via costal cartilages. There are 12 pairs of ribs in total, and they play a crucial role in protecting the lungs and heart, allowing room for expansion and contraction during breathing. Ribs also provide attachment points for various muscles involved in respiration and posture.

Artificial respiration is an emergency procedure that can be used to provide oxygen to a person who is not breathing or is breathing inadequately. It involves manually forcing air into the lungs, either by compressing the chest or using a device to deliver breaths. The goal of artificial respiration is to maintain adequate oxygenation of the body's tissues and organs until the person can breathe on their own or until advanced medical care arrives. Artificial respiration may be used in conjunction with cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in cases of cardiac arrest.

Air pressure, also known as atmospheric pressure, is the force exerted by the weight of air in the atmosphere on a surface. It is measured in units such as pounds per square inch (psi), hectopascals (hPa), or inches of mercury (inHg). The standard atmospheric pressure at sea level is defined as 101,325 Pa (14.7 psi/1013 hPa/29.92 inHg). Changes in air pressure can be used to predict weather patterns and are an important factor in the study of aerodynamics and respiratory physiology.

The thoracic wall refers to the anatomical structure that surrounds and protects the chest cavity or thorax, which contains the lungs, heart, and other vital organs. It is composed of several components:

1. Skeletal framework: This includes the 12 pairs of ribs, the sternum (breastbone) in the front, and the thoracic vertebrae in the back. The upper seven pairs of ribs are directly attached to the sternum in the front through costal cartilages. The lower five pairs of ribs are not directly connected to the sternum but are joined to the ribs above them.
2. Muscles: The thoracic wall contains several muscles, including the intercostal muscles (located between the ribs), the scalene muscles (at the side and back of the neck), and the serratus anterior muscle (on the sides of the chest). These muscles help in breathing by expanding and contracting the ribcage.
3. Soft tissues: The thoracic wall also contains various soft tissues, such as fascia, nerves, blood vessels, and fat. These structures support the functioning of the thoracic organs and contribute to the overall stability and protection of the chest cavity.

The primary function of the thoracic wall is to protect the vital organs within the chest cavity while allowing for adequate movement during respiration. Additionally, it provides a stable base for the attachment of various muscles involved in upper limb movement and posture.

Fast-twitch muscle fibers, also known as type II fibers, are a type of skeletal muscle fiber that are characterized by their rapid contraction and relaxation rates. These fibers have a larger diameter and contain a higher concentration of glycogen, which serves as a quick source of energy for muscle contractions. Fast-twitch fibers are further divided into two subcategories: type IIa and type IIb (or type IIx). Type IIa fibers have a moderate amount of mitochondria and can utilize both aerobic and anaerobic metabolic pathways, making them fatigue-resistant. Type IIb fibers, on the other hand, have fewer mitochondria and primarily use anaerobic metabolism, leading to faster fatigue. Fast-twitch fibers are typically used in activities that require quick, powerful movements such as sprinting or weightlifting.

Muscle denervation is a medical term that refers to the loss of nerve supply to a muscle or group of muscles. This can occur due to various reasons, such as injury to the nerves, nerve compression, or certain medical conditions like neuromuscular disorders. When the nerve supply to the muscle is interrupted, it can lead to muscle weakness, atrophy (wasting), and ultimately, paralysis.

In denervation, the communication between the nervous system and the muscle is disrupted, which means that the muscle no longer receives signals from the brain to contract and move. Over time, this can result in significant muscle wasting and disability, depending on the severity and extent of the denervation.

Denervation may be treated with various therapies, including physical therapy, medication, or surgical intervention, such as nerve grafting or muscle transfers, to restore function and prevent further muscle wasting. The specific treatment approach will depend on the underlying cause and severity of the denervation.

Residual Volume (RV) is the amount of air that remains in the lungs after a forced exhale, also known as the "expiratory reserve volume." It is the lowest lung volume that can be reached during a forced exhalation and cannot be completely emptied due to the presence of alveoli that are too small or too far from the airways. This volume is important for maintaining the structural integrity of the lungs and preventing their collapse. Any additional air that enters the lungs after this point will increase the total lung capacity. The normal residual volume for an average adult human is typically around 1 to 1.5 liters.

Respiratory physiological phenomena refer to the various mechanical, chemical, and biological processes and functions that occur in the respiratory system during breathing and gas exchange. These phenomena include:

1. Ventilation: The movement of air into and out of the lungs, which is achieved through the contraction and relaxation of the diaphragm and intercostal muscles.
2. Gas Exchange: The diffusion of oxygen (O2) from the alveoli into the bloodstream and carbon dioxide (CO2) from the bloodstream into the alveoli.
3. Respiratory Mechanics: The physical properties and forces that affect the movement of air in and out of the lungs, such as lung compliance, airway resistance, and chest wall elasticity.
4. Control of Breathing: The regulation of ventilation by the central nervous system through the integration of sensory information from chemoreceptors and mechanoreceptors in the respiratory system.
5. Acid-Base Balance: The maintenance of a stable pH level in the blood through the regulation of CO2 elimination and bicarbonate balance by the respiratory and renal systems.
6. Oxygen Transport: The binding of O2 to hemoglobin in the red blood cells and its delivery to the tissues for metabolic processes.
7. Defense Mechanisms: The various protective mechanisms that prevent the entry and colonization of pathogens and foreign particles into the respiratory system, such as mucociliary clearance, cough reflex, and immune responses.

Oxygen consumption, also known as oxygen uptake, is the amount of oxygen that is consumed or utilized by the body during a specific period of time, usually measured in liters per minute (L/min). It is a common measurement used in exercise physiology and critical care medicine to assess an individual's aerobic metabolism and overall health status.

In clinical settings, oxygen consumption is often measured during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) to evaluate cardiovascular function, pulmonary function, and exercise capacity in patients with various medical conditions such as heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and other respiratory or cardiac disorders.

During exercise, oxygen is consumed by the muscles to generate energy through a process called oxidative phosphorylation. The amount of oxygen consumed during exercise can provide important information about an individual's fitness level, exercise capacity, and overall health status. Additionally, measuring oxygen consumption can help healthcare providers assess the effectiveness of treatments and rehabilitation programs in patients with various medical conditions.

Hypoventilation is a medical condition that refers to the decreased rate and depth of breathing, which leads to an inadequate exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the lungs. As a result, there is an increase in the levels of carbon dioxide (hypercapnia) and a decrease in the levels of oxygen (hypoxemia) in the blood. Hypoventilation can occur due to various reasons such as respiratory muscle weakness, sedative or narcotic overdose, chest wall deformities, neuromuscular disorders, obesity hypoventilation syndrome, and sleep-disordered breathing. Prolonged hypoventilation can lead to serious complications such as respiratory failure, cardiac arrhythmias, and even death.

Slow-twitch muscle fibers, also known as type I muscle fibers, are specialized skeletal muscle cells that contract relatively slowly and generate less force than fast-twitch fibers. However, they can maintain contraction for longer periods of time and have a higher resistance to fatigue. These fibers primarily use oxygen and aerobic metabolism to produce energy, making them highly efficient during prolonged, lower-intensity activities such as long-distance running or cycling. Slow-twitch muscle fibers also have an abundant blood supply, which allows for efficient delivery of oxygen and removal of waste products.

Total Lung Capacity (TLC) is the maximum volume of air that can be contained within the lungs at the end of a maximal inspiration. It includes all of the following lung volumes: tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume, expiratory reserve volume, and residual volume. TLC can be measured directly using gas dilution techniques or indirectly by adding residual volume to vital capacity. Factors that affect TLC include age, sex, height, and lung health status.

Muscular atrophy is a condition characterized by a decrease in the size and mass of muscles due to lack of use, disease, or injury. This occurs when there is a disruption in the balance between muscle protein synthesis and degradation, leading to a net loss of muscle proteins. There are two main types of muscular atrophy:

1. Disuse atrophy: This type of atrophy occurs when muscles are not used or are immobilized for an extended period, such as after an injury, surgery, or prolonged bed rest. In this case, the nerves that control the muscles may still be functioning properly, but the muscles themselves waste away due to lack of use.
2. Neurogenic atrophy: This type of atrophy is caused by damage to the nerves that supply the muscles, leading to muscle weakness and wasting. Conditions such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), spinal cord injuries, and peripheral neuropathies can cause neurogenic atrophy.

In both cases, the affected muscles may become weak, shrink in size, and lose their tone and mass. Treatment for muscular atrophy depends on the underlying cause and may include physical therapy, exercise, and medication to manage symptoms and improve muscle strength and function.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive lung disease characterized by the persistent obstruction of airflow in and out of the lungs. This obstruction is usually caused by two primary conditions: chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Chronic bronchitis involves inflammation and narrowing of the airways, leading to excessive mucus production and coughing. Emphysema is a condition where the alveoli (air sacs) in the lungs are damaged, resulting in decreased gas exchange and shortness of breath.

The main symptoms of COPD include progressive shortness of breath, chronic cough, chest tightness, wheezing, and excessive mucus production. The disease is often associated with exposure to harmful particles or gases, such as cigarette smoke, air pollution, or occupational dusts and chemicals. While there is no cure for COPD, treatments can help alleviate symptoms, improve quality of life, and slow the progression of the disease. These treatments may include bronchodilators, corticosteroids, combination inhalers, pulmonary rehabilitation, and, in severe cases, oxygen therapy or lung transplantation.

The Quadriceps muscle, also known as the Quadriceps Femoris, is a large muscle group located in the front of the thigh. It consists of four individual muscles - the Rectus Femoris, Vastus Lateralis, Vastus Intermedius, and Vastus Medialis. These muscles work together to extend the leg at the knee joint and flex the thigh at the hip joint. The Quadriceps muscle is crucial for activities such as walking, running, jumping, and kicking.

Smooth muscle myocytes are specialized cells that make up the contractile portion of non-striated, or smooth, muscles. These muscles are found in various organs and structures throughout the body, including the walls of blood vessels, the digestive system, the respiratory system, and the reproductive system.

Smooth muscle myocytes are smaller than their striated counterparts (skeletal and cardiac muscle cells) and have a single nucleus. They lack the distinctive banding pattern seen in striated muscles and instead have a uniform appearance of actin and myosin filaments. Smooth muscle myocytes are controlled by the autonomic nervous system, which allows them to contract and relax involuntarily.

These cells play an essential role in many physiological processes, such as regulating blood flow, moving food through the digestive tract, and facilitating childbirth. They can also contribute to various pathological conditions, including hypertension, atherosclerosis, and gastrointestinal disorders.

Airway resistance is a measure of the opposition to airflow during breathing, which is caused by the friction between the air and the walls of the respiratory tract. It is an important parameter in respiratory physiology because it can affect the work of breathing and gas exchange.

Airway resistance is usually expressed in units of cm H2O/L/s or Pa·s/m, and it can be measured during spontaneous breathing or during forced expiratory maneuvers, such as those used in pulmonary function testing. Increased airway resistance can result from a variety of conditions, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bronchitis, and bronchiectasis. Decreased airway resistance can be seen in conditions such as emphysema or after a successful bronchodilator treatment.

Mitochondria in muscle, also known as the "powerhouses" of the cell, are organelles that play a crucial role in generating energy for muscle cells through a process called cellular respiration. They convert the chemical energy found in glucose and oxygen into ATP (adenosine triphosphate), which is the main source of energy used by cells.

Muscle cells contain a high number of mitochondria due to their high energy demands for muscle contraction and relaxation. The number and size of mitochondria in muscle fibers can vary depending on the type of muscle fiber, with slow-twitch, aerobic fibers having more numerous and larger mitochondria than fast-twitch, anaerobic fibers.

Mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to various muscle disorders, including mitochondrial myopathies, which are characterized by muscle weakness, exercise intolerance, and other symptoms related to impaired energy production in the muscle cells.

An exercise test, also known as a stress test or an exercise stress test, is a medical procedure used to evaluate the heart's function and response to physical exertion. It typically involves walking on a treadmill or pedaling a stationary bike while being monitored for changes in heart rate, blood pressure, electrocardiogram (ECG), and sometimes other variables such as oxygen consumption or gas exchange.

During the test, the patient's symptoms, such as chest pain or shortness of breath, are also closely monitored. The exercise test can help diagnose coronary artery disease, assess the severity of heart-related symptoms, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments for heart conditions. It may also be used to determine a person's safe level of physical activity and fitness.

There are different types of exercise tests, including treadmill stress testing, stationary bike stress testing, nuclear stress testing, and stress echocardiography. The specific type of test used depends on the patient's medical history, symptoms, and overall health status.

The xiphoid process, also known as the xiphoid bone, is the smallest and lowest portion of the sternum or breastbone. It is located at the bottom tip of the sternum and has a shape that can be variable from person to person, ranging from elongated to almost square. The xiphoid process serves as an attachment point for several muscles, including the diaphragm, transverse abdominis, and oblique muscles. It also plays a role in the movement of the chest during respiration and other physical activities.

Exercise is defined in the medical context as a physical activity that is planned, structured, and repetitive, with the primary aim of improving or maintaining one or more components of physical fitness. Components of physical fitness include cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, and body composition. Exercise can be classified based on its intensity (light, moderate, or vigorous), duration (length of time), and frequency (number of times per week). Common types of exercise include aerobic exercises, such as walking, jogging, cycling, and swimming; resistance exercises, such as weightlifting; flexibility exercises, such as stretching; and balance exercises. Exercise has numerous health benefits, including reducing the risk of chronic diseases, improving mental health, and enhancing overall quality of life.

Respiratory disorders are a group of conditions that affect the respiratory system, including the nose, throat (pharynx), windpipe (trachea), bronchi, lungs, and diaphragm. These disorders can make it difficult for a person to breathe normally and may cause symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest pain.

There are many different types of respiratory disorders, including:

1. Asthma: A chronic inflammatory disease that causes the airways to become narrow and swollen, leading to difficulty breathing.
2. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): A group of lung diseases, including emphysema and chronic bronchitis, that make it hard to breathe.
3. Pneumonia: An infection of the lungs that can cause coughing, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.
4. Lung cancer: A type of cancer that forms in the tissues of the lungs and can cause symptoms such as coughing, chest pain, and shortness of breath.
5. Tuberculosis (TB): A bacterial infection that mainly affects the lungs but can also affect other parts of the body.
6. Sleep apnea: A disorder that causes a person to stop breathing for short periods during sleep.
7. Interstitial lung disease: A group of disorders that cause scarring of the lung tissue, leading to difficulty breathing.
8. Pulmonary fibrosis: A type of interstitial lung disease that causes scarring of the lung tissue and makes it hard to breathe.
9. Pleural effusion: An abnormal accumulation of fluid in the space between the lungs and chest wall.
10. Lung transplantation: A surgical procedure to replace a diseased or failing lung with a healthy one from a donor.

Respiratory disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, exposure to environmental pollutants, smoking, and infections. Treatment for respiratory disorders may include medications, oxygen therapy, breathing exercises, and lifestyle changes. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to treat the disorder.

Forced Expiratory Volume (FEV) is a medical term used to describe the volume of air that can be forcefully exhaled from the lungs in one second. It is often measured during pulmonary function testing to assess lung function and diagnose conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or asthma.

FEV is typically expressed as a percentage of the Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), which is the total volume of air that can be exhaled from the lungs after taking a deep breath in. The ratio of FEV to FVC is used to determine whether there is obstruction in the airways, with a lower ratio indicating more severe obstruction.

There are different types of FEV measurements, including FEV1 (the volume of air exhaled in one second), FEV25-75 (the average volume of air exhaled during the middle 50% of the FVC maneuver), and FEV0.5 (the volume of air exhaled in half a second). These measurements can provide additional information about lung function and help guide treatment decisions.

Respiratory therapy is a healthcare profession that specializes in the diagnosis, treatment, and management of respiratory disorders and diseases. Respiratory therapists (RTs) work under the direction of physicians to provide care for patients with conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, cystic fibrosis, sleep apnea, and neuromuscular diseases that affect breathing.

RTs use a variety of techniques and treatments to help patients breathe more easily, including oxygen therapy, aerosol medication delivery, chest physiotherapy, mechanical ventilation, and patient education. They also perform diagnostic tests such as pulmonary function studies to assess lung function and help diagnose respiratory conditions.

RTs work in a variety of healthcare settings, including hospitals, clinics, long-term care facilities, and home health agencies. They may provide care for patients of all ages, from premature infants to the elderly. The overall goal of respiratory therapy is to help patients achieve and maintain optimal lung function and quality of life.

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a colorless, odorless gas that is naturally present in the Earth's atmosphere. It is a normal byproduct of cellular respiration in humans, animals, and plants, and is also produced through the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas.

In medical terms, carbon dioxide is often used as a respiratory stimulant and to maintain the pH balance of blood. It is also used during certain medical procedures, such as laparoscopic surgery, to insufflate (inflate) the abdominal cavity and create a working space for the surgeon.

Elevated levels of carbon dioxide in the body can lead to respiratory acidosis, a condition characterized by an increased concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood and a decrease in pH. This can occur in conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, or other lung diseases that impair breathing and gas exchange. Symptoms of respiratory acidosis may include shortness of breath, confusion, headache, and in severe cases, coma or death.

The oculomotor muscles are a group of extraocular muscles that control the movements of the eye. They include:

1. Superior rectus: This muscle is responsible for elevating the eye and helping with inward rotation (intorsion) when looking downwards.
2. Inferior rectus: It depresses the eye and helps with outward rotation (extorsion) when looking upwards.
3. Medial rectus: This muscle adducts, or moves, the eye towards the midline of the face.
4. Inferior oblique: The inferior oblique muscle intorts and elevates the eye.
5. Superior oblique: It extorts and depresses the eye.

These muscles work together to allow for smooth and precise movements of the eyes, enabling tasks such as tracking moving objects, reading, and maintaining visual fixation on a single point in space.

Quadriplegia, also known as tetraplegia, is a medical condition characterized by paralysis affecting all four limbs and the trunk of the body. It results from damage to the cervical spinal cord, typically at levels C1-C8, which controls signals to the muscles in the arms, hands, trunk, legs, and pelvic organs. The extent of quadriplegia can vary widely, ranging from weakness to complete loss of movement and sensation below the level of injury. Other symptoms may include difficulty breathing, bowel and bladder dysfunction, and sexual dysfunction. The severity and prognosis depend on the location and extent of the spinal cord injury.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Gymnastics" is not a medical term. It is an athletic discipline consisting of physical exercises requiring balance, strength, flexibility, agility, coordination, and endurance. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health concerns, I would be happy to try to help answer those for you!

Striated muscle, also known as skeletal or voluntary muscle, is a type of muscle tissue that is characterized by the presence of distinct light and dark bands, or striations, when viewed under a microscope. These striations correspond to the arrangement of sarcomeres, which are the functional units of muscle fibers.

Striated muscle is under voluntary control, meaning that it is consciously activated by signals from the nervous system. It is attached to bones via tendons and is responsible for producing movements of the body. Striated muscle fibers are multinucleated, meaning that they contain many nuclei, and are composed of numerous myofibrils, which are rope-like structures that run the length of the fiber.

The myofibrils are composed of thick and thin filaments that slide past each other to cause muscle contraction. The thick filaments are made up of the protein myosin, while the thin filaments are composed of actin, tropomyosin, and troponin. When a nerve impulse arrives at the muscle fiber, it triggers the release of calcium ions from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, which bind to troponin and cause a conformational change that exposes the binding sites on actin for myosin. The myosin heads then bind to the actin filaments and pull them towards the center of the sarcomere, causing the muscle fiber to shorten and contract.

A lung is a pair of spongy, elastic organs in the chest that work together to enable breathing. They are responsible for taking in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide through the process of respiration. The left lung has two lobes, while the right lung has three lobes. The lungs are protected by the ribcage and are covered by a double-layered membrane called the pleura. The trachea divides into two bronchi, which further divide into smaller bronchioles, leading to millions of tiny air sacs called alveoli, where the exchange of gases occurs.

Pulmonary gas exchange is the process by which oxygen (O2) from inhaled air is transferred to the blood, and carbon dioxide (CO2), a waste product of metabolism, is removed from the blood and exhaled. This process occurs in the lungs, primarily in the alveoli, where the thin walls of the alveoli and capillaries allow for the rapid diffusion of gases between them. The partial pressure gradient between the alveolar air and the blood in the pulmonary capillaries drives this diffusion process. Oxygen-rich blood is then transported to the body's tissues, while CO2-rich blood returns to the lungs to be exhaled.

Exhalation is the act of breathing out or exhaling, which is the reverse process of inhalation. During exhalation, the diaphragm relaxes and moves upwards, while the chest muscles also relax, causing the chest cavity to decrease in size. This decrease in size puts pressure on the lungs, causing them to deflate and expel air.

Exhalation is a passive process that occurs naturally after inhalation, but it can also be actively controlled during activities such as speaking, singing, or playing a wind instrument. In medical terms, exhalation may also be referred to as expiration.

Impedance plethysmography is a non-invasive method used to measure changes in blood volume or flow in a particular area of the body. It works by passing a small electrical current through the tissue and measuring the opposition (impedance) to that current, which varies with the amount of blood present in the area.

In impedance cardiography, this technique is used to estimate cardiac output, stroke volume, and other hemodynamic parameters. The changes in impedance are measured across the chest wall, which correlate with the ventricular ejection of blood during each heartbeat. This allows for the calculation of various cardiovascular variables, such as the amount of blood pumped by the heart per minute (cardiac output) and the resistance to blood flow in the systemic circulation (systemic vascular resistance).

Impedance plethysmography is a safe and reliable method for assessing cardiovascular function, and it has been widely used in clinical settings to evaluate patients with various cardiovascular disorders, including heart failure, hypertension, and peripheral arterial disease.

The rectus abdominis is a paired, flat, and long muscle in the anterior (front) wall of the abdomen. It runs from the pubic symphysis (the joint where the two pubic bones meet in the front of the pelvis) to the xiphoid process (the lower end of the sternum or breastbone) and costal cartilages of the fifth, sixth, and seventh ribs.

The rectus abdominis is responsible for flexing the lumbar spine (lower back), which helps in bending forward or sitting up from a lying down position. It also contributes to maintaining proper posture and stabilizing the pelvis and spine. The muscle's visibility, especially in its lower portion, is often associated with a "six-pack" appearance in well-trained individuals.

Muscle spindles are specialized sensory organs found within the muscle belly, which primarily function as proprioceptors, providing information about the length and rate of change in muscle length. They consist of small, encapsulated bundles of intrafusal muscle fibers that are interspersed among the extrafusal muscle fibers (the ones responsible for force generation).

Muscle spindles have two types of sensory receptors called primary and secondary endings. Primary endings are located near the equatorial region of the intrafusal fiber, while secondary endings are situated more distally. These endings detect changes in muscle length and transmit this information to the central nervous system (CNS) through afferent nerve fibers.

The activation of muscle spindles plays a crucial role in reflexive responses, such as the stretch reflex (myotatic reflex), which helps maintain muscle tone and joint stability. Additionally, they contribute to our sense of body position and movement awareness, known as kinesthesia.

Muscle relaxation, in a medical context, refers to the process of reducing tension and promoting relaxation in the skeletal muscles. This can be achieved through various techniques, including progressive muscle relaxation (PMR), where individuals consciously tense and then release specific muscle groups in a systematic manner.

PMR has been shown to help reduce anxiety, stress, and muscle tightness, and improve overall well-being. It is often used as a complementary therapy in conjunction with other treatments for conditions such as chronic pain, headaches, and insomnia.

Additionally, muscle relaxation can also be facilitated through pharmacological interventions, such as the use of muscle relaxant medications. These drugs work by inhibiting the transmission of signals between nerves and muscles, leading to a reduction in muscle tone and spasticity. They are commonly used to treat conditions such as multiple sclerosis, cerebral palsy, and spinal cord injuries.

Physical exertion is defined as the act of applying energy to physically demandable activities or tasks, which results in various body systems working together to produce movement and maintain homeostasis. It often leads to an increase in heart rate, respiratory rate, and body temperature, among other physiological responses. The level of physical exertion can vary based on the intensity, duration, and frequency of the activity.

It's important to note that engaging in regular physical exertion has numerous health benefits, such as improving cardiovascular fitness, strengthening muscles and bones, reducing stress, and preventing chronic diseases like obesity, diabetes, and heart disease. However, it is also crucial to balance physical exertion with adequate rest and recovery time to avoid overtraining or injury.

Referred pain is a type of pain that is felt in a part of the body other than its actual source. This occurs because the brain incorrectly interprets nerve signals from damaged tissues or organs. In the case of referred pain, the brain misinterprets the location of the pain signal and attributes it to a different area of the body.

Referred pain is often described as a dull, aching sensation rather than a sharp, stabbing pain. It can be difficult to diagnose because the source of the pain may not be immediately apparent. Common examples of referred pain include:

* Heart attack pain that is felt in the left arm or jaw
* Gallbladder pain that is felt in the right shoulder blade
* Kidney stones that cause pain in the lower back and abdomen
* Appendicitis that causes pain in the lower right quadrant of the abdomen, but can sometimes be referred to the lower left quadrant in pregnant women or those with a longer colon.

Referred pain is thought to occur because the nerves carrying pain signals from different parts of the body converge on the same neurons in the spinal cord before traveling to the brain. If these neurons are stimulated by pain signals from multiple sources, the brain may have difficulty distinguishing between them and may interpret the pain as coming from a single location.

Blood gas analysis is a medical test that measures the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood, as well as the pH level, which indicates the acidity or alkalinity of the blood. This test is often used to evaluate lung function, respiratory disorders, and acid-base balance in the body. It can also be used to monitor the effectiveness of treatments for conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and other respiratory illnesses. The analysis is typically performed on a sample of arterial blood, although venous blood may also be used in some cases.

Hyperventilation is a medical condition characterized by an increased respiratory rate and depth, resulting in excessive elimination of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the body. This leads to hypocapnia (low CO2 levels in the blood), which can cause symptoms such as lightheadedness, dizziness, confusion, tingling sensations in the extremities, and muscle spasms. Hyperventilation may occur due to various underlying causes, including anxiety disorders, lung diseases, neurological conditions, or certain medications. It is essential to identify and address the underlying cause of hyperventilation for proper treatment.

Chlorfenvinphos is an organophosphate insecticide that has been used to control a wide variety of pests in agriculture, horticulture, and animal husbandry. It functions by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which leads to an accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and results in symptoms such as muscle twitching, tremors, convulsions, and eventually respiratory failure.

Chlorfenvinphos is highly toxic to both mammals and birds, and it can also have harmful effects on aquatic organisms. It has been banned or restricted in many countries due to its environmental persistence and potential health risks to humans. Exposure to chlorfenvinphos can occur through inhalation, skin contact, or ingestion, and symptoms of poisoning may include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, headache, dizziness, and respiratory distress. Chronic exposure has been linked to neurological effects such as memory loss, decreased cognitive function, and peripheral neuropathy.

Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is a genetic disorder characterized by progressive muscle weakness and degeneration. It is caused by the absence of dystrophin, a protein that helps keep muscle cells intact. Without dystrophin, the muscle cells break down and are replaced with scar tissue, leading to loss of muscle function over time.

DMD primarily affects boys, as it is inherited in an X-linked recessive pattern, meaning that females who carry one affected X chromosome typically do not show symptoms but can pass the gene on to their offspring. Symptoms usually begin in early childhood and include difficulty with motor skills such as walking, running, and climbing stairs. Over time, the muscle weakness progresses and can lead to loss of ambulation, respiratory and cardiac complications, and ultimately, premature death.

Currently, there is no cure for DMD, but various treatments such as corticosteroids, physical therapy, and assisted ventilation can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life. Gene therapy approaches are also being investigated as potential treatments for this disorder.

Papillary muscles are specialized muscle structures located in the heart, specifically in the ventricles (the lower chambers of the heart). They are attached to the tricuspid and mitral valves' leaflets via tendinous cords, also known as chordae tendineae. The main function of papillary muscles is to prevent the backflow of blood during contraction by providing tension to the valve leaflets through these tendinous cords.

There are two sets of papillary muscles in the heart:

1. Anterior and posterior papillary muscles in the left ventricle, which are attached to the mitral (bicuspid) valve.
2. Three smaller papillary muscles in the right ventricle, which are attached to the tricuspid valve.

These muscle structures play a crucial role in maintaining proper blood flow through the heart and ensuring efficient cardiac function.

Supination is a term used in the medical field, particularly in the study of anatomy and orthopedics. It refers to the external rotation of the forearm so that the palm faces forward or upward. This motion allows for the hand to be in a position to perform actions such as lifting, holding, or throwing objects. It's also used to describe the movement of the foot when it rolls outward, which is important for normal walking and running gait. Abnormal supination can lead to issues with mobility and pain in the affected limb.

Bicycling is defined in medical terms as the act of riding a bicycle. It involves the use of a two-wheeled vehicle that is propelled by pedaling, with the power being transferred to the rear wheel through a chain and sprocket system. Bicycling can be done for various purposes such as transportation, recreation, exercise, or sport.

Regular bicycling has been shown to have numerous health benefits, including improving cardiovascular fitness, increasing muscle strength and flexibility, reducing stress and anxiety, and helping with weight management. However, it is important to wear a helmet while bicycling to reduce the risk of head injury in case of an accident. Additionally, cyclists should follow traffic rules and be aware of their surroundings to ensure their safety and the safety of others on the road.

Insufflation is a medical term that refers to the act of introducing a gas or vapor into a body cavity or passage, typically through a tube or surgical instrument. This procedure is often used in medical and surgical settings for various purposes, such as:

* To administer anesthesia during surgery (e.g., introducing nitrous oxide or other gases into the lungs)
* To introduce medication or other substances into the body (e.g., insufflating steroids into a joint)
* To perform diagnostic procedures (e.g., insufflating air or a contrast agent into the gastrointestinal tract to visualize it with X-rays)
* To clean out a body cavity (e.g., irrigating and insufflating the bladder during urological procedures).

It's important to note that insufflation should be performed under controlled conditions, as there are potential risks associated with introducing gases or vapors into the body, such as barotrauma (damage caused by changes in pressure) and infection.

Muscular dystrophies are a group of genetic disorders that primarily affect skeletal muscles, causing progressive weakness and degeneration. They are characterized by the lack or deficiency of a protein called dystrophin, which is essential for maintaining the integrity of muscle fibers. The most common form is Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), but there are many other types with varying symptoms and severity. Over time, muscle wasting and weakness can lead to disability and shortened lifespan, depending on the type and progression of the disease. Treatment typically focuses on managing symptoms, maintaining mobility, and supporting quality of life.

Functional Residual Capacity (FRC) is the volume of air that remains in the lungs after normal expiration during quiet breathing. It represents the sum of the residual volume (RV) and the expiratory reserve volume (ERV). The FRC is approximately 2.5-3.5 liters in a healthy adult. This volume of air serves to keep the alveoli open and maintain oxygenation during periods of quiet breathing, as well as providing a reservoir for additional ventilation during increased activity or exercise.

In medical terms, the leg refers to the lower portion of the human body that extends from the knee down to the foot. It includes the thigh (femur), lower leg (tibia and fibula), foot, and ankle. The leg is primarily responsible for supporting the body's weight and enabling movements such as standing, walking, running, and jumping.

The leg contains several important structures, including bones, muscles, tendons, ligaments, blood vessels, nerves, and joints. These structures work together to provide stability, support, and mobility to the lower extremity. Common medical conditions that can affect the leg include fractures, sprains, strains, infections, peripheral artery disease, and neurological disorders.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Muscle cells, also known as muscle fibers, are specialized cells that have the ability to contract and generate force, allowing for movement of the body and various internal organ functions. There are three main types of muscle tissue: skeletal, cardiac, and smooth.

Skeletal muscle cells are voluntary striated muscles attached to bones, enabling body movements and posture. They are multinucleated, with numerous nuclei located at the periphery of the cell. These cells are often called muscle fibers and can be quite large, extending the entire length of the muscle.

Cardiac muscle cells form the contractile tissue of the heart. They are also striated but have a single nucleus per cell and are interconnected by specialized junctions called intercalated discs, which help coordinate contraction throughout the heart.

Smooth muscle cells are found in various internal organs such as the digestive, respiratory, and urinary tracts, blood vessels, and the reproductive system. They are involuntary, non-striated muscles that control the internal organ functions. Smooth muscle cells have a single nucleus per cell and can either be spindle-shaped or stellate (star-shaped).

In summary, muscle cells are specialized contractile cells responsible for movement and various internal organ functions in the human body. They can be categorized into three types: skeletal, cardiac, and smooth, based on their structure, location, and function.

Post-poliomyelitis syndrome (PPS) is a condition that affects polio survivors years after recovery from the initial acute poliomyelitis infection. The symptoms of PPS include new onset weakness, fatigue, and pain in the muscles that were previously affected by the poliovirus. These symptoms can occur gradually or suddenly, and they may be worsened by exercise or other physical stressors.

PPS is thought to be caused by ongoing degeneration of the enlarged motor neurons that survived the initial polio infection. It is estimated that up to 50% of polio survivors may experience symptoms of PPS. While there is no cure for PPS, treatment typically focuses on managing symptoms and maintaining function through physical therapy, assistive devices, and pain management strategies.

A cough is a reflex action that helps to clear the airways of irritants, foreign particles, or excess mucus or phlegm. It is characterized by a sudden, forceful expulsion of air from the lungs through the mouth and nose. A cough can be acute (short-term) or chronic (long-term), and it can be accompanied by other symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, or fever. Coughing can be caused by various factors, including respiratory infections, allergies, asthma, environmental pollutants, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and chronic lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and bronchitis. In some cases, a cough may be a symptom of a more serious underlying condition, such as heart failure or lung cancer.

Meconium Aspiration Syndrome (MAS) is a medical condition that occurs in newborns when meconium, which is the first stool of an infant, is present in the amniotic fluid and is breathed into the lungs around the time of delivery. This can cause respiratory distress, pneumonia, and in severe cases, persistent pulmonary hypertension and death.

The meconium can be inhaled into the lungs before, during, or after birth, and it can block the airways, causing a lack of oxygen to the lungs and other organs. This can lead to several complications such as infection, inflammation, and damage to the lung tissue.

MAS is more likely to occur in babies who are born past their due date or those who experience fetal distress during labor and delivery. Treatment for MAS may include oxygen therapy, suctioning of the airways, antibiotics, and in severe cases, mechanical ventilation.

Electric stimulation, also known as electrical nerve stimulation or neuromuscular electrical stimulation, is a therapeutic treatment that uses low-voltage electrical currents to stimulate nerves and muscles. It is often used to help manage pain, promote healing, and improve muscle strength and mobility. The electrical impulses can be delivered through electrodes placed on the skin or directly implanted into the body.

In a medical context, electric stimulation may be used for various purposes such as:

1. Pain management: Electric stimulation can help to block pain signals from reaching the brain and promote the release of endorphins, which are natural painkillers produced by the body.
2. Muscle rehabilitation: Electric stimulation can help to strengthen muscles that have become weak due to injury, illness, or surgery. It can also help to prevent muscle atrophy and improve range of motion.
3. Wound healing: Electric stimulation can promote tissue growth and help to speed up the healing process in wounds, ulcers, and other types of injuries.
4. Urinary incontinence: Electric stimulation can be used to strengthen the muscles that control urination and reduce symptoms of urinary incontinence.
5. Migraine prevention: Electric stimulation can be used as a preventive treatment for migraines by applying electrical impulses to specific nerves in the head and neck.

It is important to note that electric stimulation should only be administered under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional, as improper use can cause harm or discomfort.

The masseter muscle is a strong chewing muscle in the jaw. It is a broad, thick, quadrilateral muscle that extends from the zygomatic arch (cheekbone) to the lower jaw (mandible). The masseter muscle has two distinct parts: the superficial part and the deep part.

The superficial part of the masseter muscle originates from the lower border of the zygomatic process of the maxilla and the anterior two-thirds of the inferior border of the zygomatic arch. The fibers of this part run almost vertically downward to insert on the lateral surface of the ramus of the mandible and the coronoid process.

The deep part of the masseter muscle originates from the deep surface of the zygomatic arch and inserts on the medial surface of the ramus of the mandible, blending with the temporalis tendon.

The primary function of the masseter muscle is to elevate the mandible, helping to close the mouth and clench the teeth together during mastication (chewing). It also plays a role in stabilizing the jaw during biting and speaking. The masseter muscle is one of the most powerful muscles in the human body relative to its size.

In the context of medicine, and specifically in physiology and respiratory therapy, partial pressure (P or p) is a measure of the pressure exerted by an individual gas in a mixture of gases. It's commonly used to describe the concentrations of gases in the body, such as oxygen (PO2), carbon dioxide (PCO2), and nitrogen (PN2).

The partial pressure of a specific gas is calculated as the fraction of that gas in the total mixture multiplied by the total pressure of the mixture. This concept is based on Dalton's law, which states that the total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the pressures exerted by each individual gas.

For example, in room air at sea level, the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) is approximately 160 mmHg (mm of mercury), which represents about 21% of the total barometric pressure (760 mmHg). This concept is crucial for understanding gas exchange in the lungs and how gases move across membranes, such as from alveoli to blood and vice versa.

Facial muscles, also known as facial nerves or cranial nerve VII, are a group of muscles responsible for various expressions and movements of the face. These muscles include:

1. Orbicularis oculi: muscle that closes the eyelid and raises the upper eyelid
2. Corrugator supercilii: muscle that pulls the eyebrows down and inward, forming wrinkles on the forehead
3. Frontalis: muscle that raises the eyebrows and forms horizontal wrinkles on the forehead
4. Procerus: muscle that pulls the medial ends of the eyebrows downward, forming vertical wrinkles between the eyebrows
5. Nasalis: muscle that compresses or dilates the nostrils
6. Depressor septi: muscle that pulls down the tip of the nose
7. Levator labii superioris alaeque nasi: muscle that raises the upper lip and flares the nostrils
8. Levator labii superioris: muscle that raises the upper lip
9. Zygomaticus major: muscle that raises the corner of the mouth, producing a smile
10. Zygomaticus minor: muscle that raises the nasolabial fold and corner of the mouth
11. Risorius: muscle that pulls the angle of the mouth laterally, producing a smile
12. Depressor anguli oris: muscle that pulls down the angle of the mouth
13. Mentalis: muscle that raises the lower lip and forms wrinkles on the chin
14. Buccinator: muscle that retracts the cheek and helps with chewing
15. Platysma: muscle that depresses the corner of the mouth and wrinkles the skin of the neck.

These muscles are innervated by the facial nerve, which arises from the brainstem and exits the skull through the stylomastoid foramen. Damage to the facial nerve can result in facial paralysis or weakness on one or both sides of the face.

Masticatory muscles are a group of skeletal muscles responsible for the mastication (chewing) process in humans and other animals. They include:

1. Masseter muscle: This is the primary muscle for chewing and is located on the sides of the face, running from the lower jawbone (mandible) to the cheekbone (zygomatic arch). It helps close the mouth and elevate the mandible during chewing.

2. Temporalis muscle: This muscle is situated in the temporal region of the skull, covering the temple area. It assists in closing the jaw, retracting the mandible, and moving it sideways during chewing.

3. Medial pterygoid muscle: Located deep within the cheek, near the angle of the lower jaw, this muscle helps move the mandible forward and grind food during chewing. It also contributes to closing the mouth.

4. Lateral pterygoid muscle: Found inside the ramus (the vertical part) of the mandible, this muscle has two heads - superior and inferior. The superior head helps open the mouth by pulling the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) downwards, while the inferior head assists in moving the mandible sideways during chewing.

These muscles work together to enable efficient chewing and food breakdown, preparing it for swallowing and digestion.

Crying is not a medical term itself, but it can be a symptom or a response to various medical and emotional conditions. In a broader sense, crying refers to the production of tears and the audible sounds that accompany this action due to strong emotions such as sadness, happiness, frustration, or pain.

From a physiological standpoint, crying involves the activation of the autonomic nervous system, which leads to the production of tears by the lacrimal glands and the contraction of various facial muscles responsible for the expression of emotion. The parasympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system is primarily responsible for the initiation of crying, leading to increased tear production and a decrease in heart rate.

There are several types of crying:

1. Emotional crying: This type of crying is a response to strong emotional states such as sadness, joy, frustration, or anger. It can be accompanied by sobbing, which involves deep, convulsive breaths and audible sounds.
2. Reflex crying: This occurs when the eyes are irritated due to foreign particles, bright lights, or other environmental factors. The reflex is designed to protect the eyes by producing tears to wash away the irritant.
3. Basal tearing: This type of tear production is continuous and helps keep the eyes lubricated and protected from drying out. It occurs at a low rate throughout the day and is not typically associated with crying as an emotional response.

In summary, while crying is not a medical term per se, it can be indicative of various emotional or physical states that may warrant medical attention. For instance, excessive or inappropriate crying might be a sign of underlying neurological or psychological conditions and should be evaluated by a healthcare professional if it becomes a concern.

The Respiratory System is a complex network of organs and tissues that work together to facilitate the process of breathing, which involves the intake of oxygen and the elimination of carbon dioxide. This system primarily includes the nose, throat (pharynx), voice box (larynx), windpipe (trachea), bronchi, bronchioles, lungs, and diaphragm.

The nostrils or mouth take in air that travels through the pharynx, larynx, and trachea into the lungs. Within the lungs, the trachea divides into two bronchi, one for each lung, which further divide into smaller tubes called bronchioles. At the end of these bronchioles are tiny air sacs known as alveoli where the exchange of gases occurs. Oxygen from the inhaled air diffuses through the walls of the alveoli into the bloodstream, while carbon dioxide, a waste product, moves from the blood to the alveoli and is exhaled out of the body.

The diaphragm, a large muscle that separates the chest from the abdomen, plays a crucial role in breathing by contracting and relaxing to change the volume of the chest cavity, thereby allowing air to flow in and out of the lungs. Overall, the Respiratory System is essential for maintaining life by providing the body's cells with the oxygen needed for metabolism and removing waste products like carbon dioxide.

Motor neurons are specialized nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord that play a crucial role in controlling voluntary muscle movements. They transmit electrical signals from the brain to the muscles, enabling us to perform actions such as walking, talking, and swallowing. There are two types of motor neurons: upper motor neurons, which originate in the brain's motor cortex and travel down to the brainstem and spinal cord; and lower motor neurons, which extend from the brainstem and spinal cord to the muscles. Damage or degeneration of these motor neurons can lead to various neurological disorders, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA).

'Mice, Inbred mdx' is a genetic strain of laboratory mice that are widely used as a model to study Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a severe and progressive muscle-wasting disorder in humans. The 'mdx' designation refers to the specific genetic mutation present in these mice, which is a point mutation in the gene encoding for dystrophin, a crucial protein involved in maintaining the structural integrity of muscle fibers.

Inbred mdx mice carry a spontaneous mutation in exon 23 of the dystrophin gene, resulting in the production of a truncated and nonfunctional form of the protein. This leads to a phenotype that closely resembles DMD in humans, including muscle weakness, degeneration, and fibrosis. The inbred nature of these mice ensures consistent genetic backgrounds and disease manifestations, making them valuable tools for studying the pathophysiology of DMD and testing potential therapies.

It is important to note that while the inbred mdx mouse model has been instrumental in advancing our understanding of DMD, it does not fully recapitulate all aspects of the human disease. Therefore, findings from these mice should be carefully interpreted and validated in more complex models or human studies before translating them into clinical applications.

Posture is the position or alignment of body parts supported by the muscles, especially the spine and head in relation to the vertebral column. It can be described as static (related to a stationary position) or dynamic (related to movement). Good posture involves training your body to stand, walk, sit, and lie in positions where the least strain is placed on supporting muscles and ligaments during movement or weight-bearing activities. Poor posture can lead to various health issues such as back pain, neck pain, headaches, and respiratory problems.

Oxygen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that constitutes about 21% of the earth's atmosphere. It is a crucial element for human and most living organisms as it is vital for respiration. Inhaled oxygen enters the lungs and binds to hemoglobin in red blood cells, which carries it to tissues throughout the body where it is used to convert nutrients into energy and carbon dioxide, a waste product that is exhaled.

Medically, supplemental oxygen therapy may be provided to patients with conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pneumonia, heart failure, or other medical conditions that impair the body's ability to extract sufficient oxygen from the air. Oxygen can be administered through various devices, including nasal cannulas, face masks, and ventilators.

Lung compliance is a measure of the ease with which the lungs expand and is defined as the change in lung volume for a given change in transpulmonary pressure. It is often expressed in units of liters per centimeter of water (L/cm H2O). A higher compliance indicates that the lungs are more easily distensible, while a lower compliance suggests that the lungs are stiffer and require more force to expand. Lung compliance can be affected by various conditions such as pulmonary fibrosis, pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Positive-pressure respiration is a type of mechanical ventilation where positive pressure is applied to the airway and lungs, causing them to expand and inflate. This can be used to support or replace spontaneous breathing in patients who are unable to breathe effectively on their own due to conditions such as respiratory failure, neuromuscular disorders, or sedation for surgery.

During positive-pressure ventilation, a mechanical ventilator delivers breaths to the patient through an endotracheal tube or a tracheostomy tube. The ventilator is set to deliver a specific volume or pressure of air with each breath, and the patient's breathing is synchronized with the ventilator to ensure proper delivery of the breaths.

Positive-pressure ventilation can help improve oxygenation and remove carbon dioxide from the lungs, but it can also have potential complications such as barotrauma (injury to lung tissue due to excessive pressure), volutrauma (injury due to overdistention of the lungs), hemodynamic compromise (decreased blood pressure and cardiac output), and ventilator-associated pneumonia. Therefore, careful monitoring and adjustment of ventilator settings are essential to minimize these risks and provide safe and effective respiratory support.

Anoxia is a medical condition that refers to the absence or complete lack of oxygen supply in the body or a specific organ, tissue, or cell. This can lead to serious health consequences, including damage or death of cells and tissues, due to the vital role that oxygen plays in supporting cellular metabolism and energy production.

Anoxia can occur due to various reasons, such as respiratory failure, cardiac arrest, severe blood loss, carbon monoxide poisoning, or high altitude exposure. Prolonged anoxia can result in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, a serious condition that can cause brain damage and long-term neurological impairments.

Medical professionals use various diagnostic tests, such as blood gas analysis, pulse oximetry, and electroencephalography (EEG), to assess oxygen levels in the body and diagnose anoxia. Treatment for anoxia typically involves addressing the underlying cause, providing supplemental oxygen, and supporting vital functions, such as breathing and circulation, to prevent further damage.

Regional blood flow (RBF) refers to the rate at which blood flows through a specific region or organ in the body, typically expressed in milliliters per minute per 100 grams of tissue (ml/min/100g). It is an essential physiological parameter that reflects the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to tissues while removing waste products. RBF can be affected by various factors such as metabolic demands, neural regulation, hormonal influences, and changes in blood pressure or vascular resistance. Measuring RBF is crucial for understanding organ function, diagnosing diseases, and evaluating the effectiveness of treatments.

Physiological adaptation refers to the changes or modifications that occur in an organism's biological functions or structures as a result of environmental pressures or changes. These adaptations enable the organism to survive and reproduce more successfully in its environment. They can be short-term, such as the constriction of blood vessels in response to cold temperatures, or long-term, such as the evolution of longer limbs in animals that live in open environments.

In the context of human physiology, examples of physiological adaptation include:

1. Acclimatization: The process by which the body adjusts to changes in environmental conditions, such as altitude or temperature. For example, when a person moves to a high-altitude location, their body may produce more red blood cells to compensate for the lower oxygen levels, leading to improved oxygen delivery to tissues.

2. Exercise adaptation: Regular physical activity can lead to various physiological adaptations, such as increased muscle strength and endurance, enhanced cardiovascular function, and improved insulin sensitivity.

3. Hormonal adaptation: The body can adjust hormone levels in response to changes in the environment or internal conditions. For instance, during prolonged fasting, the body releases stress hormones like cortisol and adrenaline to help maintain energy levels and prevent muscle wasting.

4. Sensory adaptation: Our senses can adapt to different stimuli over time. For example, when we enter a dark room after being in bright sunlight, it takes some time for our eyes to adjust to the new light level. This process is known as dark adaptation.

5. Aging-related adaptations: As we age, various physiological changes occur that help us adapt to the changing environment and maintain homeostasis. These include changes in body composition, immune function, and cognitive abilities.

Cardiac output is a measure of the amount of blood that is pumped by the heart in one minute. It is defined as the product of stroke volume (the amount of blood pumped by the left ventricle during each contraction) and heart rate (the number of contractions per minute). Normal cardiac output at rest for an average-sized adult is about 5 to 6 liters per minute. Cardiac output can be increased during exercise or other conditions that require more blood flow, such as during illness or injury. It can be measured noninvasively using techniques such as echocardiography or invasively through a catheter placed in the heart.

Isometric contraction is a type of muscle activation where the muscle contracts without any change in the length of the muscle or movement at the joint. This occurs when the force generated by the muscle matches the external force opposing it, resulting in a balanced state with no visible movement. It is commonly experienced during activities such as holding a heavy object in static position or trying to push against an immovable object. Isometric contractions are important in maintaining posture and providing stability to joints.

Satellite cells in skeletal muscle are undifferentiated stem cells that are crucial for postnatal growth, maintenance, and repair of skeletal muscle. They are located between the basal lamina and plasma membrane of myofibers. In response to muscle damage or injury, satellite cells become activated, proliferate, differentiate into myoblasts, fuse with existing muscle fibers, and contribute to muscle regeneration. Satellite cells also play a role in maintaining muscle homeostasis by fusing with mature muscle fibers to replace damaged proteins and organelles. They are essential for the adaptation of skeletal muscle to various stimuli such as exercise or mechanical load.

Phonation is the process of sound production in speech, singing, or crying. It involves the vibration of the vocal folds (also known as the vocal cords) in the larynx, which is located in the neck. When air from the lungs passes through the vibrating vocal folds, it causes them to vibrate and produce sound waves. These sound waves are then shaped into speech sounds by the articulatory structures of the mouth, nose, and throat.

Phonation is a critical component of human communication and is used in various forms of verbal expression, such as speaking, singing, and shouting. It requires precise control of the muscles that regulate the tension, mass, and length of the vocal folds, as well as the air pressure and flow from the lungs. Dysfunction in phonation can result in voice disorders, such as hoarseness, breathiness, or loss of voice.

Mechanical Ventilators are medical devices that assist with breathing by providing mechanical ventilation to patients who are unable to breathe sufficiently on their own. These machines deliver breaths to the patient through an endotracheal tube or a tracheostomy tube, which is placed in the windpipe (trachea). Mechanical Ventilators can be set to deliver breaths at specific rates and volumes, and they can also be adjusted to provide varying levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) to help keep the alveoli open and improve oxygenation.

Mechanical ventilation is typically used in critical care settings such as intensive care units (ICUs), and it may be employed for a variety of reasons, including respiratory failure, sedation, neuromuscular disorders, or surgery. Prolonged use of mechanical ventilation can lead to complications such as ventilator-associated pneumonia, muscle weakness, and decreased cardiac function, so the goal is usually to wean patients off the ventilator as soon as possible.

Spinal cord injuries (SCI) refer to damage to the spinal cord that results in a loss of function, such as mobility or feeling. This injury can be caused by direct trauma to the spine or by indirect damage resulting from disease or degeneration of surrounding bones, tissues, or blood vessels. The location and severity of the injury on the spinal cord will determine which parts of the body are affected and to what extent.

The effects of SCI can range from mild sensory changes to severe paralysis, including loss of motor function, autonomic dysfunction, and possible changes in sensation, strength, and reflexes below the level of injury. These injuries are typically classified as complete or incomplete, depending on whether there is any remaining function below the level of injury.

Immediate medical attention is crucial for spinal cord injuries to prevent further damage and improve the chances of recovery. Treatment usually involves immobilization of the spine, medications to reduce swelling and pressure, surgery to stabilize the spine, and rehabilitation to help regain lost function. Despite advances in treatment, SCI can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life and ability to perform daily activities.

The pectoralis muscles are a group of chest muscles that are primarily involved in the movement and stabilization of the shoulder joint. They consist of two individual muscles: the pectoralis major and the pectoralis minor.

1. Pectoralis Major: This is the larger and more superficial of the two muscles, lying just under the skin and fat of the chest wall. It has two heads of origin - the clavicular head arises from the medial half of the clavicle (collarbone), while the sternocostal head arises from the anterior surface of the sternum (breastbone) and the upper six costal cartilages. Both heads insert onto the lateral lip of the bicipital groove of the humerus (upper arm bone). The primary actions of the pectoralis major include flexion, adduction, and internal rotation of the shoulder joint.

2. Pectoralis Minor: This is a smaller, triangular muscle that lies deep to the pectoralis major. It originates from the third, fourth, and fifth ribs near their costal cartilages and inserts onto the coracoid process of the scapula (shoulder blade). The main function of the pectoralis minor is to pull the scapula forward and downward, helping to stabilize the shoulder joint and aiding in deep inspiration during breathing.

Together, these muscles play essential roles in various movements such as pushing, pulling, and hugging, making them crucial for daily activities and athletic performance.

Pulmonary diffusing capacity, also known as pulmonary diffusion capacity, is a measure of the ability of the lungs to transfer gas from the alveoli to the bloodstream. It is often used to assess the severity of lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and pulmonary fibrosis.

The most common measurement of pulmonary diffusing capacity is the diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO), which reflects the transfer of carbon monoxide from the alveoli to the red blood cells in the capillaries. The DLCO is measured during a spirometry test, which involves breathing in a small amount of carbon monoxide and then measuring how much of it is exhaled.

A reduced DLCO may indicate a problem with the lung's ability to transfer oxygen to the blood, which can be caused by a variety of factors including damage to the alveoli or capillaries, thickening of the alveolar membrane, or a decrease in the surface area available for gas exchange.

It is important to note that other factors such as hemoglobin concentration, carboxyhemoglobin level, and lung volume can also affect the DLCO value, so these should be taken into account when interpreting the results of a diffusing capacity test.

A reflex is an automatic, involuntary and rapid response to a stimulus that occurs without conscious intention. In the context of physiology and neurology, it's a basic mechanism that involves the transmission of nerve impulses between neurons, resulting in a muscle contraction or glandular secretion.

Reflexes are important for maintaining homeostasis, protecting the body from harm, and coordinating movements. They can be tested clinically to assess the integrity of the nervous system, such as the knee-j jerk reflex, which tests the function of the L3-L4 spinal nerve roots and the sensitivity of the stretch reflex arc.

The esophagus is the muscular tube that connects the throat (pharynx) to the stomach. It is located in the midline of the neck and chest, passing through the diaphragm to enter the abdomen and join the stomach. The main function of the esophagus is to transport food and liquids from the mouth to the stomach for digestion.

The esophagus has a few distinct parts: the upper esophageal sphincter (a ring of muscle that separates the esophagus from the throat), the middle esophagus, and the lower esophageal sphincter (another ring of muscle that separates the esophagus from the stomach). The lower esophageal sphincter relaxes to allow food and liquids to enter the stomach and then contracts to prevent stomach contents from flowing back into the esophagus.

The walls of the esophagus are made up of several layers, including mucosa (a moist tissue that lines the inside of the tube), submucosa (a layer of connective tissue), muscle (both voluntary and involuntary types), and adventitia (an outer layer of connective tissue).

Common conditions affecting the esophagus include gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), Barrett's esophagus, esophageal cancer, esophageal strictures, and eosinophilic esophagitis.

In medical terms, the term "voice" refers to the sound produced by vibration of the vocal cords caused by air passing out from the lungs during speech, singing, or breathing. It is a complex process that involves coordination between respiratory, phonatory, and articulatory systems. Any damage or disorder in these systems can affect the quality, pitch, loudness, and flexibility of the voice.

The medical field dealing with voice disorders is called Phoniatrics or Voice Medicine. Voice disorders can present as hoarseness, breathiness, roughness, strain, weakness, or a complete loss of voice, which can significantly impact communication, social interaction, and quality of life.

The postoperative period is the time following a surgical procedure during which the patient's response to the surgery and anesthesia is monitored, and any complications or adverse effects are managed. This period can vary in length depending on the type of surgery and the individual patient's needs, but it typically includes the immediate recovery phase in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) or recovery room, as well as any additional time spent in the hospital for monitoring and management of pain, wound healing, and other aspects of postoperative care.

The goals of postoperative care are to ensure the patient's safety and comfort, promote optimal healing and rehabilitation, and minimize the risk of complications such as infection, bleeding, or other postoperative issues. The specific interventions and treatments provided during this period will depend on a variety of factors, including the type and extent of surgery performed, the patient's overall health and medical history, and any individualized care plans developed in consultation with the patient and their healthcare team.

Aerospace medicine is a branch of medicine that deals with the health and safety of pilots, astronauts, and passengers during space travel or aircraft flight. It involves studying the effects of various factors such as altitude, weightlessness, radiation, noise, vibration, and temperature extremes on the human body, and developing measures to prevent or mitigate any adverse effects.

Aerospace medicine also encompasses the diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions that occur during space travel or aircraft flight, as well as the development of medical standards and guidelines for pilot and astronaut selection, training, and fitness for duty. Additionally, it includes research into the physiological and psychological challenges of long-duration space missions and the development of countermeasures to maintain crew health and performance during such missions.

The hypoglossal nerve, also known as the 12th cranial nerve (CN XII), is primarily responsible for innervating the muscles of the tongue, allowing for its movement and function. These muscles include the intrinsic muscles that alter the shape of the tongue and the extrinsic muscles that position it in the oral cavity. The hypoglossal nerve also has some minor contributions to the innervation of two muscles in the neck: the sternocleidomastoid and the trapezius. These functions are related to head turning and maintaining head position. Any damage to this nerve can lead to weakness or paralysis of the tongue, causing difficulty with speech, swallowing, and tongue movements.

I believe there might be a misunderstanding in your question. "Dogs" is not a medical term or condition. It is the common name for a domesticated carnivore of the family Canidae, specifically the genus Canis, which includes wolves, foxes, and other extant and extinct species of mammals. Dogs are often kept as pets and companions, and they have been bred in a wide variety of forms and sizes for different purposes, such as hunting, herding, guarding, assisting police and military forces, and providing companionship and emotional support.

If you meant to ask about a specific medical condition or term related to dogs, please provide more context so I can give you an accurate answer.

In medical terms, the mouth is officially referred to as the oral cavity. It is the first part of the digestive tract and includes several structures: the lips, vestibule (the space enclosed by the lips and teeth), teeth, gingiva (gums), hard and soft palate, tongue, floor of the mouth, and salivary glands. The mouth is responsible for several functions including speaking, swallowing, breathing, and eating, as it is the initial point of ingestion where food is broken down through mechanical and chemical processes, beginning the digestive process.

Intercostal nerves are the bundles of nerve fibers that originate from the thoracic spinal cord (T1 to T11) and provide sensory and motor innervation to the thorax, abdomen, and walls of the chest. They run between the ribs (intercostal spaces), hence the name intercostal nerves.

Each intercostal nerve has two components:

1. The lateral cutaneous branch: This branch provides sensory innervation to the skin on the side of the chest wall and abdomen.
2. The anterior cutaneous branch: This branch provides sensory innervation to the skin on the front of the chest and abdomen.

Additionally, each intercostal nerve also gives off a muscular branch that supplies motor innervation to the intercostal muscles (the muscles between the ribs) and the upper abdominal wall muscles. The lowest intercostal nerve (T11) also provides sensory innervation to a small area of skin over the buttock.

Intercostal nerves are important in clinical practice, as they can be affected by various conditions such as herpes zoster (shingles), rib fractures, or thoracic outlet syndrome, leading to pain and sensory changes in the chest wall.

Heart failure is a pathophysiological state in which the heart is unable to pump sufficient blood to meet the metabolic demands of the body or do so only at the expense of elevated filling pressures. It can be caused by various cardiac disorders, including coronary artery disease, hypertension, valvular heart disease, cardiomyopathy, and arrhythmias. Symptoms may include shortness of breath, fatigue, and fluid retention. Heart failure is often classified based on the ejection fraction (EF), which is the percentage of blood that is pumped out of the left ventricle during each contraction. A reduced EF (less than 40%) is indicative of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), while a preserved EF (greater than or equal to 50%) is indicative of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). There is also a category of heart failure with mid-range ejection fraction (HFmrEF) for those with an EF between 40-49%.

The psoas muscles are a pair of muscles that are located in the lower lumbar region of the spine and run through the pelvis to attach to the femur (thigh bone). They are deep muscles, meaning they are located close to the body's core, and are surrounded by other muscles, bones, and organs.

The psoas muscles are composed of two separate muscles: the psoas major and the psoas minor. The psoas major is the larger of the two muscles and originates from the lumbar vertebrae (T12 to L5) and runs through the pelvis to attach to the lesser trochanter of the femur. The psoas minor, which is smaller and tends to be absent in some people, originates from the lower thoracic vertebrae (T12) and upper lumbar vertebrae (L1-L3) and runs down to attach to the iliac fascia and the pectineal line of the pubis.

The primary function of the psoas muscles is to flex the hip joint, which means they help to bring the knee towards the chest. They also play a role in stabilizing the lumbar spine and pelvis during movement. Tightness or weakness in the psoas muscles can contribute to lower back pain, postural issues, and difficulty with mobility and stability.

Intermittent Positive-Pressure Breathing (IPPB) is a type of ventilatory support that involves the intermittent delivery of positive pressure to the airways and alveoli during inspiration, while allowing for expiration to occur passively. This technique is often used in medical settings to assist patients with respiratory insufficiency or failure, such as those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), neuromuscular disorders, or following surgery.

During IPPB, the patient breathes in through a mouthpiece or mask that is connected to a ventilator or breathing machine. The machine delivers positive pressure to the airways, which helps to inflate the lungs and improve oxygenation. The pressure can be adjusted to meet the needs of each individual patient, and the frequency and duration of breaths can also be controlled by the healthcare provider.

IPPB is typically used on a short-term basis, as a means of providing respiratory support while a patient's underlying condition improves. It may be used in conjunction with other therapies, such as bronchodilators or corticosteroids, to help improve lung function and reduce symptoms. While IPPB can be an effective tool for managing respiratory insufficiency, it is not without risks, and careful monitoring is required to ensure that it is used safely and effectively.

Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome (OHS) is a medical condition characterized by the presence of obesity (generally defined as a body mass index of 30 or higher) and chronic hypoventilation, which means that the person is not breathing adequately, resulting in low levels of oxygen and high levels of carbon dioxide in the blood.

In OHS, the excess weight of the chest walls makes it difficult for the respiratory muscles to work effectively, leading to reduced lung volumes and impaired gas exchange. This results in chronic hypoxemia (low oxygen levels) and hypercapnia (high carbon dioxide levels) during wakefulness and sleep.

OHS is often associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a condition characterized by repeated episodes of upper airway obstruction during sleep, which can further exacerbate hypoventilation. However, not all patients with OHS have OSA, and vice versa.

The diagnosis of OHS is typically made based on the presence of obesity, chronic hypoventilation (as evidenced by elevated arterial carbon dioxide levels), and the absence of other causes of hypoventilation. Treatment usually involves the use of non-invasive ventilation to support breathing and improve gas exchange, as well as weight loss interventions to address the underlying obesity.

A chronic disease is a long-term medical condition that often progresses slowly over a period of years and requires ongoing management and care. These diseases are typically not fully curable, but symptoms can be managed to improve quality of life. Common chronic diseases include heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). They are often associated with advanced age, although they can also affect children and younger adults. Chronic diseases can have significant impacts on individuals' physical, emotional, and social well-being, as well as on healthcare systems and society at large.

Resistance training is a form of exercise that involves working your muscles against some form of external resistance, such as free weights, resistance bands, or your own body weight. The goal of resistance training is to increase muscle strength, power, endurance, and size. It can also help improve overall physical function, bone density, and metabolic health.

In a medical context, resistance training may be recommended as part of a treatment plan for various conditions, such as chronic pain, arthritis, or mobility limitations. When performed regularly and with proper form, resistance training can help reduce symptoms, improve functional ability, and enhance quality of life for individuals with these conditions.

It is important to note that resistance training should be tailored to the individual's fitness level, goals, and any medical considerations. It is always recommended to consult with a healthcare provider or a qualified fitness professional before starting a new exercise program.

Hand strength refers to the measure of force or power that an individual can generate using the muscles of the hand and forearm. It is often assessed through various tests, such as grip strength dynamometry, which measures the maximum force exerted by the hand when squeezing a device called a handgrip dynanometer. Hand strength is important for performing daily activities, maintaining independence, and can be indicative of overall health and well-being. Reduced hand strength may be associated with conditions such as neuromuscular disorders, arthritis, or injuries.

Gastroplasty is a surgical procedure that involves reducing the size of the stomach to treat morbid obesity. It is also known as vertical banded gastroplasty or stomach stapling. In this procedure, a part of the stomach is permanently stapled vertically to create a small pouch at the top of the stomach. This restricts the amount of food that can be eaten at one time and causes a feeling of fullness with smaller amounts of food.

The goal of gastroplasty is to help patients lose weight by reducing their calorie intake, promoting weight loss, and improving overall health. However, it is important to note that gastroplasty requires significant lifestyle changes, including regular exercise and healthy eating habits, to maintain long-term weight loss success.

As with any surgical procedure, there are risks associated with gastroplasty, such as infection, bleeding, and complications related to anesthesia. It is important for patients to discuss these risks with their healthcare provider before deciding whether or not to undergo the procedure.

Reference values, also known as reference ranges or reference intervals, are the set of values that are considered normal or typical for a particular population or group of people. These values are often used in laboratory tests to help interpret test results and determine whether a patient's value falls within the expected range.

The process of establishing reference values typically involves measuring a particular biomarker or parameter in a large, healthy population and then calculating the mean and standard deviation of the measurements. Based on these statistics, a range is established that includes a certain percentage of the population (often 95%) and excludes extreme outliers.

It's important to note that reference values can vary depending on factors such as age, sex, race, and other demographic characteristics. Therefore, it's essential to use reference values that are specific to the relevant population when interpreting laboratory test results. Additionally, reference values may change over time due to advances in measurement technology or changes in the population being studied.

Myofibrils are the basic contractile units of muscle fibers, composed of highly organized arrays of thick and thin filaments. They are responsible for generating the force necessary for muscle contraction. The thick filaments are primarily made up of the protein myosin, while the thin filaments are mainly composed of actin. Myofibrils are surrounded by a membrane called the sarcolemma and are organized into repeating sections called sarcomeres, which are the functional units of muscle contraction.

Apnea is a medical condition defined as the cessation of breathing for 10 seconds or more. It can occur during sleep (sleep apnea) or while awake (wakeful apnea). There are different types of sleep apnea, including obstructive sleep apnea, central sleep apnea, and complex sleep apnea syndrome. Obstructive sleep apnea occurs when the airway becomes blocked during sleep, while central sleep apnea occurs when the brain fails to signal the muscles to breathe. Complex sleep apnea syndrome, also known as treatment-emergent central sleep apnea, is a combination of obstructive and central sleep apneas. Sleep apnea can lead to various complications, such as fatigue, difficulty concentrating, high blood pressure, heart disease, and stroke.

The temporalis muscle is a fan-shaped muscle located in the lateral aspect of the head, in the temporal fossa region. It belongs to the group of muscles known as muscles of mastication, responsible for chewing movements. The temporalis muscle has its origin at the temporal fossa and inserts into the coronoid process and ramus of the mandible. Its main function is to retract the mandible and assist in closing the jaw.

A hindlimb, also known as a posterior limb, is one of the pair of extremities that are located distally to the trunk in tetrapods (four-legged vertebrates) and include mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians. In humans and other primates, hindlimbs are equivalent to the lower limbs, which consist of the thigh, leg, foot, and toes.

The primary function of hindlimbs is locomotion, allowing animals to move from one place to another. However, they also play a role in other activities such as balance, support, and communication. In humans, the hindlimbs are responsible for weight-bearing, standing, walking, running, and jumping.

In medical terminology, the term "hindlimb" is not commonly used to describe human anatomy. Instead, healthcare professionals use terms like lower limbs or lower extremities to refer to the same region of the body. However, in comparative anatomy and veterinary medicine, the term hindlimb is still widely used to describe the corresponding structures in non-human animals.

Lung diseases refer to a broad category of disorders that affect the lungs and other structures within the respiratory system. These diseases can impair lung function, leading to symptoms such as coughing, shortness of breath, chest pain, and wheezing. They can be categorized into several types based on the underlying cause and nature of the disease process. Some common examples include:

1. Obstructive lung diseases: These are characterized by narrowing or blockage of the airways, making it difficult to breathe out. Examples include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, bronchiectasis, and cystic fibrosis.
2. Restrictive lung diseases: These involve stiffening or scarring of the lungs, which reduces their ability to expand and take in air. Examples include idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, sarcoidosis, and asbestosis.
3. Infectious lung diseases: These are caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites that infect the lungs. Examples include pneumonia, tuberculosis, and influenza.
4. Vascular lung diseases: These affect the blood vessels in the lungs, impairing oxygen exchange. Examples include pulmonary embolism, pulmonary hypertension, and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH).
5. Neoplastic lung diseases: These involve abnormal growth of cells within the lungs, leading to cancer. Examples include small cell lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, and mesothelioma.
6. Other lung diseases: These include interstitial lung diseases, pleural effusions, and rare disorders such as pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM).

It is important to note that this list is not exhaustive, and there are many other conditions that can affect the lungs. Proper diagnosis and treatment of lung diseases require consultation with a healthcare professional, such as a pulmonologist or respiratory therapist.

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that affects nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord responsible for controlling voluntary muscle movements, such as speaking, walking, breathing, and swallowing. The condition is characterized by the degeneration of motor neurons in the brain (upper motor neurons) and spinal cord (lower motor neurons), leading to their death.

The term "amyotrophic" comes from the Greek words "a" meaning no or negative, "myo" referring to muscle, and "trophic" relating to nutrition. When a motor neuron degenerates and can no longer send impulses to the muscle, the muscle becomes weak and eventually atrophies due to lack of use.

The term "lateral sclerosis" refers to the hardening or scarring (sclerosis) of the lateral columns of the spinal cord, which are primarily composed of nerve fibers that carry information from the brain to the muscles.

ALS is often called Lou Gehrig's disease, named after the famous American baseball player who was diagnosed with the condition in 1939. The exact cause of ALS remains unknown, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors. There is currently no cure for ALS, and treatment primarily focuses on managing symptoms and maintaining quality of life.

The progression of ALS varies from person to person, with some individuals experiencing rapid decline over just a few years, while others may have a more slow-progressing form of the disease that lasts several decades. The majority of people with ALS die from respiratory failure within 3 to 5 years after the onset of symptoms. However, approximately 10% of those affected live for 10 or more years following diagnosis.

Whole-body plethysmography is a non-invasive medical technique used to measure changes in the volume of air in the lungs and chest during breathing. It is often utilized in the diagnosis and assessment of various respiratory disorders such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and restrictive lung diseases.

During whole-body plethysmography, the patient enters a sealed, clear chamber, usually in a standing or sitting position. The patient is instructed to breathe normally while the machine measures changes in pressure within the chamber as the chest and abdomen move during respiration. These measurements are then used to calculate lung volume, airflow, and other respiratory parameters.

This technique provides valuable information about the functional status of the lungs and can help healthcare providers make informed decisions regarding diagnosis, treatment planning, and disease monitoring.

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McConnell, A (2013). Functional benefits of respiratory muscle training. in: Respiratory Muscle Training: Theory and Practice. ... Respiratory Muscle Training (RMT) is a training method developed to condition the muscles of respiration specifically. RMT has ... Preoperative Respiratory Muscle Training (RMT), or Inspiratory Muscle Training (IMT), is also used in the patients who are ... Does training of respiratory muscles affect exercise performance in healthy subjects? Respiratory Medicine Jun 6; 100(6): 1117- ...
December 2017). "Respiratory muscle training for multiple sclerosis". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2017 (12): ... Evidence for an effect of respiratory muscle training is heterogeneous and low quality, while the effect on important outcomes ... They are responsible of many of the symptoms of influenza infections, including fever, muscle aches, fatigue, and headaches. ... Research has supported the rehabilitative role of physical activity in improving muscle power, mobility, mood, bowel health, ...
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Brancatisano, T. P.; Dodd, D. S.; Engel, L. A. (1 October 1984). "Respiratory activity of posterior cricoarytenoid muscle and ... Muscles of larynx. Posterior view. Muscles of the larynx, seen from above. Dissection of the muscles of the palate from behind ... The posterior cricoarytenoid muscles are the only muscles to open the vocal cords. By abducting the vocal folds, the muscle ... In this, the muscle is an antagonist of the lateral cricoarytenoid muscle. The muscle additionally draws the arytenoid ...
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The tone of respiratory muscle is believed to be modulated by muscle spindles via a reflex arc involving the spinal cord. Drugs ... ramped increase in motor discharge to the respiratory muscles (and the pharyngeal constrictor muscles). Before the end of ... The respiratory centre in the medulla and pons of the brainstem controls the rate and depth of respiration, (the respiratory ... The spinal cord reflex responses include the activation of additional respiratory muscles as compensation, gasping response, ...
... with early respiratory muscle involvement; 603689; TTN Myopathy, reducing body, X-linked, childhood-onset; 300718; FHL1 ... PITX2 Rippling muscle disease; 606072; CAV3 Rippling muscle disease-1; 606072; RMD1 Roberts syndrome; 268300; ESCO2 Robinow ... PHOX2A Fibrosis of extraocular muscles, congenital, 3A; 600638; TUBB3 Fibrosis of extraocular muscles, congenital, 3B; 135700; ... ANTXR2 Fibrosis of extraocular muscles, congenital, 1; 135700; KIF21A Fibrosis of extraocular muscles, congenital, 2; 602078; ...
"Human respiratory muscle actions and control during exercise". J Appl Physiol. 83 (4): 1256-69. doi:10.1152/jappl.1997.83. ... and that non-diaphragmatic inspiratory muscles act largely on the pulmonary rib cage. Abdominal volume change is defined as the ... "Abdominal volume contribution to tidal volume as an early indicator of respiratory impairment in Duchenne muscular dystrophy". ...
osteoarticular apparatus and muscle of the upper limb 14. osteoarticular apparatus and muscle of lower limb 15. osteoarticular ... respiratory 07. digestive 08. urinary and genital 09. acts on the reproductive, pregnancy and the newborn 10. endocrine and ... osteoarticular apparatus and muscle of the head 12. osteoarticular apparatus and muscle neck and trunk 13. ... respiratory support, ...) ACPC V21 from 25/05/2010 (recasting of Anatomy Cyto Pathology) V20 ACPC 01/05/2010 (recast EBRT) ACPC ...
They have respiratory trees for gas exchange. The mesentery of the posterior loop of their gut is attached to the right ventral ... The muscles that run longitudinally down the body are arranged into five double bands. They can emit sticky white threads known ... They do not have introvert or retractor muscles. The tube feet often form a clearly demarcated sole. They have 15-30 shield- ...
... there is no evidence supporting a respiratory role for these muscles. In fact, some electromyographic data refute a respiratory ... Jolley, C. J.; Moxham, J. (January 1, 2006), "RESPIRATORY MUSCLES, CHEST WALL, DIAPHRAGM, AND OTHER", in Laurent, Geoffrey J.; ... Serratus anterior muscle Serratus posterior inferior muscle According to Moore et al (Moore Clinically Oriented Anatomy 7th ... The serratus posterior superior muscle is a thin, quadrilateral muscle. It is situated at the upper back part of the thorax, ...
"Respiratory functions of the inferior pharyngeal constrictor and sternohyoid muscles during sleep". Experimental Neurology. 92 ... The inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle is a skeletal muscle of the neck. It is the thickest of the three outer pharyngeal ... Uncoordinated muscle contraction, cricopharyngeal spasm, or impaired relaxation of the inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle ... The inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle has a broad role in moving the lower part of the pharynx. As soon as a bolus of food ...
... and poor facial muscle tone. Cardiopulmonary involvement is manifested by increased respiratory rate, use of accessory muscles ... Respiratory failure is the most common cause of death. Enlargement of the heart muscles and rhythm disturbances are not ... One of the first symptoms is a progressive decrease in muscle strength starting with the legs and moving to smaller muscles in ... The usual presenting features are cardiomegaly (92%), hypotonia (88%), cardiomyopathy (88%), respiratory distress (78%), muscle ...
... www.DoctorBach.com About. About Dr. Bach. ... Benefit From The Use Of Respiratory Muscle Aids. Myopathies. Muscular dystrophies. Dystrophinopathies Duchenne Becker Limb- ...
Conclusion: The addition of an inspiratory load has a significant effect on the breathing pattern and respiratory muscle ... The measurements were repeated using two different interfaces (nasal and oral). Chest wall volumes and respiratory muscle ... The measurements were repeated using two different interfaces (nasal and oral). Chest wall volumes and respiratory muscle ... Results: During the application of inspiratory load, significant changes were observed in the respiratory rate (p , 0.04), ...
A statement of the American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society ... Skeletal muscle dysfunction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. ... A statement of the American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1999 Apr;159(4 Pt 2): ... Skeletal muscle dysfunction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. ...
BACKGROUND--It is well established that patients with longstanding weakness of the respiratory muscles have a reduction in lung ... CONCLUSIONS--In many patients with chronic weakness of the respiratory muscles the reduced lung distensibility does not appear ... Lung volume restriction in patients with chronic respiratory muscle weakness: the role of microatelectasis. ... Lung volume restriction in patients with chronic respiratory muscle weakness: the role of microatelectasis. ...
Postural relief of dyspnoea in severe chronic airflow limitation: relationship to respiratory muscle strength. ... Postural relief of dyspnoea in severe chronic airflow limitation: relationship to respiratory muscle strength. ... with advanced chronic airflow limitation and in 140 normal subjects to determine whether posture influences respiratory muscle ...
... Course: #9282Level: Intermediate 1 Hour 3166 ... Its been a while since I covered A&P of the respiratory system , I am very happy the course broke down muscle groups, and how ... However, I believe it would have been helpful to also include a brief overview of what respiratory muscle training "looks like ... After this course, participants will be able to explain the rationale for utilizing respiratory muscle strength training (RMST ...
Selectivity of cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors in human pulmonary epithelial and smooth muscle cells. SP Range, L Pang, E Holland, ... Your Name) has sent you a message from European Respiratory Society Message Body (Your Name) thought you would like to see the ... European Respiratory Journal Apr 2000, 15 (4) 751-756; DOI: 10.1034/j.1399-3003.2000.15d20.x ... European Respiratory Journal Apr 2000, 15 (4) 751-756; DOI: 10.1034/j.1399-3003.2000.15d20.x ...
D03 Mitochondrial Biogenesis, And Respiratory Chain Assembly And Function, In Skeletal Muscle Of The R6/2 Mouse Model And Human ... D03 Mitochondrial Biogenesis, And Respiratory Chain Assembly And Function, In Skeletal Muscle Of The R6/2 Mouse Model And Human ... In skeletal muscle, like brain a post-mitotic tissue, multiple mitochondrial DNA deletions as well as variable deficits in ... Methods/techniques We used quadriceps muscle tissue from 12-week old R6/2 HD transgenic mice, and near to motor onset pre- ...
Buy the Respiratory Muscle Training Book here - the ideal companion for those using POWERbreathe. Written by leading expert ... Respiratory Muscle Training: Theory and Practice is the ideal companion for those using POWERbreathe IMT for respiratory ... It explores the evidence base for Respiratory Muscle Training (RMT) as well as the different methods of training respiratory ... Be the first to review "Respiratory Muscle Training Book" Cancel reply. Your email address will not be published. Required ...
IX.ac Myositis of the respiratory muscles (May lead to respiratory muscle paralysis) ... The Drug-Induced Respiratory Disease Website. Philippe Camus, M.D.. Dijon, France. ...
Acute impairment in respiratory muscle strength following a high-volume versus low-volume resistance exercise session - The ... BACKGROUND: Diminished respiratory muscle strenght has been shown following a strenuous bout of sit-ups; however, there is a ... Acute impairment in respiratory muscle strength following a high-volume versus low-volume resistance exercise session. Daniel A ... Acute impairment in respiratory muscle strength following a high-volume versus low-volume resistance exercise session. J Sports ...
MicroRNA expression in human airway smooth muscle cells: role of miR-25 in regulation of airway smooth muscle phenotype. Am J ... MicroRNA-221 is overexpressed in the equine asthmatic airway smooth muscle and modulates smooth muscle cell proliferation. Am J ... Noncoding RNAs in asthmatic airway smooth muscle cells. Bo Xiao, Liangxian Li, Dong Yao, Biwen Mo ... Airway smooth muscle hyperproliferation is regulated by microRNA-221 in severe asthma. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2014; 50: 7-17 ...
Tests of Respiratory Muscle Function - Explore from the MSD Manuals - Medical Professional Version. ... Maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) and maximal expiratory pressure (MEP) measurements may aid in evaluating respiratory muscle ... The maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV) is another measure of the neuromuscular and respiratory systems. The MVV is the total ... It is usually measured at residual volume (RV) because inspiratory muscle strength is inversely related to lung volume (in a ...
Preoperative respiratory muscle training combined with aerobic exercise improves respiratory vital capacity and daily life ... Preoperative respiratory muscle training combined with aerobic exercise improves respiratory vital capacity and daily life ...
To evaluate diaphragmatic mobility in relation to lung function, respiratory muscle strength, dyspnea, and physical activity in ... Diaphragmatic mobility: relationship with lung function, respiratory muscle strength, dyspnea, and physical activity in daily ...
Methodological and Clinimetric Evaluation of Inspiratory Respiratory Muscle Ultrasound in Critical Care Setting. Critical Care ... Methodological and Clinimetric Evaluation of Inspiratory Respiratory Muscle Ultrasound in the Critical Care Setting: A ... Association of Respiratory Symptoms With Preserved Ratio Impaired Spirometry Ann Am Thorac Soc · November 23, 2023 ...
... loss of muscle tissue, electromyogram (EMG) findings, or biopsy results that suggest a muscle problem. The muscle disorder can ... Physical, respiratory, and occupational therapies. *Preventing the condition from getting worse by treating the underlying ... loss of muscle tissue, electromyogram (EMG) findings, or biopsy results that suggest a muscle problem. The muscle disorder can ... Muscle biopsy. *Genetic tests to look for conditions that run in families. This can be tested with blood work or sometimes ...
QoL Devices Announces Alvio® Companion™ Respiratory Muscle Training System * QoL Devices Announces Alvio® Kids™ Respiratory ... QoL Devices Announces Alvio® Companion™ Respiratory Muscle Training System. July 11th, 2022 Alvio® Companion, as part of a ...
Knowledge of the fundamentals of muscle biopsy pathology is useful to promote understanding of the pathogenesis of many types ... Muscle biopsy often contributes significantly to the evaluation of patients with neuromuscular disease. ... Mitochondrial respiratory chain disorders I: mitochondrial DNA defects. Lancet. 2000 Jan 22. 355(9200):299-304. [QxMD MEDLINE ... Neurogenic Changes in Muscle Biopsy. Skeletal muscle can show neurogenic changes in disorders that affect any part of motor ...
Understanding the mechanisms regulating cardiac & skeletal muscle mass, function & repair.. Respiratory Physiology & Medicine ... We are comprised of biomedical scientists with integrated interests in skeletal muscle, ageing, development, exercise, pain, ... Aiming to improve clinical care through a better understanding of respiratory physiology in health. ... An advanced theoretical and practical understanding of the functioning of the muscular, respiratory… ...
The effect of RMST on respiratory muscle strength cough post stroke Importance of Cough Function Coughing protects the lungs ... Effect of RMST on respiratory muscle strength in Parkinsons RMST & Parkinsons Many people with Parkinsons disease (PD) have ... but is less effective in people with respiratory muscle weakness. Aspiration can lead to pneumonia, ... Sleep Apnea & Respiratory Function Sleep is an important aspect of life - it is, indeed, vital to good mental and physical ...
A nutritional supplement popularly known for boosting athletic performance and muscle strength does not improve exercise ... Respiratory Diseases. Respiratory diseases affect any part of the respiratory system. Some of the lung diseases like chronic ... "We have evidence to suggest Cr uptake into muscles [in COPD patients] but are unable to explain why an increase in muscle Cr ... The results were published in the first issue for August of the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine by ...
The Respiratory Muscle Strength Trainer Accessory Kit (RMT kit) is now back in stock and can be used with the Breather ... inspiratory-expiratory respiratory muscle trainer for feedback and more targeted training. The RMT Accessories Kit combines the ... Why exercise the breathing muscles?. A healthy voice requires functioning vocal folds, healthy and well hydrated (moist) tissue ...
Methods of respiratory muscle training Functional benefits of respiratory muscle training The respiratory muscles Anatomy and ... or inadequate respiratory muscle function. The following are not unique to load / capacity imbalance of the respiratory muscles ... Respiratory muscles have a number of important non-respiratory roles (see Ch. 3), which is why patients find walking more ... The respiratory muscles contribute to postural control, which is a confounding influence during IMT. If the inspiratory muscles ...
Muscles contract to help operate the respiratory system and maintain body temperature. ... Musculoskeletal (Muscles and Skeleton). The skeleton (which includes bones, ligaments, tendons, and cartilage) and muscles that ...
The effects of respiratory-based treatment for muscle tension dysphonia: a randomized controlled trial: Diversity Supplement. * ...
A portion of smooth muscle tissue that is part of a lower respiratory tract [Automatically generated definition]. ... lower respiratory tract smooth muscle lower respiratory tract smooth muscle [UBERON_0004233]. A portion of smooth muscle tissue ... respiratory tract smooth muscle }, description: [ A portion of smooth muscle tissue that is part of a lower respiratory ... Open lower respiratory tract smooth muscle in VFB. VFB Term Json. { term: { core: { iri: http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ ...
lepulse-OPUMP is the first intelligence breathing trainer help to maintain and improve inspiratory volume and respiratory ... mainly the diaphragm and intercostal muscles). Strong, enduring respiratory muscles increase the efficiency of respiratory ... Like other skeletal muscles, respiratory muscles undergo adaptation in response to stimuli overload during exercise training, ... And an effective respiratory muscles training will boost your physical performance, cardio endurance and bring balance. ...
Keywords : muscle strength; respiratory muscles; evaluation; reference values; adolescent. · abstract in Portuguese · text in ... FURTADO, Priscilla Rique et al. Respiratory muscle strength of Brazilian adolescents: obtained and predicted values. Rev. bras ... Maximal respiratory pressures were assessed by a digital manometer with the adolescents in the seated position and wearing a ... and Domènech-Clar et al. were not successful in predicting the values for maximal respiratory pressures in the population ...
  • The use of a nasal interface, for training inspiratory muscles, could be more favorable physiologically and more viable for individuals who are unable to hold a mouthpiece, such as patients with facial trauma or neurological problems that cause weakness of the facial muscles. (frontiersin.org)
  • Lung volume restriction in patients with chronic respiratory muscle weakness: the role of microatelectasis. (bmj.com)
  • BACKGROUND--It is well established that patients with longstanding weakness of the respiratory muscles have a reduction in lung distensibility. (bmj.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS--In many patients with chronic weakness of the respiratory muscles the reduced lung distensibility does not appear to be caused by microatelectasis. (bmj.com)
  • Maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) and maximal expiratory pressure (MEP) measurements may aid in evaluating respiratory muscle weakness. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The information available from these maneuvers is nonspecific, however, and cannot distinguish between insufficient effort, muscle weakness, and a neurologic disorder. (msdmanuals.com)
  • A muscle disorder includes patterns of weakness, loss of muscle tissue, electromyogram (EMG) findings, or biopsy results that suggest a muscle problem. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Simply writing, "R/O polymyositis" or "weakness", or worse, "muscle weakness" (we would not be concerned about weakness of character here, so using the term muscle weakness in this context seems oddly redundant) does not provide the pathologist with any useful clinical information and is a disservice to the patient. (medscape.com)
  • Importance of Cough Function Coughing protects the lungs from aspiration, but is less effective in people with respiratory muscle weakness. (thebreather.com.au)
  • According to research Respiratory muscle training in stroke patients with respiratory muscle weakness, dysphagia, and dysarthria - a prospective randomized trial. (galemed.com)
  • Respiratory muscle weakness in people with chronic congestive heart failure (CHF) contributes to exertional dyspnea and reduced exercise capacity. (pnmedical.com)
  • Respiratory muscle weakness occurs in sarcoidosis and is related to decreased exercise capacity, greater fatigue, dyspnea, and lower quality of life in sarcoidosis patients. (rcjournal.com)
  • Even when lung function is normal, respiratory muscle strength is reduced in subjects with sarcoidosis, and respiratory muscle weakness increases dyspnea perception and impairs exercise capacity. (rcjournal.com)
  • 2 , 4 , 5 , 6 One study 4 reported inspiratory muscle weakness in 16.7% of subjects with stage I-IV sarcoidosis, and other studies 2 , 5 , 6 have also shown that subjects' inspiratory muscle strength is decreased up to 45% and expiratory muscle strength is decreased up to 40% when compared with healthy controls. (rcjournal.com)
  • Both fatigue of respiratory muscles and neuromuscular disorders can cause patients to experience respiratory muscle weakness. (advancedmedicalcertification.com)
  • For example, if a patient has a disease that impacts the muscles, such as myasthenia gravis, respiratory muscle weakness is often a complication. (advancedmedicalcertification.com)
  • The bulbar muscles are affected most commonly and most severely, but most patients also develop some degree of fluctuating generalized weakness. (medscape.com)
  • Often within 1 year, patients have generalized symptoms such as weakness or fatigue and one third of patients develop respiratory weakness, requiring mechanical ventilation. (medscape.com)
  • The patient may also complain of a specific weakness of certain muscle groups (eg, those used when climbing stairs). (medscape.com)
  • The overview of basic respiratory anatomy and physiology and the review of conditions that may respond positively to respiratory muscle training were good. (speechpathology.com)
  • For this reason, it is important to be able to recognize respiratory arrest quickly and even anticipate the development of respiratory arrest in patients showing signs of respiratory distress. (advancedmedicalcertification.com)
  • To evaluate diaphragmatic mobility in relation to lung function, respiratory muscle strength, dyspnea, and physical activity in daily life (PADL) in patients with COPD. (mcroberts.nl)
  • lung function and respiratory muscle strength in subjects with Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) compared with healthy subjects . (bvsalud.org)
  • MRR of inspiratory muscles , lung function and amplitude of the electromyographic activity of SCM, SCA, 2ndIS and RA muscles during maximum inspiratory pressure (PImax), maximum expiratory pressure (PEmax) and sniff nasal inspiratory pressure (SNIP) tests were assessed in eighteen DM1 subjects and eleven healthy. (bvsalud.org)
  • It delivers a dynamically adjusted airflow resistance to our respiratory muscles (mainly the diaphragm and intercostal muscles). (lepulsefit.com)
  • The diaphragm and, to a lesser extent, the intercostal muscles drive respiration during quiet breathing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Along with the diaphragm, the intercostal muscles are one of the most important groups of respiratory muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are three layers of intercostal muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The external intercostal muscles are most important in respiration. (wikipedia.org)
  • The internal intercostal muscles have fibres that are angled obliquely downward and backward from rib to rib. (wikipedia.org)
  • After this course, participants will be able to explain the rationale for utilizing respiratory muscle strength training (RMST). (speechpathology.com)
  • Altogether, 6-week combined inspiratory and expiratory RMT is feasible as adjuvant therapy for stroke patients to improve fatigue level, respiratory muscle strength, lung volume, respiratory flow, and dysarthria. (galemed.com)
  • This study was planned to investigate the effects of inspiratory muscle training on exercise capacity, respiratory and peripheral muscle strength, pulmonary function and diffusing capacity, fatigue, dyspnea, depression, and quality of life in subjects with sarcoidosis. (rcjournal.com)
  • no significant improvements were observed in pulmonary function and diffusing capacity, peripheral muscle strength, fatigue, depression, and quality of life between groups after inspiratory muscle training. (rcjournal.com)
  • Inspiratory muscle training improves functional and maximal exercise capacity and respiratory muscle strength and decreases severe fatigue and dyspnea perception in subjects with early stages of sarcoidosis. (rcjournal.com)
  • [ 6 ] Patients with myasthenia gravis do not present with primary complaints of sleepiness or muscle pain. (medscape.com)
  • In 15-20% of patients, myasthenia gravis affects the bulbar muscles alone. (medscape.com)
  • Aims To assess mitochondrial biogenesis, MRC assembly and MRC function in R6/2 and human skeletal muscle. (bmj.com)
  • Cr supplementation has been shown to improve short-burst, high-intensity exercise function in athletes, as well as enhancing isometric muscle strength, lower body endurance and lean body mass in the elderly. (medindia.net)
  • Sleep Apnea & Respiratory Function Sleep is an important aspect of life - it is, indeed, vital to good mental and physical health and function. (thebreather.com.au)
  • Preoperative inspiratory muscle training (IMT) is frequently used in patients waiting for major surgery to improve respiratory muscle function and to reduce the risk of postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs). (rcjournal.com)
  • Further research is needed to investigate other possible factors explaining the mechanism of action of preoperative IMT in patients undergoing major surgery, such as the awareness of patients related to respiratory muscle function and a diaphragmatic breathing pattern. (rcjournal.com)
  • Use technical products that aims to improve the function of the respiratory muscles through specific exercises. (galemed.com)
  • 12 weeks of RMT improve respiratory and ventilatory function, oxygen uptake, exercise performance and dyspnea in people with CHF. (pnmedical.com)
  • Scalene and sternomastoid muscle function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Muscles testing and function with posture and pain (5th ed. (wikipedia.org)
  • While respiratory arrest indicates a cessation of breathing, cardiac arrest indicates a lack of heart function. (advancedmedicalcertification.com)
  • Treatments may affect respiratory function. (hacettepe.edu.tr)
  • The purpose of the study was to compare pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength in women with breast cancer and healthy subjects. (hacettepe.edu.tr)
  • Respiratory muscle function assessments can identify breathing abnormalities and IMT might help to reduce symptoms (mostly via improvements in non-diaphragmatic muscles). (ersjournals.com)
  • Could an inspiratory muscle training (IMT) programme, in this patient with almost normal P Imax , be indicated to improve diaphragm function and exertional dyspnoea? (ersjournals.com)
  • This study aimed to investigate the effect of resistive respiratory muscle training on blood gases and pulmonary function of patients with cervical spinal cord injury. (ejgm.org)
  • Resistive respiratory muscle training improves blood gases and pulmonary function suggesting this intervention as an efficacious therapy for patients with cervical spinal cord injury. (ejgm.org)
  • Help people with respiratory diseases restore impaired respiratory capacity and improve the quality of life. (lepulsefit.com)
  • Skeletal muscle dysfunction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (nih.gov)
  • In skeletal muscle, like brain a post-mitotic tissue, multiple mitochondrial DNA deletions as well as variable deficits in complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC), abnormal calcium handling, and reduced expression of PGC-1α have been described. (bmj.com)
  • The article Skeletal Muscle - Structure and Histology provides a review of normal skeletal muscle histology and ultrastructure, including the histologic appearance of normal muscle with some of the various stains that are used for the processing of muscle biopsies. (medscape.com)
  • Like any other skeletal muscle, our inspiratory muscles can be trained to develop strength and endurance by an external load at a certain duration, intensity, frequency, or combination. (lepulsefit.com)
  • In addition, as COPD results from inflammation and/or alterations in repair mechanisms, the "spill-over" of inflammatory mediators into the circulation may result in important systemic manifestations of the disease, such as skeletal muscle wasting and cachexia. (ersjournals.com)
  • Skeletal muscle tetany occurs at 16-20 mA. (medscape.com)
  • Despite this, the respiratory resistance devices available in the market only use mouthpieces (oral airway). (frontiersin.org)
  • A number of COX inhibitors in cultured human airway cells were compared which exclusively express either COX 1 (primary degree cultured human airway smooth muscle (HASM) cells) or COX 2 (A549 pulmonary epithelial cell-line) as measured by Western blotting. (ersjournals.com)
  • Irreversible pathological changes to airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) such as hyperplasia and hypertrophy can occur in asthmatic patients. (ersjournals.com)
  • Severe distortion of airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) is a common consequence of severe asthma [ 3 ]. (ersjournals.com)
  • C-PAP-Continuous positive airway pressure used to treat loud snoring, can also diminish heartburn and respiratory complaints. (medindia.net)
  • Yet another possible cause of respiratory distress and/or arrest is obstruction of the airway. (advancedmedicalcertification.com)
  • Infants under the age of three months, as well as patients who have loss of muscle tone and decreased consciousness, may experience upper airway obstruction. (advancedmedicalcertification.com)
  • Among the many potential cell types that could influence bronchomotor tone are cells of the respiratory mucosa which may affect airway muscle both pre- and post-synaptically. (cdc.gov)
  • From our work, it appears that airway muscle responsiveness in acute, ozone -induced bronchial hyperreactivity is increased, and that this hyperresponsiveness is linked to more than one noncyclooxygenase. (cdc.gov)
  • It has a great overview of respiratory anatomy and data about effectiveness for a vary of conditions. (speechpathology.com)
  • Below is an overview of respiratory arrest, its causes, how to recognize it and how to provide the most effective treatment. (advancedmedicalcertification.com)
  • Knowledge of the fundamentals of muscle biopsy pathology is useful to promote understanding of the pathogenesis of many types of neuromuscular disorders and assists the non-pathologist clinician to understand reports that he or she receives for the muscle biopsies from his or her patients. (medscape.com)
  • The article Muscle Biopsy and Clinical and Laboratory Features of Neuromuscular Disease provides information about the procedure of muscle biopsy and background about the general features of the clinical presentations of neuromuscular disorders. (medscape.com)
  • A significant difference between the predicted and measured MVV may indicate insufficient neuromuscular reserve, abnormal respiratory mechanics, or an inadequate effort. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Involvement of the lung mechanics may result in increased respiratory work load. (rcjournal.com)
  • RMT effectively improves respiratory muscle strength and endurance, exercise capacity and dyspnea in people with CHF. (pnmedical.com)
  • Pulmonary difficulties is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality following spinal cord injury, which is the main cause of chronic respiratory failure in young adults. (ejgm.org)
  • This course will provide an overview of respiration and why respiratory muscle strength training is important. (speechpathology.com)
  • This maneuver minimizes the contribution of the other muscles of respiration (eg, intercostals). (msdmanuals.com)
  • The muscles of respiration are the muscles that contribute to inhalation and exhalation, by aiding in the expansion and contraction of the thoracic cavity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Accessory muscles of respiration are muscles that assist, but do not play a primary role, in breathing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Selcen D. Muscle diseases. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Respiratory diseases affect any part of the respiratory system. (medindia.net)
  • A retrospective study was made in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, on the impact of pulmonary rehabilitation on respiratory parameters and health care utilization in a group of outpatients with chronic lung diseases other than chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (who.int)
  • This study shows that an improvement in preoperative inspiratory muscle strength during IMT and training intensity of IMT were not associated with a reduced risk on PPCs after esophagectomy. (rcjournal.com)
  • The respiratory muscle strength and oxygen saturation were assessed on the preoperative period, first, second and seventh POD. (nih.gov)
  • At the present time, it is not known whether the adaptations resulting in clinical improvements are attributable to the diaphragm, the inspiratory accessory muscles, or both. (clinicalgate.com)
  • I have COPD and purchased OPUMP to strengthen my diaphragm muscles. (lepulsefit.com)
  • The diaphragm is the major muscle responsible for breathing. (wikipedia.org)
  • The diaphragm is also involved in non-respiratory functions, helping to expel vomit, faeces, and urine from the body by increasing intra-abdominal pressure, and preventing acid reflux by exerting pressure on the esophagus as it passes through the esophageal hiatus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The diaphragm is a muscle in the belly that helps inflate the lungs. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A person may find it hard to use the diaphragm while breathing and rely on their back and shoulder muscles instead. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Reduced respiratory muscle strength and endurance is one of the most common symptoms found with heart failure, and it probably leads to the commonly experienced exertional dyspnea and reduced exercise capacity. (pnmedical.com)
  • Selective respiratory muscle training (RMT) was tested for improving dyspnea and exercise performance in patients with chronic congestive heart failure (CHF), for example, in the study we're going to discuss below. (pnmedical.com)
  • Kabitz et al 4 demonstrated that inspiratory muscle strength is strongly predictive for dyspnea and functional exercise capacity. (rcjournal.com)
  • 3 , 8 Although resting dyspnea is not generally prevalent, exercise-induced dyspnea is especially perceived in stage II-IV of sarcoidosis and correlates with reduced respiratory muscle strength. (rcjournal.com)
  • To compare the effects of deep breathing exercises (DBE) and the flow-oriented incentive spirometry (IS) in patients undergone coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) through the following variables: forced vital capacity - FVC, forced expiratory volume in 1 second - FEV(1), maximal respiratory pressures and oxygen saturation. (nih.gov)
  • There were not observed significant differences in maximal respiratory pressures, spirometric variables and oxygen saturation in patients undergone deep breathing exercises and flow-oriented incentive spirometry after coronary artery bypass grafting. (nih.gov)
  • When forceful exhalation is required, or when the elasticity of the lungs is reduced (as in emphysema), active exhalation can be achieved by contraction of the abdominal wall muscles (rectus abdominis, transverse abdominis, external oblique muscle and internal oblique muscle). (wikipedia.org)
  • Getting oxygen to your working muscles is the most natural thing in the world, but with the right training you can boost your performance with every breath you take. (lepulsefit.com)
  • In some cases, the patient may be making less than the required respiratory effort, which leads to oxygen deprivation and the potential for respiratory failure. (advancedmedicalcertification.com)
  • The mean value of heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2) and PH revealed significant reduction, where forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) and partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2) revealed significant increase in group (A) at the end of the study. (ejgm.org)
  • Postural relief of dyspnoea in severe chronic airflow limitation: relationship to respiratory muscle strength. (bmj.com)
  • Adam MacNeil] Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, or HPS, is a severe respiratory infection caused by certain types of viruses known as hantaviruses. (cdc.gov)
  • Inspiratory muscle training can be safely and effectively included in rehabilitation programs. (rcjournal.com)
  • The muscle disorder can be inherited, such as muscular dystrophy , or acquired, such as alcoholic or steroid myopathy. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The remainder of this article addresses the key clinical characteristics and pathologic findings on muscle biopsy of selected examples of disorders from 4 different categories of muscle disease: immune-mediated (inflammatory) myopathies, muscular dystrophies, metabolic myopathies, and congenital myopathies. (medscape.com)
  • MD1 subjects presented restrictive pattern, reduced respiratory muscle strength, muscular electrical activity and MRR when compared to higher compared to controls. (bvsalud.org)
  • Metered Dose Inhalers (MDI) are used to treat respiratory problems through aerosol therapy. (galemed.com)
  • Fifteen sarcoidosis subjects (treatment group) received inspiratory muscle training at 40% of maximal inspiratory pressure (P Imax ), and 15 subjects (control group) received sham therapy (5% of P Imax ) for 6 weeks. (rcjournal.com)
  • The Respiratory Muscle Strength Trainer Accessory Kit (RMT kit) is now back in stock and can be used with the Breather inspiratory-expiratory respiratory muscle trainer for feedback and more targeted training. (voiceaerobicsdvd.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that respiratory muscle strength is impaired following a high-volume resistance exercise session, however it appears to be restored within an hour post-exercise. (minervamedica.it)
  • Most muscle biopsies exhibit a constellation of pathologic findings that must be synthesized to arrive at a diagnosis. (medscape.com)
  • Here is an example to illustrate the lack of specificity of histopathologic findings and the importance of clinical information for interpretation of a muscle biopsy: A biopsy might exhibit myofibers that contain clear vacuoles on hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) sections. (medscape.com)
  • PhD candidates Jonathan Memme, Ashley Oliveira, and Dr. David Hood have published novel findings addressing a long-running debate about the role of the tumor suppressor protein p53 in muscle metabolic health. (yorku.ca)
  • Maximal static inspiratory and expiratory pressures (Pimax and Pemax) were measured in six different positions in 40 patients with advanced chronic airflow limitation and in 140 normal subjects to determine whether posture influences respiratory muscle strength. (bmj.com)
  • Maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) and maximal expiratory pressure (MEP) was assessed pre- and post-session and respiratory gases were measured during the recovery between sets. (minervamedica.it)
  • MEP is measured during a similar maneuver at total lung capacity (TLC) because expiratory muscle strength is directly related to lung volume (again in a curvilinear fashion). (msdmanuals.com)
  • RMST & Parkinsons Many people with Parkinson's disease (PD) have severely reduced inspiratory and expiratory muscle strength. (thebreather.com.au)
  • Training can be inspiratory muscle or expiratory muscle or both. (galemed.com)
  • Training your respiratory muscle (inspiratory muscle and expiratory muscle) can improve endurance of exercise performance and in sports of longer durations. (galemed.com)
  • Bravo™Breathing Strength Builder is a compact design for both of inspiratory and expiratory muscle training. (galemed.com)
  • Expiratory muscle trainer encourages users to blow through the device to lift the training indicator, and it can improve performances requiring maintenance and managing expiratory breathing muscles. (galemed.com)
  • Measurement of maximum expiratory pressure (MEP) and maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP) with a pressure gauge can assess respiratory muscle strength and follow up clinical data. (galemed.com)
  • Participants equally enrolled to either training group (group A) or control group (group B). The respiratory muscle resisted training program was started for group (A) after the clinical stability of patient condition with a threshold positive expiratory pressure device using a three-way valve system via flanged mouthpiece. (ejgm.org)
  • Methods/techniques We used quadriceps muscle tissue from 12-week old R6/2 HD transgenic mice, and near to motor onset pre-manifest HD (n = 20), early onset HD patients (n = 20) and sex and age matched healthy controls (n = 20), as part of the Multi-Tissue Molecular signatures in HD project (MTM-HD). (bmj.com)
  • Clinicians can let parents know that hospitals are taking precautions to prevent exposures to COVID-19, such as providing separate entrances and rooms for those with respiratory symptoms, requiring hospital staff to wear appropriate protective equipment like face coverings and shields for all encounters with patients, and increasing access to hand sanitizer and disinfecting surfaces frequently. (cdc.gov)
  • Initial symptoms of HPS resemble many common illnesses and include fever, muscle aches, headache, and possibly vomiting. (cdc.gov)
  • With breathlessness, she advised considering respiratory and cardiovascular causes. (medscape.com)
  • RESULTS--Vital capacity, total lung capacity, and inspiratory muscle strength were reduced to a mean of 59.5%, 73.9%, and 51.1% of predicted values, respectively. (bmj.com)
  • The rationale for RMT is based upon ameliorating imbalance within the demand / capacity relationship of the respiratory muscles. (clinicalgate.com)
  • Inspiratory Muscle Training in Respiratory Capacity, Heart Rate Variability, Life Quality and Emotional State in Patients With Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. (neals.org)
  • Benefit of Selective Respiratory Muscle Training on Exercise Capacity in Patients With Chronic Congestive Heart Failure. (pnmedical.com)
  • This study investigated the acute effect of a high-volume compared to a low-volume resistance exercise session on respiratory muscle strength. (minervamedica.it)
  • Why exercise the breathing muscles? (voiceaerobicsdvd.com)
  • The training mechanism is based on the interaction of pressure resistance level created by the spring and the force of inspiration, acting as the dumbbell of breathing muscle. (galemed.com)
  • Blood vessels, muscles, and nerves have high electrolyte and water content, and thus low resistance, and are good conductors of electricity-better than bone, fat, and skin. (medscape.com)
  • The results were published in the first issue for August of the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine by the American Thoracic Society (ATS). (medindia.net)
  • However, few studies have evaluated the compensatory mechanisms employed by the respiratory system when breathing is done against electronically controlled variable flow resistive loads. (frontiersin.org)
  • Terson de Paleville D, Lorenz D (2015) Compensatory muscle activation during forced respiratory tasks in individuals with chronic spinal cord injury. (ejgm.org)
  • Respiratory arrest and cardiac arrest are two different conditions. (advancedmedicalcertification.com)
  • In many cases, healthcare professionals or other rescuers find themselves treating both respiratory arrest and cardiac arrest at the same time, regardless of which condition was present first. (advancedmedicalcertification.com)
  • Watch for the big three red flags - cardiac (ischaemia, tachyarrhythmia, myocarditis and pericarditis), neurological (TIA and stroke) and respiratory (pulmonary embolism) in patients with long COVID, says the GP lead of one of the country's first long COVID clinics. (medscape.com)
  • A muscle biopsy examines a tissue sample under a microscope to confirm disease. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Muscle biopsy often contributes significantly to the evaluation of patients with neuromuscular disease. (medscape.com)
  • Knowledge of the basic foundation of muscle biopsy also helps the clinician to understand in what situations a muscle biopsy would be expected to be helpful in assessment of the patient with neuromuscular disease and to be familiar with the types of information that it can provide. (medscape.com)
  • A new study says that patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), are not helped by a nutritional supplement popularly known for boosting athletic performance and muscle strength. (medindia.net)
  • This disease also courses, apart from the functional and depressing worsening, with internal damage manifested by a cardio respiratory deterioration. (neals.org)
  • As of May 1, 2020, a total of 193 of 195 evacuees completed exposure surveys and 3,175,207 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) cases had submitted upper respiratory or serum specimens or both been confirmed and 224,172 persons had died world- at arrival in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • The neuromuscular effects can progress to frank paralysis with respiratory failure and death. (cdc.gov)
  • The role of the scalene and sternomastoid muscles in breathing in normal subjects. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, the lower MRR found in MD1 subjects showed to be reliable to sensitivity and specificity in identifying the delayed relaxation of respiratory muscles . (bvsalud.org)
  • The skeleton (which includes bones, ligaments, tendons, and cartilage) and muscles that are attached to it make up the musculoskeletal system . (cdc.gov)
  • Muscles contract to help operate the respiratory system and maintain body temperature. (cdc.gov)
  • Many allergic and asthmatic reactions are caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system and/or respiratory system. (integratedmuscle.com)
  • The elasticity of these muscles is crucial to the health of the respiratory system and to maximize its functional capabilities. (wikipedia.org)
  • They were bathed in sweat and using all their accessory respiratory muscles. (cdc.gov)
  • There is no definitive list of accessory muscles, but the sternocleidomastoid and the scalenes (anterior, middle, and posterior) are typically included, as they assist in elevating the rib cage. (wikipedia.org)
  • This section provides guidance on some preliminary issues that require consideration prior to embarking upon a programme of Foundation IMT (inspiratory muscle training). (clinicalgate.com)
  • We have evidence to suggest Cr uptake into muscles [in COPD patients] but are unable to explain why an increase in muscle Cr did not enhance training," wrote the study's lead author, Sarah Deacon, M.D., specialist registrar at the Institute for Lung Health at Glenfield Hospital in Leicester, England. (medindia.net)
  • Noninvasive assessment of respiratory muscle strength and activity in Myotonic dystrophy. (bvsalud.org)