Orthomyxoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.Influenza Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Influenza A virus: The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.Influenza B virus: Species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS B that cause HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. Antigenic variation is less extensive than in type A viruses (INFLUENZA A VIRUS) and consequently there is no basis for distinct subtypes or variants. Epidemics are less likely than with INFLUENZA A VIRUS and there have been no pandemics. Previously only found in humans, Influenza B virus has been isolated from seals which may constitute the animal reservoir from which humans are exposed.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.Vaccines, Inactivated: Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.Influenza in Birds: Infection of domestic and wild fowl and other BIRDS with INFLUENZA A VIRUS. Avian influenza usually does not sicken birds, but can be highly pathogenic and fatal in domestic POULTRY.Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus: Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.Pandemics: Epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people.Orthomyxoviridae: A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Oseltamivir: An acetamido cyclohexene that is a structural homolog of SIALIC ACID and inhibits NEURAMINIDASE.Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 9 and neuraminidase 2. The H9N2 subtype usually infects domestic birds (POULTRY) but there have been some human infections reported.Neuraminidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Sentinel Surveillance: Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort such as in a geographic area or population subgroup to estimate trends in a larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Influenza A Virus, H3N8 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 8. The H3N8 subtype has frequently been found in horses.Vaccines, Attenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.Influenza A Virus, H2N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 2 and neuraminidase 2. The H2N2 subtype was responsible for the Asian flu pandemic of 1957.Polysorbates: Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.Vaccines, Subunit: Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.SqualeneReassortant Viruses: Viruses containing two or more pieces of nucleic acid (segmented genome) from different parents. Such viruses are produced in cells coinfected with different strains of a given virus.United StatesVaccines, Combined: Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.Cross Protection: Protection conferred on a host by inoculation with one strain or component of a microorganism that prevents infection when later challenged with a similar strain. Most commonly the microorganism is a virus.Immunization Programs: Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.Amantadine: An antiviral that is used in the prophylactic or symptomatic treatment of influenza A. It is also used as an antiparkinsonian agent, to treat extrapyramidal reactions, and for postherpetic neuralgia. The mechanisms of its effects in movement disorders are not well understood but probably reflect an increase in synthesis and release of dopamine, with perhaps some inhibition of dopamine uptake.Immunization Schedule: Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.Vaccines, DNA: Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Hemagglutinins, Viral: Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Zanamivir: A guanido-neuraminic acid that is used to inhibit NEURAMINIDASE.Mass Vaccination: Administration of a vaccine to large populations in order to elicit IMMUNITY.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Influenza A Virus, H7N7 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 7. The H7N7 subtype produced an epidemic in 2003 which was highly pathogenic among domestic birds (POULTRY). Some infections in humans were reported.Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 9. This avian origin virus was first identified in humans in 2013.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Vaccines, Virosome: Vaccines using VIROSOMES as the antigen delivery system that stimulates the desired immune response.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.AIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.Influenza A Virus, H5N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 2. The H5N2 subtype has been found to be highly pathogenic in chickens.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Rimantadine: An RNA synthesis inhibitor that is used as an antiviral agent in the prophylaxis and treatment of influenza.Injections, Intradermal: The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.Epidemics: Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells: An epithelial cell line derived from a kidney of a normal adult female dog.Vaccines, Conjugate: Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.): An agency of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that conducts and supports programs for the prevention and control of disease and provides consultation and assistance to health departments and other countries.Mice, Inbred BALB CImmunization, Secondary: Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Hemagglutinins: Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.Influenza A Virus, H1N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 2. It is endemic in both human and pig populations.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Technology Transfer: Spread and adoption of inventions and techniques from one geographic area to another, from one discipline to another, or from one sector of the economy to another. For example, improvements in medical equipment may be transferred from industrial countries to developing countries, advances arising from aerospace engineering may be applied to equipment for persons with disabilities, and innovations in science arising from government research are made available to private enterprise.Immunity, Humoral: Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Nasopharynx: The top portion of the pharynx situated posterior to the nose and superior to the SOFT PALATE. The nasopharynx is the posterior extension of the nasal cavities and has a respiratory function.Technology, Pharmaceutical: The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.Biosurveillance: Monitoring of information sources of potential value in detecting an emerging epidemic, whether naturally occurring or the result of bioterrorism.Malaria Vaccines: Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.Influenzavirus A: A genus in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE causing influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. It contains many strains as well as antigenic subtypes of the integral membrane proteins hemagglutinin (HEMAGGLUTININS) and NEURAMINIDASE. The type species is INFLUENZA A VIRUS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Drug Resistance, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Viral Matrix Proteins: Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.Virus Shedding: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Influenzavirus B: A genus of the family ORTHOMYXOVIRUS causing HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. In contrast to INFLUENZAVIRUS A, no distinct antigenic subtypes of hemagglutinin (HEMAGGLUTININS) and NEURAMINIDASE are recognized.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Papillomavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS. Human vaccines are intended to reduce the incidence of UTERINE CERVICAL NEOPLASMS, so they are sometimes considered a type of CANCER VACCINES. They are often composed of CAPSID PROTEINS, especially L1 protein, from various types of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).DucksPoultry: Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Pneumonia, Viral: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.Pneumonia: Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Public Health Surveillance: The ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of health-related data with the purpose of preventing or controlling disease or injury, or of identifying unusual events of public health importance, followed by the dissemination and use of information for public health action. (From Am J Prev Med 2011;41(6):636)Meningococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Outpatients: Persons who receive ambulatory care at an outpatient department or clinic without room and board being provided.Ferrets: Semidomesticated variety of European polecat much used for hunting RODENTS and/or RABBITS and as a laboratory animal. It is in the subfamily Mustelinae, family MUSTELIDAE.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Antigenic Variation: Change in the surface ANTIGEN of a microorganism. There are two different types. One is a phenomenon, especially associated with INFLUENZA VIRUSES, where they undergo spontaneous variation both as slow antigenic drift and sudden emergence of new strains (antigenic shift). The second type is when certain PARASITES, especially trypanosomes, PLASMODIUM, and BORRELIA, survive the immune response of the host by changing the surface coat (antigen switching). (From Herbert et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 4th ed)Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Influenzavirus C: A genus of the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE comprising viruses similar to types A and B but less common, more stable, more homogeneous, and lacking the neuraminidase protein. They have not been associated with epidemics but may cause mild influenza. Influenza C virus is the type species.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Hepatitis B Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.JapanChickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Influenza A Virus, H7N3 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 3. It was first detected in turkeys in Britain in 1963 and there have been several outbreaks on poultry farms since that time. A couple cases of human infections have been reported.Measles Vaccine: A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions: Disorders that result from the intended use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS. Included in this heading are a broad variety of chemically-induced adverse conditions due to toxicity, DRUG INTERACTIONS, and metabolic effects of pharmaceuticals.Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle: Vaccines using supra-molecular structures composed of multiple copies of recombinantly expressed viral structural proteins. They are often antigentically indistinguishable from the virus from which they were derived.Pertussis Vaccine: A suspension of killed Bordetella pertussis organisms, used for immunization against pertussis (WHOOPING COUGH). It is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP). There is an acellular pertussis vaccine prepared from the purified antigenic components of Bordetella pertussis, which causes fewer adverse reactions than whole-cell vaccine and, like the whole-cell vaccine, is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Haemophilus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing antigenic polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae and designed to prevent infection. The vaccine can contain the polysaccharides alone or more frequently polysaccharides conjugated to carrier molecules. It is also seen as a combined vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Guillain-Barre Syndrome: An acute inflammatory autoimmune neuritis caused by T cell- mediated cellular immune response directed towards peripheral myelin. Demyelination occurs in peripheral nerves and nerve roots. The process is often preceded by a viral or bacterial infection, surgery, immunization, lymphoma, or exposure to toxins. Common clinical manifestations include progressive weakness, loss of sensation, and loss of deep tendon reflexes. Weakness of respiratory muscles and autonomic dysfunction may occur. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1312-1314)Nucleoproteins: Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.ColoradoReverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Rotavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with ROTAVIRUS.Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System: Telephone surveys are conducted to monitor prevalence of the major behavioral risks among adults associated with premature MORBIDITY and MORTALITY. The data collected is in regard to actual behaviors, rather than on attitudes or knowledge. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) established the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) in 1984.BCG Vaccine: An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated: A suspension of formalin-inactivated poliovirus grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture and used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS.Rabies Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent and treat RABIES. The inactivated virus vaccine is used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, and in conjunction with rabies immunoglobulin, for postexposure prophylaxis.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Vaccine Potency: The relationship between an elicited ADAPTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSE and the dose of the vaccine administered.Respiratory Tract DiseasesAnseriformes: An order of BIRDS comprising the waterfowl, particularly DUCKS; GEESE; swans; and screamers.Product Surveillance, Postmarketing: Surveillance of drugs, devices, appliances, etc., for efficacy or adverse effects, after they have been released for general sale.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Cholera Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.Reverse Genetics: The use of techniques that produce a functional MUTATION or an effect on GENE EXPRESSION of a specific gene of interest in order to identify the role or activity of the gene product of that gene.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Alum Compounds: Aluminum metal sulfate compounds used medically as astringents and for many industrial purposes. They are used in veterinary medicine for the treatment of ulcerative stomatitis, leukorrhea, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, metritis, and minor wounds.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Hemagglutination, Viral: Agglutination of ERYTHROCYTES by a virus.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Acetamides: Derivatives of acetamide that are used as solvents, as mild irritants, and in organic synthesis.Typhoid-Paratyphoid Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER and/or PARATYPHOID FEVER which are caused by various species of SALMONELLA. Attenuated, subunit, and inactivated forms of the vaccines exist.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.EuropeRetrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.TennesseeConnecticutInfluenza A Virus, H7N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 1. This subtype has demonstrated the ability to mutate from a low pathogenic form to a highly pathogenic form in birds. It was responsible for a 1999 outbreak in turkeys in Italy.Smallpox Vaccine: A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)Cloaca: A dilated cavity extended caudally from the hindgut. In adult birds, reptiles, amphibians, and many fishes but few mammals, cloaca is a common chamber into which the digestive, urinary and reproductive tracts discharge their contents. In most mammals, cloaca gives rise to LARGE INTESTINE; URINARY BLADDER; and GENITALIA.Pregnancy Trimesters: The three approximately equal periods of a normal human PREGNANCY. Each trimester is about three months or 13 to 14 weeks in duration depending on the designation of the first day of gestation.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Schools: Educational institutions.Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine: A vaccine consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and whole-cell PERTUSSIS VACCINE. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough.Chickenpox Vaccine: A live, attenuated varicella virus vaccine used for immunization against chickenpox. It is recommended for children between the ages of 12 months and 13 years.Tuberculosis Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat TUBERCULOSIS.Enzyme-Linked Immunospot Assay: A method of detection of the number of cells in a sample secreting a specific molecule. With this method, a population of cells are plated over top of the immunosorbent substrate that captures the secreted molecules.RNA Replicase: An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Hong Kong: The former British crown colony located off the southeast coast of China, comprised of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula, and New Territories. The three sites were ceded to the British by the Chinese respectively in 1841, 1860, and 1898. Hong Kong reverted to China in July 1997. The name represents the Cantonese pronunciation of the Chinese xianggang, fragrant port, from xiang, perfume and gang, port or harbor, with reference to its currents sweetened by fresh water from a river west of it.Viral Core Proteins: Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Hepatitis A Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Viral Nonstructural Proteins: Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Mumps Vaccine: Vaccines used to prevent infection by MUMPS VIRUS. Best known is the live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had mumps or been immunized with live mumps vaccine. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Nose: A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.PyransDose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Nasal Mucosa: The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Aluminum Hydroxide: A compound with many biomedical applications: as a gastric antacid, an antiperspirant, in dentifrices, as an emulsifier, as an adjuvant in bacterins and vaccines, in water purification, etc.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Poultry Diseases: Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine: A combined vaccine used to prevent MEASLES; MUMPS; and RUBELLA.Immunity, Mucosal: Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.Swine Diseases: Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.Immunity: Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Placebos: Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.Virology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Streptococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS.Communicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.United States Dept. of Health and Human Services: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with administering those agencies and offices having programs pertaining to health and human services.Anthrax Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent ANTHRAX.Needles: Sharp instruments used for puncturing or suturing.Influenza A Virus, H7N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 2. It has been involved in a number of outbreaks in the 21st century on poultry farms and has been isolated a few times in humans.Pneumococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infections with STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.Dengue Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with DENGUE VIRUS. These include live-attenuated, subunit, DNA, and inactivated vaccines.North AmericaImmunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Influenza Activity --- United States and Worldwide, 2003--04 Season, and Composition of the 2004--05 Influenza Vaccine Global ... Response Operations WHO Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Web site WHO Avian Influenza Web site Sickweather The world's first ... Anthrax Avian influenza Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever Dengue hemorrhagic fever Ebola virus disease Hepatitis Influenza Lassa ... "includes five strategies for early detection of highly pathogenic avian influenza. Sample numbers from three of these will be ...
"Recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2006-2007 influenza season" (PDF). WHO Report. 14 February ... "Detection of influenza C virus but not influenza D virus in Scottish respiratory samples". J Clin Virol. 74: 50-53. doi:10.1016 ... Background for pandemic influenza vaccine safety monitoring". Vaccine. 27 (15): 2114-2120. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.01.125. ... The vaccine is usually effective against three or four types of influenza. It is usually well tolerated. A vaccine made for one ...
Main article: Influenza vaccine. Flu vaccinations have been used to diminish the effects of the flu season; pneumonia ... Some of these complications include pneumonias, acute bronchitis, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. ... Flu season is an annually recurring time period characterized by the prevalence of outbreaks of Influenza (flu). The season ... The annually updated trivalent influenza vaccine consists of hemagglutinin (HA) surface glycoprotein components from influenza ...
"2008-2009 Influenza Season Week 15 ending April 18, 2009". FluView: A Weekly Influenza Surveillance Report Prepared by the ... A flu-like syndrome can also be caused by an influenza vaccine or other vaccines, and by opioid withdrawal in addicts. ... of patients with a clear influenza-like illness actually have influenza. Samples are respiratory samples, usually collected by ... Influenza-like illness (ILI), also known as acute respiratory infection (ARI) and flu-like syndrome/symptoms, is a medical ...
"Recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2006-2007 influenza season" (PDF). WHO Report. 14 February ... "Detection of influenza C virus but not influenza D virus in Scottish respiratory samples". J Clin Virol. 74: 50-53. doi:10.1016 ... background for pandemic influenza vaccine safety monitoring". Vaccine. 27 (15): 2114-20. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.01.125. ... The first significant step towards preventing influenza was the development in 1944 of a killed-virus vaccine for influenza by ...
Pandemic H1N1/09 virus
The virus is a novel strain of influenza. Existing vaccines against seasonal flu provided no protection. A study at the U.S. ... "2008-2009 Influenza Season Week 39 ending October 3, 2009". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 2009-10-09. ... "Characterization of an avian influenza A (H5N1) virus isolated from a child with a fatal respiratory illness". Science. 279 ( ... North American swine influenza, North American avian influenza, human influenza, and two swine influenza viruses typically ...
2017-18 Influenza Season" Grohskopf LA, Sokolow LZ, Broder KR, et al. Prevention and Control of Seasonal Influenza with ... "Recommendations for administering the triple viral vaccine and anti-influenza vaccine in patients with egg allergy". Allergol ... Serious danger regarding allergies can begin when the respiratory tract or blood circulation is affected. The former can be ... Influenza vaccines are created by injecting a live virus into fertilized chicken eggs. The viruses are harvested, killed and ...
April 2006). "Type I IFN as a vaccine adjuvant for both systemic and mucosal vaccination against influenza virus". Vaccine. 24 ... During the United States 2005-2006 influenza season, increasing incidence of drug resistance by strain H3N2 to amantadine and ... Nichols WG, Peck Campbell AJ, Boeckh M (April 2008). "Respiratory viruses other than influenza virus: impact and therapeutic ... Hampson AW (June 2008). "Vaccines for pandemic influenza. The history of our current vaccines, their limitations and the ...
... crisis Influenza Influenzavirus A Influenza pandemic Influenza Genome Sequencing Project Influenza research Influenza vaccine ... or from a change in seasons, or possibly a combination of both factors. Studies indicate that avian influenza viruses have a ... 2,3-linked SA receptors in humans are found predominantly in the lower respiratory tract, a fact that is the primary foundation ... Avian influenza, for most purposes, refers to the influenza A virus. Though influenza A is adapted to birds, it can also stably ...
"Recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2018 southern hemisphere influenza season". WHO. 28 ... Acyte Respiratory Infections: Influenza. 2009. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on September 29, 2009. Retrieved ... PATH's Vaccine Resource Library influenza resources CDC Inactivated Influenza Vaccine Information Statement Vaccines and ... Influenza vaccines, also known as flu shots or flu jabs, are vaccines that protect against infection by Influenza viruses. A ...
2009 flu pandemic in the United States
"2008-2009 Influenza Season Week 18 ending May 9, 2009". FluView: A Weekly Influenza Surveillance Report Prepared by the ... Influenza Reporting Requirements In the United States, the majority of the 70 National Respiratory and Enteric Virus ... newtondailynews.com , H1N1 vaccine plentiful in Iowa Iowa Influenza Surveillance Network (IISN) Reports update at Monday"Kansas ... "Swine Influenza (Swine Flu)". Wyoming - Department of Health. 2009-08-05. More deaths as flu season continues in Wyoming ...
Influenza vaccine is recommended annually for all children. PCV does not appear to decrease the risk of otitis media when given ... CSOM occurs following an upper respiratory tract infection that has led to acute otitis media. This progresses to a prolonged ... Risk factors such as season, allergy predisposition and presence of older siblings are known to be determinants of recurrent ... Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) in early infancy, decreases the risk of acute otitis media in healthy infants. PCV is ...
Influenza A virus subtype H1N1
Swine influenza (swine flu or pig flu) is a respiratory disease that occurs in pigs that is caused by the Influenza A virus. ... doi:10.1007/s13224-011-0055-2. "Influenza Summary Update 20, 2004-2005 Season". FluView: A Weekly Influenza Surveillance Report ... The virus was included in the 1978-1979 influenza vaccine. See also 1889-1890 flu pandemic for the earlier Russian flu pandemic ... North American swine influenza, North American avian influenza, human influenza, and swine influenza virus typically found in ...
Influenza vaccines are modestly effective at preventing symptoms of influenza, The Center for Disease Control and Prevention ( ... Different viruses predominate at different periods of the year; during influenza season, for example, influenza may account for ... Pneumonia can cause respiratory failure by triggering acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which results from a ... Neuraminidase inhibitors may be used to treat viral pneumonia caused by influenza viruses (influenza A and influenza B). No ...
Typically this vaccine includes material from two influenza A virus subtypes and one influenza B virus strain. A vaccine ... concerns and behaviours of people with existing respiratory conditions in relation to the H1N1 swine influenza pandemic: a ... This Season's Flu Virus Is Resistant to 2 Standard Drugs By Altman LK, The New York Times, Published: 15 January 2006 "The ... 1889-90 flu pandemic Spanish flu Influenza vaccines Timeline of influenza List of epidemics - contains within it, influenza ...
Vaksin influenza bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas
Background for pandemic influenza vaccine safety monitoring". Vaccine. 27 (15): 2114-20. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.01.125. ... "2007-2008 Influenza (Flu) Season". CDC. June 26, 2008.. *^ Treanor, John J; Kotloff, Karen; Betts, Robert F; Belshe, Robert; ... "Mortality Associated with Influenza and Respiratory Syncytial Virus in the United States". JAMA. 289 (2): 179-86. doi:10.1001/ ... "CDC - Seasonal Influenza (Flu) - Q & A: Fluzone High-Dose Seasonal Influenza Vaccine". Cdc.gov. August 13, 2013. Diakses ...
Influenza virus vaccines have beneficial implications to an individual's health. Because influenza virus A has an animal ... Influenza virus C tends to cause mild upper respiratory infections. Cold-like symptoms are associated with the virus including ... In doing this, they are able to predict which virus strains might cause the most harm each year during flu season. The strains ... Influenza viruses A, B and C represent the three antigenic types of influenza viruses. Of the three antigenic types, influenza ...
Acute flaccid myelitis
... and the antecedent respiratory illness in most of these children, the detection of EV-D68 in nonsterile upper respiratory tract ... 2013). "Human rhinoviruses and enteroviruses in influenza-like illness in Latin America". Virol J. 10: 305. doi:10.1186/1743- ... whether a vaccine can be designed to protect against them all. "Acute neurologic illness with focal limb weakness of unknown ... The number affected was still far less than the tens of thousands affected in polio seasons. Fortunately, as with polio, the ...
Additional rotavirus vaccines are under development. The World Health Organization(WHO) recommends that rotavirus vaccine be ... As with influenza virus, a dual classification system is used based on two proteins on the surface of the virus. The ... Rotavirus infections occur primarily during cool, dry seasons. The number attributable to food contamination is unknown. ... and possibly by the respiratory route. The faeces of an infected person can contain more than 10 trillion infectious particles ...
2009 flu pandemic in Canada
Swine Influenza International Swine influenza, at the World Health Organization WHO's Pandemic Influenza Phases Influenza ... The person was a more than 65-year-old woman suffering from respiratory diseases before being hospitalized on 2 June. According ... From the beginning of the 2009-10 flu season in September until 2 December, there were 739 confirmed cases, including 255 ... In a step towards understanding the outbreak, and developing a vaccine, Canadian scientists completed the first full genetic ...
Human vaccines are available only in a few countries, such as Cuba and China. Animal vaccines only cover a few strains of the ... The amount of cases increase during the rainy season in the tropics and during the late summer or early fall in Western ... Light forms should be distinguished from influenza and other related viral diseases. Specific tests are a must for proper ... Other severe manifestations include extreme fatigue, hearing loss, respiratory distress, and azotemia. Leptospirosis is caused ...
Vaccine for horses. In November 2012, a vaccine became available for horses. The vaccine is to be used in horses only, since, ... This time is sometimes called "Hendra Season", which is a time when there are large numbers of fruit bats of all species ... The stable hand recovered while Rail died of respiratory and renal failure. The source of the virus was most likely frothy ... and both fell ill with an influenza-like illness within one week of the first horse's death. ...
2009 flu pandemic in the United States by state
"Swine Influenza (Swine Flu)". Wyoming - Department of Health. 2009-08-05. More deaths as flu season continues in Wyoming ... "Influenza and Other Respiratory Virus Weekly Activity Report" (PDF). Iowa - Department of Public Health. 2009-08-01. Retrieved ... newtondailynews.com , H1N1 vaccine plentiful in Iowa Iowa Influenza Surveillance Network (IISN) Reports update at Monday"Kansas ... The Record Delta Woman with H1N1 dies Archived Influenza Season Data 2009-10 "Current H1N1 Situation in Wisconsin". Wisconsin ...
In general, avian influenza is a disease of birds caused by bird-specific influenza A virus that is not normally transferred to ... "Vaccines for pandemic threats". The History of Vaccines. January 15, 2014. Retrieved March 5, 2014. The dictionary definition ... Broilers grow so fast, their legs cannot always support their weight and their hearts and respiratory systems may not be able ... seasoned in various ways, raw or ready cooked. The meatiest parts of a bird are the flight muscles on its chest, called "breast ...
Human influenza is an acute respiratory infection primarily caused by viruses influenza A and influenza B. Influenza A viruses ... This hypothesis is supported by empirical patterns of antigenic evolution; there have been nine vaccine updates recommended by ... shown that temperate epidemics usually emerge from a global reservoir rather than emerging from within the previous season's ... Influenza viruses circulate in other species as well, most notably as swine influenza and avian influenza. Through reassortment ...
Influenza bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas
a b Recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2006-2007 influenza season WHO report 2006-02-14. ... "The spread of influenza and other respiratory viruses: complexities and conjectures". Clin. Infect. Dis. 45 (3): 353-9. doi: ... PATH Vaccine Resource Library influenza resources. *Influenza Research Database - Database of influenza genomic sequences, ... Virus influenza A subtipe H10N7. Virus influenza BSunting. Genus ini memiliki satu spesies, yaitu virus influenza B. influenza ...
National Intelligence Assessments on Infectious Diseases
Acute lower respiratory infections-including pneumonia and influenza-as well as diarrheal diseases and measles, appear to have ... If an effective vaccine is developed in the coming years, Western governments and pharmaceutical companies will come under ... epidemic season 2006 "Former Soviet Union (FSU) and Eastern Europe", National Intelligence Estimate 99-17D: The Global ... Influenza now kills some 30,000 Americans annually, and epidemiologists generally agree that it is not a question of whether, ...
Whole virion influenza vaccine has protective efficacy in the setting of HIV infection. Proceedings of ICAAC New Orleans 1996. ... Diarrhea or respiratory symptoms are less common. Petechiae are often also present, but do not always occur, so their absence ... Deaths occurring in less than 24 hours are more likely during the disease epidemic seasons in Africa and Sub-Saharan Africa is ... Vaccines are currently available against all six strains, including the newest vaccine against serogroup B. The first vaccine ...
Influenza A virus subtype H7N9
Chinese scientists announced that they had successfully produced an H7N9 vaccine, the first influenza vaccine to be developed ... Most infections have been mild involving only conjunctivitis and mild upper respiratory symptoms. The avian influenza A(H7N9) ... or from a change in seasons, or a possibly a combination of both factors. Studies indicate that avian influenza viruses have a ... Avian influenza A H7 viruses are a group of influenza viruses that normally circulate among birds. H7 influenza infections in ...
Reducing Your Risk of Viral Upper Respiratory Infections (Colds and Influenza)
Seasonal Flu Vaccine. The seasonal flu vaccine has been associated with fewer hospitalizations and deaths from influenza or ... Avoid Crowds During Influenza Season. This may not be a very practical suggestion for everyone. However, if you are at high ... Vaccines against the seasonal flu. and pandemic H1N1 flu. are available. There is a vaccine against the avian flu. , but it is ... Get a Flu Vaccine. Each year, the World Health Organization tries to determine which strains of the influenza virus will be ...
Reducing Your Risk of Viral Upper Respiratory Infections (Colds and Influenza) | Medical City Dallas
Colds and Influenza) at Medical City Dallas Main Page Risk... ... Learn more about Reducing Your Risk of Viral Upper Respiratory ... tries to determine which strains of the influenza virus will be most dangerous in the upcoming influenza season. Vaccines are ... Seasonal Flu Vaccine. The seasonal flu vaccine has been associated with fewer hospitalizations and deaths from influenza or ... Avoid Crowds During Influenza Season. This may not be a very practical suggestion for everyone. However, if you are at high ...
Annual Study to Investigate Inactivated Subunit Influenza Vaccine Due to New Virus Strains for the 08/09 Season. - Full Text...
Respiratory Tract Infections. Respiratory Tract Diseases. Vaccines. Immunologic Factors. Physiological Effects of Drugs. ... Annual Study to Investigate Inactivated Subunit Influenza Vaccine Due to New Virus Strains for the 08/09 Season.. The safety ... Immunogenicity, Reactogenicity and Safety of the Trivalent Influenza Subunit Vaccine Influvac® for the Season 2008/2009. An ... Influenza (flu) viruses change continuously, therefore also the parts of viruses used in influenza vaccines can vary from year ...
Prevention and Control of Seasonal Influenza with Vaccines: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices...
Routine annual influenza vaccination is recommended for all persons aged ≥6 months who do not have contraindications. ... Routine annual influenza vaccination is recommended for all persons aged ≥6 months who do not have contraindications. ... and 3,000-10,000 respiratory and circulatory deaths each season in the United States (13). During the recent severe 2017-18 ... Influenza Vaccine Composition and Available Vaccines. Influenza Vaccine Composition for the 2020-21 Season. All influenza ...
Update: Influenza Activity in the United States During the 2018-19 Season and Composition of the 2019-20 Influenza Vaccine |...
The 2018-19 influenza season was a moderate severity season with two waves of influenza A activity in the United States. ... The 2018-19 influenza season was a moderate severity season with two waves of influenza A activity in the United States. ... Number* of respiratory specimens testing positive for influenza reported to CDC by public health laboratories, by influenza ... Outpatient Influenza-like Illness Surveillance Network, 2018-19† influenza season and selected previous influenza seasons. * ...
Table 2 - Excess Deaths during Influenza and Coronavirus Disease and Infection-Fatality Rate for Severe Acute Respiratory...
Excess deaths per influenza epidemic averaged 4,000. The estimated 9,554 excess deaths (41% in excess) during the COVID-19 ... We present estimates of excess deaths during the ongoing coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic and 10 previous influenza ... Monitoring of excess deaths is crucial for timely estimates of disease burden for influenza and COVID-19. Our data complement ... Since the 2009 influenza pandemic, the Netherlands has used a weekly death monitoring system to estimate deaths in excess of ...
Attention: Battlefield mentality required to get through the upcoming influenza season | CIDRAP
Pandemic vaccine. Expect the unexpected. In the past 2 weeks, weve seen the first and second attempts to produce vaccine virus ... Antivirals and respiratory protection. Global supply chain and government stockpile information tells us a lot about who will ... If all the factors Ive described above collide during this upcoming influenza season, there are going to be a hell of a lot of ... Attention: Battlefield mentality required to get through the upcoming influenza season. Filed Under: ...
AstraZeneca provides update on FluMist Quadrivalent vaccine in the US for the 2016-17 influenza season
... respiratory and autoimmunity; and cardiovascular and metabolic disease. We are also active in infection, neuroscience and ... Influenza Vaccine Live, Intranasal), a Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine (LAIV), in the US for the 2016-2017 influenza season. ... As influenza vaccine effectiveness varies from season to season, it is evaluated in annual observational studies. The CDC ... The distribution and use of the vaccine in other countries are progressing as planned for the forthcoming influenza season, ...
FDA Approves Additional Vaccine for Upcoming Influenza Season | WebWire
... an influenza vaccine to immunize people 18 years of age and older against the disease caused by strains of influe... ... Influenza, a contagious respiratory disease, is commonly called the flu. According to CDC, every year in the United States, on ... With the addition of FluLaval, there are now five FDA-licensed vaccines for the United States for the upcoming influenza season ... the manufacturers have projected making a total of about 115 million doses of influenza vaccine for the 2006 2007 season, but ...
Safety and Immunogenicity of a Recombinant Influenza Vaccine: A Randomized Trial | Articles | Pediatrics
Update: influenza activity in the United States during the 2016-17 season and composition of the 2017-18 influenza vaccine. ... The most common events were various infections, diarrhea, and respiratory complaints; all were events that are common among ... trivalent, recombinant influenza vaccine. RIV4 - quadrivalent, recombinant influenza vaccine. SCR - seroconversion rate. ... trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine. IIV4 - quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine. RIV3 - ...
Influenza A H3N2: Symptoms, Vaccine, Treatment, and Flu Statistics
During the flu seasons in which its prevalent, the overall impact can be more severe. Well tell you what you need to know ... This is referred to as "flu season." The flu is a respiratory illness thats caused by the influenza virus. There are four ... Summary of the 2017-2018 influenza season. (2018).. cdc.gov/flu/about/season/flu-season-2017-2018.htm. When broken down by ... Summary of the 2017-2018 influenza season. (2018).. cdc.gov/flu/about/season/flu-season-2017-2018.htm. Almost 200 pediatric ...
Influenza in Infants Born to Women Vaccinated During Pregnancy | Articles | Pediatrics
... reporting influenza vaccine in the most recent influenza season (Fig 1). The proportion of women reporting influenza vaccine ... Effectiveness of influenza vaccine during pregnancy in preventing hospitalizations and outpatient visits for respiratory ... Influenza activity: United States, 2013-14 season and composition of the 2014-15 influenza vaccines. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ... To retrospectively identify reported influenza vaccine administration during pregnancies occurring over 9 influenza seasons ...
Influenza Vaccination and Respiratory Virus Interference Among Department of Defense Personnel During the 2017-2018 Influenza...
From the 2010-2011 influenza season to the 2017-2018 season, excluding for the 2014-2015 season, the influenza vaccine was ... 2014 influenza season the program added respiratory Film Array for flu negative samples and began identifying other respiratory ... stimulated interest in influenza vaccine research . Twenty years after the pandemic began, the first influenza vaccine was ... All people submitting a respiratory specimen to the DoDGRS for the 2017-2018 influenza season were eligible for the study. The ...
Systems Biology of Influenza A (H5N1) Virus Monovalent Vaccine With and Without Adjuvant System 03 (AS03) - Full Text View -...
Influenza-like illness (ILI) or documented influenza infection during the 2013-2014 influenza season. [Not excluded from the ... Influenza, Human. Influenza in Birds. Orthomyxoviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections. Virus Diseases. Respiratory Tract ... influenza A (H5N1) virus. H5N1 influenza. influenza A/H5/N1. monovalent H5N1 influenza vaccine. systems biology. AS03 adjuvant ... The Influenza A (H5N1) Virus Monovalent Vaccine with AS03 adjuvant vaccine is approved for use for adults to protect against ...
Vaccine Preventable Diseases and Policy
... hundreds of thousands of hospitalizations and thousands of deaths every season. Influenza is a contagious respiratory illness ... For the latest information on vaccine supply for the season, visit the AAP Influenza Vaccine Supply page. ... For the latest information on vaccine supply for the season, visit the AAP Influenza Vaccine Supply page. ... Vaccine Information Statement - Inactivated Influenza, Live Attenuated Influenza. *AAP Healthcare Worker Policy - Influenza ...
Reactogenicity, Safety and Immunogenicity Study of a Allantoic Split Inactivated Seasonal Influenza Vaccine - Full Text View -...
Vaccination against influenza in the 2012/2013 season.. *Seropositive volunteers against A/H1N1 influenza virus, A/H3N2 and ... Respiratory Tract Infections. Respiratory Tract Diseases. Vaccines. Immunologic Factors. Physiological Effects of Drugs. ... Biological: influenza vaccine A allantoic split inactivated seasonal influenza vaccine has been prepared on eggs and is made ... Allantoic split inactivated seasonal influenza vaccine Allantoic split inactivated seasonal influenza vaccine ...
Nasal Spray Vaccines Back in Play for 2018-2019 Flu Season
PRNewswire/ -- This flu seasons vaccine market will be influenced by the return of nasal spray vaccines, according to Kalorama ... contains live attenuated influenza viruses that replicate in the nasopharynx of the recipient and are shed in respiratory ... Unlike other vaccines, whose formulation largely remains unchanged from year to year, influenza vaccines are designed each year ... NanoBios NanoStat mucosal vaccine platform supports a variety of vaccines including influenza, H5N1, hepatitis B, pneumonia, ...
Immunogenicity and Safety of a Vaccine Against Influenza (2010-2011 Northern Hemisphere Season, Intramuscular Route)
... clinicaltrials.gov The aim of this study is to evaluate the new formulation of the influenza vaccine for the 2010-2011 Northern ... Influenza Influenza or flu is a respiratory illness associated with infection by influenza virus. Symptoms frequently include ... Influenza. Intervention. Influenza virus vaccine (split virion, inactivated), Influenza virus vaccine (split virion, ... Development of broadly reactive or universal influenza vaccines will be a paradigm shifting event for the influenza vaccine ...
Sanofi Pasteur Begins Shipping Fluzone® Influenza Virus Vaccine in U.S. for 2012-2013 Season | BioSpace
... for 2012-2013 Season - read this article along with other careers information, tips and advice on BioSpace ... About Influenza. Influenza is a serious respiratory illness that is easily spread and can lead to severe complications, even ... This season Sanofi Pasteur will provide the following influenza vaccine options in its Fluzone vaccine family to help address ... this influenza season.. "This year, two new virus strains were recommended for the seasonal influenza vaccine formulation," ...
Flu Vaccine Effectiveness and Duration for Adults and Children
Flu vaccine effectiveness changes from year to year due to several factors such as viral evolution and what subtype of ... So, if H3N2 strains are more common during a flu season than other types of influenza, the effectiveness of the vaccine can be ... The flu is a respiratory illness thats caused by influenza viruses. In many parts of the world, these viruses cause seasonal ... Influenza virus subtype. Flu vaccines protect against two types of influenza virus: influenza A and influenza B. ...
Seroprevalence of Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus Antibody, England, 2010 and 2011 - Volume 18, Number 11-November 2012 - Emerging...
Population-based seroepidemiology confirms that the third wave of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus circulation was associated with ... The intense influenza activity in England during the 2010-11 winter resulted from a combination of factors. ... Seasonal influenza vaccine uptake amongst GP patient groups in England. Winter season 2010-11 [cited 2012 May 14]. http://www. ... Human Infection with Swine Influenza A(H1N1) Virus COVID-19 and Infant Hospitalizations for Seasonal Respiratory Virus ...
Tiny prickly patch gets tested as a flu vaccine - CNN
The flu is a contagious respiratory illness caused by influenza viruses that can infect the nose, throat and lungs. Though mild ... Just last week, a CDC advisory committee recommended against FluMist again for the upcoming flu season. The pharmaceutical ... Next, the researchers plan to test the new patch in children as well as with other types of vaccines beyond influenza, Rouphael ... In Canada, among adults 18 and older, 34% reported receiving the 2015-16 influenza vaccine, according to the Public Health ...
Influenza vaccines provide moderate protection throughout the entire flu season | EurekAlert! Science News
... the duration of most flu seasons, according to a study presented at the 2015 International Conference on Emerging Infectious ... Individuals who received the flu vaccine were protected for up to 6 months post-vaccination, ... the researchers assessed influenza vaccine protection using febrile respiratory illness surveillance, which identified ... Influenza vaccines provide moderate protection throughout the entire flu season. American Society for Microbiology ...
"This Respiratory Season, FDA's Reclassification of Rapid Influenza Diagnostic Tests Can Contribute to Better Patient Outcomes"...
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness, 2005-2017. At https://www.cdc.gov/ ... This Respiratory Season, FDAs Reclassification of Rapid Influenza Diagnostic Tests Can Contribute to Better Patient Outcomes. ... This Respiratory Season, FDAs Reclassification of Rapid Influenza Diagnostic Tests Can Contribute to Better Patient Outcomes ... "This Respiratory Season, FDAs Reclassification of Rapid Influenza Diagnostic Tests Can Contribute to Better Patient Outcomes" ...
Influenza Activity in the United States - Practice Guidelines - American Family Physician
Composition of the Influenza Vaccine for the 2004-2005 Season. The Food and Drug Administrations Vaccines and Related ... Influenza A (H7N2) virus was isolated from a respiratory specimen from the patient, whose acute symptoms resolved. The source ... "Update: Influenza Activity-United States and Worldwide, 2003-04 Season, and Composition of the 2004-05 Influenza Vaccine" is ... During last years influenza season in the United States, influenza A accounted for 99 percent of all influenza infections. The ...
'Tis the Season: A Focus on...
11 There are two types of influenza vaccines available: inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) and live attenuated influenza ... influenza continues to be a public-health concern. The flu is a highly contagious respiratory virus that affects thousands of ... www.cdc.gov/flu/about/season/vaccine-selection.htm. Accessed October 13, 2018.. 9. FDA. Influenza virus vaccine for the 2018- ... www.cdc.gov/flu/about/season/flu-season-2018-2019.htm. Accessed October 16, 2018.. 29. CDC. Seasonal influenza vaccine safety: ...
Influenza Virus Vaccine Inactivated Monograph for Professionals - Drugs.com
Influenza Virus Vaccine Inactivated reference guide for safe and effective use from the American Society of Health-System ... vaccine-preventable diseases and outbreaks and reducing the burden of respiratory illness during the 2020-2021 influenza season ... Influenza vaccines for the 2020-2021 influenza season contain the same influenza B (B/Victoria lineage) and influenza B (B/ ... inactivated influenza vaccine (i.e., influenza vaccine inactivated or influenza vaccine recombinant) can be used.100 112 These ...
Get your flu shots, US urges amid concerns about bad season - Breitbart
You cant get influenza from flu shots, specialists stress. But flu vaccine doesnt protect against colds or other respiratory ... Get your flu shots, US urges amid concerns about bad season. The Associated Press. 28 Sep 2017. WASHINGTON (AP) - Its flu shot ... HOW WELL DOES THE VACCINE PROTECT?. The CDC says people who get flu shots have a 40 percent to 60 percent lower chance of ... Flu season tends to peak around January, but theres no way to know when it will start spreading widely. ...
US Health Officials Brace for Potentially Bad Flu Season - NBC Chicago
You cant get influenza from flu shots, specialists stress. But flu vaccine doesnt protect against colds or other respiratory ... HOW WELL DOES THE VACCINE PROTECT?. The CDC says people who get flu shots have a 40 percent to 60 percent lower chance of ... We dont know whats going to happen but theres a chance we could have a season similar to Australia. By Lauran Neergaard. ... Flu season tends to peak around January, but theres no way to know when it will start spreading widely. ...
Influenza Season 2015-2016 - Neuromuscular Diseases
Influenza is also known as the flu, seasonal flu or respiratory flu. While the flu vaccine will not protect against all cases ... of influenza, it does provide significant protection. - Influenza Season 2015-2016 - Neuromuscular Diseases at BellaOnline ... Influenza, caused by a virus, primarily affects the respiratory system. ... Influenza Season 2015-2016. Influenza, caused by a virus, primarily affects the respiratory system. Influenza is also known as ...
Syncytial virusTypes of influenzaPneumoniaPandemicLaboratory-confirmed influenzaEffectivenessPrevent influenzaDosesDeathsHemisphereAttenuated influenza virusesProtect against influenzaSeasonal influenza vaccinesIllnessesEpidemics of respiratoryFluzone High-DoseComplications from influenzaSurveillanceSevere influenzaVirus vaccineCirculating influenza strainsVictoriaHospitalization20172018-2019ImmunePdm09Antiviral drugsCase of influenzaRecombinant influenzaDiseasesStrains of influenza virusesYear's fluNasal spray vaccineSeason'sIntranasalAcutePathogensMorbidity and mortaAvian
- Mortality attributable to 9 common infections: significant effect of influenza A, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza B, norovirus, and parainfluenza in elderly persons. (cdc.gov)
- Every respiratory season, millions of Americans develop influenza-like illness and symptoms, leaving healthcare providers to try to differentiate influenza from other illnesses such as respiratory syncytial virus, rhinoviruses and bacterial infections. (alere.com)
- One study suggests that common liquid dish washing soaps are up to 100 times more effective than antibacterial soaps in killing respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), which is known to cause pneumonia. (dailystrength.org)
- The vaccines do not protect against other viruses that cause similar illnesses, such as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) or parainfluenza. (healthlinkbc.ca)
- Disclosed are recombinant chimeric influenza virus vaccines and live attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) vaccines expressing foreign (RSV) neutralizing epitopes or conserved M2e epitopes that are capable of providing broader cross-protection against influenza virus and/or protecting against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) without vaccine-enhanced RSV disease (ERD). (patents.com)
- 1. A recombinant influenza virus comprising a chimeric hemagglutinin (HA) fusion protein, wherein the HA fusion protein comprises a HA protein or fragment thereof, and one or more tandem repeats of three or more heterologous influenza virus matrix protein 2 extracellular (M2e) domains, or a neutralizing polypeptide domain of attachment (G) or fusion (F) proteins derived from human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). (patents.com)
- 3. The recombinant influenza virus of claim 1, wherein the chimeric HA fusion protein comprises the RSV G or F neutralizing domains derived from human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). (patents.com)
- ABSTRACT Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in young infants, little was known on its circulation types and patterns in Morocco. (who.int)
- Asthma treatment was also more likely to fail among children with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), the study showed. (webmd.com)
- Respiratory specimens obtained from a total of 401 patients were tested by PCR for influenza viruses, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV). (nih.gov)
- respiratory syncytial virus, bocavirus, coronavirus, and rhinovirus are just a few of the bugs that can make a person feel rotten. (theatlantic.com)
Types of influenza11
- There are three types of influenza virus: A, B, and C. Influenza A infects both humans and animals, typically causes moderate-to-severe disease, and affects all ages. (uspharmacist.com)
- Several different types of influenza vaccines may be available in the US for prevention of seasonal influenza: influenza vaccine inactivated (IIV), influenza vaccine recombinant (RIV), and influenza vaccine live intranasal (LAIV). (drugs.com)
- One type (called trivalent) protects against three strains of the flu virus (usually, two types of influenza A viruses and one influenza B virus). (rchsd.org)
- The changes that the influenza virus undergoes means that last year's vaccine may do nothing for the types of influenza circulating this year. (healthmap.org)
- So virologists-the folks who study these and other viruses-are left using research (along with some educated guessing) about what types of influenza are likely to be circulating next flu season so the best possible vaccine can be created to fight it. (healthmap.org)
- The quadrivalent flu vaccine protects against four strains (usually, two types of influenza A viruses and two influenza B viruses). (nemours.org)
- Influenza A and influenza B are the 2 main types of influenza virus that cause disease in humans. (mydr.com.au)
- Three of the four types of influenza viruses affect humans: Type A, Type B, and Type C. Type D has not been known to infect humans, but is believed to have the potential to do so. (wikipedia.org)
- The vaccine is usually effective against three or four types of influenza. (wikipedia.org)
- 7 There are several different types of influenza vaccines. (mercola.com)
- Three types of influenza viruses affect people, called Type A, Type B, and Type C. Usually, the virus is spread through the air from coughs or sneezes. (wikipedia.org)
- NanoBio's NanoStat mucosal vaccine platform supports a variety of vaccines including influenza, H5N1, hepatitis B, pneumonia, tuberculosis, small pox anthrax and other viral and bacterial diseases. (prnewswire.com)
- Each year, influenza and pneumonia account for 50,000 to 80,000 deaths and about 400,000 hospitalizations in the United States alone. (prnewswire.com)
- As measured by the 122 Cities Mortality Reporting System, the percentage of deaths in the United States attributed to pneumonia and influenza (P&I) exceeded the epidemic threshold during nine consecutive weeks. (aafp.org)
- 100 166 Influenza can exacerbate underlying medical conditions or lead to pneumonia in certain individuals. (drugs.com)
- The pneumococcal vaccine protects against 23 types of pneumococcus, the major bacterium that causes pneumonia. (dailystrength.org)
- At their age, they are prone to pneumonia and respiratory tract infections. (manilastandardtoday.com)
- In years when influenza is widespread in B.C., hundreds of people may die from influenza or its complications, such as pneumonia. (healthlinkbc.ca)
- For more than 30 years, vaccines have played an important part in pneumonia prevention. (scielosp.org)
- Vaccines against the two leading bacterial causes of child pneumonia deaths, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus), can further improve child survival by preventing about 1 075 000 child deaths per year. (scielosp.org)
- Both Hib and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines have proven safety and effectiveness for prevention of radiologically confirmed pneumonia in children, including in low-income and industrializing countries. (scielosp.org)
- Vaccines only target selected pneumonia pathogens and are less than 100% effective, so they must be complemented by curative care and other preventative strategies. (scielosp.org)
- In this review, we discuss advances made in optimizing the use of established vaccines and the potential issues related to newer bacterial conjugate vaccines in reducing childhood pneumonia morbidity and mortality. (scielosp.org)
- Flu can become deadly when it progresses to pneumonia and respiratory failure. (cleveland.com)
- Sarah Gregory] I'm talking today with Dr. Cynthia Whitney, a medical epidemiologist at CDC, about pneumonia vaccines and Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 12F. (cdc.gov)
- Fortunately, there is also a vaccine for one particularly dangerous form of bacterial pneumonia-pneumococcal pneumonia. (healthgrades.com)
- Ask your doctor if it's time for your pneumonia vaccine. (healthgrades.com)
- Complications of influenza may include viral pneumonia , secondary bacterial pneumonia , sinus infections , and worsening of previous health problems such as asthma or heart failure . (wikipedia.org)
- These numbers are subject to a great deal of interpretation since they are based on projections and best guesses, not lab tests confirming the patient who died from pneumonia ever suffered from actual influenza. (organiclifestylemagazine.com)
- Influenza epidemics usually occur during the winter months in temperate climates, causing an increase in hospitalisations for pneumonia, an exacerbation of chronic diseases and also contributing to increased mortality. (worldaidsday.org.au)
- The vaccine protects them against infection with the bacteria Streptococcus pneumonia, which can cause pneumonia and other severe infections. (www.nhs.uk)
- In COVID-19 in particular, the site of infection is typically the lungs, with a cytokine storm leading to pneumonia and respiratory distress that in many cases is followed by organ failure and death. (nature.com)
- Depending on the coronavirus in question, more severe symptoms such as pneumonia, severe acute respiratory syndrome, kidney failure and death can occur. (umanitoba.ca)
- Influenza is a mixture of symptoms of common cold and pneumonia, body ache, headache, and fatigue. (wikipedia.org)
- While a healthy adult may recover from influenza (commonly known as flu), the elderly or ones with weak immunity succumb to pneumonia or respiratory failure. (thehindubusinessline.com)
- Guidance for vaccine planning during the pandemic is available at https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pandemic-guidance/index.html . (cdc.gov)
- We are seeing the anticipated "unexpected" developments with H1N1 vaccine production that will determine when and where supplies become available-and who will be fortunate enough to be protected against the next wave of the pandemic before it occurs. (umn.edu)
- Self-reported influenza immunization during pregnancy was low but increased after the H1N1 pandemic. (aappublications.org)
- The influenza pandemic of 1918-1919, which contributed to an estimated 50 million deaths worldwide, stimulated interest in influenza vaccine research . (globalresearch.ca)
- Twenty years after the pandemic began, the first influenza vaccine was administered to US soldiers in 1938 . (globalresearch.ca)
- Number of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus detections (and percentage positive) detected through a network of Health Protection Agency laboratories (the Respiratory DataMart system) from the start of the pandemic in week. (cdc.gov)
- This decision came after years of concern about RIDT performance during severe influenza seasons, most notably the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, which resulted in 60 million cases of influenza, and more than 12,000 deaths, in the United States. (alere.com)
- No formal surveillance is conducted for influenza with bacterial co-infections, however, these are well documented in the literature going back to the 1918 influenza pandemic. (cdc.gov)
- The facility was purpose-built in partnership with the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA) to combat pandemic influenza threats. (medindia.net)
- We know that the most effective approach to saving lives from pandemic influenza is to develop innovative technology that is used to combat seasonal influenza," said BARDA Director Rick Bright , Ph.D. "Today's announcement further underscores the positive impact public-private partnerships can have on the ability to protect people in our nation and around the world from the devastating impact of influenza. (medindia.net)
- New York - As bad as this year's flu season is, it hasn't brought the worldwide outbreak known as a pandemic. (sott.net)
- As one of the largest influenza vaccine providers in the world, Seqirus is a major contributor to the prevention of influenza globally and a transcontinental partner in pandemic preparedness. (prnewswire.co.uk)
- The Threat of Pandemic Influenza: Are We Ready? (koshland-science-museum.org)
- The World Health Organization declared an outbreak of a new type of influenza A/H1N1 to be a pandemic in June 2009 . (wikipedia.org)
- No discussion of influenza would be complete without mention of the Spanish Flu pandemic. (organiclifestylemagazine.com)
- This horrific pandemic has become the scare tactic to promote vaccine programs such as ours, even though the vaccines are dirty, dangerous, and largely ineffective. (organiclifestylemagazine.com)
- Newswise - As the COVID-19 pandemic continues with no end in sight, the annual flu season emerges once again. (newswise.com)
- With the world in the grip of a rapidly spreading pandemic caused by a lethal respiratory virus, the need for an effective antiviral treatment has never been greater. (nature.com)
- Apart from the current pandemic, there is an equally, if not more, severe respiratory ailment that takes a toll on millions of lives - influenza. (thehindubusinessline.com)
- While there is an expected delay in the development of strain-specific pandemic vaccines, we need to put our existing line of vaccines to action. (thehindubusinessline.com)
- Data from the Health Ministry's National Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) show that these States are also amongst the top three for deaths due to the pandemic strain Influenza (H1N1) over the last ten years. (thehindubusinessline.com)
- Given the current scenario, it is critical to intensify our surveillance and reporting system for H1N1 (swine flu), H5N1 (Avian flu), other influenza viruses with pandemic potential, measles and polio. (thehindubusinessline.com)
- Influenza outcomes included infant influenza-like illness (ILI), laboratory-confirmed influenza, and influenza hospitalizations. (aappublications.org)
- Infants born to women reporting influenza immunization during pregnancy had risk reductions of 64% for ILI, 70% for laboratory-confirmed influenza, and 81% for influenza hospitalizations in their first 6 months. (aappublications.org)
- Several prospective studies have demonstrated a reduction in both influenza-related illness and laboratory-confirmed influenza in infants born to women receiving influenza vaccine during pregnancy. (aappublications.org)
- A 2008 randomized trial in Bangladesh demonstrated a 63% reduction in laboratory-confirmed influenza and a 29% reduction in the incidence of febrile respiratory illness in infants born to mothers who received third trimester influenza vaccine. (aappublications.org)
- Laboratory confirmed influenza in patients presenting with ARI. (nih.gov)
- Laboratory-confirmed influenza is a nationally notifiable disease in all states and territories and data are reported from each state or territory health department to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS). (worldaidsday.org.au)
- In 2008, laboratory-confirmed influenza was a notifiable disease under state and territory legislation in all jurisdictions. (worldaidsday.org.au)
- The updated guidance states the vaccine should not be used in any setting, based on CDC vaccine effectiveness data from the last three influenza seasons, which indicated FluMist Quadrivalent did not demonstrate statistically significant effectiveness in children 2-17 years of age. (astrazeneca-us.com)
- The US CDC effectiveness data for 2015-2016 season contrast with studies by AstraZeneca as well as preliminary independent findings by public health authorities in other countries. (astrazeneca-us.com)
- As influenza vaccine effectiveness varies from season to season, it is evaluated in annual observational studies. (astrazeneca-us.com)
- Vaccine effectiveness - how well does the flu vaccine work? (healthline.com)
- Test-negative study designs are often utilized to calculate influenza vaccine effectiveness. (globalresearch.ca)
- This article will explore the benefits of the flu vaccine, how effective it is, and what may influence the vaccine's effectiveness. (healthline.com)
- Before we discuss the effectiveness of the flu vaccine , let's break down its various benefits. (healthline.com)
- Flu vaccine effectiveness can change from year to year. (healthline.com)
- In the coming months, scientists will begin to get estimates of the effectiveness of the 2020-2021 flu vaccine. (healthline.com)
- However, the CDC does currently have information about the estimated effectiveness of the vaccines from past flu seasons. (healthline.com)
- The chart below shows the effectiveness of the flu vaccine for the previous five flu seasons. (healthline.com)
- Does flu vaccine effectiveness differ across age groups? (healthline.com)
- It's possible that there can be some variance in the effectiveness of the vaccine between different age groups. (healthline.com)
- Here's a look at the effectiveness estimates for all vaccine types across different age groups from the past five flu seasons, according to the CDC. (healthline.com)
- When looking at vaccine effectiveness studies, it's important to remember that the results can be influenced by several factors. (healthline.com)
- Effectiveness The CDC has tracked the effectiveness of the flu vaccine since 2004. (care2.com)
- The average effectiveness of the vaccine from 2004 to early 2016 was 41 percent. (care2.com)
- The effectiveness of the vaccine varies every season because it is never known which influenza virus(es) will dominate in the next influenza season. (rivm.nl)
- The American flu vaccine uses the same composition, indicating possible low vaccine effectiveness and a similarly severe flu season. (boston.com)
- Both are recommended by WHO for inclusion in national programmes, and, at sharply tiered prices, these vaccines generally meet international criteria of cost-effectiveness for low-income countries. (scielosp.org)
- Real-world evidence is critical in evaluating influenza vaccine effectiveness for continued advances in influenza prevention, and these new data are some of the most robust we have seen to date," said Russell Basser MD, SVP of Research and Development, Seqirus. (medindia.net)
- The company has rapidly scaled up cell-based influenza vaccine production over recent years, which has enabled sufficient quantities of the vaccine to be available for real-world effectiveness studies. (medindia.net)
- Seqirus evaluated these data as a retrospective cohort study which allowed for the estimation of the relative vaccine effectiveness (rVE) of cell-based quadrivalent, inactive influenza vaccine (QIVc) versus egg-based, quadrivalent, inactive influenza vaccine (QIVe). (medindia.net)
- CNN) -- Members of an advisory panel that backed this year's flu vaccine expressed doubts about its potential effectiveness before recommending it for the Food and Drug Administration's approval. (sott.net)
- aTIV has demonstrated higher effectiveness in people aged 65+ years compared to standard, non-adjuvanted trivalent influenza vaccines. (prnewswire.co.uk)
- In recent influenza seasons prior to 2018/19 when all age groups 18+ were given non-adjuvanted influenza vaccines in the UK, vaccine effectiveness in the above 65 age group tended to be lower compared to the 18-64 age group. (prnewswire.co.uk)
- But CDC officials stressed that, even if the vaccine's effectiveness is relatively low compared to prior seasons, it's still important -- and not too late -- to get a flu shot. (medicinenet.com)
- An ongoing study designed to determine the effectiveness of Fluzone High-Dose in preventing illness from influenza compared to Fluzone is expected to be completed in 2014-2015. (care2.com)
- Again and again, the Cochrane Database Review which is the gold standard for assessing the scientific evidence for the effectiveness of commonly used medical interventions has concluded that flu vaccines do not appear to have any measurable benefit either for children, adults, or seniors. (care2.com)
- We discovered that if you separated out those that had not been vaccinated the previous year, you got percentages close to what were seen in the major vaccine effectiveness studies," he told CIDRAP News. (umn.edu)
- The findings come amid a growing number of studies that raise questions about flu vaccine effectiveness (VE). (umn.edu)
- And Edward Belongia, MD, a Wisconsin clinician-researcher and member of the CDC's Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Network, said he was perplexed by the low overall VE in the study, given the approximate 60% protection levels found in studies by the network the same season. (umn.edu)
- Interestingly enough, what you're being told about the influenza vaccine's effectiveness and the reality are two very different stories. (mercola.com)
- At the end of that same year, a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) analysis 2 of flu vaccine effectiveness revealed that, between 2005 and 2015, the influenza vaccine was actually less than 50 percent effective more than half of the time. (mercola.com)
- Even when there's a good match, the flu vaccine's effectiveness is estimated to be between 40 and 60 percent, 5 meaning that, at best, public health officials believe you have a 60 percent lower chance of not getting sick with influenza if you get a flu shot. (mercola.com)
- When many people within a community receive the flu vaccine, it can help prevent influenza viruses from effectively circulating within that community. (healthline.com)
- The best way to prevent influenza and its complications is an annual influenza vaccine. (cdc.gov)
- We have been evaluating an oral vaccine platform based on recombinant adenoviral vectors for the purpose of creating a prophylactic vaccine to prevent influenza, and have demonstrated vaccine efficacy in animal models and substantial immunogenicity in humans. (springer.com)
- It is not clear there is any significant benefit to wearing masks to prevent influenza or influenza-like illnesses (including the novel coronavirus) in the community setting. (umanitoba.ca)
- Children 6 months to 8 years of age will need 2 doses of the vaccine to help build immunity to the virus when getting vaccinated for the first time. (medicalcityhospital.com)
- According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the manufacturers have projected making a total of about 115 million doses of influenza vaccine for the 2006 2007 season, but these projections could change as manufacturing continues. (webwire.com)
- This initial shipment represents the first of more than 60 million doses of seasonal influenza vaccine the company plans to deliver to health care providers in the U.S. this influenza season. (biospace.com)
- Due to extended shipping time and earlier incidence of disease, the first doses of Fluzone vaccine were shipped to Alaska and Hawaii and to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for use in the Vaccines for Children program. (biospace.com)
- The lots were shipped on July 21, 2014, representing the first of at least 65 million doses of seasonal influenza vaccine manufactured by Sanofi Pasteur that will be delivered to U.S. health care providers and pharmacies in August. (bio-medicine.org)
- The state's department of health was prepared to give 900 doses of the flu vaccine. (blackhillsfox.com)
- The manufacturing, quality control, and distribution process involved in producing about 30 million doses of influenza vaccine in the United States require many months to complete. (cdc.gov)
- These data included the number of returned doses at the end of each influenza season, providing an approximate number of doses administered (net doses distributed) and enabling the estimation of ORS reporting rates. (canada.ca)
- Two hundred eighty-eight children were assigned to receive one dose of vaccine or placebo given by intranasal spray, and 1314 were assigned to receive two doses approximately 60 days apart. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Kids younger than 9 years old who are getting the flu vaccine for the first time will receive two separate doses at least a month apart. (rchsd.org)
- Those under 9 who have received the flu vaccine before still might need two doses if they did not receive at least two vaccines since July 2010, or if the number of vaccines they've received since then is unknown. (rchsd.org)
- infants and children get five doses of the vaccine between the ages of 2 months and 6 years, a booster around 11 or 12 years, and then one more booster as an adult. (sun-sentinel.com)
- Kids younger than 9 years old will get two doses of flu vaccine, spaced at least 1 month apart, this flu season if they have got fewer than two doses before July 2018. (nemours.org)
- Those younger than 9 who have received at least two doses of flu vaccine previously (in the same or different seasons) will only need one dose. (nemours.org)
- Seqirus licensed QIVc in 2016 and is supplying over 20 million doses to the U.S. market this season. (medindia.net)
- Las Vegas - With the flu now spread to all 50 states and nearly half of those considered hit hard, the government is scrambling to ship 100,000 vaccine doses to combat shortages, hoping to head off what could become one of the worst outbreaks in years. (sott.net)
- Twenty years ago, in 1990, 32 million doses of influenza vaccine were available in the United States. (ecochildsplay.com)
- Today around 135 million doses of influenza vaccine annually enter the US market, with vaccinations administered in drug stores, supermarkets-even some drive-throughs. (ecochildsplay.com)
- D rive too fast along Red Lion Road, beside Philadelphia's Northeast Airport, and you will miss the low-rise cement building where the biotech company MedImmune has been quietly pumping out swine flu vaccine at about a million doses a week. (theatlantic.com)
- However, influenza can be associated with serious illnesses, hospitalizations, and deaths, particularly among older adults, very young children, pregnant women, and persons of all ages with certain chronic medical conditions ( 1 - 7 ). (cdc.gov)
- As of May 31, 2004, 152 influenza-associated deaths in U.S. residents younger than 18 years were reported to the CDC by 40 states. (aafp.org)
- 1 It is estimated that since 2010, influenza has resulted in up to 35.6 million illnesses, up to 710,000 hospitalizations, and up to 56,000 deaths annually. (uspharmacist.com)
- this number exceeds the previous high for flu-associated deaths in children reported during a regular flu season. (uspharmacist.com)
- In fact, on average, over multiple recent seasons, 34 percent of influenza-related deaths in children up to 18 years of age were due to influenza B. Like Sanofi Pasteur's Fluzone vaccine, Fluzone Quadrivalent vaccine is licensed for use in children six months of age and older, adolescents, and adults. (bio-medicine.org)
- In the United States, influenza results in more than 40 million reported cases, more than 750,000 hospitalizations due to serious complications, and up to 50,000 deaths annually. (army.mil)
- The study showed that the flu vaccine did NOT significantly affect the number of people hospitalized or working days lost, and did not prevent flu-associated complications or those rare flu-associated deaths in healthy adults. (drfuhrman.com)
- Maximizing routine immunization with pertussis and measles vaccines, coupled with provision of a second opportunity for measles immunization, has rapidly reduced childhood deaths in low-income countries especially in sub-Saharan Africa. (scielosp.org)
- There have been no pediatric deaths in Ohio so far this flu season, and 13 children have died of flu nationwide . (cleveland.com)
- Last year's flu season was particularly severe, with 80,000 flu-related deaths reported across the country. (cleveland.com)
- As a company on the front line of influenza protection, we are committed to developing innovative solutions, like cell-based vaccines, to help reduce deaths and severe illness caused by influenza. (medindia.net)
- Influenza spreads around the world in yearly outbreaks , resulting in about three to five million cases of severe illness and about 250,000 to 500,000 deaths. (wikipedia.org)
- Spanish influenza in 1918 (~50 million deaths), Asian influenza in 1957 (two million deaths), and Hong Kong influenza in 1968 (one million deaths). (wikipedia.org)
- The only randomized trial of influenza vaccine in older people found no decrease in deaths. (ecochildsplay.com)
- He points to the fact that deaths from flu declined sharply during the middle of the 20th century, long before the huge vaccine campaigns that kicked off the 21st century. (ecochildsplay.com)
- This week, we are reporting an additional 16 flu-related pediatric deaths for this season, meaning there are even more families now devastated by flu," she added. (medicinenet.com)
- For this season, only 20 percent of these pediatric deaths have been vaccinated, and half of these children were otherwise healthy," he noted. (medicinenet.com)
- Now is the time to get the proper vaccinations like the annual flu vaccine, so you don't get sick or get anyone else around you sick, which could lead to unnecessary hospitalizations or deaths. (newswise.com)
- What if flu vaccines do not protect people from dying-particularly the elderly, who account for 90 percent of deaths from seasonal flu? (theatlantic.com)
- As we watch what's happening in the current winter influenza season in the southern hemisphere, we learn more about what we can expect for our upcoming flu season in terms of case numbers, disease severity, and the impact on society. (umn.edu)
- October 5, 2006 - The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) today approved FluLaval, an influenza vaccine to immunize people 18 years of age and older against the disease caused by strains of influenza virus judged likely to cause seasonal flu in the Northern Hemisphere in 2006-2007. (webwire.com)
- The World Health Organization updates these products yearly to provide the best protection for influenza viruses, predicted to circulate in the upcoming influenza season in the Northern hemisphere. (canada.ca)
- Every February in the Northern Hemisphere the circulating strains for the next season are chosen by the World Health Organization, which allows approximately 6 months for sufficient vaccine to be generated. (springer.com)
- This report summarizes influenza activity in the United States for the 2013-14 influenza season (September 29, 2013-May 17, 2014†) and reports recommendations for the components of the 2014-15 Northern Hemisphere influenza vaccines. (nih.gov)
- Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 was the predominant virus associated with severe respiratory illness among young and middle-aged adults in Europe and the United States of America during the northern hemisphere 2013-14 season. (health.gov.au)
Attenuated influenza viruses1
Protect against influenza3
- there's no vaccine to protect against influenza C. (healthmap.org)
- Vaccinations are the most effective way to protect against influenza, a very serious disease that affects the lungs and respiratory tract. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- While current vaccines are our best tool to protect against influenza and its complications, the CVD CIVIC will address the urgent need for novel vaccines that provide broad and long-lasting protection. (news-medical.net)
Seasonal influenza vaccines2
- CVD's research is aimed at testing improved seasonal influenza vaccines and conducting controlled human influenza challenge studies for NIAID Collaborative Influenza Vaccine Innovation Center (CIVICs) program, which has the ultimate goal of developing a universal vaccine to protect against emerging influenza strains as well as improvements to current seasonal vaccines. (news-medical.net)
- This new CVD funding will establish the CVD CIVIC Clinical Core, with the specific goal of evaluating improved seasonal influenza vaccines and ultimately developing a universal vaccine to protect against emerging influenza strains. (news-medical.net)
- The influenza vaccines protect against the viruses or bacteria that cause colds or stomach illnesses. (healthlinkbc.ca)
- More than 110 Hoosiers died from influenza-associated illnesses during the 2018-19 flu season. (fox59.com)
- This situation reminds us that influenza and influenza-like illnesses remain a threat to the community. (www.gov.bm)
- The main assertion of the CDC that fuels the push for flu vaccines each year is that influenza comes with a risk of serious complications which can cause death, especially in senior citizens and those suffering from chronic illnesses. (ecochildsplay.com)
- Participants were instructed to report any acute respiratory illnesses throughout the flu season. (umn.edu)
- Influenza vaccinations should be seen as an essential part of managing asthma, COPD, and other respiratory illnesses' Bob says. (scoop.co.nz)
- The Asthma Foundation is New Zealand's not-for-profit sector authority on asthma and other respiratory illnesses. (scoop.co.nz)
- We advocate to government and raise awareness of respiratory illnesses, fund research for better treatments and educate on best practice. (scoop.co.nz)
Epidemics of respiratory4
- However, only influenza A and B cause the seasonal epidemics of respiratory illness that occur every year. (healthline.com)
- For these reasons, major epidemics of respiratory disease caused by new variants of influenza continue to occur. (cdc.gov)
- Influenza virus causes yearly epidemics of respiratory illness of varying severity worldwide in people of all ages, and it may be the most important cause of medically attended acute respiratory illness. (cmaj.ca)
- Influenza causes annual epidemics of respiratory disease. (worldaidsday.org.au)
- Second, recent licensures of two new influenza vaccines, Fluzone High-Dose Quadrivalent and Fluad Quadrivalent, are discussed. (cdc.gov)
- Members of the public seeking a specific vaccine option such as Fluzone High-Dose vaccine or Fluzone Intradermal vaccine can search for local providers at www.Fluzone.com starting in early August. (biospace.com)
- Fluzone High-Dose vaccine contains four times the amount of antigen than is contained in standard-dose Fluzone vaccine and induces higher antibody responses against the flu to address the age-related decline of their immune system. (bio-medicine.org)
- Members of the public seeking a specific vaccine option, such as Fluzone High-Dose vaccine, Fluzone Intradermal vaccine, or Fluzone Quadrivalent vaccine, can search for local providers at www.Fluzone.com . (bio-medicine.org)
- These vaccines - Fluzone High-Dose and Fluad - are thought to offer better protection from influenza and are recommended over quadrivalent vaccines for older people. (mydr.com.au)
- Fluzone High-Dose " is a new influenza vaccine manufactured by Sanofi Pasteur. (care2.com)
- One of the primary differences between the 'regular' Fluzone vaccine and Fluzone High-Dose for seniors is that the latter contains four times as much microbial antigen the lab altered flu viruses - that prompt your body to produce antibodies to the three different influenza strains contained in the flu vaccine. (care2.com)
- Fluzone High-Dose (Influenza Vaccine) for intramuscular injection is an inactivated influenza vaccine, prepared from influenza viruses propagated in embryonated chicken eggs. (rxlist.com)
- Fluzone High-Dose should not be combined through reconstitution or mixed with any other vaccine. (rxlist.com)
Complications from influenza3
- Individuals with neurological disease, including some neuromuscular diseases (peripheral nerve diseases, muscular dystrophy) are considered to be at risk for serious complications from influenza. (bellaonline.com)
- People with chronic health conditions and pregnant women are at higher risk of complications from influenza than others. (scoop.co.nz)
- Every year people end up in hospital with complications from influenza and a number of people die. (scoop.co.nz)
- U.S. World Health Organization (WHO) collaborating laboratories and National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System laboratories, which include both clinical and public health laboratories throughout the United States, contribute to virologic surveillance for influenza. (cdc.gov)
- Weekly U.S. influenza surveillance report: 2018-2019 season week 52 ending December 29, 2018. (healthline.com)
- The program was founded in 1997 as an influenza-only surveillance program. (globalresearch.ca)
- For this study at the Naval Health Research Center, the researchers assessed influenza vaccine protection using febrile respiratory illness surveillance, which identified Department of Defense (DoD) non-active duty beneficiaries of all ages who presented with fever, cough or sore throat at three outpatient facilities in San Diego, CA and Great Lakes, Illinois. (eurekalert.org)
- As a result of publicity and enhanced surveillance, a total of 2,450 reports of AEFI vaccine were documented for that season, with 960 (39.2%) meeting that season's established ORS case definition (5) . (canada.ca)
- In Canada, the reporting of AEFI by health care providers (mainly public health nurses and physicians) to local, provincial, and/or territorial public health authorities is the cornerstone of post-marketing surveillance of vaccines. (canada.ca)
- A group of scientists organized by the World Health Organization (WHO) into a Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System (GISRS) constantly monitor the behavior of influenza in different species. (healthmap.org)
- Influenza (flu) surveillance data is important to inform prevention efforts and control the spread and impact of flu across geographic locations. (cdc.gov)
- Paul Sax: The way the flu vaccine is chosen is that there are surveillance sites collecting samples from people who have the flu around the world. (boston.com)
- The National Influenza Surveillance Scheme includes data from sentinel general practice consultations for influenza-like illness, laboratory reports of influenza and absenteeism rates from a national employer. (worldaidsday.org.au)
- The Australian Influenza Surveillance Report and Activity Updates are compiled from a number of data sources, which are used to monitor influenza activity and severity in the community. (health.gov.au)
- The Australian Influenza Surveillance Report is published on a fortnightly basis during the influenza season, typically between May and October. (health.gov.au)
- There is an existing influenza surveillance network in India, undertaken in collaboration with NCDC. (thehindubusinessline.com)
- As respiratory pathogens act in a similar pattern, a similar surveillance system can be used in Covid-19 as well. (thehindubusinessline.com)
- The 2008 influenza season was moderate overall, with fewer laboratory-confirmed cases and influenza-like illness (ILI) presentations than in 2007, which was the most severe influenza season since national reporting of influenza began in 2001. (worldaidsday.org.au)
- Florida is currently experiencing a moderately severe influenza season. (floridahealth.gov)
- One study in mice demonstrated that NanoBio's killed-virus vaccine elicits a robust immune response by delivering immune-alerting antigens directly to the lining of the nasal mucosa, where the virus first enters the body, leading to rapid development of mucosal immunity. (prnewswire.com)
- MPL and CpG combination adjuvants promote homologous and heterosubtypic cross protection of inactivated split influenza virus vaccine. (bioportfolio.com)
- Influenza virus injectable (killed virus) vaccine will not cause you to become ill with the flu virus that it contains. (rxlist.com)
- If you ever need to receive influenza virus vaccine in the future, you will need to tell your doctor if the previous shot caused any side. (rxlist.com)
Circulating influenza strains1
- Low responses to the influenza B Victoria lineage in both vaccines made interpretation difficult. (aappublications.org)
- Most influenza B strains isolated this season, particularly in the United States, are similar to the current vaccine component, B/Victoria/2/87. (cdc.gov)
- Influenza vaccines are available at your physician's office or at the Department of Health, 67 Victoria Street, Hamilton, Monday to Friday from 8:30am-11:30am. (www.gov.bm)
- There were approximately equal proportions of viruses from the 2 influenza B lineages B/Yamagata and B/Victoria. (worldaidsday.org.au)
- There have been recent increases in influenza activity in Victoria, New South Wales, South Australia and Tasmania (Figure 2). (health.gov.au)
- Women in the second half of pregnancy are at higher risk of hospitalization due to influenza, especially those in the third trimester. (healthlinkbc.ca)
- Speaking at the news conference, he agreed that "if this current trend in hospitalization rates is maintained through the season, it is possible the number of flu hospitalizations may well exceed 710,000 as seen in 2014-15. (medicinenet.com)
- The difference, significant at P =0.002, suggested that flu vaccine given to mothers during pregnancy is effective in preventing hospitalization of their infants, Vazquez said. (medpagetoday.com)
- The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention concluded that the nasal spray flu vaccine should not be used for the 2017-2018 flu season. (medicalcityhospital.com)
- Data for the 2017/18 flu season indicated that there were over 30,000 reported flu-related hospitalizations across the country. (healthline.com)
- Summary of the 2017-2018 influenza season. (healthline.com)
- Additionally, the flu vaccine for the 2017/18 season was found to be 40 percent effective overall according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (healthline.com)
- Starting in the 2017-2018 influenza season, the program added Luminex Film Array capabilities to test for respiratory pathogens, and became known as DoDGRS. (globalresearch.ca)
- In January 2017, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) officially reclassified antigen-based rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDTs) from Class I devices to Class II devices, which are subject to more rigorous performance requirements. (alere.com)
- The 2017-2018 influenza season was considered to be one of the longest seasons in history, with activity above the national baseline for 19 weeks. (uspharmacist.com)
- A doctor from Brigham and Women's Hospital spells out what you need to know for the 2017-2018 flu season. (boston.com)
- A pharmacist handles a syringe for the flu vaccine in the consultation room at his dispensary on October 6, 2017 in downtown Bordeaux, France. (boston.com)
- To learn more about how the vaccine is created and why it may not be effective in 2017, we spoke with Paul Sax , the clinical director of the Division of Infectious Diseases at Brigham and Women's Hospital. (boston.com)
- in people aged 4 years and above during the 2017/18 influenza season in the United States (U.S.), a season characterized by egg-adapted changes. (medindia.net)
- For the 2018-2019 season, the CDC, in addition to supporting the injectable flu vaccine, also supports the use of nasal spray vaccine. (prnewswire.com)
- A 2020 study investigated pediatric emergency room visits and hospitalizations during the 2018-2019 flu season. (healthline.com)
- A new version of it is now approved for the 2018-2019 flu season for kids who otherwise might not get a flu shot (for example, if a child is afraid of needles or if the flu shot isn't available at the doctor's office). (nemours.org)
- The disease impacted 43 million people in the U.S. alone during the 2018-2019 season, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (news-medical.net)
- This study will compare the different immune responses to Influenza A (H5N1) Virus Monovalent Vaccine with and without the AS03 adjuvant. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- A subsequent study found that NanoBio's intranasal flu vaccine could trigger immune responses more than 20 times greater than those generated by two injections of currently approved influenza vaccines. (prnewswire.com)
- a second dose of vaccine does not improve the immune response in these persons. (aafp.org)
- The vaccine prevents the occurrence of complications of influenza, and it increases their immune system," she said. (manilastandardtoday.com)
- Eating white button mushrooms daily was found to enhance immune defenses in mucosal linings such as those in the mouth and respiratory tract. (drfuhrman.com)
- 8 Dendritic cells are another type of immune cell that protects the respiratory tract, and their activity is also enhanced by white button mushroom phytochemicals. (drfuhrman.com)
- Getting an influenza vaccine every year weakens my immune system. (healthlinkbc.ca)
- People with weakened immune systems or some health conditions (such as asthma) and pregnant women should not get the nasal spray vaccine. (nemours.org)
- Here, we report that ribavirin administration in juvenile mice significantly attenuated respiratory immune responses, production of total IgA and hemagglutinin (HA)-specific secretory IgA responses on the mucosal surface. (deepdyve.com)
- Developing new and better influenza vaccine technologies is a strategic priority for Seqirus, including further advances in cell-based technology and the use of adjuvants to enhance the immune response. (medindia.net)
- Older people see a natural decline of their immune system with age, which makes them more vulnerable to becoming seriously ill with influenza. (prnewswire.co.uk)
- The quadrivalent vaccine presented here produced immune responses that we predict should be capable of providing protection against multiple influenza strains, and the platform should have applications to other multivalent vaccines. (springer.com)
- The idea is that seniors need more antigen in order to provoke the desired immune response, because studies have found that the flu vaccine creates only a weak immune response in the elderly. (care2.com)
- Key facts about antiviral drugs and influenza (flu). (empowher.com)
- Global supply chain and government stockpile information tells us a lot about who will have access to protective tools like antiviral drugs and respiratory protection devices. (umn.edu)
- Antiviral drugs that are serine protease inhibitor are showing promise against SARS-CoV-2 by blocking its entry into cells, especially those that line the lungs, and respiratory and GI tract. (doctormurray.com)
- Antiviral drugs such as the neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir , among others, have been used to treat influenza. (wikipedia.org)
- In the U.S., the main lines of defense are pharmaceutical-vaccines and antiviral drugs to limit the spread of flu and prevent people from dying from it. (theatlantic.com)
- The U.S. government-with the support of leaders in the public-health and medical communities-has put its faith in the power of vaccines and antiviral drugs to limit the spread and lethality of swine flu. (theatlantic.com)
- And that unless we are willing to ask fundamental questions about the science behind flu vaccines and antiviral drugs, we could find ourselves, in a bad epidemic, as helpless as the citizens of New Orleans during Hurricane Katrina. (theatlantic.com)
- Since antiviral drugs are effective in treating influenza if given early (see treatment section, below), it can be important to identify cases early. (wikipedia.org)
Case of influenza1
- Inactivated influenza vaccines (IIVs), recombinant influenza vaccine (RIV4), and live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV4) are expected to be available. (cdc.gov)
- In this randomized controlled trial, we compared the safety and immunogenicity of the quadrivalent, recombinant influenza vaccine (RIV4) versus the inactivated influenza vaccine in children and adolescents 6 to 17 years of age. (aappublications.org)
- Future confirmatory clinical efficacy trials may be used to support the recombinant influenza vaccine as an alternative for the pediatric age group of ≥6 years. (aappublications.org)
- Recombinant influenza vaccine, well tolerated in subjects aged 6 to 17 years, provides comparable immunogenicity to inactivated vaccine. (aappublications.org)
- 1 , 2 Because children are especially susceptible to complications of influenza B, 2 we therefore initiated the development of the quadrivalent, recombinant influenza vaccine (RIV4) in children aged 6 to 17 years. (aappublications.org)
- An earlier phase 1 clinical trial of trivalent, recombinant influenza vaccine (RIV3) in a healthy pediatric population aged 6 to 59 months revealed that RIV3 was safe and well tolerated but yielded inferior levels of hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) antibody titers compared with those induced by the trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3). (aappublications.org)
- 2. The recombinant influenza virus of claim 1, wherein the chimeric HA fusion protein comprises one or more M2e domains from a human influenza A subtype, one or more M2e domains from a swine influenza A subtype, and one or more M2e domains from an avian influenza A subtype. (patents.com)
- 5. The recombinant influenza virus of claim 1, wherein the chimeric HA fusion protein further comprises a signal peptide at the N-terminus or in the middle HA head domain of HA protein. (patents.com)
- Influenza viruses cause severe diseases and mortality in humans on an annual basis. (bioportfolio.com)
- The Tdap vaccine, given once during adulthood, protects you from whooping cough-along with two other diseases, tetanus and diphtheria. (healthgrades.com)
- Granted, it's at best only 50 percent efficacious, but that's no reason for kids with asthma not to get vaccinated yearly, in the fall, before flu season starts," said co-author Caroline Quach, an associate professor of microbiology and infectious diseases at the University of Montreal. (webmd.com)
- By acting directly on human cell machinery, Atriva Therapeutics' lead candidate antiviral ATR-002 combines several advantages over existing therapies and could combat respiratory diseases such as influenza and COVID-19. (nature.com)
- Atriva Therapeutics, a biopharmaceutical company based in Tübingen, Germany, is set to revolutionize the treatment of influenza, COVID-19 and other potentially life-threatening respiratory diseases. (nature.com)
- For more than four decades, CVD has worked domestically and internationally to develop, test and deploy vaccines to prevent and protect against a range of diseases, such as influenza, cholera, typhoid fever, malaria, shigellosis (bacillary dysentery), and other infectious diseases. (news-medical.net)
- Throughout her career, Dr. Neuzil has conducted clinical and epidemiologic studies on vaccine-preventable diseases, yielding high profile publications that inform policy decision and public health actions. (news-medical.net)
- In addition, Dr. Neuzil has contributed more than 200 scientific publications on vaccines and infectious diseases. (news-medical.net)
- A more in-depth end-of-season report is also published in Communicable Diseases Intelligence journal. (health.gov.au)
Strains of influenza viruses1
- Then, based on their best predictions, they say that next year's flu vaccine should contain these strains because these are the circulating strains that we're most likely to see. (boston.com)
- What overarching trends did you see during last year's flu season? (businesswire.com)
- As it's possible to be infected at any time of the year, you can be vaccinated after winter, providing that year's flu vaccines are still available. (mydr.com.au)
Nasal spray vaccine4
- Is the nasal spray vaccine as effective as the flu shot? (healthline.com)
- FluMist, a less ouchy nasal spray vaccine, once was popular with children. (breitbart.com)
- So experts recommend that healthy kids 2 to 8 years old get the nasal spray vaccine when available. (rchsd.org)
- The nasal spray vaccine was not recommended for the last two flu seasons because it didn't work as well as the shot. (nemours.org)
- ROCKVILLE, Md., Oct. 31, 2018 /PRNewswire/ -- This flu season's vaccine market will be influenced by the return of nasal spray vaccines, according to Kalorama Information. (prnewswire.com)
- Annual influenza vaccines need to provide protection against the predominant influenza strains that are present in each season's outbreaks. (springer.com)
- 2% of the season's total number of specimens that tested positive for influenza. (nih.gov)
- In the 2013-2014 influenza season the program added respiratory Film Array for flu negative samples and began identifying other respiratory pathogens. (globalresearch.ca)
- The influenza virus is one of the major pathogens that seriously affect human health. (bioportfolio.com)
- CVD has also taken global leadership roles in vaccines to protect against emerging pathogens such as Zika and Ebola virus. (news-medical.net)