Failure to adequately provide oxygen to cells of the body and to remove excess carbon dioxide from them. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.
A central respiratory stimulant with a brief duration of action. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmocopoeia, 30th ed, p1225)
A motor neuron disease marked by progressive weakness of the muscles innervated by cranial nerves of the lower brain stem. Clinical manifestations include dysarthria, dysphagia, facial weakness, tongue weakness, and fasciculations of the tongue and facial muscles. The adult form of the disease is marked initially by bulbar weakness which progresses to involve motor neurons throughout the neuroaxis. Eventually this condition may become indistinguishable from AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS. Fazio-Londe syndrome is an inherited form of this illness which occurs in children and young adults. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1091; Brain 1992 Dec;115(Pt 6):1889-1900)
A clinical manifestation of abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.
Conditions in which the production of adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS falls below the requirement of the body. Adrenal insufficiency can be caused by defects in the ADRENAL GLANDS, the PITUITARY GLAND, or the HYPOTHALAMUS.
Surgical formation of an opening into the trachea through the neck, or the opening so created.
Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).
Application of positive pressure to the inspiratory phase when the patient has an artificial airway in place and is connected to a ventilator.
The motor nerve of the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve fibers originate in the cervical spinal column (mostly C4) and travel through the cervical plexus to the diaphragm.
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level in the ability to remove wastes, concentrate URINE, and maintain ELECTROLYTE BALANCE; BLOOD PRESSURE; and CALCIUM metabolism. Renal insufficiency can be classified by the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE.
Impaired venous blood flow or venous return (venous stasis), usually caused by inadequate venous valves. Venous insufficiency often occurs in the legs, and is associated with EDEMA and sometimes with VENOUS STASIS ULCERS at the ankle.
Inhalation of oxygen aimed at restoring toward normal any pathophysiologic alterations of gas exchange in the cardiopulmonary system, as by the use of a respirator, nasal catheter, tent, chamber, or mask. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
A method of mechanical ventilation in which pressure is maintained to increase the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of expiration, thus reducing the shunting of blood through the lungs and improving gas exchange.
Severe or complete loss of motor function in all four limbs which may result from BRAIN DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; or rarely MUSCULAR DISEASES. The locked-in syndrome is characterized by quadriplegia in combination with cranial muscle paralysis. Consciousness is spared and the only retained voluntary motor activity may be limited eye movements. This condition is usually caused by a lesion in the upper BRAIN STEM which injures the descending cortico-spinal and cortico-bulbar tracts.
A malabsorption condition resulting from greater than 10% reduction in the secretion of pancreatic digestive enzymes (LIPASE; PROTEASES; and AMYLASE) by the EXOCRINE PANCREAS into the DUODENUM. This condition is often associated with CYSTIC FIBROSIS and with chronic PANCREATITIS.
The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.
Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.
Failure of the PLACENTA to deliver an adequate supply of nutrients and OXYGEN to the FETUS.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Cessation of ovarian function after MENARCHE but before the age of 40, without or with OVARIAN FOLLICLE depletion. It is characterized by the presence of OLIGOMENORRHEA or AMENORRHEA, elevated GONADOTROPINS, and low ESTRADIOL levels. It is a state of female HYPERGONADOTROPIC HYPOGONADISM. Etiologies include genetic defects, autoimmune processes, chemotherapy, radiation, and infections.
Conditions in which the LIVER functions fall below the normal ranges. Severe hepatic insufficiency may cause LIVER FAILURE or DEATH. Treatment may include LIVER TRANSPLANTATION.
An adrenal disease characterized by the progressive destruction of the ADRENAL CORTEX, resulting in insufficient production of ALDOSTERONE and HYDROCORTISONE. Clinical symptoms include ANOREXIA; NAUSEA; WEIGHT LOSS; MUSCLE WEAKNESS; and HYPERPIGMENTATION of the SKIN due to increase in circulating levels of ACTH precursor hormone which stimulates MELANOCYTES.
Pathological condition characterized by the backflow of blood from the ASCENDING AORTA back into the LEFT VENTRICLE, leading to regurgitation. It is caused by diseases of the AORTIC VALVE or its surrounding tissue (aortic root).
Failure of the SOFT PALATE to reach the posterior pharyngeal wall to close the opening between the oral and nasal cavities. Incomplete velopharyngeal closure is primarily related to surgeries (ADENOIDECTOMY; CLEFT PALATE) or an incompetent PALATOPHARYNGEAL SPHINCTER. It is characterized by hypernasal speech.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN D in the diet, insufficient production of vitamin D in the skin, inadequate absorption of vitamin D from the diet, or abnormal conversion of vitamin D to its bioactive metabolites. It is manifested clinically as RICKETS in children and OSTEOMALACIA in adults. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1406)
Skin breakdown or ulceration caused by VARICOSE VEINS in which there is too much hydrostatic pressure in the superficial venous system of the leg. Venous hypertension leads to increased pressure in the capillary bed, transudation of fluid and proteins into the interstitial space, altering blood flow and supply of nutrients to the skin and subcutaneous tissues, and eventual ulceration.
Backflow of blood from the LEFT VENTRICLE into the LEFT ATRIUM due to imperfect closure of the MITRAL VALVE. This can lead to mitral valve regurgitation.
The study and treatment of defects in binocular vision resulting from defects in the optic musculature or of faulty visual habits. It involves a technique of eye exercises designed to correct the visual axes of eyes not properly coordinated for binocular vision.
Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level for more than three months. Chronic kidney insufficiency is classified by five stages according to the decline in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA). The most severe form is the end-stage renal disease (CHRONIC KIDNEY FAILURE). (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002)
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
A type of oropharyngeal airway that provides an alternative to endotracheal intubation and standard mask anesthesia in certain patients. It is introduced into the hypopharynx to form a seal around the larynx thus permitting spontaneous or positive pressure ventilation without penetration of the larynx or esophagus. It is used in place of a facemask in routine anesthesia. The advantages over standard mask anesthesia are better airway control, minimal anesthetic gas leakage, a secure airway during patient transport to the recovery area, and minimal postoperative problems.
A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.
Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.
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The ratio of alveolar ventilation to simultaneous alveolar capillary blood flow in any part of the lung. (Stedman, 25th ed)

Autosomal dominant myopathy with proximal weakness and early respiratory muscle involvement maps to chromosome 2q. (1/1819)

Two Swedish families with autosomal dominant myopathy, who also had proximal weakness, early respiratory failure, and characteristic cytoplasmic bodies in the affected muscle biopsies, were screened for linkage by means of the human genome screening set (Cooperative Human Linkage Center Human Screening Set/Weber version 6). Most chromosome regions were completely excluded by linkage analysis (LOD score <-2). Linkage to the chromosomal region 2q24-q31 was established. A maximum combined two-point LOD score of 4.87 at a recombination fraction of 0 was obtained with marker D2S1245. Haplotype analysis indicated that the gene responsible for the disease is likely to be located in the 17-cM region between markers D2S2384 and D2S364. The affected individuals from these two families share an identical haplotype, which suggests a common origin.  (+info)

Outcome for cancer patients requiring mechanical ventilation. (2/1819)

PURPOSE: To describe hospital survival for cancer patients who require mechanical ventilation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective, multicenter observational study was performed at five academic tertiary care hospitals. Demographic and clinical variables were obtained on consecutive cancer patients at initiation of mechanical ventilation, and information on vital status at hospital discharge was acquired. RESULTS: Our analysis was based on 782 adult cancer patients who met predetermined inclusion criteria. The overall observed hospital mortality was 76%, with no statistically significant differences among the five study centers. Seven variables (intubation after 24 hours, leukemia, progression or recurrence of cancer, allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, cardiac arrhythmias, presence of disseminated intravascular coagulation, and need for vasopressor therapy) were associated with an increased risk of death, whereas prior surgery with curative intent was protective. The predictive model based on these variables had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.736, with Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit statistics of 7.19; P = .52. CONCLUSION: This model can be used to estimate the probability of hospital survival for classes of adult cancer patients who require mechanical ventilation and can help to guide physicians, patients, and families in deciding goals and direction of treatment. Prospective independent validation in different medical settings is warranted.  (+info)

Effects of acute prolonged exposure to high-altitude hypoxia on exercise-induced breathlessness. (3/1819)

The direct effects of hypoxia on exercise-induced breathlessness are unclear. Increased breathlessness on exercise is known to occur at high altitude, but it is not known whether this is related to the hypoxia per se, or to other ventilatory parameters. To examine the role of high-altitude hypoxia in exercise-induced breathlessness, studies were performed in 10 healthy, normal subjects at sea level and after acute exposure to an altitude of 4450 m. Although the perception of hand weights did not alter between sea level and high altitude, the intensity of exercise-induced breathlessness increased significantly at high altitude. This was associated with a higher minute ventilation and respiratory frequency for any given exercise level, whereas tidal volume was not significantly altered from sea level values. The increased intensity of breathlessness with exercise did not change significantly over the 5 days at high altitude. These results suggest that the increased intensity of exercise-induced breathlessness at high altitude is not related to peripheral mechanisms or the pattern of ventilation, or to the level of hypoxia per se, but to the level of reflexly increased ventilation.  (+info)

Microscopic polyangiitis: clinical and laboratory findings in eighty-five patients. (4/1819)

OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively analyze the clinical symptoms, laboratory findings, and outcomes in patients with microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) who were enrolled in various clinical trials conducted by the French Vasculitis Study Group. METHODS: A cohort of 85 patients meeting the Chapel Hill criteria for MPA participated in the study. Seventy-one of them were included in prospective therapeutic trials. Eighty-one diagnoses were biopsy proven. In the other patients, diagnosis was based on clinical findings. RESULTS: Forty-seven men and 38 women, with a mean +/- SD age of 56.8 +/- 14.6 years, met the criteria for MPA. Their main clinical symptoms were renal manifestations (78.8%), weight loss (72.9%), skin involvement (62.4%), fever (55.3%), mononeuritis multiplex (57.6%), arthralgias (50.6%), myalgias (48.2%), hypertension (34.1%), lung involvement (24.7%; alveolar hemorrhage 11.8%), and cardiac failure (17.6%). The mean +/- SD serum creatinine level before treatment was 2.59 +/- 2.96 mg/dl; 47 patients had renal insufficiency (serum creatinine > 1.36 mg/dl). Eight patients underwent dialysis at the time of diagnosis, and long-term dialysis was necessary for 10 patients. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) were present in 38 of 51 patients (74.5%), of whom 33 had a perinuclear staining pattern (pANCA) and 5 had a cytoplasmic pattern. Antibodies to proteinase 3 were present in 4 patients and antibodies to myeloperoxidase were detected in 31, as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Of the 30 patients who underwent renal and celiac angiography, 4 had microaneurysms. Of the 29 patients (34.1%) who had relapses, 8 died during or after the relapse. During followup, 28 of the 85 patients (32.9%) died. The mean +/- SD duration of followup of the group was 69.9 +/- 60.6 months. Deaths were less frequent when patients had been treated with steroids and immunosuppressive drugs (13 patients [24.1%]) than with steroids alone (15 patients [48.4%]) (P < 0.01). The 5-year survival rate was 74%. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that MPA is a multisystemic disease in which renal symptoms are frequent, but the disease is also associated with general symptoms, arthritis, mononeuritis multiplex, and other manifestations that are also seen in various vasculitides. The rarity of abnormal angiogram findings and the high frequency of pANCA are characteristic of MPA. In most cases, the outcome is comparable with those of other systemic vasculitides, but relapses are frequent.  (+info)

Frequency of arrhythmias and other cardiac abnormalities in fulminant hepatic failure. (5/1819)

In a series of 106 patients with fulminant hepatic failure and grade 4 encephalopathy, cardiac arrhythmias and other abnormalities occurred in 92 per cent. The most common was sinus tachycardia (75%) and this was the only abnormality in 22 per cent of the patients. Sudden cardiac arrest occurred in 25 per cent, various ectopic beats in 20 per cent, and heart block or bradycardia in 18 per cent. Other electrocardiographic abnormalities, mostly of the T wave and ST segment, were found in 31 per cent. Cardiac and respiratory arrests were usually unrelated to each other and both frequently occurred without warning. Only 7 out of 71 patients with arrhythmias other than sinus tachycardia survived, compared with 15 out of 31 patients without them (P less than 0-005). During the latter part of the series when an arrhythmia computer was used to monitor 38 patients, it was shown that significantly lower arterial oxygen levels occurred in those with arrhythmias, other than sinus tachycardia, than in those without. They were also found to be more acidotic and hyperkalaemic, and a higher number required dialysis and ventilation. Macroscopical cardiac abnormalities including scattered petechial haemorrhages, small pericardial effusions, and fatty, pale, and flabby ventricles, were found at necropsy in 64 per cent of the patients examined. Combinations of these macroscopical abnormalities occurred, particularly in the paracetamol overdose group. Another necropsy finding of possible significance in the pathogenesis of arrhythmias was cerebral oedema, present in 48 per cent of the patients examined, and often associated with coning of the brain stem. However, 7 of the 16 patients who suffered asystolic cardiac arrests had no macroscopical abnormality of either heart or brain. In the management of patients with fulminant hepatic failure continuous cardiac monitoring is essential. Correction of the biochemical and coagulation defects may decrease the frequency of arrhythmias but studies of the mechanism and control of cerebral oedema and its relation to cardiovascular function are urgently needed.  (+info)

Impact of nasal ventilation on survival in hypercapnic Duchenne muscular dystrophy. (6/1819)

BACKGROUND: Respiratory failure is the commonest cause of death in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Life expectancy is less than one year once diurnal hypercapnia develops. This study examines the effects of nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) on survival in symptomatic Duchenne patients with established ventilatory failure. METHODS: Nocturnal NIPPV was applied in 23 consecutive patients with DMD of mean (SD) age 20.3 (3.4) years who presented with diurnal and nocturnal hypercapnia. RESULTS: One year and five year survival rates were 85% (95% CI 69 to 100) and 73% (95% CI 53 to 94), respectively. Early changes in arterial blood gas tensions following NIPPV occurred with mean (SD) PO2 increasing from 7.6 (2.1) kPa to 10.8 (1.3) kPa and mean (SD) PCO2 falling from 10.3 (4.5) kPa to 6.1 (1.0) kPa. Improvements in arterial blood gas tensions were maintained over five years. Health perception and social aspects of SF-36 health related quality of life index were reported as equivalent to other groups with nonprogressive disorders using NIPPV. CONCLUSIONS: Nasal ventilation is likely to increase survival in hypercapnic patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy and should be considered as a treatment option when ventilatory failure develops.  (+info)

Speed of onset and offset and mechanisms of ventilatory depression from sevoflurane: an experimental study in the cat. (7/1819)

BACKGROUND: Inhalational anesthetics depress breathing dose dependently. The authors studied the dynamics of ventilation on changes in end-tidal sevoflurane partial pressure. To learn more about the mechanisms of sevoflurane-induced respiratory depression, the authors also studied its influence on the dynamic ventilatory response to carbon dioxide. METHODS: Experiments were performed in cats anesthetized with alpha chloralose-urethane. For protocol 1, step changes in end-tidal sevoflurane partial pressure were applied and inspired ventilation was measured. Breath-to-breath inspired ventilation was related to the sevoflurane concentration in a hypothetical effect compartment based on an inhibitory sigmoid Emax model. For protocol 2, step changes in the end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide were applied at 0, 0.5, and 1% end-tidal sevoflurane. The inspired ventilation-end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide data were analyzed using a two-compartment model of the respiratory controller, which consisted of a fast peripheral and slow central compartment. Values are the mean +/- SD. RESULTS: In protocol 1, the effect-site half-life of respiratory changes caused by alterations in end-tidal sevoflurane partial pressure was 3.6+/-1.0 min. In protocol 2, at 0.50% sevoflurane, the central and peripheral carbon dioxide sensitivities decreased to 43+/-20% and 36+/-18% of control. At 1% sevoflurane, the peripheral carbon dioxide sensitivity decreased further, to 12+/-13% of control, whereas the central carbon dioxide sensitivity showed no further decrease. CONCLUSIONS: Steady state inspired ventilation is reached after 18 min (i.e., 5 half-lives) on stepwise changes in end-tidal sevoflurane. Anesthetic concentrations of sevoflurane have, in addition to an effect on pathways common to the peripheral and central chemoreflex loops, a selective effect on the peripheral chemoreflex loop. Sevoflurane has similar effects on ventilatory control in humans and cats.  (+info)

Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in a patient with chronic myelogenous leukemia. (8/1819)

We describe the case of a 53-year-old Philadelphia-chromosome-positive woman with chronic myelogenous leukemia, who developed pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP). The possible mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of PAP are discussed based on the clinical and laboratory data for this patient as well as on experimental and clinical data reported in the literature.  (+info)

Respiratory insufficiency is a condition characterized by the inability of the respiratory system to maintain adequate gas exchange, resulting in an inadequate supply of oxygen and/or removal of carbon dioxide from the body. This can occur due to various causes, such as lung diseases (e.g., chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia), neuromuscular disorders (e.g., muscular dystrophy, spinal cord injury), or other medical conditions that affect breathing mechanics and/or gas exchange.

Respiratory insufficiency can manifest as hypoxemia (low oxygen levels in the blood) and/or hypercapnia (high carbon dioxide levels in the blood). Symptoms of respiratory insufficiency may include shortness of breath, rapid breathing, fatigue, confusion, and in severe cases, loss of consciousness or even death. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition and may include oxygen therapy, mechanical ventilation, medications, and/or other supportive measures.

Neuromuscular diseases are a group of disorders that involve the peripheral nervous system, which includes the nerves and muscles outside of the brain and spinal cord. These conditions can affect both children and adults, and they can be inherited or acquired. Neuromuscular diseases can cause a wide range of symptoms, including muscle weakness, numbness, tingling, pain, cramping, and twitching. Some common examples of neuromuscular diseases include muscular dystrophy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), peripheral neuropathy, and myasthenia gravis. The specific symptoms and severity of these conditions can vary widely depending on the underlying cause and the specific muscles and nerves that are affected. Treatment for neuromuscular diseases may include medications, physical therapy, assistive devices, or surgery, depending on the individual case.

Obstructive lung disease is a category of respiratory diseases characterized by airflow limitation that causes difficulty in completely emptying the alveoli (tiny air sacs) of the lungs during exhaling. This results in the trapping of stale air and prevents fresh air from entering the alveoli, leading to various symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, and decreased exercise tolerance.

The most common obstructive lung diseases include:

1. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): A progressive disease that includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema, often caused by smoking or exposure to harmful pollutants.
2. Asthma: A chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways characterized by variable airflow obstruction, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and an underlying inflammation. Symptoms can be triggered by various factors such as allergens, irritants, or physical activity.
3. Bronchiectasis: A condition in which the airways become abnormally widened, scarred, and thickened due to chronic inflammation or infection, leading to mucus buildup and impaired clearance.
4. Cystic Fibrosis: An inherited genetic disorder that affects the exocrine glands, resulting in thick and sticky mucus production in various organs, including the lungs. This can lead to chronic lung infections, inflammation, and airway obstruction.
5. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency: A genetic condition characterized by low levels of alpha-1 antitrypsin protein, which leads to uncontrolled protease enzyme activity that damages the lung tissue, causing emphysema-like symptoms.

Treatment for obstructive lung diseases typically involves bronchodilators (to relax and widen the airways), corticosteroids (to reduce inflammation), and lifestyle modifications such as smoking cessation and pulmonary rehabilitation programs. In severe cases, oxygen therapy or even lung transplantation may be considered.

Doxapram is a central stimulant drug that acts on the respiratory system. It is primarily used to stimulate breathing and promote wakefulness in patients who have reduced levels of consciousness or are experiencing respiratory depression due to various causes, such as anesthesia or medication overdose.

Doxapram works by stimulating the respiratory center in the brainstem, increasing the rate and depth of breathing. It also has a mild stimulant effect on the central nervous system, which can help to promote wakefulness and alertness.

The drug is available in various forms, including injectable solutions and inhaled powders. It is typically administered under medical supervision in a hospital or clinical setting due to its potential for causing adverse effects such as agitation, anxiety, and increased heart rate and blood pressure.

It's important to note that doxapram should only be used under the direction of a healthcare professional, as improper use can lead to serious complications.

Progressive bulbar palsy (PBP) is a form of motor neuron disease (MND), also known as Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). It is characterized by the progressive degeneration of the motor neurons in the brainstem, which control vital functions such as swallowing, speaking, chewing, and breathing.

In PBP, these symptoms gradually worsen over time, often resulting in severe disability and ultimately death due to respiratory failure. The progression of the disease can vary from person to person, but it typically advances more slowly than other forms of ALS. There is currently no cure for PBP or any other form of MND, and treatment is focused on managing symptoms and maintaining quality of life.

Hypercapnia is a state of increased carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in the blood, typically defined as an arterial CO2 tension (PaCO2) above 45 mmHg. It is often associated with conditions that impair gas exchange or eliminate CO2 from the body, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), severe asthma, respiratory failure, or certain neuromuscular disorders. Hypercapnia can cause symptoms such as headache, confusion, shortness of breath, and in severe cases, it can lead to life-threatening complications such as respiratory acidosis, coma, and even death if not promptly treated.

Adrenal insufficiency is a condition in which the adrenal glands do not produce adequate amounts of certain hormones, primarily cortisol and aldosterone. Cortisol helps regulate metabolism, respond to stress, and suppress inflammation, while aldosterone helps regulate sodium and potassium levels in the body to maintain blood pressure.

Primary adrenal insufficiency, also known as Addison's disease, occurs when there is damage to the adrenal glands themselves, often due to autoimmune disorders, infections, or certain medications. Secondary adrenal insufficiency occurs when the pituitary gland fails to produce enough adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which stimulates the adrenal glands to produce cortisol.

Symptoms of adrenal insufficiency may include fatigue, weakness, weight loss, decreased appetite, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, low blood pressure, dizziness, and darkening of the skin. Treatment typically involves replacing the missing hormones with medications taken orally or by injection.

A tracheostomy is a surgically created opening through the neck into the trachea (windpipe). It is performed to provide an airway in cases where the upper airway is obstructed or access to the lower airway is required, such as in prolonged intubation, severe trauma, or chronic lung diseases. The procedure involves making an incision in the front of the neck and creating a direct opening into the trachea, through which a tracheostomy tube is inserted to maintain the patency of the airway. This allows for direct ventilation of the lungs, suctioning of secretions, and prevention of complications associated with upper airway obstruction.

Artificial respiration is an emergency procedure that can be used to provide oxygen to a person who is not breathing or is breathing inadequately. It involves manually forcing air into the lungs, either by compressing the chest or using a device to deliver breaths. The goal of artificial respiration is to maintain adequate oxygenation of the body's tissues and organs until the person can breathe on their own or until advanced medical care arrives. Artificial respiration may be used in conjunction with cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in cases of cardiac arrest.

Intermittent Positive-Pressure Ventilation (IPPV) is a type of mechanical ventilation in which positive pressure is intermittently applied to the airway and lungs, allowing for inflation and deflation of the lungs. This mode of ventilation is often used in critical care settings such as intensive care units (ICUs) to support patients who are unable to breathe effectively on their own due to respiratory failure or other conditions that affect breathing.

During IPPV, a mechanical ventilator delivers breaths to the patient at set intervals, with each breath consisting of a set volume or pressure. The patient may also be allowed to take spontaneous breaths between the mechanically delivered breaths. The settings for IPPV can be adjusted based on the patient's needs and condition, including factors such as their respiratory rate, tidal volume (the amount of air moved with each breath), and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), which helps to keep the alveoli open and prevent atelectasis.

IPPV can be used to provide short-term or long-term ventilatory support, depending on the patient's needs. It is an effective way to ensure that patients receive adequate oxygenation and ventilation while minimizing the risk of lung injury associated with high pressures or volumes. However, it is important to closely monitor patients receiving IPPV and adjust the settings as needed to avoid complications such as ventilator-associated pneumonia or barotrauma.

The phrenic nerve is a motor nerve that originates from the cervical spine (C3-C5) and descends through the neck to reach the diaphragm, which is the primary muscle used for breathing. The main function of the phrenic nerve is to innervate the diaphragm and control its contraction and relaxation, thereby enabling respiration.

Damage or injury to the phrenic nerve can result in paralysis of the diaphragm, leading to difficulty breathing and potentially causing respiratory failure. Certain medical conditions, such as neuromuscular disorders, spinal cord injuries, and tumors, can affect the phrenic nerve and impair its function.

A fatal outcome is a term used in medical context to describe a situation where a disease, injury, or illness results in the death of an individual. It is the most severe and unfortunate possible outcome of any medical condition, and is often used as a measure of the severity and prognosis of various diseases and injuries. In clinical trials and research, fatal outcome may be used as an endpoint to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of different treatments or interventions.

In the context of medicine, and specifically in physiology and respiratory therapy, partial pressure (P or p) is a measure of the pressure exerted by an individual gas in a mixture of gases. It's commonly used to describe the concentrations of gases in the body, such as oxygen (PO2), carbon dioxide (PCO2), and nitrogen (PN2).

The partial pressure of a specific gas is calculated as the fraction of that gas in the total mixture multiplied by the total pressure of the mixture. This concept is based on Dalton's law, which states that the total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the pressures exerted by each individual gas.

For example, in room air at sea level, the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) is approximately 160 mmHg (mm of mercury), which represents about 21% of the total barometric pressure (760 mmHg). This concept is crucial for understanding gas exchange in the lungs and how gases move across membranes, such as from alveoli to blood and vice versa.

Blood gas analysis is a medical test that measures the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood, as well as the pH level, which indicates the acidity or alkalinity of the blood. This test is often used to evaluate lung function, respiratory disorders, and acid-base balance in the body. It can also be used to monitor the effectiveness of treatments for conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and other respiratory illnesses. The analysis is typically performed on a sample of arterial blood, although venous blood may also be used in some cases.

Renal insufficiency, also known as kidney failure, is a medical condition in which the kidneys are unable to properly filter waste products and excess fluids from the blood. This results in a buildup of these substances in the body, which can cause a variety of symptoms such as weakness, shortness of breath, and fluid retention. Renal insufficiency can be acute, meaning it comes on suddenly, or chronic, meaning it develops over time. It is typically diagnosed through blood tests, urine tests, and imaging studies. Treatment may include medications to control symptoms, dietary changes, and in severe cases, dialysis or a kidney transplant.

Venous insufficiency is a medical condition that occurs when the veins, particularly in the legs, have difficulty returning blood back to the heart due to impaired valve function or obstruction in the vein. This results in blood pooling in the veins, leading to symptoms such as varicose veins, swelling, skin changes, and ulcers. Prolonged venous insufficiency can cause chronic pain and affect the quality of life if left untreated.

Oxygen inhalation therapy is a medical treatment that involves the administration of oxygen to a patient through a nasal tube or mask, with the purpose of increasing oxygen concentration in the body. This therapy is used to treat various medical conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pneumonia, heart failure, and other conditions that cause low levels of oxygen in the blood. The additional oxygen helps to improve tissue oxygenation, reduce work of breathing, and promote overall patient comfort and well-being. Oxygen therapy may be delivered continuously or intermittently, depending on the patient's needs and medical condition.

A chronic disease is a long-term medical condition that often progresses slowly over a period of years and requires ongoing management and care. These diseases are typically not fully curable, but symptoms can be managed to improve quality of life. Common chronic diseases include heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). They are often associated with advanced age, although they can also affect children and younger adults. Chronic diseases can have significant impacts on individuals' physical, emotional, and social well-being, as well as on healthcare systems and society at large.

Positive-pressure respiration is a type of mechanical ventilation where positive pressure is applied to the airway and lungs, causing them to expand and inflate. This can be used to support or replace spontaneous breathing in patients who are unable to breathe effectively on their own due to conditions such as respiratory failure, neuromuscular disorders, or sedation for surgery.

During positive-pressure ventilation, a mechanical ventilator delivers breaths to the patient through an endotracheal tube or a tracheostomy tube. The ventilator is set to deliver a specific volume or pressure of air with each breath, and the patient's breathing is synchronized with the ventilator to ensure proper delivery of the breaths.

Positive-pressure ventilation can help improve oxygenation and remove carbon dioxide from the lungs, but it can also have potential complications such as barotrauma (injury to lung tissue due to excessive pressure), volutrauma (injury due to overdistention of the lungs), hemodynamic compromise (decreased blood pressure and cardiac output), and ventilator-associated pneumonia. Therefore, careful monitoring and adjustment of ventilator settings are essential to minimize these risks and provide safe and effective respiratory support.

Quadriplegia, also known as tetraplegia, is a medical condition characterized by paralysis affecting all four limbs and the trunk of the body. It results from damage to the cervical spinal cord, typically at levels C1-C8, which controls signals to the muscles in the arms, hands, trunk, legs, and pelvic organs. The extent of quadriplegia can vary widely, ranging from weakness to complete loss of movement and sensation below the level of injury. Other symptoms may include difficulty breathing, bowel and bladder dysfunction, and sexual dysfunction. The severity and prognosis depend on the location and extent of the spinal cord injury.

Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) is a condition characterized by the reduced ability to digest and absorb nutrients due to a lack of digestive enzymes produced by the exocrine glands in the pancreas. These enzymes, including lipases, amylases, and proteases, are necessary for breaking down fats, carbohydrates, and proteins in food during the digestion process.

When EPI occurs, undigested food passes through the gastrointestinal tract, leading to malabsorption of nutrients, which can result in various symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea, weight loss, and steatorrhea (fatty stools). EPI is often associated with chronic pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis, pancreatic cancer, or other conditions that damage the exocrine glands in the pancreas.

EPI can be diagnosed through various tests, including fecal elastase testing, fecal fat quantification, and imaging studies to assess the structure and function of the pancreas. Treatment typically involves replacing the missing enzymes with oral supplements taken with meals and snacks to improve digestion and absorption of nutrients. In addition, dietary modifications and management of underlying conditions are essential for optimal outcomes.

A diaphragm is a thin, dome-shaped muscle that separates the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity. It plays a vital role in the process of breathing as it contracts and flattens to draw air into the lungs (inhalation) and relaxes and returns to its domed shape to expel air out of the lungs (exhalation).

In addition, a diaphragm is also a type of barrier method of birth control. It is a flexible dome-shaped device made of silicone that fits over the cervix inside the vagina. When used correctly and consistently, it prevents sperm from entering the uterus and fertilizing an egg, thereby preventing pregnancy.

Lung diseases refer to a broad category of disorders that affect the lungs and other structures within the respiratory system. These diseases can impair lung function, leading to symptoms such as coughing, shortness of breath, chest pain, and wheezing. They can be categorized into several types based on the underlying cause and nature of the disease process. Some common examples include:

1. Obstructive lung diseases: These are characterized by narrowing or blockage of the airways, making it difficult to breathe out. Examples include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, bronchiectasis, and cystic fibrosis.
2. Restrictive lung diseases: These involve stiffening or scarring of the lungs, which reduces their ability to expand and take in air. Examples include idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, sarcoidosis, and asbestosis.
3. Infectious lung diseases: These are caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites that infect the lungs. Examples include pneumonia, tuberculosis, and influenza.
4. Vascular lung diseases: These affect the blood vessels in the lungs, impairing oxygen exchange. Examples include pulmonary embolism, pulmonary hypertension, and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH).
5. Neoplastic lung diseases: These involve abnormal growth of cells within the lungs, leading to cancer. Examples include small cell lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, and mesothelioma.
6. Other lung diseases: These include interstitial lung diseases, pleural effusions, and rare disorders such as pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM).

It is important to note that this list is not exhaustive, and there are many other conditions that can affect the lungs. Proper diagnosis and treatment of lung diseases require consultation with a healthcare professional, such as a pulmonologist or respiratory therapist.

Placental insufficiency is a condition in which the placenta does not provide adequate nutrients and oxygen to the developing fetus. This can occur due to various reasons, such as poor placental development, damage to the placenta, or problems with the blood flow to the placenta. As a result, the fetus may receive less oxygen and nutrients than it needs for proper growth and development, which can lead to a range of complications, including low birth weight, preterm birth, and developmental delays.

The medical definition of placental insufficiency is: "a condition in which the placenta fails to provide adequate support to the developing fetus, resulting in impaired fetal growth and development." This condition can be diagnosed through various tests, such as ultrasound, fetal monitoring, and blood tests, and may require close monitoring and management throughout pregnancy to ensure the best possible outcomes for both the mother and the baby.

Oxygen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that constitutes about 21% of the earth's atmosphere. It is a crucial element for human and most living organisms as it is vital for respiration. Inhaled oxygen enters the lungs and binds to hemoglobin in red blood cells, which carries it to tissues throughout the body where it is used to convert nutrients into energy and carbon dioxide, a waste product that is exhaled.

Medically, supplemental oxygen therapy may be provided to patients with conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pneumonia, heart failure, or other medical conditions that impair the body's ability to extract sufficient oxygen from the air. Oxygen can be administered through various devices, including nasal cannulas, face masks, and ventilators.

Medical Definition of Respiration:

Respiration, in physiology, is the process by which an organism takes in oxygen and gives out carbon dioxide. It's also known as breathing. This process is essential for most forms of life because it provides the necessary oxygen for cellular respiration, where the cells convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and releases waste products, primarily carbon dioxide.

In humans and other mammals, respiration is a two-stage process:

1. Breathing (or external respiration): This involves the exchange of gases with the environment. Air enters the lungs through the mouth or nose, then passes through the pharynx, larynx, trachea, and bronchi, finally reaching the alveoli where the actual gas exchange occurs. Oxygen from the inhaled air diffuses into the blood, while carbon dioxide, a waste product of metabolism, diffuses from the blood into the alveoli to be exhaled.

2. Cellular respiration (or internal respiration): This is the process by which cells convert glucose and other nutrients into ATP, water, and carbon dioxide in the presence of oxygen. The carbon dioxide produced during this process then diffuses out of the cells and into the bloodstream to be exhaled during breathing.

In summary, respiration is a vital physiological function that enables organisms to obtain the necessary oxygen for cellular metabolism while eliminating waste products like carbon dioxide.

Respiratory Function Tests (RFTs) are a group of medical tests that measure how well your lungs take in and exhale air, and how well they transfer oxygen and carbon dioxide into and out of your blood. They can help diagnose certain lung disorders, measure the severity of lung disease, and monitor response to treatment.

RFTs include several types of tests, such as:

1. Spirometry: This test measures how much air you can exhale and how quickly you can do it. It's often used to diagnose and monitor conditions like asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and other lung diseases.
2. Lung volume testing: This test measures the total amount of air in your lungs. It can help diagnose restrictive lung diseases, such as pulmonary fibrosis or sarcoidosis.
3. Diffusion capacity testing: This test measures how well oxygen moves from your lungs into your bloodstream. It's often used to diagnose and monitor conditions like pulmonary fibrosis, interstitial lung disease, and other lung diseases that affect the ability of the lungs to transfer oxygen to the blood.
4. Bronchoprovocation testing: This test involves inhaling a substance that can cause your airways to narrow, such as methacholine or histamine. It's often used to diagnose and monitor asthma.
5. Exercise stress testing: This test measures how well your lungs and heart work together during exercise. It's often used to diagnose lung or heart disease.

Overall, Respiratory Function Tests are an important tool for diagnosing and managing a wide range of lung conditions.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

Anoxia is a medical condition that refers to the absence or complete lack of oxygen supply in the body or a specific organ, tissue, or cell. This can lead to serious health consequences, including damage or death of cells and tissues, due to the vital role that oxygen plays in supporting cellular metabolism and energy production.

Anoxia can occur due to various reasons, such as respiratory failure, cardiac arrest, severe blood loss, carbon monoxide poisoning, or high altitude exposure. Prolonged anoxia can result in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, a serious condition that can cause brain damage and long-term neurological impairments.

Medical professionals use various diagnostic tests, such as blood gas analysis, pulse oximetry, and electroencephalography (EEG), to assess oxygen levels in the body and diagnose anoxia. Treatment for anoxia typically involves addressing the underlying cause, providing supplemental oxygen, and supporting vital functions, such as breathing and circulation, to prevent further damage.

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a colorless, odorless gas that is naturally present in the Earth's atmosphere. It is a normal byproduct of cellular respiration in humans, animals, and plants, and is also produced through the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas.

In medical terms, carbon dioxide is often used as a respiratory stimulant and to maintain the pH balance of blood. It is also used during certain medical procedures, such as laparoscopic surgery, to insufflate (inflate) the abdominal cavity and create a working space for the surgeon.

Elevated levels of carbon dioxide in the body can lead to respiratory acidosis, a condition characterized by an increased concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood and a decrease in pH. This can occur in conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, or other lung diseases that impair breathing and gas exchange. Symptoms of respiratory acidosis may include shortness of breath, confusion, headache, and in severe cases, coma or death.

A lung is a pair of spongy, elastic organs in the chest that work together to enable breathing. They are responsible for taking in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide through the process of respiration. The left lung has two lobes, while the right lung has three lobes. The lungs are protected by the ribcage and are covered by a double-layered membrane called the pleura. The trachea divides into two bronchi, which further divide into smaller bronchioles, leading to millions of tiny air sacs called alveoli, where the exchange of gases occurs.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Postoperative complications refer to any unfavorable condition or event that occurs during the recovery period after a surgical procedure. These complications can vary in severity and may include, but are not limited to:

1. Infection: This can occur at the site of the incision or inside the body, such as pneumonia or urinary tract infection.
2. Bleeding: Excessive bleeding (hemorrhage) can lead to a drop in blood pressure and may require further surgical intervention.
3. Blood clots: These can form in the deep veins of the legs (deep vein thrombosis) and can potentially travel to the lungs (pulmonary embolism).
4. Wound dehiscence: This is when the surgical wound opens up, which can lead to infection and further complications.
5. Pulmonary issues: These include atelectasis (collapsed lung), pneumonia, or respiratory failure.
6. Cardiovascular problems: These include abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias), heart attack, or stroke.
7. Renal failure: This can occur due to various reasons such as dehydration, blood loss, or the use of certain medications.
8. Pain management issues: Inadequate pain control can lead to increased stress, anxiety, and decreased mobility.
9. Nausea and vomiting: These can be caused by anesthesia, opioid pain medication, or other factors.
10. Delirium: This is a state of confusion and disorientation that can occur in the elderly or those with certain medical conditions.

Prompt identification and management of these complications are crucial to ensure the best possible outcome for the patient.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

Primary Ovarian Insufficiency (POI), also known as Premature Ovarian Failure, is a condition characterized by the cessation of ovarian function before the age of 40. This results in decreased estrogen production and loss of fertility. It is often associated with menstrual irregularities or amenorrhea (absence of menstruation). The exact cause can vary, including genetic factors, autoimmune diseases, toxins, and iatrogenic causes such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy.

Hepatic insufficiency, also known as liver insufficiency, refers to the reduced ability of the liver to perform its vital functions due to damage or disease. The liver plays a crucial role in metabolism, detoxification, synthesis, storage, and secretion. When it becomes insufficient, it can lead to various complications such as:

1. Impaired metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins
2. Buildup of toxic substances in the blood due to reduced detoxification capacity
3. Decreased synthesis of essential proteins, including clotting factors
4. Reduced glycogen storage and impaired glucose regulation
5. Fluid accumulation in the abdomen (ascites) and legs (edema) due to decreased production of albumin and increased pressure in the portal vein
6. Impaired immune function, making the individual more susceptible to infections
7. Hormonal imbalances leading to various symptoms such as changes in appetite, weight loss, and sexual dysfunction

Hepatic insufficiency can range from mild to severe, and if left untreated, it may progress to liver failure, a life-threatening condition requiring immediate medical attention.

Addison disease, also known as primary adrenal insufficiency or hypocortisolism, is a rare endocrine disorder characterized by the dysfunction and underproduction of hormones produced by the adrenal glands, specifically cortisol and aldosterone. The adrenal glands are located on top of the kidneys and play a crucial role in regulating various bodily functions such as metabolism, blood pressure, stress response, and immune system function.

The primary cause of Addison disease is the destruction of more than 90% of the adrenal cortex, which is the outer layer of the adrenal glands responsible for hormone production. This damage can be due to an autoimmune disorder where the body's immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys the adrenal gland tissue, infections such as tuberculosis or HIV, cancer, genetic disorders, or certain medications.

The symptoms of Addison disease often develop gradually and may include fatigue, weakness, weight loss, decreased appetite, low blood pressure, darkening of the skin, and mood changes. In some cases, an acute crisis known as acute adrenal insufficiency or Addisonian crisis can occur, which is a medical emergency characterized by sudden and severe symptoms such as extreme weakness, confusion, dehydration, vomiting, diarrhea, low blood sugar, and coma.

Diagnosis of Addison disease typically involves blood tests to measure hormone levels, imaging studies such as CT scans or MRIs to assess the adrenal glands' size and structure, and stimulation tests to evaluate the adrenal glands' function. Treatment usually involves replacing the missing hormones with medications such as hydrocortisone, fludrocortisone, and sometimes mineralocorticoids. With proper treatment and management, individuals with Addison disease can lead normal and productive lives.

Aortic valve insufficiency, also known as aortic regurgitation or aortic incompetence, is a cardiac condition in which the aortic valve does not close properly during the contraction phase of the heart cycle. This allows blood to flow back into the left ventricle from the aorta, instead of being pumped out to the rest of the body. As a result, the left ventricle must work harder to maintain adequate cardiac output, which can lead to left ventricular enlargement and heart failure over time if left untreated.

The aortic valve is a trileaflet valve that lies between the left ventricle and the aorta. During systole (the contraction phase of the heart cycle), the aortic valve opens to allow blood to be pumped out of the left ventricle into the aorta and then distributed to the rest of the body. During diastole (the relaxation phase of the heart cycle), the aortic valve closes to prevent blood from flowing back into the left ventricle.

Aortic valve insufficiency can be caused by various conditions, including congenital heart defects, infective endocarditis, rheumatic heart disease, Marfan syndrome, and trauma. Symptoms of aortic valve insufficiency may include shortness of breath, fatigue, chest pain, palpitations, and edema (swelling). Diagnosis is typically made through physical examination, echocardiography, and other imaging studies. Treatment options depend on the severity of the condition and may include medication, surgery to repair or replace the aortic valve, or a combination of both.

Velopharyngeal Insufficiency (VPI) is a medical condition that affects the proper functioning of the velopharyngeal valve, which is responsible for closing off the nasal cavity from the mouth during speech. This valve is made up of the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth), the pharynx (the back of the throat), and the muscles that control their movement.

In VPI, the velopharyngeal valve does not close completely or properly during speech, causing air to escape through the nose and resulting in hypernasality, nasal emission, and/or articulation errors. This can lead to difficulties with speech clarity and understanding, as well as social and emotional challenges.

VPI can be present from birth (congenital) or acquired later in life due to factors such as cleft palate, neurological disorders, trauma, or surgery. Treatment for VPI may include speech therapy, surgical intervention, or a combination of both.

Vitamin D deficiency is a condition characterized by insufficient levels of vitamin D in the body, typically defined as a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level below 20 nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL) or 50 nanomoles per liter (nmol/L). Vitamin D is an essential fat-soluble vitamin that plays a crucial role in maintaining healthy bones and teeth by regulating the absorption of calcium and phosphorus. It also has various other functions in the body, including modulation of cell growth, immune function, and neuromuscular activity.

Vitamin D can be obtained through dietary sources such as fatty fish, fortified dairy products, and supplements, but the majority of vitamin D is produced in the skin upon exposure to sunlight. Deficiency can occur due to inadequate dietary intake, insufficient sun exposure, or impaired absorption or metabolism of vitamin D.

Risk factors for vitamin D deficiency include older age, darker skin tone, obesity, malabsorption syndromes, liver or kidney disease, and certain medications. Symptoms of vitamin D deficiency can be subtle and nonspecific, such as fatigue, bone pain, muscle weakness, and mood changes. However, prolonged deficiency can lead to more severe health consequences, including osteoporosis, osteomalacia, and increased risk of fractures.

A varicose ulcer is a type of chronic wound that typically occurs on the lower leg, often as a result of poor circulation and venous insufficiency. These ulcers form when there is increased pressure in the veins, leading to damage and leakage of fluids into the surrounding tissues. Over time, this can cause the skin to break down and form an open sore or ulcer.

Varicose ulcers are often associated with varicose veins, which are swollen and twisted veins that are visible just beneath the surface of the skin. These veins have weakened walls and valves, which can lead to the pooling of blood and fluid in the lower legs. This increased pressure can cause damage to the surrounding tissues, leading to the formation of an ulcer.

Varicose ulcers are typically slow to heal and may require extensive treatment, including compression therapy, wound care, and sometimes surgery. Risk factors for developing varicose ulcers include obesity, smoking, sedentary lifestyle, and a history of deep vein thrombosis or other circulatory problems.

Mitral valve insufficiency, also known as mitral regurgitation, is a cardiac condition in which the mitral valve located between the left atrium and left ventricle of the heart does not close properly, causing blood to flow backward into the atrium during contraction of the ventricle. This leads to an increased volume load on the left heart chamber and can result in symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, and fluid retention. The condition can be caused by various factors including valve damage due to degenerative changes, infective endocarditis, rheumatic heart disease, or trauma. Treatment options include medication, mitral valve repair, or replacement surgery depending on the severity and underlying cause of the insufficiency.

Orthoptics is a specialty within the field of ophthalmology that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of visual system disorders, particularly those related to eye movements and alignment. It involves the use of various techniques such as eye exercises, glasses, prisms, and surgery to correct issues like strabismus (crossed eyes), amblyopia (lazy eye), and diplopia (double vision). Orthoptists are healthcare professionals who have received specialized training in this area.

Chronic Renal Insufficiency (CRI) is a medical condition characterized by a gradual and progressive loss of kidney function over a period of months or years. It is also known as Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). The main function of the kidneys is to filter waste products and excess fluids from the blood, which are then excreted in the urine. When the kidneys become insufficient, these waste products and fluids accumulate in the body, leading to various complications.

CRI is defined as a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of less than 60 ml/min/1.73m2 for three months or more, regardless of cause. GFR is a measure of kidney function that estimates how well the kidneys are filtering waste products from the blood. The condition is classified into five stages based on the severity of the disease and the GFR value.

Stage 1: GFR greater than or equal to 90 ml/min/1.73m2
Stage 2: GFR between 60-89 ml/min/1.73m2
Stage 3: GFR between 30-59 ml/min/1.73m2
Stage 4: GFR between 15-29 ml/min/1.73m2
Stage 5: GFR less than 15 ml/min/1.73m2 or dialysis

CRI can be caused by various underlying conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, glomerulonephritis, polycystic kidney disease, and other genetic or acquired disorders. Symptoms of CRI may include fatigue, weakness, loss of appetite, swelling in the legs and ankles, shortness of breath, and changes in urination patterns. Treatment for CRI focuses on slowing down the progression of the disease, managing symptoms, and preventing complications. This may involve lifestyle modifications, medication, dialysis, or kidney transplantation.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

Pulmonary gas exchange is the process by which oxygen (O2) from inhaled air is transferred to the blood, and carbon dioxide (CO2), a waste product of metabolism, is removed from the blood and exhaled. This process occurs in the lungs, primarily in the alveoli, where the thin walls of the alveoli and capillaries allow for the rapid diffusion of gases between them. The partial pressure gradient between the alveolar air and the blood in the pulmonary capillaries drives this diffusion process. Oxygen-rich blood is then transported to the body's tissues, while CO2-rich blood returns to the lungs to be exhaled.

A laryngeal mask is a type of supraglottic airway device that is used in anesthesia and critical care to secure the airway during procedures or respiratory support. It consists of an inflatable cuff that is inserted into the hypopharynx, behind the tongue, and above the laryngeal opening. The cuff forms a low-pressure seal around the laryngeal inlet, allowing for the delivery of ventilated gases to the lungs while minimizing the risk of aspiration.

Laryngeal masks are often used as an alternative to endotracheal intubation, especially in cases where intubation is difficult or contraindicated. They are also used in emergency situations for airway management and during resuscitation efforts. Laryngeal masks come in various sizes and designs, with some models allowing for the placement of a gastric tube to decompress the stomach and reduce the risk of regurgitation and aspiration.

Overall, laryngeal masks provide a safe and effective means of securing the airway while minimizing trauma and discomfort to the patient.

Intubation, intratracheal is a medical procedure in which a flexible plastic or rubber tube called an endotracheal tube (ETT) is inserted through the mouth or nose, passing through the vocal cords and into the trachea (windpipe). This procedure is performed to establish and maintain a patent airway, allowing for the delivery of oxygen and the removal of carbon dioxide during mechanical ventilation in various clinical scenarios, such as:

1. Respiratory failure or arrest
2. Procedural sedation
3. Surgery under general anesthesia
4. Neuromuscular disorders
5. Ingestion of toxic substances
6. Head and neck trauma
7. Critical illness or injury affecting the airway

The process of intubation is typically performed by trained medical professionals, such as anesthesiologists, emergency medicine physicians, or critical care specialists, using direct laryngoscopy or video laryngoscopy to visualize the vocal cords and guide the ETT into the correct position. Once placed, the ETT is secured to prevent dislodgement, and the patient's respiratory status is continuously monitored to ensure proper ventilation and oxygenation.

A brain injury is defined as damage to the brain that occurs following an external force or trauma, such as a blow to the head, a fall, or a motor vehicle accident. Brain injuries can also result from internal conditions, such as lack of oxygen or a stroke. There are two main types of brain injuries: traumatic and acquired.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is caused by an external force that results in the brain moving within the skull or the skull being fractured. Mild TBIs may result in temporary symptoms such as headaches, confusion, and memory loss, while severe TBIs can cause long-term complications, including physical, cognitive, and emotional impairments.

Acquired brain injury (ABI) is any injury to the brain that occurs after birth and is not hereditary, congenital, or degenerative. ABIs are often caused by medical conditions such as strokes, tumors, anoxia (lack of oxygen), or infections.

Both TBIs and ABIs can range from mild to severe and may result in a variety of physical, cognitive, and emotional symptoms that can impact a person's ability to perform daily activities and function independently. Treatment for brain injuries typically involves a multidisciplinary approach, including medical management, rehabilitation, and supportive care.

MedlinePlus is not a medical term, but rather a consumer health website that provides high-quality, accurate, and reliable health information, written in easy-to-understand language. It is produced by the U.S. National Library of Medicine, the world's largest medical library, and is widely recognized as a trusted source of health information.

MedlinePlus offers information on various health topics, including conditions, diseases, tests, treatments, and wellness. It also provides access to drug information, medical dictionary, and encyclopedia, as well as links to clinical trials, medical news, and patient organizations. The website is available in both English and Spanish and can be accessed for free.

The Ventilation-Perfusion (V/Q) ratio is a measure used in respiratory physiology to describe the relationship between the amount of air that enters the alveoli (ventilation) and the amount of blood that reaches the alveoli to pick up oxygen (perfusion).

In a healthy lung, these two processes are well-matched, meaning that well-ventilated areas of the lung also have good blood flow. This results in a V/Q ratio close to 1.0.

However, certain lung conditions such as emphysema or pulmonary embolism can cause ventilation and perfusion to become mismatched, leading to a V/Q ratio that is either higher (ventilation exceeds perfusion) or lower (perfusion exceeds ventilation) than normal. This mismatch can result in impaired gas exchange and lead to hypoxemia (low oxygen levels in the blood).

The V/Q ratio is often used in clinical settings to assess lung function and diagnose respiratory disorders.

Marshall, Peter S. (February 26-27, 2015). Examples of Respiratory Compromise (PDF). Conference on Respiratory Insufficiency. " ... Decreased respiratory effort: Central nervous system impairment leads to decreased respiratory effort. The respiratory center ... Respiratory arrest is a serious medical condition caused by apnea or respiratory dysfunction severe enough that it will not ... Respiratory arrest will ensue once the patient depletes their oxygen reserves and loses the effort to breathe. Respiratory ...
December 20 - Jesús Castillo Rangel (121), Revolutionary and farmer, Mexico's oldest man; respiratory insufficiency and ... March 13 - Sarah Jiménez, engraving artist, member of the Salón de la Plástica Mexicana; respiratory problems (b. 1927). March ... Baltazar Maldonado Rosales (55), polítician (former mayor of Apizaco Municipality, Tlaxcala; renal insufficiency and cáncer (b ... respiratory complications (b. March 30, 1921). September 5 - José Durán González, 67, polítician, former mayor of Pueblo Nuevo ...
Dysphagia may occur, as can respiratory insufficiency.[citation needed] The etiology is unknown. Some cases of SLONM have been ... Generally the outcome is grim, with respiratory insufficiency the cause of death.[citation needed] Rehabilitation for muscle ...
Respiratory insufficiency may require treatment with supplemental oxygen. Aggressive management of airway secretions is ...
Molinaro died of a respiratory insufficiency in 2013. He was 85. Les Alchimistes (1957, short) Le Dos au mur [fr] (Back to the ...
"Benign Lipoblastoma in the Neck Causing Respiratory Insufficiency". The Laryngoscope. 93 (7): 935-937. doi:10.1288/00005537- ...
Respiratory insufficiency develops in a small proportion of cases. Creatine kinase tend to be normal and electromyography (EMG ...
Contraindications include asthma, respiratory insufficiency, and age under 8. Ethylmorphine may affect the user's ability to ... Adverse effects are similar to other opioids and include drowsiness, constipation, vertigo, nausea, vomiting, and respiratory ...
Patarinski D (1976). "[Indications and contraindications for oxygen therapy of respiratory insufficiency]". Vutreshni Bolesti ( ... Roca O, Riera J, Torres F, Masclans JR (April 2010). "High-flow oxygen therapy in acute respiratory failure". Respiratory Care ... In infants with respiratory failure, administration of high levels of oxygen can sometimes promote overgrowth of new blood ... Somogyi R, Vesely AE, Azami T, Preiss D, Fisher J, Correia J, Fowler RA (March 2004). "Dispersal of respiratory droplets with ...
Symptoms include respiratory insufficiency, recurrent respiratory infections, and hypertension. Additional radiological ... Congenital disorders of respiratory system, Congenital disorders of urinary system, All stub articles, Disease stubs). ...
"Respiratory insufficiency as a presenting symptom of LGMD2D in adulthood". Acta Myologica. 23 (1): 1-5. PMID 15298081. White SJ ...
Wayne Tippit, 76, American character actor (Melrose Place), respiratory insufficiency. Henk van Ulsen, 82, Dutch actor. Gennaro ... Sir Harry Fang, 86, Hong Kong orthopaedic surgeon, President of Rehabilitation International (1980-1984), respiratory failure. ...
Survival is typically determined by the level of respiratory muscle insufficiency. Jungbluth, Heinz (2007). "Central core ... In its severest form, affected babies often die from respiratory failure. To date, 9 gene mutations have been found to cause ...
Estay died due to an respiratory insufficiency in the Hospital of Iquique. Deportes Iquique Segunda División de Chile: 1979 ...
On 5 May 2009, Capetillo died of respiratory insufficiency, in Chacala, Nayarit. The wake was held in Guadalajara, Jalisco, and ... the actor's son confirmed that a respiratory insufficiency was the cause of his death. El revólver sangriento (1964) Alma ...
... it may cause obstruction of the airway with resulting life-threatening respiratory insufficiency. Other injuries accompany TBI ... Dyspnea and respiratory distress are found in 76-100% of people with TBI, and coughing up blood has been found in up to 25%. ... Granholm T, Farmer DL (March 2001). "The surgical airway". Respiratory Care Clinics of North America. 7 (1): 13-23. doi:10.1016 ... Early diagnosis is important to prevent complications, which include stenosis (narrowing) of the airway, respiratory tract ...
He died on 19 April 2016, aged 97 from natural causes from respiratory insufficiency. His state funeral was held on 22 April ...
Philippe Lacoue-Labarthe, 66, French professor of aesthetics at University of Strasbourg, respiratory insufficiency. Herbert ... Alice Coltrane, 69, American jazz musician and widow of John Coltrane, respiratory failure. Stephen Gilbert, 96, British ... Alfredo Ripstein, 90, Mexican movie producer, respiratory failure. Vern Ruhle, 55, American Major League Baseball pitcher and ...
Lesions in the brain stem or upper cervical spinal cord can cause respiratory insufficiency. Lesions in the area postrema of ... In some patients (33% in one study), transverse myelitis in the cervical spinal cord resulted in respiratory failure and ...
"Glossopharyngeal breathing and non invasive aids in the management of post polio respiratory insufficiency". Birth Defects, 23 ... "Glossopharyngeal breathing and non invasive aids in the management of post polio respiratory insufficiency". Birth Defects, 23 ... Baydur A, Gilgoff I, Prentice W, Carlson M, Fischer DA (1990). "Decline in respiratory function and experience with long term ...
Infants born with a Bochdalek hernia have a "high mortality rate due to respiratory insufficiency". Between 25 and 60% of ... Bochdalek hernias are life-threatening conditions due to respiratory distress. Like the lungs, the intestines may also have ...
1964;34:1401-3. Polish) EXCRETION OF UROPEPSIN AND 17-KETOSTEROIDS IN PATIENTS WITH RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY (Pol Arch Med ... Polish) Attempted clarification of pathogenesis and hazards of peptic ulcer in circulatory insufficiency (Pol Tyg Lek (Wars). ...
... died at the age of 89 of respiratory insufficiency in his apartment in Copacabana. His grave is in the Cemitério ... Deaths from respiratory failure, Brazilian male dramatists and playwrights, Brazilian people of Ukrainian-Jewish descent, ...
However, many individuals with Jarcho-Levin suffer from problems of respiratory insufficiency secondary to volume-restricted ... Infants born with this condition typically died early in life due to recurrent respiratory infections and pneumonia due to ...
Life expectancy is not affected, although death can rarely be attributed to respiratory insufficiency due to FSHD. FSHD was ... Features the suggest an alternative diagnosis are contractures, respiratory insufficiency, weakness of muscles controlling eye ... and recurrently for those with pulmonary insufficiency symptoms or risks. Routine screening for heart conditions, such as ...
She died from a respiratory insufficiency and she is buried in the cemetery San Fernando in Seville. The White Dove (1942) ...
On 14 January 2015 Kemal was hospitalised at Istanbul University's Çapa Medical Faculty, due to respiratory insufficiency. ...
On 14 July 1997, Welby suffered a respiratory insufficiency that left him completely unable to breathe naturally. He depended ...
On April 20, 2010, Ricardo Valencia died after suffering respiratory insufficiency, brought on by a pulmonary fibrosis. He is ...
The resulting respiratory insufficiency caused overload of the heart's right chambers, a chronic condition called cor pulmonale ... despite the extreme risk of inducing respiratory depression, apnea, and death in a patient with decreased respiratory reserve. ...
... Pediatr Pulmonol. 1996 Jan;21(1):52-6. doi: 10.1002 ...
Twenty-eight patients presented a FVC , 75% and showed, at polysomnography analysis, nocturnal respiratory insufficiency, ... and nocturnal respiratory insufficiency, treated with NPPV, compared to a well-matched population of ALS patients, who refused ... pressure ventilation prolongs survival in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis patients with nocturnal respiratory insufficiency ... Background: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease, which rapidly leads to chronic respiratory ...
Predict the probability of respiratory insufficiency within the first week of admission, in individual patients with Guillain- ... Erasmus GBS Respiratory Insufficiency Score (EGRIS). Predict the probability of respiratory insufficiency within the first week ... The EGRIS is a clinical prediction model to predict the probability of respiratory insufficiency within the first week of ... The EGRIS is a clinical prediction model to predict the probability of respiratory insufficiency within the first week of ...
Iatrogenic adrenal insufficiency as a side-effect of combined treatment of itraconazole and budesonide. M. Skov, K.M. Main, I.B ... Your Name) has sent you a message from European Respiratory Society Message Body (Your Name) thought you would like to see the ... Adrenal insufficiency was found in 11 of 25 CF patients with ABPA treated with a combination of itraconazole and budesonide. ... Mineralocorticoid insufficiency was not observed in any of the 31 CF patients treated with itraconazole as indicated by normal ...
... largest CME collection for lung diseases and treatment offering high quality e-learning and teaching resources for respiratory ... The ERS-education website provides centralised access to all educational material produced by the European Respiratory Society ...
... and Improved Pulmonary Function After Lung Volume Reduction Surgery in a Patient with Severe Global Respiratory Insufficiency ... and Improved Pulmonary Function After Lung Volume Reduction Surgery in a Patient with Severe Global Respiratory Insufficiency. ...
... the hospital for severe exacerbation of respiratory infections and subsequently developed progressive respiratory insufficiency ... Chronic Enterovirus D68 Bronchiolitis Causing Severe Respiratory Insufficiency. Open Journal of Respiratory Diseases,06,47-51. ... EV-D68 has tropism for the respiratory tract causing acute respiratory disease ranging from mild upper respiratory tract ... Chronic Enterovirus D68 Bronchiolitis Causing Severe Respiratory Insufficiency. John Chia1*#, Andrew Chia1, David Wang1, Rabiha ...
Progressive respiratory insufficiency. The risk factors for developing progressive respiratory insufficiency are as follows:. * ... People who smoke are likely to develop chronic bronchitis and obstructive airway disease, and they are prone to respiratory ... Patients with asbestosis are also at risk for developing malignant mesothelioma and carcinomas of the upper respiratory tract, ... Individuals probably differ in their susceptibility to asbestosis based on respiratory clearance and other unidentified host ...
Respiratory Insufficiency PubMed MeSh Term *Overview. Overview. subject area of * Glial TLR4 signaling does not contribute to ... Minocycline suppresses morphine-induced respiratory depression, suppresses morphine-induced reward, and enhances systemic ...
RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY. Patients with the TGF-β1 high producer genotype for codon 10, but not codon 25, developed a forced ... and respiratory failure at a significantly lower age than patients with a low producer genotype (hazard ratio 1.74 (95% CI 1.11 ... had developed respiratory failure with forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) of ,50% predicted at 20 (7) years (range 5 ... especially in the rate of development of respiratory failure of patients who appear to have the same CFTR genotype, degree of ...
... and respiratory insufficiency. Laboratory investigations are consistent with a defect in early muscle development (summary by ... Myopathy, congenital, with respiratory insufficiency and bone fractures Myopathy, congenital, with respiratory insufficiency ... Myopathy, congenital, with respiratory insufficiency and bone fractures(MYORIBF). MedGen UID: 1718097. •Concept ID: C5394189. • ... and respiratory insufficiency. Laboratory investigations are consistent with a defect in early muscle development (summary by ...
Respiratory insufficiency. (Be sure to talk to your health care provider before having general anesthesia.) ...
Other specified and unspecified lower respiratory disease**. 1,506. 1.99 (1.96-2.02). Respiratory failure, insufficiency, ... other specified and unspecified lower respiratory disease (1,506); 6) respiratory failure, insufficiency, or arrest (776); 7) ... Other specified upper respiratory infections. −36,189. 0.82 (0.81-0.82). Sprains and strains, initial encounter††. −33,709. ... other specified upper respiratory conditions (84%), nausea and vomiting (84%), asthma (84%), viral infection (79%), respiratory ...
Marshall, Peter S. (February 26-27, 2015). Examples of Respiratory Compromise (PDF). Conference on Respiratory Insufficiency. " ... Decreased respiratory effort: Central nervous system impairment leads to decreased respiratory effort. The respiratory center ... Respiratory arrest is a serious medical condition caused by apnea or respiratory dysfunction severe enough that it will not ... Respiratory arrest will ensue once the patient depletes their oxygen reserves and loses the effort to breathe. Respiratory ...
Respiratory Arrest. 1. 1. Respiratory Insufficiency. 1. 1. Appropriate Clinical Signs, Symptoms, Conditions Term / Code Not ...
February16th PM virtual CE class Acute Respiratory Insufficiency and Failure - 2 hours. ... February16th PM virtual CE class Acute Respiratory Insufficiency and Failure - 2 hours. ... Discuss how the respiratory system works.. Describe the different causes of hypoxia. Demonstrate how to perform a chest ... This class covers Respiratory physiology, hypoxia, chest assessment, EtCO2 waveforms, Airway Vortex, Airway management, and ...
Respiratory insufficiency†. 47. 20 (42). 427. 73 (17). 0.001. Hemoptysis. 47. 7 (15). 427. 27 (6). 0.03. ... Respiratory rate ,30 per min or use of supplemental oxygen therapy.. ‡Systolic arterial blood pressure ,90 mm Hg or use of ...
... respiratory failure, insufficiency, and arrest (PR = 1.62); acute pulmonary embolism (PR = 1.59); cardiac arrest and ... Other specified upper respiratory infections. −43,194. 0.48 (0.48-0.48). Cornea and external disease. −3,900. 0.51 (0.49-0.52) ... More visits were associated with severe respiratory and cardiovascular conditions during the pandemic period; more adults and ... Decreases in the proportion of ED visits related to gastrointestinal and upper respiratory-related factors were identified in ...
Respiratory insufficiency BPD is often seen in infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). This breathing disorder is ... This includes asthma, sleep apnea and respiratory infections.. Related Disorders / Conditions. Related disorders or conditions ...
Upper respiratory tract disorders. 63. Dyspnea. 60. Respiratory insufficiency. 26. Pleural effusion. 20. ... Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders: Lower respiratory tract disorders (9%), pulmonary infiltration (6%), bronchial ... Renal insufficiency. 11. 1Differentiation syndrome can be associated with other commonly reported events such as fever, ... including respiratory compromise. Use of VESANOID (tretinoin) requires that the physician concludes that the possible benefit ...
respiratory insufficiency in children.. [This recommendation is adapted from NICEs guideline on meningitis (bacterial) and ... Raised respiratory rate: 25 breaths per minute or more. New need for oxygen (40% FiO2 or more) to maintain saturation more than ... respiratory rate of 25 breaths per minute or above, or new need for 40% oxygen or more to maintain oxygen saturation more than ... 1.3.1 Assess temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure, level of consciousness and oxygen saturation in young ...
in rare instances, respiratory muscle insufficiency.. *Other findings of subacute arsenic poisoning may include *fever and ... Respiratory tract irritation. *Cough, laryngitis, mild bronchitis, and dyspnea may result from acute exposure to airborne ...
Centre for Cystic Fibrosis, Rare Lung Diseases and Chronic Respiratory Insufficiency Universit tsklinikum Essen ... Centre for Rare Respiratory Diseases (Associated National Centre in the ERN-Lung) Competence Centre for Rare Diseases - Tartu ... Reference centre for rare respiratory diseases - Competence centre CHU de Lyon HCL - GH Est-H pital Femme M re Enfant ... Reference centre for rare respiratory diseases - Competence centre CHU de Limoges - H pital de la m re et de lenfant ...
Respiratory insufficiency. Abstract in English. Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease that is a cause of high morbidity and ...
Respiratory insufficiency may persist for up to 18 months after exposure.. Chronic Exposure. Apart from rare cases of ... Onset of irritation is immediate, but pulmonary edema may be delayed and respiratory insufficiency may persist for up to 18 ... Respiratory. Acrolein produces irritation of the respiratory tract, increases airway resistance and tidal volume, and decreases ... Treatment consists of respiratory and cardiovascular support.. Hot Zone. Rescuers should be trained and appropriately attired ...
Keywords : artificial respiration; respiratory insufficiency; mortality. · abstract in Spanish · text in Spanish · Spanish ( ... It was also evaluated which were the most frequent pulmonary diseases, the type of respiratory insufficiency associated with ... For these diseases the hipoxemic respiratory insufficiency was the principal indication. The fullface was the main interface ... The majority of patients with pneumonia and acute pulmonary edema started the therapy with a respiratory index less than 150, ...
A lower dose is recommended for patients with chronic respiratory insufficiency, due to the risk of respiratory depression. ... severe respiratory insufficiency, severe hepatic insufficiency, and sleep apnea syndrome. It may be used in patients with open- ... Hepatic Insufficiency Decreases in clearance and protein binding, and increases in volume of distribution and half-life have ... Hepatic Insufficiency. In mild and moderate cirrhosis, average half-life is increased. The average increase has been variously ...
... c Threshold ... Research interests: Respiratory physiology and respiratory insufficiency.. E-mail: [email protected]. ... Non-invasive methods are based on continuous measurement of respiratory gases and give a respiratory gases defined anaerobic ... 2005) Respiratory Gas Exchange Indices for Estimating the Anaerobic Threshold. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (04), 29 ...
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease, which rapidly leads to chronic respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation. (
  • To save a patient in respiratory arrest, the goal is to restore adequate ventilation and prevent further damage. (
  • The former refers to the complete cessation of breathing, while respiratory failure is the inability to provide adequate ventilation for the body's requirements. (
  • The non invasive mechanical ventilation is considered the first choice of ventilation in patients with respiratory insufficiency secondary to exacerbated chronic pulmonary obstructive disease, acute pulmonary edema and immunocompromised patients. (
  • It was also evaluated which were the most frequent pulmonary diseases, the type of respiratory insufficiency associated with the therapy, the type of interface used, the most frequent complications, and which of the pulmonary diseases benefited most in morbidity and mortality with the use of this type of ventilation. (
  • Of a total population of 18 - 85 years hospitalized in a period between 1 of August and 31 of November of 2014, we studied a total of 40 patients who developed a respiratory disease who met the criteria to receive treatment with non invasive ventilation. (
  • Patients with acute respiratory failure often require endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation to sustain life. (
  • Although it is effective, invasive ventilation is associated with complications including respiratory muscle weakness, upper airway pathology, ventilator-associated pneumonia 1 and sinusitis. (
  • Home mechanical ventilation (HMV) is increasingly being used to treat chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure arising from different aetiologies, such as restrictive thoracic disorders, neuromuscular disorders (NMD), obesity hypoventilation syndrome and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) 1 - 3 . (
  • In addition, the Task Force of the European Respiratory Society on ethics and decision-making in end-stage lung disease revealed that an end-of-life decision is reached in 21.5% of patients in European respiratory ICUs where the withholding of treatment, do-not-intubate/do-not-resuscitate orders and noninvasive ventilation (NIV) as the ventilatory care ceiling account for the most common procedures 13 . (
  • Mechanisms of sleep-induced hypoxemia may be related to hypoventilation due to worsening mechanics, worsening ventilation-perfusion mismatching, decreased hypoxic respiratory drive, decreased hypercapnic respiratory drive, respiratory dysrhythmia of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, decreased respiratory muscle activity (especially in REM sleep), increased upper-airway resistance, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and decreased functional residual capacity (FRC). (
  • 1 , 2 Nonetheless, the clinical management for neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) has evolved towards a non-invasive approach using continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or various types of non-invasive ventilation (NIV): thus, an early application of nasal CPAP is nowadays recommended both in Europe 3 and in the USA. (
  • Non-invasive ventilation given through a nose or facemask has gained popularity as a treatment for both chronic and acute respiratory insufficiency. (
  • Eleven of the 25 patients treated with both itraconazole and budesonide had adrenal insufficiency. (
  • In patients treated with this combination, screening for adrenal insufficiency at regular intervals is suggested. (
  • Every patient suffering from chronic respiratory disease has changing therapeutic demands. (
  • The majority of patients with pneumonia and acute pulmonary edema started the therapy with a respiratory index less than 150, but this didn`t relate with more time in therapy neither more mortality. (
  • Predict the probability of respiratory insufficiency within the first week of admission, in individual patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome. (
  • The EGRIS is a clinical prediction model to predict the probability of respiratory insufficiency within the first week of admission, in individual patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome. (
  • Prediction of respiratory insufficiency in Guillain-Barré syndrome. (
  • BPD is often seen in infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). (
  • About 25% of patients with APL treated with VESANOID (tretinoin) have experienced a syndrome called the retinoic acid-APL ( RA -APL) syndrome characterized by fever, dyspnea , acute respiratory distress, weight gain, radiographic pulmonary infiltrates, pleural and pericardial effusions, edema, and hepatic, renal, and multi- organ failure . (
  • The most frequent diagnostics where pneumoniae, acute pulmonary edema, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. (
  • Head-banging is often associated with dental pain or upper respiratory tract infections causing sinusitis or otitis (Clarke, 2002) or gastrointestinal reflux, as commonly occurs in Cornelia de Lange syndrome. (
  • Respiratory arrest is a serious medical condition caused by apnea or respiratory dysfunction severe enough that it will not sustain the body (such as agonal breathing). (
  • This includes asthma, sleep apnea and respiratory infections. (
  • Despite advances in the medical management of cystic fibrosis over the last three decades, there are still a number of unexplained differences in its clinical course, especially in the rate of development of respiratory failure of patients who appear to have the same CFTR genotype, degree of bacterial colonisation, and compliance with medication. (
  • Respiratory arrest should be distinguished from respiratory failure. (
  • Respiratory arrest is also different from cardiac arrest, the failure of heart muscle contraction. (
  • Thus, HMV has become the treatment of choice for patients with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure, which is a sign of major progress in medicine. (
  • The 56 SMA1 patients who developed respiratory failure before age 2 were studied. (
  • 2 Upper respiratory tract infections (URIs) or, occasionally, aspiration due to dysphagia or gastroesophageal reflux develop into pneumonia and respiratory failure largely because of an ineffective cough. (
  • Patients with SMA type 2 at least temporarily attain the ability to sit unsupported but usually also develop respiratory failure during childhood. (
  • [18] Death is usually caused by respiratory failure. (
  • We documented EV D68 in open lung biopsies of a young adult patient who was frequently admitted to the hospital for severe exacerbation of respiratory infections and subsequently developed progressive respiratory insufficiency. (
  • For example, hemangiomas of the chest that invade the thorax can compromise lung expansion and cause respiratory insufficiency. (
  • Distal lung tissue is severely damaged in many lung diseases, causing respiratory insufficiency from loss of surface area available for gas exchange. (
  • Inhalation of acrolein may result in respiratory distress and delayed pulmonary edema. (
  • The factors associated with death were: respiratory distress (40.4%), congenital malformation (19.6%), neonatal infections (18.5%) and perinatal asphyxia (15.8%), with 5.8% attributed to other causes. (
  • SMA type 1 children can survive beyond 2 years of age when offered tracheostomy or noninvasive respiratory aids. (
  • Moreover, given the HFOV physical characteristics, NHFOV could hypothetically be more efficient than other types of noninvasive respiratory support in certain clinical conditions. (
  • On arrival at the ED, she had miosis, muscle fasciculations, and pulmonary edema and required intubation for respiratory insufficiency. (
  • Affected individuals present at birth with neonatal hypotonia, poor feeding, fractures of the long bones, and respiratory insufficiency. (
  • Complications from respiratory compromise are increasing rapidly across the clinical spectrum, partly due to expanded use of opioids combined with the lack of standardized guidelines among medical specialties. (
  • more visits during this period were for infectious diseases or mental and behavioral health-related concerns and fewer visits were for gastrointestinal and upper-respiratory-related illnesses compared with ED visits during December 2019-January 2020. (
  • For these diseases the hipoxemic respiratory insufficiency was the principal indication. (
  • After failing outpatient oral steroids and antibiotic therapy, she was hospitalized for IV antibiotics, methylprednisolone 80 mg every 6 hours but the respiratory status worsened requiring intubation and respirator support. (
  • Obstructive conditions of the lower airway, including severe asthma or COPD episodes, can also lead to respiratory arrest. (
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common respiratory disorder affecting approximately 16 million people in the United States. (
  • this improvement was revealed via the application of the Severe Respiratory Insufficiency Questionnaire 8 , 9 , an instrument specifically developed and validated for patients with HMV use. (
  • Approximately 7 to 10 wk after the initiation of exposure, animals began to demonstrate respiratory insufficiency and severe weight loss. (
  • Severe injuries to the central nervous system that result in abolished or very high respiratory drive, for whom it is not possible to maintain protective tidal volume. (
  • Respiratory insufficiency and hypoventilation syndromes 32. (
  • He presented left exophthalmia and left nasal respiratory insufficiency in the physical examination. (
  • During the forecast period, the global mechanical ventilators market is predicted to rise due to an increase in the incidence of respiratory illnesses. (
  • If the heart muscle contraction is intact, the condition is known as respiratory arrest. (
  • Brain injury is likely if respiratory arrest goes untreated for more than three minutes, and death is almost certain if more than five minutes. (
  • Respiratory arrest is a life-threatening medical emergency that requires immediate medical attention and management. (
  • In some instances, an impending respiratory arrest could be predetermined by signs the patient is showing, such as the increased work of breathing. (
  • Respiratory arrest will ensue once the patient depletes their oxygen reserves and loses the effort to breathe. (
  • One common symptom of respiratory arrest is cyanosis, a bluish discoloration of the skin resulting from an inadequate amount of oxygen in the blood. (
  • If respiratory arrest remains without any treatment, cardiac arrest will occur within minutes of hypoxemia, hypercapnia or both. (
  • One of the ways the body attempts to compensate for these increased respiratory demands is by increasing respiratory rate, which in turn worsens respiratory muscle fatigue of the diaphragm and can eventually lead to respiratory arrest and death without timely medical intervention. (
  • Other potential causes of obstruction include tumors of the upper respiratory tract (oral cavity, pharynx, larynx), bodily fluids (blood, mucus, vomit), and trauma to the upper airway. (
  • Symptoms of respiratory compromise can differ with each patient. (
  • Follow patients for signs and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation (see WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS ). (
  • Initial viral symptoms (upper respiratory infection or sometimes chickenpox) are followed in 5 to 7 days by pernicious nausea and vomiting and a sudden change in mental status. (
  • We didn't find gasometric changes neither changes in the respiratory index or alveolar-arterial gradient during therapy. (
  • The device features the most sophisticated respiratory algorithms ever developed, which helps to ensure that your therapy is compliant with your exact needs. (
  • The most common type of tumor of upper respiratory tract is squamous cell carcinoma, with the greatest risk factors for this condition being alcohol and tobacco use, with HPV (genotype 16) being another important risk factor. (
  • Acrolein is irritating to the upper respiratory tract even at low concentrations. (
  • Other factors that increase the risk of COPD include occupational or dust exposure, environmental air pollution, a1-antitrypsin deficiency, a history of childhood respiratory infection, advanced age, and factors related to low socioeconomic status. (
  • And according to the latest release Chavez is trying to recover from a very serious infection which has caused the respiratory insufficiency. (
  • While respiratory compromise creates problems that are often serious and potentially life-threatening, they may be prevented with the proper tools and approach. (
  • VESANOID (tretinoin) should therefore be administered only to patients with APL under the strict supervision of a physician who is experienced in the management of patients with acute leukemia and in a facility with laboratory and supportive services sufficient to monitor drug tolerance and protect and maintain a patient compromised by drug toxicity, including respiratory compromise. (
  • The AirCurve 10 VPAP ST machine features the latest and most sophisticated respiratory algorithms in any spontaneous/timed machine. (
  • Estimation of anaerobic threshold, by using a pre-defined cut-off value for Respiratory Exchange Ratio, is non- invasive and simple to perform in a respiratory laboratory. (
  • Concomitant use of benzodiazepines and opioids may result in profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, and death. (
  • Exposure causes inflammation and irritation of the skin, respiratory tract, and mucous membranes. (
  • Respiratory gases were measured continuously, and blood samples were drawn every third minute. (
  • Non-invasive methods are based on continuous measurement of respiratory gases and give a respiratory gases defined anaerobic threshold (RAT). (
  • AT was determined, based on 1) blood lactate concentrations (Lactate-AT), 2) respiratory exchange ratio (RER-AT), 3) V- slope method (Vslope-AT), and 4) ventilatory equivalent for VO 2 (EqO 2 -AT). (
  • Number of days between onset of weakness and hospital admission, presence of facial and/or bulbar weakness and severity of muscle weakness at hospital admission defined by the MRC sum score, were independently associated with the probability to develop respiratory insufficiency within the first week of admission. (
  • Facial, bulbar and respiratory muscle weakness is frequent, and autonomic involvement well described. (
  • Individuals probably differ in their susceptibility to asbestosis based on respiratory clearance and other unidentified host factors. (
  • Decreased respiratory effort: Central nervous system impairment leads to decreased respiratory effort. (
  • Discuss how the respiratory system works. (