Nasal Mucosa: The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Respiratory Mucosa: The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Adenoids: A collection of lymphoid nodules on the posterior wall and roof of the NASOPHARYNX.Mucous Membrane: An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.Olfactory Mucosa: That portion of the nasal mucosa containing the sensory nerve endings for SMELL, located at the dome of each NASAL CAVITY. The yellow-brownish olfactory epithelium consists of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS; brush cells; STEM CELLS; and the associated olfactory glands.Mucociliary Clearance: A non-specific host defense mechanism that removes MUCUS and other material from the LUNGS by ciliary and secretory activity of the tracheobronchial submucosal glands. It is measured in vivo as mucus transfer, ciliary beat frequency, and clearance of radioactive tracers.Respiratory System: The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Haemophilus influenzae: A species of HAEMOPHILUS found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through VIII.Organ Culture Techniques: A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Gastric Mucosa: Lining of the STOMACH, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. The surface cells produce MUCUS that protects the stomach from attack by digestive acid and enzymes. When the epithelium invaginates into the LAMINA PROPRIA at various region of the stomach (CARDIA; GASTRIC FUNDUS; and PYLORUS), different tubular gastric glands are formed. These glands consist of cells that secrete mucus, enzymes, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, or hormones.Mouth Mucosa: Lining of the ORAL CAVITY, including mucosa on the GUMS; the PALATE; the LIP; the CHEEK; floor of the mouth; and other structures. The mucosa is generally a nonkeratinized stratified squamous EPITHELIUM covering muscle, bone, or glands but can show varying degree of keratinization at specific locations.Colon: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.Laryngeal Mucosa: The mucous lining of the LARYNX, consisting of various types of epithelial cells ranging from stratified squamous EPITHELIUM in the upper larynx to ciliated columnar epithelium in the rest of the larynx, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Duodenum: The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.Intestine, Small: The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.Gastritis: Inflammation of the GASTRIC MUCOSA, a lesion observed in a number of unrelated disorders.Stomach Ulcer: Ulceration of the GASTRIC MUCOSA due to contact with GASTRIC JUICE. It is often associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI infection or consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).Ileum: The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.Smog: A mixture of smoke and fog polluting the atmosphere. (Dorland, 27th ed)Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Cholestanones: CHOLESTANES substituted with any number of keto groups.Ozone: The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).Secosteroids: Steroids in which fission of one or more ring structures and concomitant addition of a hydrogen atom at each terminal group has occurred.Otitis Media with Effusion: Inflammation of the middle ear with a clear pale yellow-colored transudate.Otitis Media, Suppurative: Inflammation of the middle ear with purulent discharge.Ear, Middle: The space and structures directly internal to the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE and external to the inner ear (LABYRINTH). Its major components include the AUDITORY OSSICLES and the EUSTACHIAN TUBE that connects the cavity of middle ear (tympanic cavity) to the upper part of the throat.Otitis Media: Inflammation of the MIDDLE EAR including the AUDITORY OSSICLES and the EUSTACHIAN TUBE.Erythromycin: A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.Vulvovaginitis: Inflammation of the VULVA and the VAGINA, characterized by discharge, burning, and PRURITUS.Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis: A herpesvirus infection of CATTLE characterized by INFLAMMATION and NECROSIS of the mucous membranes of the upper RESPIRATORY TRACT.Herpesvirus 1, Bovine: A species of VARICELLOVIRUS that causes INFECTIOUS BOVINE RHINOTRACHEITIS and other associated syndromes in CATTLE.Balanitis: Inflammation of the head of the PENIS, glans penis.Veterinary Medicine: The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.Alphaherpesvirinae: A subfamily of HERPESVIRIDAE characterized by a short replication cycle. The genera include: SIMPLEXVIRUS; VARICELLOVIRUS; MAREK'S DISEASE-LIKE VIRUSES; and ILTOVIRUS.Herpesvirus 5, Bovine: A species of VARICELLOVIRUS that causes a fatal MENINGOENCEPHALITIS in calves.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Respiratory Tract DiseasesAsthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Principal Component Analysis: Mathematical procedure that transforms a number of possibly correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components.Powders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Nonprescription Drugs: Medicines that can be sold legally without a DRUG PRESCRIPTION.Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Teratocarcinoma: A malignant neoplasm consisting of elements of teratoma with those of embryonal carcinoma or choriocarcinoma, or both. It occurs most often in the testis. (Dorland, 27th ed)Dry Powder Inhalers: A device that delivers medication to the lungs in the form of a dry powder.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.

Effects of inhaled beta agonist and corticosteroid treatment on nuclear transcription factors in bronchial mucosa in asthma. (1/2809)

BACKGROUND: Inhaled corticosteroids and beta agonists are the most commonly used treatments in asthma and are often used together. Recent evidence suggests that many of the anti-inflammatory actions of corticosteroids are mediated by cross-talk between the activated glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and other transcription factors such as the pro-inflammatory nuclear factor kappa B (NFkappaB). Beta agonists can activate the transcription factor cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). A mutual inhibition between GR and CREB occurs in vitro which raises the possibility of a negative interaction between corticosteroid and beta agonist drugs. A study was undertaken to determine whether these interactions occur during treatment with beta2 agonists and corticosteroids in asthma. METHODS: Seven subjects who were participating in a randomised, placebo controlled, crossover study of six weeks treatment with inhaled budesonide (400 microg twice daily), terbutaline (1 mg four times daily), and combined treatment were recruited. Biopsy samples of the bronchial mucosa were obtained after each treatment and analysed for the DNA binding activity of GR, CREB, and NFkappaB. RESULTS: Budesonide increased GR activity (p<0.05) and decreased NFkappaB activity (p<0.05). No treatment combination altered CREB activity and terbutaline had no significant effects on any transcription factor. CONCLUSIONS: Inhaled corticosteroids have significant effects on GR and NFkappaB activity in bronchial mucosa. A negative interaction between inhaled corticosteroids and beta agonists was not found.  (+info)

Passive IgA monoclonal antibody is no more effective than IgG at protecting mice from mucosal challenge with respiratory syncytial virus. (2/2809)

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a mucosally restricted pathogen that can cause severe respiratory disease. Although parenteral administration of sufficient RSV-specific IgG can reduce severity of lower respiratory tract infection in high-risk infants, delivery of antibody by direct airway administration is an attractive alternative. Topical and parenteral administration of an IgA monoclonal antibody (MAb) specific for the RSV F glycoprotein was compared with an IgG MAb, specific for the same antigenic site, for ability to protect mice against RSV infection. Administration of RSV-specific IgG was more effective in reducing RSV titers in lung (4.6 log10 pfu/g) than IgA MAb (3.6 log10 pfu/g) when given intranasally immediately prior to infection (P=.005). RSV titers in the nose were reduced only by prophylactic administration of IgG parenterally. Therefore, topical administration of IgA is no more effective than topically administered IgG and is less effective than systemically administered IgG for protecting against RSV infection.  (+info)

Differential sensitivity of normal and cystic fibrosis airway epithelial cells to epinephrine. (3/2809)

1. Exposure to epinephrine has been shown to have a range of effects on cells and tissues. A recent study suggested that the proliferative ability of CF epithelial cells, exposed to high concentrations of epinephrine (200 - 300 microM), was reduced when compared to that of normal cells. This approach could potentially provide a means to effectively separate cells with functional cyclic AMP-dependent Cl-ion transport from those defective in this pathway. 2. The sensitivity to killing by epinephrine is reported here for four different CF cell lines, three normal cell lines, and two CF epithelial cell lines complemented with wild-type (wt) CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) cDNA. 3. While each cell line exhibited varying sensitivity to 200 microM epinephrine, no predictable pattern was observed between the expression of wt-CFTR and cell survival following epinephrine exposure. Overall, normal cell lines did exhibit a greater resistance to epinephrine-induced cell death although, the most resistant cell line was derived from CF tracheal epithelium (SigmaCFTE29o-). 4. The expression of exogenous wt-CFTR increased the survival of one cell line (CFDEo-) when compared to the parent line, but in another complemented line, survival was reduced. 5. These findings suggest that while epinephrine induces cell killing, it is not consistently effective for preferential selection of normal over CF cells. Although CFTR may play a role in the mechanism(s) of epinephrine killing, other factors such as cell density, proliferative ability, cell type origin and phenotype are involved.  (+info)

Crucial role of the interleukin 1 receptor family member T1/ST2 in T helper cell type 2-mediated lung mucosal immune responses. (4/2809)

T1/ST2 is an orphan receptor of unknown function that is expressed on the surface of murine T helper cell type 2 (Th2), but not Th1 effector cells. In vitro blockade of T1/ST2 signaling with an immunoglobulin (Ig) fusion protein suppresses both differentiation to and activation of Th2, but not Th1 effector populations. In a nascent Th2-dominated response, anti-T1/ST2 monoclonal antibody (mAb) inhibited eosinophil infiltration, interleukin 5 secretion, and IgE production. To determine if these effects were mediated by a direct effect on Th2 cells, we next used a murine adoptive transfer model of Th1- and Th2-mediated lung mucosal immune responses. Administration of either T1/ST2 mAb or T1/ST2-Ig abrogated Th2 cytokine production in vivo and the induction of an eosinophilic inflammatory response, but failed to modify Th1-mediated inflammation. Taken together, our data demonstrate an important role of T1/ST2 in Th2-mediated inflammatory responses and suggest that T1/ST2 may prove to be a novel target for the selective suppression of Th2 immune responses.  (+info)

Epithelial P2X purinergic receptor channel expression and function. (5/2809)

P2X purinergic receptor (P2XR) channels bind ATP and mediate Ca(2+) influx--2 signals that stimulate secretory Cl(-) transport across epithelia. We tested the hypotheses that P2XR channels are expressed by epithelia and that P2XRs transduce extracellular ATP signals into stimulation of Cl(-) transport across epithelia. Electrophysiological data and mRNA analysis of human and mouse pulmonary epithelia and other epithelial cells indicate that multiple P2XRs are broadly expressed in these tissues and that they are active on both apical and basolateral surfaces. Because P2X-selective agonists bind multiple P2XR subtypes, and because P2X agonists stimulate Cl(-) transport across nasal mucosa of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients as well as across non-CF nasal mucosa, P2XRs may provide novel targets for extracellular nucleotide therapy of CF.  (+info)

Effect of fluticasone propionate and salmeterol on Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection of the respiratory mucosa in vitro. (6/2809)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the corticosteroid, fluticasone propionate (FP), on Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection of the respiratory mucosa of an organ culture model in vitro. Organ cultures infected with P. aeruginosa had significantly (p< or =0.05) elevated levels of mucosal damage and significantly (p< or =0.05) less ciliated cells compared to controls. Preincubation of tissue with FP (10(-6) or 10(-5) but not 10(-7) M) prior to P. aeruginosa infection significantly (p< or =0.05) reduced the bacterially induced mucosal damage in a concentration-dependent manner. FP (10(-5) M) also significantly (p< or =0.05) prevented loss of ciliated cells. FP did not alter the density of bacteria adherent to the different mucosal features of the organ cultures, but did reduce total bacterial numbers due to the reduced amount of damaged tissue, which is a preferred site of P. aeruginosa adherence. It has previously been shown that the long-acting beta2-agonist salmeterol (4 x 10(-7)M) also reduces the mucosal damage caused by P. aeruginosa infection, probably via elevation of intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate concentrations. Preincubation of tissue with both 10(-7)M FP and 10(-7)M salmeterol, concentrations at which they did not by themselves influence the effect of P. aeruginosa infection, significantly (p< or =0.05) reduced P. aeruginosa-induced loss of cilia. However, there was no additional benefit from adding 4 x 10(-7)M salmeterol to 10(-6)M FP. In conclusion fluticasone propionate reduced mucosal damage caused by P. aeruginosa infection in vitro and preserved ciliated cells. There was a synergistic action with salmeterol in the preservation of ciliated cells.  (+info)

M1/MUC5AC mucin released by human airways in vitro. (7/2809)

A series of monoclonal antibodies which bind to a mucin known as M1 (anti-M1 MAbs) have also been shown to detect the product of the human gene MUC5AC. The aim of this investigation was to determine the concentration of the M1 mucin in the surface epithelium of human bronchial preparations by means of immunohistochemistry and in the bronchial fluid derived from human airways by means of an immunoradiometric assay. Human bronchial ring preparations from the resection material of 20 patients were challenged with methacholine, leukotriene D4, or anti-immunoglobulin E. Experiments were performed in preparations with an intact epithelium as well as in tissues in which the epithelium had been mechanically removed. The anti-M1 MAbs stained the goblet cells in the epithelium intensely and there was also light and less uniform staining in the submucosa. The M1/MUC5AC mucin in the fluids secreted by the bronchial preparations was not modified during either the experimental protocol or stimulation with the different secretagogues. However, in preparations in which the epithelium had been removed, there was a significant reduction in the amount of M1/MUC5AC mucin detected. These data suggest that the M1/MUC5AC mucin detected in the biological fluids produced by human airways in vitro may be released constantly, and principally from the goblet cells in the epithelial layer.  (+info)

Arsenite exposure of cultured airway epithelial cells activates kappaB-dependent interleukin-8 gene expression in the absence of nuclear factor-kappaB nuclear translocation. (8/2809)

Airway epithelial cells respond to certain environmental stresses by mounting a proinflammatory response, which is characterized by enhanced synthesis and release of the neutrophil chemotactic and activating factor interleukin-8 (IL-8). IL-8 expression is regulated at the transcriptional level in part by the transcription factor nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB. We compared intracellular signaling mediating IL-8 gene expression in bronchial epithelial cells cultured in vitro and exposed to two inducers of cellular stress, sodium arsenite (As(III)), and vanadyl sulfate (V(IV)). Unstimulated bronchial epithelial cells expressed IL-8, and exposure to both metal compounds significantly enhanced IL-8 expression. Overexpression of a dominant negative inhibitor of NF-kappaB depressed both basal and metal-induced IL-8 expression. Low levels of nuclear NF-kappaB were constitutively present in unstimulated cultures. These levels were augmented by exposure to V(IV), but not As(III). Accordingly, V(IV) induced IkappaBalpha breakdown and NF-kappaB nuclear translocation, whereas As(III) did not. However, both As(III) and V(IV) enhanced kappaB-dependent transcription. In addition, As(III) activation of an IL-8 promoter-reporter construct was partially kappaB-dependent. These data suggested that As(III) enhanced IL-8 gene transcription independently of IkappaB breakdown and nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB in part by enhancing transcription mediated by low levels of constitutive nuclear NF-kappaB.  (+info)

  • METHODS Specimens of the distal trachea from patients who had died from sudden death in the first year of life (n=29) and in older age groups (n=59) as well as from those who had died from respiratory tract infections in the first year of life (n=8) were examined by immunohistochemistry. (
  • The earlier generations (approximately generations 0-16), consisting of the trachea and the bronchi, as well as the larger bronchioles which simply act as air conduits , bringing air to the respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts and alveoli (approximately generations 17-23), where gas exchange takes place. (
  • Light micrograph of a section through mucosa of the trachea. (
  • Final pathology of the right-sided lesion revealed mostly dilated vascular channels with unremarkable overlying respiratory mucosa , consistent with a hemangioma (figure 3). (
  • A randomised, crossover, sham-controlled design was adopted, and nasal resistance, nasal wash inflammatory markers and pathology of nasal mucosa were examined in OSA patients using CPAP and exhibiting nasal symptoms. (
  • In a next step, bovine respiratory and genital mucosa explants of the same animals were inoculated with several BoHV-1 subtypes. (
  • Steukers L, Vandekerckhove A, Van Den Broeck W, Glorieux S, Nauwynck H. Comparative analysis of replication characteristics of BoHV-1 subtypes in bovine respiratory and genital mucosa explants: a phylogenetic enlightenment. (
  • Exposure of formalin above permissible limit may create physiological modifications of respiratory mucosa , which causes upper airway irritation, sore throat, tingling and burning sensations of the nose and nasal blockage. (
  • Increased airway mucins after cardiopulmonary bypass associated with postoperative respiratory complications in children. (
  • Secretory Immunoglobulins A (SIgA) play a key role in the elaboration of the immunological response at the level of the upper respiratory airway, challenging allergens or pathogenic micro organisms. (
  • Respiratory virus-induced EGFR activation suppresses IRF1-dependent interferon λ and antiviral defense in airway epithelium. (
  • The principle of this procedure is the substitution of the fragile respiratory mucosa of the nose with strong skin grafts (generally from the thigh or oral mucosa) that withstand trauma and, thus, avoid bleeding. (
  • Moreover, this investigation demonstrates, for the first time, the presence of the newly discovered phospholipase A 2 forms IID, IIE, III, IVB, IVC, X and calcium-independent membrane bound phospholipase A 2 in the human nasal mucosa and raises the possibility that one or several of these may be involved in inflammatory reactions in the nose. (
  • A similar type of membrane also lines the exterior entrances to the respiratory system at the nose and throat areas. (
  • Ingestion can cause irritation to the gastrointestinal mucosa and can be complicated by pulmonary aspiration, resulting in chemical pneumonitis. (
  • In land animals the respiratory surface is internalized as linings of the lungs . (
  • Respiratory portion - tissues w/in lungs where gas exchange occurs. (
  • Nevertheless, exposure of the lungs to various components of the e-cigarette aerosol could potentially damage the respiratory system or worsen preexisting lung disease through a variety of mechanisms (see Figure 11-1 ). (
  • Clinicopathologic differences in malignant melanoma arising in oral squamous and sinonasal respiratory mucosa of the upper aerodigestive tract. (
  • Examination of the nasal mucosa showed several ultrastructural changes in those exposed to passive smoke, including patchy loss of cilia, generalized loss of cilia, squamous metaplasia, hyperplasia of goblet cells and seromucinous acini and vascular congestion. (
  • Here, we report of implantation of an engineered 3D construct embedded with human oral mucosa stem cells (hOMSC) induced to secrete neuroprotective, immunomodulatory, and axonal elongation-associated factors, in a complete spinal cord transection rat model. (
  • Creative Bioarray's in vitro Oral Mucosa model could be applied to in vitro oral irritation, toxicity, tolerance test, and in vitro dental material assessment. (
  • Oral mucosa irritation test, Safety Evaluation on dental Materials, Oral mucosa toxicity test, Gingival mucosa toxicity test, or any customized in vitro assays available at Creative Bioarray. (
  • Individuals may be exposed to toxic metals present in the environment via multiple routes, such as the respiratory tract through inhalation of air pollution [ 1 ], or orally by ingestion of contaminated food and water [ 2 ]. (
  • An MRL of 0.003 ppm has been derived be at a higher risk of developing adverse heating of animal and vegetable fats and for acute-duration inhalation exposure respiratory responses when exposed to a Dermal - Minor route of exposure. (
  • We speculate that the preferential spatial localization of DPP4 in alveolar regions may explain why MERS is characterized by lower respiratory tract disease. (
  • El epitelio de revestimiento de la mucosa respiratoria mostró una pérdida de células ciliadas con metaplasia de células caliciformes , hiperplasia de células escamosas y edema , con inflamación en la zona subepitelial. (
  • CONCLUSIONS Mature DCs are not constitutively present in the human tracheobronchial mucosa in the first year of life, but their occurrence seems to be triggered by infectious stimuli. (
  • Figure 1: Cumulative concentration response curve to isoprenaline in isolated human lung mucosa, demonstrating a concentration dependent increase in Isc in the presence of increasing concentrations of isoprenaline. (
  • A 76-year old male with an adenocarcinoma of unknown primary origin in the lung presented with another tumor of the palate mucosa. (
  • This result suggested that origins of the tumors of the palate mucosa and in the lung were the same, even though the origin had not yet been determined. (
  • This result indicated that the primary site of the CUP was indeed the lung, and that the tumor of the palate mucosa was a metastasis of the LUAD. (
  • Conclusions BAL antigen-specific CD4 + T cell responses against important viral and bacterial respiratory pathogens are impaired in HIV-infected adults. (